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Study on singeing and desizing process for textile dyeing & finishing.
SUBMITTED TO: Kazi Sirajul Islam Lecturer, Department of textile engineering, Southeast University.

SUBMITTED BY: chayonsarkar ID.: 2008100400018 Batch: 8th (1) B.Sc. in textile 1.Introduction: Singeing & desizing is the most important pretreatment for engineering. textile processing. Pretreatment is used for preparing a fabric ready for next
processes i.e. Dyeing & Finishing. Through pretreatment the protruding

Date of submission: 26-04-2011

fibres, impurities & wastes are removed. Absorbency of a fabric is increased & whiteness effect is obtained by utilizing the pretreatment. Without pretreatment its impossible to dye a fabric.

2. Singeing Singeing is an operation carried out to remove all the loose hairy fibers protruding from the surface of the fiber. Object: To obtain smooth surface. Level dyeing and clean out liner of the printing. To increase lusture of finished fabric. Important and essential process from the point of the view of the unnecessary printing and mercerizing.

2.1Types of Singeing: 1) Plate singeing machine 2) Roller singeing machine 3) Gas / Flame singeing machine 2.2Plate Singeing Machine In this type of singeing machine, the cloth passes over and in contact with

one or two heated curved copper plates. The thickness of the plates ranges from 1 to 2 inches. The heating of the plates is done by a suitable burning arrangement of gas mixed with air. The plates are heated to bright redness and the cloth passes over and in contact with these plates at a speed ranging from 150 to 250 yards per minute. The passage of the cloth can be arranged in such a manner that one or both sides of the fabric may pass over and in contact with the heated plate(s), in order to accomplish singeing of one or both sides of the fabric in a single passage. In order to avoid local cooling of a certain part of the plate(s) by constant passage of cloth over it, an automatic traversing mechanism is fitted to the machine. This mechanism brings the cloth into contact with a constantly changing part of the plate(s), not only to avoid local cooling but also local wearing of the plate(s).

Fig. plate singeing machine. Advantage: 1. Uniform singeing. 2. A certain amount of luster is produced due to the friction between the fabric and the hot surface. 3. More effective for pile and velvet fabric.

Disadvantage: 1. Only one side is singed.

2. Strength decrease. 3. More labor cost. 4. Difficult to control heat of the plate. 5. Discontinuous process. 2.3Gas / Flame singeing machine: There are 2 types of gas singeing machines: DIRECT HEATING SYSTEM: In this system the fabric is exposed directly against flame. It is mostly used in industries. INDIRECT HEATING SYSTEM: In this system the fabric is introduced in a heating chamber against infrared radiation. This system is efficient in case of lightweight fabric. Gas Singeing M/c is widely used. The burner is supplied with a suitable mixture of gas &air. This is the most commonly used process for woven fabric. The burners are usually supplied with a suitable mixture of gas and air. Source of gas are -Coal -Petrol -Natural gas. 1. This m/c may be single or double burner. In double burner fabric is signed in both the side.

Fig. Gas singeing machine in an industry. 2. At first fabric is drown onto the guide roller then brushing is done on both sides of fabric such that, flying and projecting fibre stands sufficiently. 3. Then fabric is passed over the burner. The burner should be adjusted with the width of the fabric. 4. Height of the flame depends upon the fineness or coarseness and speed of the fabric. After singeing the fabric is immersed in the water tank to prepare next process. 4. Fabric speed in this m/c, generally, 150-250 m/min. 5. The machine may be horizontal or vertical. Characteristics of modern Gas singeing machine: Fuel: Coal, Petrol & Natural gas. Single or double burner. Burner should adjustable with the width of fabric. Fabric should be passed through a box immediately containing water. So that all the spares are gone off. The M/c may be horizontal or vertical. Fabric speed in the M/c is 150-250m/min.

Cares that should be taken on gas singeing machine: Every compound should be perfectly adjustable. Flame should be proper. Speed control should be maintained. Should not contain ZnCl2, Mgcl2 etc.

Electro Magnetic device should be carefully handled Folded selvedge should be avoided. Advantages of Gas Singeing M/C: Uniform temperature ensured to proper singeing. Both sides of the fabric can be Singed. As the process is continuous theres no hamper in production. Standard process. Ideal Singeing. The fabric in inter-stitches of warp & weft are singed. Disadvantages: Dirty burner can produce spot on fabric. The process is not suitable for synthetic fibre. Due to consistency of fabric speed it may be burnt. Controlling point of gas singeing M/c: Motor & Other moving parts. Speed of the motor Electricity Supply. Air blowing Suction hood. Fabric width control. Brush Flame light.

2.3Comparison of Plate, Roller & Gas Singeing M/C: Plate Singeing M/C 1.One side of fabric is singed 2. Uniform temperature can not be maintained. 3. Due to friction between fabric & surface extra lusture is produced. 4. Not suitable for dyeing & printing. 5.Brush is not used for proper singeing 6. Plate may decay due to friction. Roller Singeing M/C 1.One side of fabric is singed 2. Uniform temperature can not be maintained. 3. Due to friction between fabric & surface extra lusture is produced. 4. Not suitable for dyeing & printing. 5. Brush is not used for proper singeing. 6. Plate may decay due to friction. Gas Singeing M/C 1.Both side of fabric singed 2. Uniform temperature can be maintained. 3. No extra lusture is produced. 4. Very suitable for dyeing & printing. 5. Brush is used for proper singeing. 6.No decay

3. Desizing Desizing is the first wet processing technology employed to remove the sizing materials from the surface of the clothes. It depends on: 1) The solubility of the film forming polymer. 2) On the effects of numerous subsequent wet processing steps. 3) On the interactions with added chemicals. Objects of Desizing: To remove sizing materials. To increase absorbency of the fabric. To increase lusture of dyed or printed fabric. To make fabric ready for next process.

Types of Sizes/ Common sizing Material: Starch: Corn, Potato, Sago, Hydroxy ethyl Starch etc. Natural Gum: Traganth, Locust-bean gum. Proteins: Glue, Gelatin. Synthetic sizing materials: PVA, PVAC, PAN, PAA. Additives: Defoamers, Thinners, Tallow, Oil & waxes. Lubricating agents.

3.1 Methods of desizing:

Rot steeping: Starch is removed by rotting. It is the oldest method when man cannot know the use of enzyme or other special chemicals. Temperature: 40-600C Batching time: 4-6 hours Chemical: No chemicals used. Advantages: No chemical used Cheaper process Disadvantages: Discontinuous process. Large floor space required. Alkali steeping: Starch is removed by alkaline hydrolysis. NaOH: 0.4-0.6% Temperature: 60-700c

Time: 8-10 Hours Advantages: Economical to use. Mercerizing can be done in same alkali (Reusable). Disadvantages: Shrinkage might be happened. Acid steeping: H2SO4: 1% Temperature: 40-600C Batching time: 4-6 hours Advantages: The amount of size removed is comparatively greater. Good desizing is obtained. Disadvantages: Hydrocellulose would be formed and cotton would be damaged. 3.2 Enzyme desizing: This is most commonly used method now a day. Enzyme Enzyme: Enzyme is one kind of Bio-catalyst. Its molecular weight is high but different from chemical catalyst. The action of Enzymes is controlled by temperature, Time, PH & Concentration of the solution. Most Enzymes have no action above temperature 750c. Characteristics of enzymes: Enzymes are living organism. It is based on protein. Its main function is fermentation. Soluble in water but insoluble in acid and alcohol. No risk of hydrocellulose formation during pilling. Types of enzymes: 1. Animal/ Pancreatic 2. Vegetable

Enzyme Desizing: When the appropriate enzymes are put in the gelatinized starch pastes the changes that take place can be summarized as: 1. Lique fraction. 2. Transformation of starch to dextrin. 3. Formation of maltose. Enzyme: Amylose Reacts randomly with the monomer of starch. Amylase Weaken the side branches of sizing materials by reaction. Pancreatic: Pancreatic enzymes are prepared from the pancrease of slaughtered animal. Trade Name: Viveral Novo fermosol Degoma All of these work in certain PH. Malt Extract: Malt Enzymes are obtained by the extraction of freshly germinated Berely

Trade name: Disaster Gabbahit Bacterial: The Fermentation is obtained from barillus substituents. Which grow on rice & it breaks the starch into water soluble dextrin. Trade name: Papidans Biolase Optimum condition of Enzymes: Enzyme Pancreatic Malt bacterial Temperature 40-550C 55-650C 60-700C PH 6.8-7.5 4.6-5.5 6.5-7.5

Why Enzyme desizing is most commonly used? Following formation is formed during in case of other types of desizing process except enzyme which are not favourable. Mildew formation----------Rot steeping Hydro Cellulose------------Acid steeping Shrinkage of the fabric----alkali Steeping Enzyme desizing process: Continuous method. Recipe: Malt Extract 0.5 -2% Time 3-4 hours Temperature 500-600C PH 4-6

Here Malt Extract used as desizing Agent. The whole process of desizing is completed by following stage:

Winch Squeeze roller

-------------Storage tank Washing tank Trolley

Padding bath

Fig. Schematic diagram of a enzyme Enzyme process. 1. Preparation of desizing mixture: Desizing mixture usually contains following agent. Water Wetting Agent Salt Acid or Alkali Malt Extract Enzyme The above chemicals are dissolved completely in mixing a volume.

2. Padded in padding Mangle: The Enzyme mixed with sufficient amount of water is added in the padding mangle. Then the sized fabric in rope form is immersed into the desizing Liquor by immersion roller, the temperature of the liquor is 50-600C.The rate of desizing mixture consumption should be regulated so that the mixture level remains constant. 3. Storing: After padding the material, the fabric is squeezed & passed over the Winch roller. Then the fabric is stored into the into the storage bath by folding for 3-4 hours or 5 minute at room temperature .Here the material extract reacts with starch material & decompose into glucose. 4. Washing: The fabric brought into washing mangle by guide roller to remove the short chain sugars because these are water soluble. After that fabric is squeezed & dried. Main controlling Point during Desizing: Steam line PH Temperature Time etc. 3.3Testing of Desizing process: The following test can show the presence of starch PVA in fabric.
A. Starch: Make .02N Iodine solution where added few crystals of

potassium iodide. Put one or two drops of this iodine solution on the fabric. Observation: The presence of starch will create bluish to violet color stain on fabric.
B. Starch/PVA: Three solution need to prepare for this test. a) Solution no.1: Take 10 ml of 0.1N iodine, 100ml 1, 4-dioxane & 1gm

of Boric acid. After being the solution for 30 minute, add necessary amount of 1, 4 dioxane to make it 100ml & then add 7ml distilled water. b) Solution no2. This is making up by adding 52 gm potassium dichromate, 735ml Sulphuric acid &265 ml distilled water.

c) Solution no.3: This is making up by taking 39gm NaOH in a

container & makes it to 100ml solution by adding necessary amount of distilled water. Observation: 1. Solution no.1 produces a violet or blue stain on fabric that indicates both starch & PVA present in fabric. 2. Add 1 drop of solution no.2on fabric & immediately add 3 drops of solution no.3 on it. Rub the created stain with the end of a glass rod. A brown coloration confirms the presence of PVA & a yellow or Yellow-green color indicates the presence of starch. Conclusion: Pretreatment is essential for textile Dyeing & finishing. If pretreatment is not done correctly then natural oil, waxes, fats etc. and also some other impurities will not be removed for why the fabric will not be perfectly prepared for next processes because oil & waxes will reduce the immersion capacity & for not doing the bleaching absorbency of the cloth will be minimum; So the dyes will not be uniformly distributed into the fabric. For why Pretreatment is called the heart of dyeing because there is no alternative of pretreatment for dyeing. Reference: 1. Class lecture of our course teacher. 2. 3. 4. 5. technology of textile processing By__ Dr.V.A. Shenai.