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Questionnaire Design for Surveys and Laboratory Experiments: Social And Cognitive Perspectives Communication 239, Political Science

324R, Psychology 224 Jon A. Krosnick Departments of Communication, Political Science, and Psychology Stanford University 434 McClatchy Hall, 725-3031, Krosnick@stanford.edu

Spring, 2005 Building 50, Room 52H Tuesdays, 3:15 – 6:05 pm _______________________________________________________________________ This course will provide an introduction to general theories of the cognitive aspects of question-answering in surveys. The focus will be on the cognitive processes in which respondents engage when answering questions and on the social interactions among researchers, interviewers, and respondents. The course will provide an overview of issues that one should consider when designing a survey questionnaire or when interpreting the results of a survey. A great deal of research has been conducted during the last 50 years exploring the effects of different measurement strategies on the findings of survey research, and this work reveals a great deal about the cognitive processes in which survey respondents engage during interviews. We will review the major findings of this work and discuss their implications for understanding cognitive aspects of question-answering. The primary goal of the discussions will be to identify issues to be considered when writing survey questions to measure specified constructs. Taken together, this literature makes many useful recommendations regarding how to avoid sources of bias in measurement and how to maximize accuracy. Most of our discussions will focus on the measurement of subjective psychological phenomena, such as attitudes, beliefs, assessments of importance, and assessments of satisfaction. There will be some secondary discussion of the measurement of objective phenomena, primarily past behavior. Course requirements are: (1) reading all required reading assignments prior to class meetings when they will be discussed, (2) participating energetically and creatively in class discussion, and (3) a final sit-down exam asking you to critique a questionnaire that I will give you.

Topics to be Covered

1. General Introduction 2. Open versus Closed Questions 3. Closed Questions: Ratings versus Rankings 4. Closed Questions: Number of Scale Points/Magnitude Scaling 5. Closed Questions: Verbal vs. Numeric Scale Point Labels 6. Closed Questions: Response Order Effects 7. Attitudes and Non-attitudes 8. Acquiescence and Other Response Biases 9. Question Wording/Question Balance 10. Question Order 11. Attitude Recall Questions 12. Asking Why?

1

Readings to be Reviewed Note: Readings marked with "*" are required. Readings marked with "+" are optional but recommended. All other readings are fully optional.

General Readings on Questionnaire Design Bradburn, N. M. (1983). Response effects. Pp. 289-328 in P. H. Rossi, J. D. Wright, & A. B. Anderson (Eds.), Handbook of survey research. New York: Academic Press. Bradburn, N. M., & Sudman, S. Improving interview method and questionnaire design. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Cantril, H. (1944). Gauging public opinion. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. +Converse, J. M., & Presser, S. (1986). Survey questions: Handcrafting the standardized questionnaire. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Kahn, R. L., & Cannell, C. F. (1957). The dynamics of interviewing (Chapters 5 and 6, "The formulation of questions" and "The design of questionnaires"). New York: Wiley. Oppenheim, A. N. (1966). Questionnaire design and attitude measurement. New York: Basic Books. Payne, S. L. (1951). The art of asking questions. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. Sheatsley, P. B. (1983). Questionnaire construction and item writing. Pp. 195-230 in P. H. Rossi, J. D. Wright, & A. B. Anderson (Eds.), Handbook of survey research. New York: Academic Press. Smith, T. W. (1987). The art of asking questions, 1936-1985. Public Opinion Quarterly, 51, S95-S108. Sudman, S., & Bradburn, N. M. (1974). Response effects in surveys. Chicago: Aldine. Sudman, S., & Bradburn, N. M. (1983). Asking questions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. +Turner, C. F., & Martin, E. (1984). Surveying subjective phenomena (vol. 1 and 2). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

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Warwick, D. P., & Lininger, C. A. (1975). The sample survey: Theory and practice. (Chapter 6, "Questionnaire design."). New York: McGraw-Hill.

1. Introduction to Issues of Question Design Andrews, F. M. (1984). Construct validity and error components of survey measures: A structural modeling approach. Public Opinion Quarterly, 48, 409-442. *Hippler, H., & Schwarz, N. (1987). Response effects in surveys. In H. Hippler, N. Schwarz, & S. Sudman (Eds.), Social information processing and survey methodology. New York: Springer-Verlag. Kalton, G., & Schuman, H. (1982). The effect of the question on survey responses: A review. The Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 145, 42-73. *Krosnick, J. A. (1991). Response strategies for coping with the cognitive demands of attitude measures in surveys. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 5, 213-236. Schuman, H. (1982). Artifacts are in the mind of the beholder. The American Sociologist, 17, 21-28. Schuman, H. (1986). Ordinary questions, survey questions, and policy questions. Public Opinion Quarterly, 50, 432-442. Schuman, H., & Kalton, G. (1985). Survey methods. In G. Lindzey and E. Aronson (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (vol. 1). New York: Random House. Schuman, H., & Presser, S. (1977). Question wording as an independent variable in survey analysis. Sociological Methods and Research, 6, 27-46. *Tourangeau, R. (1987). Attitude measurement: A cognitive perspective. In H. Hippler, N. Schwarz, & S. Sudman (Eds.), Social information processing and survey methodology. New York: Springer-Verlag.

2. Open vs. Closed Questions Belson, W. A., & Duncan, J. A. (1962). A comparison of the checklist and the open response questioning systems. Applied Statistics, 11, 120-132. *Converse, J. M. (1984). Strong arguments and weak evidence: The open/closed questioning controversy of the 1940s. Public Opinion Quarterly, 48, 267-282. Ehrlich, H. J., & Rinehart, J. W. (1965). A brief report on the methodology of stereotype research. Social Forces, 43, 564-575.

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Public Opinion Quarterly. 27-44. (1977). H. 676-680. (1989). Miller. 563-564. Madden. Psychological Foundations of Attitudes. Adverbs as multipliers. (1965). 147-151. D. Goocher. & Steffen. (1968). S. H. and T. G. V. British Journal of Educational Psychology. Often is often. A. 48. Empirical scaling of common verbal phrases associated with numerical probabilities. M.. Moore.. 4. Behavioral anchors as a source of bias in ratings. Ostrom. 23.. (1972). 14. 23. Journal of the Royal Statistical Association. Cohen. M. American Psychologist. C. 140. Effects of some variations in rating scale characteristics on the means and reliabilities of ratings.. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. (1984).. Parducci. I. E. S. Dearnley. 48. The manager's struggles with uncertainty. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society. 533-534. A quantitative study of meaning. (1987). J. (1964). How vagueness can ruin a survey: Comment on Pope. (1959). Sometimes frequently means seldom: Context effects in the interpretation of quantitative expressions. 141-148. 32. S. Eagly. & Bourdon. & Upshaw. L. T. B. 573-577. (1958). M. Tabachnick. 129-165. Brock. In A. 8. T. E. 828. H. Koltko.). R. Psychological Review. 9. Journal of Research in Personality. Pepper. (1988). E. Journal of Applied Psychology. How often is often? American Psychologist. A. R. J. D. 766-778. C. New York: Academic Press. & Prytulak. (1967). Murphy. J. S. M. & Newman. 44. Greenwald.9 Cliff. 72. P. American Psychologist. Educational and Psychological Measurement. J. Journal of Applied Psychology. R. & Keith-Spiegel.. G. 255-265. 28. 95-101. Finn. (1968). Alternative question forms for attitude scale questions in telephone surveys. A note on assessing stereotypes. M. E. & Hansel. 193-195. Ostrom (Eds. 845-846.. Hakel. R. Psychological perspective and attitude change. J. N. & Constans. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. K. 66. (1974). J. Effects of variations in scale format on judgment. Effects of attitude and experience on the selection of frequency adverbs. V. M. . (1968). Lichtenstein. P.

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