THERMODYNAMICS AND HEAT POWERED CYCLES: A COGNITIVE ENGINEERING APPROACH

THERMODYNAMICS AND HEAT POWERED CYCLES: A COGNITIVE ENGINEERING APPROACH

CHIH WU

**Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
**

New York

Copyright © 2007 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means: electronic, electrostatic, magnetic, tape, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise without the written permission of the Publisher. For permission to use material from this book please contact us: Telephone 631-231-7269; Fax 631-231-8175 Web Site: http://www.novapublishers.com NOTICE TO THE READER The Publisher has taken reasonable care in the preparation of this book, but makes no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assumes no responsibility for any errors or omissions. No liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of information contained in this book. The Publisher shall not be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary damages resulting, in whole or in part, from the readers’ use of, or reliance upon, this material. Independent verification should be sought for any data, advice or recommendations contained in this book. In addition, no responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from any methods, products, instructions, ideas or otherwise contained in this publication. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information with regard to the subject matter covered herein. It is sold with the clear understanding that the Publisher is not engaged in rendering legal or any other professional services. If legal or any other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent person should be sought. FROM A DECLARATION OF PARTICIPANTS JOINTLY ADOPTED BY A COMMITTEE OF THE AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION AND A COMMITTEE OF PUBLISHERS. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA Wu, Chih, 1936Thermodynamics and heat powered cycles : a cognitive engineering approach / Chih Wu. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-1-60692-626-0 1. Thermodynamics--Data processing. I. Title. TJ265.W827 621.402'1--dc22

2006 2006004477

Published by Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

New York

TO MY WIFE, HOYING TSAI WU AND TO MY CHILDREN, ANNA, JOY, SHEREE AND PATRICIA

CONTENTS

Preface Acknowledgements Chapter 1 Basic Concepts 1.1. Thermodynamics 1.2. Basic Laws 1.3. Why Study Thermodynamics? 1.4. Dimensions and Units 1.5. Systems 1.6. Properties of a System 1.7. Equilibrium State 1.8. Processes and Cycles 1.9. CyclePad 1.10. Summary Properties of Thermodynamic Substances 2.1. Thermodynamic Substances 2.2. Pure Substances 2.3. Ideal gases 2.4. Real gases 2.5. Incompressible Substances 2.6. Summary First Law of Thermodynamics for Closed Systems 3.1. Introduction 3.2. Work 3.3. Heat 3.4. First Law of Thermodynamics for a Closed System 3.5. First Law of Thermodynamics for a Closed System Apply to Cycles 3.6. Closed System for Various Processes 3.7. Multi- Process 3.8. Summary xiii xv 1 1 2 3 5 10 12 23 24 26 29 31 31 31 54 63 65 69 71 71 71 78 80 84 86 104 108

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

viii Chapter 4

Contents First Law of Thermodynamics for Open Systems 4.1. Introduction 4.2. Conservation of Mass 4.3. First Law of Thermodynamics 4.4. CyclePad Open System Devices 4.5. Other Devices (Unable toUse CyclePad) 4.6. Systems Consisting of More than One Open-System Device 4.7. Summary Second Law of Thermodynamics 5.1. Introduction 5.2. Definitions 5.3. Second Law Statements 5.4. Reversible and Irreversible Processes 5.5. Carnot Cycle 5.6. Carnot Corollaries 5.7. The Thermodynamic Temperature Scale 5.8. Summary Entropy 6.1. Clausius Inequality 6.2. Entropy and Heat 6.3. Heat and Work as Areas 6.4. Entropy and Carnot Cycles 6.5. Second Law of Thermodynamics for Closed Systems 6.6. Second Law of Thermodynamics for Open Systems 6.7. Property Relationships 6.8. Isentropic Processes 6.9. Isentropic Efficiency 6.10. Entropy Change of Irreversible Processes 6.11. The Increase of Entropy Principle 6.12. Second Law Efficiency and Effectiveness of Cycles 6.13. Available and Unavailable Energy 6.14. Summary Exergy and Irreversibility 7.1. Introduction 7.2. Reversible and Irreversible Work 7.3. Reversible Work of a Closed System 7.4. Reversible Work of an Open System 7.5. Reversible Work of an Open System in a Steady-State Flow Process 7.6. Irreversibility of a Closed System 7.7. Irreversibility of an Open System 7.8. Exergy (Availability) 7.9. Exergy of a Heat Reservoir 109 109 109 112 115 150 152 156 157 157 157 167 168 168 176 177 177 179 179 180 183 183 185 187 188 196 199 210 213 215 225 226 227 227 227 231 234 235 238 240 244 245

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Contents 7.10. 7.11. 7.12. 7.13. 7.14. 7.15. Chapter 8 Exergy and Exergy Change of a Closed System Exergy of a Flow Stream and Flow Exergy Change of an Open System The Decrease of Exergy Principle Exergy effectiveness of devices Exergy Cycle Efficiency Summary

ix 248 253 257 259 261 266 269 269 272 281 282 289 295 307 308 312 323 328 330 332 333 334 336 338 353 355 355 368 369 381 383 388 391 396 401 403 409 423 425 425 435 438 439

Vapor Cycles 8.1. Carnot Vapor Cycle 8.2. Basic Rankine Vapor Cycle 8.3. Improvements to Rankine Cycle 8.4. Actual Rankine Cycle 8.5. Reheat Rankine Cycle 8.6. Regenerative Rankine Cycle 8.7. Low-temperature Rankine Cycles 8.8. Solar Heat Engines 8.9. Geothermal Heat Engines 8.10. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion 8.11. Solar Pond Heat Engines 8.12. Waste Heat Engines 8.13. Vapor Cycle Working Fluids 8.14. Kalina Cycle 8.15. Non-Azeotropic Mixture Rankine Cycle 8.16. Super-Critical Cycle 8.17. Design Examples 8.18 Summary Gas Closed System Cycles 9.1. Otto Cycle 9.1A. Wankel Engine 9.2. Diesel Cycle 9.3. Atkinson Cycle 9.4. Dual Cycle 9.5. Lenoir Cycle 9.6. Stirling Cycle 9.7. Miller Cycle 9.8. Wicks Cycle 9.9. Rallis Cycle 9.10. Design Examples 9.11 Summary Gas Open System Cycles 10.1. Brayton or Joule Cycle 10.2. Split-Shaft Gas Turbine Cycle 10.3. Improvements to Brayton Cycle 10.4. Reheat and Inter-Cool Brayton Cycle

Chapter 9

Chapter 10

x 10.5. 10.6. 10.7. 10.8. 10.9. 10.10. 10.11. 10.12. 10.13. 10.14. 10.15. Chapter 11

Contents Regenerative Brayton Cycle Bleed Air Brayton Cycle Feher Cycle Ericsson Cycle Braysson Cycle Steam Injection Gas Turbine Cycle Field Cycle Wicks Cycle Ice Cycle Design Examples Summary 444 448 455 459 463 467 468 471 473 475 479 481 481 489 494 497 499 503 508 511 514 523 528 529 529 532 537 540 544 546 547 555 560 561 567 570 572 573 576 584 587 587

Combined Cycle and Co-Generation 11.1. Combined Cycle 11.2. Triple Cycle in Series 11.3. Triple Cycle in Parallel 11.4. Cascaded Cycle 11.5. Brayton/Rankine Combined Cycle 11.6. Brayton/Brayton Combined Cycle 11.7. Rankine/Rankine Combined Cycle 11.8. Field Cycle 11.9. Co-Generation 11.10. Design Examples 11.11. Summary Refrigeration and Heat Pump Cycles 12.1. Carnot Refrigerator and Heat Pump 12.2. Basic Vapor Refrigeration Cycle 12.3. Actual Vapor Refrigeration Cycle 12.4. Basic Vapor Heat Pump Cycle 12.5. Actual Vapor Heat Pump Cycle 12.6. Working Fluids for Vapor Refrigeration and Heat Pump Systems 12.7. Cascade and Multi-Staged Vapor Refrigerators 12.8. Domestic Refrigerator-Freezer System, and Air Conditioning-Heat Pump System 12.9. Absorption Air-Conditioning 12.10. Brayton Gas Refrigeration Cycle 12.11. Stirling Refrigeration Cycle 12.12. Ericsson Cycle 12.13. Liquefaction of Gases 12.14. Non-Azeotropic Mixture Refrigeration Cycle 12.15. Design Examples 12.16. Summary Finite-Time Thermodynamics 13.1. Introduction

Chapter 12

Chapter 13

Contents 13.2. 13.3. 13.4. 13.5. 13.6. 13.7. 13.8. 13.9. 13.10. 13.11. 13.12. 13.13. References Index Rate of Heat Transfer Heat Exchanger Curzon and Ahlborn (Endoreversible Carnot) Cycle Curzon and Ahlborn Cycle with Finite Heat Capacity Heat Source and Sink Finite Time Rankine Cycle with Infinitely Large Heat Reservoirs Actual Rankine Cycle with Infinitely Large Heat Reservoirs Ideal Rankine Cycle with Finite Capacity Heat Reservoirs Actual Rankine Cycle with Finite Capacity Heat Reservoirs Finite Time Brayton Cycle Actual Brayton Finite Time Cycle Other Finite Time Cycles Summary

xi 588 590 596 605 609 613 616 626 633 640 643 649 651 653

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A modern textbook should contain both the basic theory and principles. along with an updated pedagogy. The need for more design content in thermodynamics books is well documented by industry and educational oversight bodies such as ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology).qrg. Computerized look-up tables reduce computational labor somewhat. CyclePad is a cognitive engineering software. unstable fuel costs and concern for global warming. and allows systems to be analyzed and designed in a simulated. Like a professor or senior engineer. intelligent computer software and multimedia have become essential parts of engineering education. thermodynamic systems and cycles are fertile ground for engineering design. Cycle analysis is logically and traditionally the focus of applied thermodynamics. interactive computer aided design environment. with limited educational benefits. CyclePad knows the laws of thermodynamics and how to apply them. The ability for students to approach realistic complexity is limited.ils. . but modeling cycles with many interactive loops can lie well outside the limits of student and faculty time budgets. co-generation. with the expectation that students will be introduced later to relevant design considerations and concepts. The necessary URL is: www. If more help is needed. anyone with access to a web browser can download the latest edition over the web. however. Type and quantity are constrained. It creates a virtual laboratory where students can efficiently learn the concepts of thermodynamics. The software guides students through a design process and is able to provide explanations for results and to coach students in improving designs. niches exist for innovative power generation systems due to deregulation. video and animation is providing efficient tools for teaching and learning. If the user makes an error in design. Software integration with various media such as graphics. case study that recounts how engineers have resolved * CyclePad is freely distributed to the public. Often traditional engineering thermodynamics courses are devoted only to analysis.edu. the program can provide a documented.PREFACE Due to the rapid advances in computer technology. Professor Kenneth Forbus of the computer science and education department at Northwestern University has developed ideal intelligent computer software for thermodynamic students called CyclePad*.northwestern. Even analyses based upon grossly simplified cycle models can be computationally taxing. For example. sound. Computer literate users with an exposure to thermodynamics will require little or no help in order to effectively use the software. Today. the program is able to remind the user of essential principles or design steps that may have been overlooked. In just a few steps. by the computational efforts required.

and relates what the user sees on the computer screen to the design of actual systems. The primary aim is to give students a thorough grounding in both the theory and practice of thermodynamics. The book is meant to serve as the text for two semester courses of three credits each. . This means that time as an independent variable does not appear in conventional engineering thermodynamics textbooks. CyclePad eliminates the tedium of learning to apply thermodynamics. electrical. Further. Attitudinal benefits were noted by Professor Wu while teaching CyclePad assisted thermodynamics. This integrated. In this text. Both SI and English units systems are used in the book. Material that is presented with a modern pedagogy is positively regarded. This book will help educators in their effort to enhance education through the effective use of intelligent computer software and computer assisted course work. industrial. Today’s students tend to have a positive attitude toward computer assisted learning. an ability to execute realistically complicated cycle simulations builds confidence and a sense of professionalism. Homework problems and worked examples appear liberally throughout the text which reinforce the theory.xiv Chih Wu similar problems in real life situations. Emphasis throughout is on the applications of the theory to actual processes and power cycles. It meets the needs of undergraduate degree courses in mechanical. Both CyclePad and this text contain pedagogical aids. both at the U. but do not cover cycles.S. quite a few describing the hands-on. The coverage is compact without sacrificing necessary theoretical rigor. chemical. a chapter on “Finite-time thermodynamics” bridges the gap between thermodynamics and heat transfer. interactive learning as “fun”. Students of engineering technology and industrial engineers will also find portions of the book useful. and to chart a path that truly integrates the computer with education. Heat transfer texts deal with the rate of energy transfer. aeronautical. as well as in engineering science and courses in combined studies in which thermodynamics and related topics are an important part of the curriculum. Naval Academy and Johns Hopkins University. Chapter summaries review the more salient textbook points and provide cohesion. The intelligent computer software switches to a warning-tutoring mode when users attempt to impose erroneous assumptions or perform inappropriate operations during cycle analyses. and energy engineering. engineering textbook is the result of fourteen semesters of CyclePad usage and evaluation of a course designed to exploit the power of the software. environmental. Classical thermodynamics is based upon the concept of “equilibrium”. and tends to be better understood and retained.

Dr. Assistant Professor Jim Cowart. and Professor Al Adams. S. and Mr. Matt Carr. Vincent Aleven and Dr. Naval Academy. Susan Chipman of the Naval Office of Research.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to acknowledge the following individuals who encouraged me and assisted in the text preparation: Dr. Carolyn Rose of Carniege-Mellon University. CMDR. Professor Ken Forbus of Northwestern University. . Mike Spinks of the U.

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it is continuously distributed throughout. and allows engineers to easily describe a system using only a few properties. If the continuum assumption is not valid. we shall use the macroscopic approach in this text. and engineers. The facts that matter is made up of molecules and that the molecules have motions are completely ignored. entropy. a substance is considered to be in continuum. and properties of systems is called thermodynamics. assumes certain mathematical models for the molecular behavior. The microscopic approach is mathematically complex. the microscopic aspects are not essential in most of the important technical applications. Fortunately. but also in the application of thermodynamic principles to the design of machines that will convert energy from one form into another. attention is focused on the behavior of the system as a whole. properties of substances and changes thereof to energy transfer processes. Engineers are interested not only in all these aspects. Practical uses of thermodynamics are unlimited. work. The microscopic approach inquires into the motion of molecules. the study of applied thermodynamics is . chemists. Physicists and chemists are concerned with basic laws. and matter. In engineering fields. exergy. work. properties of substances. a statistical method based on microscopic molecular activity may be used to describe a system. Thermodynamics likewise covers broad and diverse fields. and draws conclusions regarding the behavior of a system. or vice versa. heat. Therefore. the principles of thermodynamic laws. Engineering thermodynamics is based on this macroscopic point of view. A macroscopic approach to the study of thermodynamics is called classical thermodynamics. and changes in the properties caused by the interaction of different forms of energy. This approach is mathematically rather simple.1.Chapter 1 BASIC CONCEPTS 1. We can obtain excellent engineering solutions using the simpler macroscopic ideas. Thermodynamics is studied by physicists. that is. Such a microscopic approach to the study of thermodynamics is called statistical thermodynamics. THERMODYNAMICS The field of science dealing with the relationships of heat. Most engineering activity involves interactions of energy. Mechanical engineers are frequently concerned with the design of a system that will most efficiently convert thermal energy into mechanical energy. Basic to the study of thermodynamics are definitions and concepts. When a system is subjected to transfer of energy or other thermodynamic processes. Traditionally.

refrigerators. and “The Third Law of Thermodynamics”. Basic Laws 1.2 Chih Wu emphasized in the analysis or design of large scale systems such as heat engines. Now the bodies are . Why does a bicyclist pick up speed on a downhill road even when he is not pedaling? Does this violate the First law of thermodynamics? 8. Distinguish clearly between statistical (microscopic) and classical engineering (macroscopic) thermodynamics. State the First law. “The First Law of Thermodynamics”. These laws bear the titles: “The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics”. Laws are statements in agreement with all human experience and are always assumed to be true. Second law: Heat cannot flow spontaneously from a cold body to a hot body. their validity rests upon the fact that neither the laws nor any of their consequences have ever been contradicted by experience. 5. 6. Zeroth law: Two systems which are each in thermal equilibrium with a third system are in thermal equilibrium with each other. Laws can not be proved. and heat pumps. Homework 1. The First Law of Thermodynamics and The Second Law of Thermodynamics are the two most useful to applied thermodynamics. State the Third law. 4.1. What is thermodynamics? 2. which is at 20ºC. What is a law? Can laws be ever violated? What are the basic laws of thermodynamics? State the Zeroth law. BASIC LAWS Thermodynamics studies the transformation of energy from one form to another and the interaction of energy with matter. Body A contains 10. Thermodynamics is a science built and based on these four basic laws. 3.2. Does this violate the Second law of thermodynamics? 9. air conditioners. Consider two bodies A and B. State the Second law. 1. Thermodynamics 1.000 kJ of thermal energy at 37ºC whereas Body B contains 10 kJ of thermal energy at 97ºC. Homework 1. First law: Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. Among the four basic laws. It is a protracted and deductive science based on four strict laws. Third law: The entropy of all pure substances in thermodynamic equilibrium approaches zero as the temperature of the substance approaches absolute zero. 7.2. 2. “The Second Law of Thermodynamics”. A man claims that a cup of cold coffee on his table warmed up to 90ºC by picking up energy from the surrounding air.

Wdot is the future power consumption at time t. although they are highly significant to certain countries with no indigenous resources of fossil fuel. and has progressed through the use of petroleum. (1. Et=Ι∫(Wdot)o exp(at) dt=(Wdot)o exp(at)/a.693/a. Et. and led to a spectacular growth in the productivity and higher standard of living for human beings. Energy consumption rate (power.Basic Concepts 3 brought into contact with each other. and many will approach exhaustion within a few generations.3.3. and geothermal power have made only a small contribution on a world scale.3.2) A doubling time.2) The energy would be consumed from now to a future time. Since the industrial Revolution. The energy consumed for all time up to now. natural gas and uranium. (1. Determine the direction of the heat transfer between the two bodies. This growth has been associated with the ever-increasing use of energy in heat engines. The revolution began with coal.3) . tD.3. Therefore tD=ln2/a=0. Eo. and heat pumps. 1. A constant percentage growth rate implies that increase in future energy consumption is proportional to the current energy consumption. tidal. work per unit time Wdot) for the past years has been known as nearly constant growth rate. Let us examine the severity of the energy crisis.3.1) Where (Wdot)o is the current power consumption.3. is the integration of power from t=0 to t=t. Wdot=(Wdot)o exp(at) (1. is the integration of power from t=-∞ to t=0. Eo=∫(Wdot)o exp(at) dt=(Wdot)o/a. a is the annual growth rate. and t is time. can be defined to be that the power consumption at tD is double the current power consumption as (Wdot)D=2 (Wdot)o=(Wdot)oexp(atD). supported a growing population. Hydroelectric.4) (1. WHY STUDY THERMODYNAMICS? Abundant and cheap energy has been a decisive element in the creation of modern world economics. solar. respectively. wind. fossil fuel energy has increasingly replaced human labor in industry. (1. Easily exploited reserves of both fossil fuel and uranium are limited. An exponential relation can be easily derived. refrigerators.

the doubling time period is about 10 years.5x1012 at 1980. 3.3. ANSWER: 0. The historical energy consumption curve of a country is known to follow an exponential curve. Find the annual energy consumption growth rate of the country. (1. Why Study Thermodynamics? 1. ways have to be found of using our energy resources more efficiently. and for a=7%/year. . It is therefore an essential study for those hoping to improve the effectiveness with which we use our existing energy resources. For a=5%/year.2)] would be consumed in the next doubling time period. The doubling time is particularly significant when the consumption of a fuel is considered. (integration of power from t=0 to t=tD) is equal to the energy consumed for all time up to now.3.(1.6) The oil energy crisis gives no indication of going away. The consumption are 0. and secondly. tf can be found by the following equation: tf={Ln[a(ET)/ (Wdot)o+1]}/a. it can be shown that the total energy consumption in the next doubling time period. The United States energy consumption data from 1940 to 1980 is known to be an exponential function.05037 y. It is the science of thermodynamics which enables us to deal quantitatively with the analysis of energy conversion devices which are used to convert various energy into useful work or heat. 4. (1. Thermodynamics is an essential tool for evaluating the potential of new energy conversion ideas.3.3x109 W at 1940 and 3x109 W at 1970. Why do we need to study thermodynamics? 2. In other words.07677 y. Suppose the power consumption curve is Wdott=(Wdot0)(t2+1).4 Chih Wu As one can see. Wdot0(1). Two consumption data points are known as 0. ANSWER: 0. The final time tf is the time from now that the total energy reserve would be completely deleted.3. Find the annual energy consumption growth rate of the United States from 1940 to 1980.2x1012 W at 1940 and 1. in the long term other sources of energy must be developed. the doubling time period is about 14 years. Find the doubling time and energy to be consumed in the next doubling time. There are two obvious consequences: first. ET is the integration of power from t=0 to t=tf. ANSWER: 1 y. For a constant annual growth rate. Thermodynamics is likely to play a vital role in the solution of the long term energy problem too. even for seemingly reasonable growth rate. ED=I∫(Wdot)o exp(at) dt=(Wdot)o/a. Instead it shows every sign of increasing in severity and complexity in the years to come. ED.5) A finite amount of energy resource (ET) will approach exhaustion at a final time tf. the same amount of energy consumed up to now [Eq. the doubling time period can be relative short. Homework 1.

05/y. and degree of Kelvin (K) and Rankine (ºRº) in temperature. Units are accepted as the currencies of science and engineering. the foot. A number of unit systems have been developed over the years. find:(A) how many years can the total tar sands reserve last? (B) how many years can the total tar sands reserve last if the annual growth rate is 0 %? ANSWER: 15. For example. For example. Assuming all energy productions are from U. ANSWER: 55. the English unit of area. the acre. In the thermodynamic dimensional system.4x1012 W and annual growth rate is 0. kilogram (kg) and pound (lbm) in mass. The historical Texas rates of oil production [(Wdot)p] and consumption [(Wdot)c] are: Wdotp=70x106exp(0. 1. tar sands. DIMENSIONS AND UNITS A dimension is a character to any measurable quantity. In engineering.216x109 Barrels. mass. 5. industries. The basic dimensions of a system are those for which we decide to set up arbitrary scales of measure. How long will our coal reserve last? The total coal reserve is 7.221x109 Barrels.38x106 y.3x1018 Wy.04*t) in barrels/yr Find: (A) the total barrels need to be produced by Texas oil to meet the demand consumption from 1960 to 1980. all equations must be dimensionally homogeneous. velocity is related to the basic dimension as length per unit time. and temperature. That is.1x1012 W.A.434 y. and it is expected that a changeover from English units to SI units will be completed in the near future. the four basic dimensions we customarily employed are length.1x1015 Wy and the current power consumption is 7. Those units for which reproducible standards are maintained are called basic units. and the annual growth rate is assumed to be 3%/y. 5. The decimal feature of the SI system has made it well-suited for use by the engineering world. For example. is related to the basic unit of length. The two most widely used systems are the English unit system and the SI (Standard International) unit system. .4. ANSWER: 3. Those dimensions that are related to the basic dimensions through defining equations are called secondary dimensions. second (s) in time. The SI unit system is a simple and logical system based on a decimal relationship among the various units. The SI units are gradually being introduced in U.64x106 Barrels. the distance between two points is the dimension called length.S. time.16 y. 76. If coal is used to supply the entire energy demand for the world.Basic Concepts 5 5. and (C) the oil exported by Texas from 1960 to 1980.02*t) t = 0 at 1960 and Wdotc=106exp(0. 6. S. every term in an equation must have the same dimension. Those units that are related to the basic units through defining equations are called secondary units. For example. A unit is a quantitative measure of a dimension. It has been estimated that the total oil existing in American tar sands is approximately 183. (B) the total barrels produced by Texas from 1960 to 1980. the unit used to measure the dimension of length is the meter. Not all units are independent of each other. The current rate of USA energy consumption rate is 2. "Tar Sands" refers to a sand impregnated with a very heavy oil. 7. with the single major exception of the United States. and acceleration is also related to the basic dimension as length per unit time per unit time. The four basic SI and English system units used in engineering thermodynamics are meter (m) and foot (ft) in length.

02830 m3 1 m =35. We note that 1 newton=(1 kilogram)(1 meter/second2) 1 pascal=1 newton/ meter2 1 bar=100000 pascal 1 joule= 1 newton (meter) 1 cal=4.32 ft or 1 ft3/lbm=0.8ºF or 1ºR=1ºF=0.6 Chih Wu It is important to realize that the constants in physical laws do not just happen to be equal to 1.5556ºC=0.281 ft or 1 ft=0. from English units to SI units.430 Btu/lbm or 1 Btu/lbm=2. Units and conversion factors can give trouble if they are not used carefully in solving a problem.9478 Btu or 1 Btu=1.1450 psi or 1 psi=6. joule.1. Example 1. kilo-pascal (kPa).326 kJ/kg 1 kW(h)=3412 Btu or 1 Btu=0.187 kJ 1 watt=1 joule/second 1 Btu=778.341 hp or 1 hp=0. pascal. and kilo-watt (kW) as the additional units of force.06243 m3/kg 1 m3/kg=16. pressure. the newton.4. Convert the following quantities from the SI unit system to the English unit system: . kilo-joule (kJ). energy. several thousand pascals.3048 m or 1 ft2=0.895 kPa 1 kJ=0.8 lbf or 1 lbf=4.02 ft3/lbm 1 K=1ºC=1.2 ft(lb)=5.055 kJ 1 kJ/kg=0. and pressure.404 psia(ft3) 1 kJ/kg=1000 N(m)/kg=1000 m2/s2 1 Btu/lbm=25040 ft2/s2 In engineering applications. One can change the unit system from one to the other by reviewing the following example. 1 kg=2.4536 kg 1 m=3.8ºR=1. or several thousand watts.09290 m2 1 m2=10.5556 K 1 kN=224.205 lbm or 1 lbm=0. We frequently encounter several thousand newtons. and watt often prove to be rather small. The conversion from one unit to another unit are known.76 ft2 3 3 or 1 ft3=0.448 N 1 kPa=0.187 kJ/[kg(K)] 1 ton of refrigeration=12000 Btu/h=200 Btu/min=211 kJ/min=3.7457 kW=2545 Btu/h 1 kJ/[kg(K)]=0.2389 Btu/[lbm(ºR)] or 1 Btu/[lbm(ºR)]=4.517 kW The conversion are built into the CyclePad software. The following magnitude relationships exist between the English units to SI units. several thousand joules. In such cases and particularly in the tables of properties we shall use kilo-newton (kN).0002931 kW(h) 1 kW=3412 Btu/h=1. or vice versa.

etc. and (K) rate of entropy (Sdot) 14.07 lbm/s.4. Display the results.9 ft3/s. (F) specific entropy (s) 6.4. and (e) English unit. Analysis A. 174 psia.. Figure E1. Take a source and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. (D) specific internal energy (u) 1500 kJ/kg. 38. 644. 1.9 Btu/lbm.9 Btu/lbm. Conversion (SI unit) Figure E1. (H) volumetric flow rate (Vdot) 5. The answers are: 860ºF. (C) specific volume (v) 2.Basic Concepts 7 (A) Temperature (T) 460ºC.33 Btu/[s(ºR)]. and 24.48 Btu/[lbm(ºR)]. (c) Preference. 1200 kPa. (E) specific enthalpy (h) 1600 kJ/kg.44 ft3/lbm. (B)pressure (p) 1200 kPa. 5. Input the given information: (a) 460ºC. B.1a. (G) mass flow rate (mdot) 2.26 kW/K.4 m3/kg.2 kJ/[kg(K)].52 m3/s. (b) Edit. (J) rate of enthalpy (Hdot) 3680 kW.3 kg/s. 2. (d) Unit. 3. (I) rate of internal energy (Udot) 3450 kW. 687. 194. 4627 hp. To solve this problem by CyclePad. 4935 hp. we take the following steps: 1. Conversion (English unit) . Display results A.1b. Switch to analysis mode. Build A.

(d) Unit. 0. Conversion from the English unit system to the SI unit system . 120 psia.4 kPa.4 ft3/lbm. and 27. (b) Edit. Display the results. 3883 kW.1563 m3/s. (D) u 1500 Btu/lbm. 3640 kW. (c) Preference. 1. (G) mdot 2. 0. (B) p 120 psia.08 kW/K. Display results A. and (K) Sdot 46. 3722 kJ/kg. Input the given information: (a) 460ºF. (E) h 1600 Btu/lbm.04 kg/s.3 lbm/s. Build A.2b. 3489 kJ/kg. etc. B.2a.52 ft3/s (I) Udot 4881 hp.(C) v 2. 827.4. (F) s 6. Figure E1. (H) Vdot 5. 2. To solve this problem by CyclePad.2. Conversion from the English unit system to the SI unit system Figure E1. 25.2 Btu/R(s). 3. The answers are: 237.4. Take a source and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. (J) Hdot 5207 hp. we take the following steps: 1. Analysis A.2 Btu/[lbm(R)]. and (e) SI unit.4.8 Chih Wu Example 1.8ºC.1498 m3/kg.96 kJ/[kg(K)]. Switch to analysis mode. Convert the following quantities from the English unit system to the SI unit system: (A) T 460ºF.

What is the difference between ft and s? What is the difference between lbm and lbf? What is the mass of a football player who weights 300 lbf on earth? 3. 9. What is the dimension of force in terms of the basic dimensions? What is the dimension of work in terms of the basic dimensions? What is the dimension of energy in terms of the basic dimensions? What is the dimension of heat in terms of the basic dimensions? 5.7 Btu/lbm. Velocity C.85 B/[ºR(s)].0 kPa.72 Btu/lbm. Work H.0 kJ/kg. 0.0162 ft3/lbm.7716 lbm.4253 m3/kg.04 ft3. 1290.0 kPa.02 psi. and 16. 5923 hp. 8.8164 B/[ºR(s)]. 0. 428. 1. 1.73 psi. 0. 3.40 lbm/s. 6. Acceleration D.32 B/[ºR(s)]. 0. and 2. 1.8854 Btu/[ºR(lbm)]. Dimensions and Units 1.4 kPa. 6.4785 kW/K. and 1.5 kJ. 2. ANSWER: 53. Convert the following quantities from the English unit system to the SI unit system: 129. 0.1994 m3. 0. 0. 0.6350 kg/s. 29.35 kg. and 9.80ºF. 13. 10.71 kJ/[kg(K)]. 96.65 lbm/s. 0. 205.0 kPa.0010 m3/kg. 3046 kJ/kg.57 kW/K.9804 kJ/K. 554. 0.9 Btu/lbm.0227 ft3/s. 9. .21 B/ºR. 1. 184. and 0. 1310 Btu/lbm. Power I. 302. Volume B.30 kJ/K. ANSWER: 87. and 1.18 Btu/[ºR(lbm)]. List the basic dimensions and state the units of each in the SI system.2 kW. 430.8601 m3/kg. and 192. ANSWER: 932ºF. 600. What is a dimension? What is a unit? 2. ANSWER: 1800 K. 43. 11. 87. Convert the following quantities from the SI unit system to the English unit system: 500ºC. and 1. Pressure F. and 143.5 kJ.23 kJ/[kg(K)].26 ft3/s.1 hp. 451. 44 psi.Basic Concepts 9 Homework 1.0 Btu. 4417 kW.96 Btu/lbm. 0.0ºF. 4. 7. 218.5328 Btu/[ºR(lbm)]. 0. 150. Energy G.0475 m3/s.67 kW/K. 303. 0.80 kJ/[kg(K)]. 0.5251 ft3/lbm.7535 kJ/[kg(K)]. Specific heat 6. 0.75 kg/s.0 kJ/kg.5696 m3/kg.0006439 m3/s. 0.5 kJ/kg.7 Btu.81 ft3/lbm. 0.0328 m3/kg. 0.58 Btu/[ºR(lbm)]. 1450 psi.67 B/ºR. 10000 kPa.6691 Btu/[ºR(lbm)]. 0.89ºC. ANSWER: 1080ºR.4. 7.3190 m3/s. 0.6 kJ/[kg(K)]. 2. Convert the following quantities from the English unit system to the SI unit system: 3240ºR.12 ft3/lbm. 0. 142. 93.78 ft3/lbm.0 kJ/kg. 225. Force E. Express the following secondary dimensions in terms of basic dimensions: A. Convert the following quantities from the SI unit system to the English unit system: 31ºC. 0. 2. Convert the following quantities from the SI unit system to the English unit system: 600 K. 0.8 psi.68 ft3/s.

0413 m3. 0. 559. 3125 kW. 1778 Btu. 2085 kJ/kg.2 kJ/kg. 26.0459 m3/kg. 15. 333.5 psi.2ºC.0 kPa. 333. 0.5 ft3/s. 10000 kPa. 230. ANSWER: 1180ºC. ANSWER: 1188ºF.66 B/ R. Everything outside the boundary which might affect the behavior of the system is called the surroundings of the system. 4. 504.25 ft3. 5720 kPa. 0. 0. 3. 6.5 Btu/lbm. 140. 447. 0. 0. 1. 0. 829.32 B/[ºR(s)].9 Btu/lbm.1458 m3/kg.45 kg/s.8 Btu.0015 m3/s. 3. 73.6 Btu. and 3.44 B/[ºR(s)]. 88. 2155 kJ/kg. and 1.0162 ft3/lbm.8261 m3/kg. 447.98 lbm. and 3. 43. 12.4 kPa.1 Btu/lbm.58 Btu/[ºR(lbm)].19 kJ/K.25 psi. 926. 1.9 B/[ºR(s)]. Thermodynamics is concerned with the interactions of a system and its surroundings or one system interacting .8261 m3/kg. and 2. 26.1834 Btu/[ºR(lbm)]. Convert the following quantities from the SI unit system to the English unit system: 15ºC.46 ft3. The surface.0517 ft3/s. 0.4ºF.8460 Btu/[ºR(lbm)].14 kJ/K. 17.0 kPa. Convert the following quantities from the English unit system to the SI unit system: 2157ºF.60 kJ/[kg(K)]. 7. and 2. 937. and 9.5690 Btu/[ºR(lbm)].5.79 Btu/lbm.9 kJ. 13. SYSTEMS A system may consist of a collection of matter or space chosen for study.1834 Btu/[ºR(lbm)]. 2. 0. 1. 7.23 ft3/lbm.9 kg. 230. 590. 206. 2. and 3.7ºF. 13.66 B/ºR. Convert the following quantities from the English unit system to the SI unit system: 131ºF. 3. is it necessarily incorrect? Why? 1.0015 m3/s. 0. 656. and 5. 3. 1876 kJ. 0.2 Btu.23 ft3/lbm. ANSWER: 81.11 kW/K.39ºC.99 Btu/lbm.7 hp.63 ft3.7 hp.11 kW/K. 4191 hp.8 kW. Convert the following quantities from the English unit system to the SI unit system: 4776ºF. ANSWER: 55ºC. If an equation is not dimensionally consistent.54 kJ/[kg(K)]. and 1. The boundary of a system can be real or imaginary. 0.1312 m3.001 m3/kg. and 3. 185.7679 kJ/[kg(K)].57 kW/K. 18. 1450 psi.25 ft3.2 lbm/s. 0.9 kW. Convert the following quantities from the SI unit system to the English unit system: 55. 176.44 B/[ºR(s)]. 50. 0.54 kJ/[kg(K)]. enclosing the system is called the boundary. 0.3 kJ/kg.96 ft3/lbm.98 Btu/lbm. 16.14 kJ/K.6 kJ. 0.7351 ft3/lbm.16 psi. a metal bar or a section of pipe can be considered as a system.0519 ft3/s.6 psi.7435 m3.5 kJ/kg.34 ft3/lbm. 0. ANSWER: 131. 896. 0.10 Chih Wu 11. 0. 0. For example. 447. 5720 kPa. 282.3 Btu/lbm.8460 Btu/[ºR(lbm)]. 50.6 psi.001 m3/kg.74 m3/kg.98 m3/s.25 psi. 100 kPa. 829. 0. 14.5690 Btu/[ºR(lbm)]. and 1. 98.19 kJ/K. and 16.90 B/[ºR(s)]. 0. Convert the following quantities from the SI unit system to the English unit system: 645. 14. 0. 98.7435 m3. 1. fix or removable. and 5.7679 kJ/[kg(K)]. 0. 0.0162 ft3/lbm. 888. 2.38 kJ/[kg(K)]. ANSWER: 59ºF. and 1. 2.34ºC. Convert the following quantities from the English unit system to the SI unit system: 178. imaginary or real. 1042 kJ/kg. 13.38 kJ/[kg(K)]. ANSWER: 2636ºC.3 kJ/kg. 0.6 kJ.

In which of the following processes would it be more appropriate to consider a closed system rather than a control volume? (A) Steady flow discharge of steam from a nozzle (B) Freezing a given mass of water (C) Stirring of air contained in a rigid tank using a mechanical agitator (D) Expansion of air contained in a piston and cylinder device (E) Heating of a metal bar in a furnace (F) Mixing of high pressure and low pressure air initially contained in two separate tanks connected by a pipe and valve 3. a condenser. Cooling of a steel rod D. surroundings. Such a volume is called a control volume or open system. and boundary you would use to describe the following processes: A. If a system does not interact with its surroundings in heat. a compressor. Two streams of water mixed in a mixing chamber to form a mixed stream of water D. it is called a closed system. In many cases. If a system does not interact with its surroundings in mass. it is called an isolated system.Basic Concepts 11 with another in both energy and mass. Water flow through a pipe F. a substance flows. and/or from which. Identify the system. and surroundings B. Evaporation of water from an open pot C. On the other hand. Air flow through a nozzle E. a thermodynamic analysis is simplified if attention is focused on a mass without substance flow. a boiler. Explain the following concepts: A. Closed system (control mass) and open system (control volume) C. Systems 1. Steady flow of steam through a turbine. A turbine. Cooking of an egg . Adiabatic and isolated system 2. Homework 1. it is called an adiabatic system. attention can be focused on a volume in space into which. Air is heated in a combustion chamber to form a high temperature air-fuel mixture 4. and a pump involves fluid mass flow are examples of control volumes. Such a mass is called a control mass or a closed system. In which of the following processes would it be more appropriate to consider an open system rather than a closed system? A. Expansion of hot gas in the cylinder of an automobile engine B. If a system does not interact with its surroundings in both energy and mass. Compression of air contained in a piston and cylinder device C. but certainly the proper choice makes the analysis of a system much easier. System. Water in a rigid tank and gas in a piston-cylinder apparatus are examples of control masses. There are no rigid rules for the selection of control mass or control volume.5. boundary. B.

Generally. Density (ρ) and Specific Volume (v) The density of a substance is the mass per unit volume. liquid. Δm would vary . A property is a characteristic of a system and its value is independent of the history of the system. ΔV cannot be allowed to shrink to zero. Is a fixed mass system usually treated as a closed or an open system? 8. PROPERTIES OF A SYSTEM Once a system has been selected for analysis. Generally. temperature. Therefore. In a control volume at steady state. In engineering thermodynamics. 1. 1. Density is defined by the equation ρ= lim(⊃Δm/ΔV).12 Chih Wu 5. Volume is one of three basic measurable thermodynamic properties that are commonly used to describe a substance. such as pressure. It is a macroscopic property associated with thermodynamic boundary work. the mass changes. such as specific volume (v=V/m). The value of a property is unique at a fixed state. Is a fixed space system usually treated as a closed or an open system? 1. Must the boundary of a system be real? Can the boundary of a system be moveable? 6. with a few exceptions. The body itself can be in a solid. In a control volume at steady state. Volume is therefore called displacement of thermodynamic boundary work.1. the pressure is uniform. volume. can be defined by mathematically combining other properties.1. An intensive property has the same value independent of the size of a system. specific heat at constant pressure. Indicate whether the following statements are true or false: A. such as enthalpy. lower case letters denote intensive properties. such as mass (m). If ΔV became extremely small. upper case letters denote extensive properties. such as specific volume (v) and specific energy (e=E/m). Volume (V) The volume is the physical space occupied by a body.2. materials are considered to be in continuum. or gaseous state. 7. Examples of an extensive property include volume (V) and energy (E). A property is extensive if its value for the whole system is the sum of its value for the various parts of the system. (1. Some thermodynamic properties are directly or indirectly measurable. The volume of a body is proportional to the mass of the body.6.6. Other properties called derived properties. Extensive properties per unit mass are called intensive or specific properties. Properties are classified as either extensive or intensive. and specific heat at constant volume.1) where Δm is the finite mass contained in the finite volume ΔV. Volume can be easily measured. with a few exceptions.6.6. such as temperature (T). and therefore volume is an extensive property. B. it can be further described in terms of its properties.

6. 1.6.1. Analysis (A) Input the given information: mass is 2 kg and volume is 1 m3. To solve this problem by CyclePad. 3. pressure is an intensive property. Display results (A) Display the results. It is useful to define specific volume (v).1. volume per unit mass (m) of a substance.5 m3/kg.5 kg/m3. we take the following steps: 1. Determine the specific volume of the gas.6. We must choose a ΔV sufficiently small but large enough to eliminate microscopic molecular effects.1) Specific volume is the inverse of density. Specific volume and density are dependent. (B) Switch to analysis mode. 2. Since the pressure of a substance does not depend on its mass.6. Specific volume is usually expressed in m3/kg in the SI unit system and in ft3/lbm in the English unit system. Determine the specific volume. Pressure (p) The normal force exerted by a system on a unit area of its surroundings is called the pressure (p) of the system. Build (A) Take a BEGIN and an END from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them. Both are affected by temperature and pressure.Basic Concepts 13 discontinuously.2. 2 kg of air contained in a 4 m3 tank has a specific volume of 2 m3/kg and a density of 0. depending on the number of molecules in ΔV. The answer is 0.3. Figure E1. (1. specific weight and density Example 1. v =V/m. Pressure is a macroscopic property associated with . For example. 2 kg of a gas is contained in a 1 m3 tank. Under this condition the facts that the intermolecular distances are large compared to the molecular dimensions do not obscure our measurement of volume.

6.3. 0.14 Chih Wu thermodynamic boundary work. Absolute pressure (pabs ) is the amount of force per unit area exerted by a system on its boundaries.013 bar. 101.3 kPa and 14. The surface of the earth is covered by a layer of air. The most used thermodynamic unit of pressure in SI unit is kilo-pascal (kPa) or kilo-newton per square meter.3. bar. usually the atmosphere. or 2117 psfa depending upon the units used. The standard atmospheric pressure at sea level is 29. Two different pressures are common in engineering practice: gage pressure and absolute pressure.3. Needle Linkage Threaded connection Figure 1. shown in Figure 1. Hence. As we go up in elevation the atmospheric pressure decreases.1.7 psia for simplicity. Common devices for measuring pressures are a Bourdon gage. shown in Figure 1. pgage =pabs .patm (1. Gage pressure (pgage) is the value measured by a pressure gauge. Pressure is measurable and is one of the most important properties of a thermodynamic system.3 kPa. 760 mmHg. One bar equals 100 kPa. The air around us can be treated as a homogeneous gas. The atmospheric pressure (patm ) is due to the weight of the air per unit horizontal area in the earth’s gravitational field. which indicates the pressure difference between a system and its ambient.6. The pressure due to the weight of the atmospheric air is called atmospheric pressure. Sometimes the unit bar is used for pressure. which we call the atmosphere. 14. and psi or pound force per square inch in English unit.1) The units of pressure commonly used are inch or mm of mercury (Hg).6. Pressure is therefore called the driving force of thermodynamic boundary work. psi. 1. etc. psf. and usually use mercury as a manometer fluid. The difference between gage and absolute pressure should be understood.6. Mpa.92 in.2. kPa.3. Very often atmospheric pressure is assumed to be 101. Hg. and a manometer.1 Bourdon gage .1013 MPa.69 psia. Barometers are used to measure atmospheric pressure.

6. Graphical representation of pressure It should be noted that when a system is subdivided.3.6.6. the pressure is not subdivided.3.3. then the difference in pressure between the system and the surroundings is able to support the fluid in the manometer for a deflection L. If the system has a pressure p.3. This may be expressed by p . and the surroundings are atmospheric with pressure patm. manometer A manometer is used to measure the system pressure in a container. while gauge pressures can be either positive or negative. Pressures below atmospheric pressure are called vacuum pressures.2. This is a characteristic of an intensive property. pabs p gage p atmosphere pgage (negative) or p vacuum Pressure pabs Figure 1. the fluid in the manometer has a density ρ.3 depicts the various pressures in graphical form.2) where g is the gravitational acceleration.3. the implication is that the value is an absolute pressure. In the text if a pressure is not explicitly stated as being either gauge or absolute pressure. Figure 1.6.Basic Concepts 15 patmosphere Pressure p L Density ρ Figure 1.patm=ρLg (1. . Negative gauge pressures indicate pressures below atmospheric pressure. Absolute pressures are always positive.

Temperature is a microscopic property associated with heat. the absolute temperature scales are the Rankine (ºR) scale and the Kelvin (K) scale.3. Temperature is therefore called the driving force of heat. 50°F is 10°C and 40°C is 104°F. Determine the gage pressure and vacuum pressure in psig at the turbine exhaust. Solution: Eq.1) gives pabs=101+40 kPa Abs. temperature is defined to be the property having equal magnitude in systems that are in thermal equilibrium.6.7 psia. Temperature (T) Temperature is often thought of as being a measure of the “hotness” of a substance. 1. In the English unit system and SI unit system. (1. In the English unit system and SI unit system. This statement is not exactly a good definition of temperature because the word hot is a relative rather than a quantitative term.7 psig. The absolute temperature scale is defined such that a temperature of zero corresponds to a theoretical state of no molecular movement of the substance.1) gives pgage=2-14. Example 1. respectively. In thermodynamics. Negative absolute temperature is impossible. Solution: Eq.1.7 psi. The absolute temperature scale is related to the metric temperature scale by the relationships: K = °C + 273° .16 Chih Wu Example 1.3.7 psia=-12.3.=141 kPa Abs. and pvacuum=12. The selection of reference temperatures allows us to write the relationships: ° F = (9/5)°C +32 and ° C = (5/9)( °F-32) For example. Convert 40 kPa gage pressure to absolute pressure. Negative temperatures exist for the metric temperature scale.6. Steam is exhausted from a turbine at an absolute pressure of 2 psia.3. (1.6.2.6. Temperature is measurable and is one of the most important properties of a thermodynamic system. Temperature is an indication of the thermal energy stored in a thermodynamic system. The most common type of temperature measuring device is the thermometer.4. The barometer reads 101 kPa. the metric temperature scales are the Fahrenheit (ºF) scale and the Celsius (ºC) scale respectively. The barometer reads 14. Metric temperature scales are made by arbitrarily selecting reference temperatures corresponding to reproducible state points (ice point and steam point).6.

Figure 1. Temperature conversion . Convert 560°F to degree of Rankine. degree of Kelvin. Build (A) Take a source and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them.4.3ºC.6. 566. Graphical representation of temperature Example 1. 3.15 100 671.1a.6.15 Kelvin Celsius 0 .1 depicts the various temperatures in graphical form.67 Rankine Fahrenheit Figure 1. we take the following steps: 1.67 212 Triple point of water 273. Display results (A) Display the results.Basic Concepts and R = °F + 460° For example. and degree of Centigrade.6. (B) Switch to analysis mode. (d) unit. 293.4. (c) preference. Figure E1.15 0 491.1. To solve this problem by CyclePad. 2. The answers are 1020ºR. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) 560ºF (b) edit.459. and (f) SI. Boiling point of water 17 373. (e) change unit.4.67 32 Absolute zero 0 -273.1.5 K. 20°C is 293 K and 40°F is 500°R.6.4.

Flow energy (δpV) is the energy required to push a volume V of a flowing substance through a boundary surface inlet section into the system from the surroundings by a pressure p.6. Any change in molecular velocity. The change in specific kinetic energy of a system when its velocity changes from V1 to V2 is Δek = (V22-V12)/2. the value of these properties change. A system stores energy within and between its constituent molecules. The potential energy is Ep=mgz. The change of potential energy from level z1 to z2 is ΔEp = mg(z2-z1).4. potential energy. or to push a volume V of a flowing substance through a boundary surface exit section out from the system to the surroundings by a pressure p.18 Chih Wu Figure E1. The change in kinetic energy of a system when its velocity changes from V1 to V2 is )Ek = m(V22-V12)/2. velocity. The internal energy is not directly measurable. Kinetic energy (Ek) is the stored macroscopic energy that a body of mass m has when it possesses a velocity V. which is associated with all microscopic modes. The change of specific potential energy from level z1 to z2 is Δep = g(z2-z1). and δ=0 for a closed system. Microscopic energy modes include molecular translation energy. etc. and flow energy as . molecular rotation energy. electron translation energy. The amount of energy of a system is reflected in properties such as temperature. Temperature conversion 1. or position in a gravitational field. The energy (E) of the system is the summation of internal energy. and u is used to represent specific internal energy. The change in internal energy is denoted by ∆U. kinetic energy. electron spin energy. molecular vibration energy. or in the number and kind of molecules. Energy held within a system is associated with the matter of the system. That is δ=1 for an open system. Flow energy occurs only when there is a mass flow into the system or out from the system.5. Energy (E) Matter can store energy. If there is no mass flow into the system or out from the system.6. changes the internal energy. it is related to other measurable properties. This deeply stored total energy.1b. however. Potential energy (Ep) is the stored macroscopic energy that a body of mass m has by virtue of its elevation (z) above ground level in a gravitation field whose acceleration is constant and equals to g. is called internal energy. vibration rate in the bonds and forces between molecules. An important characteristic of classical thermodynamics is that it deals with the changes in the amount of energy in a system and not with the system’s absolute energy. molecular binding energy. there is no flow energy. As the amount of stored energy changes. The symbol U is used to represent internal energy.

. respectively.2) The specific heat of a substance at constant pressure is the rate of change of specific enthalpy of the substance with respect to a change in the temperature of the substance while maintaining a constant pressure. The International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education. It is a synthetic combination of the internal energy (U) and the flow energy (pV) exchanged with the surroundings. Both cp and cv are measurable properties and are measured on a constant pressure process and a constant volume process for a closed system. 2001).3 kPa is 4. For example. we therefore have a method of calculating the internal energy and enthalpy for any process if we know the end states.6. 29(3).6.18 kJ/[kg(K)].6.6.1) 1. which means 4. the specific heat of water at 25ºC and 101.2) 1.6. while holding the pressure and volume constant. 227-232.7. cp and cv are defined in the following equations: cp = (∂h/∂T)P cv = (∂u/∂T)v (1.6. The unit of c (cp or cv) is kJ/[kg(K)] in SI system and Btu/[lbm(ºR)] in English system.18 kJ of heat added is required to a kg mass of water in order to raise its temperature by 1 K. The heat capacities of gases other than cp and cv for an arbitrary process can also be defined (Reference: Chen and Wu. The specific heat of a substance at constant volume is the rate of change of specific internal energy of the substance with respect to a change in the temperature of the substance while maintaining a constant volume. respectively. It is a measure of the heat added to a mass of a system to produce a unit increase in temperature. Values of cp and cv can be obtained by measuring the heat transfer required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of substance by one degree.5.6.6.6. The most commonly used specific heats are specific heat at constant pressure (cp) and specific heat at constant volume (cv).7.6. Enthalpy (H) Enthalpy is not a directly measurable property. cp and cv) The quantity c = δq/dT is called the specific heat or heat capacity. Specific Heat (c. and are defined by H = U + pV h = u + pv (1. The heat capacities of gases in arbitrary process.1) (1.Basic Concepts E= U + Ek + Ep + δpV 19 (1. Since cp and cv are measurable properties.7. Enthalpy and specific enthalpy are symbolized by H and h.1) (1.

6.8 1-x =(10-8)/10=0.6 and a moisture content of 0. 1.2) give x =8/10=0. (1.6. It is not directly measurable. is defined as the vapor mass fraction of the total mixture. 10 kg of water is contained in a tank. If 8 kg of the water is in vapor form and rest is in liquid form.6. x = mvapor/mtotal 1-x = mliquid/mtotal and mtotal =mvapor + mliquid (1.9. .9. between the system and its surroundings. Quality or dryness of vapor. it is nonconservative.1) (1. Dryness and Moisture Content A liquid and vapor two-phase state is a mixture of liquid and vapor. Entropy is a measure of the level of irreversibility associated with any process. Quality. Moisture content.9. Solution: Eq. the value of k is close to 1.1) and Eq. is defined as the liquid mass fraction of the total mixture.9. It is a very important property in thermodynamics and will be discussed later in chapter 6.20 Chih Wu 1. It is extensively used in thermodynamics.3) (1. For air.4. (1. 5 kg of saturated water liquid and vapor mixture consisting of 3 kg of saturated steam vapor and 2 kg of saturated liquid water has a quality of 0. Determine the quality and moisture content of the water.10. Unlike energy.6.8. Example 1. but can be related to other properties. That is.6. Entropy (S) Entropy is a microscopic property associated with the microscopic energy transfer called heat (Q). k=cp/cv.9.6.9.1. usually represented by the symbol x.6.2 1.9.4. Entropy is also called displacement of heat.2) For example. Ratio of the Specific Heats (k) A dimension-less property denoted by k is the ratio of the specific heats. usually represented by (1-x).6.6.

Otherwise. A pressure gage attached to a compressed gas tank reads 500 kPa at a site where the barometric reading is 100 kPa. What property is the sum of internal energy and flow energy? 11. What is a vacuum pressure? 21.6.11. 2. work.1) Homewok 1. the function is said to be a point function. Define the property cp. specific property. ρT. Is the property denoted by H an intensive or extensive property ? How about the property denoted by h? 8. Are cp and cv properties? 15. from state 1 to state 2 is ρT =∫dT = T2 . What is a specific property? 6. How are volume and specific volume related? What are the notations used for volume and specific volume? 9. heat. density. For example if T is a point function. 5. 4. Distinguish clearly between intensive and extensive properties? Give three examples of each type.11. What is the absolute pressure of gas in the tank? 22. (1. Which of the following are properties of a system: pressure. How are density and specific volume related? Are density and specific volume dependent or independent? 10. Does a substance possesses flow energy when at rest? 18.Basic Concepts 21 1. specific heat. Define flow energy. Thus we define cp and cv. and power? 3. Properties 1. 14. 19. Point Function If the change of a function (quantity) of a system for a process between an initial state 1 and a final state 2 depends only on the two end states only. it is a path function. What is a continuum? 7. volume. intensive property. Are cp and cv measurable? 16.T1 All properties are point functions.6. Does a system possesses flow energy without mass flow in or out of the system? 12. List at least three measurable properties of a system. What is the importance of the fact that cp and cv are properties? 17. Can absolute pressure of a system be negative? Can gage pressure of a system be negative? 20. What is meant by flow energy? 13.6. A pressure gage attached to a gas tank reads 50 kPa vacuum at a site where the barometric reading is 100 kPa. temperature. Explain the meaning of the following terms: property. Explain the difference between absolute pressure and gage pressure. energy. The specific heat for a substance is different for different processes. total property. then the change of T. extensive property. What is the absolute pressure of gas in the tank? .

Find the specific volume in ft3/lbm and specific weight in lbf/ft3. What is the internal energy of a system? 26. in Fahrenheit and in Rankine scale? ANSWER: 310. A vacuum gauge in a tank reads 10 psi vacuum. 558.4 kPa. Is pressure an extensive property? 31. At 40ºF. what is the Celsius temperature? At what point are the two scales numerically equal? ANSWER: -40.7 psi. Express this drop in psig and psia. Hence they all have the product pv. 40. 39. A vacuum pressure gage connected to a pipeline indicates 0. 41.1 bar at a site where the barometric reading is 1 bar.3ºR. What is it in Kelvin. what is the absolute pressure of the system in the tank? ANSWER: 4. 36. What is the absolute pressure in the pipeline? 24. Could a derived property such as h be an independent property? 27. What are the turbine inlet and exhaust pressures in psia? ANSWER: 514.6ºF.7 psia. The barometer is 14. 38. . At 540ºR. Which phase of water has the highest density? Which phase of water has the highest specific volume? 28. Define the units psi and kPa. what is the Kelvin temperature? At what point are the two scales numerically difference is 200? ANSWER: 300 K.7 psia. A pressure gage at a turbine inlet reads 500 psi and a vacuum gage at the turbine exhaust reads 2 psi.7 psi. All substances are subjected to pressure and have a specific volume. Standard atmospheric pressure at sea level is 14. Specific volume of cotton is fairly high. 32. The pressure of a system drops by 20 psi during an expansion process.22 Chih Wu 23. 37. 35. Two pounds of air occupies a volume of 30 ft3. The barometer is 14.7 psi.7 psia. Convert it to kPa and bars using CyclePad. 34. 16. Are the boiling pressure and boiling temperature of water dependent or independent? 43. 42. what is (T2-T1) in ºR? ANSWER: 40ºR.147 lbf/ft3.1 K. Why is that? 29. 98. 450ºR.7 psia. 30. ANSWER: 101. 2. What is the difference between gage pressure and atmosphere pressure? 33. The corresponding barometer reading is 14. Air temperature rises 400ºC during a heating process. do they all have flow energy? 25. what is the absolute pressure of the system in the tank? ANSWER: 4.7 psia. What is the air temperature rise in Kelvin during the heating process? ANSWER: 400 K. The body temperature of a healthy person is 37ºC. A vacuum gauge in a tank reads 10 psi vacuum. Water in nature exists in three different phases. If (T2-T1) is 40ºF. ANSWER: 15 ft3/lbm.

2 kg/m3. The state of a system is the condition of a system at any particular moment and can be identified by a statement of the properties of the system. However.7. or work at a steady state. or at equilibrium. Is heat transfer flow from block A to block B. Homework 1. intensive properties. classical thermodynamics has been able to deal with systems only when they were at rest. The state of a simple compressible substance can therefore be completely specified by two independent. 2. Equilibrium State 1. because both pressure and temperature are intensive properties and are independent in one-phase region. or from block B to block A? 45. work due to boundary stretching. A specification of a state describes a system completely. matter. Which of the following systems are not in equilibrium? (A) Compressed air in a tank . Therefore classical thermodynamics is also called equilibrium thermodynamics. Explain the concept of equilibrium. a state of air cannot be defined by a specific volume of 5 m3/kg and a density of 0. 1999). EQUILIBRIUM STATE A system is defined to be at equilibrium if it does not tend to undergo any further change of its own accord.7. The state of a substance can be completely specified by the number of work modes plus one independent. work due to magnetization and work due to polarization are five examples of work modes. This relatively new field is called FINITE-TIME THERMODYNAMICS (Reference: Recent advances in finite-time thermodynamics by Wu. which have only one work mode called compressible work. New York. a state of superheated vapor H2O can be defined by a pressure of 100 kPa and a temperature of 400ºC. The two blocks are brought into contact with each other. Work due to normal boundary motion (compressible work). because pressure and temperature are dependent in the two-phase region. Chen and Chen.7 psia and a temperature of 212ºF. Nova Science Publishers. What temperature does a thermometer measure in SI unit? What temperature does a thermometer measure in English unit? 1. intensive properties. a state of saturated mixture H2O can not be defined by a pressure of 14. Copper block A contains 1000 kJ of thermal energy at 50ºC and copper block B contains 100 kJ of thermal energy at 500ºC. For example. work due to tangential boundary motion. and a method has been developed to apply it to non-equilibrium systems which conduct heat. Similarly. because specific volume and density are dependent. But thermodynamic systems are not always at equilibrium. Traditionally. Substances used in engineering thermodynamics are usually restricted to simple compressible substances.Basic Concepts 23 44. The number of independent intensive properties needed to define a state depends on the number of work modes of the substance. any further change must be produced by external means.

An isothermal process is a constant temperature process during which the temperature (T) remains constant. A process can be described only in terms of the properties of the system or a functional relation between the properties. PROCESSES AND CYCLES A series of infinitesimal changes in a system between an initial state and a final state is called a process. an actual process can be modeled as an ideal process with negligible error. isochoric. A property of a system depends only on the state of the system and not on how a state is arrived at. which occurs at a faster rate.24 Chih Wu (B) A mixture of ice and water at 32ºF (C) A burning log (D) A copper rod with one end immersed in a beaker of boiling water and the other in an ice bath (E) Steam.T1 =∫dT (1. The prefix iso. an isobaric process is a constant pressure process during .is often used to designate a process for which a particular property remains constant. Important thermodynamic processes include isothermal. 6. We called such a state quasi-equilibrium. 5. and polytropic processes.8. 1. An ideal process is not a true representation of an actual process. The change of temperature for a process between an initial state 1 and a final state 2 is T2 . Under this condition. water and ice in a closed vessel at 0. 7.1) When a process proceeds in a manner in which the system remains too infinitesimally close to an equilibrium state at all times.8. Since the system is disturbed infinitesimally at each state of the process and the resulting change in the process is infinitesimal. The method by which the path is described is called a process. Therefore the time required for the process is of no consideration in equilibrium thermodynamics. or path change of state. it is called a quasi-equilibrium process or an ideal process. Therefore. throttling. distinct from states of equilibrium or non equilibrium. 9. However. 4. ideal processes are easy to analyze. a change in property is independent of path.01ºC (F) Gasoline and oxygen in a closed vessel (G) Ice cubes floating in water at 50ºF (H) A copper rod immersed in a beaker of boiling water What is state? What is a steady state? Could a thermodynamic equilibrium state be changed? What is the minimum number of independent specific properties needed to define a thermodynamic state? Is a state defined by given the boiling pressure and boiling temperature of water? Is the state of air in your classroom completely specified by the temperature and pressure? Why? How many different values does a property possess at a fixed state? Does a state change if just one of its many properties changed? 3. but we have something very close to it. adiabatic. 8. Thus. isentropic. isobaric. we do not have a genuine thermodynamic equilibrium . A differential change in property such as temperature (T) is written as dT.

This implies that all properties of a system regained their initial values. (E) Air at high speed passes through a nozzle. The system is then in a position to be put through the same cycle of events again. An adiabatic process is a process during which the system does not exchange heat (Q=0) with its surroundings . The change in the value of any property of the system for a cycle is zero. Does the total quantity change of heat must equal to zero for a complete cycle? 10. or that there is no transfer heat at all? 6. A cyclic process. Is this a process or a cycle? 12. what is the temperature difference in K and what is the temperature difference in ºC? ANSWER: 300 K. Can we determine the temperature difference between the final state and the initial state? If yes. Air is compressed through a compressor. What are the quantity changes of properties for a complete cycle? 9. Processes and Cycles 1. Explain the concept of quasi-equilibrium 3. An isentropic process is a constant entropy process during which the entropy (S) remains constant. After some time. Water is heated in an open container. Does the total quantity change of work must equal to zero for a complete cycle? 11. but the temperatures of the intermediate states are unknown. A system undergoes a process with an initial temperature of 700 K and a final temperature of 400 K. and an isochoric process is a constant volume process during which the volume (V) remains constant. (B) Water is pumped by a car water pump. Is this a process or a cycle? . and the procedure may be repeated indefinitely. or cycle. (C) Air passes through a high speed turbine. A throttling process is a constant enthalpy process during which the enthalpy (H) remains constant. Homework 1. (D) Air at high speed passes through a valve. What is a process? 2.Basic Concepts 25 which the pressure (p) remains constant.8. the water starts to boil. where n is a constant. is a process for which the end states are identical (initial state = final state). would you assume to be adiabatic? (A) Water flows through a car radiator. Which of the following processes. 300 ºC. A polytropic process is a constant pVn process. if any. 7. What is a cycle? 8. A constant internal energy process is a process during which the internal energy (U) remains constant. 4. Does an adiabatic process mean that the net heat transfer is zero. Steam is expanded through a turbine. Which of the following correctly describes the entire process? (A) Isothermal process (B) Adiabatic process (C) Isobaric process (D) Isochoric process 5.

and relates what the user sees on the computer screen to the design of actual systems. Like a professor or senior engineer. Naval Academy since 1996 by Professor Wu for several thermodynamics courses. CyclePad is a cognitive engineering software. Using CyclePad. the program is able to remind the user of essential principles or design steps that may have been overlooked. T-S and sensitivity diagrams in colorful graphical forms. Whereas traditional engineering instruction of thermodynamics teaches students to analyze designs in response to specific questions. parametric studies. heat exchangers. Without a simulator. CyclePad has been in active use at the U. The software guides students through a design process and is able to provide explanations for results and to coach students in improving designs. If more help is needed. By providing students with an environment in which they are able to apply their thermodynamics knowledge in a design context. but it is recognized as a difficult skill for students to acquire. the program can provide a documented. It has been well received by students and has been observed to lead to students creating better designs. from CyclePad’s . It creates a virtual laboratory where students can efficiently learn the concepts of thermodynamics. The great success of CyclePad in teaching these skills is demonstrated by the fact that students have used CyclePad to produce designs of publishable quality. interactive computer aided design environment. etc. CyclePad was designed to help students learn by having them design and analyze thermodynamics within a simulator. Not only is design an important skill. students build a simulated thermodynamic system by selecting and connecting components such as turbines. CyclePad eliminates the tedium of learning to apply thermodynamics. case study that recounts how engineers have resolved similar problems in real life situations. It has an intelligent feature. It displays the thermodynamic systems. desired numerical results and the p-V. CyclePad helps students gain a better qualitative understanding of thermodynamics since its simulation capabilities allow students to see how changing one parameter may affect the values of other parameters that are part of the same system. CYCLEPAD Professor Kenneth Forbus of the computer science and education department at Northwestern University has developed ideal intelligent computer software for thermodynamic students called CyclePad*. CyclePad knows the laws of thermodynamics and how to apply them. It enables the users to perform simulation. it would simply be too much time consuming for students to do the necessary computations to allow them to see these relationships. The sophisticated powerful software does not open the door for abuses and misinformation by poorly trained users. Misinformation and wrong doing in a CyclePad design thermodynamic system will be picked up and reasons why a contradiction may occurs automatically by the intelligent software. It enables the users to analyze and design thermodynamic systems easily and quickly. and optimization on thermodynamic systems.26 Chih Wu 1. pumps.S. If the user makes an error in design. Qualitative evaluations of CyclePad have shown that students who use CyclePad have a deeper understanding of thermodynamics equations and a better handle on the meaning of technical terms.9. CyclePad gives students the opportunity to develop skills that have been pinpointed as essential by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET). quite different from other software. CyclePad allows the users to solve design problems in logical steps and to ask questions. and allows systems to be analyzed and designed in a simulated.

CyclePad can be downloaded by the following steps: Internet Explorer Http://www.Submit form License Agreement . it provides explanations tracing forward from assumptions or backward from conclusions.Save Close Internet Explorer Open my computer Go to the location you save the file to Double click on webcpad . showing how one parameter varies as you change another.CyclePad is downloaded 1.qrg. It has a number of help functions not normally found in simulators. you should come to a screen that says Congratulations! CyclePad has been installed successfully .OK Choose a location . CyclePad analyzes it. At the student’s request.2.Basic Concepts 27 inventory shops.9.edu Software Dowload CyclePad v2.1. Installation onto your own PC CyclePad can be installed onto your own PC by the following steps: Start up your computer normally Insert the CyclePad first disk into your (3. Thus CyclePad makes it feasible for students to explore a much wide range of designs and assumptions that would be possible if the calculations would have to be done in the traditional way. which tends to focus on analysis rather than design.9. Such explorations lead to greater understanding both of design trade-offs and of conceptual knowledge than would result from more traditional thermodynamics instruction.ils.0 Fill in form .exe Click on setup.ils.exe Install Yes OK OK .Dowload Software Save this program to disk .northwestern.qrg. Download CyclePad can be downloaded free from Northwestern University’s web page at http://www.northwestern.exe and follow the on screen prompts When you have successfully installed CyclePad.exe Double click on Setup. It can do sensitivity analyses. 1.edu.5" or zip floppy disk) drive Go to file manager and bring up the a:\ or e:\ drive window You should see a file called setup.#######. Once the thermodynamic system is complete. without requiring students to spend an exorbitant amount of time on calculations.

9. a process or several processes.4. Naval Academy (USNA) with Oxford University and Northwestern University since 1995. The user is free to inquire about how values were derived and how one might proceed at any time. Contents An intelligent computer software called CyclePad has been evaluated by Prof.9.28 Chih Wu You may now run CyclePad Or. Wu in the Mechanical Engineering Department at the U. It works in two phases. The software has been incorporated in three thermodynamic courses at U S Naval Academy for fourteen semesters.9. 1.1.20020504 20020504(date) Double clip–cpadinst Double clip–setup Install Yes Yes C:\CyclePad OK OK 1. CyclePad is designed to help with the learning and conceptual design of thermodynamic cycles.4. when every component is connected via some other components via states. Modes 1. While the user can always quit CyclePad at any time.S. the user uses a graphical editor to place components out from a thermodynamic inventory shop and connects them to form a state or several states.3. using a hypertext query system. the user chooses a working fluid.2.9. build mode and analyze mode. Make new folder Temp-CyclePad Copy files from Zip to new folder Temp-CyclePad Go to Temp-CyclePad Double clip–webcpad. you can only proceed to the next phase (analysis) when CyclePad is satisified that your design is fully laid out. that is. it draws as many conclusions as it can about your design. Analysis In the analyze mode. 1. or a cycle or several cycles. As soon as you give CyclePad some information. At any time you can save your design to . processes on assumption for each component.4. C. and every state has been used as both an input and an output for components in the design. and inputs numerical property values. All the calculations are then quickly done by the software and displayed. based on everything you have told it so far. Build In the build mode.

Specific volume. work. it enters contradiction mode.9. A system of fixed volume with mass flow is called an open system or control volume. the coach will show up. 1. An intelligent computer software called CyclePad is introduced. . Relationships among the properties are called equations of state. There is a sensitivity tool which makes cycle performance parameter effects easy and quick. The second law of thermodynamics indicates the direction of a process. display the contradiction. and their relationships. and generates the effects in graph form. Engineering thermodynamics is a macroscopic science that deals with heat. The first law of thermodynamics is the principle of energy conservation. pressure and temperature are the three most important thermodynamic properties because they are directly measurable. If there is a mistake or a contradiction made by the user. A system of fixed mass is called a closed system or control mass. There is a coach (instructor) in the software. The mass dependent properties of a system are called extensive properties and are usually denoted by upper class letters. The contradiction resolution window appears on the screen to inform you that there is a contradiction.Basic Concepts 29 a file so that you can continue working on it later. Contradiction It is possible to make assumptions that conflict with each other. When Cycle Pad detects a conflict. Such a sensitivity analysis is quite tedious to do by hand.10. A cycle is a process with identical initial and final states.4.3. A process is a change of state. The procedures to download the software and install it into one’s own PC are described. The state of a simple compressible substance is completely specified by two independent intensive properties. the concepts and basic laws of thermodynamics are introduced. The mass independent properties of a system are called intensive properties and are usually denoted by lower class letters. and generate reports describing the state of your analysis of the design. Properties can be measurable or non-measurable. A state is a system at equilibrium. 1. properties. CyclePad cannot continue to analyze the design until one or more of the conflicting assumptions has been retracted. English and SI unit systems are introduced. In such a case. and suggest ways to solve the contradiction. SUMMARY In this chapter.

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THERMODYNAMIC SUBSTANCES In the analysis and design of thermodynamic processes. What are the three most important and frequently used types of thermodynamic substances? 2. Since system performance characteristics depend on the properties of the working substance used. An ideal gas is mathematically defined as one whose thermodynamic equation of state is given by pv=RT. and T is the absolute temperature of the gas. and incompressible substance. but each of these substances can appear in a different phase if the pressure or temperature is changed sufficiently.1. we encounter many different types of thermodynamic substances.Chapter 2 PROPERTIES OF THERMODYNAMIC SUBSTANCES 2. copper is a solid. v is the specific volume. or gas phase. it is essential that we have a good understanding of the thermodynamic behavior of a substance and know how to find properties of these substances. PURE SUBSTANCES A substance can exist in solid. liquid. water is a liquid. R is the gas constant. where p is the absolute pressure. the three most important and frequently used types are pure substance. An incompressible substance is a substance whose specific volume remains nearly constant during a thermodynamic process. respectively.2. and nitrogen is a gas. ideal gas. Among the many types. and systems. Most liquids and solids can be assumed to be incompressible without much loss in accuracy. Thermodynamic Substances 1. At normal room pressure and temperature. . devices. Homework 2. A pure substance is a simple substance that has a homogeneous and invariable chemical composition and has only one relevant simple compressible work mode.1.

2. A pure substance is known as a pure compressible substance when the only relevant work mode is the compression work (pdV work) only. A mixture of oil and water is also not a pure substance since the chemical composition is not homogeneous throughout the system. since its chemical composition is the same in all phases. Atmospheric air. A mixture of gaseous air in equilibrium with liquid air is not a pure substance since the chemical composition in the gaseous state is not the same as that in the liquid phase. A pure substance is a simple substance that has a homogeneous and invariable chemical composition and has only one relevant work mode. 1 atm 1 atm T = 100 C 1 atm 1 atm 1 atm Vapor Liquid Liquid Liquid Vapor Vapor Q T = 40 C o Q T = 100 C o Q T = 100 C o Q T = 100 C o Q T 100 C o State 1 (a) State f (b) State m (c) State g (d) State s (e) Figure 2. liquid water. vapor. Liquid-vapor transition Pressure p l f. or as a mixture of liquid. Solid ice. which is essentially a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen. and solid. T-v diagram .2.32 Chih Wu A phase is any homogeneous part of a system that is physically distinct and is separated from other parts of the system by a definite bounding surface. may be treated as a pure substance as long as it remains in the gaseous state. Water is a pure substance even if it exists as a mixture of liquid and vapor.2.m.g Temperature T s Temperature T s f l Volume v m p=c g Figure 2. and water vapor constitute three separate phases of the substance H2O.1.

this means that it is at the highest temperature at which.1b).2.1a).3.2. and a mixture of vapor and liquid occurs such as state m (point m.2. The change of a subcooled H2O liquid state to a superheated H2O vapor state by constant-pressure heat addition process can be demonstrated by the following simple experiment. As more heat is added. for this pressure. from state f to state m. it can remain liquid.1e).2. 1.2 shows the process representation of the variation of v with T. the water system temperature rises until it reaches 100ºC (point f.2. Figure 2. The T-v diagram for water at various pressures is shown in Figure 2. Figure 2. As heat is added. Some of the liquid changes to vapor. Plot the results on a T-v diagram. water (H2O). Figure 2. and vapor regions. from state m to state g. The processes from state l to state f. Repeat the same isobaric process test but at different pressures. contained in a pistoncylinder arrangement in Figure 2. The region is also called the compressed-liquid region because the state pressure is higher than the boiling pressure for this temperature at 40ºC. and from state g to state s are illustrated on p-T diagram and T-v diagram in Figure 2. Figure 2. 2. Point c has a unique temperature called critical temperature and a unique pressure called critical pressure. These two lines are called the saturated liquid line and the saturated vapor line.2. state g is called a saturated vapor and denoted by a subscript g. liquidvapor. The water starts to boil.3 kPa (corresponding boiling temperature at this pressure is 100ºC) to the liquid water initially at 40ºC (point l.1c). State s is in a region called superheated vapor region because the state temperature is higher than the boiling temperature for this pressure. state f is called a saturated liquid and denoted by a subscript f. the system temperature remains the same at 100ºC and all the liquid in the mixture changes to vapor (point g. The T-v diagram for water at a pressure process with the saturation lines is shown in Figure 2. it can remain vapor. 4. 3.2. state s is called a superheated vapor. This state is in a two phase region called saturated mixture region .2. 5.2.2. . the system temperature remains the same at 100ºC during the boiling process. Consider a pure substance.1d). State l is in a region called the sub-cooled region because the state temperature is lower than the boiling temperature for this pressure at 101. this means that it is at the lowest temperature at which. Heat is added at constant pressure of 101. The two lines merge at a point c called the critical point.1 be the system.4.Properties of Thermodynamic Substances 33 Primary thermodynamic practical interest is in situations involving the liquid.3 kPa. Figure 2. Connect the locus of point f and the locus of point g. As more heat is added. Any more heat addition to the system results in temperature rises over the boiling temperature (point s. Figure 2. for this pressure. respectively.2.

. Saturated liquid line C Critical point p = 3. T-v diagram As illustrated in Figure 2. In order to define a state in the saturated mixture region.2.3.3. It is important to realize that at least two independent intensive properties are needed to determine the state of a pure substance.3.2. However.2. it is possible to locate a state (point) of water by knowing the temperature and pressure if the state is in the sub-cooled liquid or superheated vapor region.4. saturated mixture region and superheated region separated by the two saturated lines. T-v diagram Referring to Figure 2. it is not possible to locate a state (point) of water by knowing the temperature and pressure if the state is in the saturated mixture region. the liquid could be heated from a low temperature to a high temperature without a phase transition occuring. another property such as quality is required so that the fraction of the vapor in the mixture would be known. Figure 2. Figure 2.34 Chih Wu Critical C point Compressed liquid region f Saturated liquid-vapor mixture region Superheated vapor region g Volume V A T-v diagram illustrating three regions included in the steam tables. In the saturated mixture region.3 kPa Saturated vapor line Volume v The T-v diagram for water at various pressures.2 MPa p = 800 kPa p = 101.2. there are three regions called sub-cooled (or compressed) liquid region. At pressures higher than the critical pressure. temperature and pressure are not independent.

Figure 2. The relationships among thermodynamic properties of the working substance at an equilibrium state are called equations of state. and sublimation (solid and vapor) line on the diagram.5. boiling (vapor and liquid) line.2. The results are plotted on a p-T diagram.2. These equations in general are rather complicated and cumbersome to handle.5. There are three twophase lines called freezing (solid and liquid) line. Fortunately. . Mollier steam property diagram Similar experiments can be done for solid-liquid transition and solid-vapor transition for a pure substance. the triple point. There are three phase (solid. tables and charts for many substances are available. This point is called triple point.2. liquid and vapor) regions separated by the three lines. The three lines intersect at a point where all three phases can coexist. Three phase p-T diagram Figure 2. and the critical point.6.Properties of Thermodynamic Substances 35 Fusion line Liquid Critical point Melting Evaporation Evaporation line Solid Triple point Sublimation Sublimation line Temperature T Vapor A p-T diagram showing phase equilbrium lines. It certainly would be convenient if tables or charts existed listing the values of the thermodynamic functions. Figure 2.

hg-hf). and sfg (difference between specific entropy of saturated vapor and specific entropy of saturated liquid. ug (specific internal energy of saturated vapor). vfg (difference between specific volume of saturated vapor and specific volume of saturated liquid.2. sf (specific entropy of saturated liquid). vg-vf).1 Mpa and a quality of 0. Typically.3 kJ/[kg(K)]. Notice that specific volume and internal energy values can not be read directly from the Mollier steam diagram. vg (specific volume of saturated vapor). steam saturation table Example 2. h (specific enthalpy).6).9. these tables give list values for p (pressure). ufg (difference between specific internal energy of saturated vapor and specific internal energy of saturated liquid. . hfg (difference between specific enthalpy of saturated vapor and specific enthalpy of saturated liquid.55 kJ/[kg(K)]. sg (specific entropy of saturated vapor). However. and (B) h=3490 kJ/kg and s=8. and (B) 0. uf (specific internal energy of saturated liquid).36 Chih Wu Thermodynamic data properties may be presented in the form of diagrams such as Mollier steam diagram (Figure 2. superheated vapor tables. ug-uf). 3 kg of water is contained in a tank at (A) 0. the conventional way of presenting such data is in the form of saturation (saturated mixture) tables. and compressed liquid tables.2. v (specific volume).1. vf (specific volume of saturated liquid).1. The Mollier diagram is a h-s diagram with constant pressure. Solution: Mollier steam property diagram reading gives: (A) h=2450 kJ/kg and s=6. constant temperature and constant quality lines. sg-sf). u (specific internal energy).2. hf (specific enthalpy of saturated liquid). T (temperature). Table 2.5 Mpa and 500ºC. Determine the specific enthalpy and specific entropy of the water. s (specific entropy). hg (specific enthalpy of saturated vapor).

2.2. Compressed or sub-cooled liquid water table is also available.2. (2. u.7) (2. However. . Notice that Table 2.Properties of Thermodynamic Substances 37 Notice that the compressed liquid table for refrigerants is usually not available.1 is based on boiling pressure.2. h and s are expressed in terms of the quality or called dryness (x) by the following equations: v= (1-x)vf + xvg = vf + xvfg u= (1-x)uf + xug = uf + xufg h= (1-x)hf + xhg = hf + xhfg and s= (1-x)sf + xsg = sf + xsfg (2.3)]. It can be written as x = (v-vf)/vfg x = (u-uf)/ufg x = (h-hf)/hfg and x = (s-sf)/sfg (2.2) and superheated vapor table (Table2.2.3) are given in the following tables. the following approximate equations are used to calculate v.1).2.2.2.1 is based on boiling temperature and Table 2.8) (2. (2.1 and Table 2.2.2.2 are the same.2. This property does not apply to superheated vapor nor compressed liquid regions.2) (2.2.9) (2. v.2.10) Parts of the typical steam saturation tables (Table 2.11) (2.2. h and u at a state with given pressure and temperature in the compressed liquid region. In the absence of compressed liquid table. except that Table2.2.1) (2.5) (2.2.3) In the saturation mixture region.2.2.2. v=vf at the state temperature u=uf at the state temperature h=hf at the state temperature+vf(p-pf) (2.2.6) The quality (dryness) of the mixture is only defined in the mixture region.2) and (2. the compressed or sub-cooled liquid water table is not very useful because it is large and can be replaced by a set of equations [Eq.4) (2.1 and Table 2.2.

Steam saturation property table reading gives: T=99.36 kJ/kg.7 kJ/kg and s= sf + xsfg =1.5247 m3/kg u= uf + xufg =417.7) yields v=(1-x) vf + xvg = (0.001043+ (0. sf=1.2. and sg=7. and (2. (2. uf=417.1 Mpa (1 Bar) and a quality of 0.6).0 kJ/kg. ufg=2088.9)1.3026 kJ/[kg(K)].63ºC. Solution: Quality is only defined in the saturated mixture region.0 =2449. steam saturation table Example 2.2 kJ/kg h= hf + xhfg =417. hf=417. Eqs.36+(0.2. (2.1)0. (2.38 Chih Wu Table 2.3026+ (0.46+ (0.7 kJ/kg. hfg=2258.7 =2297.2.9)6. ug=2506. specific volume. Determine the temperature.2.7537 kJ/[kg(K)] . specific internal energy.0568 =6.9.2. vf=0.6940 =1.0568 kJ/[kg(K)].9)2088.4). 8 kg of water is contained in a tank at 0.6940 m3/kg.2.2. specific enthalpy and specific entropy of the water.9)2258.001043 m3/kg.3594 kJ/[kg(K)]. vg=1. sfg=6.5).1kJ/kg.2.46 kJ/kg.

5308 kJ/[kg(K)]. Solution: If one is not sure where the state is.001 m3/kg.3. At 120ºC.985 Mpa). specific volume. 1 cm3/g=0. 8 kg of water is contained in a tank at 0. the corresponding boiling temperature is 81. s in kJ/[(K)kg]. specific internal energy. 8 kg of water is contained in a tank at 10 Mpa (100 Bar) and 120ºC. the state is in the compressed liquid . p in bars.3. the state is in the superheated vapor region. specific enthalpy and specific entropy of the water. h =3105. specific volume.33ºC. 39 Example 2.4. Example 2. h and u in kJ/kg. Since the given state temperature (320ºC) is higher than 81. the corresponding boiling pressure is 0.7 kJ/kg. Steam superheated vapor property table reading gives: v =0. Since the given state pressure (10 Mpa) is higher than 1.2. specific enthalpy and specific entropy of the water.2. always check first at the saturation mixture region. Determine the temperature. 1 bar=102 kPa.33ºC.2.985 Mpa.1985 Bar (1. u =2834. and s =7.5416 m3/kg. steam superheated vapor table Properties of water – Superheated table (SI units) v in cm3/g.5 Mpa.5 Mpa (5 Bar) and 320ºC. always check first at the saturation mixture region. Determine the temperature.. At 0.6 kJ/kg.Properties of Thermodynamic Substances Table 2. specific internal energy. Solution: If one is not sure where the state is.

reading gives: v = 0. h and u at a state with given pressure and temperature in the compressed liquid region.2.71 kJ/kg.5.1).2. But it makes no difference.5 kJ/[(kg)K]. Display results . Among the nine substances listed on the menu. Example 2. 3. we take the following steps: 1. u =503. Then. v=vf at the state temperature =0. methane. Note: In case there is no compressed liquid property table available. To solve this problem by CyclePad. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) substance is water.001061 m3/kg u=uf at the state temperature =504. and s =1. It is important for users to become familiar with the use of CyclePad.1) are used to find the approximate values of v. Among the most popular used pure working substances in thermodynamic application are refrigerants and water. and (b) pressure is 10 MPa and sp. volume is 0. (B) 10 kPa and 12ºC.0037 m3/kg.2. h.70 kJ/kg It should be pointed out that the values of u.23ºC). Eqs. (B) Switch to analysis mode. and s in all tables are not absolute values. (A) 10 Mpa and 0. (2. 2.49 kJ/kg h=hf at the state temperature =504. Each is the difference between the value at any state and the value of the respective property at a reference state.2. or a superheated vapor. There are nine thermodynamic working substances listed on the menu of CyclePad. Using saturation table at 120ºC. refrigerant 134a. (2.2.5276 kJ/[kg(K)]. and (F) 1 Mpa and x=0. The available software CyclePad saves users time and energy to spend on more creative activities. h and s. Searching property values from the tables is tedious and long.0037 m3 /kg. Water compressed liquid property table is not needed. h =503.0010603 m3/kg. a saturated mixture.1) and (2. (E) 120ºC and 7. refrigerant 22. Find the properties and determine whether water at each of the following states is a compressed liquid. refrigerant 12. since we are only interested in changes of u. ammonia. (D) 200 kPa and 132ºC.5 kJ/kg.7629. and water are pure substances. Build (A) Take a BEGIN and an END from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them.1 is 120. (C) 1 Mpa and 192ºC.40 Chih Wu region. one can use the saturated mixture property table to locate temperature at 120ºC (the nearest value on Table 2.

u=2151 kJ/kg. (F) saturated mixture.1803 kJ/[(kg)K]. h=1586 kJ/kg. T=179. s=7.2. (C) 20 psia and 600ºF. s=0.Properties of Thermodynamic Substances 41 Figure E2.. and (F) 2000 psia and 600ºF. we take the following steps: . (E) superheated vapor (gas).5a. (A) 248ºF and x=0.37 kJ/kg.5b.9153 m3/kg. Find the properties and determine whether water at each of the following states is a compressed liquid.1486 m3/kg. (B) compressed liquid.74. T=311ºC. h=2717 kJ/kg. Example 2. or a superheated vapor.19 kJ/[(kg)K]. v=0.8ºF.92 kPa.9ºC. Water property relationships Figure E2. v=0.2. Water property relationships The answers are: (A) saturated mixture.6. u=1549 kJ/kg.. u=2607 kJ/kg. v=0. (B) 145 psia and h=1000 Btu/lbm. v=0. (C) compressed liquid. (D) superheated vapor (gas). s=3.65 kJ/[(kg)K]. v=0. (E) 145 psia and 355.8 Btu/[lbm(R)].2. (D) 248ºF and s=1.9153 m3/kg.36 kJ/kg. a saturated mixture. h=2808 kJ/kg. s=6. h=50. h=2731 kJ/kg. x=0.1356. To solve this problem by CyclePad. u=2548 kJ/kg.2014 m3/kg.67 kJ/[(kg)K]. u=50.0010 m3/kg. u=2537 kJ/kg. h=2300 kJ/kg. p=94.

36 Btu/[lbm(R)]. h=1000 Btu/lbm. (E) saturated mixture. v=10. h=917.7758. (F) compressed liquid.8086 Btu/[lbm(R)]. s=1.87 ft3/lbm.0233 ft3/lbm.58 ft3/lbm.36 Btu/[lbm(R)].33 Btu/[lbm(R)].2.2. v=0. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) substance is water. s=0. Find the properties and determine whether Refrigerant-134A at each of the following states is a compressed liquid. Build (A) Take a BEGIN and an END from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them.18 ft3/lbm.1 Btu/lbm. or a superheated vapor.1 Btu/lbm. (D) superheated vapor (gas). To solve this problem by CyclePad. h=917.36 Btu/[lbm(R)]. 2. and (b) temperature is 248ºF and phase is saturated with x=0. s=1. s=1. Water property relationships Example 2.33 Btu/[lbm(R)]. v=2. (B) 1000 kPa and h=450 kJ/kg.9 Btu/lbm. (C) superheated vapor (gas). u=935.42 ft3/lbm. u=935. a saturated mixture. (B) Switch to analysis mode. v=35.0 Btu/lbm. h=1168 Btu/lbm. (A) 20ºC and x=0. 3. Figure E2. u=605.3 Btu/lbm. x=0. s=1. h=614.6. and (C) 0. v=34. v=2.42 ft3/lbm.42 Chih Wu 1.15 Mpa and 40ºC. u=1218 Btu/lbm. p=12.97 psia.79 psia. Display results The answers are: (A) saturated mixture. u=860. s=1. u=1091 Btu/lbm.4 Btu/lbm. T=355. we take the following steps: .7758.3 Btu/lbm. (B) saturated mixture.7. x=0.74.74.8 ºF. p=28.

u=411.2. 3. u=1406 kJ/kg. (B) Switch to analysis mode. (C) superheated vapor (gas). s=6. T=24.74.4 kJ/kg. . s=1. h=362. u=1150 kJ/kg. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) substance is ammonia .01 m3/kg. u=448.6 kJ/kg. and (b) T=20ºC. v=0.2.22 kJ/[(kg)K]. (A) 20ºC and x=0. (B) superheated vapor (gas). and (C) 0. Build (A) Take a BEGIN and an END from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them. a saturated mixture. s=1.7. s=4. x=0.. v=0. and (b) T=20ºC.74. u=426. v=1. Display results The answers are: (A) saturated mixture. u=362. v=0.4 kJ/kg. (B) Switch to analysis mode. (C) superheated vapor (gas).03 kJ/[(kg)K].15 Mpa and 40ºC. 2.89ºC.2 kPa. we take the following steps: 1.74. Display results The answers are: (A) saturated mixture.1109 m3/kg. 3. 2. Refrigerant-134A property relationships Example 2.Properties of Thermodynamic Substances 43 1. s=1.79ºC. p=857.0182 m3/kg. h=1152 kJ/kg.1659 m3/kg. p=572. saturated mixture phase and x=0.8. Build (A) Take a BEGIN and an END from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them.1306.56 kJ/[(kg)K].0269 m3/kg. h=436. or a superheated vapor. saturated mixture phase and x=0. v=0.81 kJ/[(kg)K]. v=0. (B) saturated mixture.0 kJ/kg.8 kPa. Find the properties and determine whether ammonia at each of the following states is a compressed liquid. To solve this problem by CyclePad.5 kJ/kg. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) substance is Refrigerant-134A. T=67.3 kJ/kg. Figure E2. (B) 1000 kPa and h=450 kJ/kg. h=1557 kJ/kg.0240 m3/kg.91 kJ/[(kg)K].

74. u=68.7331 kJ/[(kg)K]. v=0. p=909. (C) superheated vapor (gas).2588 kJ/[(kg)K].44 Chih Wu Figure E2. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) substance is Refrigerant-22. 2.5 kJ/kg.9.2. To solve this problem by CyclePad. (B) Switch to analysis mode.0 m3/kg.9 kPa. s=0. v=0. Display results The answers are: (A) saturated mixture. (A) 20ºC and x=0. and (C) 0. saturated mixture phase and x=0. s=1.2. or a superheated vapor.7 kJ/kg.1970 m3/kg. a saturated mixture.9 kJ/kg. s=0.15 Mpa and 40ºC. Ammonia property relationships Example 2. Find the properties and determine whether Refrigerant-22 at each of the following states is a compressed liquid. u=253. (B) compressed liquid. Refrigerant-22 property relationships . 3.2.67 kJ/kg. (B) 1000 kPa and 20ºC. v=0. Build (A) Take a BEGIN and an END from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them.8. h=283. Figure E2. h=207.195 m3/kg. and (b) T=20ºC.9 kJ/kg.15 kJ/[(kg)K]. we take the following steps: 1.74.9. u=206.

or a superheated vapor. (C) superheated vapor (gas). Draw a constant pressure heating process from compressed liquid region to superheated vapor region on a T-v phase diagram for a pure substance. Refrigerant-12 property relationships Homework 2.42 Btu/lbm. (B) 60 psia and v=0. Find the properties and determine whether Refrigerant-12 at each of the following states is a compressed liquid. p=72.8 Btu/lbm.38 Btu/lbm. To solve this problem by CyclePad. h=46. superheated vapor region. 4. Build (A) Take a BEGIN and an END from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them. Pure substances 1. h=67.Properties of Thermodynamic Substances 45 Example 2. h=92.57 ºF. and saturated vapor line on a T-v phase diagram for a pure substance.74. 3. u=83.2.10. and (C) 20 psia and 100ºF. a saturated mixture.74 Btu/lbm. s=0.47 psia.50 ft3/lbm. u=43. 5. 2. (A) 60ºF and x=0. Figure E2.3 ft3/lbm. s=0.2010 Btu/[lbm(R)].74.4366. and (b) temperature is 60ºF and phase is saturated with x=0.76 Btu/lbm. . Show the critical point. Display results The answers are: (A) saturated mixture. T=48. 3. compressed liquid region.134 Btu/[lbm(R)]. What is a pure substance? How many independent intensive properties does a pure substance have? What is a phase? State the difference between a gas and a vapor. u=61. v=0.4164 ft3/lbm. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) substance is water. saturated liquid line.2.79 Btu/lbm. 2. (B) saturated mixture.10. x=0. saturated mixture region.2. (B) Switch to analysis mode. we take the following steps: 1. v=2.

ρ= (1-x)ρf + x ρg = ρf + x ρfg? 23. Why are compressed liquid states of many pure substances not tabulated? 26. What is quality and what is moisture content of a saturated mixture of water? Is quality defined in the compressed liquid region? 9. Define the subscripts f and g. (C) The state of a system is determined by pressure and temperature in the saturated mixture region. Are the temperature and pressure dependent properties in the saturated mixture region? 11. does water expand or contract upon melting? 18. (B) The state of a system is determined by pressure and temperature in the superheated region. how do you find the specific volume of the compressed liquid by given the pressure and temperature of the state? 28. Why water boils at lower temperature on the mountain than at sea level? As the saturation pressure is increased. Can liquid and vapor water be in equilibrium at 20 psia and 300ºF? 29. What happens when a saturated vapor is compressed adiabatically? 16. Can u ever be larger than h? 31. . What is the difference between saturated liquid and compressed liquid? 8. Why do we arbitrarily select the internal energy value of a pure substance to be zero at a reference state? Is absolute value or relative value of the internal energy more important in application? Why? 24. How is this term related to quality? 21. Do the liquid and vapor in a saturated mixture of the same pure substance have the same pressure and temperature? 19. In the absence of compressed liquid state tables. What happens when a saturated liquid is heated at constant volume? 15. What happens when a saturated vapor is heated at constant pressure? 13. (D) The state of a system is determined by pressure and temperature in the subcooled region. does the saturation temperature increase? 10. In the absence of compressed liquid state tables.46 Chih Wu 6. Why are saturated mixture states simpler to tabulate than superheated vapor states? 25. ug and ufg? 30. Is water a pure substance? Why? 7. indicate whether the following statements are true or false: (A) The state of a system is determined by pressure alone. Is it true that the density of a saturated mixture follows the equation. What is meant by the critical point? 22. Define the term moisture content. What happens when a saturated liquid is expanded adiabatically? 17. For a system containing H2O in thermodynamic equilibrium. Under what conditions are pressure and temperature dependent rather than independent properties of a pure substance? 12. how do you find the internal energy of the compressed liquid by given the pressure and temperature of the state? 27. What happens when a saturated liquid is cooled at constant pressure? 14. What are uf. To what states do these subscripts refer? 20. Ice blocks sink in liquid water. What is “latent heat of vaporization”? What properties are related to latent heat of vaporization? 32.

compressed liquid).84 psia.93 ft3/lbm.5342 m3/kg.2ºF. G(60. 2390 kJ/kg)). 0.4489).07ºC. ANSWER: 609. 1243 Btu/lbm.68.28 m3/kg. E(162.63ºC. 0.2ºC.9ºC. 0. 34. Steam has an entropy of 1. Complete the following table for water using CyclePad: State T(ºF) p(psia) v(ft3/lbm) h(Btu/lbm) x(%) A 100 1000 B 100 2 C 500 400 D 270 43 E 5 87 F 20 1100 G 100 2 H 600 600 ANSWER: A(0. 0. 35. 1136 kJ/kg. (G) When two phases exist the state is determined by pressure and temperature.34 ft3/lbm. F(99.9414). G(0.Properties of Thermodynamic Substances 47 33.9ºF. (F) When two phases exist the state is determined by pressure alone. 3267 kJ/kg. 0.1289 Btu/lbm.7 Btu/lbm. 697. 37. 314. D(0.2466.9639 ft3/lbm. 639. 0.02 Btu/lbm.7 Btu/lbm).8991). 2529 kJ/kg). H(0. 7. superheated vapor). (E) Compressed liquid exists in two phases. 1001 Btu/lbm).9503 psia. superheated vapor).9515 ft3/lbm. B(120.9ºC.8859 m3/kg. (H) Two properties determine a state. quality and moisture content of the steam. C(1. How do you show a constant-temperature process in the saturated mixture region on the Mollier diagram? Complete the following table for water using CyclePad: u(kJ/kg) x(%) State T(ºC) p(kPa) v(m3/kg) A 50 5 B 200 100 C 200 400 D 600 6000 E 500 50 F 100 2000 G 20 97 ANSWER: A(2.35 kPa. D(41. 2656 kJ/kg. How is an isentropic (constant entropy) process shown on a Mollier diagram? How is a throttling (constant enthalpy) process shown on a Mollier diagram? There is no constant-temperature line in the saturated mixture region on the Mollier diagram.9 ºF. Steam at a pressure of 600 psia has an enthalpy value of 1295 Btu/lbm. C(0. 0. Determine the temperature and specific volume of the steam. 1600 kJ/kg).11 ft3/lbm.4150).1880 m3/kg. B(327.7534.325 Btu/lbm(R) at 100 psia.42 m3/kg.8 ft3/lbm. E(151.0653 m3/kg. superheated vapor). . 0. 1. superheated vapor).7579). ANSWER: 327. 0. 36. Determine the temperature. 64. 0. 38. 4.2ºF.0161ft3/lbm. 18.45 ft3/lbm. The principal coordinates of the Mollier diagram are h (enthalpy) and s (entropy). F(227.

0167 ft3/lbm. 1167 Btu/lbm. 8{0.6874 Btu/[lbm(ºF).3ºF. 0.3 psia.1 Btu/lbm. 1. 1130 Btu/lbm. State p T v u h s x psia ºF ft3/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm(R) % 1 4 1. 180. 483. 1. compressed liquid}. 0.1ºF. 1. 1.88 ft3/lbm. 4{247.8 Btu/lbm. . 1184 Btu/lbm.95 ft3/lbm. 4{1. 1.34 Btu/[lbm(ºF)].41 ANSWER: 1{152.3ºF. 3{341.97 psia.15 Btu/[lbm(ºF)]}.3ºF. Complete the following steam table using CyclePad. 9{1542 psia.9974}. 1334 Btu/lbm. 3{6. 1. 1119 Btu/lbm.9620]}.3ºF. 1021 Btu/lbm.86 ft3/lbm. 8{204. 0. 605.9 6 600 1100 7 550 1300 8 500 3 9 600 1150 10 80 2. 9{66. 7{853. 1220 Btu/lbm. 1162 Btu/lbm. 435.8086 Btu/[lbm(ºF)].1ºF. 0.68 Btu/[lbm(ºF)]. 40. 5{28. 22.62 Btu/[lbm(ºF)]}.31 ft3/lbm. 1. 1268 Btu/lbm. 0. superheated vapor}.62 psia. 487. 827.47 ft3/lbm.1 psia. 180.49 ft3/lbm. 7{9. 614 Btu/lbm.43 Btu/[lbm(ºF)]}. 1. 4. 853. 1089 Btu/lbm. 1512 Btu/lbm.0233 ft3/lbm. 87. 451.6638 ft3/lbm. 1024 Btu/lbm.70 Btu/[lbm(ºF)].7 psia. 0. 1.41 Btu/[lbm(ºF)]}. 2{320. 0.72 Btu/[lbm(ºF)]. 1357 Btu/lbm.54 ft3/lbm. State p T v u h s x psia ºF ft3/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm(R) % 1 212 0 2 90 60 3 120 910 4 800 1000 5 2000 600 6 30 13.6 Btu/lbm.7 Btu/lbm.6769 Btu/[lbm(ºF)]}. 1439 Btu/lbm. 1103 Btu/lbm.68}.48 Chih Wu 39. 1. superheated vapor}.6 Btu/lbm. 1.0204 ft3/lbm. 1. 1026 Btu/lbm. 1214 Btu/lbm. 1. 10{312.8ºF. 6{486. 5{0.76 Btu/[lbm(ºF)]. 1086 Btu/lbm.8 Btu/lbm.72 7 50 370 8 1000 500 9 300 20 10 80 100 ANSWER: 1{14. Complete the following steam table using CyclePad. superheated vapor}. 778. 2. superheated vapor}.8 Btu/lbm. 1329 Btu/lbm.3ºF.24 Btu/[lbm(ºF)]. 1.4 Btu/lbm. compressed liquid}. 954.8 2 80 82 3 100 600 4 400 90 5 600 1.3121 Btu/[lbm(ºF)]}.9 Btu/lbm.67 Btu/[lbm(ºF)]. 2{312.68 ft3/lbm. 0. 0. 5.2 Btu/lbm.23 ft3/lbm. superheated vapor}. 1.24 ft3/lbm.7 Btu/lbm.63 Btu/[lbm(ºF)].06 ft3/lbm. superheated vapor}. 2.8583}. 0. 1218 Btu/lbm.44 ft3/lbm. 1042 Btu/lbm. 6{250.

19 Btu/lbm. 0.6998 3 1250 0 4 250 86.49ºC. 0}. 0. 83.78 Btu/lbm.2785}. 2{145.42 Btu/lbm. 282.6998 kJ/[kg(ºC)]. 213.48ºF. 0. 2{59.09 ANSWER: 1{1. superheated vapor}.26ºF.06 kJ/kg. 242. 110. 104. 0. 4{20. State p T v u h s x psia ºF ft3/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm(R) % 1 40 100 2 200 0.3077 kJ/[kg(ºC)].9 kJ/kg.89 Btu/lbm.3ºF.9584 3 1250 0 4 250 83.2 Btu/lbm.7 Btu/lbm.1ºF.4384}. Complete the following R-22 table using CyclePad. 3{123.41 Btu/lbm.8 kJ/kg.2368 ft3/lbm.5 kJ/kg. State p T v u h s x 3 kPa ºC m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg(K) % 1 250 100 2 1250 0.3204 ft3/lbm.3ºF.08 kJ/kg. 0. 1076 Btu/lbm. 77. 0.32 Btu/[lbm(ºF)]. 2{138. 0.0260 m3/kg. 122.64ºC. 0. 0.49ºC. 0. 255. 82. 641. 1.64ºC. 44. 1}.1672 3 180 0 4 36 36.36}. 1}.86 Btu/lbm. 0. 0}.2278 Btu/[lbm(ºF)]. 91. 1.9ºC. 83.4ºF. 0.26ºF.0785 Btu/[lbm(ºF)]. 0.6 Btu/lbm.48 kJ/kg. 0.14 Btu/lbm.84 kJ/kg.0147 m3/kg.0133 ft3/lbm. 0. 219. 1}.3611}. 0. 4{19. 1.3 Btu/lbm. 0. 10{312. 0. superheated vapor}.0250 m3/kg.Properties of Thermodynamic Substances 49 41. 167. 42.3 kJ/kg.4023 ft3/lbm. 0.0731 Btu/[lbm(ºF)]. 43.86 ANSWER: 1{20. 0. State p T v u h s x 3 psia ºF ft /lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm(R) % 1 36 100 2 180 0.10 ft3/lbm. Complete the following R-12 table using CyclePad.0221 m3/kg. 3{123. 0.2278 3 200 0 4 40 38.03 kJ/kg. Complete the following R-22 table using CyclePad.34 ft3/lbm.2 kJ/kg.78ºC.5 kJ/kg.3298 kJ/[kg(ºC)]. 0. 79.0680 m3/kg. 0}. superheated vapor}. 0. 0.0913 m3/kg. 94. 36. 0. 36.000857 m3/kg. 85.9705}.1672 Btu/[lbm(ºF)].06 ANSWER: 1{20.3071 kJ/[kg(ºC)]. 0.00083 m3/kg. 72. 34. 0. 86.55 ANSWER: 1{-19. State p T v u h s x kPa ºC m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg(K) % 1 250 100 2 1250 0.9584 kJ/[kg(ºC)].23ºC.9 kJ/kg. 79.4 Btu/lbm.9655 Btu/[lbm(ºF)]. 0. 2{138.9ºC. . 1}.3327 kJ/[kg(ºC)]. 195. 3{31.4 kJ/kg.2603 ft3/lbm.55 kJ/kg. Complete the following R-12 table using CyclePad. 4{20. 0. 184. 677.73 Btu/lbm.

33 3 150 0 4 30 130. 3{39. 4{-16.6 kJ/kg. 3{96. 110. superheated vapor}.21 kJ/[kg(ºC)].0773 Btu/[lbm(ºF)]. 0.2 Btu/lbm. 255. 1.9 kJ/kg.6 kJ/kg. 1}.6 kJ/kg.1573 m3/kg. 404. 312. 36. .0875 m3/kg. 0. 48.48ºF. 168. 174. 0. State p T v u h s x psia ºF ft3/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm(R) % 1 30 100 2 150 0. 425.2911 Btu/[lbm(ºF)]. Complete the following R-134a table using CyclePad. 2{115.8 Btu/lbm. 47. 0.23ºC.1002 m3/kg.2851 Btu/[lbm(ºF)]. 255. superheated vapor}. 5. 1655 kJ/kg.7 kJ/kg. Complete the following ammonia table using CyclePad.9 ANSWER: 1{-16. 4{1. 0}.99ºC.6 kJ/kg. 4{15. 35.2908}. 37. 1303 kJ/kg.38ºC.1ºF. 293. 255. 1}. 4{-10.1 kJ/kg. 0.3361}.5 kJ/kg.1584}. State p T v u h s x psia ºF ft3/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm(R) % 1 30 100 2 150 1.0139 ft3/lbm. 0. 2{97.7 Btu/lbm. 110.57 Btu/lbm. 0.19 kJ/[kg(ºC)]. 0. 0.57 kJ/[kg(ºC)]. superheated vapor}.3 45. 110. 392. 0}.67ºC. State p T v u h s x kPa ºC m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg(K) % 1 220 100 2 1100 5. Complete the following ammonia table using CyclePad.5445 m3/kg. 2{44.34ºC.000871 m3/kg. 0. 0. 0. 183. 1. 0.57 3 1100 0 4 220 312.24 kJ/[kg(ºC)].3287 ft3/lbm.50 Chih Wu superheated vapor}. 1. State p T v u h s x kPa ºC m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg(K) % 1 200 100 2 1000 1. 311. 392. 0. 0. 3{28. 168. 46.0ºF.3978 ft3/lbm.23ºC.1 kJ/kg. 1. 3{105. 0.0836 Btu/[lbm(ºF)]. 0.4136 Btu/[lbm(ºF)]. 0}.03ºC.7 ANSWER: 1{15. 0}. 1.67ºC.0342 m3/kg. 1422 kJ/kg. 0.0212 m3/kg. Complete the following R-134a table using CyclePad.7 Btu/lbm.8 Btu/lbm.08ºF.6 ANSWER: 1{-10.09 Btu/lbm.08ºF.17 kJ/[kg(ºC)].0 kJ/kg.73 kJ/[kg(ºC)].3409}. 1. 0. 1483 kJ/kg.0140 ft3/lbm.17 Btu/lbm.4136 3 150 0 4 30 110.0017 m3/kg. 1}.22ºF.2 Btu/lbm.7 Btu/lbm. 0. 0.73 3 1000 0 4 200 255.56 ft3/lbm. 0.5388 ft3/lbm.

0. 0}. -33.23 kJ/[kg(ºC)]. 2{-95. 1. 0}. 1}. 366. 50.98 Btu/lbm.7ºC. 1}. State p T v u h s x 3 psia ºF ft /lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm Btu/lbm(R) % 1 60 100 2 300 1. 1.0 Btu/lbm. 0. 559. 3{78. 129.2604}.8 kJ/kg.29 Btu/lbm. -108.55 Btu/lbm.8 E 290 2. 0. 3{-159. 0. 4{-146.23 ft3/lbm. 0. -30.6ºF.2878 Btu/[lbm(ºF)]. 0.33 3 300 0 4 60 130.66 ft3/lbm.18ºF. 82. -112. -38. superheated vapor}.Properties of Thermodynamic Substances 51 ANSWER: 1{-0.6 kJ/kg. State p T v u h s x 3 kPa ºC m /kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg(K) % 1 300 100 2 1500 9. 2{-79.7 Btu/lbm. 0.5 kJ/kg.0502 ft3/lbm.2 Btu/lbm.0554 m3/kg.3 ANSWER: 1{-222.17 Btu/[lbm(ºF)].3 Btu/lbm.3 ANSWER: 1{-146.17 kJ/[kg(ºC)].0ºF. 9. superheated vapor}. 122. Complete the following table for water: u(Btu/lbm) x(%) State T(ºF) p(psia) v(ft3/lbm) A 100 0.36 kJ/[kg(ºC)].8 Btu/lbm. Complete the following methane table using CyclePad.44 ft3/lbm. 49.1495 H 1000 0.3945 I 320 22. 6.21ºC. 0}.3056}. 186.01613 B 200 50 C 110 2000 D 60 1140.33 Btu/[lbm(ºF)].0266 ft3/lbm. 710.0594 m3/kg. 2.3ºF. 0. 9.45 ft3/lbm.997 F 100 500 G 640 0. 2.0 L 440 90 M 35 4000 N 400 8000 O 212 449.6ºC. 161.8ºF. superheated vapor}.6 Btu/lbm. 3{114. 1. -124. 636. 4{-0. 246. 0.0029 m3/kg.3ºF. 6.0 kJ/kg. 1}.5475ºF.5 Btu/lbm.7 kJ/kg.17 3 1500 0 4 300 -108. 0.98 J 420 468. 0.5475ºF. 51.6ºC.7729 ft3/lbm.1552}. Complete the following methane table using CyclePad.8 Btu/lbm.0 Btu/lbm. 2.7080 ft3/lbm.34 Btu/lbm.3 Btu/lbm. 366. 1. 2{204. 108. 161. 130.9 kJ/kg. 4{-222.58 Btu/[lbm(ºF)].54 Btu/[lbm(ºF)].2058 m3/kg. 0.2716 Btu/[lbm(ºF)].3 kJ/kg.3 . 0. 610.1 K 212 1077.

Complete the following table for water: x(%) State T(ºC) p(kPa) v(m3/kg) u(kJ/kg) 1 100 500 2 75 4000 3 3000 1164.4350 F 125 1000 G 480 565.411 critical point B 350 1031 C 470 40 D 35 4200 E 1500 0.9 V 320 20 W 60 1156 X 500 100 Y 550 939. Complete the following table for water: State T(ºF) p(psia) v(ft3/lbm) u(Btu/lbm) x(%) A 600 1.4 Z 45 1000 52.1703 6 60 5000 7 155 0.7 4 1000 50 5 100 0.5 H 212 100 I 560 0.5108 Q 1000 1153.7 R 550 1174.6 S 510 0.001096 8 22000 0. Complete the following table for R-134a: u(kJ/kg) x(%) State T(ºC) p(kPa) v(m3/kg) 11 50 800 12 0 10 13 -50 300 14 5 293.05863 53.002952 9 135 100 10 25 3169 54.52 Chih Wu P 530 0.7 15 20 0.3774 T 300 2000 U 670 720.01139 .

1103 Btu/lbm. steam has a specific volume of 101.8 Mpa. A tank whose volume is unknown is divided into two parts by a partition. Draw the process on a T-v diagram. Will the liquid level inside eventually rise to the top or drop to the bottom of the tank? The process is a constant volume process. 60. Will the liquid level inside eventually rise to the top or drop to the bottom of the tank? The process is a constant volume process. steam has a specific volume of 30 ft3/lbm. Water in a 5 ft container is at 40ºF and 16 psia. ANSWER: superheated vapor. At a vacuum of 2 psia. internal energy and entropy of the water. Heat is removed from a superheated steam vapor at constant volume until liquid just begins to form. 61. One side of the tank contains 1-m3 of R-134a that is saturated liquid at 0. internal energy and enthalpy of the steam at this state. What is the total mass and quality of ammonia in the tank? ANSWER: mf=63.81 m3. A rigid tank with a volume of 0. and the volume of the tank. V=2. It is known that the specific volume of ammonia at critical point is 0.81 Btu/(ºF). Complete the following table for ammonia: State T(ºC) p(kPa) v(m3/kg) u(kJ/kg) x(%) 16 10 50 17 0 2.7 psia. ANSWER: mf=11. ANSWER: superheated vapor. mg=3.08 m3 contains 1 kg of saturated mixture ammonia at 40ºC. ANSWER: 9990 Btu. ANSWER: 0.002 m3 contains 1 kg of saturated mixture ammonia at 40ºC.9-m3 saturated vapor of ammonia at 0ºC. 57. The ammonia temperature is increased to 50ºC. 63. mtotal=66.97 kg.11 kg.00426 m3/kg.9083 Btu/ºF. Determine the quality.9 Btu. Draw the process on a T-v diagram. 1599 Btu/lbm.4 19 20 0. Determine the mass. The tank is now slowly heated. 0. Show this process on a p-v diagram.00426 m3/kg. Determine the quality.1501 lbm. It is known that the specific volume of ammonia at critical point is 0. 1818 Btu/lbm.1-m3 saturated liquid and 0. . and on a T-p diagram. The partion is now removed.7 ft3/lbm. and show the saturated liquid line and saturated vapor line as well as the critical point. Seven pounds of steam with a pressure of 30 psia and a specific volume of 25 ft3/lbm is flowing in a system. A 1-m3 rigid tank is filled with 0. Determine the total enthalpy of the steam associated with this state. 44. 62. specific internal energy and specific enthalpy of the steam at this state.Properties of Thermodynamic Substances 53 55. 171. 1184 Btu/lbm. 58.1492 20 -10 4000 3 56. determine the initial mass of R-134a in the tank. 59. and the refrigerant fills the entire tank.. while the other side is evacuated.647 18 50 510.86 kg. The ammonia temperature is increased to 50ºC. x=0. and show the saturated liquid line and saturated vapor line as well as the critical point.04644. The tank is now slowly heated. A rigid tank with a volume of 0.81 kg. If the final state of the refrigerant is 25ºC and 100 kPa. At 14. 64.

2) (2. Find the latent heat of vaporization of water at 14. Different gases have different gas constants.01 m3 of saturated liquid water and 0.986 Btu/lbmol(R)=1545 ft(lbf)/lbmol(R) Experiments by Joule show that internal energy (u) of an ideal gas is a function of temperature (T) only.54 Chih Wu 65. but we must know how much accuracy we sacrifice for the convenience. the pressure and temperature must be expressed as absolute quantities).7 psia.7 psia? 2. expressed in various units. What is the mass of the saturated liquid water at this state? What is the mass of the saturated vapor at this state? What is the quality of the water at this state? 68. The change of internal energy and change of enthalpy are given by the following equations: Δu=∫ cvdT and Δh=∫ cpdT (2.314 kJ/kmol(K)=1. the ratio pv/T has. At low densities. R is the gas constant of a gas. at what pressure should the valve be set to have a maximum temperature of 400ºF? 66. But high and low are relative terms. the same value of R (gas constant) for a specific gas. 100 kPa may be considered a high pressure. It is convenient to use such a simple equation of state. Steam at 50 psia is known to have an enthalpy of 1038 Btu/lbm.3. The vessel is now heated.3.1) . The value of Ru. For example. is Ru=8.7 psia? What is ufg of water at 14. if very good accuracy is required. and M is the molar mass.99 m3 of saturated vapor at 14. How close is a real gas to an ideal gas? This is an important question. A sealed rigid vessel has volume of 35 ft3 and contains 2 lbm of water at 200ºF. where Ru is the universal gas constant. What is its temperature? What is its internal energy? What is its specific volume? What is its entropy? 67.3. which has the same value for all gases. A tank having a volume of 1 m3 contains 0. by experiment. 100 kPa may be considered a low pressure. if good accuracy is not required. otherwise it is called a real gas. specific heat at constant pressure (cp) and specific heat at constant volume (cv) of an ideal gas must also each be a function of temperature (T) only. In general a gas with a low pressure and high temperature is considered to be an ideal gas. enthalpy (h=u+pv=u+RT). If a safety pressure valve is installed. What is hfg of water at 14. The relation pv=RT is known as the ideal-gas equation of state. IDEAL GASES An ideal gas is a hypothetical substance. On the other hand. The gas constant R is given by R=Ru/M. The mathematic definition of an ideal gas is that the ratio pv/T is exactly equal to R at all pressures and temperatures (note that when using this equation. Therefore.7 psia.

The internal energy change. Fortunately.3.R [ln(p2/p1)] (2.3.7) Air is the most important gas used in engineering thermodynamic application. over the range of pressures and temperatures we commonly deal with. The functional relationships denoting these variations are determined from experimental data. The gas constant (R).06855 Btu/[lbm(R)]=0. specific heats (cp and cv) and specific heat ratio (k) of air at room temperature have the following numerical values: Rair=0.4) (2.4 For air and many other gases. to calculate property changes of an ideal gas in a straight forward manner using above equations. If accuracy is desired.Properties of Thermodynamic Substances 55 The change of entropy is given by the following equations: Δs=∫ cvdT/T + R ∫ dv/v and Δs=∫ cpdT/T . (2. these equations must be used.718 kJ/[kg(K)] kair=1.3.3.171 Btu/[lbm(R)]=0. but long and tedious. enthalpy change and entropy change of the ideal gas from state 1 to state 2 can be simplified from Eqs. tables and charts for many ideal gases are available. as we get to high pressures.2).3.3) and (2.3.240 Btu/[lbm(R)]=1. (2.R ∫ dp/p (2.3) It is possible. It certainly would be convenient if tables or charts existed listing the values of the thermodynamic properties.3. In many applications an average value of specific heat is used (based on the temperature range under consideration) for quick results. deviations from ideal gas behavior may . The specific heats (both cp and cv) of a gas vary with temperature.3.6) (2. the assumption of ideal gas behavior yields a very excellent engineering approximation.3. (2.2870 kJ/[kg(K)] (cp)air=0.3704 [psia(ft3)]/[lbm(R)]=0.1).5) (2.3.004 kJ/[kg(K)] (cv)air=0.4) and expressed as: Δu=cv(ΔT) Δh=cp(ΔT) Δs=cv [ln(T2/T1)] + R [ln(v2/v1)] and Δs=cp [ln(T2/T1)] . However.8) (2.

148 m3/kg.1. In these cases. u. and v) of air at 100 kPa and 400 K using the ideal gas equation and air table. Air table reads (at 300 K). . and u=214.3.3. using the temperature as the argument has been made and is given by Keenan and Kaye. The tabulation of h. Find the properties (h. Table 2. Example 2. h=300. Air table Example 2.1.004 kJ/[kg(K)] and cv is 0. cp of air is 1. Solution: Using the ideal gas equation. u and other properties of air.2.09 kJ/kg. Consider cp and cv are constant during this change of states.3. we have v = RT/p = {0.3.56 Chih Wu be large in magnitude. The gas constant of air is 0. Find the changes in enthalpy. A part of the air table is given in Table 2.287 kJ/[kg(K)].19 kJ/kg. use of the ideal gas law will depend on the degree of accuracy required for a particular problem. internal energy and entropy of air if the air is heated from 100 kPa and 400 K to 100 kPa and 440 K using equations and the air table.718 kJ/[kg(K)].287 kJ/[kg(K)]}(400 K)/(100 kPa) =1.1.

004(440-400)=40. s=0. we take the following steps: 1.7 psia and 1200 R. h=103. since the ideal gas substance using CyclePad is considered to be a gas with variable specific heats.3.8) we have ∆u=0. (2. and (C) T=432.3. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) substance is air.6 Btu/lbm. u=74. It is time to abandon the time consuming use of property tables or calculation and move over entirely to the use of computer database software such as CyclePad. (B) v=20 ft3/lbm and 1500 R.004[ln(440/400)]-0.3. and (C) 10 psia and v=16 ft3/lbm using CyclePad. Build (A) Take a BEGIN and an END from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them. h=359. Therefore equations using constant specific heats cannot be used in the thermodynamic analysis in this book. h=287. Air property relationships .75 psia. (B) Switch to analysis mode.5 Btu/lbm. Find the properties of air at the following states: (A) 14.3. Among the nine substances listed on the CyclePad menu: air. and (b) 14.5).8 Btu/lbm. u=205. 2.6 Btu/lbm. helium.4 Btu/lbm. Notice that CyclePad databases account for the variation of specific heat with temperature for an ideal gas. and (2.16 kJ/kg ∆s=1. 3. (2.287[ln(100/100)]=0.6).2 ft3/lbm.3. (B) p=27.7691 Btu/[lbm(R)]. s=0.5509 Btu/[lbm(R)]. To solve this problem by CyclePad. and carbon dioxide are ideal gases.72 kJ/kg ∆h=1. Example 2. s=0.7 psia and 1200 R.718(440-400)=28.3.4 R. searching property values from the tables or calculation from equations is tedious and long.3.7791 Btu/[lbm(R)]. Display results The answers are: (A) v=30.03 Btu/lbm. Figure E2.Properties of Thermodynamic Substances Solution: Using Eqs.09569 kJ/[kg(K)] 57 Again. u=256.

and (C) 80 kPa and v=1 m3/kg. Build (A) Take a BEGIN and an END from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them. (B) Switch to analysis mode. s=10. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) substance is carbon dioxide (CO2).3. h=199. (B) Switch to analysis mode.5 kJ/[kg(K)] and 700 K. we take the following steps: 1. u=119. (B) p=1351 kPa.23 m3/kg and 800 K.3. h=3624 kJ/kg. To solve this problem by CyclePad. Display results .00 kJ/[kg(K)]. (B) v=1.3.54 m3/kg. Helium properties Example 2. Display results The answers are: (A) v=14.55 kJ/[kg(K)]. and (C) T=38. and (C) 80 kPa and s=3 kJ/[kg(K)]. h=4141 kJ/kg. and (b) s=1.5.23 m3/kg and u=500 kJ/kg . using CyclePad. and (b) 100 kPa and 700 K.52 K.4 kJ/kg.4 kJ/kg. we take the following steps: 1. To solve this problem by CyclePad. (B) v=1.4. 2. Figure E2. 3. Find the properties of helium at the following states: (A) 100 kPa and 700 K. Find the properties of carbon dioxide (CO2) at the following states: (A) s=1. using CyclePad. s=5. 2.5 kJ/[kg(K)] and 700 K. Build (A) Take a BEGIN and an END from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them. 3. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) substance is helium.29 kJ/[kg(K)].4. u=2480 kJ/kg. u=2170 kJ/kg. s=-4.58 Chih Wu Example 2.

7 kJ/kg.27-30. To solve this problem by CyclePad.7 psia and 1200 R).38 kJ/[kg(K)]. h=645. h=377. 2. and (C) T=449. ∆h=383.2 kJ/kg..9 Btu/lbm. 3.4 K.Properties of Thermodynamic Substances 59 The answers are: (A) p=1612 Mpa.5 Btu/lbm.3. Display results The answers are: (a) ∆v=40.0689 Btu/[lbm(R)].5-287.9 kPa.6.7691=0.8380-0.5. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) substance is air. we take the following steps: 1.3. internal energy and entropy of air if the air is heated from 14. (B) p=117. ∆u=273.7 psia and 1600 R using CyclePad. .0 kJ/kg. Carbon dioxide (CO2) properties Example 2.06 m3/kg. Find the changes in volume. h and u are functions of temperature only. u=456 kJ/kg. but v and s are not functions of temperature only. a combustor and an END from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them. Figure E2. u=292.2=10.8 kJ/kg. (B) Switch to analysis mode. and state 1 (input 14. enthalpy.6. Build (A) Take a BEGIN. and (b) state 1 (input 14. v=1.3. s=3.5 K.9-205.4 =68.07 ft3/lbm. ∆s=0. Air property changes Comment: For ideal gases.7 psia and 1600 R). T=767. Figure E2.6=95. h=588. v=0 m3/kg.7 psia and 1200 R to 14.

internal energy and entropy of air if the air state is changed from 14. Ideal gases 1.6=0 Btu/lbm.3020-30. What is an ideal gas? 2. Which two gases make up the major part of air? What is the approximate molecular weight of air? 6. Build (A) Take a BEGIN.2=-29. Air property changes Homework 2. Under what conditions would it be reasonable to treat the water as an ideal gas? 3. Air is a mechanical mixture of several gases.4 =0 Btu/lbm. Display results The answers are: (a) ∆v=0. Does one mole of air at room temperature and pressure occupy more volume than one mole of hydrogen at the same conditions? .7 psia and 1200 R).4-205. indicate whether the following statements are true or false: (A) The state of the system is determined by two properties.90 ft3/lbm.3154 Btu/[lbm(R)]. (D) the temperature decreases in an adiabatic expansion.7. ∆s=0.7 psia and 1200 R to 1470 psia and 1200 R using CyclePad. (B) The internal energy increases in an isothermal expansion. enthalpy. (C) The pressure is proportional to the temperature.7691=-0. (B) Switch to analysis mode.4537-0.7. and (b) state 1 (input 14. 5. 2.6-287. ∆h=287. Would two ideal gases in a mixture each exert the same pressure? 4.60 Chih Wu Example 2. To solve this problem by CyclePad. Find the changes in volume. The liquid and vapor in a mixture of the same pure substance have the same pressure and temperature. and state 1 (input 1470 psia and 1200 R). ∆u=205. For a system containing H2 at low pressure in thermodynamic equilibrium.3. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) substance is air. a combustor and an END from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them. we take the following steps: 1. Figure E2. 3.3.3.

(B) 7.5680 Btu/[lbm(R)]. ANSWER: (A) 18.8 Btu/lbm. (B) 697. 16. (C) 7. 119. u=501.47 lbm. 162.1 kJ/kg.8 Btu/lbm.5438 Btu/[lbm(R)]. and (C) carbon dioxide.94 Btu/[lbm(R)]. Determine the mass of the gas in the vessel. 17.2 m3 contains a gas at 400 kPa and 50ºC. (C) 84.6 K.4 kJ/kg. Define the specific heat at constant volume process.5 kJ/[kg(K)] and 700 K.0041 m3/kg. and (C) carbon dioxide. 0. What is the relation between specific heat at constant volumee process and specific internal energy of an ideal gas? 13.7 Btu/lbm. 1. and specific entropy of the gas.68 lbm. 20. ANSWER: (A) 48480 kPa. Find the specific internal energy. (B) 134.7 Btu/lbm. 740. if the gas is (A) air. specific enthalpy.5 Btu/lbm.18 kg. ANSWER: (A) 5. specific enthalpy. A closed rigid tank contains a gas at 20 psia and 1000ºR. (C) 500. ANSWER: (A) 55. Is specific internal energy of an ideal gas a function of temperature only? 15. Find the specific internal energy. (C) 12. 0. .0 ft3/lbm. 1236 Btu/lbm.79 m3/kg.7 kJ/kg. What is the relation between specific heat at constant pressure process and specific heat at constant volume process of an ideal gas? 11.19 ft3/lbm. Find the specific volume. (B) helium. 19. and specific entropy of the gas. 0. Is specific enthalpy of an ideal gas a function of temperature only? 14. specific internal energy.4 Btu/lbm. Find the specific volume. and specific entropy of the gas. if the gas is (A) air.6 Btu/lbm. (B) 0.80 ft3/lbm. h=502. specific enthalpy.7 kJ/kg. 128.8 Btu/lbm. 8.86 kg. 0.3 Btu/lbm. 1. h=702.23 m3/kg and u=500 kJ/kg. What is the specific volume and specific enthalpy of carbon dioxide at 20 psia and 180ºF? ANSWER: 7. A pressure vessel with a volume of 1.0 kJ/kg. 0. and specific entropy of the air. using CyclePad. 167. ANSWER: 191. A tank is filled with air at a pressure of 42 psia and a temperature of 700ºR. Find the properties of air at the following states: (A) s=1. 239. (B) helium.6 kPa. 200. specific internal energy.4 Btu/lbm.2 Btu/lbm. 18.7152 kg. if the gas is (A) air. Air at 100 psia and a specific volume of 3 ft3/lbm is contained in a tank. Is specific heat at constant volume process of an ideal gas a function of temperature only? 10. h=700.5 ft3/lbm. and (C) 80 kPa and s=3 kJ/[kg(K)]. 3.66 lbm. 21. What is the relation between specific heat at constant pressure process and specific enthalpy of an ideal gas? 12. Determine the mass of the gas in the vessel.7043 Btu/[lbm(R)]. 247. 0.13 kJ/[kg(K)]. 22. and (C) carbon dioxide.0 Btu/lbm. Define the specific heat at constant pressure process.4 K. (B) helium.17 ft3/lbm. 194. (B) v=1.7035 Btu/[lbm(R)]. A pressure vessel with a volume of 87 ft3 contains a gas at 168 psia and 250ºF. Is specific heat at constant pressure process of an ideal gas a function of temperature only? 9. 155. ANSWER: 6.Properties of Thermodynamic Substances 61 7. specific enthalpy. Carbon dioxide is at 100 psia and a specific volume of 3 ft3/lbm. 171.7345 Btu/[lbm(R)]. ANSWER: 138. u=358.

More air is added to the tank until the pressure and temperature rise to 35 psia and 90ºF. A 1-m3 rigid tank (tank A) containing air at 25ºC and 500 kPa is connected by a valve to another rigid tank (tank B) containing 5 kg of air at 35ºC and 200 kPa. madded=0. ANSWER: (A) 19.7 Btu/lbm. (C) 297. 28.7 psia and the temperature and the volume to remain constant.1 kPa. which are at 20ºC. Determine the initial mass of air in tank A. u=186. u=186. at 10 bar and 400 K and at 20 bar and 400 K. VB= 2. h=407. and (C) 80 kPa and v=1 m3/kg. Determine the amount of air that must be added to raise the pressure to the recommended value of 30 psig.38 Btu/lbm. h=71. 26.41 kJ/[kg(K)]. u=200. ANSWER: (A) 42. ANSWER: (A) 220. . h=1865 Btu/lbm.4611 Btu/[lbm(R)].9 Btu/lbm.6 Btu/lbm. and final air pressure in both tank. Find the properties of carbon dioxide (CO2) at the following states: (A) 14. h=240.73 lbm. u=573. ANSWER: mA=5.9 Btu/lbm. ANSWER: (A) 2. mB=2.27 kJ/[kg(K)]. u=895. u=291.33 Btu/[lbm(R)].5869 Btu/[lbm(R)].01 m3/kg.6 ft3/lbm. (B) 22. and (C) 10 psia and v=11 ft3/lbm using CyclePad. the amount of air added. the initial mass of air in tank B. the initial volume of air in tank B.85 kg. (C) 41. 1. mfinal=0. Assume the atmospheric pressure to be 14.23 m3/kg and 800 K.7 Btu/lbm.4 Btu/lbm. 2.79 ft3/lbm. 0. 25.5 ft3 is at 100ºF and 20 psig. h=1496 Btu/lbm. 0. ANSWER: V=196 ft3. h=802. 3.1079 kg. h=702.21 m3.87 kg. madded=13.25 Btu/lbm. 0.04ºR. (C) 410. mfinal=33. (B) 186. and (C) 10 psia and v=11 ft3/lbm using CyclePad. Find the properties of helium at the following states: (A) 14.0 K. p=284.5 kPa.33 Btu/[lbm(R)].85 kg. 29.62 Chih Wu 23.57 kg. (B) 192.30 kg. u=205. 27.0241 kg. Now the valve is opened and the air is allowed to reach thermal equilibrium with the surroundings. h=82. u=50.7 psia and 1700 R. ANSWER: mA=3.4 Btu/lbm. 30. p=323.7 kJ/kg. The air in an automobile tire with a volume of 0. mtotal=10. -1.66 Btu/[lbm(R)].7409 Btu/[lbm(R)].0 Btu/lbm. and (C) 10 psia and v=10 ft3/lbm using CyclePad.3 kPa. h=287. 0. (C) 279. Find the properties of air at the following states: (A) 14. the final mass of air in the tank.7 psia and 1200 R.74 Btu/lbm.7 psia and 1210 R.63 psia.7850 Btu/[lbm(R)]. 2.0 kJ/kg.89 Btu/lbm.3ºR.4 kJ/kg. h=50. u=30. h=280. Find the properties of air at the following states: (A) 100 kPa and 700 K.23 kJ/[kg(K)]. at 4 bar and 400 K. h=240. (B) 14.20 psia.82 Btu/lbm. u=1117 Btu/lbm.8526 Btu/[lbm(R)].9 Btu/lbm. Determine the volume of the tank. 24. which are at 15ºC. (B) v=20 ft3/lbm and 1200 R. Now the valve is opened and the air is allowed to reach thermal equilibrium with the surroundings.32 Btu/lbm. mtotal=5.0838 kg.5-m3 rigid tank (tank A) containing air at 20ºC and 600 kPa is connected by a valve to another 1-m3 rigid tank (tank B) containing air at 30ºC and 200 kPa. Find the enthalpy and internal energy of air at 2 bar and 300 K. respectively.2ºR.7 kJ/kg. Determine the initial mass of air in tank A. and final air pressure in both tank.0 kJ/kg.73 lbm. 0. ANSWER: minitial=0. 31. A rigid tank contains 20 lbm of air at 20 psia and 70ºF. (B) v=21 ft3/lbm and 1508 R. using CyclePad.5 psia.7852 Btu/[lbm(R)].4 kJ/kg. 0. u=501.90 ft3/lbm. 3. (B) v=20 ft3/lbm and 1200 R. A 0. u=63. (B) v=1.

ANSWER: (92. The normalized reduced pressure and normalized reduced temperature are useful for establishing generalized correlations of the properties of real gases. Z.4 kJ/kg). the more nearly does the gas obey the ideal-gas law.are the critical pressure and critical temperature of the gas. 2.3) (2. 401. is defined as Z=pv/RT (2. 401.1 Btu/lbm). gases deviate considerably from ideal gas equation. The term B/v accounts for the interactions between pairs of molecules. (286..0 Btu/lbm. Find the enthalpy and internal energy of air at 14. the real gas becomes an ideal gas. (2. and all deviate from ideal gas behavior to about the same degree. 182. REAL GASES At high pressures. when compared at the same normalized reduced pressure and normalized reduced temperature. 32. 401. the term D/v3 accounts for the four-body interactions of molecules.1 Btu/lbm).0 Btu/lbm. or a compressibility factor Z needs to be added. Note that for Z=1. the further the state point of the gas is away from the critical point.2) Where pcritical and Tcritical. and at 50 psia and 300ºF. pv=RT.4) where the coefficients are called virial coefficients. 182. (130.4.7 kJ/kg.7 kJ/kg.7 psia and 80ºF. pRand TR are defined as the real gas pressure and temperature with respect to their values at the critical point. To account for the deviation in properties p. 182. Such correlations are based on the principle of corresponding states: All real gases. (286. at 50 psia and 300ºF. (130. 301 kJ/kg).3 Btu/lbm).1) Z is a measure of the deviation of the real gas from the ideal gas..0 Btu/lbm. the term C/v2 accounts for the three-body interactions of molecules.0 Btu/lbm. pR=p/pcritical and TR=T/Tcritical. (130. A gas at a pressure much higher than its critical pressure and at a temperature much lower than its critical temperature is defined as a real gas. at 50 psia and 300ºF. 182. 129.4. (2.4 kJ/kg).4. The compressibility factor.Properties of Thermodynamic Substances 63 ANSWER: (215 kJ/kg.7 kJ/kg. have nearly the same compressibility factor.1 Btu/lbm). respectively. where pR and TR are called normalized reduced pressure and normalized reduced temperature. (286. In other words.4. (130. either more complex equations of state must be used. Z is a function of pR and TR. v and T relationship.4..1 Btu/lbm). An alternative expression for Z is Z=1+B/v+C/v2+D/v3+E/v4+. at 14. The physical significance of the terms in the Z factor can be explained by microscopic physics. .7 psia and 300ºF.39 Btu/lbm.4 kJ/kg).

but different constants for different gases.02211 m3/kg.1. we take the following steps: 1. Solution: (A) v=RT/p=0.02632 m3/kg. the van der Waals equation [Equation (2. using (A) the ideal-gas equation of state. etc. The term (P+a/v2) is the pressure effect by the intermolecular forces. pv=RT. three-body interactions are many times more common than four-body interactions. (C) To find the specific volume from CyclePad.0815(323)/1000=0. Since two-body interactions are many times more common than three-body interactions. (B) v=ZRT/p=(0. For example.4.5) Where the quantities a and b are constants for one gas. 2. all of them very nearly coincide. It is a very good approximation for gases at low density.64 Chih Wu the term E/v4 accounts for the five-body interactions of molecules. Virial equation.0815 kPa(m3)/[kg(K)]. Tables of both compressibility factors and virial coefficients can be found in most traditional thermodynamic textbooks and engineering handbooks. four-body interactions are many times more common than five-body interactions. a generalized compressibility chart can be obtained. (B) the real-gas equation of state with Z=0. This chart is applied to a number of gases. the contributions to Z of successively higher-ordered terms fall off rapidly.4.. How low is low is a relative question. etc. The gas constant of R-134a is 0. Benedict-Webb-Rubin equation. (P+a/v2)(v-b)=RT (2. Example 2. Build (A) Take a BEGIN and an END from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them.84)0. Low and high are relative terms. It depends on the accuracy that we are looking for. If lines of constant TR are plotted on a Z versus pR diagram. Note that the generalized compressibility chart and real gas equations are not programmed in CyclePad. Beattie-Bridgman equation. and the term (v-b) is the volume effect by the volume occupied by the molecules. etc. and (C) the freon tableof CyclePad.4. For simplicity. Many semi-experimental equations including van der Waals equation. have been proposed to describe the p-v-T relations of real gases more accurately than does the equation of state of an ideal gas. . Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) substance is R-134a.84. The ideal gas equation of state is very convenient to use in thermodynamic calculations.0815(323)/1000=0.1)] is derived from assumptions regarding molecular properties. Find the specific volume of R-134a at 1000 kPa and 323 K. (B) Switch to analysis mode. we will consider real gases behave as ideal gases with a loss in accuracy. and (b) p=1 MPa and T=323 K.

in the compressibility factor account for? Which term among B/v.0218 m3/kg as shown in the following diagram. Z? How do you explain the van der Waals equation in physical meaning? What are the terms B/v.. 3. etc.5. The difference between the constant-pressure specific heat and the constant-volume specific heat is zero.5. 4. What is the difference between ideal gas and real gas? Is a high density gas real gas or ideal gas? What is compressibility factor. C/v2.1.4) . C/v2. what are the molecular interactions in a real gas? 2. INCOMPRESSIBLE SUBSTANCES Many liquids and solids are considered to be incompressible substances whose specific volume remains constant regardless of changes in other properties.2) (2.5. The subscripts are often dropped and the specific heat of an incompressible substances is simply designated by c: cp = cv = c (2. Several useful properties relationships (equations of state) of the incompressible substances are given in the following. 2. in the compressibility factor is the most important one. 5.5. 65 Figure E2.Properties of Thermodynamic Substances 3.4.5. If Z=1. Display results: The answer is v=0. and why? 7.1) The internal energy change. 6. enthalpy change and entropy change of an incompressible substances depend on temperature changes only: Δu = ∫c(dT) ∆h = ∫c(dT) ∆s = ∫c(dT)/T (2.4. etc.3) (2. Specific volume of R-134a Homework 2. Real gases 1..

5. (2.1. Build (A) Take a BEGIN and an END from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them.5. u=83. 2. s=0.5.7). Find the properties of water (incompressible substance) at (A) 20ºC and 100 kPa.7) Water is the most widely used incompressible working fluid in engineering thermodynamic application.5.2962 kJ/[kg(K)].2. u.6) (2. (B) v=0.52 kJ/kg.0010 m3/kg.5.0010 m3/kg. and (C) 30ºC and 100 kPa using CyclePad.2) can be written as u2 -u1= c (T2 -T1) ∆h =∆u + v(∆p) ∆s = s2 -s1= c[ln(T2 /T1)] (2.93 kJ/kg. s=0.0010 m3/kg=0.01972 Btu/[lbm(R)]. (B) 20ºC and 5000 kPa.0010 m3/kg.4365 kJ/[kg(K)]. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) substance is water. The heat capacity and specific volume of water at room temperature are c= 4.0[ln(460+52)/(460+42)]=0. h=83. 3.5. To solve this problem by CyclePad.5). the specific heat can be approximated as a constant.5. we have u2 -u1=c(T2 -T1)=1. Example 2. s=0. Solution: Using the equations. .4.0160 ft3/lbm.8 kJ/kg. h=125. u=125. Find the change of properties (h. h=88.5. and (C) v=0.7 psia and 42ºF to 14. and v) of water from 14.5) (2.18 kJ/[kg(K)]=1. (2. and (b) 20ºC and 100 kPa.53 kJ/kg.83 kJ/kg.7 psia and 52ºF using the Eqs. Display results The answers are: (A) v=0. we take the following steps: 1.7 kJ/kg. (B) Switch to analysis mode. Example 2.66 Chih Wu For small temperature changes.0160(0)=10 Btu/lbm ∆s = s2 -s1= c[ln(T2 /T1)]=1. respectively. u=83.2951 kJ/[kg(K)].0(52-42)=10 Btu/lbm ∆h =∆u + v(∆p)=10+0.0 Btu/[lbm(R)] and v=0. Equation (2.6) and (2.

h of incompressible substance is a strong function of T and a weak function of p. Example 2. 3.04=10.5.00160-0. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) substance is water. and (b) state 1 (input 14.09-10. Build (A) Take a BEGIN.5. (B) Switch to analysis mode.70 psia and 52ºF).01 Btu/lbm. and v) of water from 14. h and u of incompressible substance are almost equal. we take the following steps: 1.3.0399-0.0197 Btu/[lbm(R)].01 Btu/lbm.0202=0. To solve this problem by CyclePad. ∆h=20. Compressed (Subcooled) Water properties Comments: 1.3.7 psia and 52ºF using CyclePad. and 4.0160=0 ft3/lbm ∆u=20.Properties of Thermodynamic Substances 67 Figure E2.2. Display results The answers are: The answers are: ∆v=0. 2.05-10.5.7 psia and 42ºF to 14.08=10. u. Figure E2. and state 2 (input 14. a combustor and an END from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them. Find the change of properties (h. ∆s=0. Compressed (Subcooled) water properties .7 psia and 42ºF). 2. u of incompressible substance is a strong function of T and a weak function of p. v of incompressible substance is constant. 3.

Incompressible substances (Liquids and solids) 1.2 kJ/kg. s=0. s=0. 9. (B) 0. Find the properties (u.5 kJ/kg. ANSWER: 0.1462 kJ/[kg(K)].09 Btu/lbm.0161 ft3/lbm u=48. u=36.0161m3/kg u=69. 1500 kPa. and (B) at -32ºC. u.16 kJ/kg.7 psia using CyclePad. 500 kPa using CyclePad. and (B) at -32ºC.0354 kJ/[kg(K)].69 kJ/[kg(K)]. h. .71 Btu/lbm. What is the difference between compressed liquid and saturated liquid? Does internal energy of compressed liquid change with pressure significantly? Does internal energy of compressed liquid change with temperature significantly? In the absence of compressed liquid table.70 kJ/kg.010 m3/kg. h=6. u.2242 kJ/[kg(K)].30 kJ/[kg(K)]. s=0.00 Btu/lbm. and s) of R-12 at (A) -32ºC.25 kJ/kg. ANSWER: (A) 0.5 kJ/kg. u=36. 1500 kPa. h=158. Find the properties (u. s=0. 1500 kPa. (C) 0. s=0. h. s=10. (B) 0. specific internal energy and specific enthalpy of the water at each state. Find the specific volume.3 kJ/kg.69 kJ/kg.1448 kJ/[kg(K)]. 12. (B) u=7. and (C) at -32ºC.0015 m3/kg. s=0. u=493.0161ft3/lbm u=69.70 kJ/kg.39 Btu/lbm.8391 kJ/[kg(K)]. (B) 0. h=6.2 kJ/kg. u=478.05 Btu/lbm.69 kJ/kg. h=158. 5.25 Btu/lbm. 4. (B) 21ºC and 5000 kPa.62 kJ/kg.73 kJ/kg. s=9. Find the properties (u.71 kJ/kg. h=92.68 Chih Wu Homework 2. 8. and (C) 33ºC and 100 kPa using CyclePad. (C) 0. and s) of methane at (A) -32ºC. s=0. 0.0419 Btu/[lbm(R)]. and s) of R-22 at (A) -32ºC. h=3.0160 ft3/lbm u=21. ANSWER: (A) u=159.8 kJ/kg. 1500 kPa using CyclePad.4776 kJ/[kg(K)]. h=34.42 kJ/kg. s=0.65 kJ/kg. h=138. u=138. h=34.0161ft3/lbm u=69. and (B) at 32ºC. 500 kPa using CyclePad.3092 kJ/[kg(K)]. h=8.0160ft3/lbm u=3. s=0.1477 kJ/[kg(K)]. h=50.7 F to 600 psia and 101.39 Btu/lbm. 7. h.5 kJ/kg. 1500 kPa.92 kJ/kg. ANSWER: (A) u=9.0291 kJ/[kg(K)].00 kJ/kg.0948 Btu/[lbm(R)]. and s) of ammonia at (A) -32ºC. Find the properties (v. ANSWER: (A) 0. h=34. Find the properties of water (incompressible substance) at (A) 35ºF and 100 psia. s=0. s=0. h.8376 kJ/[kg(K)]. 500 kPa using CyclePad.71 kJ/kg.08 kJ/kg. s=0. Find the properties of water (incompressible substance) at (A) 15ºC and 100 kPa. h=71. Find the properties (v. (C) 0. 10. h=8.0277 kJ/[kg(K)]. h=493. (B) 0. h=478. (B) 81ºF and 500 psia. 1000 kPa.00147m3/kg. 500 kPa using CyclePad.6 kJ/kg. (B) at -32ºC. u=87.0009998 m3/kg.65 kJ/kg. ANSWER: (A) 0. 500 kPa.5.3 kJ/kg. h=21. h=69. h. s=0. how do you find the specific volume and specific internal energy of refrigerant R-134a at 100 psia and 10ºF without using CyclePad? Water is compressed from 5 psia and 101. ANSWER: (A) u=7. h=69.2454 m3/kg. (B) u=158.60 Btu/lbm.0787m3/kg. ANSWER: (A) 0. u=35. 2. s=0.00147 m3/kg.73 Btu/lbm. 3.6 kJ/kg. 11.0336 kJ/[kg(K)]. s=0. 6.97 kJ/kg.8 F.91 Btu/lbm.34 kJ/kg. and s) of R-134a at (A) -32ºC. and (C) 53ºF and 14. and (B) at -32ºC. (B) u=8.0061 Btu/[lbm(R)].

Air and other gas tables. A pure substance has a fixed chemical composition throughout all different phases. assuming variable specific heats are commercially available. The pressure and temperature must be expressed as absolute quantities in the pv=RT equation. The gas region is called the superheated vapor region. The liquid region is called the compressed or subcooled liquid region. p. u. The liquid and gas phases of the pure substances are important in thermodynamic application.Properties of Thermodynamic Substances 69 2. and is only defined in the saturated mixture region. Liquids and solids are considered as incompressible substances whose specific volumes are constant. Quality is defined as the vapor mass fraction of the saturated mixture. Properties among T. h. v. An ideal gas is a low density gas and follows the equation pv=RT. and s relationships are determined and listed on conventional steam and refrigerant tables. The two phase mixture region is called saturated mixture region. u and h of incompressible substances are considered as functions of temperature only. In the case of compressed or subcooled liquid table is not available. Specific heat. Properties of nine different thermodynamic substances including air and water are built in the software of CyclePad. a general approximation is to treat the compressed or subcooled liquid as a saturated liquid (x=0) at the given state temperature. The two phases are separated by a saturated mixture dome on a T-v diagram. ideal gases and incompressible substances.6. . SUMMARY There are three types of thermodynamic substances: pure substances. Specific heats may be treated as constants over a small temperature range. Specific heats. u and h of ideal gases are functions of temperature only. Temperature and pressure are dependent in the saturated mixture region. It is a fictitious substance but the simplest to use. A real gas is a high density gas and follows the equation pv=ZRT.

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Transitory energy is pure energy not associated with matter in transit between the system and its surroundings. INTRODUCTION A closed system is defined as a particular quantity of matter. Since a system does not possess work. 4.1. Work is a macroscopic transitory energy. it is never contained in a body. . it does interact energy with its surroundings. The amount of work is equal to the product of the force and the component of the displacement in the direction of the force. 2.1. Although a closed system does not interact mass with its surroundings. Introduction 1. microscopic as heat and macroscopic as work.Chapter 3 FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR CLOSED SYSTEMS 3. 5. and no matter crosses the system boundary. They exist only in transit between the system and whatever interacts with the system. It appears in two forms. What is the difference between work and flow energy? 3. What is a closed system? Is a non-flow system a closed system? Can a closed system interact mass with its surroundings? Can a closed system interact energy with its surroundings? What are the two transitory energy forms? Both work and flow energy can flow in to a system from its surroundings. These forms are called transitory energy forms. work is said to be done. Certain important energy forms cannot be stored within a system.2. The mass of the closed system is constant. work is not a property of the system. WORK If a system undergoes a displacement due to the application of a force. The closed system always contains the same matter. Transitory energy is the energy entering or leaving a system without accompanying matter. 3. Homework 3.

2) Consider a system enclosed by a piston and cylinder. The two major work modes in thermodynamics are: simple compressible boundary work or simply boundary work. (3. In this convention. and V is the displacement for the boundary work.4).2. In order to integrate Eq. Work is therefore clearly a path function and is not a property.2. The amount of work transferred to a system from the surroundings between an initial state i and a final state f is ∫δW = Wif . Using p and V as thermodynamic coordinates. and work done by the system is positive.1) rather than (Wf-Wi).2. and therefore units for work are energy units. interest lies in devices that do work. It thus has become customary to refer to work done by a system as positive. Similarly. work input to a system is taken as negative. the change in volume is (Vf -Vi) and change in pressure is (pf -pi). The notation of work is W. positive work causes the energy of a thermodynamic system to decrease. There is no such thing as Wf or Wi. Three commonly used units of work are ft-lbf and Btu in English unit system and kJ in SI unit system. and θ is the displacement for the shaft work.2.2.2.2.2. This can be easily seen by referring to a p-V diagram as shown by Fig. 3.2. The boundary work of the process 1-a-2 is greater than that of 1-b-2. (3. the shaft work can be evaluated as Wshaft = ∫δWshaft =∫τ dθ. V and p are point functions and properties. Boundary work is therefore a path function.1. In the process from the initial state i to the final state f. A system whose work is represented by (p dV) is called simple compressible boundary work or boundary work. regardless of the path between i and f. Work is a form of energy. the total work can be written as W = Wboundary + Wshaft (3. the process or functional relations between p and V must be known. Neglecting other modes of work.72 Chih Wu In thermodynamics. As a convention of sign. As the piston moves over a displacement distance dx in the direction of the driving force F acting on the piston. and shaft work. the derivative of work is written as δW. (3. (3. There are many modes of work.5) Where τ is the driving force for the shaft work. Since work is not a property. . the boundary work done by this infinitesimal motion can be expressed as (3.4) Where p is the driving force for the boundary work.3) Wboundary = F dx = (F/A) (Adx) = p dV. the area underneath the process represents the boundary work of the process as illustrated by Fig. The boundary work can be evaluated as Wboundary = ∫δWboundary =∫p dV. 3.

There is no area under the constant volume process. Consider the air is the system.09043)=20. 3.56 kJ. .1.1.2. (B) Heat is added in a constant pressure (isobaric) process until the volume is doubled.1808-0. 0.2. W=∫pdV=paverage∫dV=paverage(V2-V1)=225(0.09043]=13.09043 m3 and 200ºC. 1-2B. A piston-cylinder device contains air at 150 kPa. (C) The final volume and pressure are 0. Since the process is a linear line. which is the rectangular area under the constant volume process. 1-2A. Work of different processes on p-V diagram Example 3. find the boundary work of the following processes and draw the processes on a p-V diagram: (A) Heat is added to the air in a constant volume (isochoric) process until the temperature reaches 300ºC. 3.2. (B) W=∫pdV=p∫dV=p (V2-V1)=150[2x 0.1. Solution: (A) W=0. as shown in Figure E 3.1808 m3 and 300 kPa. the average pressure is paverage=(150+300)/2=225 kPa.First Law of Thermodynamics for Closed Systems p 73 Wif f Pressure i δW p V Vi dV Vf Volume Fig.2. p-V diagram p A 2 1 B v Fig. which is the triangle area under the process 1-2C. During this process the piston does not move. (C) Air is expanded in a linear process until the pressure reaches 300 kPa and volume is doubled.09043-0.35 kJ.2.

(C) Air is expanded in a constant temperature (isothermal) process until the volume is doubled. Build (A) Take a begin. and case (c) W=9. a heating-combustion device in case (a) and case (b) or an expansion device in case (c). find the boundary work of the following processes and draw the processes on a pV diagram using CyclePad: (A) Heat is added to the air in a constant volume (isochoric) process until the temperature reaches 300ºC. During this process the piston does not move. Analysis (A) Assume the heating-combustion is isochoric in case (a) or isobaric in case (b). (ii) the mass. To solve this problem by CyclePad. 150 kPa and 200ºC. 3. .40 kJ. Work of different processes on p-V diagram Example 3. Display results (A) Display the expansion device results. Switch to analysis mode.1. we take the following steps: 1.56 kJ. A piston-cylinder device contains 0.1 kg of air at 150 kPa and 200ºC.1 kg.2.2. or the final specific volume is twice the initial specific volume in case (b) and case (c). Consider the air is the system. case (b) W=13. initial air pressure and temperature of the process are 0. and an end from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them. (B) Input the given information: (i) working fluid is air. The answers are: case (a) W=0 kJ. (B) Heat is added in a constant pressure (isobaric) process until the volume is doubled.74 Chih Wu p 2A 2C 1 2B Volume V Figure E 3. 2. (iii) the final air temperature of the process is 300ºC in case (a).2.

A frictionless piston-cylinder device contains 2. etc. Display results (A) Display the compression device results. a compression device.2. Work of different processes Example 3.5 kJ and n=1. 2. kW. The answers is W=-702. Btu/s. ft-lbf/s. where the dot notation is used to signify a rate quantity. Helium is now compressed adiabatically. To solve this problem by CyclePad.2. The units of power are W. (B) Switch to analysis mode. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is helium. Analysis (A) Assume the compression as an adiabatic process. Engineers frequently talk in terms of power. Btu/h. MW. we take the following steps: 1. Build (A) Take a begin. and an end from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them.4 kg of helium at 100 kPa and 300 K. (c) the final helium pressure and temperature of the process are 200 kPa and 400K. For example.3.71. (b) the initial helium pressure and temperature of the process are 100 kPa and 300 K. horsepower. Find the work done during this process and n.2. 3. 500 kW is produced by a heat engine which removd 500 kJ of work in each second from the heat engine to its surroundings. . slowly according to the relationship pVn =constant until it reaches a final temperature and pressure of 400 K and 200 kPa. The symbol for power is Wdot. Power is defined as the work per unit time crossing the boundary of the system.First Law of Thermodynamics for Closed Systems 75 Figure E3.

During a non-flow process 120 Btu of heat is removed from each lbm of the working substance while the internal energy of the working substance decreases by 85. Using the p-V diagram and show the work of a constant pressure process can be obtained. 14. 11. 6.3.1478 kJ. What is the difference between work and power? A closed system consisting of an unknown gas undergoes a constant volume process from 1 Mpa to 6 Mpa.004 m3 to p2=500 kPa. Compute the heat removed and work done or by the gas. 9.5 10. 2.2. 12. . 7. What is the boundary work done by the gas? Is work added to or done by a closed system during an adiabatic expansion process? Work is added to a 1 bar saturated liquid water at constant volume until its pressure becomes 11 bar compressed liquid. Which one is boundary work? Which one is a point function? Which one is a process function? Which one can be integrated without knowing the relation between p and V? Write the equation of path for a constant volume process. Polytropic process Homework 3. What happens to the energy of water which you added work to it? The term ∫ pdV is the area under the process on a p-V diagram.6122 kJ.6) Figure E3. Carbon dioxide is compressed in a cylinder in a polytropical process pV1. Write the equation of path for a constant pressure process. -0. Consider ∫ p dV. 17. ANSWER: -0. 16. Work 1.76 Wdot= δW/dt=W/t Chih Wu (3. Show this process on a p-v diagram. 5. Using the p-V diagram and show the work of a constant volume process is zero. 13. Is work a property? Does a system possess work? What are the two major modes of work in thermodynamics? What is the driving force and its corresponding displacement of boundary work? What is the driving force and its corresponding displacement of shaft work? Under what condition is work equal to p(V2-V1)? Stir a pail of water. ∫ V dp. 4.22=constant from p1=100 kPa and V1=0.2.2. and ∫ d(pV). 3. How do you interpret this area. 8. 15.

ANSWER: p=6502 kPa.09 m3. 22. Initially.1529 m3. W=-540 kJ. Btu/lbm.3 to 0. T=-8ºC. the pressure and volume are related by pV1. Determine how much work is involved in the process and indicate whether the work is done on or done by the working substance.3 to 0. During the process. final volume.1 m3. ANSWER: p=3363 kPa. The initial pressure of the gas is 900 kPa. and the temperature is -8ºC. the pressure and volume are related by pV2=constant. Air contained in a piston-cylinder device is compressed from 0.1 m3. W=-475. Determine how much work is involved in the process and indicate whether the work is done on or done by the working substance. Determine the temperature when the piston first hits the stops and the work during the expansion process. Air is now compressed slowly according to the relation pV1. . W=-336. ANSWER: p=24300 kPa.1 m3. Now heat is transferred slowly to the refrigerant until the piston hits the stops. A frictionless piston-cylinder device contains 2 kg of air at 100 kPa and 300 K.1 m3. Air contained in a piston-cylinder device is compressed from 0. the pressure and volume are related by pV3=constant.First Law of Thermodynamics for Closed Systems 77 18.3 to 0. Work is added to a 1 bar saturated liquid water at constant volume until its pressure becomes 11 bar compressed liquid. During a non-flow process 1200 kJ of heat is removed from each kg of the working substance while the internal energy of the working substance decreases by 65 kJ/kg from an initial internal energy of 165 kJ/kg. Show this process on a p-v diagram. W=-1080 kJ. Air is now compressed slowly according to the relation pV1. Find the final gas pressure and work on the gas during this process. During the process. 24. 19. and work input during this process. ANSWER: V=0.29=constant until it reaches a final temperature of 360 K. ANSWER: p=8100 kPa.01 kJ. During the process. final pressure.2=constant. final volume.5 Btu/lbm. at which point the volume is 1000 L. V2=1. W=185.4=constant until it reaches a final temperature of 360 K. The initial pressure of the gas is 900 kPa. A piston-cylinder device with a set of stops contains 10 kg of R-134a. Carbon dioxide contained in a piston-cylinder device is compressed from 0. ANSWER: 34.3 kPa. final pressure. 23. 26. Air contained in a piston-cylinder device is compressed from 0. Determine the initial volume.8=constant. ANSWER: -1135 kJ/kg. Find the final gas pressure and work on the gas during this process.3 to 0. Find the final gas pressure and work on the gas during this process. 20. During the process. Find the final gas pressure and work on the gas during this process. 21.72 m3. Determine the initial volume. A frictionless piston-cylinder device contains 2 kg of carbon dioxide at 100 kPa and 300 K. The initial pressure of the gas is 900 kPa. The initial pressure of the gas is 900 kPa. the pressure and volume are related by pV1. ANSWER: V1=1.4 kJ. and work input during this process.7 kJ. 25. 8 kg of the refrigerant is in the liquid form.3 kJ. Find the initial volume. p2=189. W=-86.

and therefore units for heat are energy units. Determine the work done on the gas. A system does not possess heat. Two commonly used units of heat are Btu in English unit system and kJ in SI unit system.4) for boundary work. ANSWER: W=-2700 kJ. What is the temperature at the end of process (A)? What is the pressure at the end of process (B)? Find also the heat transfer in both cases. 246. the internal energy change of the gas and the heat transfer to the gas. 5. Heat is pure energy in transit between a system and its surroundings. For a reversible process.0 kPa. p2=225. ANSWER: -51.14 Btu/lbm. V2=0. it is never contained in a body. 28. HEAT Heat is defined as energy transferred across the boundaries of a system solely because of a temperature difference between the system and its surroundings.1) where temperature (T) is the driving force and entropy (S) is the displacement for the heat transfer. 2 kg of helium occupy a volume of 10 m3 at 1300 K. it is impossible . When two bodies at different temperatures are brought into contact. 10 lbm of air undergoes a constant pressure process from 88. W=-78. Air is compressed by a piston in a cylinder from 10 psia and 40 ft3 to 20 psia. Since heat is not a property. Heat and work change to some form of accumulated energy as soon as it crosses the boundaries of a system. ∫ δQ = Qif =∫ T dS (3. 2400 F and 2000 psia to a final state at 0. heat flows from the higher temperature body to the lower temperature body. and heat leaving the system is negative. p=1080 kPa. 29. -51. not associated with matter. 0. ANSWER: 7.45=c] from an initial state at 0. heat input to a system is taken as positive. Find the final air pressure and the specific work done by the air. 27.05 Btu/lbm. Heat is a form of energy.3.8 Btu/lbm. Notice that Equation (3. -3743 kJ. much as pedestrians change into passengers as soon as they enter a bus. Heat is not a property of the system.7 psia. There is no such thing as Qf or Qi. T=650 K. (B) at constant temperature.19 Btu/lbm. w and Δu for this process.045 ft3. the derivative of heat is written as δQ. Determine q. 30. 2. -3743 kJ.2.3. Once energy has gotten into a system. Heat and work are the only energy forms that a system can give to or take from its surroundings without transferring matter.31 Btu/lbm.45=p1(v1)1. As a convention of sign. Find the work necessary to halve the volume (A) at constant pressure. Q=-6730 kJ. 3.3.78 Chih Wu ANSWER: V1=1. the product pV remains a constant. Heat is a microscopic transitory quantity.31 Btu/lbm.13 m3.2 psia and 70 F to 100 F.17 kJ.6045 m3. The notation of heat is Q.1) for heat is similar to Equation (3.45=p2(v2)1. This flow of heat ceases when thermal equilibrium between the two bodies is reached. ANSWER: 134. Air in an internal combustion engine undergoes an expansion process [pv1. During the compression process.007 ft3. the amount of heat transferred to a system from the surroundings between an initial state i and a final state f is Qif rather than (Qf-Qi).

6. (H) Work in an adiabatic process is zero.3. The term “work of a system” and “heat of a system” are meaningless. Block A and block B are at different temperatures (TA >TB). and on a p-T diagram. the energy of the system decreases.First Law of Thermodynamics for Closed Systems 79 to tell whether the energy was transferred as heat or as work. (I) When a gas is being compressed in an adiabatic cylinder its energy decreases. (G) The heat interaction in an isothermal process is zero. 14. Under what condition is heat equal to T(S2-S1)? Is it possible to decrease the temperature of a substance. by prescribing the proper boundaries. (C) Heat is a property. . without remove heat from the substance? Heat is removed from a superheated steam vapor at constant volume until liquid just begins to form. How do you interpret this area. Explain the difference between internal energy and heat. Show this process on a p-v diagram. Heat 1. The sides of each block that are not insulated are placed together. (F) The product of pressure and volume is a property. 10. Is this energy transferred by the mode of heat or by the mode of work? Indicate whether the following statements are true or false: (A) Work is a property. The term ∫ Tds is the area under the process on a T-s diagram. Heat is added to a 400 K saturated liquid water at constant pressure until its temperature reaches 500 K. (D) In an expansion process the work is positive. Explain the difference between work and heat. (E) Equilibrium is a state that cannot be changed. 4. 5. 13. and on a T-s diagram. 11. Discuss the difference between them. a p-T diagram. (J) In a cycle where the net work is positive. Find the amount of heat added per unit mass. 7. Homework 3. Five sides of each block are well insulated. 8. such as a gas. 3. 9. 15. 12. Keeping the definition of heat in mind. (B) Work from a state 1 to state 2 depends on the path of the system. or a high value of temperature of the system? Both heat and work represent transient forms of energy. ANSWER: q=2399 kJ/kg. Show this process on a p-v diagram. (A) Select a system in such a manner that there is no transfer of heat (B) Select a system that receives energy by the mode of heat (C) Select a system that rejects energy by the mode of heat A closed system receives 100 kJ of energy from its surroundings. Is it correct to say that a system possesses 5 kJ of heat? Can heat be added to a system during a constant temperature process? What is the driving force and its corresponding displacement of heat? Does a hot system describe a high value of heat. 2.

4.1). For example (3. The First law of thermodynamics for a closed system [Equation (3.80 Chih Wu 16. Heat is removed from steam at its critical point at constant volume until the pressure is 100 kPa. 17.4. FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR A CLOSED SYSTEM The energy (E) content of a closed system may be changed by heat (Q) or work (W) or both from its surroundings without mass transfer. (E) Equilibrium is a state that cannot be changed.4. Show this process on a p-v diagram.4. respectively.1). 1 refers to time 1 (t1) and 2 refers to time 2 (t2). (I) When a gas is being compressed in an adiabatic cylinder its energy decreases.1)] expressed in words is [time change of the energy contained within the closed system] = [net heat added to the system] .1) Equation (3.1) is the First law of thermodynamics for a closed system. the final energy content of a closed system at time t2 be E2.2) is the specific form of Equation (3. we must always remember the important sign convention that we have adopted for heat and work. Let the initial energy content of a closed system at time t1 be E1. (D) In an expansion process the work is positive. Heat added to the system during the time interval from t1 to t2 is Q12. (G) The heat interaction in an isothermal process is zero.2) e2 -e1=q12-w12 Where e is the specific energy. (F) The product of pressure and volume is a property.4. In using Equation (3. it becomes E2 -E1=Q12-W12 (3. We must also always remember the important subscripts 1 and 2 convention that we have adopted on Equation (3. Applying the energy conservation to the closed system under these conditions.4. (H) Work in an adiabatic process is zero. Heat is added to a compressed liquid water at constant pressure until it becomes saturated liquid. .[net work added to the system] Various special forms of the First law of thermodynamics for a closed system can be written. Show this process on a p-v diagram. q is heat per unit mass and w is work per unit mass. Equation (3. (C) Heat is a property. Indicate whether the following statements are true or false: (A) Work is a property.4. 3. where e=E/m. Heat added to the system is positive and work added to the system is negative.4.1). 18. (B) Work from a state 1 to state 2 depends on the path of the system. and work added to the system during the time interval from t1 to t2 is W12. q=Q/m and w=W/m.4.

4.4.5) (3.4.1) and Equation (3.2).4.2).4.2). The time rate of the First law of thermodynamics for a closed system [Equation (3.8) Equation (3.4.9) and Equation (3.7) and Equation (3. dE=Q-W de=q-w (3. and t=t2 -t1.4. Solution: The copper is an incompressible substance with constant volume.4.3) and Equation (3.4. e=e2 -e1.4.4) Equation (3.4.1.4. where E=E2 -E1.4. 6 Btu of heat is added to 2 lbm of copper.4.6) are the differential forms of Equation (3.4.3) (3.9)] expressed in words is [time rate of change of the energy contained within the closed system at time t] = [net rate of heat added to the system at time t] .4.9) (3.8) are the finite forms of Equation (3.First Law of Thermodynamics for Closed Systems ∫ dE=TQ-TW ∫ de= ∫q-Ιw 81 (3.7) (3.4. dE/dt=Qdot-Wdot de/dt=qdot-wdot (3.[net rate of work added to the system at time t] Example 3.4. Neglect the kinetic and potential energy change.4.4. we have W =∫ p dV=0 and ΔE=ΔU=Q-W=6-0=6 Btu.4.1) and Equation (3.10) Equation (3.4) are the integral forms of Equation (3.6) Equation (3. E/t=Q12/t-W12/t e/t=q12/t-w12/t (3.4.4.5) and Equation (3.10) are the time rate forms of Equation (3.4. .1) and Equation (3. Applying the definition of boundary work and the first law of thermodynamics for a closed system.2). respectively.1) and Equation (3.4. find the change in internal Energy.4.

01=6.3 kPa and 20ºC. Δh=3035-1518=1517 kJ. Can changes of volume occur within a closed system without work added or removed? 3.8 kJ .82 Chih Wu Example 3. the . entropy change.3 kJ. Display results The answers are: (A) w=608.01m3. Build (A) Take a begin.2. a heating-combustion device. 101.1 kg. and an end from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them. and internal energy change of the helium. (B) Input the given information: (i) working fluid is helium.3 kPa and 20ºC is contained within a cylinder and piston setup. The helium undergoes an isobaric heating process.06-5. (B) volume change.02-6.4.59 kJ/[kg(K)].2. and Δu=1817-908. (B) Switch to analysis mode. Isobaric process Homework 3. (ii) the helium mass. To solve this problem by CyclePad. Analysis (A) Assume the heating-combustion is isobaric.4. The volume of the helium is doubled at the end of this process.47=3. Figure E3.4. Can changes of state occur within a closed system without heat or work added? 2. (B) Δv=12. Δs=9. 2. First Law of Thermodynamics for a Closed System 1.7=908. 3. A combustion by burning a mixture of gasoline and air in a constant-volume cylinder-piston assembly surrounded by a water bath. During the combustion. (iii) the final specific volume is twice the initial specific volume. we take the following steps: 1. initial pressure and temperature of the process are 0. enthalpy change. Determine (A) the work done by the helium. Ignore the kinetic and potential energy changes. 1 kg of helium initially at 101.

Considering the vessel is the system. Determine the final internal energy of the water. (ΔE=Efinal-Einitial) (A) (A). The internal energy of water at the start of a process is 1300 Btu/lbm. 6. The final internal energy of nitrogen contained in a closed tank is 600 Btu/lbm. ΔU=0 kJ. What is the initial internal energy? ANSWER: 900 Btu/lbm. W=?. ANSWER: 1340 Btu/lbm. (C) 26 kJ. Considering the liquid as the system: (A) Has work been done? (B) Has heat been transferred? (C) What is the sign of internal energy change? An adiabatic vessel with rigid walls is divided into two parts by a partition. ΔU=18 kJ. How much heat was added or subtracted from each pound of the gas? ANSWER: 5650 Btu. The internal energy at the start of the process is 9000 Btu/lbm and at the completion of the process is 15000 Btu/lbm.64 Btu/lbm. ΔUΔ=18 kJ. During the process 50 Btu/lbm of heat is added to the water and 10 Btu of work is performed by the water. Ufinal=34 kJ.64 Btu/lbm of work are added to the gas. A total of 350 Btu of work is done on the gas. if the partition is broken. ANSWER: 19. 5. (B) (B). Considering the vessel is the system. and the other is evacuated. 7. ANSWER: (A) 46 kJ. Q=?. 11. W=6 kJ. (B) 43 kJ. W=25 kJ. 8. temperature of the water is observed to rise. find: (A) Has work been done? (B) Has heat been transferred? (C) What is the sign of internal energy change? An adiabatic vessel with rigid walls is divided into two parts by a partition. . 10. One part contains air at 200 kPa and 300 K. 100 pounds of nitrogen undergoes a process. (D) 12 kJ. Q=18 kJ. 200 Btu/lbm of heat was removed from the gas and 100 Btu/lbm of work is done on the gas. ΔU=?. Determine the change in specific internal energy for nitrogen contained in a closed tank while 12 Btu/lbm of heat and 7. and the other contains air at 100 kPa and 290 K. 9. Q=? kJ. Considering the gasoline and air as the system: (A) Has work been done? (B) Has heat been transferred? (C) What is the sign of internal energy change? A liquid is stirred in a well-insulted container and undergoes a rise in temperature. (C) (C). (D) (D). One part contains a gas. W=12 kJ. if the partition is broken. Q=44 kJ. find: (A) Has work been done? (B) Has heat been transferred? (C) What is the sign of internal energy change? Fill in the missing data for each of the following processes of a closed system between the initial state and final state.First Law of Thermodynamics for Closed Systems 83 4.

A closed rigid vessel of 1 m3 capacity is filled with saturated steam at 300 kPa. How much heat must be added? 13. 2-3. Heat is transferred to the contents of the tank until the liquid water has just evaporated. (A) One pound mass of steam is confined in a cylinder by a piston at 100 psia and 900 R. we have E2 -E1=Q12-W12 E3 -E2=Q23-W23 and E1 -E3=Q31-W31 For the cycle. FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR A CLOSED SYSTEM APPLY TO CYCLES Let a closed system operate in a cycle consisting of three processes 1-2.3) (3.5.84 Chih Wu 12. Applying Equation (3.1.1) (3. cycle The initial state (1) of the cycle is the same as the finite state (also 1). 2-3.2) .5.01 m3 of saturated liquid water and 0.7 psia. If subsequently. and 3-1as shown in Figure 3. 2-3. how much heat must be removed and what is the final pressure? 14.5.1.5. 20% of steam is condensed.1) to the three processes 1-2. Calculate the work done by the steam if it is allowed to expand isothermally to 40 psia. p 2 3 1 V Volume Figure 3. and 3-1. we have (3. 3. which consists of three processes 1-2.4.99 m3 of saturated vapor at 14.5.5. and 3-1. A rigid tank having a volume of 1 m3 contains 0. (C) Explain the difference between the work values obtained in (A) and (B). (B) One pound mass of steam is confined in a cylinder by a piston at 100 psia and 900 R. Calculate the work done by the steam if it is allowed to expand adibatically to 40 psia.

6) (3. What is the change of temperature (or any property) of a cycle? 2.1. respectively.5. ∫ Cycle δQ is the net heat added to the cycle and ∫ Cycle δW is the net work produced by the cycle. An inventor claims to have developed a work-producing closed system cycle which receives 2000 kJ of heat from a heat source and rejects 800 kJ of heat to a heat sink. In words.5. ∫ Cycle δQ =Qnet=+2000+(-800)=1200 kJ ∫ Cycle δW =Wnet=+1200 kJ Since Wnet=Qnet.3) yields ∫ Cycle δQ = ∫ Cycle δW or Q12+Q23+Q31=W12+W23+W31.5. Homework 3.7) states that in a cycle the net heat addition to the cycle is equal to the net work removed from the cycle.5.5. How do we evaluate his claim? . It produces a net work of 1200 kJ. the claim is valid as far as the First law of thermodynamics is concerned.5. An inventor claims to have developed a heat-producing closed system cycle which receives 2000 kJ of heat from a low-temperature heat source and rejects 3200 kJ of heat to a high-temperature heat sink. It consumes a net work of 1200 kJ. First Law of Thermodynamics for a Closed System Apply to Cycles 1.4) (3.4.First Law of Thermodynamics for Closed Systems ∫ Δ CycledE= (E2 -E1)+ (E2 -E1)+(E2 -E1) = 0 ∫ Cycle δQ = Q12+Q23+Q31 = Qnet ∫ Cycle δW = W12+W23+W31 = Wnet Applying Equation (3. Equation (3. or Qnet=Wnet 85 (3.7) (3. How do we evaluate his claim? Solution: Let us check if the First law of thermodynamics for a closed system cycle is satisfied or not.5) (3.5. Is it possible that the net heat added to a cycle is negative? 3.5.8) where ∫ Cycle is the summation around the cycle. Example 3.

2) is reduced to Q12 -W12 = U2 . CLOSED SYSTEM FOR VARIOUS PROCESSES Processes encountered in engineering are of many varieties. Without shaft work.. and (C) the amount of work and heat that will be transferred to the room when the steam pressure drops to 100 kPa.6.86 Chih Wu 3.1. The radiator (rigid-tank closed system) of a steam heating system has a mass of 0.6. It is necessary for one to acquire the ability to analyze simple processes before one can acquire the ability to analyze complex and multi-processes. .6.6. Constant Volume (Isochoric or Isometric) Process If the volume of a process is constant. The final volume (or specific volume) of the process is the same as its initial volume (or specific volume).6.1.6.2) (3.1.1.2) (3. At this moment both the inlet and exit valves to the radiator are closed. For a closed system process. we shall apply the fundamental first law of thermodynamics to the study of several common types of closed system processes. (B) the change of internal energy and entropy.6. and Q12 = U2 . the boundary work and the First law of thermodynamics of the closed system for a process are: W12 = ∫ pdV and Q12 -W12 = E2 .6.1.1) That is.E1 (3. the mass is constant.U1 (3. 3. the kinetic energy change and potential energy change can be neglected. Example 3.3) It will be seen that although the basic principles are identical for all processes.1) In many engineering applications. the boundary work and the First law of thermodynamics of the closed system for the constant volume process are: W12 = ∫ pdV=0.02 kg and is filled with superheated vapor at 300 kPa and 280ºC. Eq. Without shaft work. In this chapter. it is called isochoric or isometric process.U1 (3. Determine (A) the final temperature and quality of the steam. the analyses will depend on the kind of working substance involved and the state properties. the quantity of heat added to a system is equal to the change of the internal energy of the system.6. (3.

we take the following steps: 1.1. 2.First Law of Thermodynamics for Closed Systems To solve this problem by CyclePad.1. The air is now cooled until its pressure is reduced to 25 psia. we take the following steps: 87 1. and (c) the final air pressure of the process is 25 psia. 2.63=-3. 3. Build (A) Take a begin. and an end from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them. Build (A) Take a begin. To solve this problem by CyclePad. (B) Switch to analysis mode. (b) the initial air mass.6. Display results The answers are: (A) T=99. Analysis (A) Assume the cooler as an isochoric process.6. and (c) the final water pressure of the process is 100 kPa . 50 psia and 70ºF.36 kJ. A rigid tank contains 3 lbm of air at 50 psia and 70ºF. (B) Switch to analysis mode. W=0.1. (C) the change of internal energy and entropy. 3. a cooler. pressure and temperature of the process are 3 lbm. Determine (A) the initial specific volume of the air. and (D) the amount of work and heat. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is air.32-7.2. Isobaric cooling Example 3.31 kJ/[kg(K)].4977. (b) the initial water pressure and temperature of the process are 300 kPa and 280ºC. Analysis (A) Assume the cooler as a isochoric process. (B) the final temperature of the air. a cooler. Display results . Figure E3. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is water. (C) W=0 and Q=-26.63ºC and x=0. (B) Δu=1457-2775=-1318 kJ/kg and Δs=4. and an end from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them.

8 ºF. final quality of the steam. the temperature increases to 411. A closed rigid vessel contains 1. The final pressure of the process is the same as its initial pressure. (B) 120 kJ. Without shaft work. (C) Δu=45.7 psia is contained inside a rigid vessel having a volume of 50 ft3. Constant Volume 1. Constant volume process Homework 3. What is the size of the vessel? Determine the amount of heat transferred to the vessel. 3. and Δs=0. and (C) the final pressure and temperature of the air.88 Chih Wu The answers are: (A) v=3.5ºF.85 kg. 2.2. If 120 kJ of heat are supplied to the gas.05 m3 of saturated liquid water and 4. work added. 1606 Btu. it is called isobaric process.67=-45.6. Constant Pressure (Isobaric) Process If the pressure of a process is constant. A rigid. ANSWER: -817.6. A 5 m3 rigid tank contains a quality 0.5334. (B) the heat added.1.05745 steam (0. ANSWER: 9. ANSWER: 682.6. the boundary work and the First law of thermodynamics of the closed system for the constant pressure process 1-2 are: . 0. closed vessel contains 2 lbm of steam initially at 100 psia.34-90.1 Mpa. One kg of air at 350 kPa is confined to a 0.4893=-0.3706-0. 0. (D) W=0 and Q=-136 kJ. Determine the final temperature of the H2O.1187 Btu/[lbm(R)]. Heat added to the mixture causes the H2O to reach a pressure of 300 psia. work and heat added during this process.2 m3 rigid tank. Figure E3. Heat is removed until the temperature drops to 180 F. 350ºF.7 Btu.92 ft3/lbm.1. ANSWER: (A) 0. 3.5 lbm of water vapor at 100 psia. and the quality at the final state. Find (A) the work done. Saturated steam vapor (x=1) at 14. 4. Heat is transferred until the pressure reaches 150 kPa.2. It is cooled to 200ºF. -1468 Btu. 138. (B) T=-194. Determine the initial amount of water in the system. ANSWER: 50. and heat transfer added to the system.084.5 lbm of liquid water and 1. Find the amount of heat removed.4ºF.33 Btu/lbm. (C) 590 kPa. 5.95 m3 of saturated water vapor) at 0.20 ft3. 0.5ºC. 5186 kJ. 0.

1) (3.. Display results The answers are: (A) T=529.70 kJ/[kg(K)].08=0. (B) Switch to analysis mode. 0. Constant pressure process .1. and (C) the amount of work and heat. Example 3. 3.1-287. and Q12 = W12 + U2 .2.6. Figure E3. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) the process is isobaric.005 kg. whereas it was equal to the increase of internal energy in the reversible constant volume process.First Law of Thermodynamics for Closed Systems W12 = ∫ pdV= p(V2 -V1 ).H1 89 (3.2. and an end from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them.6. 2. (B) Δu=575.782.2. (C) W=0.5=287. (b) working fluid is air and mass is 0. To solve this problem by CyclePad. Heat is added at a constant pressure until its volume is doubled. Build (A) Take a begin.6.2) Thus the heat added in a reversible constant pressure process is equal to the increase of enthalpy.6. (B) the change of internal energy and entropy.U1 = H2 .005 kg of air contained inside a piston-cylinder set up is initially at 128ºC and 900 kPa.1.3ºC.6 kJ/kg and Δs=2.01 kJ. Determine (A) the final temperature of the air. and (c) the initial temperature and pressure of the process are 128ºC and 900 kPa.5752 kJ and Q=2.2. a heater. we take the following steps: 1.

0 kJ.U1=0.01 Btu. Air at 100 kPa. 1000 kJ.1. ANSWER: (A) 165ºC. 49.1 kg of air is expanded from 3 m3 to 8 m3 in an isobaric process with a constant pressure of 200 kPa. The pressure is maintained constant during the process. 3. 0. A closed system holds a mixture of 1 kg of liquid water and 1 kg of water vapor at 700 kPa. 4.1618 kg of air at 150 kPa.1 m3 of carbon dioxide at 100 kPa and 85ºC. 50ºC.90 Chih Wu Homework 3. (C) Determine the work and heat added to the system. Determine (A) . 1. 6. 27ºC occupies a 0.01 m3. (B) 2908 kJ.9 kJ. it is called isothermal.62 kJ. What is the work done and heat transferred? ANSWER: -37.3.10 Btu.6. This device is now heated until its volume is doubled. and heat added during this process. Constant Temperature (Isothermal) Process If the temperature of a process is constant. A piston-cylinder device contains 0. 5.29 Btu. The First law of thermodynamics of the closed system for the constant temperature process 1-2 are: Q12 -W12 = U2 . How much heat is added and work is done by the gas? ANSWER: 3500 kJ. (3. Half pound of CO2 undergoes an isobaric process with a pressure of 50 psia while the volume increases from 4 ft3 to 8 ft3. 2.U1 For an ideal gas. When the quantities of heat and work are so proportioned during an expansion or compression. During the process the pressure remains constant at 20 psia. ANSWER: 308. U2 .6. Find the (A) final temperature and (B) work done. A cylinder fitted with a piston has an initial volume of 0.1) Example 3. 3. 14. Find the work done and heat added. (C) 385. Determine (A) the initial temperature. The piston is moved. The carbon dioxide is compressed isothermally until the volume becomes 0. ANSWER: 3. Therefore Q12 =W12 for the isothermal process.6. expanding the air isobarically (constant pressure) until the temperature is 150ºC.6ºF.1 m3 and contains 0.3. Determine the heat transfer to the air and work produced by the air. and (B) Heat transfer to the content occurs until the temperature reaches 360ºC.01 m3 piston-cylinder device that is arranged to maintain constant air pressure.3.39 Btu. Isobaric Process 1. Determine work added. 7. ANSWER: 0. -164.50 kJ.2. 50 Btu’s of heat are added to 1 lbm of air during an isobaric process with a pressure of 15 psia starting at a temperature of 100ºF. the final temperature of the process is the same as its initial temperature.6.4642 kJ.6 Btu. Five pounds of CO2 is compressed in a piston-cylinder setup from a volume of 23 ft3 to a volume of 13 ft3. 1. ANSWER: 16.

4.First Law of Thermodynamics for Closed Systems 91 the final pressure of the carbon dioxide.2 m3 at a pressure of 1.31 Btu. the product pV remains a constant. 85ºC and 100 kPa.3=0 kJ/kg and Δs=2.77=-0. During the compression process.2 kg of air occupying a volume of 0. Find the work necessary to halve the volume (A) at constant pressure. Isothermal process Homework 3. 0. Figure E3. Find the work added and heat added during this process. 3. 269. determine the heat transferred and work done. ANSWER: 274.3. .5 m3. 1.03 kJ. and an end from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) the process is isothermal. temperature and pressure of the process are 0. 2. (c) the initial volume. 2. -51. ANSWER: 269. To solve this problem by CyclePad.5 Mpa is heated and expands isothermally (T=c) to a volume of 0. a compressor.3.31 Btu.6.01 m3.33-2. 274.9 kJ. (B) the change of internal energy and entropy. Build (A) Take a begin. Display results The answers are: (A) p=1000 kPa. (b) working fluid is carbon dioxide.6.3-233.1 m3. 3. Determine the work done on the gas. and (C) the amount of work and heat. and the heat transfer to the gas. Assuming the process is isothermal. and (d) the final volume is 0. 3 ft3 of air are expanded in a piston-cylinder setup from 700 psia and 2900ºF to a final volume of 6 ft3.9 kJ. (B) Switch to analysis mode. ANSWER: -51.44 kJ/[kg(K)]. 2 kg of helium occupy a volume of 10 m3 at 1300 K.1.4 Btu. (B) Δu=233. What is the temperature at the end of process (A)? What is the pressure at the end of process (B)? Find also the heat transfer in both cases.03 kJ and Q=-23. Constant Temperature Process 1.4 Btu. we take the following steps: 1.25 lbm of air is compressed by a piston in a cylinder from 10 psia and 40 ft3 to 20 psia. (B) at constant temperature. (C) W=-23.

and (c) the final air pressure and temperature of the process are 1800 kPa and 662. heat pump. Adiabatic Process The term adiabatic is used to describe any process during which heat is prevented from crossing the boundary of the system. 3. An adiabatic process is an idealization. -3743 kJ. (b) the initial air mass. work is done by the system at the expense of its internal energy. a process taking place in a well-insulated container can be considered adiabatic.4. (B) Switch to analysis mode. .4. Since there is a heat transfer with any temperature difference between a system and its surroundings.14. thus approximating the adiabatic boundary. Insulation placed on the boundary of a system will also result in a reduction in heat transfer between the system and its surroundings. in an adiabatic compression. p=1080 kPa. To solve this problem by CyclePad. The adiabatic process may be reversible or irreversible.6. and W=-533.4. pressure and temperature of the process are 2 kg. a compression device. 2. the internal energy is increased by an amount equal to work done on the system. For example. a very rapid process may be treated as adiabatic. (C) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is air.1.92 Chih Wu ANSWER: W=-2700 kJ. the heat transfer to the system is equal to zero.1) The First law of thermodynamics of the closed system for the adiabatic process 1-2 is: -W12 = U2 .6. A frictionless piston-cylinder device contains 2 kg of air at 100 kPa and 290K. and refrigeration. although it would not be quasi-static. such idealization is of immense use in the analyses of theoretical cycles for power generation. Air is now compressed adiabatically to 1800 kPa and 662. (3. However. Analysis (A) Expansion device (B) Assume the compression as an adiabatic process. -3743 kJ.3 K.3 K.2) In an adiabatic expansion. Since heat transfer in practice requires some time. Build (A) Take a begin.U1 (3. Display results The answers is Q=0 kJ. 100 kPa and 290K. Find the work added to the device. Q=-6730 kJ. we take the following steps: 1. T=650 K. Example 3. Q12 = 0. and an end from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them.6.6. If a process is adiabatic. 3.7 kJ.

4. 3. Find the Final temperature and volume of the air. A frictionless piston-cylinder device contains 5 lbm of air at 14. To solve this problem by CyclePad.7 psia and 80ºF.First Law of Thermodynamics for Closed Systems 93 Figure E3. Air is now expanded adiabatically to 200 psia.1ºF and V=10. pressure and temperature of the process are 5 lbm of air at 14. Adiabatic process .6. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is air. Analysis (A) Assume the expansion as an adiabatic process. (B) Switch to analysis mode. a compression device.1. 511.6. we take the following steps: 1. Display results The answers are T=678. Adiabatic process Example 3.6.7 psia and 80ºF. W added is -511.9 Btu.9 Btu of work is added to the process. 2.52 ft3. Figure E3. and (c) the final air pressure is 200 psia.2. (b) the initial air mass. Build (A) Take a begin.2. and an end from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them.4.4.

if any.2) An isentropic process requires a system to be adiabatic. Find the work performed by the expanding air. 3. Adibatic Process 1. Determine the work added to the air. we take the following steps: 1. (D) Air at high speed passes through a valve. Build (A) Take a begin. an adiabatic process is not isentropic. (B) Switch to analysis mode.1 Helium undergoes an isentropic expansion process from an initial volume of 0. 2.1) The First law of thermodynamics of the closed system for the isentropic process 1-2 is: -W12 = U2 . .6. and an end from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them.4. 3 kg of air is compressed adiabatically from 100 kPa and 40 C to 4000 kPa and 627 C. To solve this problem by CyclePad.6.5.6. (C) Air passes through a high speed turbine. (E) Air at high speed passes through a nozzle. an expansion device. 300 F and 2000 psia to 0. ANSWER: -1262 kJ.5. Analysis (A) Assume the expansion as an isentropic process.007 ft3. Determine the work added or removed from the air during this process.5. Notice that an isentropic process model in CyclePad is defined as adiabatic and isentropic. (B) Water is pumped by a car water pump. would you assume to be adiabatic? (A) Water flows through a car radiator. and entropy change of the gas. ANSWER: 78. Q12 = 0.5.6.U1 (3.41 kJ.94 Chih Wu Homework 3. 3. and S2 = S1 (3. However. it is called isentropic.1 kg of air is expanded adiabatically from 5000 kPa and 2000 C to 500 kPa and 906 C. Which of the following processes. Also determine the final temperature.045 ft3. 0. Determine the work done by the air. The heat transfer to the system is equal to zero and the final entropy of the process is the same as its initial entropy.6. Constant Entropy (Isentropic) Process If the entropy of a process is constant. the internal energy change. Example 3. 2.

Analysis (A) Assume the expansion as an isentropic process.0 Btu (removed).045 ft3.3ºF. Build (A) Take a begin.2 lbm. Display results The answers are W=2. and (c) the final helium volume is 0. Display results The answers are W=885. 2000 psia and 300ºF. we take the following steps: 1. .3283-0. Find the work performed by the expanding water.76 Btu.6805-(-0. Δu=382. and Δs=0.First Law of Thermodynamics for Closed Systems 95 (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is helium. T=-241.7-562. pressure and temperature of the process are 0.1. Figure E3.3283=0 Btu/[lbm(R)].9637. (B) Switch to analysis mode. 2.6.72ºF. and Δs=0.007 ft3. 2. ∆u=161. and (d) the final pressure is 100 psia. (b) the initial pressure and temperature of the process are 600 psia and 600ºF. the internal energy change. 3.5.2.2 lbm of helium undergoes an isentropic expansion process from an initial 600 psia and 600ºF to 100 psia. To solve this problem by CyclePad.6.3-784. 3.5=-400. Determine the work added or removed from the water during this process. (b) the initial helium volume. Also determine the final temperature and quality. x=0. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is helium. (c) the mass is 2. and an end from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them.8 Btu/lbm.5.3 Btu/lbm. and entropy change of the gas.6=-402. Isentropic process Example 3. T=56. an expansion device.6805)=0 Btu/[lbm(R)].

Find the final temperature and quality of the steam. (E) 0. 0. (D) work done.4 Mpa and 300 K contained in a cylinder and piston device is expanded isentropically to 0.2 MPa. 5. Ammonia at 0. (D) 273 Btu. Freon R-12 at 0. (C) 0. 4. (B) 1131ºC.3 kg of ir at 2400ºC and 1 Mpa expands isentropically.6. ANSWER: 406.4 Mpa and 300 K contained in a cylinder and piston device is expanded isentropically to 0. ANSWER: 247. The final volume is 5 times the initial volume. 7.79 psia.2 MPa. (B) 1305ºF. ANSWER: 190. 3. ANSWER: 255.2 MPa. (D) 1182 kJ. (D) work done.4 Mpa and 433 K contained in a cylinder and piston device is expanded isentropically to 0. Find the final temperature of the water and the work done by the water. Carbon dioxide at 0. Freon R-134a at 0. (B) final temperature. ANSWER: 256.4 K. ANSWER: 274.4 Mpa and 300 K contained in a cylinder and piston device is expanded isentropically to 0. and (E) change in entropy. 9. (B) final temperature.7 K. Water is expanded isentropically from 1 Mpa and 400 C to 200 kPa. Find the final temperature of the substance. Isentropic process Homework 3.2 MPa.1 kJ/kg.4 Mpa and 300 K contained in a cylinder and piston device is expanded isentropically to 0. ANSWER: (A) 57. (C) heat transferred.4 Mpa and 300 K contained in a cylinder and piston device is expanded isentropically to 0.6 K.5. 8.4 Mpa and 300 K contained in a cylinder and piston device is expanded isentropically to 0. (C) 0.5. .5ºC. ANSWER: 268. 10. ANSWER: 278 K.2. (C) heat transferred. Methane at 0. Air at 2900ºF and 550 psia contained in a tank expands isentropically. Isentropic Process 1. 6. 1. (E) 0. Steam at 0.2 K.9979. Find the (A) final pressure.2 MPa. Find the final temperature of the substance. ANSWER: (A) 105. Find the final temperature of the substance.1 kPa.7 K.6. Find the final temperature of the substance.2 MPa. 317.5 K.96 Chih Wu Figure E3. Find the final temperature of the substance. Find the final temperature of the substance. 2. and (E) change in entropy.3 MPa. Find the (A) final pressure. The final volume is 5 times the initial volume. Freon R-22 at 0.

6.U1 (3. ANSWER: 227. and an end from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them. .6. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is water. Find the final temperature of the substance.2 K. Build (A) Take a begin. n=1. The boundary work and the First law of thermodynamics of the closed system for the constant pressure process 1-2 are: W12 = ∫ pdV. Determine the heat added or removed from the water during this process.. Δu=12111214=-3 Btu/lbm.6. the internal energy change.9 Btu (added).3 Btu (removed).4 Mpa and 300 K contained in a cylinder and piston device is expanded isentropically to 0. a compression device.6.First Law of Thermodynamics for Closed Systems 97 11.6.64-1.08 Btu/[lbm(R)].6. Polytropic Process Many practical thermodynamic applications undergo processes described by a specific relationship between pressure and volume. Display results The answers are W=-252.2) (3. 2 lbm of water undergoes an polytropic compression process from an initial 100 psia and 600ºF to 300 psia and 620ºF.1) Example 3. 2. The exponential index n is either known or is obtained from experimental data. Also determine the exponential index n of the polytropic process. and (d) the final pressure and temperature of the process are 300 psia and 620ºF. (c) the mass is 2 lbm. (b) the initial pressure and temperature of the process are 100 psia and 600ºF. To solve this problem by CyclePad. (B) Switch to analysis mode.6. Q=-258.76=-0. Helium at 0. The polytropic process is a generalization of the isentropic and other processes that are used when the working fluid is an ideal gas. 3. 3. and entropy change of the water.2 MPa. and Q12 = W12 + U2 . Find the work added to the water. we take the following steps: 1.6. A process described by pVn=constant is called a polytropic process. The polytropic process is quite useful for analyzing ideal gas processes.00.1. and ρs=1.

(c) the mass is 0. we take the following steps: 1.211.6.6. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is carbon dioxide. Determine the heat added or removed from the gas during this process.34 lbm.0102 Btu/[lbm(R)]. Polytropic process . Figure E3. the internal energy change. Also determine the exponential index n of the polytropic process. Build (A) Take a begin.6. and entropy change of the gas.6.2. and an end from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them.5 Btu/lbm. (B) Switch to analysis mode.6.1. 3.37. To solve this problem by CyclePad.1. Polytropic process Example 3.98 Chih Wu Figure E3. Q=-4.6740=-0.06 Btu. and ∆s=0.34 lbm of carbon dioxide at 900ºF and 300 psia contained in a tank expands polytropically to 100 psia and 550ºF. ∆u=157.2. 2.6=-54. 0. Display results The answers are W=14. (b) the initial pressure and temperature of the process are 300 psia and 900ºF. and (d) the final pressure and temperature of the process are 100 psia and 550ºF. n=1.45 Btu (removed).6638-0.6. an expansion device.

2. 5. Find the work done for the processes.14 kJ. Polytropic Process 1. 13. 240. (D) n=1. 12. 10 psia. (C) -22. (D) 27. 80ºF and 1000 psia to a final state at 0.24 kJ. 80ºF and 1000 psia to a final state at 0. pressure.1 m3. If the final temperature of the air is 50ºF.1 ft3. 9.02 m3 and 7 bars to a final pressure of 1 bar. 0.67.9 Btu/lbm. what is the final pressure? What is the heat added? What is the work added? ANSWER: 7 psia. specific heat added and the specific work done by the helium. -405. (E) 11. (B) -40. The gas expands from an initial state of 0.09 Btu.6.3=constant).3 psia and 75ºF to 2000 psia in a polytropic process.15 m3. (C) -60. ANSWER: 1.3=constant.31 Btu/lbm. Determine the work done by the air during a polytropic expansion process.04 ft3. -118. and (C) the heat interaction. (B) final temperature and pressure. Air in a piston-cylinder set up expands from 30 psia and 12 ft3/lbm to 22 psia and 18 ft3/lbm. (B) the work done. pvn=constant.34 Btu/lbm. ANSWER: (A) 807. -83.02 m3 and 7 bars to a final pressure of 1 bar.39 kJ. 6. Find (A) the final temperature and pressure. (B) -373. A cylinder contains 6 kg of carbon dioxide and is covered by a piston. Air initially at 15 psia and 250ºF is expanded from 13 ft3 to 20 ft3.24 Btu.4 K and 0. ANSWER: 28.19 Btu.23 Btu/lbm. if n=1.6.01 ft3.1 ft3. pv1. 1 kg of helium is compressed in a polytropic process (pv1.3ºF. ANSWER: 0.304 lbm. Find the value of the polytropic exponent for this process.4.09 kJ. ANSWER: -1881 Btu/lbm.5. 8. A cylinder contains 3 kg of air and is covered by a piston.0069 lbm. 715.7ºF.First Law of Thermodynamics for Closed Systems 99 Homework 3.7 Btu/lbm.72 kJ.93 kJ. ANSWER: (A) 0. (C) n=1. (D) 10. Carbon dioxide undergoes an expansion process [pv3=p1(v1)3=p2(v2)3=constant] from an initial state at 0. temperature and volume are 620 kPa. Determine the work done by the gas during a polytropic expansion process. Helium undergoes an expansion process [pv2=p1(v1)2=p2(v2)2=constant] from an initial state at 0.4. Find (A) the air mass. 7. (C) 19.32 kJ. ANSWER: (A) 5. 64 psia. 4. Find the helium mass. . pvn=constant. 2. 1050 kPa.10 kJ. The initial pressure. (B) n=1. if (A) n=3. temperature.08 lb of helium in a cylinder fitted with a piston is compressed from 14. (E) n=1. The final volume is 0. ANSWER: (A) 26. (C) specific heat added and (D) the specific work done by the carbon dioxide. The air expands from an initial state of 0. Air initially at 65ºF and 75 psia is compressed to a final pressure of 300 psia and temperature of 320ºF. (B) 14. Determine the specific work and heat of the compression process.9 K. 3.

A cylinder contains 0.4.4 psia. Build (A) Take a begin.2) (3.3 Btu/lbm. To solve this problem by CyclePad.3 kg of nitrogen and is covered by a piston. p=268.4 lbm. and Δs=0.7. (b) the initial helium pressure and temperature of the process are 525 psia and 870ºF.4 lbm of helium is cooled in a rigid tank from 525 psia and 870ºF to 220ºF. and change of entropy. Heating and Cooling Processes Many practical thermodynamic applications undergo heating and cooling processes. The gas expands from an initial state of 0.6. ANSWER: (A) 13. pvn=constant. the boundary work and the First law of thermodynamics of the closed system for the heating and cooling process 1-2 are: W12 = ∫ pdV. A cylinder contains 3 kg of helium and is covered by a piston. 3.4969 Btu/[lbm(R)]. a cooler.02 m3 and 7 bars to a final pressure of 1 bar.1783-0. Determine the work done by the gas during a polytropic expansion process. 11. 0.02 m3 and 7 bars to a final pressure of 1 bar.5.5 Btu. 2. change of internal energy. Δu=503.U1 (3. Determine the work done by the gas during a polytropic expansion process. final pressure of helium. W added is 0. The gas expands from an initial state of 0. there is a heating device and a cooling device in the closed system inventory shop. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is helium and mass is 0.6. Display results The answers are Q=-192.36 kJ.6752=-0. and (d) the final temperature of the process is 220ºF.6. or other processes. Without the shaft work. The heating and cooling processes can be isobaric. pvn=constant.493 kJ.7.5=-481. we take the following steps: 1. (B) Switch to analysis mode. Analysis (A) Assume the cooler as an isochoric process. Determine the heat removed.1) Example 3. 3. and Q12 = W12 + U2 . . if n=1. ANSWER: (A) 1.7.100 Chih Wu 10.1. In the software CyclePad. and an end from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them. if n=1. or isochoric.6.7.2-984.

(B) Switch to analysis mode.6 kJ. Analysis (A) Q added to the heater is 90 kJ.2 kg.7. and (d) the final quality and pressure of the process are 1 and 410 kPa. Δu=403.44=0. Heating process .2 kg of R-134a is heated from a quality of 0. (b) the initial R-134a quality and temperature of the process are 0.2. Cooling process Example 3.1. 3.First Law of Thermodynamics for Closed Systems 101 Figure E3. and an end from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them. T=9.6.55ºC. a heater.7. 2.6.7.3=81. we take the following steps: 1.2. and Δs=1. Determine the work added or removed. To solve this problem by CyclePad.28 kJ/[kg(K)]. 0.9-322. The heat added to the R-134a is 90 kJ. Figure E3. final temperature of. change of internal energy.67 kJ (removed). and change of entropy. Build (A) Take a begin.72-1. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is R-134a and mass is 0. Display results The answers are W=73.58 and 8ºC to saturated vapor at 410 kPa.58 and 8ºC.6.

and Q12 = W12 + U2 .6. ANSWER: 550. (b) heat transferred.102 Chih Wu Homework 3. 165. and an end from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them. 13. ANSWER: 34. 2.6ºC. Heating and Cooling Process 1. To solve this problem by CyclePad. Determine the work added or removed. 2.6.1.4 kg of water is heated from a quality of 0.6.8. or other processes.8. polytropic.8. 2.U1 (3. isentropic.3 lbm. Determine the work added.7. 3.2 kJ.1) Example 3. and final pressure of helium. 2. The compression and expansion processes can be adiabatic. The heat added to the water is 940 kJ.2) (3. ANSWER: 0. Analysis (A) Assume the expansion as an isentropic process.98 and 59ºC to saturated vapor at 710 kPa. (B) Switch to analysis mode. Find the (a) final temperature. The heat added to the R-12 is 94 kJ. and (d) the final pressure is 25 psia. (c) work done.63 kJ. there is a compression device and an expansion device in the closed system inventory shop. In the software CyclePad.6. and (d) change in entropy. heat removed. an expansion device. (b) the initial temperature and pressure of the process are 290ºF and 100 psia.6.59ºC. 3. and final temperature of R-22. -6. 3.8 and 9ºC to saturated vapor at 400 kPa. The final pressure is 25 psia. The boundary work and the first law of thermodynamics of the closed system for the compression and expansion process 1-2 are: W12 = ∫ pdV. Display results . 2 kg of R-22 is heated from a quality of 0. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is air.3 lbm of air at 290ºF and 100 psia expands isentropically. Build (A) Take a begin. Compression and Expansion Processes Many practical thermodynamic applications undergo compression and expansion processes. -1659 Btu. we take the following steps: 1. Determine the work added or removed. and final temperature of water. (c) the mass is 2.8.97 psia. 4 lbm of helium is cooled in a rigid tank from 25 psia and 810ºF to 250ºF.

2. Analysis (A) Assume the expansion as a polytropic process. Δs=6. we take the following steps: 1.64=-0. and ∆s=0. W=-77.. Q=0 Btu. Δu=1866-1147=719 kJ/kg. Display results The answers are T=328.1.0804 kg. W=96. Figure E3.0804 kg of helium in a cylinder fitted with a piston is compressed from 103 kPa and 0. (b) the initial helium mass.13-6.525=0 Btu/[lbm(R)]. 0. specific internal entropy change of the helium.8. Expansion process Example 3. work and heat of the compression process. . n=1. and an end from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them.64 kJ. 2. (B) Switch to analysis mode.6 3 m to 443 kPa in a polytropic process with n=1.51 kJ/[kg(K)]. 3. pressure and volume of the process are 0. To solve this problem by CyclePad.82ºF.5.525-0.6. an expansion device.First Law of Thermodynamics for Closed Systems 103 The answers are T=44. and (c) the final helium pressure is 443 kPa.8.5.41 kJ (added).6. specific internal energy change. Determine the final temperature. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is helium. and Q=-19.7ºC.6 m3. Build (A) Take a begin.54 Btu (removed). 103 kPa and 0.

6. what is the final pressure? What is the heat added? What is the work added or removed? ANSWER: 4. (B) the work done.1. (D) 17. 715. Compression process Homework 3.15 m3. Find (A) the final temperature.92 ft3. 2. The initial pressure. ANSWER: (A) 408.2ºF.5 kJ. Find (A) the final temperature. 3. (B) 134. Compression and Expansion Processes 1. 0. Carbon dioxide expands in a polytropic process with n=1. Air initially at 65ºF and 75 psia is compressed to a final pressure of 300 psia in a polytropic process with n=1.2.52 Btu/lbm. 0.7.8. (C) 58. and (D) the heat interaction.8.9 K. temperature and volume are 620 kPa. (B) the work done. The multi-process analysis is illustrated by the following examples.57.3.6881 kg.7875 Btu. (C) the heat transferred and work done for process 1-2-3. (C) the change of internal energy. 3. and (B) the heat transferred and work done for process 2-3.78 Btu/lbm. The final volume is 1 m3.PROCESS We have studied several processes separately. MULTI.32 Btu/lbm.104 Chih Wu Figure E3. ANSWER: (A) 404. (C) 0. 0. (D) .4 K and 0.023 lbm of air initially at 15 psia and 250ºF is expanded adiabatically to 0.6. Example 3.7.023 lbm of air initially at state 1 (80ºF and 100 psia) in a piston-cylinder set up undergoes the following two processes: 1-2 isometric (constant volume) process where q12=300 Btu/lbm(heat added) 2-3 adiabatic expansion to a pressure of 25 psia Find (A) the heat transferred and work done for process 1-2. 0. If the final temperature of the air is 50ºF. (B) -41. These processes can be combined to perform an engineering task.71 psia. (C) the mass of water.

and (G) Δs=s3-s1=0. . (D) p2=424.9 Btu. (E) temperature at state 3. and an end from the closedsystem inventory shop and connect them. 0.7.023 lbm.9 Btu. Display results (A) Display state 1.31 Btu/lbm. a heating device.7 psia.5 kJ.01 Btu.7ºF. Air initially at state 1 (20ºC. (B) Switch to analysis mode. To solve this problem by CyclePad. W13=W12+W23=0+5. 80ºF and 100 psia.7-92.1.4463=0.2. (F) Δu=u3-u1=174. Build (A) Take a begin. and (G) specific entropy change 1-3. (C) Q13=Q12+Q23=6. 2-3 constant volume heating with heat added 1. (b) the initial mass. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is air. we take the following steps: 1. Multi process Example 3.9+0=6. T2=1832ºF.First Law of Thermodynamics for Closed Systems 105 pressure and temperature at state 2. (B) Q23=0 Btu. W23=5. an expansion device. state 2. The answers are: (A) Q12=6. state 3. the heating device and expansion device results. 2. W12=0 Btu. (E) T3=560. Figure E3.6939-0.0024 m3 and 100 kPa) in a piston-cylinder set up undergoes the following two processes: 1-2 adiabatic and isentropic compression to a volume of 0.0003 m3.01 Btu. (F) specific internal energy change 1-3. 3. and (d) the final pressure at state 3 is 25 psia.01=5.7. temperature and pressure of the process are 0.2476 Btu/[lbm(R)].39=82. Analysis (A) Assume the heater is isometric and expansion device as an adiabatic process.

(C) Q13=Q12+Q23=0+1. W23=0 kJ. To solve this problem by CyclePad.7.0003 m3.0024 m3 and 100 kPa. and an end from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them.7784+0=-0. 2. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is air. Build (A) Take a begin.106 Chih Wu Find (A) the heat transferred and work done for process 1-2.53 kJ/[kg(K)].1=797. and (G) specific entropy change 1-3.7784 kJ. (B) Switch to analysis mode.7784 kJ. (F) specific internal energy change 1-3. (C) the heat transferred and work done for process 1-2-3. Multi process Homework 3. (D) p2=1838 kPa. the compression device and heating device results.7. Analysis (A) Assume the compression device as an adiabatic and isentropic and heater as isometric process. The answers are: (A) Q12=0 kJ. state 2. Figure E3. Display results Display state 1. a heating device. W13=W12+W23=-0. (B) Q23=1. (E) p3=3838 kPa and T3=1133ºC. 1. (B) the heat transferred and work done for process 2-3.3ºC.40=0. Q23 added in the heater is 1. (F) ∆u=u3-u1=1008-210.2 lbm of air initially at 80ºF and 100 psia in a piston-cylinder set up undergoes the following three reversible processes: . W12=-0. and (d) the volume at state 2 is 0. Multi-Process 1. and (G) Δs=s3-s1=2.5=1. 3. a compression device.9 kJ. (b) the initial temperature.2. T2=400. volume and pressure of the process are 20ºC. (E) pressure and temperature at state 3. (D) pressure and temperature at state 2.93-2.5 kJ.5 kJ. 0. we take the following steps: 1. state 3.5 kJ.

20 C and 0.58 kJ/[kg(ºC)].5 kPa. 923.88 Btu.4 kPa. and (D) total heat transferred and work done for the heating and the isentropic processes. (C) 0. 2.88 Btu.8 kJ/kg.29 Btu.57 Btu. (B) the pressure of the air at the final state of the cooling process.7411 kJ. 43. (D) pressure and temperature at state 2. ANSWER: (A) 0. Find the (A) heat transferred and work done for process 1-2. ANSWER: (A) 696. (D) 7. (D) 1838 kPa. 400. (B) 5. (B) 1. (F) 647.7411 kJ.0024 m3 and 100 kPa) in a piston-cylinder set up undergoes the following two processes: 1-2 2-3 isentropic compression to a volume of 0. (D) -0. (C) 5.86 Btu. (E) pressure and temperature at state 3. 6. constant pressure heating with heat added 1.5 kJ. (C) 43. and (C) the heat transferred and work done for process 1-2-3.8ºC. and (C) heat transferred and work done for process 3-1. . (C) heat transferred and work done for the isentropic process. 0. (D) heat transferred and work done for the cooling process. Find (A) the pressure.2124 kJ. 3. 0. Air at 100 kPa.23 lbm of air in a piston-cylinder set up is heated at 100 psia constant pressure from a temperature of 100ºF to a temperature of 200ºF. and (G) specific entropy change 1-3. Find (A) the heat transferred and work done for process 1-2.004 m3 in a piston-cylinder set up is compressed isentropically to one-fourth its original volume. The air is then expanded isentropically until the volume doubles.3498 kJ.51 Btu. and (B) the heat transferred and work done for process 2-3.0003 m3. ANSWER: (A) 0. 0. temperature and specific volume of the air at the final state. (E) 1838 kPa.2124 kJ. and (E) total heat transferred and work done for the cooling and the isentropic processes.First Law of Thermodynamics for Closed Systems 1-2 2-3 3-4 isometric process where q12=300 Btu/lbm isentropic expansion isothermal expansion 107 The pressure and temperature of air at state 4 are 1 psia and 80 F.5 kJ. (B) heat transferred and work done for the heating process. (E) -0. -0. 1. (G) 0. (B) 611. (F) specific internal energy change 1-3.3ºC.7784 kJ. Find (A) the pressure and temperature of the air at the final state of the isentropic process. -0. (B) the work if the process is done polytropically. (B) heat transferred and work done for process 2-3. 0. (C) heat transferred and work done for the isentropic process. 5. It is then cooled at constant volume to 175ºC.51 Btu.4286 kJ. 0. 237. Air is to be compressed from 101 kPa and 293 K to a final state of 1000 kPa and 450 K. 360 Btu.5 kJ. ANSWER: (A) 360 Btu. 4. (B) 0. Find: (A) the work if the compression is done first isentropically to the final pressure and then cooled to the final state. -0.3ºC. (C) 1. Air initially at state 1 (20ºC.

. SUMMARY Energy is stored within system. Notice that flow energy is equal to zero because there is no mass transfer across the boundary surface of the system. Work produced by the system is positive and heat added to the system is positive. Both work and heat are path functions.8. Heat and work are the microscopic and macroscopic energy transfers across the boundary surface from the surroundings to the system or vice versa without mass transfer. where E=Ek+Ep+U+δpV. The energy balance for a closed system.108 Chih Wu 3. Application of the First law of thermodynamics to various processes and devices using CyclePad are illustrated. can be expressed as Q-W=ΔE. Heat and work are not stored within system. called the First law of thermodynamics for a closed system. where p is a function of V. Boundary work is given by the expression ∫pdV. There are two types of important thermodynamic work: boundary work and shaft work. they are added to the system or removed from the system.

mass flow in across the boundary of the open system from the surroundings from t1 to t2 is mi. Let the initial mass content of system at time t1 is m1. a fixed space) an expression for the conservation of mass needs to be developed. However. several processes.1.1). a fixed mass) the conservation of mass is true.2.Chapter 4 FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR OPEN SYSTEMS 4. The mass (m) content of an open system may be changed by mass flow in (mi) across the boundary of the open system from the surroundings or mass exit (me) across the boundary of the open system to the surroundings. Applying the conservation of mass to the open system under these conditions becomes m2 -m1=mi -me (4.2. the final mass content of system at time t2 is m2. In many engineering applications. General Case The law of the conservation of mass states that mass can neither be created nor destroyed.1) Equation (4. were studied. or both. For a closed system (that is. CONSERVATION OF MASS 4. mass exit across the boundary of the open system to the surroundings from t1 to t2 is me.1. 4. In using Equation (4.1.2.1. In this chapter. INTRODUCTION In Chapter 3. No equation is necessary.1.2.2. it is more convenient to draw the system boundary around a fixed space (control volume or open system) through which working fluid may flow. In thermodynamics there are two kinds of systems: open and closed.1) is the law of conservation of mass for an open system. many applications using the open system approach will be studied. by focusing attention on a fixed mass (control mass or closed system). we must always remember the important subscripts that 1 refers to time 1 . for an open system (that is. The principles used in the study of open systems are the conservation of mass (mass balance) and the First law of thermodynamics (energy balance).

dme Equation (4.2.1).2.1).me/Δt (4.2.2.2.2.1. Equation (4.1.1)] expressed in words is [time change of the mass contained within the open system] = [net mass flow in across the boundary of the open system from the surroundings] .5) Equation (4.2.1).1.[net rate of mass exit across the boundary of the open system to the surroundings at time t] 4.6) (4.7) is the differential time rate form of Equation (4.1.2) (4.2.1. A steady system is one whose quantities such as mass and properties within the system do not change with respect to time.1.2.2.2) is the algebraic form of Equation (4.1. respectively. A steady-flow process is a .4) Equation (4.1.2. respectively.1).1.4) are the integral forms of Equation (4.2.2.[net mass exit across the boundary of the open system to the surroundings] Various special forms of the law of conservation of mass for an open system can be written. The law of conservation of mass for an open system [Equation (4.1.2.1.1.2.2. Δm/Δt=mi/Δt.2.1).1.7)] expressed in words is [time rate of change of the mass contained within the open system at time t] = [net rate of mass flow in across the boundary of the open system from the surroundings at time t] .1.1.1.7) Equation (4.2.1. and that i and e refer to locations. where Δm=m2 -m1.2.6) is the finite time rate form of Equation (4.110 Chih Wu (t1) and 2 refers to time 2 (t2). For examples m2 -m1=(ρiViAi -ρeVeAe) Δt ∫ Time from t1 to t2dm= ∫inlet sectionsdmi -∫exit sectionsdme ∫ Time from t1 to t2dm=∫inlet sectionsρiVidAi -∫exit sectionsρeVedAe (4.5) is the differential forms of Equation (4.3) (4. dm=dmi . respectively. i refers to inlet section i and e refers to exit section e. Steady Flow Case Many engineering processes that operate under a steady condition for long period of time are called steady-flow processes. dm/dt=mdoti -mdote (4.1.3) and Equation (4. The time rate of the law of conservation of mass for an open system [Equation (4.1.2.2. and Δt=t2 -t1.

2. Display results The answers are mdot.2.2. pressure and temperature of the hot air at the inlet are 0.2.3) (4. 200 kPa and 10ºC. Build (A) Take two sources. The mixture leaves the mixing chamber at 200 kPa. 3.2.1.1 kg/s. Example 4.mix=1.2.07 m3/s. 200 kPa and 200ºC. (c) volumetric flow rate.2.2.2. the law of conservation of mass for an open system becomes m2 -m1= 0 mdoti = mdote and ρiViAi = ρeVeAe (4. (B) Switch to analysis mode. Equation (4.1 kg/s enters a mixing chamber where it is mixed with a stream of cold-air at 200 kPa and 10ºC with a volumetric rate flow of 1 m3/s.First Law of Thermodynamics for Open Systems 111 process whose flow quantities at inlet and exit boundary sections do not change with respect to time.56 kg/s and Vdot.2) The law of conservation of mass for a steady flow open system [Equation (4. . and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them.2). 2. we take the following steps: 1. To solve this problem by CyclePad. Analysis (A) Assume the mixing chamber is isobaric.1.3) is called continuity equation.2.2)] expressed in words is [total rate of mass flow in across the boundary of the open system from the surroundings] = [total rate of mass exit across the boundary of the open system to the surroundings at time t] Equation (4.2.1) (4. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluids are air.mix=2. a mixing chamber. (b) mass flow rate.2. Determine the mass flow rate and the volumetric rate flow of air leaving the chamber. pressure and temperature of the cold air at the other inlet are 1 m3/s. A hot-air stream at 200ºC and 200 kPa with mass flow rate of 0.

Describe mass conservation in words for compressing air into your car tire. Let the initial energy content of an open system at time t1 is E1.1. m2 -m1=mi -me. 7. Define mass flow rate. a boiler. Mixing chamber Homework 4. If the mass flow rate of the hot stream is twice that of the cold one. What is an open system? 2.3. or heat (Q). a turbine and a condenser. what are the subscripts 1. 2. Describe mass conservation in words for an open system. What is a steady flow? 8. 5. 10. How is it differ from mass? 4. determine the mass and volumetric rate flow of the refrigerant at the exit of the mixing chamber? ANSWER: 3 kg/s. or energy exit (Ee) with mass exit across the boundary of the open system to the surroundings. A 1 kg/s stream of refrigerant R-134a at 1 Mpa and 10ºC is mixed with another stream at 1 Mpa and 50ºC in a mixing chamber. state the physical meaning of each term. General Case The energy (E) content of an open system may be changed by energy flow in (Ei) with mass flow in across the boundary of the open system from the surroundings. In the mass balance equation. Does mass flow rate proportional to fluid flowing velocity? Does mass flow rate proportional to fluid specific volume? 9.3. Heat added to the system during the time from t1 to t2 is Q12. 0. or work (W) or any combination of the four quantities. i and e refer to? 6. the final energy content of an open system at time t2 is E2. In the mass balance equation.1. FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 4.112 Chih Wu Figure E4.2. m2 -m1=mi -me.0394 m3/s. and work added to the system during . which consists of a pump.2. Water flows through a steam power plant. Mass Conservation 1. Is the steam power plant an open system? Is the turbine of the steam power plant an open system? 3. 4.

1. Notice that flow energy (or called flow work in some textbooks) is the energy required to push a volume in (or out) by pressure across the boundary surface of the open system.1).4) is the finite time rate form of Equation (4.1. i.e.1) is made of shaft work (Wshaft) only if other modes of work are not presented.1.1)] expressed in words is [time change of the energy contained within the open system] = [net heat added to the system] .1. The First law of thermodynamics for an open system [Equation (4. i.Ee (4. E=Ep +Ek+U+pV. Energy exit across the boundary of the open system to the surroundings from t1 to t2 is Ee.3. kinetic energy (Ek). Thus energy contained within the open system does not have flow energy.1.1. and ∆t=t2 -t1. E2=(Ep)2 + (Ek)2+ U2.First Law of Thermodynamics for Open Systems 113 the time from t1 to t2 is W12.4) (4.3. where ∆E=E2 -E1.[energy exit (Ee) with mass exit across the boundary of the open system to the surroundings] Various special forms of the first law of thermodynamics for an open system can be written. Therefore Wboundary=∫pdV=0.3) (4.1). ∆E/∆t=Q12/∆t-W12/∆t + ∆Ei/∆t . dE=δQ-δW + dEi -dEe Equation (4.3) is the differential form of Equation (4. For example.3.3.2) Equation (4. Therefore.3. . Ei= (Ep)i + (Ek)i+ Ui + pVi =(Ep)i + (Ek)i+ Hi and Ee=(Ep)e + (Ek)e+Ue+ pVe = (Ep)e + (Ek)e+ He.3.3.1) where E is the total energy. E1=(Ep)1 + (Ek)1+ U1. which is considered to be a volume of fixed identity.3.1). Hence. the amount of energy change (∫dE) from time t1 to time t2 can be expressed as ∫dE=∫δQ-∫δW+∫inlet sectionsdEi -∫exit sections-dEe Equation (4..1.3. Also notice that the boundary work is zero in the case of the open system.[net work added to the system] +[energy flow in with mass flow in across the boundary of the open system from the surroundings] .3.1.1.3. dV=0.1) is the First law of thermodynamics for an open system. respectively.3.2) is the integral form of Equation (4. internal energy (U) and flow energy (pV).∆Ee/∆t (4.e. W=Wboundayr+ Wshaft=Wshaft Equation (4.3. the total work (W) in Equation (4. Energy flow in across the boundary of the open system from the surroundings from t1 to t2 is Ei.1.1. Energy conservation applied to the open system under these conditions becomes E2 -E1=Q12-W12+ Ei. The total energy (E) is made of potential energy (Ep).1.

The time rate of the First law of thermodynamics for an open system [Equation (4.3.1.1.7) The First law of thermodynamics for an open system [Equation (4.2)] becomes 0 =q12-w12+ ei.ee (4. Steady Flow For steady flow.2.3) (4.3.5)] expressed in words is [time rate of change of the energy contained within the open system at time t] = [net rate of heat added to the system at time t] .2).1. the change in mass and energy within the open system are both zero.2.2. (4.2) (4.114 Chih Wu dE/dt=Qdot-Wdot+ Edoti -Edote (4.3.3.4).2.4) (4.[net rate of work added to the system at time t] +[rate of energy flow in with mass flow in across the boundary of the open system from the surroundings at time t] .2.1.3.2.1.∆Ee/∆t and 0 =Qdot-Wdot+ Edoti -Edote (4.2)] expressed in words is 0 = [net heat added to the system] .3.1.1.3.2.3.3.3.5) is the differential time rate form of Equation (4.1).[rate of energy exit (Ee) with mass exit across the boundary of the open system to the surroundings at time t] 4.3).3.3. E2 -E1= 0 and m2 -m1= 0 (4.3. and (4.1).3.1) Thus the various forms of the First law of thermodynamics of an open system [Equations (4.2.3.1.2.5)] are reduced to: 0 =Q12-W12+ Ei.1.2. (4.5) Equation (4.3.[net work added to the system] +[energy flow in with mass flow in across the boundary of the open system from the surroundings] + [energy exit (Ee) with mass exit across the boundary of the open system to the surroundings] .6) (4.3.5) The specific form of the First law of thermodynamics of an open system [Equations (4.Ee 0 =∫δQ-∫δW+∫inlet sectionsdEi -∫exit sections-dEe 0 =δQ-δW + dEi -dEe 0 =Q12/∆t-W12/∆t + ∆Ei/∆t .3. (4.3.

Equation (4.4.3.2) is reduced to: 0 =q12-w12+ hi. a reheater is a heater used between turbine stages.2. There is no means for doing any shaft or electric work.4. 4. and a common assumption if appropriate is made in the following sections. and changes in kinetic and potential energies are commonly negligible small. The devices in the open system inventory shop of CyclePad are typical devices used in thermodynamics and energy industry. known facts about work and heat transfer. since a fluid flowing through the device usually undergoes only a small pressure drop due to fluid friction at the walls. steady flow conditions.3. a major effort of CyclePad is devoted to the analysis of systems with steady state. steady flow processes.he (4. For example. an evaporator brings a substance to vapor state. 4. What is the boundary work of an open system? What is flow energy? Do substances at rest possess any flow energy? What is enthalpy? How does it relate to internal energy and flow energy? Describe energy conservation in words for an open system. 5. Superheater. Combustion Chamber. 4.1. what are the subscripts 1. 3. a boiler is a vapor generator in which a liquid is converted into a vapor by the addition of heat. E2 -E1=Q12-W12+ Ei.Ee. The fluid is heated and may or may not change phases. 2. 2. E2 -E1=Q12-W12+ Ei. i and e refer to? 6.Ee. First Law of Thermodynamics 1. In the energy balance equation. a superheater brings a substance temperature over saturated temerature. the changes of kinetic energy and potential energy are relatively small compared with the change of internal energy and flow energy.8) Homework 4. Steam Generator. A short statement of each device’s purpose.2. Preheater and Open Feed Water Heater) A heater is a simple single stream fluid flow through a device where heat is transferred to the fluid from the surroundings.First Law of Thermodynamics for Open Systems 115 In many occasions. . Burner. The heating process tends to occur at constant pressure. The following devices in the open system inventory shop of CyclePad are used to illustrate the usefulness of the general principles and to strengthen our understanding of the basic thermodynamic principles. CYCLEPAD OPEN SYSTEM DEVICES Since the majority of engineering devices may be modeled as operating under steady state. a steam generator is the same as a boiler that heats liquid pure substance to vapor or superheated vapor phase. state the physical meaning of each term. Evaporator. Heater (Including Boiler.3. Reheater. In the energy balance equation.

∆h=375.07=306.4. superheater. 2.1. . preheater. A pre-heater receives heat and raises the temperature of liquid or gas at constant pressure. Display results The answers are Qdot=612. a boiler (heater). A combustion chamber is a device into which fuel and air are admitted. and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is water. An evaporator is a refrigerant generator that receives heat and converts liquid refrigerant into vapor at constant pressure.4370 Btu/[lbm(R)]. and ∆s=0.1) Heaters in various applications are called boiler. To solve this problem by CyclePad. the fuel is burned.56630. A superheater raises the temperature of saturated vapor at constant pressure. (c) the outlet temperature of the boiler is 400ºF. Find the rate of heat added to the water in the boiler. evaporator. reheater. Example 4. combustion chamber. heat is released. 3. we take the following steps: 1.116 Chih Wu Application of the First law of thermodynamics to a heater gives W=0 and Q = m(he-hi) (4. A boiler is a steam generator that receives heat and converts liquid water into water vapor at constant pressure. A reheater receives heat and raises the temperature of vapor or gas at constant pressure. An open feed water heater receives heat and raises the temperature of liquid water at constant pressure. (B) Switch to analysis mode.3-69. Build (A) Take a source.1.2 Btu/lbm. and exhaust gases are discharged.1293=0. Analysis (A) Assume the heater as an isobaric process. etc. specific enthalpy change and specific entropy change of the water. Water at a mass flow rate of 2 lbm/s is heated in a steam boiler from 400 psia and 100ºF to 400 psia and 400ºF.1. open feed water heater. (b) the inlet pressure and temperature of the boiler are 400 psia and 100ºF.4 Btu/s.4. and (d) the mass flow rate is 2 lbm/s.

To solve this problem by CyclePad.First Law of Thermodynamics for Open Systems 117 Figure E4.2606 Btu/[lbm(R)].1.2. Air at a mass flow rate of 0. and (d) the mass flow rate is 0.4272=0. ∆h=397. . specific enthalpy change and specific entropy change of the air.7 Btu/lbm.4. 3. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is air. we take the following steps: 1. a combustion chamber (heater). (B) Switch to analysis mode. 2.01 lbm/s is heated in a combustion chamber from 150 psia and 100ºF to 150 psia and 1200ºF.6878-0. Heater Example 4.01 lbm/s. (c) the outlet temperature of the combustion chamber is 1200ºF.0409 ft3/s.4. Analysis (A) Assume the heater as an isobaric process. and ∆ρs=0.1.64 Btu/s. Build (A) Take a source. the rate of heat added to the air in the combustion chamber. Find the rate of air flow at the exit section.8-134. and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. Display results The answers are Vdot=0. (b) the inlet pressure and temperature of the combustion chamber are 150 psia and 100ºF.1.1=263. Qdot=2.

4. and (d) the mass flow rate is 0. Analysis (A) Assume the heater as an isobaric process. (b) the inlet pressure and quality of the evaporator are 36 psia psia and 0. 2. 3.41-26.1. Find the rate of the freon flow at the exit section. . we take the following steps: 1. Freon R-12 at a mass flow rate of 0.1672-0.4.2. specific enthalpy change and specific entropy change of the freon. (c) the outlet quality of the boiler is 1.0011 ft3/s. Δh=79. an evaporator (heater). To solve this problem by CyclePad. Heater Example 4.001 lbm/s.22=53.0563=0.001 lbm/s is heated in an evaporator from 36 psia and a quality of 0. and Δs=0.0532 Btu/s.2. (B) Switch to analysis mode. Qdot=0. Display results The answers are Vdot=0.118 Chih Wu Figure E4.1109 Btu/[lbm(R)]. Build (A) Take a source. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is R-12. the rate of heat added to the freon in the combustion chamber.1. and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them.19 Btu/lbm.3.2 to saturated vapor.

2. 0. 0.First Law of Thermodynamics for Open Systems 119 Figure E4.1 kg/s of water enters a boiler (heater) at 323 K and 5 Mpa. 1.4. Intercooler. For example. The inlet pressure and temperature of the air are 1000 kPa and 50ºC and the exit air pressure is 1000 kPa. what is the heat transferred and work added to the boiler? ANSWER: 298.1. negligibly small. Heater Homework 4.4. what is the exit temperature and work added to the combustion chamber? What is the specific entropy change of the air between the inlet and exit section? ANSWER: 1047ºC. an intercooler is a cooler used between compressor stages.1.4. Heater 1.2 kW. The fluid is cooled and may or may not change phases. and leaves as steam at 673 K and 5 Mpa.41 kJ/[kg(ºC)]. 0. For steady flow. Application of the First law of thermodynamics to a steady flow steady system cooler gives W=0 and Q = m(he-hi) (4.01 kg/s of air enters a combustion chamber.3. 4. There are no means for doing any shaft or electric work.1) . a condenser takes heat out to bring a pure substance from vapor state or saturated mixture state to liquid state. 0. Precooler and Aftercooler) A cooler is a simple single stream fluid flow through a device where heat is removed from the fluid to the surroundings. 2. For steady flow.2. Cooler (Including Condenser.4. The cooling process tends to occur at constant pressure. 1000 kJ/kg of heat transfer is added to the isobaric combustion chamber. and changes in kinetic and potential energies are commonly. since a fluid flowing through the device usually undergoes only a small pressure drop due to fluid friction at the walls.

2. (b) the inlet pressure and quality of the condenser are 20 kPa and 0. Display results The answers are Vdot=0. (c) the outlet quality of the condenser is 0. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is water..120 Chih Wu Coolers in various applications are called condenser. Water at a mass flow rate of 2 kg/s is condensed in a steam condenser from 20 kPa and a quality of 0. Freon R-12at a mass flow rate of 0.2. we take the following steps: 1.2.4. specific enthalpy change and specific entropy change of the water. (B) Switch to analysis mode.1. ∆h=-2122 kJ/kg. Find the rate of the water flow at the exit section.002 m3/s. and (d) the mass flow rate is 2 kg/s. inter-cooler.37 kJ/[kg(K)].02 kg/s is condensed in a condenser from 900 kPa and 40ºC to saturated liquid.9 to saturated liquid. To solve this problem by CyclePad. the rate of heat removed from the water in the condenser. To solve this problem by CyclePad. a condenser (cooler).4. Example 4. specific enthalpy change and specific entropy change of the water. Cooler Example 4.9. Heat is removed from an inter-cooler and decrease the temperature of gas at constant pressure. Find the rate of heat removed from the water in the condenser. Figure E4.4. 3. we take the following steps: .2. and ∆s=-6. Qdot=-4243 kW.1. and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. Build (A) Take a source. Heat is removed from a condenser and convert vapor or saturated mixture steam into liquid water at constant pressure. 2. etc. Analysis (A) Assume the condenser as an isobaric process.

and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. Determine (A) the mass flow rate of ammonia in lbm/s. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is R-12.First Law of Thermodynamics for Open Systems 121 1. Figure E4. . on the outside of tubes through which cooling water flows.4. Cooler 1.4 ºR.2.4347 kJ/[kg(K)]. 561. Neglect heat transfer and kinetic energy effects. Cooler Homework 4.64 kW. a condenser (cooler). the temperature of the ammonia at the exit section. and (C) the specific entropy change of the ammonia between the inlet and exit section. and the specific entropy change of the ammonia between the inlet and exit section. (B) -617.02 kg/s. -1.34 lbm/s. and ∆s=-0. Build (A) Take a source. Steam enters a condenser (cooler) at a pressure of 1 psia and 90% quality.. (B) Switch to analysis mode..66 Btu/[lbm(ºR)]. ANSWER: -69910 Btu. Display results The answers are Qdot=-2. Ammonia enters a condenser operating at a steady state at 225 psia and 600ºR and is condensed to saturated liquid at 225 psia.2 kJ/kg. 2.2.2. (C) -0.2 Btu/s. the specific enthalpy change of the ammonia between the inlet and exit section.. and (d) the mass flow rate is 0. (b) the inlet pressure and temperature of the condenser are 900 psia and 40ºC. ∆h=-132. The volumetric flow rate of the ammonia is 2 ft3/s. Analysis (A) Assume the condenser as an isobaric process. For a flow rate of 75 lbm/s of steam.1 Btu/lbm. -932. (c) the outlet quality of the condenser is 0. ANSWER: (A) 1. It leaves the condenser as a saturated liquid at 1 psia.4. 2. and (B) the rate of energy transfer from the condensing ammonia to the cooling water. 3. determine the heat removed from the steam.8872 Btu/[lbm(ºR)].

since the compressor work is ∫vdp.4. The pressure difference across a fan or blower is lower that of a compressor. Compressor The purpose of a compressor is to compress a gas or a vapor from a low pressure inlet state to a high pressure exit state by utilizing mechanical work.2) Example 4. (B) Switch to analysis mode. a compressor is used to raise the pressure of the refrigerant vapor. specific enthalpy change and specific entropy change of the R-134a.4. a compressor is used to raise the pressure of the inlet air stream.3. Application of the First law of thermodynamics to a steady flow steady system compressor gives Q=0 and W = m(hi-he) (4. and the length of time required for the working fluid to pass through the compressor is short.3. η. the compressor efficiency. Since it requires more actual work to drive an actual compressor than the ideal work to drive an isentropic compressor. changes between inlet and outlet kinetic and potential energies are very small in comparison with changes in enthalpy. a compressor.3. Generally. is defined as η=wisentropic/wactual (4. this requires much more work than pumping liquid. 2.1) The adiabatic assumption is reasonable because the heat transfer surface area of the compressor is relatively small. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is R-134a. (c) the outlet pressure . Compressors are not supposed to handle wet saturated vapors (saturated two-phase vapor and liquid mixtures). A turbocharger is a compressor driven by an exhaust flow turbine to charge air into an engine. (b) the inlet pressure and temperature of the compressor are 200 kPa and -10ºC. A compressor is usually modeled as adiabatic. in a jet engine. and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. Compressors use gases or vapors as their working fluids.122 Chih Wu 4. we take the following steps: 1.015 kg/s enters an adiabatic compressor at 200 kPa and -10ºC and leaves at 1 MPa and 70ºC. The power input to the compressor is 1 kW.4. In a household refrigerator. η.3. To solve this problem by CyclePad. A supercharger is a compressor driven by engine shaft work to drive air into an automotive engine. Determine the heat transfer loss from the compressor.4. as such fluids cause excessive wear. and the working fluid experiences a significant increase in temperature. Therefore the ideal compression process is considered to be a reversible and adiabatic or isentropic one. Comparison between the actual and the ideal compressor performance is given by the compressor efficiency.1 Freon R-134a at a mass flow rate of 0. Build (A) Take a source. A fan or blower moves a vapor or gas (typically air) from a low pressure inlet state to a high pressure exit state by utilizing mechanical work. In general.

15 kg/s enters an adiabatic compressor at 100 kPa and 10ºC and leaves at 1 MPa and 280ºC. and efficiency of the compressor.2. and (e) the shaft power of the compressor is 1 kW. Analysis (A) Assume the compressor is adiabatic. specific enthalpy change. specific entropy change of the air.First Law of Thermodynamics for Open Systems 123 and temperature of the compressor are 1 MPa and 70ºC.3.9 kJ/kg.60%.. ∆s=0. 3. Figure E4.015 kg/s. ∆h=270. Find the rate of the air flow at the exit section. Air at a mass flow rate of 0. Determine the power input to the compressor. and η=97. ∆h=60. and(d) the mass flow rate is 0.1000 kW.15 kg/s. 2. Display results The answers are Qdot=-0.0238 m3/s. Build (A) Take a source.00 kJ/kg. Display results The answers are Vdot=0. To solve this problem by CyclePad. (B) Switch to analysis mode. the power added to the air.. (b) the inlet pressure and temperature of the compressor are 100 kPa and 10ºC.64 kW. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is air.0118 kJ/[kg(K)]. .3.0799 kJ/[kg(K)]..4. a compressor. and ∆s=0. (c) the outlet pressure and temperature of the compressor are 1 MPa and 280ºC.1. and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them.4. Wdot=-40. Freon Compressor Example 4. (d) the mass flow rate is 0. 3. we take the following steps: 1..

and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. a compressor.4.15 kg/s. we take the following steps: 1. specific enthalpy change.4. 3. (c) the outlet pressure and temperature of the compressor are 1 MPa and 280ºC. Find the temperature of air at exit section. and efficiency of the compressor. .15 kg/s enters an isentropic compressor at 100 kPa and 10ºC and leaves at 1 MPa. Determine the power input to the compressor.0235 m3/s.and η=100%. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is air. Display results The answers are T=273. 2. Analysis (A) Assume the compressor is adiabatic and isentropic. (b) the inlet pressure and temperature of the compressor are 100 kPa and 10ºC.2.4 kJ/kg.66 kW. ∆s=0 kJ/[kg(K)]. Compressor Example 4. (B) Switch to analysis mode. the power added to the air. ∆h=264. Vdot=0.5ºC.124 Chih Wu Figure E4.3.. the rate of the air flow at the exit section. specific entropy change of the air. Air at a mass flow rate of 0. Build (A) Take a source. To solve this problem by CyclePad.3. and(d) the mass flow rate is 0. Wdot=-39.3.

60%). 4.0118 kJ/[kg(K)] ηisentropic(100%) is larger than ηisentropic(97. ANSWER: -180.5 kg/s. A well insulted compressor takes in air at 520 R and 14.4. ANSWER: (A) -176.5ºC) is lower than (Texit)adiabatic(280ºC) (∆s)isentropic=0 and (∆s)adiabatic=0.First Law of Thermodynamics for Open Systems 125 Figure E4. 2.66 kW) is less than Wdotadiabatic(-40. 6. Determine (A) the power input to the compressor and (B) the volume flow rate at the compressor inlet. 3.7 Mpa and 70ºC. (B) 0.5 kW.3662 m3/s. The heat transfer from the compressor to its surroundings is 8.64 kW).6 kW. Determine the specific work and power required to run this compressor.7 psia with a volumetric flow rate of 1200 ft3/min. (Texit)sentropic(273. 3.3. and compresses it to 960 R and 120 psia. Determine the compressor power and the volumetric flow rate at the exit.4.3. 2. 5. Compressor Comments: Comparing Ex.4.6 kJ/kg.3.2. Wdotisentropic (-39.4. we see that: 1. A compressor receives air at 100 kPa and 300 K and discharges it to 400 kPa and 480 K. The mass flow rate of the air is 15 kg/s.3 and Ex.3. Compressor 1. 8. 4. 4.52 ft3/s.4.4. Refrigerant R-134a enters an adiabatic compressor as saturated vapor at -20ºC and leaves at 0. . What is the function of a compressor? What is the difference between a compressor and a pump? Do you expect the pressures of air at the compressor inlet and exit to be the same? Do you expect the temperatures of air at the compressor inlet and exit to be the same? Why? Do you expect the specific volumes of air at the compressor inlet and exit to be the same? Why? Does the mass rate flow at the inlet of a steady flow compressor the same as that at the exit of the compressor?7. Homework 4.3. ANSWER: -228 hp. The mass flow rate of the refrigerant is 2. -2709 kW. 7.

and at what temperature? ANSWER: Vdot=873. or isentropic.4.8 K. 10. Determine how much power is required to drive the compressor if 1.2 hp. and the length of time required for the working fluid to pass through the turbine is short. the turbine efficiency. in a power plant. Turbine Turbines are high-speed rotating devices used to produce work.4. η. how much work is required per kg of air.4. 4. A turbine is usually modeled as adiabatic. For example. Wet saturated vapors (saturated two-phase vapor and liquid mixtures) will seriously erode the turbine blades. 11. high-temperature working fluid passing through the turbine is expanded and mechanical shaft work is produced. Generally. An expander is similar to a turbine that creates shaft work from high pressure fluid flow. Air enters a compressor at 100 kPa and an specific enthalpy of 240 kJ/kg. Application of the First law of thermodynamics to a steady flow steady system compressor gives Q=0 and W = m(h i-he) (4. steam at high pressure and temperature is used to turn a series of turbine wheels. Turbines consist of a set of rotor blades interleaved with a set of stationary blades or stators. The temperature of the working fluid also drops during the expansion process.1) The adiabatic assumption is reasonable because the heat transfer surface area of the turbine is relatively small. each wheel consisting of curved blades mounted on a shaft. Since an ideal turbine produces more isentropic work than the actual work by an actual adiabatic turbine. If the heat loss to the atmosphere is 2 kJ/kg of air. If the compression is reversible and adiabatic. If the specific enthalpy of the entering air is 150 Btu/lbm and that of the exiting air is 300 Btu/lbm.53 Btu/lbm of heat is lost in the process.6 cm3/s. A compressor increases the pressure of 3 lbm/s of air from 15 psia to 150 psia.4 kJ/kg. In a turbine.4. η. Working fluid in a turbine is expanded from a high pressure and high temperature inlet state to a low pressure exit state. is defined as η=wactual/ wisentropic (4. ANSWER: -190. but may have heat transfer with its surroundings. the ideal expansion process is considered to be reversible and adiabatic. ANSWER: -643. As a result. Comparison between the actual and the ideal turbine performance is given by the turbine efficiency.126 Chih Wu 9. changes between inlet and outlet kinetic and potential energies are very small in comparison with changes in enthalpy.4. The fluid entering the turbine must be either dry saturated steam or gas.4. much of the energy content of a high-pressure. The air leaves the compressor at 400 kPa and an enthalpy of 432 kJ/kg.2) . A compressor takes in air at 300 K and 1 bar and delivers compressed air at 4 bar and consuming 400 W of useful power. T=445. what volume rate of flow in cm3/s will it deliver.

64% and Wdot=90.37-3. Determine the enthalpy change and entropy change of the air.15 kg/s enters an isentropic turbine at 1000 kPa and 1100ºC and leaves at 100 kPa.2.4. (c) the outlet pressure and temperature of the turbine are 100 kPa and 500ºC. (B) Switch to analysis mode. To solve this problem by CyclePad. Build (A) Take a source. (B) Switch to analysis mode. To solve this problem by CyclePad. ∆s=3. 3.4. we take the following steps: 1.4. Figure E4. (b) the inlet pressure and temperature of the turbine are 1000 kPa and 1100ºC.29=0. η=90. Display results The answers are ∆h=-602.4. Analysis . a turbine. Analysis (A) Assume the turbine is isentropic and adiabatic. 2. and(d) the mass flow rate is 0.08 kJ/[kg(K)].4. Determine the enthalpy change and entropy change of the air. Air at a mass flow rate of 0. Find the efficiency and power ouput to the turbine. and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them.1. Build (A) Take a source. a turbine.First Law of Thermodynamics for Open Systems 127 Example 4. Air at a mass flow rate of 0. we take the following steps: 1.31 kW.0 kJ/kg. Find the efficiency and power ouput to the turbine.1. and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them.15 kg/s enters an adiabatic turbine at 1000 kPa and 1100ºC and leaves at 100 kPa and 500ºC. 2. Turbine Example 4.4.15 kg/s. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is air.

1ºC) is lower than (Texit)adiabatic(500ºC) (∆s)isentropic=0 and (∆s)adiabatic=0.60%). we take the following steps: 1.29=0 kJ/[kg(K)]. Turbine Comments: Comparing Ex.1 and Ex.4.9.15 kg/s. the entropy change of the steam.4.08 kJ/[kg(K)] ηisentropic(100%) is larger than ηisentropic(97. Display results The answers are ∆h=-664.3 The shaft power produced by an adiabatic steam turbine is 100 Mw. 2. To solve this problem by CyclePad. ∆s=3. Analysis (A) Assume the turbine is adiabatic. η=100% and Wdot=99.4.31 kW). Determine the rate of steam flow through the turbine.128 Chih Wu (A) Assume the turbine is isentropic. a turbine.4. we see that: 1. and efficiency of the turbine.000 kW. Build (A) Take a source. (b) the inlet pressure and temperature of the turbine are 1000 kPa and 1100ºC. Steam enters the adiabatic turbine at 4000 kPa and 500ºC and leaves at 10 kPa and a quality of 0.4.4. and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is air. 3.2 kJ/kg.63 kW) is more than Wdotadiabatic(90.4.4. and(d) the mass flow rate is 0. (c) the outlet pressure and temperature of the turbine are 100 kPa and 500ºC. 4. (Texit)sentropic(438. Wdotisentropic (99.4.29-3. Figure E4.4.63 kW.. 2.2. . (B) Switch to analysis mode. and the shaft power is 100. Example 4.2. 3.

09-7. .4. ∆s=7. Build (A) Take a source.40 kg/s.40-7.84 kg/s.09=0. a turbine.31 kJ/[kg(K)]. (b) the inlet pressure and temperature of the turbine are 4000 kPa and 500ºC. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is water. the entropy change of the steam. and the shaft power is 100. we take the following steps: 1. and η=100%. Display results The answers are x=0.4.8589. Determine the quality of steam at the exit section. η=91. 2. rate of steam flow through the turbine.4.80%. 3. The shaft power produced by an isentropic steam turbine is 100 Mw. 3.First Law of Thermodynamics for Open Systems 129 (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is water. Display results The answers are mdot=90. and efficiency of the turbine. Figure E4. and (c) the outlet pressure and quality of the turbine are 10 kPa and 0. and (c) the outlet pressure of the turbine are 10 kPa. (b) the inlet pressure and temperature of the turbine are 4000 kPa and 500ºC. Turbine Example 4..4. To solve this problem by CyclePad. Analysis (A) Assume the turbine is isentropic and adiabatic. Steam enters the turbine at 4000 kPa and 500ºC and leaves at 10 kPa.000 kW.3.4. mdot=83. ∆s=7. and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. (B) Switch to analysis mode.09=0 kJ/[kg(K)].9.

1 Mpa and saturated (100% quality) at the exit. The turbine developes a power output of 1000 kW. Air expands through a turbine from 1000 kPa and 900 K to 100 kPa and 500K.5 Mpa and saturated vapor. A steam turbine is designed to have a power output of 9 MW for a mass flow rate of 17 kg/s.4. 2. The heat transfer from the turbine to the surroundings is 2.74.4. ANSWER: 7.5 kW. The mass rate of flow into a steam turbine is 1. What is the heat transfer for this turbine? ANSWER: -1121 kW. 4. It leaves the turbine at 1 psia with a quality of 0.8 hp. 3.4. Determine the power developed by the turbine. and leaves at 0. 683.5 kg/s. Turbine Homework 4. ANSWER: 455. and the outlet state is 0. The steam is 2 Mpa and 350ºC at the inlet. 50 lbm/s of steam enters a turbine at 700ºF and 600 psia. 6. the pressure is 10 kPa and the quality is 90%. 5. . ANSWER: -664. The turbine operates at steady state and develops a power output of 3200 kW. ANSWER: 2563 hp. Determine the specific work and power produced by the turbine. the temperature is 400ºC and the pressure is 6000 kPa. and the heat transfer from the turbine to its surroundings is 8.4.8 kJ/kg. and 0.4.130 Chih Wu Figure E4. Steam enters a turbine at steady state with a mass flow rate of 2 kg/s. Neglect heat transfer and kinetic energy effects. ANSWER: 24252 hp. At the exit. Turbine 1. Determine the mass flow rate in kg/s. Calculate the rate of heat transfer between the turbine and its surroundings.5x106 Btu/hr.6 psia with a quality of 90%. At the inlet.97 kg/s.8 kW. The inlet state is 3 Mpa and 450 C. Determine the power produced by the turbine. 3 lbm/s of steam enters a steady-state steady-flow adiabatic turbine at 3000 psia and 1000ºF.

because one can pump a great deal more liquid per unit volume. 13. Superheated steam enters a turbine at 700 psia and 700ºF.5 Btu/lbm. 11. 363. the pressure is 5 psia and specific volume is 40 ft3/lbm.5. A steam turbine produces 6245 hp. 314. Determine the final enthalpy and temperature of the steam.5.7 Btu/lbm. Determine the final enthalpy and temperature of the steam. At the exit of the turbine.7 psia.4.667 ft3/lbm.1) Q=0 and W = m(hi-he) Since liquid is an incompressible substance and liquid temperature change across the pump is negligible. determine the required steam flow rate. Find the power output of the turbine. Generally. 0. 126. and the specific work of the turbine. pumping a liquid is more efficient than compressing a gas.First Law of Thermodynamics for Open Systems 131 7. Therefore. Steam initially at a pressure of 500 psia and a quality of 92% expands isentropically to a pressure of 1 psia. ANSWER: 6040 hp.44 ft3/s. Pump has the same function as compressor. the pressure is 1000 psia and specific volume is 0. Cavitation causes excessive shocks within the pump and can rapidly lead to pump failure. The mass flow rate is 20 lbm/s and the heat loss from the turbine is 14 Btu/lbm. Steam at a pressure of 1200 psia and 900ºF is expanded isentropically to a pressure of 2 psia.578 Btu/lbm of heat is lost to the environment through the turbine casing. ANSWER: 921. Ideal adiabatic pump work is ∫vdp.6864. (4. and the specific work of the turbine.8ºF. ANSWER: 1222 Btu/lbm. Eq.4. ANSWER: 0. because such fluids tend to cavitate. but handles liquid. If 0. At the entrance to the turbine.5. or boil.3136.9 Btu/lbm. A ship’s steam turbine receives steam at a pressure of 900 psia and 1000ºF. ANSWER: 5293 hp. 12. 10. A pump can not handle gases or saturated vapors. and leaves as a dry saturated vapor at 10 psia. A pump is usually modeled as adiabatic. Superheated steam at 400 psia and 700ºF is expanded in an isentropic turbine to a pressure of 100 psia. Application of the First law of thermodynamics to a steady flow steady system pump gives (4. and liquids. Find the power produced if the mass flow rate is 3 lbm/s and the heat loss from the turbine is 12 Btu/s. ANSWER: 6. 390. Steam at a pressure of 800 psia and 650ºF is expanded isentropically to a pressure of 14. changes between inlet and outlet kinetic and potential energies are very small in comparison with changes in enthalpy. 9.0ºF. 8. ANSWER: 990. Determine the final quality and moisture content of the steam. being basically incompressible. Determine the exit enthalpy of the steam.1) can be reduced to . do not gain an appreciable amount of heat during the pumping process. 4.4. Pump The purpose of a pump is to compress a liquid from a low pressure inlet state to a high pressure exit state by utilizing mechanical work. The steam leaves the turbine at 2 psia and 114ºF.5 Btu/lbm.

a pump.3) Example 4. . 3.4. Since it requires more actual work to drive an actual pump than the ideal work to drive an isentropic pump. Determine the entropy change of the water.1. and the length of time required for the working fluid to pass through the pump is short. 2. To solve this problem by CyclePad. (b) pressure and quality of the water at the pump inlet are 10 kPa and 0.24 kW. η. the pump efficiency.6498-0.6493=0. Display results Figure E4. Build (A) Take a source. Saturated water at a mass flow rate of 1 kg/s enters an adiabatic pump at 10 kPa and leaves at 4000 kPa and 46ºC. Analysis (A) Assume the pump is adiabatic and isentropic. and(d) the mass flow rate is 1 kg/s.4. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is water.5.132 Chih Wu W = mv(pi-pe) (4. we take the following steps: 1.5.5. (B) Switch to analysis mode.0005 kJ/[kg(K)]. η=95.4. Comparison between the actual and the ideal pump performance is given by the isentropic efficiency. Therefore the ideal pumping process is considered to be a reversible and adiabatic or isentropic one. Pump The answers are ∆s=0. (c) the pressure and of the water at the pump outlet are 4000 kPa and.2) The adiabatic assumption is reasonable because the heat transfer surface area of the pump is relatively small. is defined as η=wisentropic/wactual (4.4. and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. η.5. efficiency of the pump and the power required for the pump.89% and Wdot=-4.1.

Figure E4.First Law of Thermodynamics for Open Systems 133 Example 4. Wdotisentropic (-4. Why the pump work is much less than the compressor work? . Build (A) Take a source. the efficiency of the pump and the power required for the pump.6493-0.4.1 and Ex.5.07 kW. Pump Comments: Comparing Ex. 3. Is the order of magnitude of v important in determining how much pump or compressor work input must be needed? 2.5. 3.4.4.5. and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is water. η=100% and Wdot=-4. 2. (b) pressure and quality of the water at the pump inlet are 10 kPa and 0. and(d) the mass flow rate is 1 kg/s.6493=0 kJ/[kg(K)].4. (c) the pressure and of the water at the pump outlet are 4000 kPa and. Homework 4. Analysis (A) Assume the pump is adiabatic.24 kW). To solve this problem by CyclePad. Determine the entropy change of the water.4.005 kJ/[kg(K)] 4.2.89%). we take the following steps: 1. The reversible pump or compressor work is known to be ∫vdp. ηisentropic(100%) is larger than ηisentropic(95.4.5. Pump 1. (B) Switch to analysis mode. a pump. (∆s)isentropic=0 and (∆s)adiabatic=0.2. we see that: 1. Display results The answers are ∆s=0.07 kW) is less than Wdotadiabatic(-4. Saturated water at a mass flow rate of 1 kg/s enters an isentropic pump at 10 kPa and leaves at 4000 kPa.2.4.5.

Why then do we go to the trouble of condensing the steam and then reboiling it? Why not just pump it back to the high pressure. Consider an ordinary shower where hot water at 15 psia and 140ºF is mixed with cold water at 15 psia and 60ºF. A feedwater heater heats liquid pure substance with another flow and is usually considered to be an isobaric process. An adiabatic pump pumps 10 lbm/s of water from 14. ANSWER: -9. the kinetic and potential energies of the working fluid streams are usually negligible. A desuperheater adds liquid water to superheated vapor pure substance to make it saturated vapor. 4.4. ANSWER: 20. The mixing chamber does not have to be a distinct chamber.6. Mixing Chamber A mixing chamber is a device to mix two or more streams of fluids into one stream. and 0. for example. We want vapor supply to the turbine.2) (4. ANSWER: 10. Σ(mdot)in =Σ(mdot)out and Σ[(mdot)in (hin)]=Σ[(mdot)out (hout)] (4.4. It is desirable that a steady stream of warm water at 15 psia and 100ºF. changes between inlet and outlet kinetic and potential energies are very small in comparison with changes in enthalpy.6. Find the power input to the pump. Generally. serves as a mixing chamber for the cold. It leaves the pump at 20 Mpa.6. An adiabatic pump pumps 10 kg/s of water from 100 kPa and 20ºC to 1100 kPa and 20.6.4. Also. Application of the mass balance equation and the First law of thermodynamics to a steady flow steady state mixing chamber gives that the total mass rate flow in at the inlets is equal to the total mass rate flow out at the exit of the mixing chamber. 6.03ºC. An ordinary T-elbow in a shower. . Would pump work still be negligible if we pump steam vapor? 4.134 Chih Wu 3. Find the power input to the pump. Determine the pump specific work required. Pump work in a Rankine steam power plant is usually negligible comparing with turbine work.and hot-water stream.1.09 kJ/kg.65 kW. Water enters a steady-state steady-flow isentropic pump as saturated liquid at 40ºC.42 hp. and the total enthalpy rate flow in at the inlets is equal to the total enthalpy rate flow out at the exit of the mixing chamber. A desuperheater is usually considered to be an isobaric process.1 lbm/s be supplied.1) Example 4. A humidifier adds water to a water-air mixture and is usually considered to be an isobaric process. and send it back to the turbine? 5. Mixing chambers are usually well insulated (Q=0) and do not involve electric or shaft work. Determine the mass flow rates of the hot water and the cold water.1ºF.7 psia and 60. 7. and heat added.4. The exhaust from the steam turbine in a Rankine steam power plant is mostly vapor.7 psia and 60ºF to 214.

15 psia and 100ºF. (B) Switch to analysis mode. A flow rate of 2 kg/s of hot water at 100 kPa and 60ºC is mixed with 3 kg/s of cold water at 100 kPa and 15ºC. a mixing chamber. Build (A) Take two sources.4. Display results The answers are mdot. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluids are water. 2. a mixing chamber. Display results . (c) mass flow rate. we take the following steps: 135 1.05 lbm/s and mdot. 2. (b) mass flow rate. Figure E4. pressure and temperature of the hot water at the inlet are 2 kg/s.6. Mixing chamber Example 4. Determine the mass flow rate and temperature of the mixed water.05 lbm/s.2. Analysis (A) Assume the mixing chamber is isobaric. (c) pressure and temperature of the cold water at the inlet are 15 psia and 60ºF.6. Analysis (A) Assume the mixing chamber is isobaric.cold=0.hot=0. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluids are water. 100 kPa and 60ºC. (c) the mass flow rate. 100 kPa and 15ºC. Build (A) Take two sources. 3. (b) pressure and temperature of the hot water at the inlet are 15 psia and 140ºF. (B) Switch to analysis mode.4. To solve this problem by CyclePad. we take the following steps: 1.1 lbm/s. pressure and temperature of the mixed water at the mixing chamber outlet are 0. 3.First Law of Thermodynamics for Open Systems To solve this problem by CyclePad. and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. pressure and temperature of the cold water at the inlet are 3 kg/s.1. and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them.

Mixing chamber Example 4. and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them.mix=5 kg/s and T=33ºC. Determine the mass flow rate. 2. we take the following steps: 1.6.4.4. To solve this problem by CyclePad. Figure E4. A flow rate of 4.3 ºF.41 lbm/s of hot air at 15 psia and 540ºF is mixed with 100 ft3/s of cold air at 15 psia and 20ºF. Build (A) Take two sources.mix=12.6.3. 3. (c) mass flow rate. pressure and temperature of the hot air at the inlet are 2 kg/s. Display results The answers are Vdot=208. mdot. volumetric flow rate and temperature of the mixed air. . 15 psia and 20ºF. (B) Switch to analysis mode.136 Chih Wu The answers are mdot.86 lbm/s and T=198.7 ft3/s. a mixing chamber.2. (b) mass flow rate. 15 psia and 540ºF. Analysis (A) Assume the mixing chamber is isobaric. pressure and temperature of the cold air at the inlet are 3 kg/s. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluids are air.

A mixing chamber operating at steady state has two inlets and one exit. What is the resultant temperature and quality of the mixed stream? ANSWER: 92.0ºF.9102. Tin1 =500 K. Tin3=550 K. 40 kg/s of water vapor enters at 700 kPa and 200ºC. 200 lbm/s and 500ºF. Water at 80ºF and 50 psia is heated in a chamber by mixing it with saturated water vapor at 50 psia. 6. At inlet 2. mdotin3=0. Can the mixture temperature be higher than the temperature of both streams? 3.7 psia is to be heated by a hot water flow of 3 lb/s at 180 F and 14.3.6. If the mixed stream pressure is 1000 kPa. n/a. 41.2 lbm/s. pin2=500 kPa.9ºC. In a mixing chamber three streams of steam are coming in and one stream of steam is going out.49ºC. Determine the mass flow rate at inlet 2 and at the exit 3.2 kg/s. A stream of water at 50 psia and 70ºF is mixed in an adiabatic mixing chamber with steam at 50 psia. 7.1 kg/s. pin1=500 kPa.1 kg/s of saturated water (x=0) at 600 kPa is injected into 1 kg of saturated steam (x=1) at 1400 kPa in an adiabatic mixing process. ANSWER: 281. Tin1 =400 K. Saturated vapor at 700 kPa exits at exit 3. 0.14 kg/s. ANSWER: 1.7 psia in a steady flow mixing process. 0. pin3=500 kPa. 0. 4. 5.First Law of Thermodynamics for Open Systems 137 Figure E4. Mixing chamber Homework 4. mdotin2=0.5445 kW/K. Mixing Chamber 1. 8. water enters at 700 kPa and 40ºC. Is a mixing process reversible or irreversible? 2.3906.4.4. ANSWER: 219. The mass flow rates and properties of these steam streams are: mdotin1=0. The mixture leaves the chamber at 50 psia and saturated vapor. Find the enthalpy of the mixture. Determine the mass flow rate of saturated vapor leaving the chamber. The conditions of the streams and .6. Find the rate of entropy change of the mixing chamber..25 kg/s. When two fluid streams are mixed in a mixing chamber without chemical reaction. At inlet 1. If both streams enter the isobaric mixing chamber at the same flow rate. A 5 lb/s stream of cold water at 40 F and 14. 0. what is the temperature and quality of the mixture? ANSWER: 179.25 kg/s. determine the temperature and quality of the exit steam.

7. Also. An ejector uses steam at 3 Mpa and 673 K at a mass flow rate of 3 kg/s.5 K. for example. changes between inlet and outlet kinetic and potential energies are very small in comparison with changes in enthalpy. (B) Switch to analysis mode. ANSWER: 0. A dehumidifier removes water from a water-air mixture and is usually considered to be an isobaric process.4. . An ejector uses steam at 120 psia and 700ºF at a mass flow rate of 2 lbm/s.2) (4.138 Chih Wu inside the control volume do not change with time. splitter and two sinks from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. a.7. ANSWER: 292. A geothermal saturated steam with a mass rate flow of 3 kg/s at a pressure of 1200 kPa and 90 percent quality is separated into saturated liquid and saturated vapor. 10. Find the temperature and quality of the exiting stream. Find the temperature and quality of the exiting stream.4. Build (A) Take a source. An ordinary Y-elbow in a shower. the kinetic and potential energies of the working fluid streams are usually negligible.4. 0. and water of 70 kPa and 313 K at a mass flow rate of 1 kg/s.7 lbm/s. ANSWER: 375.7. Splitters are usually well insulated (Q=0) and do not involve shaft work. Determine the mass flow rates of the saturated liquid and saturated vapor.0 K. To solve this problem by CyclePad. Application of the mass balance equation and the first law of thermodynamics to a steady flow steady state splitter give the total mass rate flow in at the inlets equal to the total mass rate flow out at the exit of the splitter. Assume no heat transfer and steady flow steady state. A deaerator removes gas dissolved in a gas-liquid mixture and is usually considered to be an isobaric process. Assume no heat transfer and steady flow steady state.4.3967. 425.1. The total mixture comes out at 60 psia.7ºF. 9.7. Σ (mdot)in =Σ (mdot)out and Σ [(mdot)in (hin)]= Σ [(mdot)out (hout)] (4. serves as a splitter. and the total enthalpy rate flow in at the inlet equal to the total enthalpy rate flow out at the exits of the splitter mixing chamber.4400 kg/s.8367. and water of 30 psia and 100ºF at a mass flow rate of 2. Splitter A splitter is a device to split one stream fluid into two or more streams of fluids. 4.1) Example 4. Determine mdotout and temperature and quality of the steam at the exit.9044. we take the following steps: 1. The total mixture comes out at 110 kPa. 0. Generally. The splitter does not have to be a distinct chamber. 0.

3. Display results The answers are mdot. Analysis (A) Assume the splitter is isobaric. ANSWER: 0.7.vapor=2.6.9. (b) mass flow rate. determine the inlet quality of the two-phase mixture.5 kg/s stream of steam at 200 kPa flows into an isobaric separator to make two separate streams of mixture steam.7. and (d) quality of the water at the other outlet is 0. ANSWER: 0. 3.5750.First Law of Thermodynamics for Open Systems 139 2. ANSWER: 0.7 kg/s. 1200 kPa and 0. A 4 kg/s stream of saturated liquid and vapor mixture methane at 200 kPa flows into an isobaric separator to make two separate streams of mixture methane.7692. A 1. A 1. Splitter Homework 4. Figure E4. 5. Splitter 1. 4.4. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluids are water. If we want to produce a flow rate of 1 kg/s of 80% quality of saturated mixture in one stream and another stream of 50% quality of saturated mixture. pressure and quality of the water at the inlet are 3 kg/s. ANSWER: 0.7 kg/s stream of saturated liquid and vapor mixture R134a at 6ºC flows into an isobaric separator to make saturated liquid and saturated vapor. (c) quality of the water at one outlet is 1.4.3 kg/s stream of geothermal hot water at 350 kPa flows into a separator to make saturated water and saturated steam at 350 kPa. A 2.3 kg/s and mdot. determine the quality of the twophase mixture. 2. determine the inlet quality of the two-phase mixture. If we want to produce a flow rate of 1 kg/s of 80% quality of saturated mixture in one stream and another stream of 50% quality of saturated mixture. If we want to produce a flow rate of 1 kg/s of .1. determine the quality of the geothermal hot water. If we want to produce a flow rate of 1 kg/s of 350 kPa saturated steam.liquid=0. If we want to produce a flow rate of 1 kg/s of saturated vapor.5882. A 3 kg/s stream of steam at 200 kPa flows into an isobaric separator to make two separate streams of mixture steam.

since the fluids flowing through the device usually undergo only small pressure drops due to fluid friction at the walls. Heat Exchanger A heat exchanger uses multi stream fluids (usually two streams) flowing through a device where heat is transferred from one stream fluid at a higher temperature to the other stream fluid at a lower temperature. ANSWER: 0. and (b) the cooling water leaves the condenser at 70ºF. determine the flow rate of cooling water. if (a) the cooling water leaves the condenser at 60ºF. determine the inlet quality of the two-phase mixture.4. The fluids are heated or cooled and may or may not change phases. Build (A) Take two sources.8. An economizer is a low-temperature and low-pressure heat exchanger. Steam enters a condenser (Heat exchanger) at a pressure of 1 psia and 90 percent quality. condenser.48. It leaves the condenser as saturated liquid at 1 psia. . To solve this problem by CyclePad. Cooling lake water available at 14. Please note that red indicates hot and blue indicates cold. (B) Switch to analysis mode. etc.4. There are no means for doing any shaft work.4.1. a heat exchanger. and two sinks from the open-system inventory shop and connect them.2) (4. and changes in kinetic and potential energies are commonly negligible.8. For a flow rate of 5 lbm/s of steam. A regenerator is a heat exchanger used to recover energy. There is no heat interaction with the surroundings. Example 4. respectively. the total mass rate flow in at the inlets is equal to the total mass rate flow out at the exit of the mixing chamber. Generally. Energies are exchanged from one stream fluid to another stream fluid inside the heat exchanger. The heat exchanging process tends to occur at constant pressure. we take the following steps: 1.4. changes between inlet and outlet kinetic and potential energies are very small in comparison with changes in enthalpy.8. Σ (mdot)in =Σ (mdot)out and Σ [(mdot)in (hin)]= Σ [(mdot)out (hout)] (4.140 Chih Wu 90% quality of saturated mixture in one stream and another stream of 20% quality of saturated mixture. Application of the mass balance equation and the First law of thermodynamics to a steady flow steady state heat exchanger. open feed water heater.7 psia and 55ºF is used to remove heat from the steam. 4.1) Heat exchangers in various applications are called boiler. and the total enthalpy rate flow in at the inlets is equal to the total enthalpy rate flow out at the exit of the mixing chamber.8.

8.4 lbm/s. and two sinks from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. 3. and (d) quality of the steam at the heat exchanger outlet is 0.4.1. Air with a mass rate flow of 0.4. To solve this problem by CyclePad. . we take the following steps: 1.9 lbm/s. Determine the mass rate flow of the lake water required. Figure E4. (B) Switch to analysis mode. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid are water for both streams. and (b) mdot=310. (c) pressure and temperature of the lake water at the heat exchanger inlet are 14. 2. a heat exchanger. and (e) temperature of the lake water at the heat exchanger outlet is 60ºF (or 70ºF).1 kg/s enters a water-cooled condenser at 1000 kpa. Display results The answer is (a) mdot=932. 260ºC and leaves at 1000 kpa and 85ºC.7 psia and 55ºF.First Law of Thermodynamics for Open Systems 141 2.9. Analysis (A) Assume the heat exchanger are isobaric on both hot and cold sides. The lake water leaves at 100 kPa and 30ºC.8.2. pressure and quality of the steam at the heat exchanger inlet are 5 lbm/s. 1 psia and 0. Build (A) Take two sources. Cooling lake water available at 100 kPa and 15ºC is used to remove heat from the air. Heat exchanger Example 4. Analysis (A) Assume the heat exchanger are isobaric on both hot and cold sides. (b) mass flow rate.

. Display results The answer is mdot=0. Determine the mass rate flow of the lake water required.2798 kg/s. Heat exchanger Example 4. Freon R-134a with a mass rate flow of 0.8. (b) mass flow rate. 1 MPa and 260ºC. (b) mass flow rate. (c) pressure and temperature of the lake water at the heat exchanger inlet are 100 kPa and 15ºC . Analysis (A) Assume the heat exchanger is isobaric on both hot and cold sides. and (d) pressure and temperature of the lake water at the heat exchanger exit are 100 kPa and 20ºC. a heat exchanger.4.8. 60ºC and leaves as a liquid at 1 Mpa and 35ºC. 1 MPa and 60ºC. The lake water leaves at 100 kPa and 20ºC.4. pressure and quality of the air at the heat exchanger inlet are 0.012 kg/s enters a water-cooled condenser at 1 Mpa. Figure E4. we take the following steps: 1.2.014 kg/s. To solve this problem by CyclePad.142 Chih Wu (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid are air for one stream and water for the other stream. (B) Switch to analysis mode. and (d) pressure and temperature of the lake water at the heat exchanger exit are 100 kPa and 30ºC.3.1 kg/s. and two sinks from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. Cooling lake water available at 100 kPa and 15ºC is used to remove heat from the freon. (c) pressure and temperature of the lake water at the heat exchanger inlet are 100 kPa and 15ºC . 3. pressure and quality of the R-134a at the heat exchanger inlet are 0. 2. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid are R-134a for one stream and water for the other stream. Build (A) Take two sources.

Air available at 100 kPa and 15ºC is used to remove heat from the freon. a heat exchanger.1111 kg/s.014 kg/s enters a water-cooled condenser at 1 Mpa.1565 m3/s. Analysis (A) Assume the heat exchanger is isobaric on both hot and cold sides.014 kg/s. The air leaves at 100 kPa and 30ºC. To solve this problem by CyclePad.4.First Law of Thermodynamics for Open Systems 3. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid are R-134a for one stream and water for the other stream. Build (A) Take two sources.8. 2. . Determine the mass rate flow and volumetric rate flow of the air required.4. Display results The answer is mdot=0. Heat exchanger Example 4.8. we take the following steps: 1. and (d) pressure and temperature of the lake water at the heat exchanger exit are 100 kPa and 30ºC.3.4. 143 Figure E4.1801 kg/s and Vdot=0. (b) mass flow rate. pressure and quality of the R-134a at the heat exchanger inlet are 0. (c) pressure and temperature of the air at the heat exchanger inlet are 100 kPa and 15ºC. 1 MPa and 60ºC. Freon R-134a with a mass rate flow of 0. and two sinks from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. 3. (B) Switch to analysis mode. Display results The answer is mdot=0. 60ºC and leaves as a liquid at 1 Mpa and 35ºC.

14. If 40 lbm/s nitrogen gas at 15 psia and 300ºR is available. and two sinks from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. (c) mass flow rate.144 Chih Wu Figure E4.4. (B) Switch to analysis mode. determine the temperature of the nitrogen at the outlet.7 psia and 440ºR in a steady-state steady-flow heat exchanger.7 psia and 540ºR to 14. (b) mass flow rate.4. pressure and temperature of the air at the heat exchanger inlet are 50 lbm/s. 2.5. a heat exchanger. 4000 kPa. pressure and temperature of the nitrogen at the heat exchanger inlet are 40 lbm/s.8. Build (A) Take two sources. and (d) temperature of the air at the heat exchanger outlet is 340ºR.1 ºR. Heat exchanger Example 4.4. we take the following steps: 1. 3. Analysis (A) Assume the heat exchanger is isobaric on both hot and cold sides. To solve this problem by CyclePad.7 psia and 540ºR 10 kPa. Display results The answers is T=420. . (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluids are air in one stream and nitrogen in another stream. We want to cool 50 lbm/s of air from 14.8. 15 psia and 300ºR.

Find the rate of the gas flow leaving the heat exchanger.4.000 kPa. ANSWER: 85. The cooling water enters the condenser at 10oC and exits at 20 oC. Refrigerant R134a flows through the condenser at a rate of 1 kg/s. Determine the rate at which heat is removed by the cooling water in kJ/s.000 kPa and leaves as dry saturated steam at 1. 3. The steam leaves the heat exchanger at 200 kPa and as saturated vapor. Air enters at 100 kPa and 25ºC and leaves at 100 kPa and 47ºC. Water is used to cool a refrigerant in a condenser of a large refrigeration system. Heat Exchanger 1. A heat exchanger is designed to use exhaust steam from a turbine to heat air in a manufacturing plant. ANSWER: 888 kg/s. Steam enters a constant pressure heat exchanger at 200 kPa and 200ºC at a rate of 8 kg/s. Water enters steadily at 100ºC and 1. Cooling water flows through the condenser at a rate of 2 kg/s.8. For a mass flow rate of hot gas of 25 kg/s. ANSWER: 83.2 kg/s.7 kW. The R134a enters the condenser at 40 oC as a two-phase saturated mixture and exits at 40 oC as a saturated liquid. Hot gas enters the heat recovery steam generator of a cogeneration system at 500ºC and 100 kPa and leaves at 150ºC and 100 kPa.8.4.72 kg/s. Heat exchanger Homework 4. determine the flow rate of water in kg/s.18oC. ANSWER: 3. 4.5. The air enters the heat exchanger at 20ºC. and it leaves at 180 kPa and 100ºC. 3 kg/s and 100 kPa and leaves at 100 kPa. Find the temperature of the air as it leaves the heat exchanger. Determine the mass rate flow of air. 2. 200 kPa and 200ºC.First Law of Thermodynamics for Open Systems 145 Figure E4.33 m3/s. Steam enters the well-insulated heat exchanger with a mass flow rate of 1. . 30.

capillary tubes. To solve this problem by CyclePad. Example 4. The process is steady-state flow.4. and other devices that reduce the pressure of the working fluid without any shaft work or heat interactions. the pressure drop and entropy change of the refrigerant R12. 2. The inlet enthalpy of the working fluid of a throttling valve is equal to the exit enthalpy of the working fluid. A throttling process is a constant enthalpy process. Refrigerant R-12 enters a throttling valve as a saturated liquid at 50ºC. It is used to regulate the pressure of a fluid. (c) the outlet temperature of the throttling valve is -5ºC.0209 kj/[kg(K)]. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is R-12.9. and the phase is saturated. The throttling valve is primarily used as a means to control a turbine.3 kPa and ∆s=0. and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. or a plate with a very small hole in it is called the throttling process. Determine the quality of the refrigerant at the outlet of the throttling valve. (B) Switch to analysis mode. .4. Throttling processes occur in obstructed flow passages such as valves.146 Chih Wu 4. the throttling process is highly irreversible. ∆p=-959.3476. Q=0. Reducing the pressure of the working fluid in throttling manner involves considerable irreversibility.9. a throttling valve. Build (A) Take a source.4. a porous plug. or as a flow measurement device. There is neither work nor heat transfer interaction between the valve and its surroundings. flow meters. It is also used to measure mass flow rates and quality of a mixture. Application of the First law of thermodynamics (neglecting kinetic and potential energy changes) to a steady flow steady state throttling valve gives W=0.1) Therefore. and h e=hi (4. the process experienced by a fluid when it goes through a throttle valve. Throttling Valve A throttle or a valve is called a throttling valve which is an inexpensive control device which. Display results The answers are x=0. 3. to reduce the pressure between the condenser and evaporator of a refrigerator or heat pump. As a result.9. It leaves at -5ºC as a saturated mixture. by an obstruction in its through-flow reduces the pressure of the working fluid. we take the following steps: 1. It can also be utilized to reduce the power or speed of a heat engine. (b) the inlet temperature and quality of the throttling valve are 100ºF and 0. A flash evaporator generates vapor by expansion (throttling) of a pure substance.1.

1. Figure E4. 3. The process is steady-state flow. 2. Build (A) Take a source. Display results The answer answers are ∆p=-10 psia. To solve this problem by CyclePad. Determine the pressure drop and entropy change of the air. Throttling valve Comment: Since h of ideal gases is a function of temperature only. i gives . (b) the inlet temperature and pressure of the throttling valve are 100ºF and 100 psia.1 lbm/s of air flow rate enters a throttling valve at 100 psia and 100ºF.0072 Btu/[lbm(R)].4. 0. a throttling valve.2.First Law of Thermodynamics for Open Systems 147 Figure E4. we take the following steps: 1.9.9. and T=100ºF.4. (B) Switch to analysis mode. It leaves at 90 psia. and ∆s=0. Throttling valve Example 4.9. h e=h Te=Ti=100ºF. and the temperature of the air at the outlet of the throttling valve. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is air. (c) the outlet pressure of the throttling valve is 90 psia. and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them.4.2.

What is the difference between a throttling process and a turbine process? 2. and ∆s=0. Homework 4. Determine the pressure drop and entropy change of the water. and the quality of the wet steam. superheated steam will form. Would you expect the temperature of air to drop as it undergoes a steady flow throttling process? 6. To solve this problem by CyclePad. is the enthalpy change equal to zero? 7.9. It utilizes the fact that when wet steam is throttled sufficiently. and pressure of the throttling valve is 200 psia.9.9. Would you expect the pressure of air to drop as it undergoes a steady flow throttling process? 5. (b) the inlet phase is saturated.4. is the temperature change equal to zero? . Display results Figure E4. If wet steam at 200 psia is throttled in a throttling steam calorimeter to 15 psia and 300 ºF. we take the following steps: 1. (B) Switch to analysis mode.9922.3. In a throttling process. 3. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is water. a throttling valve. 2. In a steam throttling process. Throttling Valve 1.3.4. Would you expect the temperature of steam to drop as it undergoes a steady flow throttling process? 4. Would you expect the pressure of steam to drop as it undergoes a steady flow throttling process? 3. and x=0. and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. Build (A) Take a source.148 Chih Wu Example 4. A throttling steam calorimeter (valve) is an instrument used for the determination of the quality of wet steam flowing in a steam main. Throttling valve The answers are ∆p=-185 psia.2759 Btu/[lbm(R)]. (c) the outlet pressure and temperature of the throttling valve are 15 psia and 300 ºF.4.

What is the quality of the steam if the calorimeter temperature and pressure are 225 ºF and 14. Why are throttling valves used in refrigeration and heat pumps rather than turbines? 9. the calorimeter pressure is 14. ANSWER: 0. Application of the First law of thermodynamics to a steady flow steady state reactor gives W=0 and Q = m(he-h i) (4. 14. A nuclear reactor is a heater in which a simple single stream fluid flows through a device where nuclear heat is transferred to the fluid. 11.31 psia. -11.10.10.2080. 0.7 psia? ANSWER: 0. ANSWER: 1173 Btu/lbm.9922. The pressure on the downstream side of the valve is 100 kPa. Reactor A reactor allows chemical reaction between two or more substances to create heat. The line pressure is 400 psia.1) . A steady flow of refrigerant-134a enters a throttling valve at 100ºF and as saturated liquid. Ammonia enters an expansion valve at 1.2 psia. What is the temperature of the steam at the exit? If steam under these conditions were an ideal gas.7 psia and the temperature is 260ºF. 12. A throttling calorimeter is used to determine the quality of steam originating in a system maintained at 600 psia.9595. and changes in kinetic and potential energies are commonly negligibly small.9357.First Law of Thermodynamics for Open Systems 149 8. 15. superheated steam will form. Helium gas at 300 K and 300 kPa passes through a partly opened valve in an insulted pipe. There are no means for doing any shaft or electric work. Determine the inlet and exit pressure and the exit quality. A throttling calorimeter is connected to a saturated steam line. 60. ANSWER: 0. what would be the temperature of the gas at the exit? 16.4. since a fluid flowing through the device usually undergoes only a small pressure drop due to fluid friction at the walls. Steam at 80 psia and 860 R at the inlet of a valve is expanded at constant enthalpy process to 20 psia. The heating process is usually considered to be isobaric. determine the quality of the steam. 0.5 MPa and 32 C and exits at 268 kPa. It utilizes the fact that when wet steam is throttled sufficiently. Find the quality and temperature of the ammonia leaving the valve. A throttling steam calorimeter is an instrument used for the determination of the quality of wet steam flowing in a steam main. What is the temperature on the downstream side? What is the change in entropy of the gas through the valve? 4. Determine the enthalpy and quality of the steam. The heating process tends to occur at constant pressure.1568.98ºC. ANSWER: 139. 13. The fluid is heated and may or may not change phases.4. Both turbines and throttling valves are expansion devices. If the wet steam at 200 psia is throttled in a calorimeter to 15 psia and 300ºF. Does the throttling valve reduce the mass flow rate of a fluid? 10. and leaves at 50 ºF as a two-phase saturated vapor and liquid mixture.

4. The inlet temperature and pressure of the helium are 50ºC and 300 kPa and the outlet temperature of the helium is 2000ºC.10. 3.2216 m3/s. 1000 kW of nuclear heat is added to helium at a constant volume process in a nuclear reactor. Determine the mass flow rate.150 Chih Wu Example 4.5. Build (A) Take a source. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is helium.5. Nozzle A nozzle is a small device used to create a high kinetic energy or a high velocity fluid stream at the expense of its pressure. volumetric flow rate. or a gas as with an exit nozzle on a rocket.1. This assumption is reasonable because the heat transfer surface area of the nozzle is very small.1. The substance may be a liquid as with a garden hose nozzle. (B) The model process of the reactor is constant volume and heat rate added is 1000 kW. A nozzle is usually modeled as adiabatic. 2. Figure E4. a reactor.0991 kg/s.4.10. Reactor 4. we take the following steps: 1.1. To solve this problem by CyclePad. and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. and pressure of the helium at the exit section. Therefore the ideal process is .05 kJ/[kg(K)]. and the length of time required for the working fluid to pass through the nozzle is very short. OTHER DEVICES (UNABLE TOUSE CYCLEPAD) 4. Display results The answers are mdot=0. (b) the inlet temperature and pressure of the helium are 50ºC and 300 kPa. There is no means to do mechanical shaft work. (c) the outlet temperature of the helium is 2000ºC. Vdot=0. (B) Switch to analysis mode. p=2110 kPa and ∆s=6.

5. and hi + (Vi)2/2 = he + (Ve)2/2 (4. and leaves at 15 psia and -40ºF. A nozzle is also used to measure flow rate. the nozzle efficiency.1) gives Ve = [2(hi-he) + (Ve)2]1/2 = [2cp(Ti-Te) + (Ve)2]1/2 = [2(0. or isentropic.1.2) .1) is then reduced to hi + (Vi)2/2 = he (4.5.24)(200+40)25000+1002]1/2 = 1702 ft/s. Application of the First law of thermodynamics to a steady flow steady state nozzle gives W=0. Since an ideal nozzle raises higher theoretical kinetic energy than the actual kinetic energy by an actual adiabatic nozzle at exit.1) Usually the kinetic energy of the fluid at the inlet of the nozzle is much smaller than the kinetic energy of the fluid at the exit.5.1.5. (4.5.1) Usually the kinetic energy of the fluid at the exit of the diffuser is much smaller than the kinetic energy of the fluid at the inlet. and would be neglected if its value is not known.2. (4. There are no means to do work. 4.2. Equation (4. η. η.1. Diffuser A diffuser is a small device used to decelerate a high velocity fluid stream and raise the pressure of the fluid.5. Q=0. A diffuser is usually modeled as adiabatic.5. The inlet velocity is 100 ft/s. Solution: Applying Eq. Therefore the ideal process is considered to be reversible and adiabatic. and the length of time required for the working fluid to pass through the diffuser is very short.3) Example 4.2.5. Determine the air exit velocity.5. This assumption is reasonable because the heat transfer surface area of the diffuser is very small. and hi + (Vi)2/2 = he + (Ve)2/2 (4. Application of the First law of thermodynamics to a steady flow steady state diffuser gives W=0. or isentropic.2.5. and would be neglected if its value is not known. Notice that the conversion factor of 1 Btu/lbm=25000 (ft/s)2. Air enters a nozzle at 100 psia and 200ºF.1.1) is then reduced to h i = he + (Ve)2/2 (4.1.First Law of Thermodynamics for Open Systems 151 considered to be reversible and adiabatic.2) Comparison between the actual and the ideal nozzle performance is given by the isentropic efficiency. is defined as η=[(Vactual)2/2]/[(Visentropic)2/2] (4. Q=0. Eq.

(Ve)2/2]/cp=313+{[2502 -902]/2000}/0.34ºC. Analysis (A) Assume the heater is isobaric. Qdot=295.152 Chih Wu Example 4. (B) Switch to analysis mode. Homework 4. 3. The required turbine shaft power is 100.1. enthalpy change from state 1 to state 3.5.8904. 120 kPa and 40ºC. Determine the air exit temperature. and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them.69 kJ/[kg(K)]. Determine the quality and temperature of steam at the exit of the turbine. In this section. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is water. and leaves at 90 m/s. (b) inlet pressure and temperature to the boiler are 6 Mpa and 90ºC.19=5. T=81. SYSTEMS CONSISTING OF MORE THAN ONE OPEN-SYSTEM DEVICE We have studied several problems involving only one steady flow device in each case. (b) outlet temperature of the boiler is 500ºC. and mass rate of water. turbine is isentropic.(Ve)2/2 Thus Te=Ti+[(Vi)2/2 .2 K Notice that the conversion factor of 1 kJ/kg=1000 (m/s)2. (c) outlet pressure of the turbine is 50 kPa. entropy change from state 1 to state 3. Build (A) Take a source. Display results The answers are x=0.000 kW. What is the function of a diffuser? 4. Solution: Applying Eq. and (d) the turbine turbine shaft power is 100. a turbine. Water is heated in an isobaric boiler from 6 Mpa and 90ºC to 500ºC (process 1-2).4) gives he -hi = cp(Te-Ti) = (Vi)2/2 . It is then expanded in an isentropic turbine to 50 kPa (process 2-3). .000 kW. heat added in the boiler.6.1 Air enters an isentropic diffuser at 250 m/s. To solve this problem by CyclePad. a heater. 2. we will study a few problems in which two or more devices are combined to perform an application task. work produced by the turbine. Nozzle and Diffuser 1.5.88-1. What is the function of a nozzle? 2.2.5. we take the following steps: 1. ∆s=6. Example 4. (4.363 kW.24=340.6.

and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. and η=100%. enthalpy change from state 1 to state 3. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is water. ∆s=1.6.665 kW. Build (A) Take a source. turbine is isentropic. (b) outlet quality of the condenser is 0.1-3422=-3081. power produced by the turbine. Multi-process Example 4. we take the following steps: 1. Water is expanded in an adiabatic turbine from 6 Mpa and 500ºC to 50 kPa to a quality of 0. To solve this problem by CyclePad.1. 3.93 (process 1-2). . and (c) mass flow rate is 32 kg/s.First Law of Thermodynamics for Open Systems 153 Figure E4.36-6. Water is then condensed in an isobaric condenser to saturated liquid (process 2-3). (B) Switch to analysis mode. and efficiency of the turbine. entropy change from state 1 to state 3. Qdot=-66.6.55 kJ/[kg(K)]. Display results The answers are T=105ºC.5 kJ/kg. Analysis (A) Assume the cooler is isobaric. a cooler. rate of heat removed from the condenser. (b) inlet pressure and temperature to the condenser are 6 Mpa and 500ºC. The water mass flow rate is 32 kg/s. ∆h=440.88=-5. Wdot=28. a turbine.2. 2. Determine the temperature of steam at the exit of the turbine.765 kW.

compressor is adiabatic. (b) outlet temperature of the condenser is 500ºC.62 kJ/[kg(K)]. 2.02 kg/s.3.8 MPa and 50ºC (process 1-2).15-1. B.24ºC.6. (c) outlet pressure of the compressor is 50 kPa. Qdot=-3. Assume the heater is isobaric. enthalpy change from state 1 to state 3.6-394. power required by the compressor. R-134a is then condensed in an isobaric condenser to saturated liquid (process 2-3).14 Mpa and -10ºC to 0.2.1=-150.77=-0. Input the given information: (a) working fluid is R-134a. B. ∆h=243. and (d) the compressor shaft power is 100. a compressor.83 kW. 3. and efficiency of the compressor. entropy change from state 1 to state 3. and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. Switch to analysis mode. Analysis A.23%.000 kW. Refrigerant R-134a is compressed in an adiabatic compressor from 0.154 Chih Wu Figure E4. Wdot=-0. Take a source. . Determine the temperature of R-134a at the exit of the condenser. To solve this problem by CyclePad.82 kW. ∆s=1. rate of heat removed from the condenser. Build A. The R-134a mass flow rate is 0.6. we take the following steps: 1. a heater. and η=93.5 kJ/kg. Device combination Example 4. Display results The answers are T=31. (b) inlet pressure and temperature to the condenser are 6 Mpa and 90ºC.

012 kg/s of refrigerant R22 enters an adiabatic compressor at -25ºC as saturated vapor and leaves at 1000 kPa and 52ºC. Determine the power required by the compressor and heat transfer removed from the cooler. 3. Air flows into the high-pressure adiabatic turbine at 1400 K and 1200 kPa and leaves at 1100 K and 400 kPa.4 kg/s of steam flows through a two-stage turbine with a reheater. ANSWER: -4. ANSWER: (A) 692.49 kW. and (C) the power produced by the low-pressure turbine. Steam then enters the low-pressure isentropic turbine and leaves at 30 kPa.6. Find: . -16. 0. (B) 774. ANSWER: -0.4 kW. (C) 1385 kW. Determine the power required by the compressor and heat transfer removed from the cooler. The refrigerant then enters an isobaric cooler and leaves as a saturated liquid. 5. (B) the heat transfer added by the reheater. 4. (C) 2905 kW.12 kg/s of refrigerant R12 enters an isentropic compressor at -25ºC as saturated vapor and leaves at 1000 kPa.46 kW.4 kW. Determine (A) the power produced by the high-pressure turbine. (B) 692. 2. Determine (A) the power produced by the high-pressure turbine. (B) the heat transfer added by the reheater. Device combination Homework 4. Combination 1.3 kg/s of air flows through a two-stage turbine with a reheater. It enters the isobaric reheater and leaves at 1400 K.48 kW. Steam flows into the high-pressure isentropic turbine at 800 K and 1200 kPa and leaves at 600 kPa.3. It enters the isobaric reheater and leaves at 800 K.4 kW. ANSWER: (A) 754.4885 kW. and (C) the power produced by the low-pressure turbine. -2. Air at 1 kg/s mass flow rate is to be compressed from 101 kPa and 293 K to a final state of 1000 kPa and 450 K. 0. 3. 2.3 kW. The refrigerant then enters an isobaric cooler and leaves as a saturated liquid. Air then enters the lowpressure adiabatic turbine and leaves at 800 K and 120 kPa.First Law of Thermodynamics for Open Systems 155 Figure E4.6.

0 kW. The mass and energy balances in this case can be expressed as: mi=me. A chemical plant has saturated steam available at 400 psia. there is little use for the steam at this pressure. Boundary work for open systems is zero. The two streams at 150 psia could then be mixed to form a 100 lbm/s stream of steam at 150 psia and 80% quality for a new application.7. called the First law of thermodynamics for open system. 6. can be expressed as ∆E=Q-W +Ei -Ee. Steady flow and steady state is the most important case of engineering applications. But. The mass balance of the open system can be expressed as ∆m= mi -me. where energy flow in or out with mass across the boundary surface is E= Ek +Ek+U +pV= Ek +Ek+H. energy and other quantities of the system are constant in the steady state. What is the polytropic index. . due to a process change. The power if the process is done polytropically.23.156 Chih Wu A. B. which is different from a fixed mass system (control mass). The power if the compression is done first isentropically to the final pressure and then cooled to the final state. the plant also has exhaust saturated steam available at 40 psia. In addition. (B) -240.. It has been suggested that the 40 psia steam be compressed to 150 psia. 4. and the fluid flows through the system steadily. The energy balance of the open system. Various engineering steady flow and steady state processes and devices analyzed by the mass and energy balances are illustrated using CyclePad. and 0=Q-W +Ei -Ee. n=1. The mass . Calculate the mass flow rate of the two streams and the work required to compress the 40 psia stream. SUMMARY An open system (control volume) is a fixed volume system. because the volume of the system is fixed. n? ANSWER: (A) -272.5 kW.

Thermal Reservoirs A thermal reservoir is any object or system which can serve as a heat source or sink for another system. very large compared with the amounts of heat energy they exchange. The First law of thermodynamics does not give any information to the direction of the process. The limited amount of energy that can be transformed from one form to another form and the direction of flow of heat and work have not been discussed. Examples of large capacity. On what important point is the First Law of thermodynamics entirely silent? 3. Thermal reservoirs usually have accumulated energy capacities which are very. heat does not flow from a low temperature body to a high temperature body. Our experiences suggest that processes have a definite direction.2. DEFINITIONS 5. atmosphere. 2.Chapter 5 SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 5. The Second law of thermodynamics addresses these areas. A proposed thermodynamic system that does not violate the First law of thermodynamics does not ensure that the thermodynamic system will actually occur. Introduction 1. Give an equivalent statement of First Law of thermodynamics. Homework 5. Does the First law of thermodynamics give any information to the direction of a process? 4. constant temperature thermal reservoirs which make convenient heat sources and sinks are: ocean.2.1.1. Therefore the thermal reservoirs are considered to operate at constant temperatures.1. There is a need to place restrictions on the direction of flow of a process. . Water does not flow up a hill. Why do we need the Second Law of thermodynamics? 5. etc. INTRODUCTION Thus far we have analyzed thermodynamic systems according to the First law of thermodynamics and state properties relationships.

a cooler and a compressor as shown in Figure 5. heat is removed from the cooler. Output work (Wo) is done by the turbine.1. Heat (QH) is added to the heat engine from a high-temperature thermal reservoir at TH. a commercial central power station using a heat engine called a Rankine steam power plant is shown in Figure 5.1.2.2. a turbine and a condenser. a gas turbine.2. Heat is added to the nuclear gas power plant in the nuclear reactor.2.2. The Rankine heat engine consists of a pump. output work (W) is done by the heat engine. work is produced by the turbine. Another example of a heat engine is a nuclear helium gas power plant which is made of a nuclear reactor. and heat (QL) is removed from the heat engine to a low-temperature thermal reservoir at TL. Input work (Wi) is added to drive the pump. The net work output of the nuclear helium gas power plant is the difference between the work produced by the turbine and work required to operate the compressor.2. A part of the work produced by the turbine is used to drive the compressor.3. Heat (QH) is added to the working fluid (water) in the boiler from a high-temperature (TH) flue gas by burning coal or oil.2.2. and work input is required to operate the compressor.2.1.2.2. Rankine heat engine For example.2. HIGH-TEMPERA TURE THERMAL RESER VOIR TH HEAT ADDED QH (DESIRABLE) OUTPUT WORK W HEAT ENGINE HEAT REMOVED QL LOW-TEMPERA TURE THERMAL RESER VOIR TL Figure 5.158 Chih Wu 5. Heat Engines A heat engine is a continuous cyclic device which produces positive net work output by adding heat.2. . Heat engine Figure 5. Heat (QL) is removed from the the working fluid in the condenser to low-temperature (TL) lake cooling water. The net work (W) produced by the Rankine heat engine is W=Wo-Wi. a boiler. The energy flow diagram of a heat engine and its thermal reservoirs are shown in Figure 5.

Figure E5. B.1. 3. Heat is transferred to a Rankine power plant at a rate of 80 MW. Heat engine efficiency Example 5. (b) net power output is +30 MW. we take the following steps: 1.2.2.2.2. Input the given information: (a) rate of heat added is +80 MW.2. Go to LIBRARY. Build A. .2.1) Example 5. η.Second Law of Thermodynamics 159 Figure 5. 2. then cycle properties. B.375. To solve this problem by CyclePad. Go to cycle. Nuclear helium gas heat engine The measurement of performance for a heat engine is called the thermal efficiency.2. Analysis A. A Rankine heat engine with a net power output of 85000 hp has a thermal efficiency of 35%. Determine the thermal efficiency of the power plant. The thermal efficiency of a heat engine is defined as the ratio of the desirable net output work sought to the heat input of the engine: η=Wnet/Qinput =Wdotnet/Qdotinput (5.2. Switch to analysis mode.2.3.1. select Rankine cycle unsolved.2. Determine the rate of heat added to the engine.2. Display results: The answer is η=0. If the net power output of the plant is 30 MW.

B. . 3. B. while absorbing heat at 9 kW. Analysis A. Heat engines 1. then cycle properties. ANSWER: (A) -720 Btu/lbm. (B) 280 Btu/lbm.160 Chih Wu To solve this problem by CyclePad. 8. Determine (A) heat rejected. Input the given information: (a) net power output is +85000 hp. Define the efficiency of a heat engine.2. while absorbing heat at 10 kW. 9. Display results: The answer is the rate of heat added=171657 Btu/s. An inventor claims to have developed a heat engine that produces work at 10 kW. 2.2. 10. 12. Evaluate such a claim. Switch to analysis mode. we take the following steps: 1. select Rankine cycle unsolved.2. Build A. Go to cycle. An inventor claims to have developed a heat engine that produces work at 10 kW. Can heat engine do anything else energy wise other than deliver work? Is a gas turbine a heat engine? Is a steam power plant a heat engine? Is it possible to have a heat engine with efficiency of 100%? Can a heat engine operating with only one thermal reservoir? Is a reversible heat engine more efficient than an irreversible heat engine when operating between the same two thermal reservoirs? Give two expressions to calculate the efficiency of a heat engine.2. A closed system cycle has a thermal efficiency of 28%. What is a thermal reservoir? Define a heat engine. 4. 2.2. Evaluate such a claim. 5. 7. Go to LIBRARY. and (B) net work of the cycle. Heat engine Homework 5. 11. 6. Figure E5. 3. (b) cycle efficiency is 35%. The heat supplied from the energy source is 1000 Btu/lbm of working substance.

What is the net work of the system (Btu)? C. 14.1. Determine (A) the thermal efficiency of the cycle. (B) 34000 kJ/min. and (C) the maximum possible thermal efficiency of any cycle operating between 3000 K and 300 K. Work (W) is added to drive the compressor by an electric motor.000 kJ/min as heat transfer from hot combustion gases at 3000 K and rejects 66. From the start to end of the cycle.3.2. and heat (QH) is added to the high-temperature thermal reservoir at TH. A simple steam power cycle plant receives 100. Is this cycle possible? Justify your answer. ANSWER: (A) 0. desirable heat (QL) is removed from the low-temperature thermal reservoir at TL. HIGH-TEMPERA TURE THERMAL RESER VOIR TH HEAT REMOVED QH INPUT WORK REFRIGERA TOR W (DESIRABLE) QL HEAT ADDED LOW-TEMPERA TURE THERMAL RESER VOIR TL Figure 5. What is the change in internal energy of the system (Btu)? B. (C) 90%.2. an expansion valve and an evaporator. Input work (W) is added to the refrigerator. (B) 250 Btu. 5.2. ANSWER: (A) 34%. An example of a refrigerator is a domestic refrigerator which is made up of a compressor.3. a condenser.000 kJ/min as heat transfer to the environment at 300 K. The domestic refrigerator is illustrated in Figure 5.3. desirable heat (QL) is added in the evaporator and removed from the low temperature (TL) refrigerator inner space by the working fluid (refrigerant).2. A. Refrigerators A refrigerator is a continuous cyclic device which removes heat from a low temperature reservoir to a high temperature reservoir at the expense of work input. (C) possible.3.1.Second Law of Thermodynamics 161 13. A closed system undergoes a cycle in which 600 Btu of heat is transferred to the system from a source at 600 oF and 350 Btu of heat is rejected to a sink at 250 oF. (B) the net power produced by the cycle. The energy flow diagram of a refrigerator and its thermal reservoirs are shown in Figure 5. and heat (QH) is removed from the condenser from the working fluid to the high temperature (TH) reservoir (kitchen).2. Refrigerator .

000 Btu/h.2. Input the given information: (a) COP is 1.3. (b) rate of heat removed from the refrigerator but added to the cycle is +6 kW.5. then cycle properties.5. we take the following steps: 1.1. 3. 2. Notice that the coefficient of performance of a refrigerator may be larger or smaller than one.71 ton. To solve this problem by CyclePad. determine the refrigerator capacity in tons of refrigeration and the required power input to the refrigerator. B.3. Domestic Refrigerator The measurement of performance for a refrigerator is called the coefficient of performance (COP).162 Chih Wu Figure 5. and net power input is -4kW. Go to cycle.2. B. and is denoted by βR. select basic refrigerator cycle unsolved. Go to LIBRARY.516 kW or 12. Build A.1) QdotL is called refrigerator capacity and is usually expressed in tons of refrigeration. Analysis A. The term “ton” is derived from the fact that the heat required to melt one ton of ice is about 12. Switch to analysis mode. .2. Capacity is 1. The coefficient of performance of a refrigerator is defined as the ratio of the desirable heat removed QL to the work input W of the refrigerator: βR=QL/W=QdotL/Wdot (5. If the COP of the refrigerator is 1. Display results The answers are: refrig. One ton of refrigeration is 3. The inside space of a refrigerator is maintained at low temperature by removing heat (QdotL) from it at a rate of 6 kW.000 Btu/h.2. Example 5.3.

The inside space of a refrigerator is maintained at 3ºC by removing heat from it at a rate of 5 kW. Refrigerator . To solve this problem by CyclePad. we take the following steps: 1. Build A.Second Law of Thermodynamics 163 Figure E5.2. Go to LIBRARY.2. Determine the COP of the refrigerator. 2.2.3. If the required power input to the refrigerator is 2 kW. Refrigerator Example 5. then cycle properties. Go to cycle. B. Figure E5. (b) heat removed from the refrigerator but added to the cycle is +5 kW. 3.50.2.2.1. B. Analysis A. select basic refrigerator cycle unsolved. Input the given information: (a) power input is -2 kW.3. Switch to analysis mode. Display results The answer is COP=2.3.

3600 Btu/h. ANSWER: -3000 Btu/h.4. The refrigeration plant of an air conditioning system has a cooling capacity of 2400 Btu/h. 4. 6. Is the COP of a refrigerator always larger than 1? What is a ton of refrigeration? It is suggested that the kitchen in your house could be cooled in the summer by closing the kitched from the rest of the house and opening the door to the domestic electric refrigerator. Heat pump . 5. An example of a heat pump is a house heat pump which is made up of a compressor. and heat (QL) is removed from the low-temperature thermal reservoir at TL. The COP of the refrigerator is Determine the power required by the compressor.1. Heat Pumps A heat pump is a continuous cyclic device which pumps heat to a high temperature reservoir from a low temperature reservoir at the expense of work input. a condenser.4. 7.2.2.3. 5. Heat (QH) is removed to the high-temperature house from the working fluid in the condenser. 8. The energy flow diagram of a heat pump and its thermal reservoirs are shown in Figure 5.2.4. Input work (W) is added to the heat pump.164 Chih Wu Homework 5.2. and heat (QL) is added to the evaporator from the low-temperature outside atmospheric air in the winter season. 3. desirable heat (QH) is pumped to the high-temperature thermal reservoir at TH.1.2. HIGH-TEMPERA TURE THERMAL RESER VOIR TH (DESIRABLE) HEAT QH REMOVED HEAT PUMP INPUT WORK W HEAT ADDED QL LOW-TEMPERA TURE THERMAL RESER VOIR TL Figure 5. Is air conditioner a refrigerator? Is it possible to have a refrigerator operating with one thermal reservoir? Define the COP of a refrigerator. The compressor power added is 1200 Btu/h.4.2. work is added to the compressor by an electric motor. Refrigerator 1. The refrigeration plant of an air conditioning system has a capacity of 12000 Btu/h. a throttling valve and an evaporator as illustrated in Figure 5. 2. Is it true or false? State the reason for your conclusion. What is the COP of the refrigerator? What is the amount of heat transfer to the atmosphere? ANSWER: 2.

A heat pump with a COP of 2. Display results The answer is net power=357. Go to LIBRARY. To solve this problem by CyclePad. and is denoted by βHP. B. Build A. Input the given information: (a) COP is 2.4.8. (b) heat removed is -1000 kW.Second Law of Thermodynamics 165 Notice that the energy flow diagram and hardware components of a heat pump are exactly the same as those of a refrigerator. Figure 5. Analysis A. Determine the electric motor power consumed by the heat pump. select basic refrigeration cycle unsolved. then cycle properties.1) Notice that the coefficient of performance of a heat pump is always larger than one.8 is selected to meet the heating requirements of a house and maintain it at a comfortable temperature (TH). The house is estimated to lose heat (QH) at a rate of 1000 kW. The coefficient of performance of a heat pump is defined as the ratio of the desirable heat output QH to the work input W of the heat pump: βHP=QH/W=QdotH/Wdot (5. The difference between the heat pump and the refrigerator is the function of the cyclic devices. B.2.2. A heat pump is used to add heat (QH) to a high temperature (TH) thermal reservoir by adding work.4. House Heat pump The measurement of performance for a heat pump is called the coefficient of performance (COP).4. .1 kW. Switch to analysis mode. 2. we take the following steps: 1. Example 5. 3. Heat (QL) is pumped from the outdoor ambient air at low temperature (TL). A refrigerator is used to remove heat (QL) from a low temperature (TL) thermal reservoir by adding work. Go to cycle.2.2.1.

To solve this problem by CyclePad.4. Go to LIBRARY.166 Chih Wu Figure E5. Analysis A. Heat pump The answer is COP=1.1. Switch to analysis mode. Heat pump Example 5. Input the given information: (a) net power input is -680 kW.2.2. Go to cycle. B. the house is estimated to lose heat at a rate of 1000 kW and the net power input to the house is 680 kW.47.4. select basic refrigeration cycle unsolved. (b) heat removed is -1000 kW. Display results Figure E5. Build A. 2.4. . 3.2. If the outdoor temperature is 2ºC. B. then cycle properties.2.2. we take the following steps: 1. A heat pump is selected to meet the heating requirements of a house and maintain it at 18ºC. Determine the COP of the heat pump.

Is the COP of a heat pump always larger than 1? 6. Give an equivalent statement of the Clausius statement. Homework 5. COP<1. 5. What is the difference between a refrigerator and a heat pump? 2. This implies that the coefficient of performance of a heat pump or a refrigerator is always less than infinity. A heat pump picks up 1000 kJ of heat from well water at 10 C and discharges 3000 kJ of heat to a building to maintain it at 20 C. A process that causes heat to be transferred from reservoir A to reservoir B is feasible. 11. Heat Pump 1. SECOND LAW STATEMENTS The principle underlying the directionality of spontaneous change and inefficiency of a heat engine is called the second law of thermodynamics. A process that causes heat to be supplied to one reservoir only is feasible.2.4. A process that causes heat to be removed from one reservoir only is feasible. Indicate whether the following statements are true or false: 7. Define the COP of a heat pump. Give an equivalent statement of the Kelvin-Planck statement. 4. A heat pump and a refrigerator are operating between the same two thermal reservoirs. 12. Second Law Statements 1. For a heat pump. 10. Every relevant experiment that has been conducted verifies the Second law of thermodynamics. 2000 kJ. 2. . What is the COP of the heat pump? What is the minimum required cycle net work? ANSWER: 1. This law may be stated in various equivalent ways. For a refrigerator.Second Law of Thermodynamics 167 Homework 5.3. Clausius statement: It is impossible to construct a heat pump or a refrigerator which moves heat from a low temperature thermal reservoir to a high temperature thermal reservoir without adding work. COP<1. Which one has a higher COP? 3.5. This implies that a heat engine requires at least two thermal reservoirs with different temperatures. 8. and that it is impossible to build a heat engine that has a thermal efficiency of 100%. Would you think that efficiency is an appropriate definition to be used when a heat pump is being discussed? Why? 5. Kelvin-Planck statement: It is impossible to construct a heat engine that produces work with heat interaction only from a single thermal reservoir.3. Thermal efficiency of a heat engine is defined to be the ratio of energy output desirable to energy input. 9. Among the best known statements are the following two statements.

It is generally much easier to describe a system’s behavior under reversible conditions rather than irreversible ones. A process is called internally reversible if no irreversibilities occur within the boundaries of the system during the process.5. A process is called totally reversible if no irreversibilities occur neither within nor outside the boundaries of the system during the process. heat transfer across a finite temperature difference.1 is composed of the following four reversible processes: 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-1 reversible adiabatic (isentropic) compression reversible isothermal heating at TH reversible adiabatic (isentropic) expansion reversible isothermal cooling at TL Referring to Figure 5. The irreversibility factors include friction. free expansion. is often a useful engineering approach. List several reversible processes. Thus the assumption of reversibility. CARNOT CYCLE Considering the concepts of reversible processes. List several irreversible processes. 5.5. chemical reactions.2.4. at the conclusion of the process. The reversible cycle was introduced by a French engineer N.168 Chih Wu 5. mixing of two fluids.5. etc. and combustion of a coal pile. They serve as idealized models in which actual processes can be compared. the system undergoes a Carnot heat engine cycle in the following manner: . a reversible cycle can be carried out for given thermal reservoirs at temperatures TH and TL.4. 3. The factors that cause a process to be irreversible are called irreversibility factors. REVERSIBLE AND IRREVERSIBLE PROCESSES A reversible process is an idealized one that is performed in such a way that.S. Homework 5. both the system and its surroundings may be restored to their initial states without producing any changes in the rest of the universe. Carnot. Reversible and Irreversible Processes 1. A process is called externally reversible if no irreversibilities occur outside the boundaries of the system during the process. the tearing of a piece of paper. the weathering of rocks. the rusting of iron. Any process that does not fulfill these stringent requirements is called an irreversible process. The Carnot heat engine cycle on a T-s diagram as shown in Figure 5. although not perfect. 2. Reversible processes actually do not occur in nature. A process is called endo-reversible if no irreversibilities occur within but outside the boundaries of the system during the process. Are the following natural phenomena reversible or irreversible process: a waterfall.1.

The amount of heat transfer during the process is Q23=∫Tds= TH(S3-S2). Notice that the area 1-2-34-1 is the area enclosed by the cycle. The amount of heat transfer during the process is Q41=∫Tds= TL(S1-S4). Carnot heat engine cycle on p-v and T-s diagram (C) During process 3-4. The net work produced to the cycle is Wnet=Qnet= Area 1-2-3-4-1. Or ηCarnot=1-TL/TH (5. According to the definition of a heat engine efficiency . which can be represented by the area 1-4-5-6-1. heat is transferred isothermally from the working substance to the low temperature reservoir at TL. which can be represented by the area 2-3-5-6-2. the efficiency of the Carnot heat engine is ηCarnot=Wnet output/Qinput= [Area 1-2-3-4-1]/[Area 2-3-5-6-2]= (TH-TL)(S4-S1)/[TH(S4S1)]=(TH-TL)/TH. The process is an isentropic process.5. because there is no area underneath a constant entropy (vertical) line. This process is accomplished reversibly by bringing the system in contact with the high temperature reservoir whose temperature is equal to or infinitesimally higher than the working substance. The net heat added to the cycle is Qnet=Q12+Q23+Q34+Q41=0+TH(S3-S2)+0+TL(S1-S4)= (TH-TL)(S4-S1)=[Area 2-3-5-6-2]-[area 1-4-5-6-1]=Area 1-2-3-4-1. the system is thermally insulated and the temperature of the working substance is decreased from the high temperature TH to the low temperature TL.1) . (D) During process 4-1. Q41 is the amount of heat removed from the Carnot cycle to a low temperature thermal reservoir. Q23 is the amount of heat added to the Carnot cycle from a high temperature thermal reservoir. The amount of heat transfer during the process is Q12=∫Tds=0.Second Law of Thermodynamics 169 (A) During process 1-2. The process is an isentropic process. (B) During process 2-3. p 3 4 2 1 T TH 2 3 TL 1 6 5 4 V S Figure 5.1. because there is no area underneath a constant entropy (vertical) line. the system is thermally insulated and the temperature of the working substance is raised from the low temperature TL to the high temperature TH. The amount of heat transfer during the process is Q34=∫Tds=0. heat is transferred isothermally to the working substance from the high temperature reservoir at TH.5. This process is accomplished reversibly by bringing the system in contact with the low temperature reservoir whose temperature is equal to or infinitesimally lower than the working substance.

If an inventor claims that he has developed a heat engine operating between the same temperature interval producing 5 hp and the rate of heat supplied to his engine is 10. B. Analysis A. Carnot heat engine Example 5. then cycle properties.82%. Go to cycle. C. To solve this problem by CyclePad. Go to cycle. input eta-thermal=eta Carnot=67. select Rankine cycle unsolved. Analysis A. Display results The answers are η=67. . then cycle result.000 Btu/h. (b) Tmin is 40ºC.2 A Carnot heat engine operates between 1000ºF and 100ºF develops 5 hp. Determine the power produced and the efficiency of the Carnot heat engine.100 kW. 2.170 Chih Wu Example 5. B. Build A. Input the given information: (a) Tmax is 700ºC. (c) rate of heat added is +500 MW. Is it possible? To solve this problem by CyclePad. Go to LIBRARY. we take the following steps: 1. select Rankine cycle unsolved. Determine the thermal efficiency and the rate of heat supplied.1. B.5. Figure E5. 2.5.82% and net-power=339. Go to LIBRARY. 3. After the Carnot cycle efficiency is posted. Build A.5. Switch to analysis mode. Switch to analysis mode. we take the following steps: 1. Heat is transferred to a Carnot heat engine at a rate of 500 MW from a high-temperature source at 700 ºC and rejects heat to a low-temperature sink at 40 ºC.1.

Name the events and describe each one. What two parameters determine the limiting efficiency of any cycle? 5. air or water? 2. the claim of having the rate of heat supplied to his engine is 10. What are the four processes of a Carnot heat engine? 10. Figure E5.2. After the Carnot cycle efficiency is posted. 3. Does the Carnot heat engine efficiency depends on the working fluid used in the engine? Which working fluid used in the engine would be more efficient. Carnot heat engine B operates between 20ºC and 820ºC.66%. input eta-thermal=eta Carnot=61. Display results The answer is rate of heat added for the Carnot cycle is 20. Carnot heat engine Homework 5. Since the Carnot cycle is the most efficient one among heat engines operating between the same two temperature reservoirs.5. Which Carnot heat engine is more efficient than the other. Carnot heat engine A operates between 20ºC and 520ºC. Input the given information: (a) Tmax is 1000ºF. 3.5. What is the area enclosed by the cycle area of the Carnot cycle illustrating on a p-V diagram? 8. (c) net power output is 5 hp.638 Btu/h. Can a real heat engine cycle be more efficient than the Carnot heat engine efficiency? 4.Second Law of Thermodynamics 171 B.000 Btu/h is impossible. What is the area enclosed by the cycle area of the Carnot cycle illustrating on a T-s diagram? 7. Carnot Cycle 1. C. A Carnot heat engine operates between a high temperature thermal reservoir at TH and a low temperature thermal reservoir at TL. (b) Tmin is 100ºF. What is the efficiency of the Carnot heat engine? . 9. There are four distinct events that occur in the Carnot cycle. What kind of shape is the Carnot cycle illustrating on a T-s diagram? 6.

19. and the rate of heat transferred from the high temperature reservoir is 200 kW. Is the thermal cycle efficiency increased? 15. For every heat interaction of 1 kJ with the high temperature reservoir it rejects 0. The power produced by the cycle is 100 kW. 17. (B) 2000000 kW. (A) Is such an engine feasible? If yes. is it feasible? 13.6 kJ heat to the low temperature reservoir.3 kJ heat to the low temperature reservoir. A midshipman has invented an auto engine cycle that receives heat from combustion gases at 2500 R and rejects heat to ambient air at 500ºR.172 Chih Wu 11. is it reversible? (B) If it rejects 0. Which of the following statements is false? (A) More work is done during the isothermal expansion process.000 kW of power. (F) Thermal cycle efficiency is increased. He claims that for a steady fuel flow of 10 lbm/h. (D) More work is done during the isentropic compression process. what is the minimum rate of heat addition? (C)What is the maximum rate of heat rejection? (D) What is the rate of heat addition if the actual efficiency is 10 %? ANSWER: (A) 50%. 14. (A) What is the maximum possible efficiency of such a power plant? (B) for a production of 1. Calculate the rate of heat transferred from the high temperature reservoir. (D) 10000000 kW. 18. The heating value of the fuel is 20000 Btu/lbm. . An inventor claims to have developed a heat engine with better efficiency than the Carnot heat engine efficiency when operating between the same two thermal reservoirs. A heat engine operates between two reservoirs. Consider the design of a power plant operating between a high-temperature reservoir at 1000ºR and a low-temperature reservoir at 500ºR. How do you evaluate his claim? ANSWER: possible. (C) 1000000 kW. 16. Determine the rate of heat transferred from the low temperature reservoir and TL. Is it possible? 12. The power produced by the cycle is 100 kW. 20. and the rate of heat transferred from the low temperature reservoir. An inventor claims to have developed a heat engine that takes in 100 Btu of heat from a source at 1000 R and produces 15 Btu of net work while rejecting the waste heat to a sink at 500 R. (E) More cycle net work is done. A Carnot heat engine operates between a low temperature thermal reservoir at TL and 1000 K.000. (C) More work is done during the isothermal compression process. A Carnot heat engine operating between 300 K and 800 K is modified solely by raising both the high temperature and the low temperature by 100 K. (B) More work is done during the isentropic expansion process. Is this a reasonable claim? Would you advise investing money to put this engine on the market? Show your justification in detail. ANSWER: not reasonable claim. one at 1273 K and the other at 573 K. his engine can produce 60000 Btu/h. Is this a reasonable claim? Why? Show your justification in detail. A Carnot heat engine operating between 300 K and 900 K is modified solely by raising the high temperature by 100 K. A Carnot heat engine operates between 300 K and 1000 K. An inventor claims to have developed a heat engine when receives 800 kJ of heat from a source at 400K and produces 400 kJ of net work while rejecting the waste heat to a sink at 300 K.

Notice that the area 1-2-34-1 is the area enclosed by the cycle. Using the same graphical explanation that was used in the Carnot heat engine. Carnot heat pump or Carnot refrigerator cycle on p-v and T-s diagram The net heat added to the cycle is Qnet=Q12+Q23+Q34+Q41=0+TH(S3-S2)+0+TL(S1-S4)= (TH-TL)(S4-S1)=[Area 2-3-5-6-2]-[area 1-4-5-6-1]=Area 1-2-3-4-1. or (B) to decrease TL and keeping TH constant.1. According to the COP (β) definition of a heat pump. Q41 is the amount of heat added to the Carnot cycle from a low temperature thermal reservoir.2. According to the COP (β) definition of a heat pump.2.5. or .R=Qdesirable output/Winput= [Area 4-1-5-6-4]/[Area 1-2-3-4-1]= (TL)(S2-S3)/[(THTL)(S2-S3)]=TL/(TH-TL). Such a cycle is shown in Figure 5. the result will be either a Carnot heat pump or a Carnot refrigerator. what is the minimum amount of water that would be required for the production of 1 kJ of work? 5. Carnot Heat Pump If the Carnot cycle for a heat engine is carried out in the reverse direction. 22.2) The net work added to the cycle is Wnet=Qnet= Area 1-2-3-4-1. If hot water is available at 370 K and if an infinite heat sink is available at 290 K.5. Which is the more effective way to increase the efficiency of a Carnot heat engine: (A) to increase TH and keeping TL constant. Hot water could in theory be used as heat source for the generation of work.HP=Qdesirable output/Winput= [Area 2-3-5-6-2]/[Area 1-2-3-4-1]= (TH)(S2-S3)/[(THTL)(S2-S3)]=TH/(TH-TL).5. the heat added from the low temperature reservoir at TL is area 1-4-5-6-1. p 3 2 4 1 4 1 T 3 2 V S Figure 5. the COP of the Carnot refrigerator is βCarnot.5. The net work added to the cycle is Wnet=Qnet= Area 1-2-3-4-1. the COP of the Carnot heat pump is βCarnot.R=1/(TH/TL-1) (5. or βCarnot.Second Law of Thermodynamics 173 21.

An irreversible heat pump and a Carnot heat pump operate between the same two thermal reservoirs.HP=1/(1-TL/TH) Chih Wu (5. . Since the Carnot refrigerator has the maximum COP. the system is thermally insulated and the temperature of the working substance is raised from the low temperature TL to the high temperature TH.5 is not valid. (C) During process 3-4. (D) During process 4-1. Can a real refrigerator have higher COP than the COP of the Carnot refrigerator? 5. the system undergoes a Carnot heat pump or Carnot refrigerator cycle in the following manner: (A) During process 1-2.5. Determine the rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space. Homework 5.1. we take the following steps: 1. the system is thermally insulated and the temperature of the working substance is decreased from the high temperature TH to the low temperature TL. From Eq. and the temperature of the refrigerated space.2).3) Referring to Figure 5. A reversible heat pump and a Carnot heat pump operate between the same two thermal reservoirs.5. This process is accomplished reversibly by bringing the system in contact with the high temperature reservoir whose temperature is equal to or infinitesimally lower than the working substance. we have βCarnot.5. (5. the claim of 8.2. Is this claim reasonable? Solution: To solve this problem. and has a COP of 4. heat is transferred isothermally from the working substance to the high temperature reservoir at TH. (B) During process 2-3. This process is accomplished reversibly by bringing the system in contact with the low temperature reservoir whose temperature is equal to or infinitesimally higher than the working substance. What is the relationship between the COP of a Carnot refrigerator and the COP of a Carnot heat pump when the two cycles are operating between the same two thermal reservoirs? 2. Carnot Heat Pump and Carnot Refrigerator 1. heat is transferred isothermally to the working substance from the low temperature reservoir at TL. ANSWER: 2000 W.5. 2. The refrigerator consumes 500 W of power when operating.5. Which heat pump has higher COP? Can a real heat pump have higher COP than the COP of the Carnot heat pump? 4. Which heat pump has higher COP? 3.3.5.R=1/(TH/TL-1)=1/(540/270-1)=1. Example 5.174 βCarnot. -33ºC. An inventor claims to have developed a refrigerator that removes heat from a region at 270 K and transfer it to a thermal reservoir at 540 K while maintaining a COP of 8. A Carnot refrigerator operates in a room in which the temperature is 27ºC.

6 Btu/h. Find the COP of the Carnot refrigerator. A refrigerator is to be built to cool water from 310 K to 290 K continuously.10 kW. A heat pump is used to heat a system and maintain it at 300 K. 15. What is the minimum power requirement of the refrigerator if 1 m3 of water is to be cooled? How much heat must be discarded to the atmosphere? 16. Determine the maximum possible COP for a heat pump operating between an ambient temperature of -23ºC and the interior of a house at 27ºC.01 kW. A heat pump is used to maintain a house at 60ºF when the outside air temperature is 40ºF. 10. What would be the COP at this condition. (B) 46.5. A refrigerator extracts 291 kW from a cooled space at 253 K. ANSWER: -0. (A) Find the maximum COP.Second Law of Thermodynamics 175 6. ANSWER: 13. and the COP (coefficient of performance) for the refrigerator obtained by reversing the power cycle.000 kW. Heat is to be discarded to atmosphere at a temperature of 315 K. ANSWER: 555. 11.9333-0. 1.000 Btu/h. . 14. while the ambient temperature is 293 K. If heat enters the house from the outside at a rate of 5. At the beginning of the isothermal heating process. ANSWER: (A) 6.325. 12.137 (0. On a winter day when the outdoor air temperature is 270 K. 7. ANSWER: 6. 8. A heat pump is to be used to maintain a building at an average temperature of 295 K. and the minimum possible power (in Btu/h) required for the air-conditioner. Determine the temperature of the low temperature thermal reservoir. The power consumption is 10 kW.6 kW. By assuming a Carnot refrigerator. A Carnot power cycle using carbon mono-oxide as a working fluid has a thermal efficiency of 40 percent. A Carnot refrigerator operates between the temperatures of 268 K and 283 K. What is the minimum power required to do this when the outside temperature is 276 K and the average total heat loss is 250 kW? ANSWER: -16. what is the minimum amount of power (in Btu/h) required to run the heat pump? ANSWER: 385 Btu/h.000 Btu/h. Determine the minimum power required to operate this heat pump. Find the heat transfer in the air cooler (heat source). the temperature is 500 K. calculate the power required to drive the refrigerator and the COP. 384.0 kW. (C) 337. 10. the system is estimated to lose heat at a rate of 5.9470). ANSWER: 300 K. A ten-ton capacity refrigerator is cooling a space to 263 K by transferring heat to the atmosphere at 300 K. 13. Find the change of the COP if the maximum temperature of the cycle increases by 2 K and the minimum temperature of the cycle decreases by 2 K. 9. If heat leaves the house at a rate of 10. (B) Find the minimum power consumption. An air conditioning system is used to maintain a house at 60ºF when the outside air temperature is 100ºF.

These corollaries can be proven by demonstrating that the violation of any of the corollary results in the violation of the Second law of thermodynamics. A Carnot air conditioning unit operates between 303 K and 290 K. The corollaries are: (1) The efficiency of the Carnot heat engine operating between a fixed high-temperature heat source thermal reservoir at TH and a fixed low-temperature heat sink thermal reservoir at TL is independent of the working substance. 5.176 Chih Wu 17. A Carnot heat pump operates between 310 K and 280 K. (4) The COP (coefficient of performance) of the Carnot heat pump (or refrigerator) operating between a fixed high-temperature thermal reservoir at TH and a fixed lowtemperature thermal reservoir at TL is independent of the working substance. . 20. (5) No heat pump (or refrigerator) operating between a fixed high-temperature thermal reservoir and a fixed low-temperature thermal reservoir can have higher COP (coefficient of performance) than a Carnot heat pump (or refrigerator) operating between the same two thermal reservoirs. (3) All reversible heat engines operating between a fixed high-temperature heat source thermal reservoir and a fixed low-temperature heat sink thermal reservoir have the same efficiency. Find the change in COP if the lower temperature is lowered by 10 K and the high temperature is increased by 5 K. Find the change in COP if the high temperature is increased by 1 K.6. A Carnot refrigerator operates between 260 K and 290 K. 19. A Carnot heat pump operates between 310 K and 280 K. Find the change in COP if the lower temperature is lowered by 10 K and the high temperature is increased by 5 K. 18. Find the change in COP if the lower temperature is lowered by 1 K. (6) All reversible heat pumps (or refrigerators) operating between a fixed hightemperature thermal reservoir and a fixed low-temperature thermal reservoir have the same COP (coefficient of performance). CARNOT COROLLARIES Six corollaries deduced from the Carnot cycle are of great use in comparing the performance of cycles. (2) No heat engine operating between a fixed high-temperature heat source thermal reservoir and a fixed low-temperature heat sink thermal reservoir can be more efficient than a Carnot heat engine operating between the same two thermal reservoirs.

A heat pump is a continuous cyclic device which pumps output heat to a high temperature reservoir from a low temperature reservoir by adding input work. The statements of the second law of thermodynamics state that no heat engine can be 100% efficient. A thermal reservoir is a huge system which can absorb or reject energy without changing its temperature.7. A refrigerator is a continuous cyclic device which removes output heat from a low temperature reservoir to a high temperature reservoir by adding input work. Similarly. heat pump and refrigerator all are required to have at least two thermal reservoirs with different temperature. SUMMARY The Second law of thermodynamics is needed to give the direction of a process.2) (5. for a Carnot heat pump and a Carnot refrigerator operating between a fixed high-temperature thermal reservoir at TH and a fixed low-temperature thermal reservoir at TL. . the COP (coefficient of performance) of a Carnot heat pump and a Carnot refrigerator are βR=TL/(TH-TL) βHP=TH/(TH-TL) (5.T.2) The three expressions give the maximum values for any cycle operating between two thermal reservoirs and can be used as standards for comparison for actual cycles.7.Second Law of Thermodynamics 177 5.7. 5.1) This thermodynamic temperature scale is called the Kelvin temperature scale. It was shown in previous sections that the efficiency of a Carnot heat engine operating between a fixed high-temperature heat source thermal reservoir at TH and a fixed lowtemperature heat sink thermal reservoir at TL is a function of the temperatures of the thermal reservoirs only. A heat engine.8. The function was found by Kelvin as η=1-TL/TH (5. The efficiency of a heat engine is η=Woutput /Qinput. the temperature varies from zero to infinity. On this scale. A heat engine is a continuous cyclic device which produces output work by adding input heat. The coefficient of performance (COP) of a heat pump is βHP=Qoutput /Winput. W. The coefficient of performance (COP) of a refrigerator is βR=Qoutput /Winput. Kelvin devised such a temperature scale. and that no heat pump nor refrigerator can have an infinity COP. A process will not occur unless both the first law of thermodynamics and the Second law of thermodynamics are satisfied. With the aid of the first Carnot corollary.7. THE THERMODYNAMIC TEMPERATURE SCALE A temperature scale that is independent of the properties of the substance that are used to measure temperature is called a thermodynamic temperature scale.

both the system and its surroundings may be restored to their initial states without producing any changes in the rest of the universe. is the most efficient cycle operating between two fixed thermal reservoirs with different temperature. The Carnot refrigerator COP is βCarenot=1/(TH/TL-1). .178 Chih Wu A reversible process is one that at the conclusion of the process. The Carnot heat pump COP is βCarenot=1/(1-TL/TH). The Carnot cycle. The Carnot heat engine efficiency is ηCarenot=1-TL/TH. All reversible heat engines (or heat pumps or refrigerators) operating between two fixed thermal reservoirs with different temperature have the same efficient (COP) as the Carnot cycle efficiency (COP). it is an irreversible process. that is composed of four reversible processes. Otherwise.

2) For an irreversible cycle between the same TL and TH.1) Hence. Extending to integrals of infinitesimals. The statement is the Clausius inequality. ηI < ηR.1.1.1. Clausius Inequality 1. QL/TL-QH/TH = 0 for a reversible cycle.1. Similarly. extending to integrals of infinitesimals. the integral of (δQ/T) around the cycle is less than or equal to zero.5) Homework 6. the efficiency of an irreversible heat engine is less than that of the Carnot heat engine.Chapter 6 ENTROPY 6. A proposed steam power plant has the following data: heat added to the boiler (at 200ºC)=2600 kJ/kg .3) Hence. QL/TL-QH/TH < 0 for an irreversible cycle. or (1-QL/QH)I < (1-TL/TH) (6. we have ∫Cycle (δQ/T)R = 0 (6.1.1.4) (6. Applying Carnot engine efficiency to a reversible heat engine gives ηR = (1-QL/QH)R = 1-TL/TH (6. we have ∫Cycle (δQ/T)I < 0 (6.1. CLAUSIUS INEQUALITY When a system is carried through a complete cycle.

2. entropy is a measure of dis-usefulness. Let us consider another simple example.180 Chih Wu heat rejected from the condenser (at 50ºC)=2263 kJ/kg adiabatic pump with 80% adiabatic efficiency adiabatic turbine with 90% adiabatic efficiency Does this plant violate the Clausius theorem? Show your detailed justification. we shall find that the mathematical term (δQ/T)reversible behaves just this way: ∫cycle (δQ/T)reversible=0. Consider two different inert gases that are initially separated from each other. Phenomenologically. thus it has a higher entropy.e. This arrangement is called a crystalline structure. the entropy change is caused by heat transfer added to the system only. the usefulness of a quantity of energy does decrease through usage. If heat is added. Energy is degraded through usage. For a reversible process. the gases will quickly mix without outside influence (even if the gases are at the same temperature and pressure). Entropy is a negative measure associated with energy usefulness. Although the net energy content of this mixture has not changed. If the partition separating the two gases is removed. Hence. repeating arrangement of molecules. With these two examples. We can examine an ice crystal and determine the location of each of the molecules. While energy is conserved and hence can not be used up or exhausted. eventually to the point of zero usefulness. On a microscopic point of view. An increase in entropy corresponds to a decrease in energy usefulness.1) This property (δQ/T)reversible. Q. entropy can be considered as a measure of randomness or disorder.2. so we have even less of a chance to predict an individual molecule’s location. (6. This causes the molecules to move even faster and over greater distances. If more heat is added. ENTROPY AND HEAT A property of a system is some calculable or measurable quantity of that system whose value depends only on the state of the system. The molecular pattern is no longer regular. Thus the steam has an even greater level of entropy than either the liquid water or the ice. the entropy of the mixture is greater than the total entropy of the individual gases before mixing. it is seen that both irreversibility within a system and heat transfer added to the system increase the entropy of the system. the liquid water is boiled and becomes the vapor phase called steam. Entropy is a microscopic property associated with the microscopic energy transfer. Q. the ice is melted into liquid water. Entropy is similar to volume which is a macroscopic property associated with the macroscopic energy transfer. 6. Water in solid phase is called ice and has a very regular. . ANSWER: not violated. called entropy and denoted by S was discovered in 1862 by Rudolf Clausius who named it entropy. W. If we reexamine the operation of a reversible heat engine. entropy is related to the molecular disorder of a system associated with the microscopic energy transfer. The liquid has a more random structure than the ice. the gases separating without outside influence) will never occur as this be a state of “less disorder” and lower entropy. The Second law indicates that the reverse process (i. and our ability to state exactly the location of individual molecules is gone.

1) and (6.e.4) (6.2.1. It can be proven that the quantity ∫(δQ/T)reversible is identical for two different processes (1-A-2 and 1-B-2) with identical end states 1 and 2 as shown in Figure 6.2.S1 (6.Entropy 181 It is rather difficult to explain a microscopic property with a macroscopic approach.2. Equation (6. Therefore ∫process (δQ/T)reversible is independent of path and related to states 1 and 2 only.2. p-v diagram Referring to the p-v diagram as shown in Figure 6. one should learn it from microscopic thermodynamics or called statistical thermodynamics. To fully understand the idea of entropy. Note that entropy is defined only for reversible processes. it is a property.2.5) . and ∫process 1–A-2 (δQ/T)reversible=∫process 1–B-2 (δQ/T)reversible= S2 .2.3) The quantity (S2 .1.2. i.2).1.2. Restate Equations (6. In order words.2) Figure 6.6) (6. (δQ)reversible =Tds (6.2. The name entropy and the symbol S are given to this property. ∫process 1–A-2 (δQ/T)reversible=∫process 1–B-2 (δQ/T)reversible (6.2.S1) represents the entropy change of a system from state 1 to state 2. Note that the equality in the above equations holds for reversible cycles and processes only.2. the two processes 1-A-2 and 1-B-2 are arbitrarily chosen. in differential form dS= (δQ/T)reversible or.2.S1=∫process 1–2 (δQ/T)reversible or.3) is the macroscopic definition of entropy. we have ∫cycle (δQ/T)reversible=∫cycle(dS)= 0.7) (6. and a change in entropy may be calculated with ∆S=S2 .

Air is now heated for 10 minutes by a 200 Btu/min electric heater placed inside the cylinder. which following expression best evaluates the change of entropy of the isolated system? (A) ∆S=0 (B) ∆S<0 (C) ∆S>0 5. which following expression best evaluates the change of entropy of the isolated system? (A) ∆S=0 (B) ∆S<0 (C) ∆S>0 (D) ∆S=Q/T (E) ∆S>Q/T (F) ∆S<Q/T 6.182 Chih Wu Homework 6. For an irreversible isothermal process occured in a system with temperature T. 8. Entropy and Heat 1.2096 Btu/[lbm(ºF)].27 Btu/ºF. Which of the following statements is true? In any practical thermodynamic process. Which of the following statements is true? Entropy has the unit of (A) Heat (B) Work (C) Energy (D) Heat capacity (E) Temperature 7. The pressure of air is maintained constant during this process. 3. Which of the following statements is true? Entropy is (A) The change in enthalpy of a system (B) The change in internal energy of a system (C) A property of a system (D) The heat capacity of a system (E) The heat content of a system 4. ANSWER: 0. For an irreversible process occured in an isolated system. Find the change in specific entropy as air is heated from 560 to 1260 R while pressure drops from 50 to 40 psia. . ANSWER: 2. Do you understand entropy? Why the concept of entropy is difficult to engineering students? 2. the entropy of an isolated system will (A) Decrease only (B) Increase only (C) Remain the same (D) Increase and then decrease (E) Decrease and then increase. Determine the entropy change of air. An insulated piston-cylinder device initially contains 10 ft3 of air at 20 psia and 60ºF.2.

Draw the cycle on a T-s diagram. net work added in the cycle.5 kJ/kg(K)) to state 3 (800 K. Determine the heat added in the processes. process 2-3 is linear from state 2 (800 K.3. net heat added in the cycle.4.1.5 kJ/kg(K)). T f T i δQ Si dS Sf S Figure 6. 1. T-s diagram Homework 6.5 kJ/kg(K)) to state 1 (400 K.5 kJ/kg(K)). A triangle cycle is made of three processes: process 1-2 is isentropic from state 1 (400 K.5 kJ/kg(K)) to state 2 (800 K.1. ENTROPY AND CARNOT CYCLES The temperature and entropy (T-s) diagram of the Carnot reversible heat engine cycle is shown in Figure 6. 0. Draw the cycle on a T-s diagram. 3. A triangle cycle is made of three processes: process 1-2 is isentropic from state 1 (400 K.5 kJ/kg(K)). Heat and Work as Areas 1. process 2-3 is isothermal from state 2 (800 K. 2. 1. 0. 1.5 kJ/kg(K)). One of the great advantages of a T-s diagram is that the reversible heat transfer of a process may be presented by the area underneath the process as shown in the following T-s diagram.5 kJ/kg(K)). and cycle efficiency.5 kJ/kg(K)).5 kJ/kg(K)) to state 3 (400 K. and process 3-1 is linear from state 3 (800 K. 0. temperature and entropy are the natural thermodynamic coordinates for reversible heat. and cycle efficiency. 1. 0.5 kJ/kg(K)) to state 1 (400 K. 0.5 kJ/kg(K)) to state 2 (800 K.3. net work added in the cycle. net heat added in the cycle.Entropy 183 6. 0. The Carnot cycle which operates between a high temperature (TH) thermal reservoir and a low temperature (TL) thermal reservoir is composed of the following four reversible processes: 1-2 isentropic compression 2-3 isothermal heating 3-4 isentropic expansion . Determine the heat added in the processes. 0. 6. 0.4. and process 3-1 is isothermal from state 3 (400 K. HEAT AND WORK AS AREAS Since (δQ)reversible =Tds.

4.S2) Q34 = 0 and Q41 = QL = TL (S1 .4. it demonstrates that Equation (6.4. The cycle has a rectangular shape regardless of the working fluid used in the heat engine.S4) The ratio of the heat transfer quantities can be written as QH/QL = TH/TL (6.4.4.3) The cycle net work (Wnet).5) (6.4.4. Since the heat transfer for each reversible process is represented by the area under the process curve on the T-S diagram. Again. we have Q12 = 0 Q23 = QH = TH (S3 .6) The Carnot cycle efficiency (ηCarnot) is obtained directly using the proper thermodynamic T-S diagram.1. they appear as vertical lines on the diagram. .4.2) (6.4. The Carnot cycle efficiency (ηCarnot) is therefore ηCarnot=Wnet/QH=1-TL/TH (6. which is equal to the cycle net heat transfer (Qnet) can be written as Wnet= Qnet=QH + QL The cycle net work (Wnet) is the area enclosed by the cycle.7) (6.7) is valid regardless of the working fluid employed in the Carnot reversible heat engine cycle.1) (6.4) (6.184 4-1 isothermal cooling Chih Wu T TH TL 2 3 1 4 6 5 S Figure 6. Carnot T-s diagram Notice that since process 1-2 and process 3-4 are both isentropic.

Equation (6. dS = (δQ/T)rev or dS > (δQ/T)rev (6. equivalent to Change of entropy is either equal or larger than the measurement (δQ/T). This process is therefore a reversible process. his elevation changes is going to be more than 10 feet. i. A person walks down from an initial position on a constant slope mountain path. A step is a measurement quantity.5. Each step downward is equivalent to one foot downward in elevation. his elevation changes is 10 feet.2) . The elevation change (10 feet) is equal to the measurement of steps (10 steps). The inequality in equation (6. The entropy generation (Sgeneration) during the process is created by irreversibilities. Consider the following two cases: Case A: The path is a firm path. A path is a process which is a change of positions. some entropy must be generated during an irreversible process. If the person walks down 10 steps. Case B: It snows and the path is covered by a layer of snow and becomes slippery. It will take the person walk back 10 steps to get back to his initial position without any surrounding help.e. It will take the person walk back more than 10 steps to get back to his initial position without any surrounding help. Elevation is a property.1 ) Where T is the absolute temperature at the boundary of the system where the differential amount of heat (δQ) is transferred between the system and its surroundings. A macroscopic analogy of entropy is herewith given in the following and hopefully will aid the understanding of entropy to the readers.5. because it has a unique value at a certain position (state).5.5. SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR CLOSED SYSTEMS It is difficult to explain the microscopic property entropy with a macroscopic point of view. the inequality holds for an irreversible process and the equality holds for a reversible process.5. A position is a state. If the person walks down on the slippery path 10 steps. The elevation change (more than 10 feet) is larger than the measurement of steps (10 steps).1) can be rewritten as ∆S=S2 . Therefore.S1=∫process 1–2 (δQ/T) + Sgeneration (6.1) reminds us that the entropy change of a closed system during an irreversible process is always greater than the entropy transfer.Entropy 185 6. The conclusion of both cases is therefore Change of elevation is either equal or larger than the measurement steps which is corresponding to Change of property is either equal or larger than the measurement quantity or. This process is therefore an irreversible process. thermodynamic specifically.

For an isolated system. The Second law of thermodynamics states that the change in entropy of a closed system is greater than or equal to the sum of the heat transfers divided by the corresponding absolute temperatures of the boundary. A system may have several parts. The entropy is constant (S=constant. (E) the entropy change of the air in the constant pressure . The entropy value of an isolated system reaches its maximum value (Smaximum) when there is no further internal irreversibility activity within the system. The entropy of the universe will keep increasing due to internal irreversibilities until the universe is dead. An inventor claims to have developed an adiabatic device that executes a steady state expansion process in which the entropy of the surroundings decreases at 5 kJ/(Ksec). 4. (D) the entropy change of the air in the constant volume process.3 ºR and 10 ft3/lbm (state 1) to 1350 R. How many ways that the entropy of a closed system can be increased? 3. Entropy and Second Law 1. Notice that an isentropic implies the process is adiabatic. 2. 6. (s3-s2) in Btu/lbm(ºR). Can the entropy of a closed system ever decrease? 2. Is this possible? Why or why not? ANSWER: impossible.1) is the mathematical form of the Second law of thermodynamics for a closed system. For an adiabatic (Q=0) closed system.5.5. w12. More heat is added to the air in a constant pressure process 3-4 until the temperature reaches 5000ºR. Homework 6. Equation (6. A reversible adiabatic process is called an isentropic or a constant entropy process. or ∆S=0) only during a reversible adiabatic process.186 Chih Wu Where Sgeneration is a non-negative term which depends on the irreversibilities during the process 1-2 and therefore is not a property of the system. which has no interactions with its surroundings including mass and heat transfers. the entropy will keep increasing (∆S>0) due to internal irreversibility activities within the system. Heat in then added to the air in a constant volume process 2-3 until the pressure reaches 900 psia. the entropy will increase due to internal irreversibilities. 4. and Sgeneration = 0 for reversible processes. 1. Air is compressed in a piston-cylinder set up from 516. (B) Is the process adiabatic? (C) the amount of work added to the air in process 1-2. Determine: (A) the entropy change of the air in the adiabatic process. The universe is an isolated system. We may reach the following conclusions regarding the entropy change of a closed system. The entropy value of an isolated system will no longer change once the system reaches its ultimate equilibrium state (equilibrium among all parts). but an adiabatic process is not always an isentropic process. 3. (s2-s1) Btu/lbm(ºR). 5. 500 psia and 1 ft3/lbm (state 2). Sgeneration > 0 for irreversible processes.

(B) no.1) is reduced to (mdot)e (se) . q23 in Btu/lbm. The statement of the Second law of thermodynamics for open systems is: The change in entropy within the open system minus the net entropy transported into the open system with the mass flow is greater than or equal to the sum of the heat transfer divided by the corresponding absolute temperatures. q34 in Btu/lbm. Second Law of Thermodynamics for Open Systems 1. and [(Sdot)generation]. SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR OPEN SYSTEMS An open system permits mass and energy interactions between the system and its surroundings.S1) is the change in entropy within the open system from time t1 to t2. (C) -136. Can (s)generation ever be negative? 2.6.6. (G) the amount of work added to the air in process 2-3. (mdot)i (si) is the rate of entropy flow in with the mass at inlet section of the open system during time t1 to t2.(mdot)e (se)](∆t) is the net entropy transported into the open system with the mass flow during time t1 to t2. (H) the amount of heat added to the air in process 2-3. ANSWER: (A) 0.6.si = (s)generation (6. Is entropy change of an open system always non-negative? 4.0068 Btu/[lbm(ºR)]. Equation (6.2) (6.1) Where (S2 . (D) 0.6.(mdot)i (si) = ∫process 1–2 (δQdot/T) + (Sdot)generation For no heat transfer across the boundary surface. (H) 184. (s4-s3) in Btu/lbm(ºR).2) is reduced to se . For steady state and steady flow.(mdot)e (se)](∆t) =[∫process 1–2 (δQdot/T) + (Sdot)generation](∆t) (6. The mass transfer carries the property entropy into and out of the system. (I) 615.8 Btu/lbm.9 Btu/lbm.S1) -[ (mdot)i (si) . (∆t) is a nonnegative contribution to the entropy change term which depends on the irreversibilities during time t1 to t2. [(mdot)i (si) .1006 Btu/[lbm(ºR)]. The Second law of thermodynamics for open systems is (S2 .3) Homework 6. (G) 0. (mdot)e (se) is the rate of entropy flow out with the mass at exit section of the open system during time t1 to t2.(mdot)e (se)](∆t) =[∫process 1–2 (δQdot/T) + (Sdot)generation](∆t) What is the physical meaning of each term? 3. ∫process 1–2 (δQdot/T)(∆t) is the contribution to the entropy change due to the sum of the heat transfer divided by the corresponding absolute temperatures during time t1 to t2.S1) -[ (mdot)i (si) .2804 Btu/[lbm(ºR)]. 6. 6. (F) 0. Therefore the change in entropy within the open system is modified by the mass interaction.6. Equation (6.1730 Btu/[lbm(ºR)].9 Btu/lbm.Entropy 187 process. w23 in Btu/lbm. Is entropy change of an adiabatic open system always non-negative? . and (I) the amount of heat added to the air in process 3-4. (E) 0. (s4-s1) in Btu/lbm(ºR). (F) the entropy change of the air from state 1 to state 4.6. (S2 .

Example 6. we take the following steps: 1. 2. PROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS 6.7. .188 Chih Wu 6.75-1.73=0. quality and temperature of the process are 1 kg. and (c) the final pressure and temperature of the process are 1 Mpa and 50ºC. Entropy change Example 6. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is R-134a. To solve this problem by CyclePad. A rigid tank contains 0.1.1. Pure Substance Entropy has been defined as a property of a system. Again. the values listed on the tables are not absolute entropy values because we are interested only in the entropy changes. 3.7.1. (B) Switch to analysis mode. It is listed the same way as internal energy (u) and enthalpy (h). A piston-cylinder device contains 1 kg of saturated R-134a vapor at -5ºC. and the specific entropy (s) is tabulated in the conventional tables of thermodynamics. amount of heat added. (b) the initial R-134a mass.1. An amount work is added to compress the vapor until the pressure and temperature are 1 Mpa and 50ºC. Q=-13. Build (A) Take a begin.7. Display results The answers are W=-27.2 kg of water vapor at 100 kPa and 170ºC.7.2. 1. Determine the amount of work added. Figure E6. a compression device.7. 1 and -5ºC.02 kJ/K.93 kJ.86 kJ and ∆S=1. and entropy change of the refrigerant during this processs. and an end from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them. and the amount of work and heat added during this process. An amount of heat is added to heat the vapor until the pressure is 400 kPa. Determine the final temperature and entropy change of the water vapor.1.

9. and (e) W=0 kJ. and Q=498. 2. Build (A) Take a source.5 kJ. and (d) the mass flow rate is 1 kg/s. (B) Switch to analysis mode. (d) the process is constant volume (isochoric). (b) the inlet pressure and temperature of the turbine are 4000 kPa and 500ºC. (B) Switch to analysis mode. Determine the power produced by the turbine and the rate of entropy change of the steam.Entropy To solve this problem by CyclePad. (b) the initial mass.1. Steam at a mass flow rate of 1 kg/s enters an adiabatic turbine at 4000 kPa and 500ºC and leaves at 10 kPa and a quality of 0. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is water. Display results The answers are T=1487 ºC ∆S=0.9. Build (A) Take a begin.18-7.2(10. 3. pressure and temperature of the process are 0. (c) the final pressure of the process is 400 kpa.496 kJ/K.2 kg. Display results .3. Figure E6.7. 100 kPa and 170ºC. 3. Analysis (A) Assume the turbine is adiabatic. and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. To solve this problem by CyclePad.7. 2.2. Entropy change Example 6. and an end from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them. (c) the exit pressure and quality of the turbine are 10 kPa and 0. a heating device. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is water. we take the following steps: 1. W=0 kJ.70)=0. we take the following steps: 189 1.1. a turbine.

1. (B) Switch to analysis mode.3.4. we take the following steps: 1. Determine the rate of entropy change and the pump power input required to an adiabatic pump for a mass flow rate of 0.3081)=0.7. Figure E6. Build (A) Take a source.7 kg/s saturated water from 100 kPa to 2 Mpa and 101ºC.1. Analysis (A) Assume the pump is adiabatic. To solve this problem by CyclePad. Entropy 2.4.190 Chih Wu Figure E6.3081 kJ/K. and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. Example 6.1. a pump. . Entropy relationship The answers are Wdot=1101 kW and ∆Sdot=1(0.7.7.

7. and (c) the exit pressure and temperature of the pump are 2 Mpa and 101ºC. we take the following steps: 1. 0 and 100 kPa.2. Display results Figure E6.1) Example 6. a compression device. 2. (B) Switch to analysis mode.1. quality and pressure at the inlet of the pump are 0.S1=∫process 1–2 [Cv (dT)]/T +∫process 1–2 [p(dV)]/T and S2 .25 kg of air is compressed from an initial state of 100 kPa and 19ºC to a final state of 600 kPa and 60ºC. Entropy . 0.7. and the entropy change of the air during this compression process.2.Entropy 191 (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is water. pressure and temperature of the process are 0. (b) the mass rate flow.2.2. and an end from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them. 3.0139)=0. Determine the heat added.7 kg/s.25 kg. work added.04 kW. Display results The answers are ∆Sdot=0.S1=∫process 1–2 [Cp (dT)]/T -∫process 1–2 [V(dp)]/T (6. To solve this problem by CyclePad. 100 kPa and 19ºC. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is air. Build (A) Take a begin. 7.7.7(0.2. Wdot=-5. Ideal Gas The entropy change of an ideal gas during a process 1-2 are given by the following equations: S2 .1. 6.7.00973 kJ/[K(s)]. Analysis (A) Assume the compression is an adiabatic process. (b) the initial air mass. (c) the final pressure and temperature of the process are 600 kPa and 60ºC. 3.2 ) (6.

and Figure E6. we take the following steps: 1. To solve this problem by CyclePad. Display results The answers are Wdot=-37. Example 6. 3. 14. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is air.01411 Btu/[s(ºR)]. Entropy 6. mass rate flow.15 kJ and ∆S=0.3. and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. (B) Switch to analysis mode.81 kJ.3823 lbm/s.25(2. Determine the power required.5 psia and 350ºF. a compressor. Build (A) Take a source.3823(0.2. pressure and temperature at the inlet of the compressor turbine are 5 ft3/s.40)=-0. Analysis (A) Assume the compressor is adiabatic.7.59 ∆Sdot=0.7 psia and 60ºF to 40.5 psia and 350ºF. W=-37.0369)=0.2.01-2.7.2. (b) the flow rate.7.2. hp. and (c) the exit pressure and temperature of the compressor is 40. and the rate of the entropy change of the air during this compression process. Incompressible Liquid And Solid The entropy change of an incompressible liquid or a solid during a process 1-2 are given by the following equations: . 5 ft3/s of air is compressed in an adiabatic compressor from an initial state of 14.7 psia and 60ºF.192 Chih Wu The answers are Q=-29.0795 kJ/K. mdot=0. 2.

Entropy Homework 6. 2. Display results The answers are ∆Sdot=0. Property Relationships 1. 7. 2 kg/s of water at 100 kPa and 90ºC are mixed with 3 kg/s of water at 100 kPa and 10ºC to form 5 kg/s of water at 100 kPa in an adiabatic mixing chamber.S1=∫process 1–2 [C(dT)]/T 193 (6. (B) Switch to analysis mode. and (c) the exit pressure and temperature of the pump are 2 Mpa and 101ºC.7 kg/s. we take the following steps: 1. Analysis (A) Assume the pump is adiabatic.04 kW.1. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is water. and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them.3. 0 and 100 kPa.7. a pump. (b) the mass rate flow. Example 6.Entropy S2 .7 kg/s saturated water from 100 kPa to 2 Mpa and 101ºC.1) The temperature change of an incompressible liquid or a solid during an isentropic process 1-2 is zero.3. Build (A) Take a source.0139)=0.00973 kJ/[K(s)]. Figure E6. quality and pressure at the inlet of the pump are 0.7(0.1.3. Wdot=-5. Find the .7. 3.7. Determine the rate of entropy change and the pump power input required to an adiabatic pump for a mass flow rate of 0. To solve this problem by CyclePad.

8. determine (A) the work added to the refrigerant and (B) heat transfer removed from the system.08 kg/s. Also determine (D) the work added to the gas.8 psia. 3. A piston-cylinder device contains 1. Heat is added to the air until the pressure reaches 120 kPa. If the temperature of the surroundings is 70ºF. the refrigerant is 72% vapor by mass at 70ºF.2 kg of carbon dioxide at 120 kPa and 27ºC. 0. Find: the mass flow rates for inlet two and for the outlet.5.79 Btu. The gas is compressed slowly in a polytropic process during which p1(v1)1. the entropy generation for the air.3=constant. The following information is known: inlet one: liquid water at 10 Mpa. and the magnitude and direction of the heat transfer and work. temperature inside the container reaches 220ºF. The process ends when the specific volume reaches 0.194 Chih Wu water temperature of the mixed 5 kg/s stream. 1. 260ºC and 1. The initial volume of the steam is 0. (C) -0. determine (A) the work added to the refrigerant and (B) heat transfer removed from the system. ANSWER: 42. Determine: the final pressure in the container. . 0.63 kJ. Determine (A) the final volume of the gas. (C) entropy change of the gas.55 kJ. Steam initially at 500 kPa and 553 K is contained in a cylinder fitted with a frictionless piston. A mixing chamber has two inlets and one outlet.02ºC. 2. 5. A rigid tank contains 1.057 m3. ANSWER: 1. (B) 70.12 kJ.3 m3/kg.83ºC. and the rate of entropy generation during the process.1 Btu/ºF.1571 kW/K. and total entropy change of the R134a. The steam undergoes an isothermal compression process until it reaches a specific volume of 0.14 kJ.3 m3/kg. ANSWER: (A) -23. (B) final temperature of the gas. Initially.3=p2(v2)1.36 m3. ANSWER: (A) -2.2028 kW/K. the final temperature of the gas. (E) 1.0281 kJ/[kg(K)].20 kJ. Also determine (C) the total entropy change of the system. 420 K. and rate change of entropy due to the mixing process. 0. The refrigerant is cooled at constant pressure until it exists as a compressed liquid at 90 F. Find the heat added to the gas. and (E) the heat transfer during the process. The refrigerant is cooled at constant pressure until it exists as a compressed liquid at 90 F. Heat is added until the R134a. A rigid container holds 5 lbm of R134a.16 kJ/K. (C) -1. If the temperature of the surroundings is 70ºF.28 kg/s. 4. ANSWER: (A) 0. (B) -15. 6.3 kJ. (D) -33. A piston-cylinder device contains 3 lbm of refrigerant-12 at 120 psia and 120ºF. ANSWER: 60. ANSWER: -0. (C) 0. ANSWER: 159.8 kg/s inlet two: steam in at 10 Mpa and 500ºC outlet: saturated mixture at 10 Mpa with quality of 0. -15. (B) -187. Also determine (C) the total entropy change of the system.73 Btu. 7.2 kg of air at 350 K and 100 kPa.38 Btu/ºF. A piston-cylinder device contains 3 lbm of refrigerant-22 at 120 psia and 120ºF. Determine the total entropy change of the steam. 3.0975 Btu/ºF.

2 kg of methane at 500 kPa and 100ºC (state 1) undergoes a reversible polytropic expansion to a final (state 2) temperature and pressure of 20ºC and 100 kPa. Does the entropy of mass A increase or decrease? Does the entropy of mass B increase or decrease? Does the total entropy of mass A and mass B increase or decrease? 16. inlet water at saturated liquid. It is known that an adiabatic mixing process is an irreversible process. entropy change of the methane. Determine the mass. 1 m3 and 30ºC and undergoes an isobaric process until the volume is doubled. ANSWER: 1.3 kg/s.8 kg/s. Initially the temperature of mass A is greater than the temperature of mass B. 0. 15. work added is 0. Another engineer in the industrial plant instruments a steady-flow mixing chamber and reports the following measurements: inlet steam at 200 kPa and 150ºC.2 kJ. 13. 11. ANSWER: 0. 1. ANSWER: 0.2144 kg. ANSWER: 0. ANSWER: 1. . (F) Steam passing through a throttling valve undergoes no enthalpy change. Find the pressure of the inlet 15ºC saturated liquid water. Helium at 50 kPa and 400 K has 50 kJ of heat added to it in an internally-reversible isothermal process. (E) A heat engine that operates in a cycle and interacts with one reservoir only.4 kJ. the final temperature and entropy change of the helium. and the rate of entropy generation. the rate of total entropy change. 10. (B) An actual adiabatic pump where the inlet and outlet entropies are equal.1ºC. and the rate of entropy generation. Helium is contained in a closed system initially at 135 kPa.Entropy 195 9.2645 kW/K. 15ºC. exit mixture at 100 kPa and 2.71 kPa.5975 kW/K. impossible. the rate of total entropy change. Two insulated solid masses are brought into thermal contact with each other and allowed to attain mutual equilibrium.71 kPa. 333. 0. exit mixture at 400 kPa and 2. possible. Find the pressure of the inlet 15ºC saturated liquid water. 14. work added is 0. -0. and heat transfer to environment is 0. (D) An adiabatic heat exchanger where the entropy of the cooling fluid decreases.5 kg/s.77 kJ/K. 0.13 kJ/K.5 kg/s.56 kJ/K. Calculate the total entropy change of the air. Determine whether it is possible for these data to be correct. Determine which of the following cases are feasible: (A) An adiabatic compressor where the inlet and outlet entropies are equal. Air at 50 kPa and 400 K has 50 kJ of heat added to it in an internally-reversible isothermal process. Calculate the total entropy change of the helium. 15ºC. 1. (I) An adiabatic process in a system the entropy of which decreases. (C) the entropy of steam decreases when it passes through an adiabatic turbine. Determine whether it is possible for these data to be correct. 12. (G) Steam passing through a throttling valve undergoes no entropy change.8 kg/s.12 kJ/K. 0. (H) An isothermal process in a system the entropy of which decreases. Find the work done and heat transferred during this process. It is known that an adiabatic mixing process is an irreversible process. Find the work done.3 kg/s. 0. heat transferred. ANSWER: 469. inlet water at saturated liquid. and heat transfer to environment is 0. An engineer in an industrial plant instruments a steady-flow mixing chamber and reports the following measurements: inlet steam at 200 kPa and 150ºC. 101.

and an end from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them. such idealization is of immense use in the analyses of theoretical processes and cycles for power generation. T=4195 kPa. (c) the final temperature of the process is 870 K. and entropy production for this process. A constant entropy process implies a reversible and adiabatic process. and 101 kPa to a final temperature of 870 K. Since there is always some internal and external irreversibilities and a heat transfer with any temperature difference between a system and its surroundings in actual processes. ISENTROPIC PROCESSES An isentropic process is a constant entropy process.0595 m3/kg. Steam at 2 Mpa and 600 K is throttled through a valve to a pressure of 1 Mpa in a steady flow process. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is air. To solve this problem by CyclePad.8. Determine the pressure and specific volume of the air at the final state. Analysis (A) Assume the compression is an isentropic process. 6. and refrigeration. (B) Switch to analysis mode. Since heat transfer in practice requires some time. Determine the entropy production for this process. 3.1. . a very rapid reversible process may be treated as isentropic.8. (b) the initial air volume. a compression device. 2. and the work required. An isentropic process is an idealization. Display results The answers is V=0. Build (A) Take a begin. but an adiabatic process is not always isentropic. However. 18. 101 kPa and 300 K. Notice that an isentropic process is always adiabatic. we take the following steps: 1. heat pump. although it would not be quasistatic. Determine the temperature of the steam after the valve. and W=-479. Steam at 200 psia and 600 R is throttled through a valve to a pressure of 100 psia in a steady flow process. 1 m3 of air is compressed in an isentropic process from an initial state of 300 K.8 kJ. pressure and temperature of the process are 1 m3. Example 6.196 Chih Wu 17.

a turbine. Determine the maximum power produced. Entropy Example 6. Display results The answers are Wdot=204. we take the following steps: 1. and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. The mass rate flow of the steam is 0. (B) Switch to analysis mode. . T=60.9136.(c) the exit pressure of the turbine is 20 kPa. and (d) the mass rate flow of the steam is 0.2. Steam at 1. Analysis (A) Assume the turbine is adiabatic and isentropic.8.1. 2.24 kg/s. (b) the pressure and temperature at the inlet of the turbine are 1. To solve this problem by CyclePad. exhaust temperature and quality of the steam at the maximum power condition. Build (A) Take a source.07ºC and x=0.24 kg/s.8.Entropy 197 Figure E6. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is steam. 3.1 kW.5 Mpa and 400ºC.5 Mpa and 400ºC enters an adiabatic turbine and exhausts at 20 kPa.

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Figure E6.8.2. Entropy

**Homework 6.8. Isentropic Processes
**

1. Indicate whether the following statements are true or false for an isentropic process: (A) Q=0. (B) W=0. (C) The entropy change of the system is always zero. (D) The total entropy change of the system and the surroundings is always zero. (E) The temperature of the system does not change. 2. Indicate whether the following statements are true or false for an isothermal process: (A) Q=T(∆S). (B) ∆U=0. (C) The entropy change of the system is always zero. (D) The total entropy change of the system and the surroundings is always zero. (E) The entropy change of the surroundings is negative. (F) Q=W. 3. Indicate whether the following statements are true or false for a reversible process: (A) Q=0. (B) Work may be calculated using the equation of state. (C) The total entropy change of the system and the surroundings is zero. 4. Air undergoes a change of state isentropically from (1500ºR and 75 psia) to 16.5 psia. (A) Sketch the process on a T-s diagram. (B) Determine the temperature of the air at the final state. (C) Determine the entropy change due to change of state. (D) Determine the heat added and work added to the air. And (E) Determine the specific volume of air at the final state. ANSWER: (B) 973.2ºR, (C) 0, (D) 0, 90.18 Btu, (E) 21.82 ft3/lbm. 5. Air is compressed in a piston-cylinder device from 100 kPa and 17ºC to 800 kPa in an isentropic process. Determine the final temperature and the work added per unit mass during this process.

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ANSWER: 252.4ºC, -168.7 kJ/kg. 15 kg/s of steam enters an isentropic steam turbine steadily at 15 Mpa and 600ºC and leaves at 10 kPa. Find the temperature and quality of the steam at exit, specific entropy change of the steam, and the shaft power produced by the turbine. ANSWER: 45.82ºC, 0.8038, 0, 22006 kW. 15 kg/s of steam enters an adiabatic steam turbine with 87% efficiency steadily at 15 Mpa and 600ºC and leaves at 10 kPa. Find the temperature and quality of the steam at exit, specific entropy change of the steam, and the shaft power produced by the turbine. ANSWER: 45.82ºC, 0.8835, 0.5979 kJ/[kg(K)], 19145 kW. Water at 20 kPa and 38ºC enters an isentropic pump and leaves at 16 Mpa. The water flow rate through the pump is 15 kg/s. Determine the temperature of the water at the exit, specific entropy change of the water, and the power required to drive the pump. ANSWER: 38.45ºC, 0, -240.4 kW. Water at 20 kPa and 38ºC enters an adiabatic pump and leaves at 16 Mpa. The water flow rate through the pump is 15 kg/s. The adiabatic efficiency of the pump is 85%. Determine the temperature of the water at the exit, specific entropy change of the water, and the power required to drive the pump. ANSWER: 39.13ºC, 0.0091kJ/[kg(K)], -282.8 kW. 0.2 kg/s of air (combustion gas) enters an isentropic gas turbine at 1200 K, 800kPa, and leaves at 400 kPa. Determine the temperature of the air at the exit, specific entropy change of the the air, and the power output of the turbine. ANSWER: 984.4 K, 0, 43.27 kW. Steam enters a turbine at 3 Mpa and 450ºC, expands in a reversible adiabatic process, and exhausts at 10 kPa. The power output of the turbine is 800 kW. What is the mass flow rate of steam through the turbine? ANSWER: 0.7332 kg/s. Steam enters a turbine at 3 Mpa and 400ºC, expands in a reversible adiabatic process, and exhausts at 10 kPa. The power output of the turbine is 800 kW. What is the mass flow rate of steam through the turbine? ANSWER: 0.7771 kg/s. Steam at 0.4 Mpa and 433 K contained in a cylinder and piston device is expanded isentropically to 0.3 Mpa. Find the final temperature of the steam. ANSWER: 406.7 K. Air at 0.4 Mpa and 433 K contained in a cylinder and piston device is expanded isentropically to 0.3 Mpa. Find the final temperature of the steam. ANSWER: 398.8 K.

6.9. ISENTROPIC EFFICIENCY

The isentropic efficiency is used to compare the actual adiabatic process to the isentropic process for many devices. The reduction of the irreversibilities of a device process is desired to increase the efficiency of the process. Therefore the device isentropic efficiency is the ratio of the actual adiabatic performance to the isentropic performance. The isentropic device is taken as the standard comparison of actual adiabatic operation.

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**6.9.1. Turbine Isentropic Efficiency
**

The isentropic efficiency (ηturbine) of a turbine is a comparison of the work produced by an actual adiabatic turbine (wa) with the work produced by an isentropic turbine (ws). It is defined as the actual work output divided by the work for a hypothetical isentropic expansion from the same inlet state to the same exit pressure as: ηturbine = wa/ws (6.9.1.1)

The inlet to the turbine is at a specified state, and the exit is at a specified pressure. The isentropic efficiency provides a rating or measure of the real process in terms of the actual change of state and is a convenient way of using the concept of entropy.

Example 6.9.1.1. An adiabatic turbine is designed to produce 10 Mw. It receives steam at 1 Mpa and 300ºC and leaves the turbine at 15 kPa. Determine the minimum steam mass rate of flow required, the exit temperature and quality of steam. To solve this problem by CyclePad, we take the following steps:

1. Build (A) Take a source, a turbine, and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. (B) Switch to analysis mode. 2. Analysis (A) Assume the turbine is adiabatic and isentropic. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is steam, (b) the mass rate flow, pressure and temperature at the inlet of the turbine are 2 kg/s, 1 Mpa and 300ºC, (c) the outlet pressure of the turbine is 15 kPa, and (d) the power output of the turbine is 1,000 kW. 3. Display results The answers are mdot=13.48 kg/s, T=53.98ºC and x=0.8780.

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Figure E6.9.1. Turbine efficiency

Example 6.9.1.2. Air enters an adiabatic turbine with a mass flow rate of 0.5 kg/s at 1000 kPa and 1300ºC and leaves the turbine at 100 kPa. The turbine efficiency is 88%. Determine the temperature at the exit and the power output of the turbine. To solve this problem by CyclePad, we take the following steps:

1. Build (A) Take a source, a turbine, and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. (B) Switch to analysis mode. 2. Analysis (A) Assume the turbine is adiabatic. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is air, (b) the mass rate flow, pressure and temperature at the inlet of the turbine are 0.5 kg/s, 1000 kPa and 1300ºC, (c) the outlet pressure of the turbine is 100 kPa, and (d) the efficiency of the turbine is 0.88. 3. Display results

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Figure E6.9.1.2. Turbine efficiency

The answers are T=632.7ºC, Wdot=334.8 kW.

Example 6.9.1.3. A two-stage adiabatic steam turbine receives 10 kg/s of steam at 4000 kPa and 400ºC. At the point in the turbine where the pressure is 1000 kPa, steam is bled off for process heating at the rate of 2 kg/s. The temperature of this steam is measured at 300ºC. The balance of the steam leaves the turbine at 20 kPa. The quality of the steam leaves the turbine is measured at 90%. Determine the power produced by the actual turbine, the maximum possible power produced by the turbine, and isentropic efficiency of the turbine.

To solve this problem by CyclePad, we take the following steps: 1. Build (A) Take a source, a splitter, two turbines, and two sinks from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. (B) Switch to analysis mode. 2. Adiabatic turbine analysis (A) Assume the turbines are adiabatic. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is steam, (b) the mass rate flow, pressure and temperature at the inlet of the turbine are 10 kg/s, 4 Mpa and 400ºC, (c) the outlet pressure and temperature at the first-stage turbine are 1000 kPa and 300ºC, and (d) the outlet mass flow rate, pressure and quality at the second-stage turbine are 8 kg/s, 20 kPa and 90%. (C) Display result: The answer is net-power=7048 kW for the actual two-stage adiabatic turbine. 3. Isentropic turbine analysis

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(A) (a) retract the outlet temperature at the first-stage turbine, and retract the outlet quality at the second-stage turbine, (b) input the efficiency of the first-stage turbine 100%, and input the efficiency of the second-stage turbine 100%. (B) Display the turbine result. The answer is net-power=8569 kW for the isentropic two-stage adiabatic turbine. 4. The isentropic efficiency of the two-stage turbine is 7048/8569=82.25%.

Figure E6.9.1.3. Isentropic efficiency of a multi-stage turbine

**6.9.2. Compressor Isentropic Efficiency
**

The isentropic efficiency (ηcompressor) of a compressor is a comparison of the work required by an actual adiabatic compressor (wa) with the work required by an isentropic turbine (ws). ηcompressor = ws/wa (6.9.2.1)

The inlet to the compressor is at a specified state, and the exit is at a specified pressure.

Example 6.9.2.1. 0.1 kg/s of air enters an adiabatic compressor at 100 kPa and 20ºC and leaves the compressor at 800 kPa. The compressor efficiency is 87%. Determine the air exit temperature and the power required for the compressor. To solve this problem by CyclePad, we take the following steps:

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Chih Wu 1. Build (A) Take a source, a compressor, and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. (B) Switch to analysis mode. 2. Analysis (A) Assume the compressor is adiabatic. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is air, (b) the mass rate flow, pressure and temperature at the inlet of the compressor turbine are 0.1 kg/s, 100 kPa and 20ºC, (c) the outlet pressure of the compressor is 800 kPa, and (d) the efficiency of the compressor turbine is 0.87. 3. Display results The answers are Wdot=-27.44 kW and T=293.4ºC.

Figure E6.9.2.1. Compressor efficiency

Example 6.9.2.2. 0.01 kg/s of refrigerant R-12 enters an adiabatic compressor at 125 kPa and -10ºC and leaves the compressor at 1.2 Mpa and 100ºC. Determine the compressor efficiency and the power required for the compressor. To solve this problem by CyclePad, we take the following steps:

1. Build (A) Take a source, a compressor, and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. (B) Switch to analysis mode. 2. Analysis (A) Assume the compressor is adiabatic. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is R-12, (b) the mass rate flow, pressure and temperature at the inlet of the compressor turbine are 0.01 kg/s, 125 kPa and -10ºC, and (c) the exit pressure and temperature of the compressor are 1.2 Mpa and 100ºC. 3. Display results

Entropy The answers are Wdot=-0.6036 kW and η=72.58 %.

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Figure E6.9.2.2. Compressor efficiency

**6.9.3. Pump Isentropic Efficiency
**

The isentropic efficiency (ηpump) of a pump is a comparison of the work required by an actual adiabatic pump (wa) with the work required by an isentropic pump (ws). ηpump = ws/wa (6.9.3.1)

Example 6.9.3.1. 0.4 kg/s of saturated liquid water enters an adiabatic pump at 10 kPa and leaves the pump at 4 MPa. The pump efficiency is 83%. Determine the pump power required. To solve this problem by CyclePad, we take the following steps:

1. Build (A) Take a source, a pump, and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. (B) Switch to analysis mode. 2. Analysis (A) Assume the pump is adiabatic. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is water, (b) the mass rate flow and pressure at the inlet of the pump are 0.4 kg/s and 10 kPa, (c) the outlet pressure of the pump is 4 MPa, and (d) the efficiency of the pump compressor turbine is 0.83. 3. Display results The answers is Wdot=-1.96 kW.

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Figure E6.9.3.1. Pump efficiency

**Homework 6.9. Isentropic Efficiency
**

1. Helium enters a steady-flow, adiabatic turbine at 1300 K and 2 Mpa and exhausts at 350 kPa. The turbine produces 1200 kW of power when the mass flow rate of helium is 0.4 kg/s. Determine the exit temperature of the helium, the specific entropy change of the helium and the efficiency of the turbine. ANSWER: 720.5 K, 0.5648 kJ/[kg(K)], 88.61%. 2. Steam is expanded from (1000 psia, 1000ºF) in an adiabatic turbine to 1 psia. The efficiency of the turbine is 90 %. Determine the actual specific work done by the turbine, the mass flow rate required to produce an output of 100 MW, the specific entropy generated by this process, and the exhaust steam quality. ANSWER: 523.8 Btu/lbm, 180.9 lbm/h, 0.1037 Btu/[lbm(ºF)], 0.8809. 3. Steam enters an adiabatic turbine at 1000 psia and 900ºF with a mass flow rate of 60 lbm/s and leaves at 5 psia. The adiabatic efficiency of the turbine is 90%. Determine the temperature of the steam at the turbine exit and the power output of the turbine in MW. ANSWER: 162.2ºF, 26.26 MW. 4. 0.23 kg/s of combustion air enters an adiabatic gas turbine with 86 % efficiency at 1200 K, 800 kPa, and leaves at 400 kPa. Determine the power output of the turbine, and the entropy change of the air. ANSWER: 31.14 kW, 0.0303 kJ/[kg(K)]. 5. Steam enters an adiabatic turbine at 1250 psia and 800ºF and leaves at 5 psia with a quality of 90 %. Determine the mass flow rate required for a shaft power output of 1 MW. ANSWER: 2.75 lbm/s. 6. Combustion gases enter an adiabatic gas turbine at 1440ºF and 120 psia and leaves at 68.5 psia. The power output from the turbine is 85 hp. Find the isentropic efficiency of the turbine if the in-line compressor has a mass flow rate of 60 lbm/min, and the entropy change across the turbine (Btu/lbm-ºR).

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ANSWER: 89.15%, 0.0045 Btu/[lbm(ºF)]. Combustion gases enter an adiabatic gas turbine at 1440ºF and 120 psia and leaves at 68.5 psia. The turbine has an isentropic efficiency of 85%. Find the ‘actual’ power output of the turbine (horsepower) if the in-line compressor has a mass flow rate of 60 lbm/min, and (b) Find the entropy change across the turbine (Btu/lbm-ºR). ANSWER: 81.04%, 0.0062 Btu/[lbm(ºF)]. Air at 800 kPa and 1200 K enters an actual adiabatic turbine at steady state. Pressure at 300.1 kPa is measured at the exit of the turbine. The turbine is known to have an isentropic efficiency of 85%. determine the actual temperature at the exit of the turbine, the work output of the turbine in kJ/kg, and the specific entropy generated by the turbine in kJ/[kg(K)]. ANSWER: 950.8 K, 250.1 kJ/kg, 0.05 kJ/[kg(K)]. Determine the minimum power input required to drive a steady-flow, adiabatic air compressor that compresses 2 kg/s of air from 105 kPa and 23ºC to a pressure of 300 kPa. ANSWER: -207.9 kW. A steady-flow, isentropic air compressor that compresses air at a rate of 6 kg/s from an inlet state of 100 kPa and 310 K to a discharge pressure of 350 kPa. Find the power required to drive the compressor. ANSWER: -803.2 kW. An inventor claims that a steady-flow, adiabatic air compressor that compresses air at a rate of 6 kg/s from an inlet state of 100 kPa and 310 K to a discharge pressure of 350 kPa with a power input of 785 kW has been developed. Evaluate his claim. ANSWER: impossible. Refrigerant-12 enters an adiabatic compressor as saturated vapor at 20 psia at a rate of 4 ft3/s and exits at 100 psia pressure. If the adiabatic efficiency of the compressor is 80%, determine (a) the temperature of the refrigerant at the exit of the compressor and (b) the power input, in hp. ANSWER: 117.4ºF, -45.3 hp. Refrigerant R134a enters an actual adiabatic compressor at 140 kPa and -10ºC and exits at 1.4 Mpa and 80ºC. Find the efficiency of the compressor, the actual work reqired by the compressor, and the entropy generation. ANSWER: 80.9%, -62.8 kJ/kg, 0.0347 kJ/[kg(K)]. Refrigerant-12 enters an adiabatic compressor with 80 % efficiency as saturated vapor at 120 kPa at a rate of 0.3 m3/s and exits at 1 Mpa pressure. Determine the temperature of the refrigerant at the exit of the compressor, the power input in kW, and the entropy change of the refrigerant. ANSWER: 67.24ºC, -104.7 kW, 0.0282 kJ/[kg(K)]. 10 lbm/s of air is compressed through a compresser adiabatically from (15 psia and 70ºF) to (60 psia and 350ºF). Determine the work input required to the compressor, the efficiency of the compressor, and the entropy change of the process. ANSWER: -67.11 kJ/kg, 91.93%, 0.0068 kJ/[kg(K)]. Saturated liquid water enters an adiabatic pump at 100 kPa pressure at a rate of 5 kg/s and exits at 10 Mpa. Determine the minimum power required to drive the pump. ANSWER: -51.51 kW.

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Chih Wu 17. Saturated liquid water enters an adiabatic pump at 100 kPa pressure at a rate of 5 kg/s and exits at 10 Mpa. Determine the power required to drive the pump if the pump efficiency is 80% and 85%. ANSWER: -64.39 kW, -60.60 kW. 18. In a water pump, 13.9 lbm/s are raised from atmospheric pressure (14.7 psia) and 520ºR to 100 psia. The isentropic pump efficiency is 80 percent. Determine the horsepower input to the pump. ANSWER: -6.21 hp. 19. 1.23 lbm/s of steam is expanded from (1000 psia, 1000ºF) in a two-stage adiabatic turbine to 1 psia. The efficiency of the high-pressure stage turbine is 90 %. The efficiency of the low-pressure stage turbine is 85 %. The exit pressure of the highpressure stage turbine is 300 psia. Determine (A) the actual power produced by the high-pressure stage turbine and the low-pressure stage turbine, (B) the specific entropy generated by the high-pressure stage and by the low-pressure stage turbine, (C) the steam temperature at the exit of the high-pressure stage turbine and the lowpressure stage turbine, and (D) the exhaust steam quality. ANSWER: (A) 254.7 hp, 632.4 hp, (B) 0.0144 Btu/[lbm(ºF)], 0.1142 Btu/[lbm(ºF)], (C) 683.8ºF, 101.7ºF, (D) 0.8945. 20. A steady-flow, two-stage air adiabatic compressor that compresses air at a rate of 6 kg/s from an inlet state of 100 kPa and 310 K to a low-pressure stage discharge pressure of 250 kPa, and to a high-pressure stage discharge pressure of 750 kPa. The efficiency of the high-pressure stage compressor is 90 %. The efficiency of the lowpressure stage compressor is 85 %. Determine (A) the actual power required by the high-pressure stage compressor and by the low-pressure stage compressor, (B) the specific entropy generated by the high-pressure stage compressor and by the lowpressure stage compressor, and (C) the air temperature at the exit of the low-pressure stage compressor, and at the exit of the high-pressure stage compressor. ANSWER: (A) -1034 kW, -657.1 kW, (B) 0.0296 kJ/[kg(K)], 0.04 kJ/[kg(K)], (C) 419.1 K, 590.0 K. 21. Steam enters an adiabatic turbine with a mass flow rate of 1.5 lbm/s at 1000 psia and 600ºF and leaves at 7 psia. Determine the shaft power output and efficiency of turbine. ANSWER: 445.6 hp, 60.47%. 22. Steam enters an adiabatic turbine at 800 psia and 600ºF and leaves at 3 psia. Determine the mass flow rate required for a shaft power output of 500 hp, and quality of the steam at exit state. The turbine efficiency is 78%. ANSWER: 1.17 lbm/s, 0.8469. 23. Steam enters an adiabatic turbine with a mass flow rate of 1.2 lbm/s at 800 psia and 600ºF and leaves at 7 psia. Determine the shaft power output and the quality of steam at exit section. The turbine efficiency is 80%. ANSWER: 466.6 hp, 0.8572. 24. Steam at 8 kg/s, 800 kPa and 450ºC enters an adiabatic turbine and leaves the turbine at 1 bar. Find the power produced by the turbine if the turbine efficiency is: (A) 90%. (B) 85%. (C) 80%.

Entropy

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ANSWER: (A) 3953 kW, (B) 3733 kW, (C) 3513 kW. Steam at 1.5 lbm/s, 100 psia and 800ºF enters an adiabatic turbine and leaves the turbine at 14.8 psia. Find the power produced by the turbine if the turbine efficiency is: (A) 100%. (B) 90%. (C) 85%. (D) 80%. ANSWER: (A) 454.0 hp, (B) 408.6 hp, (C) 385.9 hp, (D) 363.2 hp. A pump with an isentropic efficiency of 0.8 pumps water at 0.1 Mpa and 298 K and discharge it at 5 Mpa. Find the entropy change and enthalpy change of the water upon passing through the pump. ANSWER: 0.0041 kJ/[kg(K)] and 6.13 kJ/kg. A pump with an isentropic efficiency of 0.85 pumps water at 0.1 Mpa and 298 K and discharge it at 5 Mpa. Find the entropy change and enthalpy change of the water upon passing through the pump. ANSWER: 0.0029 kJ/[kg(K)] and 5.77 kJ/kg. 0.2 kg/s of air (combustion gas) enters an adiabatic gas turbine at 1200 K, 800kPa, and leaves at 400 kPa. The gas turbine has an adiabatic efficiency of 86%. Determine the temperature of the air at the exit, specific entropy change of the the air, and the power output of the turbine. ANSWER: 1015, 0.0303 kJ/[kg(K)], 37.21 kW. Steam enters a turbine at 3 Mpa and 450ºC, expands in an adiabatic process, and exhausts at 10 kPa. The power output of the turbine is 800 kW. The turbine efficiency is 85%. What is the mass flow rate of steam through the turbine? ANSWER: 0.8625 kg/s. A certain industrial process requires a steady supply of saturated vapor steam at 200 kPa, at a rate of 0.5 kg/s. Also required is a steady supply of compressed air at 500 kPa, at a rate of 0.1 kg/s. Both are to be supplied by an adiabatic steam turbine and an air adiabatic compressor. Steam is expanded in the turbine to supply the power needed to drive the air compressor, and the exhaust steam exits the turbine at the desired state. Air into the compressor is at the ambient condition, 100 kPa and 20ºC. Given the steam inlet pressure at 1 Mpa, Find the inlet steam temperature. ANSWER: 301.4ºC. A certain industrial process requires a steady supply of saturated vapor steam at 200 kPa, at a rate of 0.5 kg/s. Also required is a steady supply of compressed air at 500 kPa, at a rate of 0.1 kg/s. Both are to be supplied by an adiabatic steam turbine and an air adiabatic compressor. Steam is expanded in the turbine to supply the power needed to drive the air compressor, and the exhaust steam exits the turbine at the desired state. Air into the compressor is at the ambient condition, 100 kPa and 20ºC. Given the steam inlet pressure at 2 Mpa, Find the inlet steam temperature. ANSWER: 313.4ºC. A certain industrial process requires a steady supply of saturated vapor steam at 200 kPa, at a rate of 0.5 kg/s. Also required is a steady supply of compressed air at 500 kPa, at a rate of 0.1 kg/s. Both are to be supplied by an adiabatic steam turbine and an air adiabatic compressor. Steam is expanded in the turbine to supply the power

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Chih Wu needed to drive the air compressor, and the exhaust steam exits the turbine at the desired state. Air into the compressor is at the ambient condition, 100 kPa and 20ºC. Given the steam inlet pressure at 1 Mpa and inlet steam temperature at 300ºC, find the power required by the compressor and the efficiency of the compressor. ANSWER: -158.1 kW, 10.86%. 33. If liquid water at 290 K is pumped from a pressure of 100 kPa to a pressure of 5000 kPa in a pump that operates adiabatically, what is the minimum work required? If the pump efficiency is 80%, what is the actual work required? 34. A steam turbine operates adiabatically and produces 400 hp. Steam enters the turbine at 300 psia and 900 R. Exhaust steam from the turbine is saturated at 10 psia. What is the steam rate in lbm/hr through the turbine? What is the efficiency of the turbine compared with isentropic operation? 35. Saturated steam at 20 psia is to be compressed adiabatically in a compressor to 100 psia at the rate of 5 lbm/s. The efficiency of the compressor is 75%. What is the horsepower requirement of the compressor and what is the exit temperature of the steam?

**6.10. ENTROPY CHANGE OF IRREVERSIBLE PROCESSES
**

Entropy can be generated by irreversibility factors such as friction, heat transfer, mixing, free expansion, combustion, etc. The following example illustrates the entropy generation due to these effects using CyclePad.

Example 6.10.1. A 0.5 m3 rigid tank contains 0.87 kg of air at 200 kPa. Heat is added to the tank until the pressure in the tank rises to 300 kPa. Determine the entropy change of air and heat added to the tank during this process. To solve this problem by CyclePad, we take the following steps:

1. Build (A) Take a begin, a heater, and an end from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them. (B) Switch to analysis mode. 2. Analysis (A) Assume the heater as a isochoric process, and work=0. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is air, (b) the initial air mass, volume and pressure of the process are 0.87 kg , 0.5 m3 and 200 kPa, and (c) the final air pressure of the process is 300 kPa . 3. Display results The answers is Q=125.0 kJ and ∆S=0.87(2.81-2.51)=0.261 kJ/K.

(B) Switch to analysis mode.Entropy 211 Figure E6. Steam at 4 MPa and 450ºC is throttled in a valve to a pressure of 2 MPa during a steady flow process. and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. (b) the inlet temperature and pressure of the throttling valve are 450ºC and 4 MPa.10. Build (A) Take a source.2.3102 kJ/K(kg).10.2. To solve this problem by CyclePad. Display results The answer is ∆s=0. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is water. we take the following steps: 1. a throttling valve. 2. Entropy change of throttling process . (c) the outlet pressure of the throttling valve is 2 MPa. Figure E6. Entropy change of an isochoric process Example 6.1. 3.10. Determine the specific entropy generated during this process.

p1=500 kPa.212 Chih Wu Homework 6.1 kg/s. and water of 70 kPa and 313 K at a mass flow rate of 1 kg/s. two streams of steam are coming in and one stream of steam is going out.2 kg/s. An adiabatic mixing chamber receives 5 kg/s of ammonia as saturated liquid at -20ºC from one line and ammonia at 40ºC and 250 kPa from another line through a valve. An adiabatic mixing chamber receives 2 kg/s of ammonia as saturated liquid at -20ºC from one line and ammonia at 40ºC and 250 kPa from another line through a valve. ANSWER: (A) 4118 kW. In an adiabatic mixing chamber. This should produce saturated ammonia vapor at -20ºC in the exit line..3 kg/s and p3=500 kPa. 2. (A) 3660 kW. The mass flow rate and properties of the coming in streams are: mdot1=0. 6. Assume no heat transfer and steady flow steady state. The mass flow rate and properties of the coming in streams are: mdot1=0. 7.66 kW/K. 4. p1=500 kPa. -19111 kW. 200 kPa and 673 K is mixed with a stream of cold air a mass flow rate of 1 kg/s. 5.1976 kJ/[kg(K)]. 19568 kW. The conditions of the streams and inside the control volume do not change with time. This should produce saturated ammonia vapor at -20ºC in the exit line.10. T2=400 K. (B) 90%.14 kW/K.2 kg/s. Is this process a reversible or irreversible process? ANSWER: 2 kg/s. ANSWER: 375.3 kg/s and p3=500 kPa. p1=500 kPa. and what is the rate of entropy generation in the process? ANSWER: 19. Find the temperature of the exiting stream. two streams of air are coming in and one stream of air is going out. The mass flow rate and properties of the going out stream are: mdot3=0. and what is the rate of entropy generation in the process? ANSWER: 49. T1=500 K.7 K. T2=400 K. p1=500 kPa. and (C) 90%. Find the exiting air mass flow rate and entropy change of the air.1 kg/s. (B) 3889 kW. The total mixture comes out at 110 kPa. What is the mass flow rate in the second line. What is the mass flow rate in the second line. The steam exhausts as a saturated liquid at 1 bar. In an adiabatic mixing chamber. The mass flow rate and properties of the going out stream are: mdot3=0. Determine the temperature of the going out stream. Entropy Change of Irreversible Processes 1. ANSWER: 466. -19339 kW. ∆sdot=0. mdot2=0. 3. . 200 kPa and 273 K in anadiabatic mixing chamber.5 K. mdot2=0. In a food processing plant.89 kg/s. T1=500 K. steam at 8 kg/s. ANSWER: 425 K. Find the power produced by the turbine and the rate of heat added to the dryer if the turbine efficiency is (A) 90%.72 kg/s. Determine the temperature of the going out stream. 3.. A stream of hot air at a mass flow rate of 1 kg/s. 9. An ejector uses steam at 3 Mpa and 673 K at a mass flow rate of 3 kg/s. The conditions of the streams and inside the control volume do not change with time. 10 bar and 700 K enters an adiabatic turbine and leaves the turbine at 1 bar and enters a food dryer (cooler for steam) where it supplies heat.

the principle means that changes of state in an isolated system can occur only in the direction of increasing entropy. . 7. (E) Q=W. the entropy value of the universe would attained its maximum value and there would not be any non-equilibrium activity occurs within the universe. THE INCREASE OF ENTROPY PRINCIPLE Entropy provides a means of determining whether a process can occur or not. The Increase of Entropy Principle 1. Determine which of the following cases are feasible: (A) An adiabatic compressor where the inlet and outlet entropies are equal. Thus. (D) The total entropy change of the system and the surroundings is zero. (C) The entropy change of the system is always zero. The universe is an isolated system. Therefore. (B) Work may be calculated using the equation of state. 6. Indicate whether the following statements are true or false for a reversible isothermal process: (A) Q=T(∆S).Entropy 213 6. At its equilibrium state. 4. (B) ∆U=0. 5. (C) The entropy change of the system is zero. Homework 6. (E) The temperature of the system does not change. (F) The entropy change of the environment is negative. The principle states that the entropy change of an isolated system with respect of time is always non-negative. the combination of the system and its surroundings is called universe. Indicate whether the following statements are true or false for a reversible adiabatic process: (A) Q=0. 2. The application of entropy is based on the increase of entropy principle. An isolated system is defined as a system with neither mass nor energy interaction with its surroundings.11. This also implies that an isolated system will have attained equilibrium only when its entropy attained the maximum value. (D) The total entropy change of the system and the surroundings is zero. (G) The total entropy change of the system and the surroundings is negative. we conclude that the entropy change of the universe with respect of time is always non-negative until it reaches its equilibrium state. which does not have anything in it.11. Since a system and its surroundings include everything which is affected by a process. (B) W=0. (C) The entropy change of the system is always zero. 3. (D) The total entropy change of the system and the surroundings is zero. because the surroundings of the universe is a null system. What is the increase of entropy principle? Is universe an isolated system? What is the surroundings of the universe? When will the entropy value of the universe attained its maximum value? Indicate whether the following statements are true or false for a reversible process: (A) Q=0.

Can this process be adiabatic? Can this process be reversible? ANSWER: q=-2417 kJ/kg. (F) Steam passing through a throttling valve undergoes no enthalpy change. and why? A reservoir at 290 K receives 800 kJ of heat from the surroundings at 300 K.1 Mpa and 373 K and leaves the compressor at 1. no. Find the exiting air mass flow rate and temperature. Steam at 2 Mpa and 673 K expands freely in a cylinder and piston device to 1 Mpa and 340 K. A stream of hot air at a mass flow rate of 1 kg/s.2 Mpa and 623 K. 8. v. 12. why? ANSWER: q=-2930 kJ/kg. Is the process reversible? If so. Can this process be adiabatic? Is the process reversible? If so. the exit state properties were found to be 392 K and 101 kPa. why? ANSWER: q=-237. no. ANSWER: Isentropic exit T is 393. 10.9502. A salesperson claims to have a 100 kW steam turbine. 473 K. ANSWER: ∆s=-0.45 kJ/[kg(K)]. which do not. (B) no. A throttling calorimeter was connecting to a pipeline containing wet steam at 3 Mpa. The temperature of the surroundings is 298 K.4 K. no. T.2 Mpa and 373 K. Steam at 0.01976 kW/K. -2. 200 kPa and 273 K in an adiabatic mixing chamber.667 kJ/K. (C) The entropy of steam decreases when it passes through an adiabatic turbine. why? ANSWER: 2 kg/s. (I) An adiabatic process in a system the entropy of which decreases. 14. 16.758 kJ/K. 11. and s have meaning in nonequilibrium states. Steam enters the compressor at 0. (A) Determine the quality of the steam in the pipeline. u. (D) An adiabatic heat exchanger where the entropy of the cooling fluid decreases. Which property or properties among p. (E) A heat engine that operates in a cycle and interacts with one reservoir only. Steam enters the turbine at 0. no.13 kJ/[kg(K)]. 15.8 Mpa and 523 K and leaves the turbine at 0. h. (A) What is the entropy change of the reservoir? What is the entropy change of the surroundings? (B) Could the process be performed reversibly? ANSWER: (A) 2. (B) What is the entropy change of the steam? (C) Is the process reversible for the throttling calorimeter? If so. (G) Steam passing through a throttling valve undergoes no entropy change. . why? ANSWER: (A)0. Find the rate of entropy change of the air. 13. The temperature of the surroundings is 298 K. (C) no. no. no. Can this compressor be an adiabatic? Explain. 9. Can this turbine be an adiabatic? Explain. (H) An isothermal process in a system the entropy of which decreases. (B) 1. 0.4 Mpa and 433 K contained in a cylinder and piston device is expanded freely to 0.214 Chih Wu (B) An actual adiabatic pump where the inlet and outlet entropies are equal.1 Mpa and 350 K. Air at 2 Mpa and 673 K expands freely in a cylinder and piston device to 1 Mpa and 340 K. 200 kPa and 673 K is mixed with a stream of cold air at a mass flow rate of 1 kg/s.2 kJ/kg. A salesperson claims to have a 50 kW steam compressor. Can this process be adiabatic? Is the process reversible? If so.

A chemical plant requires large quantities of steam of low quality (10%) at 348 K.12.02 kJ/[kg(K)]. Find the entropy change of the water upon passing through the pump.0041 kJ/[kg(K)]. High pressure boilers are quite expensive. or the conversion of work to heat in a refrigerator or heat pump.5 kJ/kg. Water must be pumped at a rate of 10 kg/s from a river where the conditions are 100 kPa and 283 K. 19.5 K. The inventor claims that the requirements could be satisfied by mixing two parts (by mass) of water with one part of steam.3) (6. (A) If the inventor is right.40 kW/K. ANSWER: 0. 20.Entropy 215 17.1 Mpa and 298 K and discharges it at 5 Mpa. the thermal cycle efficiency (η) of the heat engine and cycle COP of the refrigerator (βR) or COP of heat pump (βHP) are defined in Chapter 5 as η=Wnet/Qadd βR=Qcool/Wnet and βHP=Qheat/Wnet (6. The cycle efficiency (η) of the heat engine is usually referred to as the first law efficiency of the heat engine.12. h=316. What is the rate of entropy change of the system? Does it violate the second law? ANSWER: 0.2) The conversion of heat to work or vice versa in these devices are essentially the First law of thermodynamics.8 pumps water at 0. (B) What is the rate of entropy change of the system? Is the process possible in view of the second law of thermodynamics? ANSWER: (A) 348. An inventor suggests that saturated atmospheric pressure steam (cheap boiler) could be mixed with high pressure water (7 Mpa and 300 K) in an adiabatic steady flow process to produce the desired low quality steam. (B) 2. SECOND LAW EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF CYCLES In the conversion of heat to work in a heat engine. When the water has reached 340 K. A single mixed stream exits the device. 6.12. What is the entropy change of the water? What is the entropy change of the heat reservoir? What is the entropy change of the universe? 6. determine the state at the exit of the device in view of the first law of thermodynamics. .1) (6. An inventor suggests an adiabatic device that will do the job provided it is supplied with 1 kg/s of saturated steam at 300 kPa. One kilogram of water at 300 K is brought into contact with a heat reservoir at 340 K. no.12.2155 kW/K. 1. to a pressure of 1500 kPa.13 kJ/kg. A pump with an isentropic efficiency of 0. possible. and the enthalpy change of the water upon passing through the pump. 18.

The second law efficiency and second law effectiveness are both less than unity. a second law efficiency is needed.12.5) Note that the Carnot cycle efficiency is a function of temperature range.12.12.4) The first law efficiency of the heat engine is related to the second law efficiency by the relation η=η2ηrev=η2ηCarnot (6. This represents an unexploited energy supply. The second law efficiency of a heat engine is defined as the ratio of the actual heat engine efficiency to the maximum possible reversible heat engine efficiency operating between the same temperature limits. The heat rejected from the high-temperature applications can then be cascaded to low-temperature applications. or in the limit equal to unity. An example is the burning of fossil fuel to heat water.5) The above definitions for the second law efficiency and second law effectiveness do not apply to devices that are not intended to produce or consume heat and work. They are the measure of how wisely energy is being used or how well it is being conserved. A decrease in the thermal potential (TH-TU) between the source and end use of results in a decrease in Carnot cycle efficiency and a corresponding increase in the second law efficiency.6) The first law COP of the refrigerator or heat pump is related to the second law effectiveness by the relation β=β2βrev=β2βCarnot (6.216 Chih Wu In order to compare the work actually delivered by a heat engine with the work that theoretically could have been delivered with the same cycle input by the best possible reversible heat engine that might have been used. η2=η/ηrev=W/Wrev=η/ηCarnot (6. β2=COP/COPrev=COP/COPCarnot=β/βrev (6.12. and the fuel should be first used in high-temperature applications. the second law effectiveness β2 of a refrigerator or heat pump can also be expressed as the ratio of the actual cycle COP to the maximum possible reversible cycle COP under the same conditions. They are valuable in an analysis of alternative means of accomplishing a given task. This means that inefficient use of a fuel occurs when the temperature of the products of combustion is significantly higher than the use of temperature of the system to which heat is transferred. . Similarly. There is an excessive temperature gap between the high temperature of combustion and the low temperature of the end use.

the Carnot cycle efficiency operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle.27=30. a compressor. 2. (c) the combustion chamber is isobaric. the Carnot cycle efficiency operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle is 75. Analysis (A) Assume (a) the compressor is adiabatic with 80% efficiency.12. Second law efficiency of a Brayton cycle . The products of combustion expand in the turbine back to 100 kPa. and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them to form the Brayton cycle. and (d) the cooler is isobaric. a heater. and the second law cycle efficiency. An actual gas turbine power plant operating at steady state receives 1 kg/s of air at 100 kPa and 17ºC.45%. a turbine.27%. 100 kPa and 17ºC. The air is compressed to 700 kPa and reaches a maximum temperature of 900ºC in the combustion chamber. we take the following steps: 1. 3. Display results: the net power output of the actual cycle is 411.Entropy 217 Example 6. the actual plant cycle efficiency. the actual plant cycle efficiency is 22. a cooler.12. and the second law cycle efficiency is 22. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is air.92/75. Determine the actual power produced by the plant.1. Assume the compressor efficiency is 80% and the turbine efficiency is 82%.1. To solve this problem by CyclePad.92%. (b) mass flow rate. and (c) pressure and temperature of the air at the exit of the combustion chamber are 700 kPa and 900ºC. (b) the turbine is adiabatic with 82% efficiency. pressure and temperature of the air at the inlet of the compressor are 1 kg/s.7 kW. Figure E6. (B) Switch to analysis mode. Build (A) Take a source.

The freon is compressed to 200 psia and cooled to saturated liquid.1 lbm/s of saturated R-12 vapor at 60 psia.2 K.2. Determine the actual . 2. Figure E6. and (c) the cooler is isobaric.1 kg/s of saturated R-134a vapor at 241. the Carnot cycle COP operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle is TL/(TH-TL)=241.2)=2. To solve this problem by CyclePad. a cooler. (B) Switch to analysis mode. (b) mass flow rate. Determine the actual cooling load provided by the refrigerant plant. we take the following steps: 1. and the second law cycle COP is 1. (b) the heater is isobaric.3=60. a throttling valve. and a heater from the opensystem inventory shop and connect them to form a vapor refrigeration cycle. The freon is compressed to 1700 kPa and cooled to saturated liquid.2.218 Chih Wu Example 6. Build (A) Take a compressor. 1. and (d) quality of the saturated refrigerant at the inlet of the valve is 0.2-241. Second law COP of a refrigeration cycle Example 6.43%. A heat pump operating at steady state receives 0. 3. (c) pressure at the exit of the compressor is 1700 kPa. the actual plant cycle COP.2 K.3. Analysis (A) Assume (a) the compressor is adiabatic with 100% efficiency. the Carnot cycle COP operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle. Display results Temperature of the R-134a at the exit of the compressor is 346. the cooling load of the cycle is 9 kW.3.0. An ideal refrigerant plant operating at steady state receives 0. and the second law cycle efficiency. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is R-134a.12. the cycle COP is 1. and 241.2 K.1 kg/s.39/2. quality and temperature of the refrigerant at the inlet of the compressor are 0.12.12.2/(346.39.

(b) mass flow rate.8508. The turbine efficiency is 80%. 2. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is R-12.8ºR. quality and pressure of the refrigerant at the inlet of the compressor are 0. the cycle COP is 5. and 60 psia. (c) pressure of the refrigerant at the exit of the compressor is 200 psia. Determine the net power output. Analysis (A) Assume (a) the compressor is adiabatic with 100% efficiency. To solve this problem by CyclePad.71/6. the Carnot cycle COP operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle is TH/(TH-TL)=601. Second law COP of a heat pump Homework 6.Entropy 219 heating load provided by the heat pump. Build (A) Take a compressor. the Carnot cycle COP operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle. the actual plant cycle COP.0. minimum temperature and maximum . a throttling valve. and the second law cycle COP is 5. and a heater from the opensystem inventory shop and connect them to form a vapor heat pump cycle.71.25 Btu/s.3.2)=6.12. Second law efficiency and effectiveness of cycles 1. 1.81%. A Rankine cycle using steam as the working fluid in which the boiler pressure is 10 Mpa and condenser pressure is 50 kPa. and (d) quality of the refrigerant at the inlet of the valve is 0.429. Display results Temperature of the R-134a at the exit of the compressor is 601. a cooler.1 lbm/s. (b) the heater is isobaric. (B) Switch to analysis mode. The steam leaves the boiler at 500ºC. The temperature of the water at the inlet of the pump is 55ºC. Figure E6. the heating load of the cycle is 5.8/(601.429=88. 3.12. we take the following steps: 1. and the second law cycle efficiency. and (c) the cooler is isobaric.

3. 28. 4. 27. 5. 60. 55ºC. The steam leaves the boiler and the reheater both at 450ºC. Carnot cycle efficiency operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle.34ºC. 550ºC. minimum temperature and maximum temperature of the cycle. Determine the net power output. A Rankine cycle using steam as the working fluid in which the boiler pressure is 10 Mpa and condenser pressure is 50 kPa.57%.2 kW. The steam leaves the boiler at 550ºC. Determine the net power output. minimum temperature and maximum temperature of the cycle. 56. The temperature of the water at the inlet of the pump is 55ºC. The water at the inlet of the pump is saturated liquid.41%. 43.1 kW. Carnot cycle efficiency operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle. A Rankine cycle using steam as the working fluid in which the boiler pressure is 10 Mpa and condenser pressure is 50 kPa. and second law cycle efficiency of the cycle. 6.94%. cycle efficiency. The temperature of the water at the inlet of the pump is 35ºC.34ºC. 57. The turbine efficiency is 80%.39%. 52. and second law cycle efficiency of the cycle. ANSWER: 911. 54. Determine the net power output.94%. 500ºC. 450ºC. Carnot cycle efficiency operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle.72%. 42.28%. ANSWER: 103100 kW. A reheat-Rankine cycle using steam as the working fluid in which the boiler pressure is 10 Mpa and condenser pressure is 50 kPa. The water at the inlet of the pump is saturated liquid.5 kW. The temperature of the water at the inlet of the pump is 35ºC. minimum temperature and maximum temperature of the cycle. The reheater pressure is 200 kPa. 27. ANSWER: 911. Both turbine efficiency are 80%.13%. 28.52%.50%.29%. The turbine efficiency is 80%. and second law cycle efficiency of the cycle. 60.82%. and second law cycle efficiency of the cycle. The steam leaves the boiler at 550ºC. 550ºC. 500ºC.07%. Determine the net power output. cycle efficiency. Carnot cycle efficiency operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle. Carnot cycle efficiency operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle.56%. and second law cycle efficiency of the cycle. The reheater pressure is 200 kPa. cycle efficiency. Determine the net power output.96%. 81. . 46. 47. Carnot cycle efficiency operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle. 35ºC. The steam leaves the boiler at 500ºC.23%. cycle efficiency. A Rankine cycle using steam as the working fluid in which the boiler pressure is 10 Mpa and condenser pressure is 50 kPa. 35ºC. ANSWER: 95780 kW. minimum temperature and maximum temperature of the cycle. Both turbine efficiency are 80%. 50. cycle efficiency. and second law cycle efficiency of the cycle. ANSWER: 855. A reheat-Rankine cycle using steam as the working fluid in which the boiler pressure is 10 Mpa and condenser pressure is 50 kPa. ANSWER: 855. 57. The steam leaves the boiler and the reheater both at 500ºC. 81.14%.The mass rate flow of the steam is 100 kg/s. 500ºC.7 kW. cycle efficiency. The turbine efficiency is 80%. 24. 55ºC.220 Chih Wu temperature of the cycle.15%. 2. 25. minimum temperature and maximum temperature of the cycle.The mass rate flow of the steam is 100 kg/s.

The mass rate flow of the steam is 100 kg/s. Carnot cycle efficiency operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle. cycle efficiency. and second law cycle efficiency of the cycle. 88. The steam leaves the boiler and the reheater both at 500ºC.02%.90%. The reheater pressure is 200 kPa. 53. The compression ratio of the cycle is 18. 10.03%.59%. The heating value of the fuel is 40000 kJ/kg. Determine the minimum temperature and maximum temperature of the cycle. ANSWER: 95750 kW. ANSWER: 15ºC. Carnot cycle efficiency operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle. 26. 500ºC. Carnot cycle efficiency operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle. and second law cycle efficiency of the cycle.07%. . Air enters a Diesel cycle at 15ºC and 100 kPa.07%. The compression ratio of the cycle is 12. The reheater pressure is 200 kPa. 2394ºC. The compression ratio of the cycle is 16. 9. cycle efficiency. 89.34ºC. The heating value of the fuel is 40000 kJ/kg. 89.33%. 50.87%. 43.01%.The mass rate flow of the steam is 100 kg/s. The heat added in the combustion chamber is 1800 kJ/kg. Air enters a Diesel cycle at 15ºC and 100 kPa. Carnot cycle efficiency operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle. 60. Determine the net power output. 46. cycle efficiency. ANSWER: 15ºC. ANSWER: 15ºC. Determine the net power output. Air enters a Diesel cycle at 15ºC and 100 kPa. cycle efficiency. The water at the inlet of the pump is saturated liquid.72%. and second law cycle efficiency of the cycle. and second law cycle efficiency of the cycle.52%.98%. 59. 8.80%. ANSWER: 103100 kW. 56. 12. and second law cycle efficiency of the cycle. cycle efficiency. Carnot cycle efficiency operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle. Determine the minimum temperature and maximum temperature of the cycle. The steam leaves the boiler and the reheater both at 450ºC.Entropy 221 7. The heat added in the combustion chamber is 1800 kJ/kg. Both turbine efficiency are 80%. The heating value of the fuel is 40000 kJ/kg.68%. and second law cycle efficiency of the cycle. 81. A reheat-Rankine cycle using steam as the working fluid in which the boiler pressure is 10 Mpa and condenser pressure is 50 kPa.20%.86%.34ºC. 56. 66. 50. Both turbine efficiency are 80%. 54. The compression ratio of the cycle is 14. 2349ºC. minimum temperature and maximum temperature of the cycle. The heat added in the combustion chamber is 1800 kJ/kg. 63. Air enters a Diesel cycle at 15ºC and 100 kPa. Determine the minimum temperature and maximum temperature of the cycle. 450ºC. A reheat-Rankine cycle using steam as the working fluid in which the boiler pressure is 10 Mpa and condenser pressure is 50 kPa. The water at the inlet of the pump is saturated liquid. 11. Carnot cycle efficiency operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle. Determine the minimum temperature and maximum temperature of the cycle. minimum temperature and maximum temperature of the cycle. 26. The heat added in the combustion chamber is 1800 kJ/kg. 89. cycle efficiency.37%. 2436ºC.15%. ANSWER: 15ºC. The heating value of the fuel is 40000 kJ/kg. 2299ºC. 81.

and second law cycle efficiency of the cycle. The heating value of the fuel is 40000 kJ/kg. Determine the minimum temperature and maximum temperature of the cycle. The compression ratio of the cycle is 14. 18. 73. Carnot cycle efficiency operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle. Determine the minimum temperature and maximum temperature of the cycle. Air enters an Otto cycle at 15ºC and 100 kPa.87%.47%.01%. Air enters an Otto cycle at 15ºC and 100 kPa. cycle efficiency. Determine the cooling load. The compression ratio of the cycle is 16. The heating value of the fuel is 40000 kJ/kg. ANSWER: 15ºC. 62. The heat added in the combustion chamber is 1800 kJ/kg. 56. 88. 60.55%. and second law cycle efficiency of the cycle.27%. 69. cycle efficiency. of the cy minimum temperature and maximum . 51.68%. 44. Determine the COP. Carnot cycle efficiency operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle. 39.1 lbm/s. Air enters a Diesel cycle at 15ºC and 100 kPa. Air enters an Otto cycle at 15ºC and 100 kPa. 2900ºC. Carnot cycle efficiency operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle. ANSWER: 15ºC. 62.49%.01%. The compression ratio of the cycle is 8. 89. Determine the minimum temperature and maximum temperature of the cycle. 88. 19. 2349ºC.99%. Determine the minimum temperature and maximum temperature of the cycle. The heating value of the fuel is 40000 kJ/kg. and second law cycle efficiency of the cycle. 17. cycle efficiency. cycle efficiency. The heat added in the combustion chamber is 1800 kJ/kg. ANSWER: 15ºC.82%. horsepower required and cooling load of a basic vapor refrigeration cycle using R-12 as the working fluid in which the condenser pressure is 130 psia and the evaporation pressure is 35 psia. 91.76%.52%. 15. Determine the minimum temperature and maximum temperature of the cycle. The heating value of the fuel is 40000 kJ/kg. ANSWER: 15ºC. 3017ºC. 67. 2245ºC. Carnot cycle efficiency operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle. Carnot cycle efficiency operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle. ANSWER: 15ºC. 14. 45. The heat added in the combustion chamber is 1800 kJ/kg. The compression ratio of the cycle is 10.222 Chih Wu 13. The heating value of the fuel is 40000 kJ/kg.24%. Determine the minimum temperature and maximum temperature of the cycle. The circulation rate of fluid is 0. 91. Air enters a Diesel cycle at 15ºC and 100 kPa.11%. and second law cycle efficiency of the cycle. 90. Air enters a Diesel cycle at 15ºC and 100 kPa. The heating value of the fuel is 40000 kJ/kg. cycle efficiency. and second law cycle efficiency of the cycle.24%.04%. The compression ratio of the cycle is 12. The heat added in the combustion chamber is 1800 kJ/kg. 53. 3112ºC. 16. cycle efficiency. ANSWER: 15ºC. The compression ratio of the cycle is 8. The heat added in the combustion chamber is 1800 kJ/kg. Carnot cycle efficiency operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle. The heat added in the combustion chamber is 1800 kJ/kg. 2183ºC. and second law cycle efficiency of the cycle.92%.56%.

Carnot COP operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle.38. horsepower required and cooling load of a vapor refrigeration cycle using R-12 as the working fluid in which the condenser pressure is 130 psia and the evaporation pressure is 35 psia. horsepower required and cooling load of a basic vapor refrigeration cycle using R-12 as the working fluid in which the condenser pressure is 130 psia and the evaporation pressure is 35 psia. ANSWER: 4. minimum temperature and maximum temperature of the cycle. 0.1 .774.84 Btu/s. The circulation rate of fluid is 0.84 Btu/s. 574. 478.9826. 600ºR. The circulation rate of fluid is 0.9089. and second law COP of the refrigerator. Determine the cooling load. 4. 0.7447. Determine the cooling load. Determine the COP. 5. horsepower required and cooling load of a basic vapor refrigeration cycle using R-12 as the working fluid in which the condenser pressure is 130 psia and the evaporation pressure is 35 psia. Carnot COP operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle. The compressor efficiency is 80%.4ºR. ANSWER: 4.7671. 577ºR. minimum temperature and maximum temperature of the cycle. Determine the COP.73. and second law COP of the refrigerator.1 lbm/s. Carnot COP operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle.84 Btu/s. 5. ANSWER: 4.1 lbm/s. COP. Determine the cooling load. 4.1 lbm/s. 478.8159.57. and second law COP of the refrigerator. horsepower required and cooling load of a vapor refrigeration cycle using R-12 as the working fluid in which the condenser pressure is 130 psia and the evaporation pressure is 35 psia. 4.1 lbm/s. and second law COP of the refrigerator.1 lbm/s. 0. 5.062. 478.1ºR. COP. and second law COP of the refrigerator. The circulation rate of fluid is 0.958.4ºR. Determine the cooling load. 23.7802. minimum temperature and maximum temperature of the cycle. 6. horsepower required and cooling load of a vapor refrigeration cycle using R-12 as the working fluid in which the condenser pressure is 130 psia and the evaporation pressure is 35 psia.3. 478. The circulation rate of fluid is 0. Carnot COP operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle. 22. 566.4ºR.4ºR. 25. Carnot COP operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle. Determine the COP. 21. Determine the COP. minimum temperature and maximum temperature of the cycle.9ºR.84 Btu/s. 5. Determine the COP. 4. Determine the COP. The temperature of the refrigerant at the exit of the compressor is 600ºR.84 Btu/s.4ºR.Entropy 223 20. 478. The temperature of the refrigerant at the exit of the compressor is 577ºR. 0.455. COP. COP.4ºR. The compressor efficiency is 88%. The circulation rate of fluid is 0. ANSWER: 4. 572. and second law COP of the refrigerator.84 Btu/s. Determine the cooling load. Carnot COP operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle. 578. 0. 4. The compressor efficiency is 85%.934. horsepower required and cooling load of a basic vapor refrigeration cycle using R-12 as the working fluid in which the condenser pressure is 130 psia and the evaporation pressure is 35 psia.21. 478. COP. ANSWER: 4. 24. COP.9ºR. ANSWER: 4. 0. The circulation rate of fluid is 0. 3. 3.852. minimum temperature and maximum temperature of the cycle. temperature cle.41.6ºR.

384.46. A basic vapor heat pump cycle using R-134a as the working fluid in which the condenser pressure is 1200 kPa and the evaporation pressure is 240 kPa. 0. Determine the heating load.69. The circulation rate of fluid is 0. 5.1 kg/s. 6.7700. minimum temperature and maximum temperature of the cycle.8511. The circulation rate of fluid is 0. The compressor efficiency is 100%.7 K. 0.25 kW. and second law COP of the refrigerator. The compressor efficiency is 90%. Determine the heating load. minimum temperature and maximum temperature of the cycle. ANSWER: 17.6 K. 478. COP.687. and second law COP of the refrigerator. 0.92 kW. Determine the cooling load. 590ºR. The compressor efficiency is 80%. Carnot COP operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle.1 K. The compressor efficiency is 100%.6 K. A basic vapor heat pump cycle using R-134a as the working fluid in which the condenser pressure is 900 kPa and the evaporation pressure is 240 kPa.1 lbm/s. 29. . A basic vapor heat pump cycle using R-134a as the working fluid in which the condenser pressure is 1200 kPa and the evaporation pressure is 240 kPa. 267. 27. 4.8912.63 kW. and second law COP of the refrigerator. The circulation rate of fluid is 0. COP. 0. 6. and second law COP of the refrigerator. minimum temperature and maximum temperature of the cycle. The circulation rate of fluid is 0. 5.64. horsepower required and cooling load of a basic vapor refrigeration cycle using R-12 as the working fluid in which the condenser pressure is 130 psia and the evaporation pressure is 35 psia. Carnot COP operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle. 620ºR. 28.1 kg/s. ANSWER: 16. Determine the COP. 0. minimum temperature and maximum temperature of the cycle.881. 3.60. COP. 317.84.0 K. The circulation rate of fluid is 0. Carnot COP operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle. 267. minimum temperature and maximum temperature of the cycle.6 K. Determine the cooling load. 267. 267. A basic vapor heat pump cycle using R-134a as the working fluid in which the condenser pressure is 1200 kPa and the evaporation pressure is 240 kPa. The temperature of the refrigerant at the exit of the compressor is 590ºR. minimum temperature and maximum temperature of the cycle. 324. ANSWER: 16. 3.6 K. 0.28.430. COP.379. Carnot COP operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle.84 Btu/s. 4.1 kg/s.4ºR.27 kW.9126.8491.224 Chih Wu lbm/s. 478. The circulation rate of fluid is 0. Determine the heating load. 2. The temperature of the refrigerant at the exit of the compressor is 620ºR. 5. Determine the heating load. minimum temperature and maximum temperature of the cycle. COP. Carnot COP operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle. ANSWER: 4. 6. COP. 30. 313.1 kg/s. 4.28.4ºR. 31. and second law COP of the refrigerator. ANSWER: 16.3 K. COP.84 Btu/s. and second law COP of the refrigerator.8213.1 kg/s. The compressor efficiency is 100%. Determine the heating load. 328. ANSWER: 4. 26. Carnot COP operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle. A basic vapor heat pump cycle using R-134a as the working fluid in which the condenser pressure is 1000 kPa and the evaporation pressure is 240 kPa.

The total amount of available energy is ∫(TH -To)dS. This normally corresponds to the ambient temperature (To) of the heat engine.13.Entropy 225 Carnot COP operating between the same maximum and minimum temperature of the cycle.149. The unavailable energy is always determined by (To)∆S.13. and second law COP of the refrigerator. in practice there is a minimum value of TL which can be used. In the Carnot cycle T-s diagram as shown in Figure 6.7905.1. we see that a portion of the heat supplied (Area 623562) from a constant-temperature heat source at high-temperature TH must be rejected to a constant-temperature heat sink at low-temperature TL.6 K. Unavailable energy is the portion of energy supplied from the heat source which is not converted into work. and is represented by a rectangular area. Figure 6. Available and Unavailable Energy 1. 0. Carnot cycle T-s diagram Homework 6.13. The differential amount of available energy is (TH -To)dS. 6. AVAILABLE AND UNAVAILABLE ENERGY The energy which is ideally available to do work is called available energy.07. What are available and unavailable energy? 2.1 K. 332. What is minimum temperature value of heat rejection TL which can be used in real world? .1.13. ANSWER: 17.09 kW. it is apparent that the available energy is Area 12341 and the unavailable energy is Area 41654. 267. 5. 4. In general. The amount of heat rejected (Area 41654) for a given heat input is reduced by lowering the sink temperature TL. many applications of interest involves a heat source of variable temperature TH. However. If the ambient temperature is TL (TL=To). The minimum energy which could be rejected by the heat engine is called unavailable energy.

The energy which is ideally available to do work is called available energy. ideal gases and incompressible substances are related to other properties. the entropy change of the universe with respect of time is always non-negative until it reaches its equilibrium state.226 Chih Wu 6. The second law cycle efficiency is a measure of the performance of a cyclic device relative to the performance under reversible conditions for Carnot cycle. An isentropic process is a constant entropy process. The universe is an isolated system. SUMMARY A microscopic property called entropy is defined based on the Clausius inequality. Heat can be shown by the area underneath a process on a T-s diagram. compressors and pumps are expressed as: ηturbine =wactual turbine /wisentropic turbine. The Second law of thermodynamics for an open system is expressed as 0=δQ/T + Si+Se+Sgeneration. Entropy change of pure substances. It is also a reversible adiabatic process.14. where Sgeneration is the non-negative entropy generated by irreversibility during a process. and ηpump =wisentropic pump /wactual pump. . The Second law of thermodynamics for an open system is expressed as ∆S=δQ/T + Si+Se+Sgeneration. The isentropic or adiabatic efficiency for turbines. Heat and entropy are related by the Second law of thermodynamics for a closed system and is expressed as ∆S=δQ/T + Sgeneration. The minimum energy which could be rejected by the heat engine is called unavailable energy. These relationships are listed on tables and are built in the software CyclePad. ηcompressor =wisentropic compressor /wactual compressor. For the case of steady flow and steady state process. The increase of entropy principle states that the entropy change of an isolated system with respect of time is always non-negative. It serves as an idealization of an adiabatic process for many engineering applications.

From previous chapters. the most efficient cycle to produce work is a reversible Carnot power cycle. but work can always be converted completely and continuously into heat. 7. Losses occur in such a transformation.Chapter 7 EXERGY AND IRREVERSIBILITY 7. Heat cannot be converted completely and continuously into work. INTRODUCTION By adding energy from a high temperature thermal reservoir in the form of heat to a heat engine. To find a general expression for the reversible work.1) . The environmental condition is usually chosen as the reference datum. we know that energy is a property which is a point function and work is a path function. This chapter deals with the concept of exergy and irreversibilitiy which provide the information needed to determine the maximum useful work that a system in a given state can perform and the evaluation of the effects of irreversibility.2.1. REVERSIBLE AND IRREVERSIBLE WORK Reversible work is the maximum work done by a system in a given change of state. the efficiency of heat to work conversion is always less than unity.2. The Second law of thermodynamics states that a continuous cycle for accomplishing this transformation will not produce a quantity of work that is exactly equivalent to the heat provided from the high temperature thermal reservoir. let us consider a system undergoing a change of state from an initial state 1 with energy E1 and entropy S1 to a final state 2 with energy E2 and entropy S2 by means of several processes 1-2. It is important for engineers to know what is the maximum amount of work that can be obtained for a cycle or a process with respect to some datum. But even with the use of the reversible Carnot power cycle. It is also important to establish a reference scale for comparison of the work that can be developed in actual cycles or a processes. As shown in Chapter 5 and Chapter 6. work can be performed by the engine through the transformation of heat into work and rejects energy to a low temperature thermal reservoir in the form of heat. The First law applied to this system for an infinitesimal change is δQ-δW=dE (7.

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The energy change of the system for all processes between the specified states 1 and 2 is (E2-E1). (E2-E1) is independent of the process between the specified states 1 and 2. However the work produced by the system W12 is dependent of the process between the specified states 1 and 2. The First law can give us only the difference (Q12 -W12) for specified end states. Many different values of Q12 and W12 are possible. We must use the second law to find the maximum amount of work obtainable. Since the difference between δQ and δW for an infinitesimal change is identical for reversible and irreversible processes, we have δQreversible -δWreversible=δQirreeversible -δWirreversible=dE (7.2.2)

When the system receives heat δQ, it experiences a change in entropy dS. If the heat transfer process is reversible, the environment at temperature To supplying the heat δQ undergoes a change of entropy dSo, which is negative and numerically equal to the entropy change of the system dS. If the heat transfer process is irreversible, dSo is numerically less than dS. Thus we can write dS+dSo=0 for reversible process and dS+dSo>0 for irreversible process The Second law of thermodynamics states that: δQreversible =To(dS) for reversible process and δQirreversible >To(dS) for irreversible process (7.2.4b) (7.2.4a) (7.2.3b) (7.2.3a)

Thus the reversible heat (δQreversible) and irreversible heat (δQirreversible) are different. δQirreversible >δQreversible (7.2.5)

Therefore the work done by the system during a reversible process called reversible work (δWreversible) is larger than the work done by the system during a irreversible process called irreversible work (δWirreversible). δWreversible >δWirreversible (7.2.6)

The work done by a system during a reversible process is greater than the work done by the system during an irreversible process connecting the same end states. It can be shown that all reversible processes operating between the same two end states will produce identical amount of work under the same environment. The quantity Wreversible is called reversible work.

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Example 7.2.1.

An air stream at 1000ºC and 1000 kPa with mass flow rate of 1 kg/s enters an adiabatic turbine. The stream leaves the turbine at 100 kPa. Determine the work of the turbine if the turbine is (A) reversible, and (B) irreversible with an efficiency of 85%. To solve this problem by CyclePad, we take the following steps: 1. Build (A) Take a source, a turbine, and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. (B) Switch to analysis mode. 2. Analysis (A) Assume the turbine is adiabatic and reversible (with efficiency of 100%) in case (A), and the turbine is adiabatic and irreversible (with efficiency of 85%) in case (B). (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluids is air, (b) mass flow rate, pressure and temperature of the air at the inlet are 1 kg/s, 1000 kPa and 1000ºC, (c) pressure of the air at the exit is 100 kPa. 3. Display results The answers are: (A) reversible work=615.8 kJ/kg, and (B) irreversible work=523.4 kJ/kg as shown in Figure E7.2.1a and Figure E7.2.1b. It is demonstrated that the reversible adiabatic turbine work is larger than the irreversible adiabatic turbine work.

Figure E7.2.1a. Reversible work

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Chih Wu

Figure E7.2.1b. Irreversible work

**Homework 7.2. Reversible and Irreversible Work
**

1. What is reversible work of a process? 2. Does reversible work equal to irreversible work for a process connecting the same end states? 3. Consider a process that involves no irreversibility. Does the irreversible work equal to the reversible work? 4. An air stream at 500ºC and 500 kPa with mass flow rate of 1 kg/s enters an adiabatic turbine. The stream leaves the turbine at 100 kPa. Determine the work of the turbine if the turbine is (A) reversible, and (B) irreversible with an efficiency of 82%. ANSWER: (A) 286 kJ/kg, (B) 234.5 kJ/kg. 5. A carbon dioxide stream at 500ºC and 500 kPa with mass flow rate of 0.2 kg/s enters an adiabatic turbine. The gas leaves the turbine at 100 kPa. Determine the work of the turbine if the turbine is (A) reversible, and (B) irreversible with an efficiency of 80%. ANSWER: (A) 197.2 kJ/kg, (B) 161.7 kJ/kg. 6. A helium stream at 500ºC and 500 kPa with mass flow rate of 0.2 kg/s enters an adiabatic turbine. The gas leaves the turbine at 100 kPa. Determine the work of the turbine if the turbine is (A) reversible, and (B) irreversible with an efficiency of 80%. ANSWER: (A) 1904 kJ/kg, (B) 1561 kJ/kg. 7. A helium stream at 1000ºF and 100 psia with mass flow rate of 0.2 lbm/s enters an adiabatic turbine. The gas leaves the turbine at 14.7 psia. Determine the specific work of the turbine if the turbine is (A) reversible, and (B) irreversible with an efficiency of 80%. ANSWER: (A) 968.5 Btu/lbm, (B) 774.8 Btu/lbm. 8. An air stream at 1000ºF and 100 psia with mass flow rate of 0.2 lbm/s enters an adiabatic turbine. The gas leaves the turbine at 14.7 psia. Determine the specific

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work of the turbine if the turbine is (A) reversible, and (B) irreversible with an efficiency of 80%. ANSWER: (A) 147.6 Btu/lbm, (B) 118.0 Btu/lbm.

**7.3. REVERSIBLE WORK OF A CLOSED SYSTEM
**

Consider a closed system undergoing a change of state from an initial state 1 at T1 and p1 to a final state 2 at T2 and p2 by means of a reversible process 1-2. This reversible process 1-2 is equivalent to a reversible change of state that takes place along two separate reversible processes 1-A and A-2. Process 1-A is a reversible adiabatic process and process A-2 is a reversible isothermal process. Heat is exchanged between the system and its environment at T0 and p0. The two separate reversible processes 1-A and A-2 can be arranged in two ways. In both arrangements, the process involves a reversible adiabatic expansion to a pressure pA and then reversible isothermal energy transfer that takes the system to state 2 at pressure p2. The pressure pA may be either less than p2 or larger than p2. The total reversible work produced by the system between the initial state 1 to the final state 2, W12, is the sum of the reversible work produced by the two separate reversible processes 1-A and A-2. According to the First law, we have (7.3.1) W1A=E1-EA+Q1A=E1-EA WA2=EA-E2+QA2=EA-E2-To(S1-S2) and W12=W1A+WA2=E1-E2-To(S1-S2) Neglecting kinetic energy and potential energy, Eq. (7.4.3) becomes W12=U1-U2-To(S1-S2) The reversible work per unit mass is w12=u1-u2-To(s1-s2) (7.3.5) (7.3.4) (7.3.3) (7.3.2)

Example 7.3.1.

Find the reversible work that can be obtained from 1 kg of air at 1573 K and 4000 kPa to 200 kPa. The air is contained in an isentropic cylinder and piston device. The environment temperature is at 300 K. To solve this problem by CyclePad, we take the following steps: 1. Build (A) Take a begin, an expansion device, and an end from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them.

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Chih Wu (B) Switch to analysis mode. 2. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) working fluids is air, (b) mass, pressure and temperature of the air at initial state 1 are 1 kg, 4000 kPa and 1573 K, (c) pressure of the air at the final state 2 is 200 kPa. (B) Assume the expansion device is adiabatic and isentropic. 3. Display results

Display the states and the expansion device results. The results are: u1=1128 kJ/kg,, s1=3.03 kJ/(K)kg, u2=479.1 kJ/kg, s2=3.03 kJ/(K)kg, and w12=648.4 kJ/kg. The reversible work of the air can also be calculated as w12=u1-u2-To(s1-s2)=1128-479.1-300(3.033.03)=648.9 kJ/kg.

Figure E7.3.1. Reversible work of a closed system

Example 7.3.2.

Find the specific reversible work that can be obtained from an initial state of air at 400 K and 530 kPa to a final state of 150 kPa and 300 K. The environment temperature is at 298 K. To solve this problem by CyclePad, we take the following steps: 1. Build (A) Take a begin, an expansion device, and an end from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them. (B) Switch to analysis mode. 2. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) working fluids is air, (b) mass, pressure and temperature of the air at initial state 1 are 1 kg, 530 kPa and 400 K, (c) pressure and temperature of the air at the final state 2 are 150 kPa and 300 K. 3. Display results

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Figure E7.3.2. Reversible work of a closed system

Display the states and the expansion device results. The results are: u1=286.7 kJ/kg,, s1=2.23 kJ/(K)kg, u2=215.0 kJ/kg, and s2=2.31 kJ/(K)kg. The reversible work of the air can be calculated as w12=u1-u2-To(s1-s2)=286.7-215-298(2.23-2.31)=95.54 kJ/kg.

**Homework 7.3. Reversible Work of a Closed System
**

1. Write the general mathematical expression of reversible work for a closed system undergoing a change of state 1-2. 2. Does reversible work of a closed system depend on the surroundings of the system? 3. Find the specific reversible work developed when air expands in a piston-cylinder assembly from an initial state of 500 kPa and 500 K to a final state of 200 kPa. Neglect changes in potential and kinetic energies, and assume the environment temperature is at 300 K. ANSWER: 82.54 kJ/kg. 4. Find the specific reversible work developed when carbon dioxide expands in a piston-cylinder assembly from an initial state of 500 kPa and 500 K to a final state of 200 kPa. Neglect changes in potential and kinetic energies, and assume the environment temperature is at 300 K. ANSWER: 60.63 kJ/kg. 5. Find the specific reversible work that can be obtained from an initial state of carbon dioxide at 500 K and 600 kPa to a final state of 200 kPa and 350 K. The environment temperature is at 300 K. ANSWER: 71.28 kJ. 6. Find the reversible work that can be obtained from 0.21 kg of helium at 1500 K and 3000 kPa to 200 kPa. The gas is contained in an isentropic cylinder and piston device. The environment temperature is at 300 K. ANSWER: 647.0 kJ. 7. Find the reversible work that can be obtained from 0.05 kg of air at 2000 K and 3000 kPa to 400 kPa. The gas is contained in an isentropic cylinder and piston device. The environment temperature is at 300 K. ANSWER: 31.37 kJ.

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Chih Wu 8. Find the reversible work that can be obtained from 0.05 kg of steam at 600 K and 600 kPa to 20 kPa. The gas is contained in an isentropic cylinder and piston device. The environment temperature is at 300 K. ANSWER: 42.74 kJ.

**7.4. REVERSIBLE WORK OF AN OPEN SYSTEM
**

An open system permits mass and energy interactions between the system and its surroundings. Assume kinetic energy and potential energy are negligible. From the first law, the reversible work done on the open system in a differential expression is δWrev=δQ-dU+hidmi-hedme (7.4.1)

Although the temperature may vary at different locations within the open system, heat is transferred only at locations where the open system and the environment are at the same temperature, thereby reversible heat interaction can be achieved. When reversible heat transfer is not feasible and there is a difference in temperature between the system and the environment, heat transfer can take place through a reversible heat engine or a reversible heat pump. The energy transfer as work from or to the Carnot heat engine or heat pump must be deducted from the reversible work of the system. The reversible heat interaction in a differential expression is δQo=TodSo (7.4.2)

Where To is the temperature of the environment, and dSo is the entropy change of the environment. From the Second law, the entropy change of the open system for reversible condition in a differential expression is dS=δQo/To-sidmi+sedme or the reversible heat interaction is δQo=To(dS+sidmi-sedme) (7.4.4) (7.4.3)

Substituting δQ into the First law, the reversible work done on the open system in a differential expression becomes δWrev=To(dS-sidmi+sedme)-dU+hidmi-hedme Rearranging terms, this equation can be rewritten as δWrev=-(he-Tose)dme+(hi-Tosi)dmi-d(U-ToS) (7.4.6) (7.4.5)

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Equation (7.4.6) gives the reversible work done on the open system as a function of the inlet (i) and exit (e) sections fluid properties, the initial (1) and final (2) states of the open system, and the temperature of the environment in a differential expression. If the properties are uniform at the inlet and exit sections, and within the system at any instant time, integration of Eq. (7.4.6) gives Wrev=-(he-Tose)me+(hi-Tosi)mi-m2(u2-Tos2)+m1(u1-Tos1) (7.4.7)

**Hemework 7.4. Reversible Work of an Open System
**

1. Write the general mathematical expression of reversible work for an open system undergoing a flow process. 2. Does reversible work of an open system depend on the surroundings of the system?

**7.5. REVERSIBLE WORK OF AN OPEN SYSTEM IN A STEADY-STATE FLOW PROCESS
**

Assuming kinetic energy and potential energy are negligible, properties are uniform at the inlet and exit sections, and for steady state and steady flow, m=m1=m2, s1=s2, and m1u1=m2u2. The reversible work in Eq. (7.4.7) is reduced to -Wrev=(he-Tose)m-(hi-Tosi)m (7.5.1)

The reversible work per unit mass of an open system in a steady-state flow process is -w=he-hi-To(se-si) (7.5.2)

Example 7.5.1.

An air stream at 310 K and 100 kPa with mass flow rate of 0.4167 kg/s enters an adiabatic compressor. The stream leaves the compressor at 380 K and 200 kPa. Determine the minimum work and power of the compressor. The environment temperature is at 293 K. To solve this problem by CyclePad, we take the following steps: 1. Build (A) Take a source, a compressor, and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. (B) Switch to analysis mode. 2. Analysis (A) Assume the compressor is adiabatic and reversible (with efficiency of 100%) in case (A), and the turbine is adiabatic and irreversible (with efficiency of 85%) in case (B).

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Chih Wu (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluids is air, (b) mass flow rate, pressure and temperature of the air at the inlet are 1 kg/s, 1000 kPa and 1000ºC, (c) pressure of the air at the exit is 100 kPa. 3. Display results

Figure E7.5.1. Reversible work of a compressor

Display the compressor results. The answers are: (A) reversible work=(hi-he)-To(sise)=(311.1- 381.3)-293(2.46-2.46)=-70.2 kJ/kg, and the minimum power is 0.4167(-70.2)=29.25 kW.

Example 7.5.2.

Steam with a mass flow rate of 0.1 lbm/s is expanded from 1000 psia and 1100ºR to 10 psia in an adiabatic turbine. The quality of the exit steam is measured at 85%. Determine the actual specific work and maximum possible specific work produced by the turbine. The environment temperature is at 520ºR.

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Figure E7.5.2. Reversible work of a turbine

To solve this problem by CyclePad, we take the following steps: 1. Build (A) Take a source, a turbine, and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. (B) Switch to analysis mode. 2. Analysis (A) Assume the turbine is adiabatic. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluids is water, (b) mass flow rate, pressure and temperature of the water at the inlet are 0.1 lbm/s, 1000 psia and 1100ºR, (c) pressure and quality of the water at the exit are 10 psia and 0.85. 3. Display results Display the compressor results. The answers are: (A) actual specific work=(hi-he)=284.9 Btu/lbm, and reversible work=(hi-he)-To(si-se)=(1281- 995.9)-520(1.48-1.56)=326.5 Btu/lbm.

**Homework 7.5. Reversible Work of an Open System in a Steady-State Flow Process
**

1. Write the general mathematical expression of reversible work for an open system in a steady-state steady flow process 1-2. 2. An air stream at 310 K and 100 kPa with mass flow rate of 0.1 kg/s enters an adiabatic compressor. The stream leaves the compressor at 400 K and 200 kPa. Determine thespecigic actual work and specific minimum work of the compressor. The environment temperature is at 298 K. ANSWER: -90.31 kJ/kg, -75.4 kJ/kg. 3. A carbon dioxide stream at 310 K and 100 kPa with mass flow rate of 0.1 kg/s enters an adiabatic compressor. The stream leaves the compressor at 400 K and 200 kPa.

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Chih Wu Determine thespecigic actual work and specific minimum work of the compressor. The environment temperature is at 298 K. ANSWER: -51.76 kJ/kg, -75.63 kJ/kg. 4. Steam with a mass flow rate of 0.5 lbm/s is expanded from 1000 psia and 1100ºR to 5 psia in an adiabatic turbine. The quality of the exit steam is measured at 85%. Determine the actual specific work and maximum possible specific work produced by the turbine. The environment temperature is at 520ºR. ANSWER: 300.2 Btu/lbm, 362.8 Btu/lbm. 5. Steam with a mass flow rate of 1 lbm/s is expanded from 1000 psia and 1200ºR to 10 psia in an adiabatic turbine. The quality of the exit steam is measured at 85%. Determine the actual specific work and maximum possible specific work produced by the turbine. The environment temperature is at 520ºR. ANSWER: 355.0 Btu/lbm, 365.5 Btu/lbm.

**7.6. IRREVERSIBILITY OF A CLOSED SYSTEM
**

Irreversible processes result in lost opportunity for developing work because maximum reversible work can be only produced if a system interacts reversibly with the environment. The actual work done on a system when it has the same change of state is always more than the idealized reversible work. Irreversibility are caused by friction, heat transfer through a finite temperature difference, free expansion, mixing, chemical reaction, etc. Irreversibility, I, is the difference between the idealized reversible and the actual work work for the same change of state so that I=Wrevt-Wact (7.6.1)

Consider a closed system undergoing a change of state from an initial state 1 with S1 and U1 to a final state 2 with S2 and U2 by means of a process 1-2. The system receives an amount of heat Q from the environment at To and perform an amount of work W. Neglecting the kinetic energy and potential energy, the First law is W=U1-U2+Q Substituting Eq. (7.4.4) into Eq. (7.6.1) and Eq. (7.6.2) gives I=To(S2-S1)-Q (7.6.3) (7.6.2)

If the system receives heat from its environment at temperature To, the entropy change of the environment, ∆So, is ∆So=-Q/To The irreversibility is I=To(S2-S1)+To(∆So)=To[(∆So)+(S2-S1)]=To(∆Suniverse) (7.6.3) (7.6.4)

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Since ∆Suniverse is non-negative, the irreversibility can not be negative. The irreversibility is zero for a reversible process and positive for an irreversible process. Irreversibility has several valuable interpretations. It is sometimes called “energy made unavailable” because it is the increase in unavailable energy caused by a process. It is also the decrease in available energy or the decrease in exergy, sometimes called exergy loss. Irreversibility has also been called degradation, because it is the amount of energy degraded from the valuable available form to the less valuable unavailable form.

Example 7.6.1.

A rigid tank contains 1.2 kg of air at 300 K and 100 kPa. The temperature of the gas is raised to 320 K by adding work from a paddle wheel. Determine the reversible work and the irreversibility of this process. The environment temperature is at 298 K. To solve this problem by CyclePad, we take the following steps: 1. Build (A) Take a begin, a heating device, and an end from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them. (B) Switch to analysis mode. 2. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) working fluids is air, (b) mass, pressure and temperature of the air at initial state 1 are 1.2 kg, 100 kPa and 300 K, (c) volume and temperature of the air at the final state 2 are 0.8601 m3/kg and 320 K. 3. Display results Display the states and the results. The results are: U1=258 kJ/kg,, S1=2.91 kJ/(K), U2=275.2 kJ/kg, and S2=2.96 kJ/(K)kg. The reversible work of the air can be calculated as Wrev=U1-U2-To(S1-S2)=258-275.2-298(2.91-2.96)=-2.3 kJ. The actual work is Wact=U1-U2Q=258-275.2-0=-17.2 kJ. The irreversibility is I=Wrev-Wact=-2.3-(-17.2)=14.9 kJ.

Figure E7.6.1. Irreversibility of a closed system

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Chih Wu

**Homework 7.6. Irreversibility of a Closed System
**

1. What is the difference between the reversible work and the actual work for the same change of state? 2. Can irreversibility be negative? 3. A rigid tank contains 1 kg of helium at 300 K and 100 kPa. The temperature of the gas is raised to 320 K by adding work from a paddle wheel. Determine the specific reversible work and the specific irreversibility of this process. The environment temperature is at 298 K. ANSWER: -124 kJ/kg, -2.4 kJ/kg.

**7.7. IRREVERSIBILITY OF AN OPEN SYSTEM
**

An open system permits mass and energy interactions between the system and its surroundings. Assume kinetic energy and potential energy are negligible. In a similar way, an expression in an open system can be derived. The irreversibility of an open system is I=To[(S2-S1)+simi-seme]-Q (7.7.1)

Assuming kinetic energy and potential energy are negligible, properties are uniform at the inlet and exit sections, and for steady state and steady flow, m=m1=m2, and s1=s2. The irreversibility in Eq. (7.7.1) is reduced to I=To[seme-simi]-Q =To[(∆Ssystem)+(∆Senvironment)]=To(∆Suniverse) The rate of irreversibility of the system is Idot=To[semdote-simdoti]-Qdot (7.7.3) (7.7.2)

It is seen from Eq. (7.6.3) and Eq. (7.7.2) that the same expression for irreversibility applied to both closed system and open system.

Example 7.7.1.

A helium stream at 200ºC and 500 kPa with mass flow rate of 0.6 kg/s enters a steadystate steady-flow turbine. The stream leaves the turbine at 50ºC and 100 kPa. The turbine delivers a power of 100 kW. Determine the rate of the heat transfer and the rate of irreversibility of the process. The environment temperature is at 290 K. To solve this problem by CyclePad, we take the following steps: 1. Build (A) Take a source, a turbine, and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them.

63)-(-365. 3.3 kW. (c) pressure and temperature of the air at the exit are 100 kPa and 50ºC. (b) mass flow rate.2.6 kg/s. The environment temperature is at 298 K. A hot water stream at 135ºC and 100 kPa with mass flow rate of 0. . Irreversibility of a turbine Display the turbine results.06 kg/s enters an adiabatic steady-state steady-flow heat exchanger and leaves the heat exchanger at 80ºC and 100 kPa. The answers are: (A) rate of heat transfer=-365.6)(6.1. pressure and temperature of the air at the inlet are 0. Display results Figure E7.9 kW.Exergy and Irreversibility 241 (B) Switch to analysis mode. 2.7.0-4.7. 500 kPa and 200ºC.9)=604. and rate of irreversibility=Idot=To[semdote-simdoti]-Qdot=290(0. Determine the rate of irreversibility of the process. and (d) shaft power=100 kW. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) working fluids is helium. Example 7. A cold water stream at 25ºC and 100 kPa enters the heat exchanger and leaves the heat exchanger turbine at 105ºC and 100 kPa.

3669)+0.0561(7. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) working fluids are water. (d) pressure and temperature of the cold water stream at the inlet are 100 kPa and 25ºC.0561 kg/s.06(7.906 kW.08)]-[0. (c) pressure and temperature of the hot water stream at the exit are 100 kPa and 80ºC. and rate of irreversibility= Idot=To[semdote-simdoti]-Qdot=298{[(0. The answers are: (A) mass rate flow of cold water stream=0. The environment temperature is at 298 K.0561(0.3. pressure and temperature of the hot water stream at the inlet are 0. To solve this problem by CyclePad. and (e) pressure and temperature of the cold water stream at the exit are 100 kPa and 105ºC. 3. 2.54)]-0=1.01 kg/s enters an adiabatic steady-state steady-flow expansion valve and leaves at 100 kPa. Build (A) Take two sources. Display results Display the results. we take the following steps: .7. Determine the rate of irreversibility of the process.06 kg/s. we take the following steps: 1.7. (B) Switch to analysis mode.39) +0. Saturated liquid ammonia at 200 kPa with mass flow rate of 0.06(1. 100 kPa and 135ºC. Example 7. (b) mass flow rate. a heat exchanger. Irreversibility of a heat exchanger To solve this problem by CyclePad.242 Chih Wu Figure E7.2. and two sinks from the open-system inventory shop and connect them.

4. A carbon dioxide stream at 150ºC and 400 kPa with mass flow rate of 0. (B) Switch to analysis mode. 2. (c) pressure of the ammonia at the exit is 100 kPa. Build (A) Take a source.02593 kW. The stream leaves the turbine at 60ºC and 100 kPa. a valve. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is ammonia.01 kg/s.7. A hot water stream at 135ºC and 150 kPa with mass flow rate of 0. pressure and quality of ammonia at the inlet are 0. Determine the rate of the heat transfer and the rate of irreversibility of the process. The environment temperature is at 283 K. 3. -17.809 kW.01(0.7. Irreversibility of an Open System 1. The stream leaves the turbine at 60ºC and 100 kPa.Exergy and Irreversibility 243 1. 3. Irreversibility of a valve Homework 7.1 kg/s enters an adiabatic steady-state steady-flow heat exchanger and leaves the heat exchanger turbine at 70ºC and 150 kPa. A cold water stream at 30ºC and 150 kPa enters the heat . Determine the rate of the heat transfer and the rate of irreversibility of the process.99 kW. The environment temperature is at 283 K.18 kW.3789 kW.The turbine delivers a power of 45 kW.6 kg/s enters a steadystate steady-flow turbine. ANSWER: -0. 200 kPa and 0. Figure E7.3858)=0.3945 kJ/[K(kg)]. Display results se=0.39450.3945 kJ/[K(kg)] and si=0.6 kg/s enters a steady-state steady-flow turbine.The turbine delivers a power of 45 kW. ANSWER: -9. and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them.3. An air stream at 150ºC and 400 kPa with mass flow rate of 0. (b) mass flow rate. -9. The answers is: rate of irreversibility=Idot=To[semdote-simdoti]-Qdot=298(0. Does the expression for irreversibility for a closed system different from that of an open system? 2.

The surroundings is everything outside the system boundary. the value of exergy depends on the state of the system and the state of the environment.008 Btu/s. The atmosphere is so large in comparison with the system that its pressure and temperature are not changed by any change of the state of the system. Saturated liquid ammonia at 30 psia with mass flow rate of 0. Saturated liquid R-22 at 40 psia with mass flow rate of 0.0225 Btu/s. ANSWER: -26. The environment temperature is at 298 K.7 psia. but the pressure and temperature of the atmosphere remain constant.3 kPa or 14. For almost all practical thermodynamic systems a part of the surroundings is the atmosphere. ANSWER: 0. Determine the rate of irreversibility of the process. 5. Determine the rate of irreversibility of the process. intensive properties of the other parts of the surroundings may vary. 6. The environment temperature is at 500ºR. 7. 8. Thus. The environment temperature is at 500ºR.007 Btu/s.7 psia) and temperature of 25ºC (77ºF) is usually chosen as the reference datum. ANSWER: 0.82 kW. The standard atmosphere at 1 atmospheric pressure (101. The amount of useful work of a system that is in equilibrium with the environment is zero and therefore the exergy of the system at this specified state is also zero.01 lbm/s enters an adiabatic steady-state steady-flow expansion valve and leaves at 14. the atmosphere is a part of the surroundings. In other words. Therefore.01 lbm/s enters an adiabatic steady-state steady-flow expansion valve and leaves at 14. and some energy is unavailable.7 psia. . Determine the rate of irreversibility of the process. The property is called exergy. Determine the rate of irreversibility of the process.01 lbm/s enters an adiabatic steady-state steady-flow expansion valve and leaves at 14.244 Chih Wu exchanger and leaves the heat exchanger turbine at 95ºC and 150 kPa. Exergy is synonymous with maximum useful work. ANSWER: 0. 7. The environment temperature is at 500ºR. which separate the system from its surroundings. ANSWER: 0.01 lbm/s enters an adiabatic steady-state steady-flow expansion valve and leaves at 14.011 Btu/s. Saturated liquid R-134a at 40 psia with mass flow rate of 0. Saturated liquid ammonia at 40 psia with mass flow rate of 0. The environment temperature is at 500ºR. EXERGY (AVAILABILITY) A system has been defined as either a fix mass or a fix region within prescribed boundaries.7 psia. available energy or availability. Exergy is the work potential of a system in a specified environment and represents the maximum amount of useful work that can be obtained as the system is brought to equilibrium with the environment. Determine the rate of irreversibility of the process. The effect of the potential energy and kinetic energy of the environment to exergy of a system are neglected. In this book we will limit exergy definition to the effect of environment pressure and temperature only. Some energy of the system at the state is available to us for the performance work.8. It is very desirable to have a property to enable us to determine the useful work potential of a given amount of energy of a thermodynamic system at a specified state.7 psia.

Exergy and Irreversibility 245 Homework 7. but no work will be produced.8.1.1) (7. the entropy change of the heat engine (∆Sengine). heat will be transferred because of the temperature difference.1. Heat Reservoir TH QH HEAT ENGINE W -Q0 Environment P0.Exergy of a heat reservoir The entropy change of the source (∆SH).2) .3) (7. and ∆So=Qo/To .9.9. Is exergy a measure of quantity alone.9. 2.9. EXERGY OF A HEAT RESERVOIR Consider a heat reservoir at temperature TH and its environment at temperature To as shown in Figure 7. V0 Figure 7. Heat (QH) is transferred from the heat reservoir to a heat engine. T0. What is exergy? Does exergy of a system depend on the environment temperature and pressure? Does energy of a system depend on the environment temperature and pressure? Energy is a measure of quantity. Exergy (Availability) 1. and the entropy change of the environment (∆So) are ∆SH=-QH/TH . U0. or both quantity and quality? 7. and heat (Qo) is transferred from the heat engine to the environment from the heat engine. S0. If the heat reservoir is simply brought into thermal contact with the environment. ∆Sengine=0 . 4. (7.9. Both the reservoir and the environment are large enough so that their temperatures do not change with heat transfer QH and Qo.9. Work can be obtained by place a heat engine between the heat reservoir acting as a heat source and the environment acting as a heat sink. 3.

9) (7.9.9.9.9.9. Note that work can always be produced when there is a difference in temperature between the source and the environment. Note that exergy of a heat reservoir at a high temperature is superior to exergy of a heat reservoir at a low temperature with the same ambient condition. a finite source undergoes processes before it finally reaches mutual equilibrium with the environment.8) (7.4) From the First law of thermodynamics. For the situation in which the heat source is not infinite. At this state. for irreversible case and ∆SU=∆SH+∆Sengine+∆So=0. (7. the work produced by the heat engine (W) is W=QH-Qo. This state is called dead state. and the value of exergy is zero. Then the differential change of the exergy of the source is dΦ=δQH(1-To/TH). In performing work. Therefore W=QH(1-To/TH).9. Thus exergy is a property of the systemenvironment combination and not of the system alone. for reversible case and W<QH(1-To/TH). Φ is therefore Φ=QH(1-To/TH). for irreversible case The maximum possible useful work which is exergy. and dΦ is an exact differential which is an extensive property.246 Chih Wu From the Second law of thermodynamics.6) for this situation. the total entropy change of the universe (∆SU) is ∆SU=∆SH+∆Sengine+∆So>0.9. the source is incapable of producing any further work. its temperature will change and TH must be considered as an instantaneous value.7) (7. .10) where δQH is an inexact differential which is related to a process. for reversible case (7.5) (7. (7.

9. Is exergy a state property? Is exergy a variable at a specified state? 2.1. Energy and entropy are properties of the system alone. Exergy of a Heat Reservoir 1. Are the exergies of the two wells the same at different ambient temperature? 18.Exergy and Irreversibility 247 Example 7. Consider two geothermal wells whose energy contents are the same. what is the work? Is this process a reversible one? What is the entropy change of the universe? 4. Can the exergy value of a heat sink be negative? 16. Homework 7.9. E=mc2. (B) Φ=9000[1-(17+273)/(167+273)]=3068 kJ. Does exergy represent the amount of work that a real work-producing device delivers? 11. Is exergy of a heat reservoir different in different environments? 17. What is a dead state? 8. If heat is transferred across a finite temperature difference directly from a heat source at TH to an environment at To without operating a heat engine. (A) What is the initial exergy of the geothermal well? (B) What is the exergy of the geothermal well one year later if the well temperature is dropped to 167ºC with the heat input to the heat engine dropped to 9000 kJ? (C) What is the exergy of the geothermal well two years later if the well temperature is dropped to 157ºC with the heat input to the heat engine dropped to 7000 kJ? Solution: Equation (7. A dry geothermal well (hot rock) at 177ºC is discovered.9. What is the heat interaction of a system at dead state with its surroundings? 9. Can the exergy value of a heat source be negative? 15. What is the exergy of a system at equilibrium with its surroundings? 10.9) gives (A) Φ=10000[1-(17+273)/(177+273)]=3556 kJ. 19. Does exergy of a finitely thermal system change? Why? 7. Can the exergy of a system with mass ever be zero? . Does energy of an infinitely large heat reservoir change? Why? 5. The heat input to the heat engine is 10000 kJ. Does exergy of a system depend on the temperature of the environment? 14. Does exergy equal to the amount of work that a real work-producing device delivers? 12. (C) Φ=7000[1-(17+273)/(157+273)]=2279 kJ. Can the energy of a system with mass ever be zero? Hint: According to Einstein. Water is injected into the well to produce steam which drives a heat engine. Does exergy of an infinitely large heat reservoir change? Why? 6. Does exergy of a system change when the state of the system changes? 3. where c is the speed of light. Is exergy a property of the system alone? 13. The local surrounding air temperature is at 17ºC.

Notice that exergy is not a property of the system alone.10.10.248 Chih Wu 7. (7.7) . wuseful reversible=φ1-φ0 (7. (7.4) Wuseful reversible= Φ1=(U1+poV1-To S1)-(U0+poV0-To S0) Define Φ=(U+poV-To S)-(U0+poV0-To S0).6.10. The specific exergy change of a closed system during a process 1-2 is the difference between the final and initial specific exergies of the system.4) becomes Wuseful reversible= Φ1. the maximum useful work that can be performed by the system indicates the energy availability of the system is Wreversible=E1-E0-To(S1-S0)=U1-U0-To(S1-S0) (7. From Eq.6) Exergy is a property which can be viewed as the useful work potential of an amount of energy at a specified state. its value depends on po and To as well as on the properties of the system.5) (7. It is a composite property that depends on the state of both the system and the environment.1. and volume V1 with its environment at temperature To and pressure at po as shown in Figure 7.3) (7.10.1) The useful reversible work of the system is the reversible work minus the work interaction with the environment as the system expands or contracts.10.10. EXERGY AND EXERGY CHANGE OF A CLOSED SYSTEM Consider a closed system at state 1 with temperature T1. internal energy U1. ∆φ=φ2-φ1=(u2+pov2-To s2).3. Then Eq.2) The useful reversible work per unit mass is equal to the specific change of exergy.4).(u1+pov1-To s1) (7.10.2) and rearranging gives (7.10. Wuseful reversible=Wreversible-Wenvironment The work interaction with the environment at a pressure po is Wenvironment=-po(V1-V0) Substituting Wreversible and Wenvironment into Eq.10. entropy S1.10.Φ0 (7. (7. Φ is called the exergy or availability for a closed system.

87)-298(3. T1.1.10.42)]=344. V1 W Environment 249 QH HEAT ENGINE W -Q0 Environment P0.10. and (b) temperature and pressure are 298 K and 100 kPa at state 2 (environment).8543 m3/kg. pressure and temperature of the air at state 1 are 1 kg. V0 P1. v1=2. 3.10. S0. v2=0.87 m3/kg.7+100(2. Build (A) Take two begins and two ends from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them as shown in Figure E7. What is the specific exergy of of air at 1000 K and 100 kPa? The ambient state is at 298 K and 100 kPa. s1=3. S1. (B) Switch to analysis mode.6+100(0.1 kJ/kg.63)]-[213. 2. and s2=2.6 kJ/kg. T0. Display results Display the states and the results. we take the following steps: 1.7 kJ/kg.Exergy and Irreversibility Environment P0. 100 kPa and 1000 K.1. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is air. T0.1.63 kJ/(K)kg. mass. U0.8543)-290 (2. u2=213. State 2 is the ambient state.42 kJ/(K)kg. The specific exergy of the air at the state is φ1=(u1+pov1-Tos1)-(u0+pov0-Tos0)=[716. To solve this problem by CyclePad. The results are: u1=716. U0. . U1. V0 Figure 7.Exergy and exergy change of a closed system Example 7. S0.

02 kJ/(K)kg.9466 m3/kg and 200 kPa.5+100(0.01 kg of air at 330K.9 kJ/kg.473)-290(2. The results are: u1=236.8314 m3/kg. u2=473. v2=0. and s3=2. and an end from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them.10. A piston-cylinder device contains 0. Build (A) Take a begin. Find the specific exergy of the air at the initial state and at the final state. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) working fluids is air. and s2=3. u3=207. s1=2.10.9+100(0.8314)290(2.39)]=94. Display results 4. Take another begin and another end from the closedsystem inventory shop and connect them. The specific exergy of the air at the initial state and at the final state are: φ1=(u1+pov1-To s1)-(u0+pov0-Tos0)=[236. The surrounding air temperature and pressure are 290 K and 100 kPa. pressure and temperature of the air at initial state 1 are 0.3 kJ/kg. Exergy of a closed air system Example 7.1. we take the following steps: 1.5 kJ/kg. Display the states and the results. φ2=(u2+pov2-Tos2)-(u0+pov0-Tos0)=[473. (B) Switch to analysis mode. an expansion device.39 kJ/(K)kg.9466)-290(3.32 kJ/(K)kg.32)]-[207. The air is maintained at a constant pressure of 200 kPa. v3=0. .3+100(0.9+100(0.02)]-[207. State 3 is the environment state.3 kJ/kg. (c) volume and pressure of the air at the final state 2 are 0. Heat is added until the volume is doubled.250 Chih Wu Figure E7.2.8314)290(2.1 kJ/kg. (b) mass. v1=0. 200 kPa and 330 K. 2.01 kg. (d) temperature and pressure are 290 K and 100 kPa at state 3 (environment).39)]=13.9466 m3/kg.473 m3/kg. Find the specific exergy change and exergy change of the air. 3. To solve this problem by CyclePad.

5687 Btu/(ºR)lbm. 2. and 400 psia.16 kJ/kg. Display results Display the states and the results. Find the specific exergy change of the water. s1=0. Take another begin and another end from the closedsystem inventory shop and connect them. Build (A) Take a begin. State 3 is the environment state. v2=1.0193 ft3/lbm.6217 Btu/(ºR)lbm.473)-290(2. Exergy change of a closed air system Example 7. The surrounding air temperature and pressure are 520ºR and 14. 3.5+100(0.32)]=81. phase.8116 kJ. (c) temperature and pressure of the water at the final state 2 are 400 psia and 1000ºR.7 psia. and an end from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them.Exergy and Irreversibility The specific exergy change and exergy change of the air are: ∆φ=φ2-φ1=(u2+pov2-Tos2)-(u1+pov1-Tos1)=[473. The results are: u1=422.9466)-290(3. v1=0. A device contains 1 lbm of saturated water initially at 400 psia is heated to 400 psia and 1000ºR. an expansion device. v3=13. s2=1. (b) mass.7 Btu/lbm. Φ2-Φ1=m(∆φ)=0.2 Btu/lbm.3+100(0. (B) Switch to analysis mode.10.3. u2=1169 Btu/lbm.54 ft3/lbm. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) working fluids is water. we take the following steps: 1. The exergy change of the water is: . and s3=0.01(81.02)][236. quality and temperature of the air at initial state 1 are 1 lbm.56 Btu/(ºR)lbm. 251 Figure E7.16)=0. u3=89.2. To solve this problem by CyclePad. saturated.09 ft3/lbm. 0. (d) air temperature and pressure are 290 K and 100 kPa at state 3 (environment).10.

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∆φ=φ2-φ1=(u2+pov2-Tos2)-(u1+pov1-Tos1)=[1169+14.7(1.54)/5.404-520(1.56)][422.7+14.7(0.0193)/5.404-520(0.6217)]=262.5 Btu/lbm. Φ2- Φ1=m(∆φ)=1(262.5)=262.5 Btu/lbm. Note that the conversion factor from psia(ft3/lbm) to Btu/lbm is 5.404, i.e., 1 Btu=5.404 psia(ft3).

Figure E7.10.3. Exergy change of a closed water system

**Homework 7.10. Exergy and Exergy Change of a Closed System
**

1. 2. 3. 4. How does reversible work differ from reversible useful work? Under what condition does the reversible work equal reversible useful work? How do you relate exergy with reversible useful work? What is the specific exergy of of air at 1500 K and 200 kPa? The ambient state is at 298 K and 100 kPa. ANSWER: 567.8 kJ/kg. What is the specific exergy of of helium at 1200 K and 300 kPa? The ambient state is at 298 K and 100 kPa. ANSWER: 1289 kJ/kg. What is the specific exergy of of water at 600 K and 300 kPa? The ambient state is at 298 K and 100 kPa. ANSWER: 620.5 kJ/kg. What is the specific exergy of of water at 1000ºR and 50 psia? The ambient state is at 520ºR and 14.7 psia. ANSWER: 286.3 Btu/lbm. What is the specific exergy of of carbon dioxide at 1000ºR and 50 psia? The ambient state is at 520ºR and 14.7 psia. ANSWER: 24.99 Btu/lbm. A piston-cylinder device contains 0.02 kg of helium at 350K. The gas is maintained at a constant pressure of 300 kPa. Heat is added until the volume is doubled. The surrounding air temperature and pressure are 290 K and 100 kPa. Find the specific exergy change and exergy change of the gas.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

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ANSWER: 285.8 kJ/kg, 5.716 kJ. 10. A piston-cylinder device contains 0.02 kg of carbon dioxide at 350K. The gas is maintained at a constant pressure of 300 kPa. Heat is added until the volume is doubled. The surrounding air temperature and pressure are 290 K and 100 kPa. Find the specific exergy change and exergy change of the gas. ANSWER: 81.84 kJ/kg, 1.637 kJ. 11. A device contains 1 lbm of saturated water initially at 300 psia is heated to 400 psia and 1000ºR. The surrounding air temperature and pressure are 520ºR and 14.7 psia. Find the specific exergy change of the water. ANSWER: 498.3 Btu/lbm. 12. A device contains 1 lbm of helium initially at 300 psia is heated to 400 psia and 1000ºR. The surrounding air temperature and pressure are 520ºR and 14.7 psia. Find the specific exergy change of the helium. ANSWER: 4.768 Btu/lbm.

**7.11. EXERGY OF A FLOW STREAM AND FLOW EXERGY CHANGE OF AN OPEN SYSTEM
**

A flowing fluid has an additional form of energy called flow energy. Flow energy, pV, is defined in Chapter 1 as the energy required to push a volume V of a flowing stream substance through a surface section by a pressure p. Flow energy occurs only when there is mass flow stream into an open system or out from the open system. Similarly, assuming kinetic energy and potential energy are negligible, properties are uniform at a section of a flow stream, the useful reversible work of the flow stream is Wuseful reversible=(U+poV-To S)- (U0+poV0-To S0)+(p-po)V Where the term (p-po)V is the flow work and the work done against the environment. Under steady flow conditions, Equation (7.11.1) can be rearranged as Wuseful reversible=(H-Ho)-To(S-So) (7.11.2) (7.11.1)

The flow exergy of the fluid, Ψ, can be defined as Ψ=(E-Eo)-To(S-So)=(H-Ho)-To(S-So) The specific flow exergy change (∆ψ) of a fluid stream for an open system without work and heat transfer during a process i-e is the difference between the exit and inlet section specific exergies of the system. ∆ψ=ψe-ψi=(he-To se)- (hi-To si) The rate of exergy change of an open system can be written as ∆Ψdoti=mdote(he-To se)-mdoti(hi-To si) (7.11.4) (7.11.3)

To generalize to more than one inlet and more than one exit, the flow exergy change and rate of flow exergy change of an open system can be written as

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∆Ψ=Σ(H-ToS)e -Σ(H-ToS)i And ∆Ψdoti=Σ mdote(he-To se)-Σ mdoti(hi-To si)

(7.11.5)

(7.11.6)

Example 7.11.1.

An air stream at 1100 K and 500 kPa with mass flow rate of 0.5 kg/s enters a steady-state steady-flow turbine. The stream leaves the turbine at 500 K and 120 kPa. The environment temperature and pressure are 290 K and 100 kPa. Find the specific flow exergy of the air at the inlet state and at the exit state. Find the specific flow exergy change and flow exergy change of the air stream. To solve this problem by CyclePad, we take the following steps: 1. Build (A) Take a source, a turbine, and a sink from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. Take another source and another sink from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them. State 3 is the environment state. (B) Switch to analysis mode. 2. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) working fluids is air, (b) mass flow rate, pressure and temperature of the air at the inlet are 0.5 kg/s, 500 kPa and 1100 K, (c) pressure and temperature of the air at the exit are 120 kPa and 500 K, and (d) air temperature and pressure are 290 K and 100 kPa at state 3 (environment). 3. Display results Display the turbine results. The results are: h1=1104 kJ/kg, v1=0.6307 m3/kg, s1=3.26 kJ/(K)kg, h2=501.7 kJ/kg, v2=1.19 m3/kg, and s2=2.88 kJ/(K)kg, h3=291.0 kJ/kg, v3=0.8314 m3/kg, and s3=2.39 kJ/(K)kg. The specific flow exergy of the air at the inlet state and at the exit state are: ψ1=(h1-To s1)-(h0-To s0)=[(1104-291)-290(3.26-2.39)]=560.7 kJ/kg. ψ2=(h2-To s2)-(h0-To s0)=[(501.7-291.0)-290(2.88-2.39)]=68.5 kJ/kg. The specific flow exergy change and flow exergy rate change of the air are: ∆ψ=ψ2-ψ1=68.5-560.7=-492.1 kJ/kg. Ψ2-Ψ1=m(∆ψ)=0.5(-492.1)=-246.1kW.

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Figure E7.11.1. Flow exergy change of a turbine

Example 7.11.2.

A hot water stream at 500 K and 200 kPa with mass flow rate of 0.05 kg/s enters a steady-state steady-flow heat exchanger and leaves the heat exchanger turbine at 400 K and 200 kPa. A cold water stream at 300 K and 200 kPa enters the heat exchanger and leaves the heat exchanger at 350 K and 200 kPa. Determine the rate of flow exergy change of the heat exchanger. The environment temperature and pressure are at 298 K and 100 kPa. To solve this problem by CyclePad, we take the following steps: 1. Build (A) Take two sources, a heat exchanger, and two sinks from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. Take another source and another sink from the closed-system inventory shop and connect them. State 5 is the environment state. (B) Switch to analysis mode. 2. Analysis (A) Input the given information: (a) working fluids are water, (b) mass flow rate, pressure and temperature of the hot water stream at the inlet are 0.05 kg/s, 200 kPa and 500 K, (c) pressure and temperature of the hot water stream at the exit are 200 kPa and 400 K, (d) pressure and temperature of the cold water stream at the inlet are 200 kPa and 300 K, and (e) pressure and temperature of the cold water stream at the exit are 200 kPa and 350 K. 3. Display results (A) mass rate flow of cold water stream=0.0486 kg/s=mdot3, h1=2924 kJ/kg,, s1=7.62 kJ/(K)kg, h2=2720 kJ/kg, s2=7.16 kJ/(K)kg, h3=112.7 kJ/kg, s3=0.3926 kJ/(K)kg, h4=321.8 kJ/kg, and s3=1.04 kJ/(K)kg. The rate of flow exergy change=Σ[mdot(h-Tos)]e-Σ[mdot(h-Tos)]i={0.05[2720298(7.16)]+0.0486[321.8-298(1.04)]}-{0.05[2924-298(7.62)]+0.0486[112.7-298(0.3926)]}=2.554 kW.

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Figure E7.11.2. Rate of flow exergy change of a heat exchanger

**Homework 7.11. Exergy and Rate of Flow Exergy Change of an Open System
**

1. Write the expression for the useful reversible work of a flow stream of an open system? 2. Why the useful reversible work for an open system is different from that for a closed system? 3. Write the expression for the rate of exergy change of an open system with more than one inlet and more than one exit. 4. A helium stream at 1100 K and 500 kPa with mass flow rate of 0.05 kg/s enters a steady-state steady-flow turbine. The stream leaves the turbine at 500 K and 120 kPa. The environment temperature and pressure are 290 K and 100 kPa. Find the specific flow exergy of the helium at the inlet state and at the exit state. Find the specific flow exergy change and flow exergy change of the helium stream. ANSWER: 3162 kJ/kg, 379.4 kJ/kg, -2783 kW. 5. A carbon dioxide stream at 1100 K and 500 kPa with mass flow rate of 0.05 kg/s enters a steady-state steady-flow turbine. The stream leaves the turbine at 500 K and 120 kPa. The environment temperature and pressure are 290 K and 100 kPa. Find the specific flow exergy change of the stream. ANSWER: -159.0 kJ/kg. 6. An air stream at 1100 K and 500 kPa with mass flow rate of 0.05 kg/s enters a steady-state steady-flow turbine. The stream leaves the turbine at 500 K and 120 kPa. The environment temperature and pressure are 290 K and 100 kPa. Find the specific flow exergy change of the stream. ANSWER: -201.4 kJ/kg. 7. A hot water stream at 550 K and 150 kPa with mass flow rate of 0.03 kg/s enters a steady-state steady-flow heat exchanger and leaves the heat exchanger turbine at 450

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K and 100 kPa. A cold water stream at 300 K and 200 kPa enters the heat exchanger and leaves the heat exchanger at 350 K and 200 kPa. Determine the rate of flow exergy change of the heat exchanger. The environment temperature and pressure are at 298 K and 100 kPa. ANSWER: -3.309 kW. 8. A hot helium stream at 550 K and 150 kPa with mass flow rate of 0.03 kg/s enters a steady-state steady-flow heat exchanger and leaves the heat exchanger turbine at 450 K and 100 kPa. A cold helium stream at 300 K and 200 kPa enters the heat exchanger and leaves the heat exchanger at 350 K and 200 kPa. Determine the rate of flow exergy change of the heat exchanger. The environment temperature and pressure are at 298 K and 100 kPa. ANSWER: -9.087 kW.

**7.12. THE DECREASE OF EXERGY PRINCIPLE
**

Let us consider a thermodynamic isolated system with its surroundings at temperature To. The isolated system has neither mass nor energy interaction with its surroundings. That is, mi=0, me=0, Ei=0, Ee=0, Q=0, and W=0, where mi is the mass flow into the system, me is the mass flow out from the system, Ei is the energy flow with mass into the system, me is the energy flow with mass out from the system, Q is the microscopic energy flow without mass into the system, and W is the macroscopic energy flow without mass into the system. The mass balance of the system is the conservation of mass principle, which indicates that mass cannot be created nor destroyed. The mass balance of the isolated system is m2-m1=mi-me=0 (7.12.1)

Where m1 is the initial amount mass of the system and m2 is the final amount mass of the system. The First law of thermodynamics is the conservation of energy principle, which indicates that energy cannot be created nor destroyed. The energy balance of the isolated system is (7.12.2) E2-E1=Q-W+Ei-Ee=0 Where E1 is the initial amount energy of the system and E2 is the final amount energy of the system. According to the second law of thermodynamics, the entropy generated by the system due to internal irreversibility is Sgen=S2-S1>0 (7.12.3)

Where S1 is the initial amount entropy of the system and S2 is the final amount entropy of the system. Multiplying Eq. (7.12.3) by the surroundings at temperature To, and subtracting it from Eq. (7.12.2) yields -ToSgen=E2-E1-To(S2-S1)<0 (7.12.4)

258 Rearranging Eq. (7.12.4) gives -ToSgen=Φ2-Φ1<0

Chih Wu

(7.12.5)

Since the absolute temperature is always positive, we conclude that the exergy of an isolated system during a process always decreases due to irreversibility. In the limiting case of a reversible process, the exergy of the isolated system remains the same. Φ2- Φ1<0 for irreversible process and Φ2- Φ1=0 for reversible process or (∆Φ)isolated system<0 for irreversible process and (∆Φ)isolated system=0 for reversible process (7.12.6b) (7.12.6a) (7.12.5b) (7.12.5a)

where ∆Φ=Φ2-Φ1. Equation (7.12.6a) and Equation (7.12.6b) are known as the decrease of exergy principle. For an isolated system, the decrease in exergy equals exergy destroyed. The exergy destroyed ( Φdestroyed) of a system is proportional to to the entropy generated of the system due to irreversibility such as friction, free expansion, chemical reactions, mixing, etc. Φdestroyed=ToSgen (7.12.7)

The exergy destroyed ( Φdestroyed) of a system is a non-negative quantity. The exergy destroyed is positive for an irreversible process and zero for a reversible process. The exergy destroyed is also called the irreversibility. Equation (7.12.7) is applied to both isolated system and non-isolated system. Consider the universe is an isolated system. The exergy of the universe is therefore continuously decreasing until the exergy of the universe reaches its minimum value. At its minimum exergy value, the universe becomes complete equilibrium, i.e., there is no more activity within the universe. Note that the exergy change of a system can be positive or negative just like that the entropy change of a system can be positive or negative during a process. When heat is removed from a non-isolated system to its surroundings, entropy of the system is decreased and the exergy of the system is increased.

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**Homework 7.12. The Decrease of Exergy Principle
**

1. Consider a reversible adiabatic process during which no entropy is generated. Does exergy destruction for this process be zero? 2. Consider an irreversible non-adiabatic process during which no entropy is generated. Does exergy destruction for this process be zero? 3. What is the decrease of exergy principle?4. Consider a process during which no entropy is generated for a non-isolated system. Does the exergy destruction for the process have to be equal to zero? 4. Energy is guided and balance by the first law of thermodynamics for all processes. Is exergy guided and balance by the first law of thermodynamics for all processes? 5. Energy is guided and balance by the first law of thermodynamics for all processes. Is exergy guided and balance by the first law of thermodynamics for all processes? 6. Is exergy balance for reversible processes? 7. Is exergy balance for irreversible processes? 8. Does exergy destroy partly or completely in an irreversible processes? 9. Consider a process during which no entropy is generated for an isolated system. Is the exergy destruction for the process zero? ANSWER: 15ºC, 2245ºC, 45.76%, 88.55%, 51.68%.

**7.13. EXERGY EFFECTIVENESS OF DEVICES
**

With the increased use of exergy analysis, a term called exergy effectiveness or simply effectiveness has been used for devices such as heaters, coolers, heat exchangers, etc. that do not involve the production or the input of work. Effectiveness refers to comparison of the desired output of a non-work device with the exergy input. It provides a measure of the real device in terms of the actual change of state. The effectiveness of a device, є, is defined as є=(output exergy transfer)/(input exergy transfer) (7.13.1) For example, in a steady flow steady state two-fluid heat exchanger a hot stream fluid is used to heat a cold stream fluid. Energy is transferred from the hot fluid to the cold fluid in the heat exchanger. Let the mass flow rate, exergy at the inlet, and exergy at the exit of the cold fluid in the heat exchanger be mdotc, ψci and ψco; and the mass flow rate, exergy at the inlet, and exergy at the exit of the hot fluid in the heat exchanger be mdoth, ψhi and ψho; The effectiveness of the heat exchanger can be defined as є=mdotc(ψco-ψci)/mdoth(ψhi-ψho) (7.13.2)

Example 7.13.1.

In a boiler, heat is transferred from the products of combustion to the steam. The temperature of the products of combustion decreases from 1400 K to 850 K while the pressure remains constant at 100 kPa. The water enters the boiler at 1000 kPa, 430 K and

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leaves at 1000 kPa, 530 K with a mass flow rate of 1 kg/s. Determine the effectiveness of the boiler. The ambient temperature and pressure are 298 K and 100 kPa. To solve this problem by CyclePad, we take the following steps: 1. Build (A) Take a heat exchanger, three sources and three sinks from the open-system inventory shop and connect them as shown in Figure E7.13.1. (B) Switch to analysis mode. 2. Analysis (A) Assume both hot-side and cold-side of the heat exchanger are isobaric. (B) Input the given information: (a) hot working fluids is air, (b) pressure and temperature at the hot-fluid inlet of the heat exchanger are 100 kPa and 1400 K (state 1), (c) temperature at the hot-fluid exit of the heat exchanger is 850 K (state 2); (d) cold working fluids is water, (e) mass flow rate, pressure and temperature at the coldfluid inlet of the heat exchanger are 1 kg/s, 1000 kPa and 430 K (state 3), (f) temperature at the cold-fluid exit of the heat exchanger is 530 K (state 4); (g) air ambient condition is 100 kPa and 298 K (state 5), and (h) water ambient condition is 100 kPa and 298 K (state 6). 3. Display results (A) Display the results: mdot1=4.15 kg/s, h1=1405 kJ/kg, T1=1400 K, s1=3.97 kJ/kg (K); h2=852.9 kJ/kg, T2=850 K, s2=3.47 kJ/kg (K); h3=665.2 kJ/kg, T3=430 K, s3=1.86 kJ/kg (K); h4=2957 kJ/kg, T4=530 K, s4=6.95 kJ/kg (K); h5=299 kJ/kg, s5=2.42 kJ/kg (K); and h6=64.2 kJ/kg, s6=0.3648 kJ/kg (K). (B) calculation gives ψ4-ψ3=h4-h3-T0(s4-s3)=775.0 kJ/kg; and ψ1-ψ2=h1-h2-T0(s1s2)=403.1 kJ/kg. The answer is є=(1)775.0/[4.15(403.1)]=0.4633.

Figure E7.13.1. Exergy effectiveness of a heat exchanger

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**Homework 7.13. Exergy Effectiveness of Devices
**

1. How do you define the exergy effectiveness of a mixing chamber? Write the expression. 2. In a boiler, heat is transferred from the products of combustion to the steam. The temperature of the products of combustion decreases from 1400 K to 850 K while the pressure remains constant at 100 kPa. The water enters the boiler at 1500 kPa, 430 K and leaves at 1500 kPa, 530 K with a mass flow rate of 1 kg/s. Determine the mass flow rate of the products of combustion and the effectiveness of the boiler. The ambient temperature and pressure are 298 K and 100 kPa. ANSWER: 4.12 kg/s, 0.4996. 3. In a heat exchanger, heat is transferred from helium to the steam. The temperature of the helium decreases from 1400 K to 850 K while the pressure remains constant at 100 kPa. The water enters the heat exchanger at 1500 kPa, 430 K and leaves at 1500 kPa, 530 K with a mass flow rate of 1 kg/s. Determine the mass flow rate of the helium and the effectiveness of the heat exchanger. The ambient temperature and pressure are 298 K and 100 kPa. ANSWER: 0.8049 kg/s, 0.4631.

**7.14. EXERGY CYCLE EFFICIENCY
**

Let us define an exergy cycle efficiency, ηex. The exergy cycle efficiency can be expressed as the ratio of desirable exergy transfer output and the required input energy of the cycle, i.e. (7.14.1) ηex=(desirable exergy transfer output)/(required input energy) The objective of a heat engine is to produce net work. To accomplish this objective, heat is added. The exergy cycle efficiency of the heat engine is ηex=(exergy transfer of net work)/(heat input) (7.14.2)

The objective of a refrigerator is to remove heat from a cold space. To accomplish this objective, work is added. The exergy cycle efficiency of the refrigerator is ηex=(exergy transfer of heat removed)/(work input) (7.14.3)

Similarly, the objective of a heat pump is to add heat to a hot space. To accomplish this objective, work is added. The exergy cycle efficiency of the refrigerator is ηex=(exergy transfer of heat added)/(work input) (7.14.4)

The exergy cycle efficiency is conceptually different from the cycle efficiency and COP. The exergy cycle efficiency can be used to see whether a realistic cycle is well design or not. The criterion of excellence should not be “What we achieved divided by what we supplied.” This would be the first law cycle efficiency or coefficient of performance. The criterion

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Chih Wu

should be “To what extent did we utilize the available energy?” That can be measured by either the second law efficiency or the exergy cycle efficiency. The exergy cycle efficiency provides a rating or measure of the real cycle and is another convenient way of utilizing the concept of exergy. Note that although ideal cycles are internally reversible, they are not totally reversible because of heat interaction with the surroundings across a finite temperature difference. These external irreversibilities reduce the performance of ideal cycles below comparable reversible Carnot cycles operating between the same temperature limits.

Example 7.14.1.

Consider a refrigerator using R-12 as working fluid. It posses an evaporator temperature of 263 K and a condenser temperature of 313 K. The mass flow rate of the refrigerant is 0.01 kg/s. The surroundings temperature is 298 K. Determine the COP. Calculate the second law cycle efficiency and the exergy cycle efficiency of the refrigerator. To solve this problem by CyclePad, we take the following steps: 1. Build (A) Take a heater, a compressor, a cooler, and a throttling valve from the opensystem inventory shop and connect them. (B) Switch to analysis mode. 2. Analysis (A) Assume the heater is isobaric, compressor is adiabatic and 100% efficiency, and cooler is isobaric. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluids is R-12, (b) mass flow rate, quality and temperature at the inlet of the compressor are 0.01 kg/s, 1and 263 K, (c) quality and temperature at the exit of the cooler are 0 and 313 K. 3. Display results Display the results: h1=183.1kJ/kg, T1=263 K, s1=0.7020 kJ/kg (K); h2=209.0 kJ/kg, T2=320.7 K, s2=0.7020 kJ/kg (K); h3=7444 kJ/kg, T3=313 K, s3=0.2713 kJ/kg (K); h4=74.44 kJ/kg, T4=263 K, s4=0.2888 kJ/kg (K);Tmax=320.7 K,Tmin=263 K, and COP=4.20. Then, wc=h2-h1=-25.9 kJ/kg, ψ1-ψ4=h1-h4-T0(s1-s4)=-14.5 kJ/kg; and COPcarnot=263/(320.7263)=4.558. and ηex=(ψ1The answers are COP=4.20, ηII=4.20/4.558=0.9214, ψ4)/wc=14.5/25.9=0.5598.

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Figure E7.14.1. Exergy cycle efficiency of refrigerator

Example 7.14.2.

Superheated steam at 10 Mpa and 770 K enters the turbine of a Rankine steam power plant operating at steady state and expands to a condenser pressure of 50 kPa. Assume the efficiencies of the turbine and pump are 100%. The mass flow rate of the steam is 1 kg/s. The surroundings temperature is 298 K. Determine the cycle efficiency, the second law cycle efficiency and the exergy cycle efficiency of the power plant. To solve this problem by CyclePad, we take the following steps: 1. Build (A) Take a heater, a pump, a cooler, and a turbine from the open-system inventory shop and connect them. (B) Switch to analysis mode. 2. Analysis (A) Assume the heater is isobaric, cooler is isobaric, turbine is adiabatic and 100% efficiency, and pump is adiabatic and 100% efficiency. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluids is water, (b) mass flow rate, quality and pressure at the inlet of the pump are 1 kg/s, 0 and 50 kPa, (c) pressure and temperature at the exit of the heater are10000 kPa and 770 K. 3. Display results Display the results: h1=340.5 kJ/kg, T1=354.5 K, s1=1.09 kJ/kg (K); h2=350.8 kJ/kg, T2=355.1 K, s2=1.09 kJ/kg (K); h3=3366 kJ/kg, T3=770 K, s3=6.59 kJ/kg (K); h4=2289 kJ/kg, T4=354.5 K, s4=6.59 kJ/kg (K); net work=1067 kJ/kg, heat added=3015 kJ/kg, cycle efficiency=35.39%, and Carnot cycle efficiency=53.96%. Then, ψ2-ψ1=h2-h1-T0(s2-s1)=10.3 kJ/kg; ψ3-ψ4=h3-h4-T0(s3-s4)=1077 kJ/kg; and ∆ψnet =(ψ3-ψ4)-(ψ2-ψ1)=1077-10.3=1066.7

264 kJ/kg. The answers are ηex=1066.7/3015=0.3538. η=35.39%,

Chih Wu ηcarnot=53.96%, ηII=35.39/53.96=65.59%, and

Figure E7.14.2. Exergy cycle efficiency of Rankine cycle

Example 7.14.3.

Consider a heat pump using R-134a as working fluid. It posses an evaporator temperature of 268 K and a condenser pressure of 1000 kPa. The mass flow rate of the refrigerant is 1 kg/s. The surroundings temperature is 280 K. Determine the COP. Calculate the second law cycle efficiency and the exergy cycle efficiency of the heat pump. To solve this problem by CyclePad, we take the following steps: 1. Build (A) Take a heater, a compressor, a cooler, and a throttling valve from the opensystem inventory shop and connect them. (B) Switch to analysis mode. 2. Analysis (A) Assume the heater is isobaric, compressor is adiabatic and 100% efficiency, and cooler is isobaric. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluids is R-134a, (b) mass flow rate, quality and temperature at the inlet of the compressor are 1 kg/s, 1and 268 K, (c) quality and pressure at the exit of the cooler are 0 and 1000 kPa. 3. Display results Display the results: h1=395.2kJ/kg, T1=268 K, s1=1.73 kJ/kg (K); h2=424.7 kJ/kg, T2=317.2 K, s2=1.73 kJ/kg (K); h3=255.6 kJ/kg, T3=312.5 K, s3=1.19 kJ/kg (K); h4=255.6 kJ/kg, T4=268 K, s4=1.21 kJ/kg (K);Tmax=317.2 K,Tmin=268 K, and COP=5.75. Then, wc=h2h1=-29.43 kJ/kg, ψ3-ψ2=h3-h2-T0(s3-s2)=-17.9 kJ/kg; and COPcarnot=317.2/(317.2-268)=6.447.

How do you define exergy cycle efficiency of a heat engine? 2. 0. and 265 ηex=(ψ3- Figure E7.01 kg/s.47.8695. Calculate the second law cycle efficiency and the exergy cycle efficiency of the refrigerator. ANSWER: 3.9011. Is the exergy cycle efficiency of a heat pump defined the same as that of a refrigerator? 3. Exergy Cycle Efficiency 1.14. Consider a refrigerator using R-12 as working fluid. It posses an evaporator temperature of 268 K and a condenser temperature of 320 K. The surroundings temperature is 298 K. It posses an evaporator temperature of 263 K and a condenser temperature of 320 K.75.447=0. Calculate the second law cycle efficiency and the exergy cycle efficiency of the refrigerator. What is the first law cycle efficiency? 4.14.5239. The surroundings temperature is 298 K. 0. 7.75/6. ANSWER: 3. Determine the COP. Consider a refrigerator using R-12 as working fluid. The mass flow rate of the refrigerant is 0. 0. 6.8919. How does the exergy cycle efficiency differ from the first law cycle efficiency? 5.6082.43=0.Exergy and Irreversibility The answers are ψ2)/wc=17. COP=5. 0. Determine the . Determine the COP.9/29.01 kg/s. Exergy cycle efficiency of heat pump Homework 7.94. Consider a refrigerator using R-12 as working fluid. The mass flow rate of the refrigerant is 0. The mass flow rate of the refrigerant is 0.4619. It posses an evaporator temperature of 263 K and a condenser temperature of 315 K.01 kg/s. The surroundings temperature is 298 K.3. ηII=5.

Assume the efficiencies of the turbine and pump are 100%. The surroundings temperature is 298 K. . Calculate the second law cycle efficiency and the exergy cycle efficiency of the refrigerator. 68.15%. 9. Reversible work of a closed system from an initial state 1 to a final state 2 is given by the expression.5945.8821. It posses an evaporator temperature of 268 K and a condenser pressure of 1200 kPa. ANSWER: 4. Superheated steam at 15 Mpa and 770 K enters the turbine of a Rankine steam power plant operating at steady state and expands to a condenser pressure of 50 kPa.41%. 37. Superheated steam at 12 Mpa and 770 K enters the turbine of a Rankine steam power plant operating at steady state and expands to a condenser pressure of 50 kPa. Assume the efficiencies of the turbine and pump are 100%. the second law cycle efficiency and the exergy cycle efficiency of the power plant. 36. 0.8167. Superheated steam at 15 Mpa and 770 K enters the turbine of a Rankine steam power plant operating at steady state and expands to a condenser pressure of 50 kPa. Determine the cycle efficiency. 36.03%.15. The surroundings temperature is 280 K.4436. 0. the second law cycle efficiency and the exergy cycle efficiency of the power plant. The mass flow rate of the refrigerant is 1 kg/s. 8. Determine the cycle efficiency. The mass flow rate of the steam is 1 kg/s. Determine the cycle efficiency. ANSWER: 36. 0. 0.05%. The mass flow rate of the steam is 1 kg/s.28. ANSWER: 4. Calculate the second law cycle efficiency and the exergy cycle efficiency of the heat pump.09%. Consider a heat pump using R-134a as working fluid. Determine the COP.8509. SUMMARY Exergy and irreversibilitiy provide information needed to determine the maximum useful work that a system in a given state can perform.35%. 7.88. The surroundings temperature is 298 K. 12. The mass flow rate of the refrigerant is 1 kg/s. Consider a heat pump using R-134a as working fluid. The mass flow rate of the steam is 1 kg/s. 60. 66. 0. 0. 10. ANSWER: 32.96. ANSWER: 36. 11.39%. Determine the COP.88%.5893.266 Chih Wu COP. W12=U1-U2-To(S1-S2). ANSWER: 3. Calculate the second law cycle efficiency and the exergy cycle efficiency of the heat pump. Assume the efficiencies of the turbine and pump are 100%.88%. the second law cycle efficiency and the exergy cycle efficiency of the power plant. The turbine efficiency is 88%. The surroundings temperature is 298 K. The surroundings temperature is 280 K. It posses an evaporator temperature of 268 K and a condenser pressure of 1400 kPa. Reversible work is the maximum work done by a system in a given change of state.

Idot=To[simdotisemdote]-Qdot. Flow exergy of a fluid stream is given by the expression. Ψ=(H-Ho)-To(S-So). Exergy(also called available energy or availability) is synonymous with maximum useful work.є=mdotc(ψco-ψci)/mdoth(ψhi-ψho). Rate of irreversiblity of an open system is given by the expression. I=To(S2-S1)+To(∆So). Rate of flow exergy change of a closed system is given by the expression. Irreversibility is the difference between the reversible and the actual work for the same change of state. . ∆Ψdoti=mdote(he-To se)-mdoti(hi-To si). Exergy cycle efficiency is expressed as ηex=(desirable exergy transfer output)/(required input energy). The exergy destroyed ( Φdestroyed) of a system is a nonnegative quantity. Wrev=-(he-Tose)me+(hiTosi)mi-m2(u2-Tos2)+m1(u1-Tos1). I=Wrevt-Wact. Exergy is the work potential of a system in a specified environment and represents the maximum amount of useful work that can be obtained as the system is brought to equilibrium with the environment. Effectiveness of a device that does not involve the production or the input of work is given by the expression. Reversible work of an open system in steady-flow and steady-state is given by the expression.(u1+pov1-To s1). The exergy destroyed ( Φdestroyed) of a system is proportional to to the entropy generated of the system due to irreversibility.Exergy and Irreversibility 267 Reversible work of an open system is given by the expression. Exergy of a closed system is given by the expression. The exergy destroyed is positive for an irreversible process and zero for a reversible process. φ2-φ1=(u2+pov2-To s2). Specific exergy change of a closed system is given by the expression. Wrev=-(he-Tose)me+(hi-Tosi)mi. Irreversiblity of a closed system from an initial state 1 to a final state 2 is given by the expression. Φ=(U+poV-To S)-(U0+poV0-To S0).

.

.2.1 is composed of the following four processes: 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-1 isentropic compression isothermal heat addition isentropic expansion isothermal heat rejection Figure 8.1. CARNOT VAPOR CYCLE Theoretically. until state 4 is reached.1. a pump would isentropically compress the vapor-liquid mixture to state 2. the Carnot vapor cycle is the most efficient vapor power cycle operating between two temperature reservoirs. Saturated water at state 2 is evaporated isothermally to state 3. The Carnot vapor cycle as shown in Figure 8. The steam enters a turbine at state 3 and expands isentropically.1.1. The T-s diagram of a Carnot cycle operating inside the vapor dome is shown in Figure 8. Carnot vapor cycle In order to achieve the isothermal heat addition and isothermal heat rejection processes. producing work.Chapter 8 VAPOR CYCLES 8.1. the Carnot simple vapor cycle must operate inside the vapor dome. where it is saturated vapor. At state 1. The vapor-liquid mixture would then be partially condensed isothermally until state 1 is reached.

1.h2 ) (8.1.1.1.h4) The net work (Wnet). .1.2) (8. quality of steam at the exit of the turbine.1. is Wnet = Qnet = Q23 + Q41 The thermal efficiency of the cycle is η = Wnet /Q23 =Qnet /Q23 = 1. heat added.10) (8.1) (8.8) (8.h2) W23 = 0 Q23 . and cycle efficiency.2.1.9) (8.1.1.1.Q41 /Q23 =1.3) (8.7) Example 8. Determine the pump work.5) (8.6) (8. A steam Carnot cycle operates between 250ºC and 100ºC.4) (8.h1)/(h3 . turbine work.0 = m(h3 .0 = m(h1 .h4) W41 = 0 and Q41 .270 Chih Wu T 2 1 3 4 S Figure 8.1. which is also equal to net heat (Qnet).1.(h4 . quality of steam at the inlet of the pump. Vapor Carnot cycle T-S diagram Applying theFirst law and Second law of thermodynamics of the open system to each of the four processes of the Carnot vapor cycle yields: Q12 = 0 W12 = m(h1 .h2) Q34 = 0 W34 = m(h3 .1.

Figure E8. The two phase mixture of the steam causes serious cavitation problem during the compression process. One difficulty is that the isentropic turbine will have to handle steam with low quality. (c) turbine as adiabatic and isentropic. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is water. Thus the Carnot vapor cycle is not a realistic model for vapor power cycles.7 kJ/kg. 3. Also.1. The impingement of liquid droplets on the turbine blade causes erosion and wear. a boiler. we take the following steps: 271 1. and (d) condenser as isothermal (isobaric inside the vapor dome) . Difficulties arise in the isentropic processes of the cycle.1 is not practical.Vapor Cycles To solve this problem by CyclePad. (B) Switch to analysis mode.9 kJ/kg. turbine work=603. Build (A) Take a pump. Comments: The Carnot vapor cycle as illustrated by Example 8. Another difficult is the isentropic compression of a liquid-vapor mixture.1. the pump power required is also very high. and η=28. Carnot vapor cycle . a turbine and a condenser from the inventory shop and connect the four devices to form the basic Rankine cycle. (b) the inlet temperature and quality of the boiler are 400ºC and 0. (c) the exit quality of the boiler is 1.67%. since the specific volume of the saturated mixture is high. Analysis (A) Assume a process each for the four devices: (a) pump as adiabatic and isentropic. Display results Display the T-s diagram and cycle properties results. 2. The cycle is a heat engine. The answers are pump work=-111. and (d) the inlet temperature of the condenser is 100ºC.1. (b) boiler as isothermal (isobaric inside the vapor dome).

Basic Rankine cycle . BASIC RANKINE VAPOR CYCLE The working fluid for vapor cycles is alternately condensed and vaporized.6741. the heating and cooling processes occur at constant pressure. Owing to this fact.2. The Rankine cycle is a modified Carnot cycle to overcome the difficulties with the Carnot cycle when the working fluid is a vapor.1. (F) the heat transfer rejected in the condenser.2.1 shows the devices used in a basic Rankine cycle. Heat rejection takes place at a pressure of 10 kPa. and Figure 8. (C) the heat transfer added in the boiler.272 Chih Wu Homework 8. Thus. (E) the power produced by the turbine. (G) 44. 4. (B) the quality at the inlet of the pump.2.35%. they tend to perform efficiently.2 is the T-s diagram of the basic Rankine cycle.1. ANSWER: (A) 0.3473. (D) -321. and (G) the cycle efficiency. (D) the power required for the pump.8 kW. Figure 8.6 kW. How many single properties are needed to determine the vapor Carnot cycle? 5. Carnot Vapor Cycle 1. Figure 8. in general. 8. Why is the Carnot cycle not a realistic model for steam power plants? 3. its temperature is also constant. vapor cycles are closely approximate the behavior of the Carnot cycle. (C) 1405 kW. (F) -781. Cite some reasons why the practical realization of the Carnot vapor cycle would be almost impossible. When a working fluid remains in the saturation region at constant pressure. Water changes phase from saturated liquid to saturated vapor as heat is added from a heat source at 300ºC. (B) 0. (E) 944.2. A steady flow of 1 kg/s Carnot engine uses water as the working fluid.5 kW. Determine (A) the quality at the exit of the turbine. Why is excessive moisture in steam undesirable in steam turbine? What is the highest moisture content allowed? 2. Thus the condensation or the evaporation of a fluid in a heat exchanger is a process that closely approximates the isothermal heat transfer processes of the Carnot cycle. In the Rankine cycle.

2.Vapor Cycles 273 T 3 2 1 4 S Figure 8.2.2. The heat supplied in the boiler raises the water from the compressed liquid at state 2 to saturated liquid to saturated vapor and to a much higher temperature superheated vapor at state 3.2. The superheated vapor at state 3 enters the turbine where it expands to state 4.h4) (8.2.h2) = mv1(p1 -p2) W23 = 0 Q23 .3.2.8) (8. Applying the First law and Second law of thermodynamics of the open system to each of the four processes of the Rankine cycle yields: Q12 = 0 W12 = m(h1 . The superheating moves the isentropic expansion process to the right on the T-s diagram as shown in Figure 8.2.h4) W41 = 0 and Q41 .4) (8.7) .2. thus preventing a high moisture content of the steam as it exits the turbine at state 4 as a saturated mixture.0 = m(h1 .2) (8. The exhaust steam from the turbine enters the condenser at state 4 and is condensed at constant pressure to state 1 as saturated liquid.2.3) (8.2. Basic Rankine cycle T-S diagram The basic Rankine cycle is composed of the following four processes: 1-2 isentropic compression 2-3 isobaric heat addition 3-4 isentropic expansion 4-1 isobaric heat removing Water enters the pump at state 1 as a low pressure saturated liquid to avoid the cavitation problem and exits at state 2 as a high pressure compressed liquid.6) (8.2.5) (8.0 = m(h3 .h2) Q34 = 0 W34 = m(h3 .1) (8.

Qdot condenser=-1816 kW.9) Example 8. Wdotturbine=595.10) (8. Determine the efficiency and power output of a basic Rankine cycle using steam as the working fluid in which the condenser pressure is 80 kPa.h1)/(h3 . (c) turbine as isentropic.7 kW. Wdotpump=-3. a turbine and a condenser from the inventory shop and connect the four devices to form the basic Rankine cycle. is Wnet = Qnet = Q23 + Q41 The thermal efficiency of the cycle is η = Wnet /Q23 =Qnet /Q23 = 1. 3. a boiler. and (d) the mass flow rate is 1 kg/s. . 2. and (d) condenser as isobaric.(h4 .61%. The answers are η=24.2. Analysis (A) Assume a process each for the four devices: (a) pump as isentropic. The boiler pressure is 3 Mpa. which is also equal to net heat (Qnet). (B) Switch to analysis mode.274 Chih Wu The net work (Wnet). Build (A) Take a pump. (b) the inlet pressure and quality of the pump are 80 kPa and 0. (c) the inlet pressure and quality of the turbine are 3 Mpa and 1. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is water. To solve this problem by CyclePad. Display results Display the T-s diagram and cycle properties results.Q41 /Q23 =1. The steam leaves the boiler as saturated vapor.2. The cycle is a heat engine.1.2. Qdot boiler=2409 kW. The mass rate of steam flow is 1 kg/s. we take the following steps: 1. (b) boiler as isobaric.7 kW. and Net power output=592.07 kW.h2 ) (8.

Example 8. This raises the average temperature at which heat is added to the steam and thus raises the cycle efficiency. Determine (A) the quality of the steam at the exit of the turbine. Then change the boiler pressure to 600 psia.Vapor Cycles 275 Figure E8. Operating pressures of boilers have increased over the years up to 30 MPa (4500 psia) today.75 psia) today. This drops the average temperature at which heat is removed to the surroundings and thus raises the cycle efficiency. and determine (D) the quality of the steam at the exit of the turbine and (E) the net power of the cycle.1. Operating pressures of condensers have decreased over the years to 5 kPa (0. since the area enclosed by the cycle (net work) in the T-s diagram will be increased. The Rankine efficiency could be increased by increasing the boiler pressure. A simple Rankine cycle using water as the working fluid operates between a boiler pressure of 500 psia and a condenser pressure of 20 psia.2.2. To solve this problem by CyclePad. (B) the net power of the cycle. The mass flow rate of the water is 3 lbm/s.2. Rankine cycle Comments: (1) The sensitivity diagram of cycle efficiency vs boiler pressure demonstrates that increasing the boiler pressure increases the boiler temperature. (2) The sensitivity diagram of cycle efficiency vs condenser pressure demonstrates that decreasing the condenser pressure is decreases the condenser temperature. and (C) the cycle efficiency. we take the following steps: .

and (d) the mass flow rate is 3 lb/s. (c) the inlet pressure and quality of the turbine are 500 psia and 1.276 Chih Wu 1. The boiler pressure is 3 MPa. Build (A) Take a pump.97%. a turbine and a condenser from the inventory shop and connect the four devices to form the basic Rankine cycle. Display results (A) Display cycle properties results.2. at the exit of the turbine. Wdotnet=981. cannot be tolerated in the operation of actual Rankine steam power plants. Figure E8.8082. (B) Change the boiler pressure to 600 psia and display cycle properties results again. Determine the efficiency and power output of a superheat Rankine cycle using steam as the working fluid in which the condenser pressure is 80 kPa. superheating and reheating are used. 3. Steam with qualities less than 90 percent.3. The answers are xturbine outlet=0. To increase steam quality at the exit of the turbine. the higher the moisture content (or the lower the quality) at the exit of the turbine. The cycle is a heat engine. and (d) condenser as isobaric. (c) turbine as adiabatic and isentropic. Analysis (A) Assume a process each for the four devices: (a) pump as adiabatic and isentropic.8 hp. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is water. 2. a boiler. Rankine cycle Comments: The effect of increasing the boiler pressure on the quality of the steam at the exit of the turbine can be seen by comparing the two cases.7953. Example 8. (b) the inlet pressure and quality of the pump are 20 psia and 0. The answers are xturbine outlet=0. . (b) boiler as isobaric.2.08%. and η=22. The higher the boiler pressure. (B) Switch to analysis mode. Wdotnet=1028 hp.2. and η=24.

(b) boiler as isobaric. Plot the sensitivity diagram of cycle efficiency vs boiler superheat temperature.3 kW. Build (A) Take a pump. The mass rate of steam flow is 1 kg/s. Display results Display the T-s diagram and cycle properties results. Figure E8. (c) turbine as isentropic.3a. and (d) the mass flow rate is 1 kg/s. The answers are η=26. (b) the inlet pressure and quality of the pump are 80 kPa and 0. and (B) Display the sensitivity diagram of cycle efficiency vs superheat temperature. (c) the inlet pressure and temperature of the turbine are 3 MPa and 400ºC. a turbine and a condenser from the inventory shop and connect the devices to form the basic Rankine cycle. a boiler.2.Vapor Cycles 277 The steam leaves the boiler at 400ºC.11% and net power output=740. 3. 2. we take the following steps: 1. Analysis (A) Assume a process each for the four devices: (a) pump as isentropic. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is water. (B) Switch to analysis mode. Superheated Rankine cycle . and (d) condenser as isobaric. To solve this problem by CyclePad. The cycle is a heat engine.

heat added in the boiler. Which component determines the low pressure in a Rankine cycle? 7.278 Chih Wu Figure E8. and cycle efficiency? 8. Consider a Rankine cycle with superheat. How does the Rankine cycle differ from the Carnot cycle? Why is the Carnot cycle not a realistic cycle for vapor power plants? 2. Basic Rankine Cycle 1.2. The superheat temperature is limited. indicate whether the following statements are true or false: . the maximum operating superheat temperature is 620ºC (1150ºF). heat added in the boiler. due to metallurgical considerations. What is the effect of increasing the superheating temperature on turbine work output. What is the effect of decreasing the condenser pressure on pump work input. however. What is the quality of vapor at the inlet of the pump in a simple ideal Rankine cycle? Why? 4. turbine work output. In an ideal Rankine cycle. heat removed in the boiler. moisture content at turbine exit. Which component determines the high pressure in a Rankine cycle? 5. the higher the cycle efficiency. How many single properties are needed to determine the cycle? 10. How many single properties are needed to determine the cycle? 9. it is seen that the higher the superheat temperature. Homework 8. turbine work output. and cycle efficiency? 11. What is the minimum quality of vapor required at the exit of the turbine in a Rankine cycle? Why? 12. Presently.3b. Consider a Rankine cycle without superheat. Superheated Rankine cycle sensitivity analysis Comments: From the sensitivity diagram of cycle efficiency vs superheat temperature. What are the processes that make up the simple ideal Rankine cycle? 3.2. and cycle efficiency? 6. What is the effect of increasing the boiler pressure on pump work input.

(D) Cycle efficiency increases as condenser pressure decreases. It leaves the boiler at 1250 psia and 1000ºF.8692. 17. (D) -133699 kW. (D) the heat transfer removed from the condenser. The boiler pressure is 6 MPa. (C) the power developed by the turbine.1 kW.91%. (B) the heat transfer added to the water in the boiler. ANSWER: (A) -487. (C) 11706 hp. The compressor work and pump work are given by the expression ∫vdp. which is operating at a pressure of 1 psia. (F) 35. (C) The ideal turbine power. ANSWER: (A) -74 hp. Would this be true if the steam at the exit of the turbine is pumped directly back to the boiler without condensing it? Steam in an ideal Rankine cycle flows at a mass rate of flow of 14 lbm/s. (G) In the condenser ∆Ssteam>0. Determine (A) the power required to operate the pump. 14. ANSWER: (A) -487. An ideal Rankine cycle uses water as a working fluid.37%. (E) 0. (I) The entropy of steam passing through the boiler decreases. (F) The lowest pressure in the cycle is atmospheric. (B) The rate of heat added by the boiler. (F) 39. (C) 73666 kW. which circulates at a rate of 80 kg/s. The steam is superheated and enters the turbine at 600ºC and leaves the condenser as a saturated liquid. (C) The pressure at the turbine outlet depends on the condenser temperature. Determine (A) the power required to operate the pump.22%. and the condenser pressure is 10 kPa. The boiler pressure is 6 MPa. (B) 206879 kW. (C) 110975 kW. (E) The thermal efficiency of the cycle. The fluid leaves the condenser as a saturated liquid.1 kW. 15. and the condenser pressure is 10 kPa. (B) the heat transfer added to the water in the boiler. (D) The rate of heat rejected by the condenser. and enters a turbine where it is expanded and then exhausted to the main condenser. which circulates at a rate of 80 kg/s. What is the basic reason that pump work is much smaller than the compressor work? The pump work is usually negligible small in the Rankine cycle. (D) the heat transfer removed from the condenser. (B) 19948 Btu/s. (B) 276815 kW. (A) All the processes are internally reversible. and (F) the thermal efficiency of the cycle.6987. (B) Efficiency equals that of a Carnot cycle.Vapor Cycles 279 13. where it is pumped by a pump back into the boiler. and (F) the thermal efficiency of the cycle. (D) -166327 kW. (E) 41. (J) The entropy of the boiler remains constant. (E) the quality of steam at the exit of the turbine. An ideal Rankine cycle uses water as a working fluid. (E) 0. Determine for the cycle: (A) Pump power. 16. (E) the quality of steam at the exit of the turbine. (E) Cycle efficiency increases as boiler pressure decreases. (H) In the turbine ∆Ssteam>0. (C) the power developed by the turbine. (K) Cycle efficiency increases along with the pressure in the boiler. (D) -11726 Btu/s. .

ANSWER: (A) -487. ANSWER: (A) 13. Determine (A) the pump power. and (E) the cycle thermal efficiency (%). (C) the rate of heat addition in the boiler (Btu/h).280 Chih Wu 18. steam enters the turbine at 5 MPa and 400°C.83%. (B) rate of heat rejection in the condenser. and the rate of heat added in the boiler? (D) Find the thermal efficiency for this cycle. Steam is generated in the boiler of a steam power plant operating on an ideal Rankine cycle at 10 MPa and 500 °C at a steady rate of 80 kg/s. ANSWER: (A) 0.5 kPa and a boiler pressure of 17 MPa. (B) the turbine power. . (C) the power developed by the turbine. A Rankine cycle using 1 kg/s of water as the working fluid operates between a condenser pressure of 7. heat transfer in the boiler and the condenser. For an ideal Rankine cycle. (B) the turbine inlet temperature (°F). and (D) 4 MPa. 21. Determine for each case the mass flow rate of water. (B) 10 MPa. ANSWER: (B) 18. ANSWER: (A) -17.5 hp. (B) What is the mass flow rate of the steam? (kg/s) (C) What is the rate of heat rejection from the condenser. A steam power plant operating on an ideal Rankine cycle has a boiler pressure of 800 psia and a condenser pressure of 2 psia. The turbine produces 20.21%.19 lbm/s. (C) the heat transfer added in the boiler. the steam temperature and pressure at the turbine inlet are 1000ºF and 2000 psia. The steam expands in the turbine to a pressure of 7.10 kW.33 kg/s. (B) the mass flow rate. Assuming all processes to be ideal. In a Rankine power plant. The condenser pressure is 8 kPa. (B) 31. (D) the heat transfer removed in the condenser (Btu/hr). and (D) the cycle thermal efficiency (%). (D) 41. and (D) the cycle thermal efficiency. (B) -150979 kW.000 hp. (C) the power delivered by the turbine. (D) the thermal efficiency of the cycle. The boiler pressure is 6 Mpa and the condenser pressure is 10 kPa.000 kW of power. The quality at the turbine exit is 95% and the power generated by the turbine is 10. (C) -35063 kW. Determine (A) the mass flow rate of steam (lbm/s). (D) 60640000 Btu/h. and (D) the cycle thermal efficiency (%). and the thermal efficiency. Water circulates at a rate of 80 kg/s in an ideal Rankine power plant. The super-heater temperature is 550ºC. (C) the heat transfer added in the boiler (Btu/hr). 20.27%. 19. (A) Draw a T-s diagram for this cycle with respect to the saturation curve. (B) 1419 kW. (C) 165500000 Btu/h. (D) 39.7847.10 kW. (D) 36. (B) the heat transfer added in the boiler. (C) 7 MPa. (C) 105442 kW. determine: (A) the pump power required (hp). (C) 3241 kW. and saturated vapor enters the turbine at: (A) 15 MPa. (B) 1450 °F. Find: (A) the power required to operate the pump.93%. The temperature of the condensing steam in the condenser is maintained at 60ºF. Determine (A) the quality of the steam at the turbine exit. (D) 43. ANSWER: (A) -267. (D) -89860000 Btu/h. (D) 40.5 kPa. 24. and exhausts to the condenser at 10 kPa. 22. (C) 110975 kW.71%.91%. The steam enters the turbine at 600ºC and water leaves the condenser as a saturated liquid.92 lbm/s. (E) 45. (B) 276815 kW. The power generated by the turbine is 30000 hp. Water is the working fluid in an ideal Rankine cycle. 23. The net power output of the cycle is 100 MW.

and thermal cycle efficiency. and the net power generated by the plant should be 7. and 36. A steam power plant operating in an ideal Rankine cycle has a high pressure of 5 Mpa and a low pressure of 15 kPa. 3138 kW.68 kg/s.6 kW. 40.3. 13872 kJ/kg. 258641 kW. rate of heat transfer added in the boiler. The turbine exhaust state should have a quality of at least 95%. 28.71%. 4. superheater. and 34. ANSWER: 0. ANSWER: -4. The steam with a mass rate flow of 10 kg/s enters the turbine at 6 MPa and 600ºC. heat added in the boiler. rate of heat transfer removed in the condenser. The turbine exhaust state should have a quality of at least 90%. 27. -158554 kW.Vapor Cycles 281 25. 7525 kW. or decrease the average temperature at which heat is transferred to the surroundings from the working fluid in the cooling process. 1240 kJ/kg.8652. 291735 kW. It discharges to the condenser at 20 kPa. and the cycle efficiency. ANSWER: 0. -2004 kW. 19628 kW. and the net power generated by the plant should be 7. ANSWER: -3. 26.5 kW. 3272 kJ/kg. 7529 kW. rate of heat transfer removed in the condenser. 1134 kW. A steam power plant operates on the Rankine cycle. and the cycle efficiency. -1766 kW. -173350 kW.5 MW. A steam Rankine power plant has saturated vapor at 3 Mpa leaving the boiler at a mass flow rate of 1 kg/s. -164599 kW.89 kJ/kg. Determine the quality of the steam at the exit of the turbine. -191686 kW. pump work. 2608 kW. net power produced. -10923 kW. 30. Find the pump power.10 kJ/kg. (B) 104. The steam enters the turbine at 7 MPa and 550ºC. 18423 kW. -7. and 37.85 kg/s.6%.29%. etc. and 37.03 kW. turbine power. mass flow rate of steam. rate of heat added in the boiler.06 kW. -12128 kW. decreasing condenser pressure.8692. rate of heat transfer removed in the condenser. 34602 kJ/kg. ANSWER: -28. The turbine exhausts to the condenser operating at 10 kPa. mass flow rate of steam.8%.5 kg/s.66 kW. and (D) 111. 5. 842. ANSWER: (A) 106. Find the pump power. turbine power. pump power.2 kg/s. Several modifications to increase the thermal efficiency of the basic Rankine cycle include increasing boiler pressure. rate of heat transfer added in the boiler. rate of heat transfer removed in the condenser. -60. and thermal cycle efficiency. 8. Find the pump power. turbine work. rate of heat transfer added in the boiler.8 kg/s.15%. A steam power plant operating in an ideal Rankine cycle has a high pressure of 5 Mpa and a low pressure of 15 kPa.7%. It discharges to the condenser at 10 kPa. . A steam power plant operates on the Rankine cycle. A Rankine steam power plant has a steam generator exit at 4 Mpa and 500 °C with a mass flow rate of 1 kg/s and a condenser exit temperature of 45 °C. 273404 kW. (C) 105.2 kg/s. ANSWER: -24. and 39. turbine power. pre-heater. 32.9 kW. and the cycle efficiency. reheater. 264648 kW.91%.30%. 845.21%. and 38. rate of heat transfer added in the boiler. turbine power. 1138 kW. Determine the quality of the steam at the exit of the turbine. 36. 29. IMPROVEMENTS TO RANKINE CYCLE The thermal efficiency of the Rankine cycle can be improved by increase the average temperature at which heat is transferred to the working fluid in the heating process. and the cycle efficiency. net power produced.67%. regenerator. turbine power. 38. Find the pump power.5 MW.

A portion of the partially expanded steam between the turbine stages of a multi-stage turbine is drawn off to preheat the condensed liquid before it is returned to the boiler. Consider a simple ideal Rankine cycle with fixed boiler and condenser pressures.282 Chih Wu Increasing the average temperature during the heat addition process increases the boiler pressure. The maximum boiler pressure is limited by the tube metallurgical material problem in the boiler. many irreversibilities are present in various components. An increase in the average temperature during the heat addition process can also be accomplished by regenerating the steam. What is the effect of super-heating the steam to a higher temperature on the cycle efficiency? 4. What is the effect of reheating the steam on the cycle efficiency? 5. The effect of irreversibilities on the thermal efficiency of a Rankine cycle is illustrated in the following example.4. Increasing the average temperature during the heat addition process can be accomplished with a super-heater. Consider a simple ideal Rankine cycle with fixed boiler and condenser pressures.4. Decreasing the average temperature during the heat rejection process decreases the condenser pressure and increases cycle efficiency. What is the effect of lowering the condenser temperature on the cycle efficiency? 2. Fluid friction causes pressure drops in the boiler and condenser.1. To account for these irreversibility effects.3. In this way. What is the effect of regenerating on the cycle efficiency? 8. The minimum condenser pressure is limited by the sealing and leakage problem in the condenser. What is the effect of increasing the boiler pressure on the cycle efficiency? 3. Consider a simple ideal Rankine cycle with fixed turbine inlet state. Superheating the steam to a higher temperature also decreases the moisture content of the steam at the turbine exit which is very desirable. . Improvements to Rankine Cycle 1. Consider a simple ideal Rankine cycle with fixed boiler and condenser pressures. Increasing the boiler pressure increases the moisture content of the steam at the turbine exit which is not desirable. Increasing the average temperature during the heat addition process without increasing boiler pressure can be done by superheating the steam to high temperature with a superheater. Homework 8. The T-s diagram of the actual Rankine cycle is shown in Figure 8. Moisture content of steam at the turbine exhaust can be decreased by reheating the steam between the stages of a multi-stage turbine. These drops in the boiler and condenser are usually small. So the average temperature during the heat addition process is increased. The major irreversibilities occur within the turbine and pump. the amount of heat added at the low temperature is reduced. Consider a simple ideal Rankine cycle with fixed turbine inlet temperature and condenser temperature. turbine efficiency and pump efficiency must be used in computing the actual work produced or consumed. ACTUAL RANKINE CYCLE For actual Rankine cycles.

Vapor Cycles 283 T 3 2a 2s 1 4s 4a s Figure 8.5 kW. Build (A) Take a pump. The cycle is a heat engine. 2.1b). and (f) the pump efficiency is 85% and the turbine efficiency is 88%. Show the cycle on T-s diagram.1c). (B) Switch to analysis mode.1.4.95% and net power output=650. a turbine and a condenser from the inventory shop and connect the devices to form the actual Rankine cycle.4. a boiler. Display results (A) Display the T-s diagram (Figure E8. The mass rate of steam flow is 1 kg/s. Determine the efficiency and power output of an actual Rankine cycle using steam as the working fluid and having a condenser pressure is 80 kPa. The steam leaves the boiler at 400ºC. and cycle efficiency versus turbine efficiency (Figure E8. (c) the inlet pressure and temperature of the turbine are 3 Mpa and 400ºC. The boiler pressure is 3 MPa. and (d) condenser as isobaric. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is water. (B) Display cycle efficiency versus pump efficiency (Figure E8. (c) turbine as adiabatic. To solve this problem by CyclePad.1a) and cycle properties results (Figure E8.4. (d) the mass flow rate is 1 kg/s. Actual Rankine cycle T-s diagram Example 8. . (e) the phase at the exit of turbine is saturated. we take the following steps: 1.1. (b) boiler as isobaric.4.4. Plot the sensitivity diagram of cycle efficiency versus pump efficiency. The pump efficiency is 85% and the turbine efficiency is 88%. and cycle efficiency versus turbine efficiency.1d). Analysis (A) Assume a process each for the four devices: (a) pump as adiabatic. (b) the inlet pressure and quality of the pump are 80 kPa and 0.4. The answers are η=22. 3.

Rankine cycle T-s diagram Figure E8.284 Chih Wu Figure E8. Rankine cycle results .1a.1b.4.4.

Vapor Cycles 285 Figure E8.1c.4.2. Therefore.4. (2) The sensitivity diagram of cycle efficiency vs turbine efficiency demonstrates that the cycle efficiency is sensitive to the turbine efficiency. An example illustrated the throttling Rankine cycle is given in Example 8.1d. it is seen from the sensitivity diagram of cycle efficiency vs pump efficiency that the cycle efficiency is not sensitive to the pump efficiency.4. Adding a throttling valve to the Rankine cycle decreases the cycle efficiency. Figure 8. Rankine cycle efficiency versus pump efficiency sensitivity analysis Figure E8. The throttling Rankine cycle is shown in Figure 8. Throttling Rankine cycle . Rankine cycle efficiency versus turbine efficiency sensitivity analysis Comments: (1) The pump work is quite small compared to the turbine work.2. The inlet steam pressure and temperature may be throttled down to a lower pressure and temperature if desired. The power output of the Rankine cycle can be controlled by a throttling valve.4.4.2.

36% as shown in the following diagram. (b) Input p1=1 psia. T3=600°F. The rate of mass flow in the cycle is 1 lbm/s. and η=28. rate of heat removed in the condenser. (B) If the pressure is throttled down to 400 psia at the inlet of the turbine. Wdotturbine=461.62% as shown in Figure E8. boiler is isobaric. The T-s diagram is shown in Figure E8.2 hp. Draw the T-s diagram.286 Chih Wu Example 8.4. The results are: Wdotpump=-2. find the pump power required. boiler is isobaric. and condenser is isobaric. x1=0.2. Rankine cycle with throttling valve off To solve part (B) of this problem. let us make use of Figure 8.2b. T3=600°F.4.4. and condenser is isobaric. turbine power produced. Figure E8. (B) (a) Assume the pump is isentropic. mdot=1lbm/s. The outlet temperature of the super-heater is 600°F and the turbine efficiency is 80%.2.2c. and the cycle efficiency. . Qdotboiler=1218 Btu/s.4. (A) Find the pump power required. and p4=600 psia. mdot=1lbm/s.0 hp.2a. Wdotturbine=491. (b) Input p1=1 psia. turbine is adiabatic with 80% efficiency. rate of heat added in the boiler. (a) Assume the pump is isentropic. To solve part (A) of this problem.2. turbine is adiabatic with 80% efficiency.4.55 hp. An actual steam Rankine cycle operates between a condenser pressure of 1 psia and a boiler pressure of 600 psia. p2=600 psia. rate of heat added in the boiler. Qdotboiler=1218 Btu/s. and p4=400 psia. p2=600 psia. let us make use of Figure 8. The results are: Wdotpump=-2. turbine power produced.55 hp. and the cycle efficiency. and η=26.4. x1=0.

58%.4. Rankine throttling cycle T-s diagram Homework 8. How does an actual Rankine cycle differ from an ideal Rankine cycle? Is Rankine cycle efficiency sensitive to the pump inefficiency? Why? Is Rankine cycle efficiency sensitive to the turbine inefficiency? Why? What is the purpose of the throttling valve in the Rankine throttling cycle? Does it improve the cycle efficiency? 5. Assuming the .2c. 2. Steam enters a turbine of a Rankine power plant at 5 MPa and 400°C.4. 12.37 kg/s. (B) -41181 kW.000 kW. Actual Rankine Cycle 1.2b. 6.4. 3. Rankine cycle with throttling valve on Figure E8. The turbine produces a power output of 20. Given a turbine isentropic efficiency of 90% and a pump isentropic efficiency of 100%.Vapor Cycles 287 Figure E8. 4.7 kg/s of superheated steam flow at 2 MPa and 320ºC enters the turbine of a Rankine power plant and expands to a condenser pressure of 10 kPa. (C) 32. and exhausts to the condenser at 10 kPa. (A) What is the mass flow rate of the steam around the cycle? (B) What is the rate of heat rejection from the condenser? (C) Find the thermal efficiency of the power plant. ANSWER: (A) 20.

(C) 10298 kW. Water circulates at a rate of 80 kg/s in a Rankine power plant. The steam enters the turbine at 700ºC and water leaves the condenser as a saturated liquid. (B) 2686 kW. A Rankine cycle using water as the working fluid operates between a condenser pressure of 7. and the cycle efficiency. rate of heat transfer removed in the condenser. (B) the turbine power. How does this change the thermal efficiency of the cycle and. the boiler exit conditions are 4 Mpa and 450°C. find: (A) the actual pump power required. ANSWER: -3.33 kW. The turbine exhausts to the condenser operating at 10 kPa. by how much. (C) 7454 kW. if so. 2608 kW. If the pressure at the exit of the throttling valve is 12 MPa. A throttling Rankine cycle using water as the working fluid operates between a condenser pressure of 7.3 lbm/s.8638 kW.288 Chih Wu isentropic efficiencies of the turbine and pump are 85 and 100 percent. (F) 28. and (D) the cycle thermal efficiency. and the condenser pressure is 5 psia. the boiler exit conditions are 600 psia and 600°F.5 kPa and a boiler pressure of 17 MPa. 718. and (F) the cycle efficiency. At a particular part-load operation. respectively.5 kW. the turbine inlet pressure is purposely reduced by a throttle valve to 550 psia. In a steam Rankine power plant.71%. ANSWER: -4. The super-heater temperature is 550ºC. ANSWER: (A) -487. if so. determine (A) the pump power. rate of heat transfer added in the boiler. The super-heater temperature is 550ºC.7%. 13. (D) 36511 kW.5 kW. The rate of mass flow in the cycle is 2. (D) 37. 10. (C) the rate of heat added in the boiler. (B) 2775 kW. turbine power.02 kW. 9. (B) 0.1 kW. A steam Rankine power plant has saturated vapor at 3 Mpa leaving the boiler at a mass flow rate of 1 kg/s. (B) the heat transfer added in the boiler. 30. The turbine efficiency is 85%.5 kPa and a boiler pressure of 17 MPa.03 kW. rate of heat transfer added in the boiler.06 kW.51%.33 kW. (B) 295655 kW. ANSWER: (A) -39. net power produced. In a steam Rankine power plant. (E) 26239 kW. and the cycle efficiency. (D) 36. (B) the turbine power. (C) the rate of heat added in the boiler. 3138 kW.37%. (C) 7454 kW. (C) the actual turbine power produced. 7. by how much. (D) the rate of heat supplied in the boiler. At a particular part-load operation. 8. The turbine efficiency is 85%. -2174 kW. ANSWER: (A) -39. 12. (D) the thermal efficiency of the cycle.44%. 967. How does this change the thermal efficiency of the cycle and.7 kW. -1893 kW.13%. 11. Find the pump power. the turbine inlet pressure is purposely reduced by a throttle valve to 3 Mpa. A Rankine steam power plant has a steam generator exit at 4 Mpa and 500 °C with a mass flow rate of 1 kg/s and a condenser exit temperature of 45 °C. Find the pump power. The actual turbine efficiency is 90%.3 lbm/s. The turbine efficiency is 85%. and the condenser pressure is 15 kPa. 963. 715. ANSWER: (A) -26. net power produced. The rate of mass flow in the cycle is 2. Determine (A) the pump power. turbine power. (D) 35. The boiler pressure is 6 MPa and the condenser pressure is 10 kPa. (E) the rate of heat removed in the condenser. 27. . rate of heat transfer removed in the condenser. (C) 110968 kW. The turbine efficiency is 85%.7 kW. Find: (A) the power required to operate the pump. (B) the quality of steam at the exit of the turbine. and (D) the cycle thermal efficiency. (C) the power developed by the turbine.

The one reheat Rankine basic cycle is composed of the following six processes: 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 5-6 6-1 isentropic compression isobaric heat addition isentropic expansion isobaric heat addition isentropic expansion isobaric heat removing The T-S diagram of the reheat Rankine cycle is shown in Figure 8. The turbine efficiency is 80%. the turbine inlet pressure is purposely reduced by a throttle valve to 3 Mpa. the boiler temperatures (and hence pressures) must be increased if cycle efficiency improvements are to be obtained. Since the maximum temperature in the super-heater is limited by the temperature the boiler tubes can stand.2. if so. or minimum quality) curve. But this requires ever-increasing superheats. How does this change the thermal efficiency of the cycle and. and the condenser pressure is 15 kPa. The problem of excessive super-heater temperatures may be solved while avoiding twophase saturated mixtures in the expansion by reheating the expanding steam part way through the expansion as shown in Figure 8. Figure 8. The steam is then condensed and pump back into the boiler. In a steam Rankine power plant. 8.1. The steam is then reheated in a second super-heater section and expanded in a second turbine (while produce more work) until it intersects with the maximum moisture (complement of quality. or minimum quality) curve again. by how much. superheater temperatures are usually restricted.5.5. REHEAT RANKINE CYCLE The thermal efficiency of the Rankine cycle can be significantly increased by using higher boiler pressure.1. Reheat Rankine cycle .Vapor Cycles 289 14. Since the major fraction of the heat supplied to Rankine cycle is supplied in the boiler. the boiler exit conditions are 4 Mpa and 450°C. At a particular partload operation.5. The steam leaving the boiler section as saturated vapor is superheated to an acceptable temperature and then expanded (while produce work) until it intersects with the maximum moisture (complement of quality.5.

5.5.2) (8.h2) = mv1 (p1 -p2) W23 = 0 Q23 .0 = m(h5 .5.5.5. which is also equal to net heat (Qnet).290 Chih Wu T High-pressure turbine Reheating 3 5 Low-pressure turbine 4 2 1 6 s Figure 8.11) .5.h2) Q34 = 0 W34 = m(h3 .7) (8.5.5.h6) The net work (Wnet).5.0 = m(h1 .5.8) (8.3) (8.4) (8.h4) W45 = 0 Q45 .1) (8.2.5.5.h4) Q56 = 0 W56 = m(h5 . Reheat Rankine T-S diagram Applying the First law of thermodynamics of the open system to each of the six processes of the reheat Rankine cycle yields: Q12 = 0 W12 = m(h1 .5) (8.0 = m(h3 .12) (8.10) (8.h6) W61 = 0 and Q61 .9) (8.6) (8. is (8.5.

3. (c) the inlet pressure and temperature of the first turbine are 1600 psia and 600ºF. a re-heater.h4)] (8. (b) boiler and reheater as isobaric. Build (A) Take a pump. (b) the inlet pressure and quality of the pump are 5 psia and 0. (B) Switch to analysis mode.h1)/[(h3 . a turbine. (c) turbines as adiabatic. To solve this problem by CyclePad. . a boiler. we take the following steps: 1.14) Example 8.04 % and Net power output=111.5.5. The cycle is a heat engine. the cycle efficiency. Determine the quality of steam at the exit of the turbine. η=30. 2. The answers are x=82.4 hp.(h6 . and (d) condenser as isobaric. Analysis (A) Assume a process each for the six devices: (a) pump as adiabatic. another turbine and a condenser from the inventory shop and connect the devices to form the reheat Rankine cycle. A steam reheat Rankine cycle operates between the pressure limits of 5 psia and 1600 psia.13) (8.Q61 /(Q23 + Q45) =1.Vapor Cycles 291 Wnet = Qnet = Q23 + Q45 + Q61 The thermal efficiency of the cycle is η = Wnet /(Q23 + Q45) =Qnet /(Q23 + Q45) = 1. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is water.h2) +(h5 . (d) the mass flow rate is 800 lbm/h.52 %. and the power produced by the cycle. Steam is reheated to 600ºF. The steam flow rate is 800 lbm/h.5. Steam is superheated to 600ºF before it is expanded to the reheat pressure of 500 psia. Display results (A) Display the cycle properties results.1. and (e) the inlet pressure and temperature of the first turbine are 500 psia and 600ºF.

5. After expansion in the high-pressure turbine to 800 kPa. To solve this problem by CyclePad. (B) Switch to analysis mode. Determine the efficiency and power output of a reheat Rankine cycle (Figure E8. (d) the mass flow rate is 1 kg/s. 2.5.5. Example 8. The optimum reheat pressure is about one-fourth of the maximum cycle pressure. The steam leaves the boiler at 400ºC. The boiler pressure is 3 MPa. a boiler. we take the following steps: 1. (c) the inlet pressure and temperature of the turbine are 3 MPa and 400ºC. and (e) the pump efficiency is 85% and the turbines efficiency are 88%. the higher the quality of the steam at the exit of the last stage turbine. the steam is reheated to 400ºC and then expanded in the low-pressure turbine to the condenser.1. another turbine and a condenser from the inventory shop and connect the devices to form the reheat Rankine cycle. a turbine. The reheat temperature is often very close or equal to the turbine inlet temperature. a re-heater. Reheat Rankine cycle Comments: The sole purpose of the reheat cycle is to reduce the moisture content of the steam at the final stage of the turbine expansion process. (c) turbines as adiabatic.2. (b) boiler and reheater as isobaric. Analysis (A) Assume a process each for the six devices: (a) pump as adiabatic. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is water. (b) the inlet pressure and quality of the pump are 80 kPa and 0. The mass flow rate of steam is 1 kg/s. Build (A) Take a pump.292 Chih Wu Figure E8. The pump efficiency is 85% and the turbine efficiency is 88%. The more reheating process. and (d) condenser as isobaric. .2) using steam as the working fluid in which the condenser pressure is 80 kPa.

9 kW. Reheat Rankine Cycle 1.5. The answers are η=24. Assume the inlet temperature for all stage turbine is the same.2. 3. Assume the inlet temperature for all stage turbine is the same. Figure E8. Indicate what the two benefits of a reheat cycle are. heat rejected.5. 6. 2. What is the purpose of reheat in a reheat Rankine cycle? The reheat cycle causes two things to differ from the basic Rankine cycle. Reheat Rankine cycle Comment: The advantage of using reheat is to reduce the moisture content at the exit of the low pressure turbine and increase the net power of the Rankine power plant. 4.57% and Net power output=779. . The one reheat Rankine basic cycle shown in Figure 8. How does the total turbine work change with reheat? How do turbine output work. Display results (A) Display the cycle properties results. and cycle efficiency change when a Rankine cycle is modified with reheating? What limits the number of reheats that are used in a given Rankine cycle? Is the efficiency of a reheat Rankine cycle always higher than the efficiency of a simple Rankine cycle operating between the same boiler pressure and condenser pressure? 5. 8. heat supplied. Homework 8. How does the total turbine work change with reheat? Show the ideal Rankine cycle with four stages of reheating on a T-s diagram.Vapor Cycles 293 3.5. Show the ideal Rankine cycle with one stage of reheating on a T-s diagram. 7.1 can be expanded into more than one reheat if desired. moisture content at turbine exit. In this fashion it is possible to use higher boiler pressure without having to increase the maximum superheater temperature above the limit of the superheater tubes. The cycle is a heat engine.

Determine (A) the pump power required. net power output. (C) rate of heat added in the reheater. (F) -2245 kW. power input. net power output.9385.6 kW.2 lbm/s. (C) 449. power input. After expansion in the turbine to 500 psia. . Determine the thermal efficiency. Determine the thermal efficiency. 116. (B) rate of heat added in the boiler. (F) rate of heat removed from the condenser. After expansion in the turbine to 500 psia. 13. and (H) the thermal cycle efficiency. 1 kg/s of steam flow enters the high-pressure turbine at 15 MPa and 600ºC and leaves at 5 MPa. 118. rate of heat added.0 Btu/s. the steam is reheated to 500ºF and then expanded in the low-pressure turbine to 2 psia.8 hp. (C) 413. 83. (D) power produced by the high-pressure turbine. (D) 364. rate of heat added. 254. net power output. 1 kg/s of steam flow enters the high-pressure turbine at 15 MPa and 600ºC and leaves at 5 MPa. (G) 0. power input. -167. Consider a steam power plant operating on the ideal reheat Rankine cycle. and rate of heat removed of the cycle. 227. 345.8913. -1. the steam is reheated to 600ºF and then expanded in the low-pressure turbine to 2 psia. (F) -2108 kW. rate of heat added. ANSWER: 0. power output. and (H) the thermal cycle efficiency. (E) power produced by the low-pressure turbine. Consider an ideal steam reheat Rankine cycle in which the steam enters the highpressure turbine at 600 psia. Exhaust steam from the turbine is condensed in the condenser at 10 kPa.11%. 699. After expansion in the turbine to 500 psia. Determine (A) the pump power required.0 Btu/s.7 Btu/s. ANSWER: (A) -15. ANSWER: 32. 254.8 hp. Consider a steam power plant operating on the ideal reheat Rankine cycle.38%. (G) 0. 14.3 Btu/s.4 kW.2 lbm/s. -1. and rate of heat removed of the cycle. 11. power output.1 kW. -445. (C) rate of heat added in the re-heater. (H) 44. 600ºF and 0. (F) rate of heat removed from the condenser. Steam leaves the boiler and enters the turbine at 1500 psia.92%. It is then reheated to 700ºF and expands to 2 psia in the low-pressure turbine. (B) 3375 kW.27 hp. power output.8814. 600ºF and 0. 12. Steam leaves the boiler and enters the turbine at 1500 psia. and then expands to 200 psia. -171.2 lbm/s. (E) power produced by the low-pressure turbine. the steam is reheated to 600ºF and then expanded in the low-pressure turbine to 2 psia. ANSWER: 31. Both turbines have 90% efficiency. (B) 3375 kW. Exhaust steam from the turbine is condensed in the condenser at 10 kPa.87%.73%. Steam leaves the boiler and enters the turbine at 1500 psia. 700ºF and 0.9 Btu/s. 500ºF and 0. (B) rate of heat added in the boiler. (G) quality of steam at the exit of the low-pressure turbine.0 hp.28 hp.14 kW.3 Btu/s. ANSWER: 26. Steam is reheated to 600ºC and enters the low-pressure turbine. 10. (G) quality of steam at the exit of the low-pressure turbine. ANSWER: (A) -15.14 kW. -1. (D) 328. and rate of heat removed of the cycle. net power output.27 hp. thermal efficiency. rate of heat added.27 hp. and rate of heat removed of the cycle. (D) power produced by the highpressure turbine. Both turbine efficiency are 82%.11 hp. power input. power output.5 Btu/s. (E) 1366 kW.5 lbm/s. 112. (H) 40. Find the quality of steam leaving the low-pressure turbine.7 Btu/s. (E) 1230 kW. 85. 34. Steam is reheated to 600ºC and enters the low-pressure turbine.84 hp.7 hp.294 Chih Wu 9. -174. 347. Determine the thermal efficiency. Both turbine efficiency are 85%. Both turbine efficiency are 88%.1 hp.9 kW. 114 hp. -1.44%.

290. In the regenerative cycle. The T-s diagram of the ideal regenerative Rankine cycle is shown in Figure 8. the best result is obtained by heating the feed-water to a temperature equal to the saturation temperature corresponding to the boiler pressure. 17. rate of heat added.and low-pressure turbines.5 hp.28 hp. and rate of heat removed of the cycle. and rate of heat removed of the cycle. thermal efficiency. 987. 1804 kW.9 kW.22 kW. . It is then reheated to 700ºF and expands to 2 psia in the low-pressure turbine. -1. REGENERATIVE RANKINE CYCLE The thermal efficiency of the Rankine cycle can be increased by the use of regenerative heat exchange as shown in Figure 8. Consider a steam reheat Rankine cycle in which the steam enters the high-pressure turbine at 5000 kPa.2 kW. -7. 298.3 kg/s. 16. rate of heat added.9 Btu/s. a portion of the partially expanded steam is drawn off between the high.73%. To carry out the ideal regenerative process.6. 299.7 kW. rate of heat added. power output. net power output. 29.9089. power input. 30. -484. Find the quality of steam leaving the low-pressure turbine. In this way. 8. The steam is used to preheat the condensed liquid before it returned to the boiler. 37. In the case of an ideal regenerative Rankine cycle. -1.4 kg/s. net power output. -3044 kW. and rate of heat removed of the cycle. and then expands to 1000 kPa. It is then reheated to 400ºC and expands to 10 kPa in the low-pressure turbine. -689. the regenerative heat exchanger is called feed-water heater.9491. Find the quality of steam leaving the low-pressure turbine. Consider a steam reheat Rankine cycle in which the steam enters the high-pressure turbine at 4000 kPa.4 kW. 380ºC and 0. It is then reheated to 380ºC and expands to 12 kPa in the low-pressure turbine.2 hp. 4840 kW.9646.6. Find the quality of steam leaving the low-pressure turbine.11 kW. 400ºC and 1. power input. net power output.1.12%. power output. 700ºF and 0. and then expands to 200 psia. thermal efficiency. the amount of heat added at the low temperatures is reduced.0 Btu/s.Vapor Cycles 295 15. Both turbine efficiency are 100%.18%. and cycle efficiency is increased.6. ANSWER: 0.2. and then expands to 1000 kPa. 291. Both turbine efficiency are 84%. ANSWER: 0. Therefore the mean effective temperature of heat addition is increased. Both turbine efficiency are 84%. power input. ANSWER: 0. Consider a steam reheat Rankine cycle in which the steam enters the high-pressure turbine at 600 psia. thermal efficiency.5 lbm/s. power output. 1797 kW. 690.

2. Regenerative Rankine cycle Figure 8.296 Chih Wu SPL1 TUR1 S5 S6 S7 TUR2 S8 HTR1 S9 CLR1 S4 PMP2 S3 MXR1 S2 PMP1 S1 Figure 8.6. Regenerative Rankine cycle T-S diagram The one regenerative Rankine basic cycle is composed of the following seven processes: 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 5-6 6-7 7-1 isentropic compression isobaric heat addition isentropic compression isobaric heat addition isentropic expansion isentropic expansion isobaric heat removing .1.6.

Vapor Cycles 297 Applying the mass balance and the First law of thermodynamics of the open system to each of the seven processes of the regenerative Rankine cycle yields: m1=m2=m7 m4=m5 m4 = m2 + m6 Q12 = 0 W12 = m1(h1 .6.6.4) (8.6.h4) Q67 = 0 W67 = m1(h6 .6.11) (8.10) (8. which is also equal to net heat (Qnet).6. is Wnet = W56 + W67 + W12 + W34 The thermal efficiency of the cycle is η = Wnet /Q45 (8.2) (8.1) (8.6.6.h3) = 0 Q34 = 0 W34 = m4(h3 .13) (8.h4) Q56 = 0 W56 = m4(h3 .6.3) (8.8) (8.6.6.6.6.h2) = m1v1 (p1 -p2) m4(h4 .12) (8.6.h7) W71 = 0 and Q71 .6.h6) The net work (Wnet).h3)+m6(h6 .18) (8.15) .5) (8.7) (8.6.9) (8.h3) + m2(h2 .17) (8.h4) = m4v3 (p3 -p4) W45 = 0 Q45 .6.6.0 = m4(h5 .14) (8.0 = m1(h1 .6.16) (8.6) (8.

Build (A) Take two pumps. Display results (A) Display the cycle properties results. and (C) Locate the optimum regeneration pressure (about 730 kPa) from the sensitivity diagram.1. we take the following steps: 1. and (e) the pump efficiency is 85% and the turbines efficiency is 88%. the rest of the steam is reheated to 400ºC and then expanded in the low-pressure turbine to the condenser. (d) splitter as iso-parametric.6. The water leaves the open feed-water heater at 400 kPa as saturated liquid. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is water.1233. (d) the mass flow rate is 1 kg/s through the boiler. a splitter.28% and Net power output=636. some of the steam is extracted from the turbine exit for the purpose of heating the feedwater in an open feed-water heater. a re-heater. Draw the sensitivity diagram of cycle efficiency vs re-heater pressure To solve this problem by CyclePad. Determine the efficiency and power output of a regenerative Rankine cycle using steam as the working fluid and the condenser pressure is 80 kPa. 2. (B) Display the sensitivity diagram of cycle efficiency vs re-heater pressure. the answers are: fraction extraction=0. η=24. and net power output of the cycle. η=24. The pump efficiency is 85% and the turbine efficiency is 88%. (D) Redo the problem with regenerator pressure at 730 kPa. a boiler. 3. The mass rate of steam flow is 1 kg/s. The answers are fraction extraction=0.42% and net power output=616. Determine the steam fraction extracted from the turbine exit.298 Chih Wu Example 8. (c) the inlet pressure and temperature of the turbine are 3 MPa and 400ºC. The cycle is a heat engine. After expansion in the high-pressure turbine to 400 kPa. Analysis (A) Assume a process for each of the devices: (a) pumps as adiabatic. and (e) condenser as isobaric. The boiler pressure is 3 MPa. (b) the inlet pressure and quality of the pump are 80 kPa and 0. (b) boiler and reheater as isobaric. another turbine. The steam leaves the boiler at 400ºC. a mixing chamber (open feed-water heater) and a condenser from the inventory shop and connect the devices to form the regenerating Rankine cycle. a turbine.0877. cycle efficiency.8 kW. (B) Switch to analysis mode. (c) turbines as adiabatic.1 kW .

the regenerative cycle would have the same cycle efficiency as that of a Carnot cycle operating between the same temperature limits. Consequently. (2) Suppose infinitive number of regenerators are used. This is physically not practical. it is seen that the efficiency of the regenerative Rankine cycle is better than the efficiency of the Rankine cycle without regenerator. the finite number of regenerators is a design decision. Large number of regenerators may not be economically justified.6. In practice.1b.6. . six or seven regenerators is the maximum number employed for huge Rankine commercial power plants. Regenerative Rankine cycle Figure E8. Regenerative Rankine cycle Comments: (1) From the example.1a.Vapor Cycles 299 Figure E8.

After expansion in the high-pressure turbine to 100ºC. Display results (A) Display the cycle properties results. 3. two turbines. the rest of the steam is then expanded in the lowpressure turbine to the condenser.1258. (c) the turbine inlet steam quality and temperature are 1 and 350ºC. . To solve this problem by CyclePad. The cycle is a heat engine. Analysis (A) Assume a process each for the devices: (a) pumps as adiabatic. (b) the inlet temperature and quality of the pump are 50ºC and 0. cycle efficiency. (B) Plot the sensitivity diagram of cycle efficiency vs open feed-water heater temperature.6. and net power output of the cycle. cycle efficiency. a boiler. a mixing chamber (open feed-water heater) and a condenser from the inventory shop and connect the devices to form the regenerating Rankine cycle. η=40. we take the following steps: 1.4 kW. (B) Switch to analysis mode. The steam leaves the boiler as saturated vapor. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is water. The mass rate of steam flow is 1 kg/s. (A) Determine the steam fraction extracted from the turbine exit. and (e) condenser as isobaric. The answers are fraction extraction=0. and net power output of the cycle at the optimal cycle efficiency. The boiler temperature is 350ºC. (d) splitter as iso-parametric. (d) the mass flow rate is 1 kg/s through the boiler. Determine the efficiency and power output of an ideal regenerative Rankine (without super-heater or re-heater) cycle using steam as the working fluid in which the condenser temperature is 50ºC. and (C) Determine the steam fraction extracted from the turbine exit. The water leaves the open feed-water heater at 100ºC as saturated liquid. (b) boiler as isobaric. (c) turbines as adiabatic. some of the steam is extracted from the turbine exit for the purpose of heating the feed-water in an open feed-water heater.300 Chih Wu Example 8. a splitter. 2. and (e) the regenerator exit steam quality and temperature are 0 and 100ºC. a re-heater. Build (A) Take two pumps.2.16% and net power output=871.

6. From the diagram. .2a. Regenerative Rankine cycle (B) The sensitivity diagram of cycle efficiency vs open feed-water heater temperature (η vs T3) is Figure E8.Vapor Cycles 301 Figure E8.2b. the temperature is approximately 187ºC.6. Regenerative Rankine cycle sensitivity diagram Comment: The temperature difference between condenser and regenerator is approximately equal to the temperature difference between boiler and regenerator.

and (e) condenser as isobaric.6.3a). (B) Switch to analysis mode. p2=p3=p21= p22=p23=p28=3000 kPa. four mixing chambers (open feed-water heaters) and a condenser from the inventory shop and connect the devices to form the regenerating Rankine cycle. and ηpmp1=ηpmp2=ηpmp3=ηpmp4=ηpmp5=85%.3. p22=p23=p28=3000 p6=p7=p15=p16=p17=p26=10000 kPa.9 kW. p6=p7=p15= p16=p17=p26=10000 kPa. T11=T14=T17=T20=T23=400ºC. The following information is provided: p1=p24=10 kPa. Build (A) Take five pumps.2c. Answers given by the cycle properties are: fraction extraction=0. p10=p11=16000 kPa.6.2970. five turbines. reheater and regenerators as isobaric. p4=p5=p18=p19=p20=p27=7000 kPa. p4=p5=p18= p19=p20=p27=7000 kPa. ηtur1=ηtur2=ηtur3=ηtur4=ηtur5=85%. (B) Input the given information: working fluid is water. Analysis (A) Assume a process each for the devices: (a) pumps as adiabatic. T11=T14=T17=T20=T23=400ºC. (d) splitters as isoparametric. mdot9=1 kg/s. p1=p24=10 kPa.302 Chih Wu (C) Change the temperature of water leaving the open feed-water heater to 187ºC as saturated liquid. p10=p11=16000 kPa. four splitters. (b) boiler. mdot9=1 . 2. p8=p9=p12=p13=p14=p25=13000 kPa. Regenerative Rankine cycle optimization Example 8. p2=p3=p21= kPa. p8=p9=p12= p13=p14=p25=13000 kPa.55% and net power output=727. Determine the efficiency and power output of a 4-stage steam regenerative Rankine cycle (Figure E8. To solve this problem by CyclePad. x1=x3=x5=x7=x9=0. (c) turbines as adiabatic. five heaters (1 boiler and 4 reheaters). x1=x3=x5=x7=x9=0. Figure E8. we take the following steps: 1. η=41.6.

ηtur1=ηtur2=ηtur3=ηtur4=ηtur5=85%.2 kW.93 kW.3 kW. The cycle is a heat engine.09 kW. Figure E8.Vapor Cycles 303 kg/s. Qdotremove=-1162 kW.6.6. 4-stage steam regenerative Rankine cycle Figure E8. Qdotadd=1842 kW. Wdotinput=-97. Wdotoutput=-777.3b. Wdotpmp3=-4.45 kW. Wdotpmp2=-42. Wdotpmp1=-44. and ηpmp1=ηpmp2=ηpmp3=ηpmp4=ηpmp5=85% as shown in Figure E8.14 kW.74 kW. The results are: ηcycle=36.3a. Wdotnet output=680.33 kW. . Wdotpmp4=-4.3b. 4-stage steam regenerative Rankine cycle input 3.6. Display results (A) Display the cycle properties results. Wdotpmp5=-1. Wdottur1=39.92%.23 kW.

6. Wdottur3=69. and mdot28=0.2 kW.2234 kg/s. What is the purpose of regeneration in a regenerative Rankine cycle? 2.304 Chih Wu Wdottur5=470. A junior engineer proposes to have some steam extracted from a high pressure turbine to heat the liquid water leaving the pump to the boiler as a preheater. 4-stage steam regenerative Rankine cycle output Homework 8. heat rejected. Regenerative Rankine Cycle 1. kg/s. Figure E8.8705 kg/s.1 kW. (C) a reversible Rankine cycle with reheat.3c.0754 kg/s. heat supplied. mdot2=mdot22=0. (E) a reversible Rankine cycle with regenerator and open-type feedwater heater. moisture content at turbine exit. Wdottur4=147.7 kW. Qdothtr4=107.1100 kg/s. Qdotclr1=-1162 kW. mdot8=mdot12=0. 4. 3. (F) a reversible Rankine cycle with two stages of reheat.28 kW. The regenerative cycle has the potential of achieving the Carnot cycle efficiency when operated between the same upper and lower temperatures.7605 mdot25=0.0541 kg/s. Qdothtr3=107.5372 kg/s. Sketch T-s diagrams for the following cycles: (A) a reversible basic Rankine cycle. (B) an irreversible basic Rankine cycle. Describe what is being done in the regenerative cycle that brings this about.45 kW. Qdothtr2=112. Qdothtr1=1372 kW. mdot5=mdot16=0. (D) an irreversible Rankine cycle with reheat. mdot26=0.5 kW.9459 kg/s. This does not seem to be a smart thing to do since the extracted high pressure steam could . How do turbine work. mdot3=mdot19=0. mdot27=0. Wdottur2=50.8 kW.6.2 kW. Qdothtr5=143. and cycle efficiency change when an ideal Rankine cycle is modified with regeneration? 5.

The mass rate of steam flow is 1 kg/s.0 kW. (C) -1591 kW. After expansion in the highpressure turbine to 100ºC. 9.9589 kW. 1 kg/s of steam flow enters the turbine at 15 MPa and 600ºC and is condensed in the condenser at 10 kPa.2 Mpa and enters the open feed-water heater. (D) 733. (E) the turbine power produced by the low pressure turbine. What is the effect on the following compared to values in the simple Rankine cycle? (A) Thermal cycle efficiency: (a) greater (b) less (c) same (B) Energy per unit mass leaving the boiler: (a) greater (b) less (c) same (C) Work per unit mass produced by the turbine: (a) greater (b) less (c) same (D) Total work produced by the turbine: (a) greater (b) less (c) same (E) Heat per unit mass removed by the condenser: (a) greater (b) less (c) same (F) Total heat removed by the condenser: (a) greater (b) less (c) same (G) Total net work produced by the cycle: (a) greater (b) less (c) same (H) Total heat added to the boiler: (a) greater (b) less (c) same Consider a steam power plant operating on the ideal regenerating Rankine cycle. (E) 566.37%. (D) the turbine power produced by the high pressure turbine. determine (A) the fraction of steam not extracted from the high pressure turbine. If the steam at the exit of the open feed-water heater is saturated liquid. (B) 2767 kW. 1 kg/s of steam flow enters the turbine at 15 MPa and 600ºC and is condensed in the condenser at 10 kPa. The water leaving the . steam is extracted from the high pressure turbine for feed water heating. (D) 1193 kW. (G) the power required by the high-pressure pump. (B) the rate of heat added in the boiler. If the steam at the exit of the open feed-water heater is saturated liquid.Vapor Cycles 305 6. Determine the efficiency and power output of a regenerative Rankine (without superheater or re-heater) cycle using steam as the working fluid in which the condenser temperature is 50ºC. 8. (G) -15. (C) the rate of heat removed from the condenser. (D) the turbine power produced by the high pressure turbine. produce some more work in the low pressure turbine.7780 kg/s. (F) -0. (F) 42. 11. (C) the rate of heat removed from the condenser. Some steam leaves the high pressure turbine at 1.7719 kg/s. 12. 10. determine (A) the fraction of steam not extracted from the high pressure turbine.71 kW. and (F) the thermal cycle efficiency. (C) -1484 kW. and (H) the thermal cycle efficiency. ANSWER: (A) 0. (E) the power required by the high-pressure pump.8 kW. (B) the rate of heat added in the boiler. some of the steam is extracted from the turbine exit for the purpose of heating the feed-water in an open feed-water heater. How do you justify this proposal? What is the quality of steam at the exit of an open feedwater heater? Why the quality of steam at the exit of an open feedwater heater is 0? What factor limits the number of heaters used in the regenerator? In the regenerative Rankine cycle. (B) 2767 kW. The turbine efficiency is 90%. Consider a steam power plant operating on the ideal regenerating Rankine cycle.2 MPa and enters the open feed-water heater. The steam leaves the boiler as saturated vapor. (E) -16. (F) the power required by the low-pressure pump. Some steam leaves the high pressure turbine at 1. 7. (H) 46. ANSWER: (A) 0. the rest of the steam is then expanded in the low-pressure turbine to the condenser. The boiler temperature is 350ºC.49%.67 kW.

Steam is extracted from the turbine at 800 kPa for an open feedwater heater. power output.97%. . After expansion to 145 psia. 656.74 kW. ANSWER: 38.4 hp.306 Chih Wu open feed-water heater at 120ºC as saturated liquid. ANSWER: 39. 700ºF and 1. ANSWER: (A) 1. Consider an ideal regenerative steam power plant in which steam enters the turbine at 5000 kPa. The steam leaves the heater as saturated liquid. (C) power output. (A) Determine the steam fraction extracted from the turbine exit. and (G) thermal efficiency of the cycle. 16. Consider a steam power plant operating on the ideal regenerating Rankine cycle. (E) rate of heat added. (F) rate of heat removed. Consider an ideal regenerative steam power plant in which steam enters the turbine at 4000 kPa. The pressure in the feedwater heater is 145 psia and the water leaving it is saturated liquid at 145 psia.35 lbm/s. (C) 1009 hp. 17. If the steam at the exit of the open feed-water heater is saturated liquid.11%. Find the thermal efficiency. η=35. cycle efficiency.2884. (D) net power output. -609. -1047 kW. Wdotnet=630. 652. and exhausts to the condenser at 10 kPa.55 hp. and net power output of the cycle. and heat removed of the cycle. (C) 1116 hp. η=35. 14.96%. 370ºC and 0.9 lbm/s of steam flow enters the turbine at 2000 psia and 1000ºF and is condensed in the condenser at 2 psia.17%. (D) 991. Consider an ideal regenerative power plant using steam as the working fluid.7 kW. heat added.69 kW. net power output.42%. Steam leaves the boiler and enters turbine at 700 psia. power output. Wdotnet=718. If the steam at the exit of the open feed-water heater is saturated liquid. and (G) thermal efficiency of the cycle. (D) net power output. ANSWER: (A) y=0. (E) 1937 Btu/s. 400ºC and 0. and net power output of the cycle at the optimal cycle efficiency.4 kW. (B) -17. (B) power input. (F) -1160 Btu/s. (F) -1236 Btu/s. (B) -17.7 kg/s.1605. Steam is extracted from the turbine at 1000 kPa for an open feedwater heater. some of the steam is extracted from the turbine for the purpose of heating the feedwater in an open feedwater heater. (C) power output. 357. (B) power input. power input. (B) Plot the sensitivity diagram of cycle efficiency vs open feed-water heater temperature. (C) y=0. 15. determine (A) the mass flow rate of steam not extracted from the high pressure turbine.9 kW. The steam 13. Both turbine efficiency are 85%. and heat removed of the cycle. (E) 1937 Btu/s. 1.4 lbm/s. Find the thermal efficiency. 358. determine (A) the mass flow rate of steam not extracted from the high pressure turbine. The turbine efficiency is 80%. (F) rate of heat removed. heat added.18%. 1700 kW.4 kW. (G) 40.36 lbm/s. (D) 1099 hp. -3. (B) T =187ºC.2 kW. -1.2 kW. The steam leaves the heater as saturated liquid.4 kg/s. Some steam leaves the high pressure turbine at 500 psia and enters the open feed-water heater. and (C) Determine the steam fraction extracted from the turbine exit. power input. net power output.9 kW. cycle efficiency. Some steam leaves the high pressure turbine at 500 psia and enters the open feed-water heater.57 hp. The turbine efficiency is 90%. 966. 1. (E) rate of heat added. Consider a steam power plant operating on the ideal regenerating Rankine cycle.6 kW. (G) 36.9 lbm/s of steam flow enters the turbine at 2000 psia and 1000ºF and is condensed in the condenser at 2 psia. and exhausts to the condenser at 10 kPa. ANSWER: (A) 1.

A typical closed-cycle solar pond Rankine cycle using a working fluid such as ammonia or a freon is also suggested. Solar radiation is absorbed in the lower water levels and at the bottom of the pond. net power output. solar pond. with the density of the hot concentrated lower level water higher than the density of the more dilute and cooler top levels. a geothermal well puts out a mixture of steam and water. Find the thermal efficiency.0 hp.81%. As with the hotwater geothermal energy.45 psia. ocean thermal. and waste heat will be discussed. A typical closed-cycle OTEC Rankine cycle using a working fluid such as ammonia or a freon is suggested. -880. The water near the bottom (70 to 80ºC) is at a higher temperature than that of the top surface (30ºC). A separator is needed to separate the flashing steam from the hot-water. The chilled water tends to settle to the depths of the ocean. LOW-TEMPERATURE RANKINE CYCLES Much of this chapter has been concerned with various modifications to the simple Rankine cycle at high-temperature. geothermal.39 hp. only a simple Rankine cycle can be used and the cycle efficiency will be low. 8. . -4. ANSWER: 37. heat added. resulting turbine sizes can be much smaller and less expensive. or hot-rock form could be tapped and used for power generation. and about 630 kW/m2 on the average on the earth’s surface. In a hot-rock (no steam nor hot water) geothermal well. 1416 Btu/s. In the following few sections. There are regions where geothermal energy in dry-steam form. Incident solar energy is absorbed by the surface water of the oceans. power input. The regions of interest for geothermal power production are those in which the temperature gradient exceeds 20ºC/km. The ocean surface temperatures in excess of 26ºC occur near the equator. the solar thermal heat engine can be operated at a higher temperature. The working fluids such as ammonia and freons used in refrigerators and heat pumps are more desirable than steam for the very low-temperature Rankine cycles. hot-water form. water will need to be injected into the well to tap the thermal energy. Because of the small temperature range available. If a concentrate collector is used to focus the power of the sun. the Rankine cycle which makes the possible use of energy sources at low-temperature such as solar. The combination of the warmed ocean surface water and cold deep ocean water provides the thermodynamic condition needed to operate a heat engine called ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). power output. If a flatplatecollector is used. The reason is that the specific volume of such working fluids at low temperature is much less than that of steam. the solar thermal power system is a low-temperature heat engine. and heat removed of the cycle. All the geothermal heat sources of interest have been created by the intrusion of hot magma from deep in the earth up into rock strata close to surface. Pure water has a maximum density at a temperature of 4ºC.7 hp. More commonly than it puts out dry steam. 757. a secondary closed. The steam is then used to drive the turbine.8 Btu/s. because the fuel is free. The sun provides a direct flux of solar thermal radiation about 1350 kW/m2 outside the atmospheric air. This is not critical economically. The average temperature gradient is small. simple Rankine cycle will be required to produce geothermal power.7. Temperature differences have been found in nature ponds having high concentration gradient of dissolved salt. 762.Vapor Cycles 307 not extracted expands to 1.

308 Chih Wu Waste heat from farming. List at least three low-temperature energy resources. Each mirror is controlled to keep the sun’s reflected radiation concentrated on the central receiver. Therefore. However.e. What is the fuel cost of the low-temperature heat engine? 3.7. and municipal solid residues could also be used for power generation. The central receiver can serve as the boiler for the steam Rankine solar heat engine. the solar thermal power system is a low-temperature heat engine.1 are operate at different temperatures is technical achievable. SOLAR HEAT ENGINES The abundance of incident solar energy. suitable for a moderate sized power generating facility. There is no question that power can be produced from these various natural and waste energy sources. i. Radiation from the sun is reflected by a field of mirrors onto the receiver to achieve a high concentration ratio.8. Significant efforts have been underway for many years to produce power from these free energy sources.8. The heat exchangers (collectors) in Figure 8. Thermal storage will be required for a commercial facility to mitigate interruptions caused by clouds and to provide for an evening and nighttime output. particularly in large desert regions with few interruption due to cloud cover.8. crop production. i. 4. for a solar-collector-Rankine cycle to operate at high collector efficiency and high heat engine efficiency. Electrical power produced via thermal conversion of solar energy by means of a conventional Rankine cycle as shown in Figure 8. On the other hand. there are only a few commercial power plants presently utilizing these energy sources. lends to the appeal of solar heat engines. utilizes a concentrate collector (receiver) mounted on top of a high tower. The orientation of each mirror depends upon its location relative to the central receiver. . Homework 8. The question is the cost. If a flat-plate collector is used.1. the higher the collector temperature the higher the heat engine efficiency. The conversion efficiency of a thermodynamic cycle depends upon the collector temperature achieved. the collector efficiency also depends upon the collector temperature achieved. the higher the collector temperature the lower the collector efficiency. the heat input to the solar low-temperature heat engine can be derived from several collectors Another solar heat engine. Is the cycle efficiency of the low-temperature heat engine higher than that of the high-temperature heat engine? 2.e. Why working fluids such as ammonia and freons used in refrigerators and heat pumps are more desirable than steam for the low-temperature Rankine cycles? 8.. Low-Temperature Rankine Cycles 1.. animal manure.

(b) inlet quality and pressure of the pump are 0 and 8 kPa.Vapor Cycles 309 SINK2 S4 HX2 S3 S8 TUR1 S9 SOURCE2 S7 S1 SOURCE1 CLR1 HX1 SINK1 S6 S2 PMP1 S5 Figure 8.1b. Cycle water enters the pump of the Rankine heat engine at 8 kPa and 0% quality. (e) mass flow rate is 1 kg/s. Cycle water exits the high-temperature heat exchanger at 100ºC. (d) working fluid of hot-side of the low-temperature heat exchanger is water. Find the power produces by the solar heat engine. .and cold-side. (c) temperature and pressure of the turbine inlet are 100ºC and 80 kPa.8. A solar heat engine with two collectors as shown in Figure 8.8.8. 3.8.8. (h) working fluid of hotside of the high-temperature heat exchanger is water. To solve this problem with CyclePad. (d) high-temperature heat exchanger as isobaric on both hot.1a and Figure E8. (B) Input the given information as shown in Figure E8. . we take the following steps: 1. (f) inlet temperature and pressure of hot-side fluid are 120ºC and 101 kPa. Saturated steam enters the turbine at 1 kg/s and 100ºC. Analysis (A) Assume a process each for the five devices: (a) turbine as adiabatic with 100% efficiency.1.8. (c) low-temperature heat exchanger as isobaric on both hot.8. Display result as shown in Figure E8. Water enters the low-temperature heat exchanger from a low-temperature collector at 120ºC and 101 kPa. and (i) inlet temperature and pressure of hot-side fluid are 200ºC and 101 kPa. Water enters the high-temperature heat exchanger from a high-temperature collector at 120ºC and leaves the heat exchanger at 100ºC and 101 kPa. (g) exit temperature of hot-side fluid is 100ºC.1a: (a) working fluid of cycle is water.1. Solar heat engine Example 8. 2.and cold-side. (b) pump as adiabatic with 100% efficiency. Build as shown in Figure 8. and (e) condenser as isobaric process.1 is proposed.1.

1a. Solar heat engine output information .8.29%. net power produced by the Rankine cycle=332. rate of heat added in the high-temperature heat exchanger=13. and efficiency of the solar heat engine=332.310 Chih Wu The answers are: rate of heat added in the low-temperature heat exchanger=2491 kW.7/(13.08 kW. Figure E8.1b. Solar heat engine SINK2 S4 HX2 S3 S8 TUR1 S9 SOURCE2 S7 S1 SOURCE1 CLR1 HX1 S6 PMP1 S5 S2 SINK1 Figure E8.8.7 kW.08+2491)=13.

8. Saturated water at 1 kg/s enters the pump of the Rankine heat engine at 10 kPa. (c) inlet temperature and pressure of the turbine are 250ºC and 1000 kPa. (b) pump as adiabatic with 100% efficiency.7 kW. and efficiency of the solar heat engine=27. (c) boiler as isobaric process.8. A solar heat engine with two collectors is proposed. . and (d) mass flow rate is 1 kg/s. (b) inlet quality and pressure of the pump are 0 and 10 kPa.2. Solar Heat Engine 1. Solar Rankine heat engine Homework 8.2%. we take the following steps: 1. Figure E8. Build a Rankine cycle. Why several solar collectors at different temperatures are desirable for a solarcollector-Rankine heat engine? 2. The answers are: rate of heat added in the boiler=2749 kW. Find the cycle efficiency and power produces by the solar heat engine. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid of cycle is water.8. net power produced by the Rankine cycle=747.2. To solve this problem with CyclePad.2. 2. Water enters the lowtemperature heat exchanger from a low-temperature collector at 100ºC and 101 kPa. Analysis (A) Assume a process each for the four devices: (a) turbine as adiabatic with 100% efficiency. 3. Water enters the high-temperature heat exchanger from a high-temperature collector . A solar Rankine heat engine with one concentrated collector used as the boiler is proposed.8.Vapor Cycles 311 Example 8. Steam enters the turbine at 1000 kPa and 250ºC. and (d) condenser as isobaric process. Display result as shown in Figure E8.

9. its efficiency in covert geothermal energy to electrical energy is low.9. While this is the simplest and least costly type of geothermal power installation. the pressure of which must be above the atmospheric pressure. Figure 8. useful quantities of geothermal energy are obtained. For these dry steam wells. Water enters the high-temperature heat exchanger from a high-temperature collector at 140ºC and leaves the heat exchanger at 100ºC and 101 kPa. Dry-steam is the most desirable form of geothermal energy. Dry-steam geothermal power plant In a few regions. By drilling into these high temperature reservoirs.61 kg/s. Water enters the lowtemperature heat exchanger from a low-temperature collector at 100ºC and 101 kPa. The dry steam can be expanded in a turbine and exhausted directly to the atmosphere. Cycle water enters the pump of the Rankine heat engine at 1 kg/s and 8 kPa. Cycle water enters the hightemperature heat exchanger at 100ºC. Leaving the turbine would be a mixture of vapor and liquid. mass flow rates of the high-temperature collector=57. A solar heat engine with two collectors is proposed. The exhaust geothermal fluid temperature must .312 Chih Wu at 120ºC and leaves the heat exchanger at 100ºC and 101 kPa.1. 3. ANSWER: mass flow rates of the low-temperature collector=29 kg/s.61 kg/s. Also. The earth’s interior is a vast thermal reservoir which can be used as a source of energy if favorable geological conditions exist. mass flow rates of the high-temperature collector=29 kg/s. 8. an outward flux of heat is observed. porous rock is overlain by a low permeability stratum and above that an aquifer which allows water to trickle into the hot porous rock at a rate such that a steady flow of dry steam is generated. GEOTHERMAL HEAT ENGINES Since interior regions of the earth have temperatures higher than that at the surface. Saturated steam enters the turbine at 80 kPa. There are many areas have high heat flow rate. Cycle water enters the pump of the Rankine heat engine at 1 kg/s and 8 kPa. ANSWER: mass flow rates of the low-temperature collector=57. there are many geological formations result in thermal reservoirs located within short distance of the earth’s surface. the obvious course is to use the dry steam directly in the turbine after filtering it to remove mineral particulate. Saturated steam enters the turbine at 80 kPa. Cycle water enters the hightemperature heat exchanger at 100ºC . Find the water mass flow rates of the low-temperature collector and the hightemperature collector. Find the water mass flow rates of the low-temperature collector and the hightemperature collector.

9. power=64220 kW as shown in Figure E8. and (b) condenser as isobaric process.9.1a. changing the inlet pressure of the condenser to 100 kPa gives: power=33270 kW as shown in Figure E8. 3.9. Display result The answers are: (A) With condenser. Example 8.9.9.1. (c) the inlet pressure of the condenser is 10 kPa.1b.Vapor Cycles 313 therefore be above 100ºC.1 shows the basic dry steam geothermal power plant for such an arrangement.1. and (d) the mass flow rate is 100 kg/s. A condenser with an internal pressure less than atmospheric pressure is required. Figure E8. we take the following steps: 1.9. Dry-steam geothermal power plant with condenser . Figure 8. and (B) Without condenser.1a. Analysis (A) Assume a process each for the two devices: (a) turbine as adiabatic with 100% efficiency. (b) the inlet temperature and pressure of the turbine are 170ºC and 700 kPa.1 2. Find (A) the power produced by the geothermal power plant as shown in Figure 2. (B) What is the power produced without the barometric condenser? To solve this problem with CyclePad.9. A barometric condenser at 10 kPa is used to decrease the turbine exhaust temperature. At a geothermal energy source. A considerable improvement on the efficient of the geothermal power plant can be achieved by reducing the turbine exhaust temperature to 50ºC. Build as shown in Figure 8. dry steam at 700 kPa and 170ºC is available at a mass flow rate of 100 kg/s. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid of cycle is water.

9.9.9.9.2.2. Build as shown in Figure 8. Analysis (A) Assume a process each for the three devices: (a) turbine as adiabatic with 100% efficiency. or just hot water.2. 0. we take the following steps: 1. A separator is needed in a hot water-steam mixture geothermal power plant to separate the flashing steam from the hot-water as shown in Figure 8. Hot water-steam mixture geothermal power plant Example 8. An additional throttling valve is required to generate saturated steam in a hot water geothermal power plant. and (c) condenser as isobaric process.1b.314 Chih Wu Figure E8. (b) splitters as not iso-parametric devices. (b) the inlet mass flow rate. Dry-steam geothermal power plant without condenser More commonly than it puts out dry steam. To solve this problem with CyclePad. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid of cycle is water. At a geothermal energy source. a geothermal well puts out a mixture of steam and water above 130ºC. Find the power produced by the geothermal power plant.8 .2.9. Figure 8. 2. A barometric condenser at 10 kPa is used to decrease the turbine exhaust temperature. quality and temperature of the separator (splitter) are 1 kg/s. a mixture of 80% steam and 20% water at 140ºC is available at a mass flow rate of 1 kg/s.

(b) splitters as not iso-parametric devices.2. Find the power produced by the geothermal power plant. The turbine efficiency is 88%.9.8 kW as shown in Figure E8. Hot water-steam mixture geothermal power plant Example 8. The liquid is discarded while the saturated vapor feeds the turbine and exits at 10 kPa. we take the following steps: 1.9. The high pressure water is throttled into a flash evaporator chamber. and (e) the inlet pressure of the condenser is 10 kPa. which forms liquid and vapor at a lower pressure of 400 kPa. Analysis (A) Assume a process each for the three devices: (a) turbine as adiabatic with 88% efficiency. 3. Figure E8.2.2. pressure and temperature of the separator (splitter) are 1 kg/s. To solve this problem with CyclePad. (d) the inlet quality of the sink1 is 0. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid of cycle is water. 2. 1500 kPa and 180ºC. Cooling water is available at 15ºC. (c) the inlet quality and pressure of the turbine are 1 and 400 kPa. and (c) condenser as isobaric process.3. (b) the inlet mass flow rate. and (e) the inlet pressure of the condenser is 10 kPa.Vapor Cycles 315 and 140ºC. A proposal is made to use a geothermal supply of hot water at 1500 kPa and 180ºC to operate a steam turbine. . Find the turbine power per unit geothermal hot water mass flow rate. Build the hot water geothermal power plant as shown in Figure 8. Find the optimized flash pressure that will give the most turbine power per unit geothermal hot water mass flow rate. Notice that throttling devices in CyclePad are automatically constant enthalpy processes. (c) the inlet quality of the turbine is 1. (d) the inlet quality of the sink1 is 0.9. Display result The answer is Power=430.9.

9.3a.9. Geothermal hot water power plant To find the optimized flash pressure that will give the most turbine power per unit geothermal hot water mass flow rate. Optimization of Geothermal hot water power plant . Figure E8. we use the sensitivity analysis.3b. Display result Chih Wu The answer is Power=36.316 3. The maximum power is found about 42 kW at a pressure of about 140 kPa.9.9. A plot of power versus turbine inlet pressure is made as shown in Figure E8.3a.3b. Figure E8.25 kW as shown in Figure E8.

(b) spliters as not iso-parametric devices.4.9.9. Consider there is an optional choice for flash pressure. and (c) condensers as isobaric processes. 1500 kPa and 180ºC.9. Cooling water is available at 15ºC. and (h) the exit temperatures of the condensers are 15ºC as shown in Figure E8. (e) the inlet (state 6) quality of the low-pressure throttling valve 2 is 0. Build as shown in Figure E8. . (d) the inlet (state 3) quality and pressure of the high-pressure turbine are 1 and 350 kPa. The saturated vapor at 400 kPa feeds the high pressure turbine and exits at 10 kPa.Vapor Cycles 317 Example 8. (b) the inlet (state 1) mass flow rate. Find the total turbine power per unit geothermal hot water mass flow rate. The turbines have efficiency of 80%.4a. (f) the inlet (state 7) pressure of the low-pressure splitter 2 is 100 kPa. (c) the inlet (state 2) pressure of the high-pressure splitter 1 is 350 kPa. (g) the inlet pressures of the condensers are 10 kPa. which forms liquid and vapor at a lower pressure of 100 kPa. Analysis (A) Assume a process each for the eight devices: (a) turbines as adiabatic with 80% efficiency.9.9. Notice that throttling devices are automatically constant enthalpy processes. Find the optimized flash pressure that will give the most total turbine power per unit geothermal hot water mass flow rate.4b. The liquid at 100 kPa is discarded while the saturated vapor at 100 kPa feeds the low pressure turbine and exits at 10 kPa. which forms liquid and vapor at a lower pressure of 400 kPa. The saturated liquid at 400 kPa is then throttled into a flash evaporator chamber.4a. Two flash evaporators and two geothermal steam turbines system 2. A proposal is made to use a geothermal supply of hot water at 1500 kPa and 180ºC to operate a two flash evaporators and two geothermal steam turbines system as shown in Figure Example 2. pressure and temperature of the high-pressure throttling valve separator (splitter 1) are 1 kg/s. we take the following steps: 1.. To solve this problem with CyclePad. The high pressure water is throttled into a flash evaporator chamber. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid of cycle is water.4a. Figure E8.

09=54.3 kW at a pressure of 400 kPa. Figure E8. The maximum total turbine power is found about 54.9.04 kW as shown in Figure E8.95 kW. Input information 3.09 kW. Output information .9. power of turbine 2=21. Display result The answers are power of turbine 1=32.4c.318 Chih Wu Figure E8. we use the sensitivity analysis. and total turbine power=32.9. To find the optimized flash pressure that will give the most turbine power per unit geothermal hot water mass flow rate.95+21.4d. A plot of total turbine power versus high-pressure turbine 1 inlet pressure (p2) is made as shown in Figure E8.4b.9.4c.

Vapor Cycles 319 Figure E8. S3 TUR1 S4 S6 SINK1 HX1 S5 SOURCE1 SINK2 S8 HX2 S7 SOURCE2 S2 PMP1 S1 Figure 8.4d.3.9. Sensitivity diagram of total turbine power versus pressure Electrical power can be produced by geothermal fields in which either hot water and steam below 130ºC by using a secondary closed Rankine cycle as shown in Figure 8.3. A closed-cycle low-temperature dry geothermal Rankine cycle . A secondary closed Rankine cycle as shown in Figure 8.9.9. After drilling.9.3 will be required for producing power. Water will need to be injected into the field. Dry geothermal fields (high temperature rocks) in which no water is present are another potential source of geothermal energy. fracturing of the high temperature rocks will be required to improve heat transfer areas with water.

hot water temperature at the inlet and exit of the heat exchanger are 120ºC and 70ºC. Figure E8.9.320 Chih Wu Example 8. The information of the proposed geothermal steam-Rakine cycle are: fluid mass flow rate. Analysis (A) Assume a process each for the four devices: (a) turbine as adiabatic with 100% efficiency. quality and pressure at the inlet of the pump are 1 kg/s.5 kW as shown in Figure E8. and (d) both hot. quality and pressure of the pump are 1 kg/s. Water is injected into the field. 0 and 8 kPa.5.5. 0 and 8 kPa. 2. Display result The answer is power=422.3. (c) condenser as isobaric process. (c) the inlet quality and pressure at the inlet of the turbine are 1 and 140 kPa. hot rock is available. 3. Find the power produced by the geothermal power plant. we take the following steps: 1. To solve this problem with CyclePad. A closed-cycle low-temperature dry geothermal Rankine cycle . Geothermal energy is transferred from the hot rock to a proposed Rankine heat engine by a heat exchanger. and (e) the inlet pressure of the hot water to the heat exchanger is 100 kPa.9. fluid quality and pressure at the inlet of the turbine are 1 and 140 kPa. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid of cycle is water. (d) the inlet and exit of the heat exchanger are 120ºC and 70ºC . (b) the inlet mass flow rate.5.9.and cold-side of the heat exchanger are isobaric. At a dry geothermal energy source. cololing water temperature at the inlet and exit of the heat exchanger are 15ºC and 20ºC. (b) pump as adiabatic with 100% efficiency. Build as shown in Figure 8.9.

Geothermal Heat Engines 1. A proposal is made to use a geothermal supply of hot water at 1000 kPa and 170ºC to operate a steam turbine as shown in Figure 8. The liquid is discarded while the saturated vapor feeds the turbine and exits at 10 kPa. The turbine has an isentropic efficiency of 85%. The saturated liquid at 400 kPa is then throttled into a flash evaporator chamber.9.45 kW. which forms liquid and vapor at a lower pressure of 400 kPa The saturated vapor at 400 kPa feeds the high pressure turbine and exits at 10 kPa. Cooling water is available at 15ºC. 3.3 kW at throttling pressure=107 kPa. Cooling water is available at 15ºC.51 kW. Find the optimized flash pressure that will give the most total turbine power per unit geothermal hot water mass flow rate.3. which forms liquid and vapor at a lower pressure of 400 kPa The saturated vapor at 400 kPa feeds the high pressure turbine and exits at 10 kPa. The low pressure turbine has an isentropic . which forms liquid and vapor at a lower pressure of 100 kPa. The low pressure turbine has an isentropic efficiency of 87%.3. Cooling water is available at 15ºC. The high pressure water is throttled into a flash evaporator chamber. Maximum turbine power=40. The high pressure turbine has an isentropic efficiency of 85%. The saturated liquid at 400 kPa is then throttled into a flash evaporator chamber. Find the turbine power per unit geothermal hot water mass flow rate. The high pressure turbine has an isentropic efficiency of 88%. The high pressure water is throttled into a flash evaporator chamber. The liquid at 100 kPa is discarded while the saturated vapor at 100 kPa feeds the low pressure turbine and exits at 10 kPa. 4. which forms liquid and vapor at a lower pressure of 300 kPa. Find the optimized flash pressure that will give the most turbine power per unit geothermal hot water mass flow rate. ANSWER: High pressure turbine power=6.8 kW at throttling pressure=106 kPa. 2. ANSWER: Turbine power=31. The high pressure water is throttled into a flash evaporator chamber. The liquid is discarded while the saturated vapor feeds the turbine and exits at 10 kPa. which forms liquid and vapor at a lower pressure of 400 kPa. Low pressure turbine power=24. Consider there is an optional choice for flash pressure. Find the turbine power per unit geothermal hot water mass flow rate. ANSWER: Turbine power=26. The turbine has an isentropic efficiency of 88%. The high pressure water is throttled into a flash evaporator chamber. Maximum turbine power=39.62 kW.Vapor Cycles 321 Homework 8. A proposal is made to use a geothermal supply of hot water at 1000 kPa and 150ºC to operate a two flash evaporators and two geothermal steam turbines system. Find the optimized flash pressure that will give the most turbine power per unit geothermal hot water mass flow rate. which forms liquid and vapor at a lower pressure of 100 kPa.9. The liquid at 100 kPa is discarded while the saturated vapor at 100 kPa feeds the low pressure turbine and exits at 10 kPa.9. Find the turbine power per unit geothermal hot water mass flow rate. Maximum turbine power=33. A proposal is made to use a geothermal supply of hot water at 1200 kPa and 170ºC to operate a two flash evaporators and two geothermal steam turbines system. A proposal is made to use a geothermal supply of hot water at 800 kPa and 170ºC to operate a steam turbine as shown in Figure 8.34 kW.5 kW at throttling pressure=230 kPa.

The liquid at 100 kPa is discarded while the saturated vapor at 100 kPa feeds the low pressure turbine and exits at 10 kPa. Cooling water is available at 15ºC. Find the optimized flash pressure that will give the most total turbine power per unit geothermal hot water mass flow rate. Find the turbine power per unit geothermal hot water mass flow rate. The saturated liquid at 400 kPa is then throttled into a flash evaporator chamber. Find the turbine power per unit geothermal hot water mass flow rate. The high pressure turbine has an isentropic efficiency of 88%. ANSWER: High pressure turbine power=26. Low pressure turbine power=22.9 kW at throttling pressure=80 kPa. Find the turbine power per unit geothermal hot water mass flow rate.25 kW. which forms liquid and vapor at a lower pressure of 400 kPa The saturated vapor at 600 kPa feeds the high pressure turbine and exits at 10 kPa. 150ºC is fed to the throttling valve of a geothermal power plant. Low pressure turbine power=23.5 kW at throttling pressure=340 kPa. 5. Find the optimized flash pressure that will give the most total turbine power per unit geothermal hot water mass flow rate. Maximum turbine power=27. Find the optimized flash pressure that will give the most total turbine power per unit geothermal hot water mass flow rate. The liquid at 100 kPa is discarded while the saturated vapor at 100 kPa feeds the low pressure turbine and exits at 10 kPa. A proposal is made to use a geothermal supply of hot water at 1200 kPa and 170ºC to operate a two flash evaporators and two geothermal steam turbines system. Consider there is an optional choice for flash pressure.322 Chih Wu efficiency of 85%.24 kW. A stream of saturated vapor at 300 kPa is drawn from the separator and fed to the turbine. The low pressure turbine has an isentropic efficiency of 85%.44 kW. Low pressure turbine power=31. The low pressure turbine has an isentropic efficiency of 87%. The saturated liquid at 600 kPa is then throttled into a flash evaporator chamber. The high pressure water is throttled into a flash evaporator chamber. ANSWER: High pressure turbine power=25. 8.19 kW. Maximum turbine power=49. 9. The turbine has an isentropic efficiency of 85% and an exit pressure of 10 kPa. A geothermal supply of hot water at 800 kPa. The high pressure turbine has an isentropic efficiency of 85%. Consider there is an optional choice for flash pressure. which forms liquid and vapor at a lower pressure of 400 kPa The saturated vapor at 400 kPa feeds the high pressure turbine and exits at 10 kPa.21 kW. The high pressure water is throttled into a flash evaporator chamber.8 kW at throttling pressure=295 kPa. Maximum turbine power=57. which forms liquid and vapor at a lower pressure of 100 kPa. Cooling water is available at 15ºC. Consider there is an optional choice for flash pressure.9 kW at throttling pressure=300 kPa. ANSWER: High pressure turbine power=23. Find the turbine power per unit geothermal hot water mass flow rate. Cooling water is available at 15ºC. ANSWER: Turbine power=14. 6. . Maximum turbine power=48. Cooling water is available at 15ºC.9 kW.3 kW. which forms liquid and vapor at a lower pressure of 100 kPa. 7. A proposal is made to use a geothermal supply of hot water at 1200 kPa and 180ºC to operate a two flash evaporators and two geothermal steam turbines system.

which forms liquid and vapor at a lower pressure of 100 kPa. . 12. ANSWER: Total turbine power=44. Maximum turbine power=27. The liquid at 100 kPa is discarded while the saturated vapor at 100 kPa feeds the low pressure turbine and exits at 10 kPa. Find the turbine power per unit geothermal hot water mass flow rate. 160ºC is fed to the throttling valve of a geothermal power plant. Find the turbine power per unit geothermal hot water mass flow rate. which forms liquid and vapor at a lower pressure of 100 kPa. The high pressure water is throttled into a flash evaporator chamber. 8. The liquid at 100 kPa is discarded while the saturated vapor at 100 kPa feeds the low pressure turbine and exits at 10 kPa. The saturated liquid at 400 kPa is then throttled into a flash evaporator chamber. The high pressure water is throttled into a flash evaporator chamber.96 kW. A proposal is made to use a geothermal supply of hot water at 1200 kPa and 180ºC to operate a two flash evaporators and two geothermal steam turbines system. Cooling water is available at 15ºC. In the tropics. Find the turbine power per unit geothermal hot water mass flow rate. A proposal is made to use a geothermal supply of hot water at 1200 kPa and 170ºC to operate a two flash evaporators and two geothermal steam turbines system. ANSWER: Total turbine power=54. The saturated liquid at 400 kPa is then throttled into a flash evaporator chamber. The turbine has an isentropic efficiency of 88% and an exit pressure of 10 kPa. As a result of variation in the density of ocean water with temperature. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION Since the oceans comprise over 70% of the earth’s surface area.49 kW. Cooling water is available at 15ºC. the OTEC power plant cycle efficiency is small. A geothermal supply of hot water at 800 kPa. Warm surface ocean water with low density tends to stay on the surface and cold water with high density within a few degree of 4ºC tends to settle to the depths of the ocean. which forms liquid and vapor at a lower pressure of 400 kPa The saturated vapor at 400 kPa feeds the high pressure turbine and exits at 10 kPa. ANSWER: Turbine power=23. It means that enormous quantities of ocean water must be handled and the heat exchangers and turbine must be very large. The turbines have efficiency of 80%. which forms liquid and vapor at a lower pressure of 400 kPa The saturated vapor at 400 kPa feeds the high pressure turbine and exits at 10 kPa. Cooling water is available at 15ºC. the absorbed solar energy that is stored as latent heat of the oceans represents a very large potential source of energy.18 kW. The turbines have efficiency of 80%.10. A stream of saturated vapor at 300 kPa is drawn from the separator and fed to the turbine. Since the temperature difference of the OTEC between the heat source and the heat sink is small.Vapor Cycles 323 10.8 kW at throttling pressure=79 kPa. the ocean water temperature is not uniform with depth. The combination of the warmed surface water and cold deep water provides two different temperature thermal reservoirs needed to operate a heat engine called OTEC (ocean thermal energy conversion). ocean surface temperatures in excess of 25ºC occur. 11.

Boiling of the warm water occurs at a pressure of only 3% of atmospheric pressure. the vapor pressure of ammonia is nearly 10 times the atmospheric pressure and the specific volume is comparable to that of a conventional steam power plant.10.874 kPa. large heat exchangers are required.10. The steam is expanded in a low pressure. The closed OTEC cycle as shown in Figure 8. While the size of a turbine is smaller than that of a comparable low pressure steam turbine.37 kPa and the vapor pressure of the condenser at 5ºC is 0. The second approach called closed OTEC cycle involves heat exchangers and a secondary thermodynamic working fluid such as ammonia or freon to reduce the size of the plant.324 Chih Wu There are two principal approaches to build OTEC power plants.1. For conditions typical of an open OTEC plant.10. Open OTEC cycle . An advantage of this cycle is that heat exchangers with their attendant temperature differentials are unnecessary. Ocean water is the working fluid of the open OTEC cycle as shown in Figure 8. The disadvantage is the very small pressure drop and the large specific volumes that must be utilized by the turbine. low temperature. high volume turbine before being condensed by the cold water. Figure 8. the vapor pressure of the boiler at 26ºC is 3. For a boiler temperature of 25ºC. The first approach called open OTEC cycle involves a flash boiler to obtain steam directly from the warm surface ocean water. The open OTEC cycle requires a very large turbine.2 uses a secondary thermodynamic working fluid such as ammonia or freon to reduce the size of the plant.1.

10. and mass flow rate of deep ocean cooling water.2 with the following information:] Condenser temperature Boiler temperature Mass flow rate of ammonia Surface ocean warm water entering heat exchanger Surface ocean warm water leaving heat exchanger Deep ocean cooling water entering heat exchanger Deep ocean cooling water leaving heat exchanger Turbine efficiency Pump efficiency 12ºC 24ºC 1 kg/s 28ºC 26ºC 5ºC 9ºC 100% 100% (A) Determine the pump power. boiler pressure. cycle efficiency. mass flow rate of surface ocean warm water. specific volume of ammonia entering the turbine. (B) Change the working fluid to R-134a (tetrafluoroethane).Vapor Cycles 325 S3 TUR1 S4 S6 SINK1 HX1 S5 SOURCE1 SINK2 S8 HX2 S7 SOURCE2 S2 PMP1 S1 Figure 8. net power output. . net power output. mass flow rate of surface ocean warm water. rate of heat removed in the heat exchanger by deep ocean cooling water. rate of heat added in the heat exchanger by surface ocean warm water. and mass flow rate of deep ocean cooling water. cycle efficiency. specific volume of ammonia entering the turbine. condenser pressure. Determine the pump power. condenser pressure.2. rate of heat added in the heat exchanger by surface ocean warm water. boiler pressure.10. turbine power.1. A typical closed-cycle OTEC Rankine cycle using ammonia is suggested as illustrated in Figure 8.10. turbine power. Closed OTEC cycle Example 8. rate of heat removed in the heat exchanger by deep ocean cooling water.

33 kW.4 kPa. mdotwarm water=23.10.58 kW.1b. v=0. Qdotboiler=194. pcondenser=647. Analysis (A) Assume a process each for the four devices: (a) pump as adiabatic with 100% efficiency.74 kW. (b) turbine as adiabatic with 100% efficiency. v=0.23 kg/s.1a. and working fluid of cycle C is water.21 kg/s.47%.10. and (d) the mass flow rate is 1 kg/s. Qdotcondenser=-1178 kW. η=3.5 kPa. Display result The answers are: (A) Wdotpump=-6.38 kW.10. Wdotnet=42. (A) Retract the working fluid: working fluid of cycle A is R-134a. working fluid of cycle B is water. Wdotturbine=48.0320 m3/kg. and mdotcold water=70.1321 m3/kg.2 kW.6 kPa. 3.326 Chih Wu To solve this problem with CyclePad.21 kg/s. η=3. (b) the inlet temperature and quality of the pump are 12ºC and 0.10. Wdotnet=6. and (B) Display result as shown in Figure Example 8. OTEC Rankine cycle . (c) heat exchanger 1 (boiler) as isobaric on both cold-side and hot-side. we take the following steps: 1. pcondenser=658. Qdotboiler=1220 kW.9 kW.2 2. Qdotcondenser=-187. 4.27%.36 kW. (c) the inlet temperature and quality of the turbine are 24ºC and 1.8 kg/s. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid of cycle A is ammonia. pboiler=972. pboiler=445. Wdotturbine=7. and (d) heat exchanger 2 (condenser) as isobaric on both cold-side and hot-side. Build as shown in Figure 8.91 kW. Figure E8.3 kPa.1a and 8. and mdotcold water=11. The answers are: (B) Wdotpump=-1. mdotwarm water=145.

A typical closed-cycle OTEC Rankine cycle using ammonia is suggested as illustrated in Figure 8.10. mdotwarm water=47. net power output. rate of heat added in the heat exchanger by surface ocean warm water.52%.Vapor Cycles 327 Figure E8. pcondenser=614. boiler pressure. A typical closed-cycle OTEC Rankine cycle using R-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane) is suggested as illustrated in Figure 8.1b. ANSWERS: Wdotpump=-6.4 kPa. Qdotboiler=1228 kW. η=3. condenser pressure. pboiler=913.9 kPa.71 kg/s. turbine power. Wdotnet=43.18 kW. Wdotturbine=49. and mass flow rate of deep ocean cooling water.7. cycle efficiency. 2.7. OTEC Rankine cycle Homework 8. mass flow rate of surface ocean warm water.3 with the following information: .55 kW.10 Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion 1.08 kg/s.3 with the following information: Condenser temperature Boiler temperature Mass flow rate of ammonia Surface ocean warm water entering heat exchanger Surface ocean warm water leaving heat exchanger Deep ocean cooling water entering heat exchanger Deep ocean cooling water leaving heat exchanger Turbine efficiency Pump efficiency 10ºC 22ºC 1 kg/s 28ºC 22ºC 4ºC 10ºC 100% 100% Determine the pump power. rate of heat removed in the heat exchanger by deep ocean cooling water. Qdotcondenser=-1185 kW.36 kW. and mdotcold water=36.

and mass flow rate of deep ocean cooling water. ANSWERS: Wdotpump=-2. Qdotcondenser=-145.1 kW. η=3. cycle efficiency.86 kW. 3. mass flow rate of surface ocean warm water. and mdotcold water=7. mdotwarm water=5.93 kg/s.00 kW. Wdotturbine=6.65 kg/s.11. inverse OTEC system.3 with the following information: Condenser temperature 10ºC Boiler temperature 22ºC Mass flow rate of ammonia 1 kg/s Surface ocean warm water entering heat exchanger 28ºC Surface ocean warm water leaving heat exchanger 22ºC Deep ocean cooling water entering heat exchanger 4ºC Deep ocean cooling water leaving heat exchanger 10ºC Turbine efficiency 100% Pump efficiency 100% Determine the pump power.09 kW. Qdotboiler=150. rate of heat added in the heat exchanger by surface ocean warm water.5 kPa. turbine power. pboiler=600. mass flow rate of surface ocean warm water.49 kg/s. Wdotnet=5. η=2. Qdotcondenser=-192. boiler pressure. boiler pressure.7.4 kW. net power output.7 kPa. As the surface waters of the pond are heated by the solar radiation. and mass flow rate of deep ocean cooling water.1 kW. pcondenser=680. pcondenser=423. A typical closed-cycle OTEC Rankine cycle using R-22 (chlorodifluoromethane) is suggested as illustrated in Figure 8. In this system. condenser pressure. Qdotboiler=198.95%. This causes the hot water . condenser pressure. turbine power. net power output.5 kW. Wdotnet=5.33%.06 kW.23 kW. rate of heat removed in the heat exchanger by deep ocean cooling water. a shallow (1 to 2 m deep) pond saturated with a salt is used as the primary solar collector.328 Chih Wu Condenser temperature Boiler temperature Mass flow rate of ammonia Surface ocean warm water entering heat exchanger Surface ocean warm water leaving heat exchanger Deep ocean cooling water entering heat exchanger Deep ocean cooling water leaving heat exchanger Turbine efficiency Pump efficiency 10ºC 22ºC 1 kg/s 28ºC 22ºC 4ºC 10ºC 100% 100% Determine the pump power. the solubility of this warm water increases and the solution becomes heavier as it absorbs more salt. ANSWERS: Wdotpump=-1.77 kg/s.0 kPa. and mdotcold water=5. mdotwarm water=4.7 kPa. rate of heat removed in the heat exchanger by deep ocean cooling water. rate of heat added in the heat exchanger by surface ocean warm water. cycle efficiency.06 kW. pboiler=963. SOLAR POND HEAT ENGINES Solar pond heat engine is a small scale. 8. Wdotturbine=8.

100 kPa and 80ºC. This is the same concept that is employed in the OTEC system. To solve this problem with CyclePad. A proposal is made to use a solar pond supply of bottom pond hot water at 100 kPa and 80ºC to operate a steam turbine.11. Analysis (A) Assume a process each for the four devices: (a) turbine as adiabatic with 80% efficiency.Vapor Cycles 329 to sink to the bottom of the pond. where it boils a working fluid in a Rankine power cycle as shown in Figure 8. the bottom water of the pond becomes very hot (65 to 82ºC) while the surface water remains at temperature below 32ºC. Find the turbine power per unit geothermal hot water mass flow rate. except that in the OTEC system the surface waters are warmer than that of the deep ocean water. The liquid is discarded while the saturated vapor feeds the turbine and exits at 10 kPa. The turbine efficiency is 80%. Consequently.1. and (c) condenser as isobaric process. Build as shown in Figure E8. (b) the inlet mass flow rate. pressure and temperature of the separator (splitter) are 1 kg/s. Solar pond heat engine. Find the power produced by the solar pond power plant. The hot water from the bottom of the pond is pumped through a boiler. The 100 kPa-pressure bottom pond water is throttled into a flash evaporator chamber. Notice that throttling devices are automatically constant enthalpy processes. The cooler water from the surface of the pond is used to cool the turbine exhaust vapor in the condenser.11. S3 TUR1 S4 S6 SINK1 HX1 S5 SOURCE1 SINK2 S8 HX2 S7 SOURCE2 S2 PMP1 S1 Figure 8.1.1. .11. (c) the inlet quality and pressure of the turbine are 1 and 20 kPa. and (e) the exit pressure and temperature of the condenser are 10 kPa and 15ºC.1. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid of cycle is water. Cooling water is available at 15ºC. (b) splitter as not iso-parametric devices. Example 8. we take the following steps: 1. 2.11. (d) the inlet quality of the sink2 is 0. which forms liquid and vapor at a lower pressure of 20 kPa.

Large amounts of waste materials are also generated from farming. location and socioeconomic factors. What is a solar pond heat engine? 2. These wastes are often flushed.330 3. Figure E8. Disposal practices of these wastes are wasteful of resources and create pollution of water and land. Solar Pond Heat Engines 1. ANSWER: Power produced by the solar pond power plant=3.12. Homework 8. The turbine efficiency is 85%.11. Solar pond heat engine. and crop production. 8. buried or burned.1. which forms liquid and vapor at a lower pressure of 20 kPa. Conversion of waste material to useable thermal energy in large scale has been found to be cost effective and result in a net energy gain. . Display result Chih Wu The answer is power=2.07 kW.1.11.89 kW as shown in Figure E8. The quantity and heating values of solid residue are large. Municipal solid residues generated by large metropolitan areas are large. Cooling water is available at 15ºC. A proposal is made to use a solar pond supply of bottom pond hot water at 100 kPa and 80ºC to operate a steam turbine. animal manure.11. The liquid is discarded while the saturated vapor feeds the turbine and exits at 10 kPa. The 100 kPa-pressure bottom pond water is throttled into a flash evaporator chamber. Find the power produced by the solar pond power plant. Find the turbine power per unit geothermal hot water mass flow rate. WASTE HEAT ENGINES Waste sources are variable in both type and availability depending on season.

Find the power produced by the solid waste power plant. Cooling water is available at 25ºC. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid of cycle is water. Several stages of cyclone separators are also used to remove particulate from the gas prior to its expansion through the turbines.1. The material is already concentrated at the processing site and it creates a disposal pollution problem. The turbine efficiency is 85%. At a solid waste energy source. and (b) condenser as isobaric process.8 kW as shown in Figure E8. Analysis (A) Assume a process each for the two devices: (a) turbine as adiabatic with 85% efficiency. Example 8. Display result The answers are: power=759.Vapor Cycles 331 Biomass energy created by waste and residues left after food processing operations.1 2. .12.1.9. In water-wall incineration. supplementary fuel co-firing with coal or oil. Fluidized bed combustion uses air-classified municipal solid residues to provides heat for a conventional gas turbine to produce power. Build as shown in Figure 8. (c) the exit pressure and temperature of the condenser are 10 kPa and 25ºC. and landfill gas mainly produced during anaerobic decomposition of organic waste material seem to offer the most promising source of waste heat engines. 3. and fluidized bed combustion. A barometric condenser at 10 kPa is used to decrease the turbine exhaust temperature. (b) the inlet temperature and pressure of the turbine are 260ºC and 4000 kPa. 260ºC) steam is produced. steam at 4000 kPa and 260ºC is available at a mass flow rate of 1 kg/s. To solve this problem with CyclePad. unprocessed municipal solid residues is loaded into the incinerator and burned on traveling grates. Burning biomass as a supplementary fuel in combination with steam-electric power production is a proved and established technology. and (d) the mass flow rate is 1 kg/s. An advantage of the process is reduction of noxious gas emission.12. There are three major types of processes for direct combustion of waste biomass: waterwall incineration. Low pressure and temperature (4 Mpa. we take the following steps: 1.

High critical temperature– to permit evaporation at high temperature. The desirable properties of the vapor cycle working fluid include the following eight important characters. A barometric condenser at 10 kPa is used to decrease the turbine exhaust temperature. 7.13. etc. The turbine efficiency is 85%. Rapidly diverging pressure lines on the h-s diagram– to minimize the back-work ratio and to make reheat modification most effective. Homework 8. No degrading aspects– non-corrosive. Large enthalpy of evaporation– to minimize the mass flow rate for given power output. though by no means is it the only working fluid used in vapor power cycles. Pressure around ambient pressure at condenser temperature– to eliminate serious air leakage and sealing problems. 4. Low saturation (boiling) pressure at high temperature– to minimize the pressure vessel and piping costs.332 Chih Wu Figure E8. inflammable. ANSWER: Power=753. Waste heat engine. non-clogging. 1. VAPOR CYCLE WORKING FLUIDS Water has been used mainly as the working fluid in the vapor power examples of this chapter.0 kW 8. steam at 3000 kPa and 250ºC is available at a mass flow rate of 1 kg/s. 2. What is a waste heat engine? 2. At a solid waste energy source.1. 5. 3.12. Waste Heat Engines 1. 6. water is the most common fluid in large central power plants. . etc. In fact. Find the power produced by the solid waste power plant. No hazardous features– non-toxic. Cooling water is available at 30ºC.12.

14. List at least four desirable characteristics of a vapor cycle working fluid. Why water is the most popular working fluid choice in central vapor power plants? 2.Vapor Cycles 8. . 6. Justify his proposal. Is water saturation pressures at the maximum and minimumcycle temperatures within a central power plant range poor? 5. Therefore.I. 333 There are six vapor working fluids listed on the menu of CyclePad. An engineer proposes to use a combination of fluids such that one is well suited to the high temperature part and other to the low temperature part of the cycle. refrigerant 22. ASME Transaction Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power. Moreover. Thus. Since ammonia is more volatile than water. These differences result in higher efficiency and specific work output. The ocean surface water is warm (27ºC at equator) and deep ocean water is cold (5ºC at 2000 m depth). 1984] have proposed the use of a mixture of ammonia and water as the working fluid for a vapor Rankine power plant. the temperature of a thermal reservoir is not constant when heat is added to or removed from the reservoir.. Combined-cycle system with novel bottoming cycle. If a vapor cycle operates between these two thermal reservoirs. A. 7 and 8 above and water remains a top choice for industrial central vapor power plant. Is there a perfect fluid that has all desirable characteristics of a vapor cycle working fluid? 4. is water or refrigerant a better choice as the working fluid for this power plant? 8. v106. Water has the characteristics of items 4. pp737-742.13. 3. methane. refrigerant 134a. the constant pressure heat transfer process temperature curve of the working fluid more closely matches that of the temperature distribution of its surrounding finite capacity thermal reservoir. 5. n4. refrigerant 12. and water. Kalina and his associates [Reference: Kalina. An additional advantage is a condenser pressure near atmospheric pressure. the mixture temperature increases as the vaporization process progresses. Low cost readily available. KALINA CYCLE Thermal reservoirs are not infinitely large in the real world. Since no single working fluid better than water has been found. boiling of an ammonia-water mixture starts at a lower temperature and the vapor phase has a higher concentration of ammonia than the liquid phase. Hence steam power engineering remains the most important area of applied thermodynamics. The two isobaric processes lead to a higher degree (better) of heat transfer. Homework 8. The fluids are ammonia. Vapor Cycle Working Fluids 1.

334 Chih Wu Homework 8. A non-azeotropic mixture has a temperature distribution parallel to that of the thermal reservoir. pp199-206. Kalina Cycle 1. an isobaric heat addition process from state 2 to state 6. Figure 8. It is clearly demonstrated that the temperature distribution curves of the ideal non-azeotropic mixture Rankine cycle (curve 2-6 and curve 4-5) are more closely matched to the temperature distribution curves of the heat source and heat sink (curve 7-8 and curve 9-10) than the temperature distribution curves of the Carnot cycle (curve 2-3 and curve 4-1). What are the advantages of a Kalina cycle? 8. . NON-AZEOTROPIC MIXTURE RANKINE CYCLE The thermodynamic performance of a vapor Rankine cycle may be improved potentially by using a non-azeotropic mixture working fluid such as ammonia-water [Reference: Wu. Non-azetropic mixture energy conversion. A mixture of two or more different fluids is classified as azeotrope when such a mixture possesses its own thermodynamic properties.14. v25. 1985]. The inlet and exit temperature of the heating fluid (finite-heat-capacity heat source) in the hot-side heat exchanger are T7 and T8. much the same as a pure simple fluid in that its transition from liquid to vapor phase (or vice versa) occurs at a constant pressure and temperature without any change in the composition. The non-azeotropic mixture Rankine cycle is a generalized Kalina cycle. The ideal Carnot cycle consists of an isentropic compression process from state 1 to state 2. Otherwise.15. an isentropic expansion process from state 3 to state 4. An ideal non-azeotropic mixture Rankine cycle and an ideal Carnot cycle operating between a non-constant temperature heat source and a non-constant temperature heat sink are shown in the following T-s diagram. Energy Conversion and Management. and an isobaric heat removing process from state 4 to state 5. respectively. Chih. Note that one of the requirements for the non-azeotropic mixture energy conversion improvement is to have non-constant temperature heat source and heat sink. respectively. n2. The ideal non-azeotropic mixture Rankine cycle consists of an isentropic compression process from state 5 to state 2. and an isobaric heat removing process from state 3 to state 4. an isentropic expansion process from state 6 to state 4.1. What is a Kalina cycle? 2. and the inlet and exit temperature of the cooling fluid (finite-heatcapacity heat sink) in the hot-side heat exchanger are T9 and T10. quite unlike the thermal and chemical characteristics of its components. the mixture is called non-azetrope. The proper choosing of best combination of the non-azeotropic mixture is still not entirely understood. A distinguishing feature of this type of fluid is its ability to maintain a permanent composition and uniform boiling point during evaporation.15. an isobaric heat addition process from state 2 to state 3. Uncertainties in modeling the thermodynamic and heat transfer aspects of the non-azeotropic mixture cycle are such that the probability of realizing significant net benefits in actual application is also not fully known.

Vapor Cycles 335 Figure 8.1. The cycle efficiency of the ideal Non-azeotropic mixture Rankine cycle is ηnonaze=Wnet.non-aze/Qnon-aze=area52645/ area26ba2 =[area12341+area2632+area4514]/[area23ba2+area2632] ={area12341[1+(area2632/area12341)+(area4514/area12341)]}/{area 23ba2[1+(area2632/area23ba2)]} =ηCarnot[1+(area 2632/area 12341)+(area 4514/area 12341)]/[1+(area 2632/area 23ba2)] Since (area2632/area12341) is lager than (area2632/area23ba2).15. the factor [1+(area 2632/area 12341)+(area 4514/area 12341)]/[1+(area 2632/area 23ba2)] is lager than 1. and therefore ηnon-aze is larger than ηCarnot. The cycle efficiency of the Carnot cycle is ηCarnot=Wnet.15. T-s diagram of ideal Non-azeotropic cycle and Carnot cycle. Rearranging the expression of the cycle efficiency of the ideal Non-azeotropic mixture Rankine cycle gives ηnon-aze=Wnet. the net work and heat added to the ideal non-azeotropic mixture Rankine cycle are Wnet.1. . Referring to Figure 8. respectively.Carnot/QCarnot=area12341/ area 23ba2. Similarly.non-aze=area52645 and Qnon-aze=area26ba2.non-aze/Qnon-aze=area52645/ area 26ba2. and the net work and heat added to the Carnot cycle are WnetCarnot=area12341 and QCarnot=area23ba2.

336 Chih Wu Homework 8. Increasing the temperature range without superheat leads to excessive moisture content in the vapor turbines. The gas Brayton cycle adds heat at isobaric process over a large temperature range. The simple Rankine cycle is inherently efficient. The cycle is called super-critical cycle.16. The cycle is composed of the following four processes: 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-1 isentropic compression isobaric heat addition isentropic expansion isobaric heat removing Pure substance enters the pump at state 1 as a low pressure saturated liquid to avoid the cavitation problem and exits at state 2 as a high pressure (over critical pressure) compressed liquid.1). The temperature level is independent of the pressure level. Heat is added and rejected isothermally and therefore the ideal Rankine cycle can achieve a high percentage of Carnot cycle efficiency between the same temperatures. resulting in blade erosion. Does temperature remain the same during the boiling region? 3. SUPER-CRITICAL CYCLE Thermodynamic power cycles most commonly used today are the vapor Rankine cycle and the gas Brayton cycle. The vapor Rankine cycle operates mainly in the saturated region of its working fluid whereas the gas Brayton cycle processes are located entirely in the superheat or gas region. The back work ratio is large. No blade erosion occurs in the gas turbine. Both are characterized by two isobaric and two isentropic processes. Draw an isobaric heating process on a T-s diagram for a Non-azeotropic mixture from a compressed liquid state to a superheated vapor state. which is an efficient process requiring small work input. Why the thermodynamic performance of a vapor Rankine cycle may be improved potentially by using a non-azeotropic mixture working fluid? 8. The Supercritical cycle is shown on the T-s diagram of a pure substance (Figure 8. the temperature range of the Rankine cycle is severely limited by the nature of the working fluid–water. What is a non-azeotropic mixture? 2.16. The superheated vapor at state 3 . The back work ratio is small. The heat supplied in the boiler raises the liquid from the compressed liquid at state 2 to a much higher temperature superheated vapor at state 3.15. A cycle retains the advantages and avoids the problems of the two cycles has been devised. Pressure rise in the cycle is accomplished by pumping a liquid. This cycle operates entirely above the critical pressure of its working fluid. However. the compression process of the gas Brayton cycle requires large work input. Adding superheat in an attempt to circumvent this will depart the cycle from isothermal heat addition. Non-azeotropic mixture Rankine cycle 1. However.

In principle. carbon dioxide. the choice of working fluid controls the range of cycle operating pressures and temperatures. 6.39 Mpa and 304.2 K). the critical pressure and critical temperature of ammonia. Carbon dioxide is known to be a stable and inert material through the temperature range of industrial power generation..16. it requires special thermodynamic property tables in the high temperature and high pressure range (over critical temperature and critical pressure) of the working fluid. The critical pressure of carbon dioxide is one third that of water.28 Mpa and 405. Carbon dioxide is a good potential working fluid for the super-critical cycle for several good reasons. 7. What is the advantages of a Rankine cycle in the compression process? What is the disadvantages of a Rankine cycle in the expansion process? What is the disadvantages of a Brayton cycle in the compression process? What is the advantages of a Brayton cycle in the expansion process? What is the concept of a super-critical cycle? What are the processes of a super-critical cycle? Why carbon dioxide is a better working fluid than water for a super-critical cycle? . There is no such table in the CyclePad working fluid menu. Energy Conversion. respectively. It is also abundant. The reasons for the neglect of the super-critical cycle until now are not known.1.5 K). the super-critical cycle can be operated with any pure substance. and (22. The analysis of the super-critical cycle is the same way as that of the Rankine cycle. Super-Critical Cycle 1. and water are (11. Figure 8.G.Vapor Cycles 337 enters the turbine where it expands to state 4. The exhaust vapor from the turbine enters the condenser at state 4 and is condensed at constant pressure to state 1 as saturated liquid. The super-critical thermodynamic power cycle. E.09 Mpa and 647. (7. For example. 3. Numerical example of carbon dioxide super-critical cycle has been made by Feher (Reference: Feher. 2. 85-90. 4. 8. 1968).3 K). Homework 8. In practice. non-toxic and relative inexpensive. However. T-s diagram of Super-critical cycle. 5.16.

and mdot19. CyclePad is capable of analyzing cycles with various working fluids.9. To solve this problem by CyclePad.9. T6=540ºC. p8 and p10 as design parameters. A 4-stage turbine with reheat and 3-stage regenerative steam Rankine cycle as shown in Figure E8. Wdotpump#2. Use ηcycle as the objective function and p5. Wdotoutput. QdotHX1. ηturbine#2=0. Wdotturbine#4. mdot20. Third. x19=0. is the built-in coaching facility that provides definitions of terms and descriptions of calculations. p5=8000 kPa. giving the user a greater appreciation of how a system actually works. the ηcycle versus p8 sensitivity diagram. Second. Wdotpump#1. they can augment their abilities by becoming more computer literate.9. ηturbine#4=0. The following examples illustrate the design of vapor power cycles using CyclePad. In the case of the seasoned engineer. Qdotadd. x15=0. For the young engineer. mdot12. Draw the ηcycle versus p5 sensitivity diagram.17. mdot17. The following design information are provided: p1=103 kPa. As an engineer. less time is spent doing iterations resulting in more time dedicated to reinforcing the fundamentals and gaining valuable experience. More specifically. the software allows users to immediately view the effects of varying input parameters. just beginning the design learning process. p8=4000 kPa. Wdotturbine#3. Wdotpump#3. mdot21.338 Chih Wu 8. Qdotremove.85. Wdotnet output. ηturbine#3=0. T2=25ºC. Find ηcycle. who is well indoctrinated in the principles and has gained an engineer’s intuition.85. x13=0.85. this is much appreciated because design computation work that would have taken hours before can now be done in seconds. Qdothtr#2. Wdotturbine#1.9. and ηpump#4=0.17. p4=16000 kPa. CyclePad goes a step further by informing the inexperience designer if a contradiction or an incompatability exists within a cycle and why. Wdotpump#4. Wdotturbine#2.1a was designed by a junior engineer. either through calculated results or in the form of graphs and diagrams. p12=15 kPa. try to improve his design. there is the feature that provides the designer the opportunity to optimize a specific power cycle parameter. Example 8. ηpump#1=0. Qdothtr#1. mdot15. users can have benefits at all stages of an engineering career. The first benefit is that significantly less time is spent doing numerical analysis. Wdotinput. ηturbine#1=0. we take the following steps: . When viewing the applicability of CyclePad. The designer is able to gain extensive design experience in a short time. p10=2000 kPa. T1=15ºC. mdot22. DESIGN EXAMPLES CyclePad is to a power engineer what a word processor is to a journalist.85.17. Based on the preliminary design results. ηpump#3=0. ηpump#2=0. and most important. mdot4=1000 kg/s. Last. The benefits of using this software are numerous. and the ηcycle versus p10 sensitivity diagram. due to its computer assisted modeling capabilities. T4=570ºC.1.

(B) Input the given information: working fluid is water in Cycle A and Cycle B. three mixing chambers (open feed-water heaters) and a heat exchanger (condenser) from the inventory shop and connect the devices to form the 4-stage turbine with reheat and 3-stage regenerative Rankine cycle. ηturbine#1=0. three splitters.17. T6=540ºC. four pumps.9.9. p1=103 kPa. a sink.9 as shown in Figure E8. S5 HTR2 S6 TUR1 S12 S4 S20 S21 S1 SOURCE1 HTR1 S22 HX1 S3 S2 PMP4 S18 S19 MXR3 PMP3 S17 MXR2 S16 PMP2 S15 MXR1 S14 PMP1 SINK1 S13 SPL1 S7 TUR2 S8 SPL2 S9 TUR3 S10 SPL3 S11 TUR4 Figure E8.1a. four turbines. (B) Switch to analysis mode. Analysis (A) Assume a process for each of the devices: (a) pumps as adiabatic. . a re-heater (HTR2).Vapor Cycles 339 1. p12=15 kPa. (e) mixing chambers and (f) heat exchanger as isobaric. a boiler (HTR1). x15=0. (d) splitters as iso-parametric. ηturbine#4=0. p4=16000 kPa. p10=2000 kPa. ηpump#3=0.85. ηturbine#3=0. p8=4000 kPa. (b) boiler and re-heater as isobaric.1b. mdot4=1000 kg/s. x19=0. (c) turbines as adiabatic.85.85. T1=15ºC. ηpump#1=0. T4=570ºC. ηpump#2=0.9. p5=8000 kPa. and ηpump#4=0. 4-stage turbine with reheat and 3-stage regenerative Rankine cycle. x13=0. 2.17.85. Build (A) Take a source. T2=25ºC. ηturbine#2=0.

17. S5 HTR2 S6 TUR1 SPL1 S7 TUR2 S8 SPL2 S9 TUR3 S10 SPL3 S11 TUR4 S12 S4 S20 S21 HTR1 HX1 SINK1 S3 S2 S13 S1 SOURCE1 PMP4 S18 S19 MXR3 PMP3 S17 MXR2 S16 PMP2 S15 MXR1 S14 PMP1 Figure E8. .340 S5 HTR2 S6 TUR1 SPL1 S7 TUR2 S8 Chih Wu SPL2 S9 TUR3 S10 SPL3 S11 TUR4 S12 S4 S1 SOURCE1 HTR1 HX1 S3 S2 PMP4 S18 S19 MXR3 PMP3 S17 MXR2 S16 PMP2 S15 MXR1 S14 PMP1 SINK1 S13 Figure E8. 4-stage turbine with reheat and 3-stage regenerative Rankine cycle.1c. 4-stage turbine with reheat and 3-stage regenerative Rankine cycle.17.1b.

mdot20=93. Qdotremove=-1387477 kW.17.0 kg/s.1c and Figure E8. mdot12=643. Rankine cycle sensitivity diagram .Vapor Cycles S5 HTR2 S6 TUR1 S12 S4 HTR1 S22 HX1 S3 S2 PMP4 S18 S19 MXR3 PMP3 S17 MXR2 S16 PMP2 S15 MXR1 S14 PMP1 SINK1 S13 S1 SOURCE1 SPL1 S7 TUR2 S8 SPL2 S9 TUR3 S10 SPL3 S11 TUR4 341 Figure E8.74 kg/s. Wdotpump#2=-2201 kW.9 kg/s and mdot19=1000 kg/s.1e. The results are: ηcycle=41. mdot17=906. Wdotoutput=994618 kW. Wdotnet output=973716 kW. Display the preliminary design results as shown in Figure E8.24%. Wdotpump#3=-5034 kW. mdot22=197. mdot15=840. mdot21=66. Wdotpump#1=1464 kW. Wdotturbine#1=193305 kW.17.17.17. 3. Qdothtr#1=2163587 kW. Figure E8. QdotHX1=-1387477 kW.11 kg/s. Qdothtr#2=197605 kW.2 kg/s. Wdotpump#4=-12203 kW. Wdotturbine#4=480778 kW. 4-stage turbine with reheat and 3-stage regenerative Rankine cycle.1d. kW. Wdotinput=-20903 kW.1d. Wdotturbine#3=144004 kW. Qdotadd=2361193 Wdotturbine#2=176531 kW.2 kg/s.

The ηcycle versus p5 sensitivity diagram.2a with the following preliminary design information: Condenser pressure Boiler pressure Mass flow rate of steam Flue gas temperature entering high-temperature side heat exchanger Flue gas pressure entering high-temperature side heat exchanger Flue gas leaving high-temperature side heat exchanger Cooling water temperature entering low-temperature side heat exchanger Cooling water pressure entering low-temperature side heat exchanger Cooling water leaving low-temperature side heat exchanger Turbine efficiency Pump efficiency 5 psia 3000 psia 1 lbm/s 3500ºF 14. 4-stage turbine with reheat and 3-stage regenerative Rankine cycle sensitivity diagram.17.1e.17.342 Chih Wu Figure E8. and the ηcycle versus p10 sensitivity diagram are drawn as shown in Figure E8. respectively. the ηcycle versus p8 sensitivity diagram. ηcycle can be optimized.7 psia 80ºF 88% 88% . and Figure E8.17.7 psia 1500ºF 60ºF 14.17. A closed-cycle steam Rankine cycle without superheating is designed by a junior engineer as illustrated in Figure E8. Based on these sensitivity diagrams.1f.1g.17. Example 8.17.1g. Figure E8.1f. 4-stage turbine with reheat and 3-stage regenerative Rankine cycle sensitivity diagram 4.17.2. Figure E8.

17. p1=5 psia.66 lbm/s.3 hp. x1=0.7 psia. (c) heat exchanger 1 (boiler) as isobaric on both cold-side and hot-side. .58 hp.2a.18%. T7=60ºF and T6=80ºF as shown in Figure E8.5 Btu/s. (b) working fluid of Rankine cycle is water. Wdotnet=374. Qdotboiler=877. (A) To improve the design with CyclePad. Qdotcondenser=-612. and (c) working fluid of heat sink is water. we take the following steps: 1. (B) Determine the preliminary design results.7 psia. (b) turbine as adiabatic with 88% efficiency.17. and mdotcold water=30.17. and x3=1.2a 2.7 hp.83 lbm/s.6 Btu/s. p7=14. Try to improve the preliminary design. Input the given information: (a) working fluid of heat source is air (flue gas). Display result: The preliminary design results are given in Figure E8. and (d) heat exchanger 2 (condenser) as isobaric on both cold-side and hot-side.2b. Analysis Assume a process for each of the four devices: (a) pump as adiabatic with 88% efficiency. p3=3000 psia. η=30.2c as follows: Wdotpump=-14. T5=3500ºF and T6=1500ºF. S5 SOURCE1 S2 HX1 SOURCE2 S6 SINK1 S7 HX2 S3 TUR1 S4 S8 PMP1 S1 SINK2 Figure E8. Build as shown in Figure E8. p5=14.17. mdotflue gas=1.Vapor Cycles 343 Use net power output as the objective function and boiler pressure as the independent design parameter. Wdotturbine=389. Rankine cycle preliminary design.

2b. It is shown that the maximum net power is about 430 hp at about 1500 psia. .2d.17. Rankine cycle preliminary design input data.17. S5 SOURCE1 HX1 SOURCE2 S6 SINK1 S7 HX2 S3 TUR1 S4 S8 PMP1 S1 SINK2 Figure E8.344 Chih Wu S5 SOURCE1 HX1 SOURCE2 S6 SINK1 S7 S2 S3 TUR1 S4 HX2 S8 PMP1 S1 SINK2 Figure E8. Rankine cycle preliminary design output data (C) Draw the net power vs p3 sensitivity diagram as shown in Figure E8.17.2c.

31 hp. mdotflue gas=2. S5 SOURCE1 HX1 SOURCE2 S6 SINK1 S7 S2 S3 TUR1 S4 HX2 S8 PMP1 SINK2 Figure E8.39 lbm/s.17. The results are shown in Figure E8. Qdotcondenser=-727. Wdotnet=433.16 lbm/s.17. Display result: The optimized design results are: Wdotpump=-7. Rankine cycle sensitivity diagram.7 Btu/s.17.5 hp.2 hp.2e. and mdotcold water=36. η=29. . Wdotturbine=440. Rankine cycle optimized design output data (D) Change design input information Change p3 from 3000 psia to 1500 psia and displace results.63%.2d. Qdotboiler=1033 Btu/s.Vapor Cycles 345 SOURCE2 SINK1 S7 PMP1 Figure E8.2e.

p10=2000 kPa. Qdothtr#2=342405 kW.17. 3.85. Qdothtr#1=2163587 kW. Wdotinput. Wdotturbine#2. T6=540ºC.82 kg/s. x15=0. ηturbine#3=0. mdot17=912. Wdotinput=-20985 kW.85.85. T4=600ºC. and the ηcycle versus p10 sensitivity diagram. Qdotremove. and ηpump#4=0. ηturbine#4=0. and mdot19. p8=4000 kPa.85.9. Wdotturbine#4=521769 kW. ηturbine#4=0. Qdothtr#1. T4=600ºC. and mdot19. mdot15=848. Find ηcycle. x19=0. output=1046274 Wdotturbine#1=193305 kW.85.5 kg/s.7 psia 1000ºF 50ºF 14. x15=0.85. p5=7000 kPa. Wdotoutput. p12=15 kPa. A closed-cycle steam Rankine cycle without superheating is designed by a junior engineer as illustrated in Figure E8. ηpump#1=0.85. Draw the ηcycle versus p5 sensitivity diagram. mdot22=191. mdot20=87. x13=0. ANSWER: ηcycle=41. Qdothtr#2. Qdotadd. mdot20. x13=0. the ηcycle versus p8 sensitivity diagram. ηturbine#3=0. ηturbine#2=0. mdot21. Wdotnet output.85. Draw the ηcycle versus p5 sensitivity diagram. mdot22.85. p4=16000 kPa. Qdothtr#2. ηpump#3=0. mdot20. ηpump#2=0. Wdotturbine#3.1a using steam as the working fluid. Wdotturbine#3=158701 kW.75%.17. mdot15. mdot12. ηpump#3=0. QdotHX1. A 4-stage turbine with reheat and 3-stage regenerative Rankine cycle as shown in Figure E8. and ηpump#4=0.9.1a using steam as the working fluid. Wdotturbine#3.2a with the following preliminary design information: Condenser pressure Boiler pressure Mass flow rate of steam Flue gas temperature entering high-temperature side heat exchanger Flue gas pressure entering high-temperature side heat exchanger Flue gas leaving high-temperature side heat exchanger Cooling water temperature entering low-temperature side heat exchanger Cooling water pressure entering low-temperature side heat exchanger Cooling water leaving low-temperature side heat exchanger Turbine efficiency Pump efficiency 5 psia 2000 psia 1 lbm/s 3000ºF 14. The following information are provided: p1=103 kPa.9. T1=15ºC. mdot22. p12=15 kPa. mdot21.17. mdot12=656. Qdotadd=2505993 kW.5 kg/s. Wdotturbine#2. ηturbine#1=0.85. A 4-stage turbine with reheat and 3-stage regenerative Rankine cycle as shown in Figure P8.17. Wdotturbine#2=193484 kW. Qdotremove.73 kg/s. Wdotturbine#1.346 Chih Wu Homework 8. Wdotturbine#4. Design 1. T2=25ºC. Wdotturbine#1. mdot17. x19=0.85. Qdotadd. Wdotturbine#4. Qdothtr#1. Wdotoutput=1067259 kW.9. The following information are provided: p1=103 kPa. mdot15. Wdotinput. p5=8000 kPa. and the ηcycle versus p10 sensitivity diagram. mdot4=1000 kg/s. ηpump#2=0. p10=2000 kPa. p8=4000 kPa. mdot21=63. T2=25ºC. ηturbine#1=0. the ηcycle versus p8 sensitivity diagram. QdotHX1.9 kg/s. Find ηcycle. mdot12. Wdotnet output.85. p4=16000 kPa. Wdotoutput.2 kg/s and mdot19=1000 kg/s. Wdotnet kW. Qdotremove=-1459718 kW. ηturbine#2=0. 2. QdotHX1=1459718 kW. T6=540ºC.7 psia 70ºF 85% 85% . mdot4=1000 kg/s. mdot17. ηpump#1=0. T1=15ºC.

Try to improve the preliminary design. Rankine cycle design.Vapor Cycles 347 Use net power output as the objective function and boiler pressure as the independent design parameter.2a with the following preliminary design information: Condenser pressure Boiler pressure Mass flow rate of steam Flue gas temperature entering high-temperature side heat exchanger Flue gas pressure entering high-temperature side heat exchanger Flue gas leaving high-temperature side heat exchanger Cooling water temperature entering low-temperature side heat exchanger Cooling water pressure entering low-temperature side heat exchanger Cooling water leaving low-temperature side heat exchanger Turbine efficiency Pump efficiency 10 kPa 16000 kPa 1 kg/s 2000ºC 101 psia 1000ºC 14ºC 101 kPa 20ºC 85% 85% Use net power output as the objective function and boiler pressure as the independent design parameter. In the ordinary operating mode (cycle 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-1). 4. When the high-pressure turbine is out of service. 5. A Rankine steam power plant is to be designed as shown in the following diagram (Figure P8. TUR1 S5 HTR2 S11 S4 S10 SPL1 TUR1 S3 HTR1 S2 PMP1 S1 S9 TUR2 S6 MXR1 S7 HTR3 S8 Figure P8.17. the plant would operate in an emergency mode (cycle 1-2-3-10-11-7-8-9-1) in which the steam from the boiler would pass through the expansion valve directly into the low-pressure turbine. .17. the expansion valve would be closed and the steam from the boiler and superheater would pass through the high-pressure turbine to the reheater and into the lowpressure turbine.17.5. A closed-cycle steam Rankine cycle without superheating is designed by a junior engineer as illustrated in Figure E8.5). Try to improve the preliminary design.

x3=1. One obvious change in engine parameters will be the steam flow rates through several components. pboiler=10000 kPa. (C) Find the output power per unit mass flow rate of the steam in the ordinary operating mode. (A) Draw the two cycles on T-s diagrams. preheater=80 psia. (B) Find the efficiency of each cycle. net power output=484. Throttle valve #1 is used to provide low-pressure steam for auxiliary usage such as heating. The pump will see the engine’s entire mass flow rate. etc. rate of heat input=1357 Btu/s. one source (SOURCE) and one sink (SINK). At cruise condition. etc. the plant would operate in an emergency mode (cycle 1-2-3-10-11-7-8-9-1) in which the steam from the boiler would pass through the expansion valve directly into the low-pressure turbine. dishwasher. The ship operator has an opportunity to control the rate at which steam is diverted. rate of heat input=3172 kW.36%. power input=-10. a boiler (HTR). pcondenser=8 kPa. (C) power output=490. (B) power output=861.9 kW. (D) Find the output power in the emergency mode for the same mass flow rate. 6. The split-shaft and steam-bleed plant includes a pump (PMP). Treheater exit=800ºF.17. 7. two splitters (SPL). preheater=500 kPa. ηHPturbine=ηLPturbine=0. A Rankine steam power plant is to be designed as shown in the following diagram (Figure P8. In the ordinary operating mode (cycle 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-1).348 Chih Wu The design data are: mdot1=1kg/s. ANSWER: (B) 37. Some steam is intentionally bled from the boiler outlet to drive ancillary equipment. Throttle valve #2 is used to control the power for the propulsion system. hot shower.09 kW. net power output=1428 kW. Turbine #2 is the main turbine used to drive the propulsion system.9. one heat exchanger (HX). The design data are: mdot1=1lbm/s.7 hp. ηHPturbine=ηLPturbine=0. throttle valve #2 is not used (p7 = p8).5 hp. ventilation.7 hp . (C) Find the output power per unit mass flow rate of the steam in the ordinary operating mode.09 kW. x3=1. 25. net power output=855. Tsuperheater exit=900ºF. rate of heat input=1619 Btu/s. When the high-pressure turbine is out of service. power input=-5. (B) power output=1438 kW.24%. A preliminary shipboard split-shaft and steam-bleed plant steam Rankine power plant is designed by a junior engineer. (D) Find the output power in the emergency mode for the same mass flow rate. Turbine #1 is used to produce auxiliary power includes lighting. pboiler=1400 psia.4 hp . two throttling valves (THR). During the emergency maximum power . (A) Draw the two cycles on T-s diagrams. laundry. (C) power output=790 kW.39%. power input=-10.9. 24. pcondenser=1 psia. the expansion valve would be closed and the steam from the boiler and superheater would pass through the high-pressure turbine to the reheater and into the lowpressure turbine. ANSWER: (B) 37. two turbines (TUR).5).92 hp. two mixing chambers (MXR). Tsuperheater exit=773 K.59%.92 hp. power input=-5. This is not actually the case for a shipboard steam Rankine power plant. (B) Find the efficiency of each cycle. One of the assumptions made in the analysis of basic Rankine heat engines in your thermodynamic textbook is that each component sees exactly the same flow of working fluid. cooling. net power output=779. Treheater exit=713 K. rate of heat input=3820 kW.

The input data as shown in Figure P8. What are these factors? c) How would the cycle efficiency be affected if the boiler pressure were lowered? What process do you assume for the superheated boiler? Does the boiler pressure depend on the boiler temperature? Why the cycle efficiency is increased if the boiler pressure is increased? The boiler pressure is limited in practice. State 8. mdot=0.Vapor Cycles 349 condition. 14.8 Btu/s. and the splitters iso-parametric as shown in Figure P8. Turbine #2 power output=509. that is mdot5= mdot10=0 lbm/s.7 psia and 55 F. The heat engine output data at cruise condition as shown in Figure P8. Do the following: (A) Reproduce the above-mentioned design.31 hp.8 hp as shown in Figure P8.39%.4 hp.17. And then Pump input power=-2. Heat exchanger sea-water inlet (state 14). 65 F. Sea-water is used to cool the condenser heat exchanger. Heat transfer rate in the boiler=1193 Btu/s.02 lbm/s. the heat exchanger isobaric on both hot-side and cold-side. and Net power output=563. The sensitivity diagram of cycle net power versus p8 is shown in Figure P8. quality=0. Turbine #1 power output=0 hp.7d. Boiler exit (state 3). water.08 lbm/s. State 5. Heat transfer rate in the heat exchanger=802. saturated water. Turbine #1 power output=45. mdot=0. 2 psia. and Net power output=552. Cycle efficiency=33. During the emergency maximum power condition.17. why? .17. and mdot=1 lbm/s.7e.7c are: Pump input power=-2.17. Heat exchanger sea-water exit (state 15). (B) Answer the following questions: (It is helpful to draw the cycle on a T-s diagram and show the cycle net work graphically) a) What will happen if you decrease the inlet steam pressure to the main turbine (TUR2)? By assuming what process would the inlet steam pressure to the main turbine (TUR2) be reduced? Why would that happen? Describe briefly how the throttling valve is used to control the power output of the main turbine (TUR2)? b) How would the cycle efficiency be affected if the condenser pressure were decreased? What process do you assume for the condenser? What would happen to the cycle efficiency if the condenser were assumed to be an isothermal process? Does the condenser pressure depend on the condenser temperature? Why the cycle efficiency is increased if the condenser pressure is decreased? Why do we assume the condenser process be isobaric rather than isothermal? The condenser pressure is limited to about 1 psia in practice by some factors. Cycle efficiency=32.17. The sensitivity diagram of cycle efficiency versus p8 is shown in Figure P8.3 hp. Turbine #2 power output=566. Heat transfer rate in the boiler=1193 Btu/s.7a.72%.56 hp. 600 psia and 600 F. the boiler and mixing chambers isobaric. 600 psia (cruise condition).7b are: Pump inlet (state 1). Assume the pump and turbines are adiabatic and isentropic.7 hp. State 10. all the steam goes to turbine #2 (mdot5= mdot10=0).56 hp. auxiliary usage of steam and auxiliary power are turn off.7f.17.

It is recommended that some kinds of sensitivity analysis should be included. State what additional components are needed to your refinement cycle and your reasons why. try to improve the design. Using the cycle efficiency as the objective function. and environmental concerns. space. S5 TUR1 S8 S6 S7 THR2 SPL1 S4 S10 S3 TUR2 S9 S12 MXR2 THR1 SINK1 S11 HX1 S15 S13 SOURCE1 S14 S2 PMP1 Figure P8. The maximum pressure and maximum temperature of the steam are limited to 600 psia and 600 F. Processes of shipboard Rankine power plant . and condenser pressure is limited to 2 psia. safety. You may add more components from the CyclePad inventory to the preliminary design. turbines.17.350 Chih Wu d) How would the cycle efficiency be affected if a regenerator were added? What process do you assume for the regenerator? Why the cycle efficiency is increased with regenerating? e) How would the cycle work be affected if a reheater and an additional turbine were added? What process do you assume for the reheater? Why the cycle work is increased with reheating? f) How would the cycle efficiency be affected if a reheater and an additional turbine were added? Why the cycle efficiency is not increased with regenerating? g) Can you think of any other way to improve the cycle efficiency? h) Can you think of any disadvantage by adding additional reheaters. (D) Design and explain your own new system and support your work with CyclePad simulation. and regenerators on the shipboard Rankine engine? (C) The overall objective of the shipboard power plant is to convert the availability of the fuel into power in the most efficient manner.7a. taking into consideration cost.

Sensitivity diagram efficiency versus p8 .0 eta-thermal pq 31.40 10. Output Data of shipboard Rankine power plant cycle eta-thermal S8 P 5.Vapor Cycles 351 TUR1 THR2 S6 S8 TUR2 S9 MXR2 S10 THR1 SINK1 S11 HX1 S15 S13 SOURCE1 S14 S2 PMP1 S1 Figure P8.8 437.9 553.17.7d.76 18.11 26.23 89.0 60 S1 Figure P8.94 22.7b.79 205.58 14.17.9 P [psi] 600.8 321.17.7c. Input Data of shipboard Rankine power plant TUR1 S6 MXR1 THR2 S8 TUR2 S9 S10 THR1 SINK1 S11 MXR2 S13 SOURCE1 HX1 S14 S15 S2 PMP1 Figure P8.

8 P [psi] 437.17.9 600. Both turbine efficiency are 80%. How does this change the thermal efficiency of the cycle and. Sensitivity diagram net power output versus p8 S5 SPL2 S7 THR2 S8 SPL1 S4 S10 THR1 SINK1 S15 S2 PMP1 S1 S11 TUR2 S9 S6 MXR1 TUR1 Figure P8. How does this change the thermal efficiency of the cycle and. 9. if so. and the condenser pressure is 15 kPa.17.7 384.0 60 S1 Figure P8. the boiler exit conditions are 600 psia and 600°F. In a reheat steam Rankine power plant. Both turbine efficiency are 82%. the inlet conditions of the lower pressure turbine are 400 psia and 600°F. At a particular part-load operation. Engine output data at emergency maximum power condition 8. and the condenser pressure is 5 psia.3 454.7 243. the high pressure turbine inlet pressure is purposely reduced by a throttle valve to 500 psia. .7 89.2 313. In a reheat steam Rankine power plant. the high pressure turbine inlet pressure is purposely reduced by a throttle valve to 3 Mpa.2 172. At a particular part-load operation.8 321.352 Chih Wu cycle net-power S8 P 5. if so. the inlet conditions of the lower pressure turbine are 1 Mpa and 450°C.9 553. the boiler exit conditions are 4 Mpa and 450°C. by how much. by how much.0 net-power [hp] 525.7f.7e.79 205.

18 SUMMARY The Carnot cycle is not a practical model for vapor power cycles because of cavitation and corrosion problems.Vapor Cycles 353 8. which is made of two isobaric and two isentropic processes. among other means. . boiler. The modified Carnot model for vapor power cycles is the basic Rankine cycle. The basic elements of the basic Rankine cycle are pump. turbine and condenser. The thermal cycle efficiency of the basic Rankine cycle can be improved by adding super-heater. Rankine cycle is the most popular heat engine to produce commercial power. regenerating and re-heater.

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1.Chapter 9 GAS CLOSED SYSTEM CYCLES 9. creating an increase in the temperature and pressure of the gas. . During the compression stroke the intake valve closes and the piston moves toward the top of the cylinder. As the piston approaches the top of the cylinder called top dead center (TDC). Nicholas Otto. drawing in a premixed charge of gasoline and air until the piston reaches its lowest point of the stroke called bottom dead center (BDC). The piston in a four stroke internal combustion engine executes four complete strokes as the crankshaft completes two revolution per cycle as shown in Figure 9.1. compressing the fuel-air mixture. AIR (2) AIR (2) . expelling the products of combustion.(1) Isentropic compression Isochoric heat addition Isentropic expansion Isochoric heat rejection Figure 9. producing a useful work output. The cycle is then completed when the exhaust valve opens and the piston moves toward the top of the cylinder. the intake valve is open and the piston moves downward in the cylinder.1. It is the most widely used internal combustion heat engine in automobiles. the spark plug is energized and the mixture ignites. During the expansion stroke the piston is forced down by the high pressure gas.1. in 1876.(3) AIR (3) AIR (1) (4) (4) .1. The cycle patterned after his design is called the Otto cycle. Otto cycle. On the intake stroke. OTTO CYCLE A four stroke internal combustion engine was built by a German engineer.

To simplify the analysis.0 = m(u3 .1.1. In the Otto cycle analysis. Otto cycle p-v and T-s diagrams.W34 = m(u4 . The cycle is made of the following four processes: 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-1 isentropic compression constant volume heat addition isentropic expansion constant volume heat removing The p-v and T-s process diagrams for the ideal two-stroke Otto cycle are illustrated in Figure 9. T 3 p 3 4 2 1 4 1 2 s v piston displacement Figure 9.2) (9.1.2. Q12=0 W23 = ∫pdV = 0 Q23 .1) (9.6) . we consider an ideal Otto cycle composed entirely of internally reversible processes. a closed piston-cylinder assembly is used as a control mass system.1. Q34 =0 (9.W12 = m(u2 .1.1. Applying the First law and Second law of thermodynamics of the closed system to each of the four processes of the cycle yields: W12 = ∫pdV Q12 .5) (9.356 Chih Wu The thermodynamic analysis of an actual Otto cycle is complicated.2.1.u1).4) (9.3) (9.u3).1.u2) W34 = ∫pdV Q34 .

T1)/(T3 . This condition causes the engine to produce a noise called knock. The presence of engine knock places a barrier on the upper limit of Otto engine compression ratios.u4) The net work (Wnet).1.1.1.9) (9. However.10) This expression for thermal efficiency of an ideal Otto cycle can be simplified if air is assumed to be the working fluid with constant specific heats.u2 ) (9. the temperature of the working fluid also increases during the compression process.8) (9.u1)/(u3 .10) is reduced to: η = 1.11) shows that the thermal efficiency of the Otto cycle is only a function of the compression ratio of the engine. The mean effective pressure (MEP) is the average pressure of the cycle.1. Therefore. a temperature is reached that is sufficiently high to ignite the air-fuel mixture prematurely without the presence of a spark. In general.(T4 .7) (9.Gas Closed System Cycles 357 W41 = ∫pdV = 0 and Q41 . One way to simplify the calculation of the net work of the cycle and to provide a comparative measure of the performance of an Otto heat engine is to introduce the concept of the mean effective pressure.(u4 . As the compression ratio increases. any engine design that increases the compression ratio should result in an increased engine efficiency.1.T2 ) = 1-(r)1-k where r is the compression ratio for the engine defined by the equation r = V1 /V2 (9. the higher the octane rating number of gasoline. the compression ratio cannot be increased indefinitely.12) (9.Q41 /Q23 =1. That is MEP = (cycle net work)/(cylinder displacement volume) =Wnet/(V1-V2) . To reduce engine knock problem of a high compression ratio Otto cycle.1. Equation (9.1. one must use gasoline with higher octane rating. the higher the resistance of engine knock. is Wnet =W12 +W34 = Qnet = Q23 + Q41 The thermal efficiency of the cycle is η = Wnet /Q23 =Qnet /Q23 = 1. Eventually.1.11) The compression ratio is the ratio of the cylinder volume at the beginning of the compression process (BDC) to the cylinder volume at the end of the compression process (TDC).0 = m(u1 . Equation (9. The net work of the cycle is equal to the mean effective pressure multiplied by the displacement volume of the cylinder. which is also equal to net heat (Qnet).

The Otto cycle can operate either on a two-stroke or a four-stroke cycle. Therefore. The intake and exhaust in the two-stroke Otto cycle occur instantaneously. The power developed by the engine is give by Wdot=Wnet(N/2) where Wdot is the power output. with a corresponding decrease of temperature (process 4-1). Finally to complete the four-stroke cycle. and it is also possible for an appreciable fraction of the burned gases to remain in the cylinder. because it would produce a greater net work output. Wnet is the net engine work output per cycle.1. respectively. clearing the cylinder of the combustion gases. and N is the crankshaft revolutions per unit time. For all . with the exhaust valve open. However. The advantage of the two-stroke Otto cycle is that it provides twice as many power strokes as the four-stroke cycle per cylinder per crank shaft revolution. reducing cylinder pressure to the initial pressure.3. Figure 9. the processes of intake and exhaust scavenging are not as efficient as those with a four-stroke cycle. For these reasons. the actual power output of the two-stroke cycle is certainly not twice as great as might be predicted from the number of power strokes per revolution. When the piston reaches BDC. For each complete cycle of the four-stroke cycle. the poor intake and scavenging efficiency of the two-stroke cycle leads to a worsening in fuel economy. the exhaust valve is opened. Furthermore.1. It is possible to lose some of the fresh fuel-air mixture out of the exhaust prior to combustion. Oil must be mixed with the fuel in the two-stroke engine to achieve adequate lubrication. the piston is pushed upward (process 1-0). the two-stroke engine cannot be lubricated as easily as the four-stroke engine. there are four strokes and hence two crankshaft revolutions. In order to make the intake and exhaust processes much better. with the crankcase of the two-stroke cycle used for compressing the incoming charge.3. Also. compared to a four-stroke cycle.Four-stroke Otto cycle.358 Chih Wu The engine with the larger MEP value of two engines of equal cylinder displacement volume would be the better one. it is not available for lubrication. a four-stroke Otto cycle is commonly used as shown in Figure 9.

2. .01 kg.Gas Closed System Cycles 359 these reasons. a combustion chamber.1.47% and Wnet=3. p=241. the pressure and temperature at the end of the expansion. An engine operates on the Otto cycle and has a compression ratio of 8. and (B) Display the sensitivity diagram of cycle efficiency vs compression ratio as shown in Figure E9. To solve this problem by CyclePad. (b) the inlet pressure and temperature of the compression device are 100 kPa and 27ºC. Fresh air enters the engine at 27ºC and 100 kPa. The amount of heat addition is 700 kJ/kg. 2. The cycle is a heat engine. and (e) m=0.1. η=56. Plot the sensitivity diagram of cycle efficiency vs compression ratio.a and b. Example 9. Show the cycle on T-s diagram. the two-stroke Otto engine has only a limited application in which fuel economy and pollution are not primary factors. 3. (B) Switch to analysis mode.0 kPa.1. MEP=525.c.1.95 kJ. (c) expander as adiabatic and isentropic. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is air. Build (A) Take a compression device.6 kPa and T=452.01 kg. (d) the heat addition is 700 kJ/kg in the combustion chamber. efficiency and work output per kilogram of air. Analysis (A) Assume a process for each of the four processes: (a) compression device as adiabatic and isentropic. (c) the compression ratio of the compression device is 8. and (d) cooler as isochoric.1. The answers are: p=4441 kPa and T=1393ºC (the pressure and temperature at the end of the combustion). MEP. The amount of air mass in the cylinder is 0. an expander and a cooler from the closed system inventory shop and connect the four devices to form the Otto cycle as shown in Figure 9.1. (b) combustion as isochoric. Determine the pressure and temperature at the end of the combustion.1. Display results (A) Display the T-s diagram and cycle properties results as shown in Figure E9. we take the following steps: 1.1ºC (the pressure and temperature at the end of the expansion).

Otto cycle T-s diagram Figure E9.1.1c.360 Chih Wu Compression S2 Combustion S3 Expansion S4 Exhaust S1 Figure E9.1b.1a. .1.1. Otto cycle sensitivity analysis Comment: Efficiency increases as compression ratio increases. Otto cycle Figure E9.

an expander and a cooler from the closed system inventory shop and connect the four devices to form the Otto cycle. The compression ratio in an Otto cycle is 8.1.094 ºF. (b) the heat must be removed.2. but it may not improve the efficiency of the cycle. we take the following steps: 1. η=56. If the air before compression (state 1) is at 60ºF and 14. a combustion chamber.1. (c) expander as isentropic.47% . (b) the inlet pressure and temperature of the compression device are 60ºF and 14.2 ºF. and (d) the MEP of the cycle. The cycle is a heat engine. p3=1. Q41=-8. Turbo-charging raises the inlet air pressure of the engine above atmospheric pressure and raise the power output of the engine.7 psia. Display results (A) Display the T-s diagram and cycle properties results as shown in Figure E9.7 psia and 800 Btu/lbm is added to the cycle and the mass of air contained in the cylinder is 0. The schematic diagram of the Otto . Since the inlet air density is increased due to higher inlet air pressure. Analysis (A) Assume a process for each of the four processes: (a) compression device as isentropic.407 ºF. the mass of air in the cylinder is increased. Figure E9. Calculate (a) temperature and pressure at each point of the cycle.1. Otto cycle.2a. (c) the thermal efficiency. p2=270. T3=5. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is air. To solve this problem by CyclePad. and MEP=213. The answers are T2=734. and (d) cooler as isochoric.24 psia.71 Btu.3 psia.025 lbm. and (d) the heat addition is 800 Btu/lbm in the combustion chamber. Build (A) Take a compression device. 3.2 psia. (c) the compression ratio of the compression device is 8.025 lbm. T4=2.2. (B) Display the T-s diagram. The power output of the Otto cycle can be increased by turbo-charging the air before it enters the cylinder in the Otto engine. p4=72. (b) combustion as isochoric. 2. and (e) the mass of air is 0.328 psia.Gas Closed System Cycles 361 Example 9. (B) Switch to analysis mode.a and b.

7 psia. (B) input p1 =14.3.2b.3 and Example 9.3. The volume of the cylinder before compression is 0. T1=70ºF.1. and isochoric for the cooling process 5-6.1 ft3.7 psia and 70ºF.1. Then (A) Assume isentropic for compression process 1-2. Figure E9.7 psia.1 ft3.1.4 show the power increase due to turbo-charging.3 Determine the heat supplied. The highest temperature of the cycle is 3000ºF. work output. Example 9.4. isochoric for the heating process 3-4.1. isentropic for compression process 2-3. T4=3000ºF. and thermal efficiency of an ideal Otto cycle with a compression ratio of 10.7 psia.1. Example 9. The .1. Figure E9. and T6=70ºF. isentropic for expansion process 4-5. p2=14. What is the mass of air in the cylinder? The atmosphere conditions are 14. V1=0. p6=14.362 Chih Wu cycle with turbo-charging is illustrated in Figure 9. and (C) display results. we build the cycle. Otto engine without turbo-charging. Otto engine with turbo-charging. MEP. Figure 9.1. T2=70ºF.1 ft3 (no turbo-charger). compression ratio=10. To solve this problem. V2=0. Otto cycle T-s diagram plot.

The volume of the cylinder before compression is 0.17 Btu. Q56=1. What is the mass of air in the cylinder? The atmosphere conditions are 14.1 ft3. Q56=-1. Q34=2.7 psia and 70ºF. we build the cycle as shown in Figure 9.80 psia. p2=20 psia.52 Btu. To solve this problem. turbo-charges to increase the air and fuel flow to each cylinder. .3.48 Btu.1.03 Btu. among others.21 Btu. Figure E9. η=60. W45=3.7 psia. Otto engine with turbo-charging. W23=-1. Example 9.4 Determine the heat supplied. MEP=98. W45=2. and (C) display results. Q34=3. isentropic for expansion process 4-5. and T6=70ºF.Gas Closed System Cycles 363 results are: W12=-0 Btu. T4=3000ºF.65 Btu.20 psia. Otto engine without turbo-charging. isentropic for compression process 2-3. Wnet=1.04 Btu.73 Btu. Then (A) Assume isentropic for compression process 1-2. and thermal efficiency of an ideal Otto cycle with a turbo-charger which compresses air to 20 psia and compression ratio of 10. (B) input p1 =14. V2=0. and isochoric for the cooling process 5-6.3.54%.67 Btu.4.1.1. T1=70ºF. Modern car Otto engine designs are affected by environmental constrains as well as desires to increase gas mileage. work output. and m=0. catalytic converters to aid the combustion of unburned hydrocarbons that are expelled by the engine.19%.1 ft3 (with turbo-charger). Recent design improvements include the use of four valves per cylinder to reduce the restriction to air flow into and out of the cylinder. MEP. compression ratio=10.0075 lbm. Figure E9. and m=0.0093 lbm. isochoric for the heating process 3-4. MEP=96. Wnet=2.09 Btu. The highest temperature of the cycle is 3000ºF.1.7 psia. The results are: W13=-1. η=63. p6=14.

6. At the end of the combustion process. For an Otto cycle. 110 kPa and 50ºC. (E) Cycle efficiency depends on the temperature ratio during compression.01 m3. Does the initial state of the compression process have any influence on the Otto cycle efficiency? What is the initial state of the compression process of your car? How many parameters do you need to know to completely describe the Otto cycle? The inlet and exhaust flow processes are not included in the analysis of the Otto cycle. (C) There is a constant ratio between the work and the mean effective pressure. 10. 15. 24. 16. 8. How do these processes affect the Otto cycle performance? How does the Otto cycle efficiency compare to the Carnot cycle efficiency when operating between the same temperature range? As a car gets older.1. . Otto Cycle 1. plot the cycle efficiency as a function of compression ratio from 4 to 16. How does the two-stroke Otto cycle differ from the four-stroke Otto cycle? What is the ratio of the number of power strokes in the two-stroke cycle divided by the number of power strokes in the four-stroke cycle at a given value of engine revolutions per minute? On what single factor does the efficiency of the Otto cycle depend? What is compression ratio of an Otto cycle? How does it affect the thermal efficiency of the cycle? What limits the practical realization of higher efficiencies in the Otto cycle? Do you know the compression ratio of your car? Is there any limit to an Otto cycle? Why? Which area represents cycle net work of an Otto cycle plotted on a T-s diagram and p-v diagram? How do you define MEP (mean effect pressure)? Can MEP of a car in operation lower than the atmospheric pressure? What is engine knock? What cause the engine knock problem? Do you get a better performance using premier gasoline (Octane number 93) for your compact car? How does the modern Otto cycle achieve higher power output without the use of higher compression ratio? How does the clearance volume affect the efficiency of the Otto cycle? In an ideal Otto cycle. 17. 12. Do Otto heat engines operate on a closed system or an open system? Why? List the four processes in the Otto cycle. the 5. 19. 13. pressure and the temperature of the air are 0. For an Otto cycle. 22.364 Chih Wu Homework 9. 2. plot the MEP as a function of compression ratio from 4 to 16. 3. 4. 18. 14. 20. 21. will its compression ratio change? How about the MEP? An engine operates on an Otto cycle with a compression ratio of 8. Sketch T-s and p-v diagrams for the Otto cycle. At the beginning of the isentropic compression process. 23. the volume. indicate whether the following statements are true or false: (A) All the processes are internally reversible. (B) Cycle efficiency increases with the maximum temperature. 7. 25. 9. (D) The gas temperature after compression is higher than after expansion. 11.

6 psia and 55ºF.9 kJ/kg. (C) 403. (B) 789.74%. (E) -300. An ideal Otto engine receives air at 100 kPa and 25ºC. and (F) the thermal efficiency of the cycle. ANSWER: (a) 52. (E) 562. (B) 2022 kPa. (C) 449.5. and (E) the thermal efficiency of the cycle. and (D) the MEP. (D) the heat removed from the air during the cooling process. 747.3ºC. (B) the net work. (D) -189. (F) 52.87 kJ. (c) 56.1625 Btu. (E) the MEP (mean effective pressure). (B) 0. (C) 0. Determine (A) the work done per unit mass during the compression process. Work is performed on the air in order to raise the pressure at the end of the compression process to 1378 kPa. (E) 60. At the beginning of the compression process.3638 Btu. 29. (F) the expansion work per unit mass done.3 kPa. ANSWER: (A) -238. (D) 58. (E) 55. p=100 kPa. (E) the compression work per unit mass added. (d) 853. The maximum cycle temperature is 3460ºF and the compression ratio of the engine is 10. (B) the heat added to the air during the heating process. (D) heat removed per unit mass from the engine to the environment. 400 kJ/kg of heat is added to the air during the heating process.2 kJ/kg. ANSWER: (A) -0. (C) net work.4 K. (E) 291. An ideal Otto engine receives air at 15 psia.6 kPa. T=290 K and V=0.0 kPa. An ideal Otto Cycle with air as the working fluid has a compression ratio of 9. The maximum cycle temperature is 3465ºF and the compression ratio of the engine is 7. (C) 461.4 kJ/kg. (B) 6. 30. (C) the work done during the expansion process. (C) 3.47%. The maximum temperature in the cycle is 2200 K and the compression ratio is 8.8 kJ/kg. determine: (A) the pressure and temperature at the end of the expansion process (power stroke).3 kPa. 28. and (E) the thermal efficiency of the cycle. (H) 56. (D) the heat removed per unit mass from the air during the cooling process.51. (D) -0. An ideal Otto engine receives air at 14. (C) the work done during the expansion process. (B) 449.60 kJ/kg. the air is at 290 K and 90 kPa. (B) the heat added per unit mass to the air during the heating process. Find (A) the temperature at the remaining two states of the Otto cycle.33%.6 kJ/kg. ANSWER: (A) 232. (C) the work done per unit mass during the expansion process. . and (E) mean effective pressure in kPa.89 kJ.7 kJ/kg. ANSWER: (A) 469. (G) 236.6 kPa. At the beginning of the compression process of an air-standard Otto cycle. The peak temperature in the cycle is 1800 K. 0.5 kJ/kg. (D) thermal efficiency of the cycle.0 kJ/kg.7 kJ/kg.01 ft3 and 65ºF.1625 Btu. Determine (A) the work added during the compression process. (B) the pressure of the gas at the end of the combustion process.5ºC. and (H) thermal cycle efficiency. (D) -1. Determine (A) the heat addition. 237.5 kJ/kg. 27.19%.Gas Closed System Cycles 365 26.04 m3. (B) the heat per unit mass added in kJ/kg during the combustion process. (F) 474.48%. (B) the compression ratio.0 kJ/kg. (D) -179. ANSWER: (A) -133. (C) the thermal efficiency. (D) the heat removed from the air during the cooling process.47%. Determine (A) the work done during the compression process.67 kJ/kg. (b) 29. temperature is 900ºC. (C) heat added per unit mass to the engine in the combustion chamber.2873 Btu. (G) MEP.

2802ºF and 769.7 Btu/lbm and 362.04 Btu. and 914. (B) 118. ANSWER: heat added=16 Btu. work added=-3. 804. Volume prior to the compression process: 0.34 Btu.52%. heat removed.4ºF and 308. net work produced=10. Volume after the compression process: 0.366 Chih Wu 31. (C) the compression work and expansion work in Btu/lbm. An Otto engine with a turbo-charger operates with a compression ratio of 8. MEP and efficiency of the cycle. Find the heat added. and efficiency of the cycle=60.7 psia. The compression ratio in an Otto cycle is 8. work produced=12.5. work produced. Find the heat added. and efficiency of the cycle=56. work added=-2. (C) the compression work and expansion work in Btu/lbm.7 psia and 800 Btu/lbm is added to the cycle and the mass of air contained in the cylinder is 0. 32.05 ft3 Determine: (A) the mass of air in the cylinder.1 psia. work added.4ºF and 38. work added.2 Btu/lbm.7 psia.4 Btu. 2820ºF and 800. heat removed=-6. and efficiency of the cycle=67.5 psia.02 lbm.0 psia. heat removed=-6. and (d) the thermal efficiency.2ºF and 38. The following information is known: Temperature prior to the compression process: 70oF. net work produced.8 Btu/lbm and 321. (B) the temperature and pressure at each process endpoint. .01%. work produced. Determine: (A) the mass of air in the cylinder. MEP=236.7 psia. The compression ratio in an Otto cycle is 10. Pressure after the turbo-charging compression process: 20 psia. net work produced.5. MEP=205.10%.9 psia. An Otto engine operates with a compression ratio of 8. ANSWER: (A) 0. MEP and efficiency of the cycle.47%.7ºF and 20. Heat added during the combustion process: 345 Btu/lbm.02 lbm. work produced=14.4 psia. If the air before compression (state 1) is at 60ºF and 14. Find the heat added. net work produced. (B) 787. heat removed.05 ft3 Pressure prior to the compression process: 14. (B) the temperature and pressure at each process endpoint.46 psia. 35.69 Btu.2 Btu/lbm. 33.19%. ANSWER: heat added=16 Btu.61 Btu.7 psia and 800 Btu/lbm is added to the cycle and the mass of air contained in the cylinder is 0. net work produced=9. heat removed=-5.0033 lbm. ANSWER: heat added=16 Btu. work produced.32 Btu. Pressure prior to the turbo-charging compression process: 14. Heat added during the combustion process: 345 Btu/lbm. 34.2 psia. heat removed. (D) 58.37 Btu. ANSWER: (A) 0. (D) 57. The following information is known: Temperature prior to the turbo-charging compression process: 70oF. If the air before compression (state 1) is at 60ºF and 14.7 psia and 800 Btu/lbm is added to the cycle and the mass of air contained in the cylinder is 0. MEP and efficiency of the cycle.28 Btu.02 lbm. The compression ratio in an Otto cycle is 16. work produced=11.1ºF and 294.72 Btu. work added=-2. MEP=221. (C) -122.0038 lbm.43 Btu.96 Btu.63 Btu. (C) -125. net work produced=9. If the air before compression (state 1) is at 80ºF and 14.14 psia. and 926.0 psia. and (D) the thermal efficiency. work added.

thermal efficiency. the air is at 290 K and 90 kPa.6085 kJ.25 kJ. 1083 kJ/kg. work input. -260. net work output. heat input.Gas Closed System Cycles 367 36. (E) 534. The state before compression is 290 K.61 kJ.6 kJ/kg. ANSWER: 2676 K. work output. . Find the pressure after expansion. 39.7 kJ/kg. (B) the heat per unit mass added in kJ/kg during the combustion process. (C) 7. (D) 64. net work output. ANSWER: -0.17 kJ.4 kJ/kg.9 kJ/kg.7 kJ/kg.23 kJ. (B) 710.47%. 1050 kPa. 38.3 L. The fuel adds 1800 kJ/kg of heat in the combustion process. work output. 754. 728. work input. and mean effective pressure of the cycle.7 kJ/kg.9 K.9 kJ/kg. The air pressure is 150 kPa after the turbo-charging compression process. ANSWER: -0. 4. Find the work input. A gasoline engine has a volumetric compression ratio of 9.48%. and the peak cycle temperature is 1800 K. The fuel adds 1800 kJ/kg of heat in the combustion process. 90 kPa. The state before compression is 290 K.16 kJ. Find the work input. 3. 3.19%. heat input. At the beginning of the turbo-charging compression process. 645. 461. The volume of the cylinder is 0. and mean effective pressure of the cycle. 56. net work output. The combustion generates a peak pressure of 6500 kPa. work output. A gasoline engine has a volumetric compression ratio of 8 and before compression has air at 280 K and 85 kPa.9 kPa. work input.5 kJ/kg. 40. 62. 1457 kJ/kg. and mean effective pressure of the cycle. A gasoline engine has a compression ratio of 10:1 with 4 cylinders of total displacement 2. 100 kPa.3 L. and mean effective pressure of the cycle. 58. heat input. thermal efficiency. 458. work output.3 kPa. 5. ANSWER: 3242 kPa.01 m3. 60.78 kJ. work output. A gasoline engine has a compression ratio of 12:1 with 4 cylinders of total displacement 2. 995. (D) thermal efficiency of the cycle. 812. heat input. 37. ANSWER: (A) 200. and the peak cycle temperature is 1800 K.1 kPa. and (E) mean effective pressure in kPa. -353.5 kPa. 562. An ideal Otto Cycle with a turbo-charger using air as the working fluid has a compression ratio of 9. and mean effective pressure of the cycle. thermal efficiency.6 kPa. determine: (A) the pressure and temperature at the end of the expansion process (power stroke).9786 kJ. Find the peak temperature. The inlet state is 280 K and 100 kPa. 822.6 kJ/kg. 602. 1541 kPa. -292. 789. heat input.99%.99%. 41. The inlet state is 280 K and 70 kPa. thermal efficiency. The peak temperature in the cycle is 1800 K. thermal efficiency. 2. A gasoline engine has a volumetric compression ratio of 12. Find the pressure after expansion. ANSWER: 1951 kPa.11 kJ/kg. net work output.4 kJ/kg. 62.11%.9 kJ/kg. 2. net work output. (C) net work.

the exhaust ports are uncovered to the volume. WANKEL ENGINE A spark-ignited internal combustion rotary engine is Wankel engine. in process 5-2-1. so that there is one power stroke for each output shaft revolution. the spark is fired and combustion takes lace. corresponding to TDC). a six cylinder piston engine with twelve valves and accompanying hardware to control their motion can be replaced by a two rotor rotary engine with no valves. . this volume is sealed off and compressed. The output shaft of the engine is geared to run at three times the rotor angular velocity. the rotary engine has relatively high emissions of unburned fuel.5. the rotor divides the housing into three volumes. As shown in Figure 9.1. As the rotor within the stator (chamber).368 Chih Wu 9. Further the high inertia force of the reciprocating piston and the accompanying noise and vibration are replaced by the smooth and quiet rotary motion of the engine. the engine substitutes the rotary motion of an equilateral triangular curved shaped rotor inside a housing to compress and expand the working fluid. with few parts than that of a conventional Otto piston engine. The problems of reducing emissions to meet standards as well as achieving a competitive fuel economy have prevented widespread use of the engine to date. The Wankel engine has a high power to weight ratio.1. the Wankel engine is expected to be more efficient than a conventional reciprocating piston engine. The hot gas then expands and turns the rotor in the power stroke. and the gas are exhausted from the engine.1A.5. there are three power strokes per rotor revolution. Let us follow volume A as it passes through a cycle. In other words. Wankel engine. Finally. However. the volume between the rotor and the stator changes to compress the fuel-air mixture. Figure 9. Note that there are three volumes of gas at various stages of the cycle at a given time. corresponding to the compression stroke 2-3.5. In place of the reciprocating motion of the piston. The pV diagram is exactly the same as that of the Otto cycle. The air-fuel mixture enters the engine in process 1-2 as shown in Figure 9. As the rotor turns. process 4-5. Since the number of its moving components is less than that of a conventional reciprocating piston engine.1. For example. When the volume reaches a minimum (process 3-4.

Gas Closed System Cycles 369 Homework 9. Describe the four events of the Wankel engine.1 is somewhat similar to the Otto cycle. Figure 9. this process is modeled by a constant pressure process.2.2.1A. The p-v and T-s diagram for the Diesel cycle are illustrated in Figure 9.Do you expect the Wankel engine to be more efficient than a conventional reciprocating piston engine? Why? 4. DIESEL CYCLE The Diesel cycle was proposed by Rudolf Diesel in the 1890s.1. The Diesel cycle as shown in Figure 9. except that ignition of the fuel-air mixture is caused by spontaneous combustion owing to the high temperature that results from compressing the mixture to a very high pressure. Wankel Cycle 1. . Describe the operation of the Wankel engine. Diesel cycle. 3 . The basic components of the Diesel cycle are the same as the Otto cycle. Describe the problems that the practical Wankel engine encountered. except that the spark plug is replaced by a fuel injector and the stroke of the piston is lengthened to provide a larger compression ratio.2. 2. 9.2.2. The Diesel cycle consists of the following four processes: 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-1 isentropic compression constant pressure heat addition isentropic expansion constant volume heat removing Since the duration of the heat addition process is extended.

h2) W34 = ∫pdV Q34 .0 = m(u1 .10) is reduced to: η = 1.(u4 . W23 = ∫pdV = m(p3v3 .4) (9.Q41 /Q23 =1.3) (9.2.2. Q12 = 0.u2) + W23 = m(h3 .2.2.T1)/[k(T3 . which is also equal to net heat (Qnet).2.2.11) . Diesel cycle p-v and T-s diagrams Applying the First law and Second law of thermodynamics of the closed system to each of the four processes of the cycle yields: W12 = ∫pdV Q12 .7) This expression for thermal efficiency of an ideal Otto cycle can be simplified if air is assumed to be the working fluid with constant specific heats.h2) (9.9) (9.6) (9.u1).u3).u4).8) (9.p2v2) Q23 = m(u3 .2. The net work (Wnet).2) (9.2.2. Q34 = 0 W41 = ∫pdV = 0 and Q41 .2.2.T2)] = 1-(r)1-k {[(rc)k -1]/[k(rc -1)]} (9.370 Chih Wu T 3 2 4 p 2 3 4 1 1 s v piston displacement Figure 9.10) (9.(T4 . Equation (9.W12 = m(u2 .5) (9.2. is Wnet = W12+W23+W34 = Qnet = Q23 + Q41 The thermal efficiency of the cycle is η = Wnet /Q23 =Qnet /Q23 = 1.2.u1)/(h3 .1) (9.2.W34 = m(u4 .

(c) expander as isentropic. (d) the heat addition is 500 kJ/kg in the combustion chamber. 2. The amount of heat addition is 500 kJ/kg.2.1 A Diesel engine receives air at 27ºC and 100 kPa.0113 kg. Therefore the Diesel engine can be designed to operate at much higher compression ratios and less refined fuel than those of the Otto cycle. and rc is the cut-off ratio for the engine defined by the equation r = V1 /V2 and rc = V3 /V2 (9.0113 kg. a combustion chamber. Display results . Example 9. This bracket factor is always larger than one. The compression ratio is 18.12) A comparison of the thermal efficiency of the Diesel cycle and the thermal efficiency of the Otto cycle shows that the two thermal cycle efficiencies differ by the quantity in the brackets of equation (9.2. Diesel engines are slightly more efficient than Otto engines. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is air. (c) the compression ratio of the compression device is 18. (b) combustion as isobaric. As a result of the higher compression ratio. we take the following steps: 1.13) (9. (B) Switch to analysis mode. (b) the inlet pressure and temperature of the compression device are 100 kPa and 27ºC. Analysis (A) Assume a process for each of the four processes: (a) compression device as isentropic.Gas Closed System Cycles 371 where r is the compression ratio. 3.2. and (e) the mass of air is 0. The mass of air contained in the cylinder is 0. Build (A) Take a compression device. (b) the efficiency and work output.11). there is no engine knock problem. and (c) the MEP. To solve this problem by CyclePad. Since the fuel is not injected into the cylinder until after the air has been completely compressed in the Diesel cycle. Plot the sensitivity diagram of cycle efficiency vs compression ratio. Determine (a) the maximum cycle pressure and maximum cycle temperature. and (d) cooler as isochoric.2. an expander and a cooler from the closed system inventory shop and connect the four devices to form the Diesel cycle. hence the Diesel cycle efficiency is always less than the Otto cycle efficiency operating at the same compression ratio.

and (B) Display the sensitivity diagram of cycle efficiency vs compression ratio. The cycle is a heat engine.26 kJ.2 kPa and Wnet=4.2.1a.2.372 Chih Wu (A) Display cycle properties results. Figure E9. MEP=403. The answers are Tmax=1179 ºC.1b. Diesel cycle. . Figure E9. Diesel cycle sensitivity analysis. η=65.53% . Comment: Efficiency increases as compression ratio increases. pmax=5720 kPa.

Qadd=16 Btu. (c) the compression ratio of the compression device is 16.61 Btu. Turbo-charging raises the inlet air pressure of the engine above atmospheric pressure and raise the power output of the engine.7 psia. Wadd=-3. a combustion chamber. Figure E9. an expander and a cooler from the closed system inventory shop and connect the four devices to form the Diesel cycle.2 A Diesel engine receives air at 60ºF and 14. and (e) the mass of air is 0.45%. 3.2. net work produced. work produced.97 Btu. (d) the heat addition is 800 Btu/lbm in the combustion chamber. but it may not improve the efficiency of the cycle. The compression ratio is 16. (B) Switch to analysis mode. (c) expander as isentropic. Analysis (A) Assume a process for each of the four processes: (a) compression device as isentropic. The answers are Tmax=4454ºF. MEP=199 psia. 2.65 Btu. The power output of the Diesel cycle can be increased by super-charging.02 lbm. and η=56. we take the following steps: 1. The amount of heat addition is 800 Btu/lbm. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is air. (b) the inlet temperature and pressure of the compression device are 60ºF and 14.Qremove=-6.03 Btu. The difference between a super-charger and a turbo-charger is the manner in which they are powered.3.7 psia. work added. turbo-charging and pre-cooling the air before it enters the cylinder in the Diesl engine. and (d) cooler as isochoric. The cycle is a heat engine. Build (A) Take a compression device. The mass of air contained in the cylinder is 0.Gas Closed System Cycles 373 Example 9. Determine the maximum cycle temperature. MEP and efficiency of the cycle. The bottom schematic diagram of .2. (b) combustion as isobaric. Since the inlet air density is increased due to higher inlet air pressure or lower air temperature. The schematic diagram of the Diesel cycle with turbocharging or super-charging is illustrated in Figure 9. To solve this problem by CyclePad. Diesel cycle.2.02 lbm. the mass of air in the cylinder is increased. Wexpansion=12.2. heat added. heat removed. Wnet=9. Display results (A) Display cycle properties results.

and (C) display results. and pre-cooling and super-charging. T7=70ºF. Figure 9.1ºF. compression ratio=15. p8=14. V9=0. and cycle efficiency. p9=14.2.2. Qin=4. isentropic for compression process 9-10. T9=96. The atmosphere conditions are 14.16 ft3 (no turbo-charger and no pre-cooler). .2. and isochoric for the cooling process 12-13. Then (A) Assume isobaric for the pre-cooling process 7-8. MEP.3.87ºF.2.374 Chih Wu Figure 9. isobaric for the heating process 10-11. isentropic for compression process 8-9.7 psia.31 psia.2.3.3 Find the pressure and temperature of each state of an ideal Diesel cycle with a compression ratio of 15 and a cut-off ratio of 2.7 psia. Wnet=2. The results are: T8=70ºF.4. T8=70ºF. isentropic for expansion process 11-12. The cylinder volume before compression is 0.72 Btu. we build the cycle as shown in Figure 9.2. and Example 9. and m=0. The following three examples (Example 9. Figure 9. Example 9.4) show the power increase due to super-charging. η=60.4.012 lbm. T13=70ºF.37%.16 ft3.5 Btu. T12=938. T10=1105ºF. Example 9. heat supplied. and cut-off ratio=2. T11=2670ºF.2.4 illustrates the Diesel cycle with turbo-charging and pre-cooling.2.7 psia.7 psia and 70ºF.7 psia. (B) input p7=14. MEP=98. Also determine the mass of air in the cylinder. Diesel cycle with super-charging.2. net work produced. Diesel cycle with super-charging and pre-cooling. p13=14. To solve this problem.

2.12 Btu.4.5 psia. T11=2958ºF. Qin=6.87ºF. compression ratio=15.3. and m=0. T8=70ºF. The results are: T8=70ºF.16 ft3 (with turbo-charger and no precooler). we build the cycle as shown in Figure 9. and (C) display results. T9=96. and cut-off ratio=2. The atmosphere conditions are 14.015 lbm. isobaric for the heating process 10-11. p9=20 psia. isentropic for compression process 9-10. T7=70ºF. isentropic for expansion process 11-12. heat supplied. and isochoric for the cooling process 12-13. Then (A) Assume isobaric for the pre-cooling process 7-8.16 ft3.90 Btu. Diesel cycle without pre-cooler and without turbo-charger. p13=14.2. MEP=106.4 Find the pressure and temperature of each state of an ideal Diesel cycle with a compression ratio of 15 and a cut-off ratio of 2. and a super-charger which compresses fresh air to 20 psia before it enters the cylinder of the engine.Gas Closed System Cycles 375 Figure E9. T13=70ºF. net work produced. (B) input p7=14. T12=938. . MEP.2. The cylinder volume before compression is 0.51%. and cycle efficiency.1ºF. To solve this problem. V9=0. T10=1249ºF. Example 9. Also determine the mass of air in the cylinder. η=64.7 psia and 70ºF. isentropic for compression process 8-9.7 psia.7 psia. Wnet=3.

heat supplied. W1112=5.7 psia. T8=50ºF. and m=0. .12 Btu. MEP=108.5. and (C) display results. and cycle efficiency.16 ft3 (with turbo-charger and pre-cooler). T10=1184ºF.0745 Btu. p8=14.1247 Btu. and isochoric for the cooling process 12-13. A pre-cooler which cools the atmospheric air from 70ºF to 50ºF. p13=14.2.93 Btu. p9=20 psia. and cut-off ratio=2. W910=-2. T11=2829ºF. To solve this problem.7 psia.2. isentropic for expansion process 11-12. net work produced. we build the cycle as shown in Figure 9.376 Chih Wu Figure E9. η=64. p8 =14. isentropic for compression process 9-10.25%.2 Btu.75 Btu. MEP.89 Btu. Q78=-0. T12=864. Find the pressure and temperature of each state of an ideal Diesel cycle with a compression ratio of 15 and a cut-off ratio of 2.p12=36. Then (A) Assume isobaric for the pre-cooling process 7-8.7 psia.76 psia. p11=886. T7=70ºF.16 ft3.5. and a super-charger which compresses fresh air to 20 psia before it enters the cylinder of the engine are added to the engine. The results are: T8=50ºF. p9=20 psia.3 psia. V9=0.7 psia. T9=96.87ºF.4. The cylinder volume before compression is 0. Also determine the mass of air in the cylinder. isentropic for compression process 8-9. T13=70ºF.7 psia and 70ºF. (B) input p7=14.Wnet=3. Q1011=6.2.8ºF.3 psia. p10=886.0155 lbm. compression ratio=15. Diesel cycle with turbo-charger. isobaric for the heating process 10-11. W89=-0.2 psia. The atmosphere conditions are 14. Example 9. W1011=1.

2. 11. . 8. indicate whether the following statements are true or false: All the processes are internally reversible. Cycle efficiency depends on the compression ratio only. 4. 3. 1. Homework 9. Cycle efficiency increases with the maximum temperature. Sketch T-s and p-v diagrams for the Diesel cycle. for what reason? Does the Diesel engine have engine knock or detonation problem? Why? Is the Otto cycle more efficient than a Diesel cycle with the same compression ratio? How is it possible for a Diesel engine to operate at efficiencies greater than the efficiency of an Otto cycle? Why is the Diesel engine usually used for big trucks and the Otto engine usually used for compact cars? Can the Diesel engine afford to have a large compression ratio? Why? How does the modern Diesel engine achieve higher power output without the use of higher compression ratio? Suppose a large amount of power is required. What is the difference between the compression ratio and cut-off ratio? What is the difference between the Otto and Diesel engine? How is the fuel introduced into the Diesel engine? Does the Diesel engine have sparkling plugs? If yes.2. Diesel Cycle Analysis and Optimization. 12. 10.5. 5. Diesel cycle with pre-cooler and turbo-charger. 6. 13.Gas Closed System Cycles 377 Figure E9. Which engine would you choose between Otto and Diesel? Why? In an ideal Diesel cycle. 7. 9. 2.

21. (B) 1847ºF.10 Btu/lbm. Determine (A) the work added during the compression process.56%. (C) 62. and (F) the thermal efficiency of the cycle. plot the cycle efficiency as a function of compression ratio from 4 to 30. (B) the temperature and pressure of the gas at the end of the combustion process. Determine (A) the maximum cycle pressure and maximum temperature of the cycle. (F) 56. and (F) the thermal efficiency of the cycle.3 psia. 20. .0 psia. (B) 3048ºF and 792.6 kJ/kg. (C) the work done during the expansion process. (E) the MEP (mean effective pressure). and (E) thermal cycle efficiency. 16. (F) 167.64 psia. (B) the cut-off ratio. An ideal Diesel engine receives air at 103. 18. Determine (A) the temperature and pressure of the gas at the end of the compression process. 17. (B) 54. The amount of heat addition is 2000 kJ/kg of air. An ideal Diesel engine receives air at 15 psia and 65ºF.48%. and the compression ratio of the engine is 6. ANSWER: (A) 1135ºF. An ideal Diesel cycle with a compression ratio of 20 and a cutoff ratio of 2 has a temperature of 105ºF and a pressure of 15 psia at the beginning of the compression process.6 kPa.378 Chih Wu 14.5 kJ/kg. (D) the heat removed from the air during the cooling process. (C) 673. (B)the temperature and pressure of the air at the end of the combustion process. (D) the net work produced by the cycle.71%.0 psia. (B) 1. Heat added to the air is 160 Btu/lbm.2 Btu/lbm. (E) 56.8 psia.4 Btu/lbm. (B) the cut-off ratio. (C) 448. (D) -158. For a Diesel cycle. (C) 1535 Btu/lbm. The pressure and temperature at the start of compression in an air Diesel cycle are 101 kPa and 300 K. Determine (A) the temperature and pressure of the air at the end of the isentropic compression process.79%. ANSWER: (A) 1412ºF and 994. For a Diesel cycle.4 kPa and 27ºC. The maximum temperature of the cycle is 4040ºF. the pressure is 14. (D) the heat removed from the air during the cooling process. (D) heat removed from the engine to the environment. The compression ratio is 15.3 psia. ANSWER: (A) 2879 K and 4476 kPa. Heat added to the air is 1016.2 Btu/lbm. (D) 868.7 psia and the temperature is 80ºF.7 kJ/kg. and (F) the MEP of the cycle. ANSWER: (A) 1294ºF and 792. plot the MEP as a function of compression ratio from 4 to 30. and (B) the cycle thermal efficiency. (C) 167.87 Btu/lbm.5 Btu/lbm. The compression ratio of an air-standard Diesel cycle is 15. (B) the temperature at the beginning of the exhaust process. (C) the heat addition to the cycle. 19. ANSWER: (A) -94. (E) 735. ANSWER: (A) -385 kJ/kg. (E) 36.31%. An ideal Diesel cycle with a compression ratio of 17 and a cutoff ratio of 2 has an air temperature of 105ºF and a pressure of 15 psia at the beginning of the isentropic compression process.21. (E) the MEP (mean effective pressure). (B) 3283ºF and 994. (E) 64. (D) -437. (E) the thermal efficiency. (D) -86. (B) 2. (F) 45. 15. (C) the work done during the expansion process. At the beginning of the compression stroke. Determine (A) the work added during the compression process.62.94%. Find (A) the temperature at the end of the compression stroke. and the compression ratio of the engine is 13. (C) heat added to the engine in the combustion chamber. and (C) the thermal efficiency of the cycle.

7 psia. 582. heat removed. MEP and efficiency of the cycle.79%.1 kJ/kg. The amount of heat addition is 800 Btu/lbm. (B) the maximum temperature of the cycle.04%. Wexpansion=14.7 psia.3ºF and 28. (D) -318. An ideal Diesel cycle with a compression ratio of 17 and a cutoff ratio of 2 has a temperature of 313 K and a pressure of 100 kPa at the beginning of the isentropic .Qremove=-6. ANSWER: (A) -78.32 psia. 26. Wexpansion=13. (B) 1757ºF. 25. The amount of heat addition is 800 Btu/lbm. and η=60. Wadd=-4. and η=61.73 Btu.19 Btu/lbm.35%. Determine (A) the work added during the compression process. Pressure prior to the compression process: 14. 28.28 Btu.3 Btu/lbm. The mass of air contained in the cylinder is 0. The maximum cycle temperature is 1460ºC and the compression ratio of the engine is 16. and (E) the thermal efficiency of the cycle. Heat added to the air is 200 Btu/lbm. net work produced. Wadd=-4. 23. (E) the MEP (mean effective pressure). (B) 157.02 lbm.9 Btu/lbm.0 kJ/kg. (C) the work done during the expansion process. (F) 57.85 Btu. (D) the heat removed from the air during the cooling process. (C) 710. An ideal Diesel engine receives air at 15 psia. MEP=204. Qadd=16 Btu. Heat added during the combustion process: 245 Btu/lbm.53 Btu/lbm.84%. The following information is known: Temperature prior to the compression process: 70oF.7 psia. (E) 61.2%.05 Btu.92 psia.76 psia.12 Btu.2 psia. A Diesel engine receives air at 80ºF and 14. Determine the maximum cycle temperature.11%. (B) 832. heat added. (C) 83.2 psia. work produced. 24. work added.2 kJ/kg. The air volume is 7 ft3 before compression.27 Btu. The compression ratio is 20. Wnet=9. (B) the heat added to the air during the heating process. 82. Determine (A) the work done during the compression process.Qremove=-6. Calculate: (A) thermal efficiency.8 Btu/lbm.Gas Closed System Cycles 379 22. An ideal Diesel engine receives air at 100 kPa and 25ºC. A Diesel cycle has a compression ratio of 18. and the highest temperature in the cycle is limited to 2500ºF to avoid damaging the engine block. and (C) mean effective pressure. 27. The mass of air contained in the cylinder is 0. (C) 64. ANSWER: Tmax=4601ºF. (C) 139. (C) Solve for the thermal efficiency. ANSWER: (A) 1185ºF and 776. ANSWER: (A) -434. The compression ratio is 20. (A) Determine the temperature and pressure at each process endpoint.7 psia. 70ºF.22 Btu. 2208ºF and 776. ANSWER: Tmax=4667ºF. work added. Compare engine efficiency to that of a Carnot cycle engine operating between the same temperatures.5 kJ/kg. and (F) the thermal efficiency of the cycle. Air intake conditions (prior to compression) are 72ºF and 14.7 psia. ANSWER: (A) 64. (B) net work. A Diesel engine receives air at 60ºF and 14. Wnet=9.78 Btu. heat removed. (B) 195. (E) 52. (B) Solve for the net cycle work (Btu/lbm). Qadd=16 Btu. Determine the maximum cycle temperature. (D) the heat removed from the air during the cooling process. MEP and efficiency of the cycle.7 psia. net work produced. (D) -45. and the compression ratio of the engine is 11.02 lbm. (C) the work done during the expansion process. heat added. work produced. MEP=211. A Diesel engine is modeled with an ideal Diesel cycle with a compression ratio of 17.51%.

determine (A) the temperature and pressure of the air at the end of the isentropic compression process and at the end of the combustion process.90%.3 kPa.6 kJ/kg. heat input. Also determine the mass of air in the cylinder. The atmosphere conditions are 14. Find the work input. 61. net work output.9ºF and 35. 33. Wnet=2. 1138 kPa. and 854. 1293ºF and 1108 psia. net work output.4 psia. Q=3. ANSWER: -427. 814. Also determine the mass of air in the cylinder. 290 K. after combustion is complete T=1500 K and p=7 Mpa. Find the work input.51%.7 psia and 80ºF.1 K and 5280 kPa.380 Chih Wu compression process. assume that k=1.6 kJ/kg.4.1 kJ/kg. a peak pressure of 6000 kPa. A diesel engine has a state before compression of 100 kPa. heat input. 1944 K and 5280 kPa. 1316 kJ/kg.7 kJ/kg. MEP=106.6 kJ/kg. heat input. At the beginning of compression in a Diesel cycle T=300 K and p=100 kPa. 34. The cylinder volume before compression is 0. A diesel engine has a state before compression of 95 kPa. heat supplied. Find the work input. thermal efficiency. A pre-cooler which cools the atmospheric air from 80ºF to 50ºF. 1184ºF and 886. heat input. 985. and cycle efficiency. after combustion is complete T=1500 K and p=5 Mpa. m=0. ANSWER: (A) 972. MEP=116. thermal efficiency. a peak pressure of 5000 kPa.8 kJ/kg. and mean effective pressure of the cycle. 29.52%.5 kJ/kg. ANSWER: [50ºF and 14.83 Btu. 584. .5 kJ/kg. ANSWER: [50ºF and 14.7 psia and 80ºF. MEP.7%. 30. thermal efficiency. 58. 59.65%. 371.9ºF and 35. 290 K. 31. work output. 2829ºF and 886. A pre-cooler which cools the atmospheric air from 80ºF to 50ºF. and cycle efficiency. 1518 kJ/kg. 98. heat supplied. and a maximum temperature of 2400 K. and a super-charger which compresses fresh air to 25 psia before it enters the cylinder of the engine are added to the engine.1 kJ/kg. The cylinder volume before compression is 0.31%.3 psia. net work produced. and mean effective pressure of the cycle. 901. η=64.57%. MEP.81 psia].0114 lbm. 1087 kPa. and (B) the thermal efficiency of the cycle. ANSWER: -442.1 ft3. Q=4.7 psia.7 kJ/kg. 657. Find the work input.5 psia. The atmosphere conditions are 14. work output.8 kPa.5ºF and 25 psia. and a super-charger which compresses fresh air to 20 psia before it enters the cylinder of the engine are added to the engine.1 ft3.3 kJ/kg. net work produced. Find the pressure and temperature of each state of an ideal Diesel cycle with a compression ratio of 15 and a cut-off ratio of 2.0097 lbm. At the beginning of compression in a Diesel cycle T=300 K and p=200 kPa. and mean effective pressure of the cycle. and mean effective pressure of the cycle. work output. thermal efficiency. and a maximum temperature of 2400 K.47 Btu.67ºF and 20 psia.6 kJ/kg. and 854. 1373 kJ/kg. Find the pressure and temperature of each state of an ideal Diesel cycle with a compression ratio of 15 and a cut-off ratio of 2. Wnet=3. 63. 392. 782. 32. 1457 kJ/kg.81 psia]. work output.3 psia. 460. η=66. 888. ANSWER: -471. net work output. 3045ºF and 1108 psia. Use the cold air-standard assumptions. ANSWER: -390. net work output. m=0. 133.7 psia.78 Btu. (B) 62.19 Btu.

v4) and Q41 .5) (9.3) (9.11) .W12 = m(u2 . is Wnet =W12 +W34 +W41 = Qnet = Q23 + Q41 The thermal efficiency of the cycle is η = Wnet /Q23 =Qnet /Q23 = 1.k(T4 .3. Equation (9.4) (9.Gas Closed System Cycles 381 9.10) is reduced to: η = 1.3.3.10) (9.T2) (9.u2) W34 = ∫pdV Q34 .u2) (9. Q34 =0 W41 = ∫pdV = p m(v1 .3.W41 = m(u1 .1.u3).0 = m(u3 .(h4 .h1)/(u3 . The schematic diagram of the cycle is shown in Figure 9. which is also equal to net heat (Qnet). The cycle is made of the following four processes: 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-1 isentropic compression isochoric heat addition isentropic expansion isobaric heat removing Applying the First law and Second law of thermodynamics of the closed system to each of the four processes of the cycle yields: W12 = ∫pdV Q12 .9) (9.3.3.3.u1).3.3.1) (9.3.T1)/(T3 .3.W34 = m(u4 .2) (9.7) This expression for thermal efficiency of the cycle can be simplified if air is assumed to be the working fluid with constant specific heats.3.u4) The net work (Wnet).3.6) (9. ATKINSON CYCLE A cycle called Atkinson cycle is similar to the Otto cycle except that the isochoric exhaust and intake process at the end of the Otto cycle power stroke is replaced by an isobaric process. Q12=0 W23 = ∫pdV = 0 Q23 .8) (9.3.Q41 /Q23 =1.

Determine the maximum temperature. mdot=0. . The heat addition in the combustion chamber is 800 Btu/lbm. Wnet=10. isochoric for the heating process 2-3.3. pmax=1328 psia.72 Btu. Figure E9. maximum pressure.28 Btu.1.02%. Example 9.54 Btu. T1=60ºF. Qadd=16 Btu. Atkinson cycle. Then (A) Assume isentropic for the compression process 1-2 and the expansion process 3-4. The results are: Tmax=5407ºF. (B) input p1=14. Draw the T-s diagram of the cycle. Atkinson cycle. MEP=74.3. and q=800 Btu/lbm for the heating process 2-3. The cylinder contains 0.1.3. and η=67. The atmospheric air is at 14. heat supplied. MEP.7 psia.82 Btu.1 Find the pressure and temperature of each state of an ideal Atkinson cycle with a compression ratio of 8. Wexpan=14.1. and (C) display results. heat removed. and cycle efficiency. Wcomp=-3.02 lbm of air. net work produced. work added during the compression processes. work produced during the expansion process.02 lbm.7 psia and 60ºF. Qremove=-5. To solve this problem.3.00 psia. and isobaric for the cooling process 4-1.382 Chih Wu Figure 9. we build the cycle as shown in Figure E9. r=8 for the compression process 1-2.

01 kg of air. 4. The cylinder contains 0.54 kJ. heat removed. Wcomp=4. work added during the compression processes. combustion in Otto cycle does not actually occur under the constant volume condition.4 kPa and 18ºC. Similarly. heat supplied. Heat . work produced during the expansion process. 6. ANSWER: Tmax=2970ºC. MEP.4. What is the difference between the Otto cycle and the Atkinson cycle? 3. and η=73.63 Btu. in the Diesel cycle. DUAL CYCLE Combustion in the Otto cycle is based on a constant volume process. MEP. heat supplied.91%. it is based on a constant pressure process. The atmospheric air is at 14. MEP=540. and cycle efficiency. Qremove=-4. Wexpan=18. Qadd=18 kJ.83 Btu.02 lbm of air.17 Btu. Determine the maximum temperature. Qremove=-4. The heat addition in the combustion chamber is 800 Btu/lbm. What are the four processes of the Atkinson cycle? 2. Atkinson Cycle 1. The heat addition in the combustion chamber is 800 Btu/lbm. pmax=18904 kPa .86 kJ. and can be described as a Dual combustion cycle. Wnet=12. ANSWER: Tmax=5789ºF. work produced during the expansion process. maximum pressure. net work produced. in compression-ignition engines. ANSWER: Tmax=3121ºC. work produced during the expansion process. Find the pressure and temperature of each state of an ideal Atkinson cycle with a compression ratio of 10. net work produced. maximum pressure. MEP=631 kPa. Wnet=13.20 kJ.72 kJ. because of the rapid and uncontrolled combustion process. Qadd=16 Btu. Wnet=11. But combustion in actual spark-ignition engine requires a finite amount of time if the process is to be completed. The operation of the reciprocating internal combustion engines represents a compromise between the Otto and the Diesel cycle. The atmospheric air is at 101. MEP=73.7 kPa. For this reason. The cylinder contains 0. and cycle efficiency. Find the pressure and temperature of each state of an ideal Atkinson cycle with a compression ratio of 16. Wcomp=5. maximum pressure. Wexpan=16. heat supplied. (A) What is the cycle efficiency? (B) What is the net work per unit of mass of this cycle? (C) Compare these values with those for an Otto cycle given the same conditions.4 kPa and 18ºC. pmax=2828 psia. Wexpan=17.28 kJ. 9. combustion in Diesel cycle does not actually occur under the constant pressure condition. Wcomp=4. Find the pressure and temperature of each state of an ideal Atkinson cycle with a compression ratio of 16. heat removed. The heat addition in the combustion chamber is 800 Btu/lbm.91 psia.75%. Qremove=-5.46 kJ. and η=69. and cycle efficiency. Determine the maximum temperature. work added during the compression processes. 5.81 Btu. pmax=11289 kPa . Determine the maximum temperature. The atmospheric air is at 101.3.59 kJ. The ambient temperature is 300 K. work added during the compression processes. net work produced. heat removed. An Atkinson cycle has a compression ratio of 10 and a top temperature in the cycle of 1400 K. The cylinder contains 0. and η=73. MEP.21%. Qadd=18 kJ.01 kg of air.Gas Closed System Cycles 383 Homework 9.74 kJ.7 psia and 60ºF.

4. Applying the First law and Second law of thermodynamics of the closed system to each of the five processes of the cycle yields: W12 = ∫pdV (9.6) .1.5) (9.4.4.W12 = m(u2 .4.2) (9.4) (9. Q12 =0. The Dual cycle as shown in Figure 9.u1).1) p T 4 4 2 5 1 1 3 5 3 2 V S Figure 9.h3) (9.2. Dual cycle on p-v and T-s diagrams.4.4.u2) W34 = ∫pdV = m(p4v4 .4.4.1 is composed of the following five processes: 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 5-1 isentropic compression constant volume heat addition constant pressure heat addition isentropic expansion constant volume heat removing Figure 9.p3v3) Q34 = m(u4 . Dual cycle.u3) + W34 = m(h4 .4. Q12 .4. W23 = ∫pdV = 0 Q23 . Such a cycle is called Dual cycle.0 = m (u3 . Figure 9.384 Chih Wu transfer to the system may be considered to occur first at constant volume and then at constant pressure.3) (9.2 shows the Dual cycle on p-v and T-s diagrams.

is Wnet = W12+W34+W45= Qnet = Q23+Q34+Q51 The thermal efficiency of the cycle is η = Wnet /(Q23 + Q34) =Qnet /(Q23 + Q34) = 1-Q51 /(Q23 + Q34) 385 (9.11) (9.4. To solve this problem by CyclePad. W51 = ∫pdV = 0 and Q51 .11) is reduced to: η = 1. Analysis (A) Assume a process for each the five processes: (a) compression device as isentropic.9) (9. and (d) cooler as isochoric.1. and (c) the MEP. Determine (a) the maximum cycle pressure and maximum cycle temperature. we take the following steps: 1. which is also equal to net heat (Qnet).(T5 .4. Build (A) Take a compression device.W45 = m(u5 .10) (9. 2.7) (9. Pressure and temperature at the start of compression in a Dual cycle are 14.W51 = m(u1 .u4).4. (b) first combustion as isocbaric and second combustion as isobaric. Show the cycle on T-s diagram.u5) The net work (Wnet). two combustion chambers.11) This expression for thermal efficiency of an ideal Otto cycle can be simplified if air is assumed to be the working fluid with constant specific heats.12) Example 9. Plot the sensitivity diagram of cycle efficiency vs compression ratio. while heat addition at constant pressure is 500 Btu/lbm of air. (b) the efficiency and work output per kilogram of air. an expander and a cooler from the closed system inventory shop and connect the five devices to form the Dual cycle. (c) expander as isentropic. The mass of air contained in the cylinder is 0. Equation (9.Gas Closed System Cycles W45 = ∫pdV Q45 .4.T2 )+k (T4 .4.03 lbm. Heat addition at constant volume is 300 Btu/lbm of air.4. Q45 =0.4.8) (9. (B) Switch to analysis mode. The compression ratio is 15. .7 psia and 540ºR.4.T1)/[ (T3 .T3)] (9.4.

and (f)The mass of air contained in the cylinder is 0.3 psia and Wnet=15. pmax=1367 psia.78%. The answers are Tmax=5434ºR. . Figure E9. (d) the heat addition is 300 Btu/lbm in the isocbaric combustion chamber.1a. (e) the heat addition is 500 Btu/lbm in the isobaric combustion chamber. Display results (A) Display the T-s diagram and cycle properties results. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is air. The cycle is a heat engine. and (B) Display the sensitivity diagram of cycle efficiency vs compression ratio.4. 3.4.386 Chih Wu Figure E9. Dual cycle. Dual cycle sensitivity analysis.31 Btu. MEP=217.7 psia and 540ºR. (b) the inlet pressure and temperature of the compression device are 14.03 lbm.1b. (c) the compression ratio of the compression device is 15. η=63.

Sketch T-s and p-v diagrams for the Dual cycle. Wexpansion=9. Wcomp=-2. 6. ANSWER: pmax=3862 kPa.07 kJ.1c. Can we consider the Otto or Diesel cycle to be special cases of the Dual cycle? 4.7 kJ. the MEP. Heat addition at constant volume is 100 kJ/kg of air. and η=44.85%. compression work added. net work produced and efficiency of the cycle. What five processes make up the Dual cycle? 2. Homework 9.4. The compression ratio is 12. Dual Cycle 1. Pressure and temperature at the start of compression in a Dual cycle are 101 kPa and 15ºC. Wcomp=-kJ. net work produced and efficiency of the cycle. 10.01 kg. expansion work produced.75 kJ. 9. MEP=1067 kPa. Pressure and temperature at the start of compression in a Dual cycle are 101 kPa and 15ºC. 7. the MEP. ANSWER: pmax=2248 kPa. heat removed. MEP=988. Heat added. compression work added. Heat addition at constant volume is 100 kJ/kg of . Show how the Dual cycle is a compromise between the Otto and Diesel cycles.01 kg. while the maximum temperature of the cycle is limited to 2000ºC. while the maximum temperature of the cycle is limited to 2000ºC. plot the MEP as a function of compression ratio from 4 to 16. Heat addition at constant volume is 100 kJ/kg of air. For a Dual cycle.48%. A real cycle p-v diagram of the Otto or Diesel cycle looks like a curve (combination of isobaric and isometric) rather than a linear line. heat removed.77 kJ.Gas Closed System Cycles 387 Figure E9. Qremove=-8. Are the combustion processes in the Dual cycle more realistic? 3. expansion work produced. Determine (a) the maximum cycle pressure. plot the cycle efficiency as a function of compression ratio from 4 to 16. Dual cycle T-s diagram.00 kJ. and η=57. The compression ratio is 12. The mass of air contained in the cylinder is 0. For a Dual cycle. The combustion process in internal combustion engines as an isobaric or isometric heat addition process is over simplistic and not realistic.68 kJ. Qremove=-6. Qadd=14. 5. Pressure and temperature at the start of compression in a Dual cycle are 101 kPa and 15ºC. The compression ratio is 8.4.60 kJ.60 kJ. Qadd=15. Heat added. Wnet=7. Determine (a) the maximum cycle pressure. Wnet=8.1 kPa. Wexpansion=11. The mass of air contained in the cylinder is 0.51 kJ. 8.

51 kJ.60 kJ. ANSWER: pmax=3862 kPa. heat removed. and η=53. Lenoir cycle p-v diagram and T-s diagram. Qremove=-7. . The Lenoir cycle as shown in Figure 9. and then the cycle began over again.5.388 Chih Wu air. compression work added. He converted a reciprocating steam engine to admit a mixture of air and methane during the first half of the piston’s outward suction stroke. expansion work produced.01 kg. Figure 9.5. Wcomp=-3. The mass of air contained in the cylinder is 0. MEP=1189 kPa.1.69 kJ. while the maximum temperature of the cycle is limited to 2200ºC.92 kJ.2. at which point it was ignited with an electric spark and resulting combustion pressure acted on the piston for the remainder of the outward expansion stroke. net work produced and efficiency of the cycle. Wnet=8. The following inward stroke of the piston was used to expel the exhaust gases. 9. Lenoir cycle.71%.2.5. the MEP. LENOIR CYCLE The first commercially successful internal combustion engine was made by the French engineer Lenoir in 1860.5.5.43 kJ. Qadd=16. Determine (a) the maximum cycle pressure. Heat added.1 is composed of the following three effective processes: 1-2 2-3 3-1 isochoric combustion process isentropic power expansion process isobaric exhaust process The p-v and T-s diagrams of the cycle is shown in Figure 9. Wcomp=12. Figure 9.

01 kg.5.8) (9. we take the following steps: .(h3 .5.W23 = m (u3 . is Wnet = W23+W31= Qnet = Q12+Q31 The thermal efficiency of the cycle is η = Wnet /Q12 = Qnet /Q12 = 1+ Q31 /Q12 (9.6) (9.p3v3) and Q31 = m(u1 . the engine efficiency was very low and fuel consumption was very high.h3) The net work (Wnet). To solve this problem by CyclePad. Draw the T-s diagram of the cycle. heat added. net work produced.5) This expression for thermal efficiency of the cycle can be simplified if air is assumed to be the working fluid with constant specific heats.1. Equation (9.5.u1) Q23 = 0 0 .5. Because the air-fuel mixture was not compressed before ignition. work produced. rs=v3/v1.1) (9.5.8) is reduced to: η = 1.3) (9.4) (9. work added.5.5. The air is heated to 2000ºC.u3) + W31 = m(h1 .u1) = 1 .9) where rs is the isentropic volume compression ratio.5. Example 9.h1)/(u2 .0 = m(u2 .5. which is also equal to net heat (Qnet). The mass of air contained in the cylinder is 0.k T2 (rs -1)/( T2 -T1) (9. The isochoric heating process of a Lenoir engine receives air at 15ºC and 101 kPa.5.5. the temperature at the end of the isentropic expansion process. Determine the pressure at the end of the isochoric heating process. The fuel-air mixture was ignited by an electric spark inside the cylinder.7) (9.u2) W31 = ∫pdV = m(p1v1 .2) (9. and efficiency of the cycle. heat removed.Gas Closed System Cycles 389 Applying the First law and Second law of thermodynamics of the closed system to each of the three processes of the cycle yields: W12 = 0 Q12 .

Qadd=15. net work produced. work added.1. The answers are T3=986. Wcomp=3. Qadd=14.48 kJ. Build (A) Take a combustion chamber. work added. heat added. Analysis (A) Assume a process for each the three processes: (a) combustion as isochoric. 2.02 lbm. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is air. Qremove=-10. heat removed. an expander and a cooler from the closed system inventory shop and connect the three devices to form the Lenoir cycle. (b) expander as isentropic. and efficiency of the cycle. What are the five processes that make up the Lenoir cycle? 2.79 kJ. The isochoric heating process of a Lenoir engine receives air at 60ºF and 14. heat removed. p2=866. The isochoric heating process of a Lenoir engine receives air at 15ºC and 101 kPa.23 kJ. (b) the inlet pressure and temperature of the combustion device are 101 kPa and 15ºC. the temperature at the end of the isentropic expansion process. Lenoir cycle Homework 9. Wexpan=7.75 kJ. The air is heated to 4000ºF. Determine the pressure at the end of the isochoric heating process. Qremove=-9. and (B) Display the T-s diagram. 3. and η=32. p2=796. ANSWER: T3=1065ºC. Determine the pressure at the end of the isochoric heating process. (c) the temperature at the end of combustion device is 2000ºC. net work produced. 3.01 kg .26 kJ. Figure E9. .46%. heat added.9 kPa.72%. The mass of air contained in the cylinder is 0. and η=31.7 psia. the temperature at the end of the isentropic expansion process. Wnet=5.01 kg. Wcomp=-2. The cycle is a heat engine.54 kJ.01 kJ.5. and (c) cooler as isobaric. The mass of air contained in the cylinder is 0. and (d) the mass of air is 0.390 Chih Wu 1.12 kJ. work produced. Wexpan=8. work produced.8 kPa. and efficiency of the cycle.5.13 kJ. Display results (A) Display cycle properties results. The air is heated to 2200ºC.8 ºC.66 kJ. Wnet=4. Lenoir Cycle 1. (B) Switch to analysis mode.

The operation of the Stirling-cycle engine is shown in Figure 9.74%. and η=32. STIRLING CYCLE The Stirling cycle is composed of the following four processes: 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-1 isothermal compression constant volume heat addition isothermal expansion constant volume heat removing Stirling-cycle engine is an external-combustion engine.6.2.97 Btu. Wcomp=2. Qadd=13. During the isothermal compression process 1-2.6. At state 1. Wexpan=7. so the . Wcomp=2. p2=135. heat added. There are also heat interactions along the constant volume heat addition process 2-3 and the constant volume heat removing process 4-1. The power piston moves from its BDC to TDC to compress the working fluid during the compression process 1-2. and the other is the displace piston (D). Qadd=15.1 psia. the power piston is at BDC (bottom dead center). Wexpan=7.08 Btu. Wnet=4. 9. ANSWER: T3=2172ºF. Figure 9. Qremove=-9. The air is heated to 4500ºF.02 lbm.6. T 3 4 p 3 2 2 1 4 1 s v Figure 9. The mass of air contained in the cylinder is 0. the working fluid in the cylinder is in contact with the low temperature reservoir. with the displacer at its TDC (top dead center). and η=33. The purpose of the displace piston is to move the working fluid around from one space to another space through the regenerator.49 Btu. Determine the pressure at the end of the isochoric heating process. heat is added to maintain a constant temperature TH. and efficiency of the cycle. Qremove=-10. From 1-2. The isochoric heating process of a Lenoir engine receives air at 80ºF and 14. work added.1 shows the Stirling cycle on p-v and T-s diagrams. p2=126.86 Btu.72%. net work produced. 4. the temperature at the end of the isentropic expansion process.7 psia. Stirling cycle on p-v and T-s diagrams. The quantities of heat in these two constant volume processes are equal but opposite in direction. One is a power piston (P). heat removed.Gas Closed System Cycles 391 ANSWER: T3=1953ºF.2 psia.59 Btu. Wnet=5. work produced. heat is rejected to maintain a constant temperature TL.03 Btu.13 Btu.1.41 Btu. There are two pistons in the cylinder. During the isothermal expansion process 3-4.01 Btu.6.11 Btu.

6.392 Chih Wu temperature remains constant (T1=T2) and heat is removed.8) (9.6.5) (9.1) (9.9) (9.0 = m(u1 . pushing the working fluid through the regenerator where it picks up heat to reach T3. the working fluid in the cylinder is in contact with the high temperature reservoir.6.6.u4) The net work (Wnet).W34 = m(u4 .4) (9. During the cooling process 4-1. which is also equal to net heat (Qnet).6.3) (9. the displacer moves downward. Figure 9.W12 = m(u2 .0 = m(u3 .6. so the temperature remains constant (T3=T4) and heat is added.u3) =0 W41 = ∫pdV = 0 and Q41 .6) (9.u1) =0 W23 = ∫pdV=0 Q23 . During the heating process 2-3.2.6.6.u2) W34 = ∫pdV.10) (9.7) . Stirling cycle operation.6. the displacer moves upward. Q34=∫TdS= T3(S4-S3) Q34 . is Wnet =W12 +W34 = Qnet = Q12+ Q23+ Q34 + Q41 The thermal efficiency of the cycle is η = Wnet /(Q34+Q23) (9. During the expansion process 3-4.6. Q12=∫TdS= T1(S2-S1) Q12 .6.2) (9. Applying the First law and Second law of thermodynamics of the closed system to each of the four processes of the cycle yields: W12 = ∫pdV. pushing the working fluid through the regenerator where it removes heat to reach T1.

0 kJ. The cycle is a heat engine. net work. we take the following steps: 1.Gas Closed System Cycles 393 Example 9. Q23=300. (c) expander as isothermal.19%. (c) the inlet pressure and temperature of the expander are 3000 kPa and 1000ºC. . and cycle efficiency.87 kJ. a combustion chamber.6.7 kJ. Qin=395. (b) combustion as isochoric. The highest pressure and the lowest pressure during the cycle are 3000 kPa and 500 kPa. Figure E9. and (d) cooler as isochoric.1 kg.7 kJ. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is helium. A Stirling cycle operates with 0. To solve this problem by CyclePad. and η=18. 3. (b) the inlet pressure and temperature of the compression device are 500 kPa and 30ºC and m=0. (B) Switch to analysis mode. Display results (A) Display the cycle properties results. Determine the heat and work added in each of the four processes. The answers are: Q12=W12=-22. Q34=W34=94. Q41=-300. Wnet=71. Build (A) Take a compression device.46 kJ.1 kg of hydrogen as a working fluid between 1000ºC and 30ºC.33 kJ. an expander and a cooler from the closed system inventory shop and connect the four devices to form the Stirling cycle.1. Stirling cycle.6. 2.1. Analysis (A) Assume a process for each of the four processes: (a) compression device as isothermal.

T3/ T1 (9. net work.1 kg of helium as a working fluid between 1000ºC and 30ºC. Using the ideal regenerator. In this figure. Therefore Qin=Q12 (9.6. A regenerative Stirling cycle operates with 0. Build (A) Take a compression device. The highest pressure and the lowest pressure during the cycle are 3000 kPa and 500 kPa. and cycle efficiency.6. The temperature at the exit of the regenerator (heater #1) and inlet to the heater #2 is 990ºC and the temperature at the exit of the regenerator (cooler #1) and inlet to the cooler #2 is 40ºC. a heater (cold-side regenerator) combustion chamber. the combination of heater #1 and cooler #1 is equivalent to the regenerator.6. Heat removed from the cooler #1 is added to the heater #1.394 Chih Wu The Stirling cycle is an attempt to achieve Carnot efficiency by the use of an ideal regenerator. the Stirling cycle has the same efficiency as the Carnot cycle. the amount of heat added to the heater #1 from the cooler #1 is not a part of heat added to the cycle from its surrounding heat reservoirs. Practical attempts to follow the Stirling cycle present difficulties primarily due to the difficulty of achieving isothermal compression and isothermal expansion in a machine operating at a reasonable speed.12) Figure 9. A device called regenerator can be used to absorb heat during process 4-1 (Q41) and ideally delivering the same quantity of heat during process 2-3 (Q23).6.1.3.6. an expander and two coolers (cooler #1 is the hot-side regenerator) . Q41 is not counted as a part of the heat input. Determine the heat and work added in each of the four processes.11) In this respect. Regenerative Stirling cycle.6. Example 9. To solve this problem by CyclePad.2 illustrates the analysis of the regenerative Stirling cycle.6. Example 9. The efficiency of the Stirling cycle can be reduced from Equation (9. Since this energy transfer occurs within the cycle internally.2.3.6.10) to η = Wnet /Q12 = 1. The regenerative Stirling cycle is illustrated in Figure 9. we take the following steps: 1. These two quantities of heat are represented by the areas underneath of the process 4-1 and process 2-3 of the T-s diagram in Figure 9.

Analysis (A) Assume a process for each of the six processes: (a) compression device as isothermal. Figure E9. (c) expander as isothermal. (B) Switch to analysis mode. and η=71. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is helium.2. Yet. Comment: The regenerator used in this example is not ideal.87 kJ.Gas Closed System Cycles 395 from the closed system inventory shop and connect the four devices to form the regenerative Stirling cycle as shown in Figure 9.33+3. Describe this concept and its principle.1=97. Q34=3. Qin=94. The cycle is a heat engine. Q23=Qhtr#1=-Qclr#1=Qregenerator=297. (e) temperature at the exit of the regenerator (cooler #1)=40ºC. the regenerator raises the cycle efficiency almost to the Carnot efficiency. Stirling Cycle. (b) the inlet pressure and temperature of the compression device are 500 kPa and 30ºC and m=0.6. What are the four processes of the basic Stirling cycle? 2.1 kg. (d) temperature at the exit of the regenerator (heater #1)= 990ºC. Display results (A) Display the cycle properties results. Homework 9. Q45=W45=94. 1. (b) both heaters as isochoric. 3.6.1 kJ. The answers are: Q12=W12=-22.2.43=73.46 kJ.43 kJ. .1 kJ.6. 2. Wnet=71.87/97. and (d) both coolers as isochoric. The Stirling cycle uses a concept in its operation. Regenerative Stirling cycle.6 kJ. Q56=-3.33 kJ. (c) the inlet pressure and temperature of the expander are 3000 kPa and 1000ºC.77%.

02%.02 lbm of carbon dioxide as a working fluid between 1900ºF and 80ºF. Qin=1458 Btu. ANSWER: 6. is to lower compression ratio only while the expansion ratio is kept as the original. Determine the heat and work added in each of the four processes. heat removed.85 Btu. would there be any improvement in thermal cycle efficiency by the use of helium instead of air in a perfect Stirling cycle engine? A Stirling cycle operates with 1 lbm of helium as a working fluid between 1800ºR and 540ºR. R. The highest pressure and the lowest pressure during the cycle are 450 psia and 75 psia.02 kJ.5 psia.52 kJ. 10.H. 12. 1. The highest pressure and the lowest pressure during the cycle are 450 psia and 70 psia. work removed. 1902 kPa. 9.48 Btu. heat removed. Theoretically. 0. net work. 5. The highest pressure and the lowest pressure during the cycle are 450 psia and 70 psia. heat removed.48 Btu.1 kg of air as a working fluid between 1000ºC and 30ºC. Supercharging and internal cooling cycle for high . Determine the heat added. net work. 7. ANSWER: Wnet=367. and cycle efficiency.02 lbm of air as a working fluid between 1900ºF and 80ºF.8208 Btu. 9. MILLER CYCLE Alternative to lowering the compression ratio and simultaneously the expansion ratio of an Otto or Diesel cycle. 12. work added. and cycle efficiency. and cycle efficiency.9607 Btu.25 Btu.54 kJ. A regenerative Stirling cycle operates with 0. Wnet=9.20%. work removed. Miller (reference: Miller. MEP.396 3.849 Btu.7. and cycle efficiency. 13. 4. Q34=W34=13.1 kg of air as a working fluid between 1000ºC and 30ºC. 9. 12. -72.5 psia.85%. -0. The temperature at the exit of the regenerator (heater #1) and inlet to the heater #2 is 1800ºF and the temperature at the exit of the regenerator (cooler #1) and inlet to the cooler #2 is 110ºF.02%. A Stirling cycle operates with 0.92 kJ. 284. 9. 11.92 kJ. MEP. work added. net work. work removed. The temperature at the exit of the regenerator (heater #1) and inlet to the heater #2 is 1800ºF and the temperature at the exit of the regenerator (cooler #1) and inlet to the cooler #2 is 110ºF. net work.52 Btu. -2. Qin=82. -5. and cycle efficiency. ANSWER: 82. and η=12.4 Btu.. A regenerative Stirling cycle operates with 0. 0. ANSWER: Q12=W12=-3.62 kJ. Chih Wu What is a regenerator? What is a regenerative Stirling cycle? What would be the cycle efficiency of the Stirling cycle with an ideal regenerator? Sketch T-s and p-v diagrams for the Stirling cycle. 8. work added.54 kJ. -6. Determine the heat added.10 kJ. Q41=-69. MEP. and η=25. ANSWER: 7.6331 Btu.1877 Btu. The highest pressure and the lowest pressure during the cycle are 3000 kPa and 500 kPa. 0. -3.52 kJ. A regenerative Stirling cycle operates with 0. Determine the heat added.10 kJ. 6. The highest pressure and the lowest pressure during the cycle are 3000 kPa and 500 kPa. 284.02 kJ. The temperature at the exit of the regenerator (heater #1) and inlet to the heater #2 is 990ºC and the temperature at the exit of the regenerator (cooler #1) and inlet to the cooler #2 is 40ºC. Determine the heat added. net work. Q23=69.76%.

Miller further proposed increasing the boost pressure to compensate for the reduced inlet duration.7.7. The intake valve is closed late at state 3.1.7. Miller-Diesel cycle.7.1.3. By proper selection of boost pressure and variation of intake valve closing time. pp453-457. Effective compression stroke is shorter than expansion stroke 2.2. A four stroke Miller-Otto cycle without supercharger and inter-cooler is shown in Figure 9. Miller showed that turbo-charged engines could maintain sea-level power while operating over varying altitudes.2. Figure 9. Variable valve timing Miller proposed the use of early intake valve closing to provide internal cooling before compression so as to reduce compression work. Transaction of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.Gas Closed System Cycles 397 output.7. A modified Diesel cycle is known as the Miller-Diesel cycle whose pV and T-s diagrams are shown in Figure 9. A modified Otto cycle is known as the Miller-Otto cycle whose p-V and T-s diagrams are shown in Figure 9. . Miller-Otto cycle. v69. 1947) proposed a cycle which has the following characteristics: 1. Increased charging pressure 3. Figure 9.

By analogy. Spark ignition engines modified to achieve extended expansion within the engine cylinder are termed Otto-Atkinson cycle (Reference: Ma. Plenum Press.C.7. pp1816-1825. These engines can be designed to have a conventionally high compression ratio for satisfactory cold starting characteristics and a reduced compression ratio for better cycle efficiency. .. Miller-Otto cycle with supercharger. Miller-Otto cycle without supercharger and inter-cooler. 1989). Evans. Diesel engines modified to achieve extended expansion within the engine cylinder are termed Diesel-Atkinson cycle (Reference: Kentfield.398 Chih Wu Figure 9.H. Variable valve timing is being developed to improve the performance and reduce the pollution emissions from internal combustion heat engines for automobiles and trucks. Recent advances in variable valve timing..4. v98. Similarly. A four stroke Miller-Otto cycle with supercharger is shown in Figure 9.L. The intake valve is closed late at state 3.7. an extended expansion stroke is desirable in four-stroke spark ignition and Diesel engines from the viewpoint of providing an increase in thermal cycle efficiency and.A.4. Figure 9. 1986). T. J. Diesel engines with extended strokes.7. SAE Transaction Journal of Engines. A unique benefit for these engines is that changing the timing of the intake valves can be used to control the engine’s compression ratio. exhaust gas emissions and noise characteristics. pp235-252. for prescribed air and fuel flow rates. Automotive Engine Alternatives Edited by R. an increasing in engine output.3.

74 kJ.1.1. and m=3. compression work. and T5=20ºC.62 g as shown in Figure E9. η=60. Wnet=1. compression work.3 liter. we build the Otto cycle. Otto cycle.3 kPa.2.3 kPa and 20ºC. The volume of the cylinder before and after compression are 3 liter and 0. Heat added to the air in the combustion chamber is 800 kJ/kg. V2=0. The intake valve closes at 2. Q23=2. A supercharger and an inter-cooler are used. and isochoric for the cooling process 4-5.89 kJ. Determine the temperature at the end of the compression process.1. expansion work. Figure E9. expansion work.15 kJ.7. Heat added to the air in the combustion chamber is 800 kJ/kg. and (C) display results. The volume of the cylinder before and after compression are 3 liter and 0. .3 L. isochoric for the heating process 2-3. and thermal efficiency of an Otto-Miller cycle. heat added in the combustion chamber is 800 kJ/kg.3 kPa. T1=20ºC and V1=3 L. Determine the temperature at the end of the compression process.8 liter. W34=2. What is the mass of air in the cylinder? The atmosphere conditions are 101.3 kPa and 20ºC.3 liter.2ºC. The end temperature of the cooling process of the cycle is 20ºC. p5=101. and thermal efficiency of an ideal Otto cycle. isentropic for expansion process 3-4. W12=-1.89 kJ. The supercharger pressure is 180 kPa and the temperature at the end of the inter-cooler is 20ºC. Example 9.Gas Closed System Cycles 399 Example 9.7.7. What is the mass of air in the cylinder? The atmosphere conditions are 101. To solve this problem. Then (A) Assume isentropic for compression process 1-2. The results are: T2=463.7.19%. (B) input p1=101.

27%.7.2. What is the mass of air in the cylinder? The atmosphere conditions are 101.7. Then (A) Assume isentropic for both compression processes. A supercharger and an inter-cooler are used. What are the benefits of the Miller cycle? 3. and m=5. Qadd=3. and isochoric for both cooling processes.08 kJ. The volume of the cylinder before and after compression are 3 liter and 0.3 kPa and T1=20ºC. and (C) display results.73 kJ. Wcomp=-1. Heat added to the air in the combustion chamber is 800 kJ/kg. Wnet=2. What is the idea of the Miller cycle? 2. 4. The volume of the . The end temperature of the cooling process of the cycle is 20ºC.07 kJ. η=2. heat added in the combustion chamber is 800 kJ/kg. isochoric for the heating process.09 g as shown in Figure E9.02-1. ANSWER: T4=411.53 kJ.54)/4.5 liter. Miller-Otto cycle with supercharger and inter-cooler. T3=20ºC and V3=2. Miller Cycle 1. The intake valve closes at 2.4ºC. then η=(4.44 kJ. Qadd=4.2. compression work. isentropic for expansion process.7.63 kJ. Determine the temperature at the end of the compression process. compression work.3 liter.7. Wexp=3.3 liter. p2=180 kPa.07=56.54 g.93% Figure E9.02 kJ.2ºC. (B) input p1=101. V6=3 liter and T7=20ºC. and thermal efficiency of an Otto-Miller cycle. η=57. Determine the temperature at the end of the compression process. Wcomp=-1. expansion work.400 Chih Wu To solve this problem. V4=0. Notice that if the supercharger is operated by the exhaust gas. Wexp=4.29 kJ.29/4. and thermal efficiency of an Otto-Miller cycle. Wnet=2. we build the cycle as shown in Figure E9. The supercharger pressure is 180 kPa and the temperature at the end of the intercooler is 20ºC.8 liter. Homework 9. and m=4. expansion work.3 kPa and 20ºC.3%.07=60. The results are: T4=443.2.

The p-v and T-s diagrams of the cycle is shown in Figure 9. The thermodynamic theory and design of an ideal fuel burning engine.8. 1991) proposed a three-process ideal fuel burning engine consisting of an isothermal compression. and thermal efficiency of an Otto-Miller cycle.8. 5. compression work. and an adiabatic expansion process. However. . Thus. Heat added to the air in the combustion chamber is 800 kJ/kg.54 g.53 kJ. Wcomp=-1. A supercharger and an intercooler are used. A supercharger and an intercooler are used. The end temperature of the cooling process of the cycle is 20ºC. The end temperature of the cooling process of the cycle is 20ºC. Determine the temperature at the end of the compression process. an isochoric heat addition. and m=4. ANSWER: T4=353ºC. Qadd=3.8. Heat added to the air in the combustion chamber is 800 kJ/kg.8.08 kJ. Wexp=2.95 kJ.0 liter. Wicks (Reference: Wicks. Qadd=3. Wnet=2. WICKS CYCLE The Carnot cycle is the ideal cycle only for the conditions of constant temperature hot and cold surrounding thermal reservoirs. Wicks cycle.3 kPa and 20ºC. and an example of the cycle is given in Example 9.3 liter. Proceedings of the Intersociety Engineering Conference of Energy Conversion. Figure 9. The intake valve closes at 2. What is the mass of air in the cylinder? The atmosphere conditions are 101. The supercharger pressure is 180 kPa and the temperature at the end of the intercooler is 20ºC. 9. The volume of the cylinder before and after compression are 3 liter and 0.28%. expansion work.3%. the conditions of constant temperature hot and cold surrounding thermal reservoirs do not exist for fuel burning engines. What is the mass of air in the cylinder? The atmosphere conditions are 101.11 kJ.83 kJ.92 g.Gas Closed System Cycles 401 cylinder before and after compression are 3 liter and 0. the combustion products are artificially created as a finite size hot reservoir that releases heat over the entire temperature range from its maximum to ambient temperature. The natural environment in terms of air or water bodies is the cold reservoir and can be considered as an infinite reservoir relative to the engine.4ºC. η=57.14 kJ. pp474-481.2. η=58. Wcomp=-1. and m=3. The schematic Wicks cycle is shown in Figure 9.63 kJ.1.44 kJ. an ideal fuel burning engine should operate reversibly between a finite size hot reservoir and an infinite size cold reservoir.1. Wnet=1. Wexp=3.3 kPa and 20ºC. For fuel burning engines.8.. The intake valve closes at 2 liter. The supercharger pressure is 200 kPa and the temperature at the end of the intercooler is 20ºC.3 liter. F.1. ANSWER: T4=411. v2.

a heater.1. heat removed. heated isochorically to 2500ºR. 2. work produced. Wicks cycle. we take the following steps: 1.1.1. an end. p-v and T-s diagrams of the Wicks cycle.8.8. (B) Switch to analysis mode. To solve this problem by CyclePad.8. Air is compressed from 14.7 psia and 500ºR isothermally to 821. a compression device.2. and an expander from the closed system inventory shop and connect them to form the Wicks cycle as shown in Figure 9. and cycle efficiency.8. work added. Analysis . Figure E9. net work.402 Chih Wu Figure 9.8 psia. and then expanded isentropically to 14. Build (A) Take a begin.7 psia in a Wick cycle. Example 9. Determine the heat added.

7 psia. and (c) expander as isentropic. 3. Qout=-137.4 Btu.1. The cycle is composed of the following six processes: 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 5-6 6-1 isobaric cooling isothermal compression at TL constant volume heat addition isobaric heating isothermal expansion at TH constant volume heat removing During the isothermal compression process 2-3. . Many other Rallis cycles can be defined which have no identifying names.9. heated isochorically to 1200ºK. (b) heater as isochoric. (b) the begin pressure and temperature of the compression device are 14. Win=-137. The p-v and T-s diagrams for the cycle are shown in Figure 9. and then expanded isentropically to 100 kPa in a Wick cycle. (c) the end temperature of the heater expander is 2500ºR. Homework 9. The Stirling cycle is a special case of the Rallis cycle. heat is rejected to maintain a constant temperature TL. During the isothermal expansion process 5-6. Wnet=204. Display results (A) Display the cycle properties results. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is air. Wicks Cycle 1. the quantities of heat in these two constant volume processes are equal but opposite in direction.4 Btu. net work. heat is added to maintain a constant temperature TH.76%. What are the processes of the Wicks cycle? 2. There are also heat interactions along the constant pressure heat addition process 4-5 and the constant pressure heat removing process 1-2. Determine the heat added. The answers are: Qin=342.2. and cycle efficiency. A conceptual arrangement of a Rallis heat engine is shown in Figure 9.7 psia and 500ºR.8 Btu. The cycle is a heat engine. 9. and (d) the end pressure of the expander is 14. There are heat interactions along the constant volume heat addition process 3-4 and the constant volume heat removing process 6-1. work added.9. The quantities of heat in these two constant pressure processes are equal but opposite in direction. work produced. heat removed.9. MEP=89.8 Btu. Wout=342. TH is the heat source temperature and TL is the heat sink temperature. RALLIS CYCLE The Rallis cycle is defined by two isothermal processes at temperatures TH and TL separated by two regenerative processes which are part constant volume and part constant pressure in any given combination.6 Btu. Air is compressed from 100 kPa and 20ºC isothermally to 2000 kPa. and η=59. and m=1 lbm.45 psia.Gas Closed System Cycles 403 (A) Assume a process for each of the three processes: (a) compression device as isothermal.8.

is Wnet =W12 +W23 +W45 +W56 = Qnet = Q12+ Q23+ Q34 + Q45 + Q56 + Q61 = Q23+ Q56. The thermal efficiency of the cycle is η = Wnet /Q56 (9.u2) =0 W34 = ∫pdV=0 Q34 . which is also equal to net heat (Qnet).9.11) (9.9.13) (9.9.W45 = m(u5 .u6).W23 = m(u3 .u1). Q34= -Q12 W45 = ∫pdV = p4(V5-V4) Q45 . Q45= -Q61 Q56 = ∫TdS=TH(S6-S5) Q56 .10) (9. Q61= -Q45 The net work (Wnet).u3).0 = m(u1 .8) (9.9.4) (9.u4).W12 = m(u2 .9.9.9) (9.404 Chih Wu Applying the First law and Second law of thermodynamics of the closed system to each of the six processes of the cycle yields: W12 = ∫pdV=p1(V2-V1) Q12 .9.9.12) (9.u5) =0 W61 = ∫pdV=0 and Q61 .6) (9.9. Q12= -Q34 Q23 = ∫TdS=TL(S3-S2) Q23 .0 = m(u4 .1) (9.9.5) (9.7) .3) (9.9.9.W56 = m(u6 .2) (9.9.

net work output.1a.Gas Closed System Cycles 405 Figure 9. work input. Example 9. work output.9.9. Determine the pressure and temperature of each state of the cycle. Draw the T-s diagram of the cycle.1.1. heat added. q34=60 Btu/lbm. The six processes are: 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 5-6 6-1 isobaric cooling isothermal compression at TL constant volume heat addition isobaric heating isothermal expansion at TH constant volume heat removing The following information is given: p2=15 psia. A Rallis heat engine is shown in Figure E9. work and heat of each process. Helium mass contained in the cylinder is 0.1 lbm.9. q12=-60 Btu/lbm. p-v and T-s diagram of Rallis cycle. Figure 9. T2=60ºF. . MEP and cycle efficiency.9. Rallis cycle. and T5=800ºF. p5=100 psia.2. heat removed.

an expander and two coolers from the closed system inventory shop and connect the six devices to form the cycle as shown in Figure E9. Win=-30. p3=45.08% as shown in Figure E9. w23=-283. T5=800ºF. Qnet=40. 3. (B) Input the given information: working fluid is air.406 Chih Wu Figure E9. Wnet=40.1b.1c. and T5=800ºF as shown in Figure E9. we take the following steps: 1. q12=-60 Btu/lbm. (b) one heater as isochoric and the other as isobaric.9. q61=-512 Btu/lbm.1a.9. and η=32. 2. p6=33. q12=-60 Btu/lbm. T1=108.1 lbm. p5=100 psia.79 Btu. Display results (A) Display the cycle properties results. q34=60 Btu/lbm. and (d) one cooler as isochoric and the other as isobaric.11 psia. Build (A) Take a compression device. MEP=30. m=0. The cycle is a heat engine. two heaters. w61=0 Btu/lbm.8 Btu/lbm.58 Btu. p2=15 psia. T2=60ºF. q34=60 Btu/lbm. p2=15 psia.1d. Qin=126 Btu.42 Btu.8 Btu/lbm. T3=60ºF. Qout=-85.11 psia. T6=800ºF. T4=108.9. Rallis heat engine. Analysis (A) Assume a process for each of the six processes: (a) compression device as isothermal. . (B) Switch to analysis mode. p5=100 psia. q23=-283.9.21 Btu.07 Btu/lbm.9.5ºF. w56=688 Btu/lbm. q56=688 Btu/lbm. w34=2. w45=0 Btu/lbm. Wout=71.91 psia. (c) expander as isothermal. The T-s diagram of the cycle is shown in Figure E9. q45=512 Btu/lbm.42 Btu.25 psia. To evaluate this example by CyclePad. p4=45. w12=-24.1a. The results are: p1=15 psia.41 Btu/lbm. T2=60ºF.5ºF.

Figure E9. Rallis heat engine input.9. Figure E9.Gas Closed System Cycles 407 Figure E9.1c. .1b. Rallis cycle T-s diagram.9.1d. Rallis cycle output results.9.

70%.1 lbm. How many regenerating processes are there in a Rallis cycle? 3. heat added. -16.72 psia.50 Btu. 60ºF). Rallis Cycle 1. p5=100 psia. The six processes are: 1-2 isobaric cooling 2-3 isothermal compression at TL 3-4 constant volume heat addition 4-5 isobaric heating 5-6 isothermal expansion at TH 6-1 constant volume heat removing The following information is given: p2=15 psia.67 Btu.3 Btu. 58. . 12. heat removed. 27.92 Btu. p5=100 psia. work output.79 Btu.9. Determine the work input.63 Btu. 6 Btu). heat removed. -6.1a. (100 psia. 9. work output. q12=-60 Btu/lbm.1a. Air mass contained in the cylinder is 0. T2=60ºF. Determine the work input.92 Btu). 29. 800ºF). (-4. and T5=800ºF.44 Btu. Draw the T-s diagram of the cycle. q34=60 Btu/lbm. p5=100 psia.408 Chih Wu Homework 9. 5. Draw the T-s diagram of the cycle.9. heat added. Carbon dioxide mass contained in the cylinder is 0.5ºF).1 lbm. work input. [(-1.38 Btu)]. net work output. work output. and T5=800ºF. 21. A Rallis heat engine is shown in Figure E9.75%.54 psia. Determine the pressure and temperature of each state of the cycle. 4. 60ºF). q12=-60 Btu/lbm.01 Btu.45 Btu. 9. ANSWER: -4. (2.12 Btu.9. and T5=800ºF. (0 Btu. net work output.93 psia.12 Btu).1a. (100 psia. 26. (15 psia. (24. q34=60 Btu/lbm. Draw the T-s diagram of the cycle. The six processes are: 1-2 isobaric cooling 2-3 isothermal compression at TL 3-4 constant volume heat addition 4-5 isobaric heating 5-6 isothermal expansion at TH 6-1 constant volume heat removing The following information is given: p2=15 psia. MEP and cycle efficiency. (12.45 Btu. 310. work and heat of each process. MEP and cycle efficiency. 14.1 lbm. heat removed. T2=60ºF. (59. 5.9. 800ºF)]. T2=60ºF.15 Btu. (0 Btu. heat added. Air mass contained in the cylinder is 0.4ºF). q34=60 Btu/lbm. 4. A Rallis heat engine is shown in Figure E9.47 psia.93 Btu. -19. A Rallis heat engine is shown in Figure E9. q12=-60 Btu/lbm. -6 Btu). The six processes are: 1-2 constant volume heat removing 2-3 isothermal compression at TL 3-4 isobaric heating 4-5 constant volume heat addition 5-6 isothermal expansion at TH 6-1 isobaric cooling The following information is given: p2=15 psia. ANSWER: [(15 psia. net work output. MEP and cycle efficiency.34 Btu). -8. 8. 27. What is the Rallis cycle? 2.71 Btu. 410.

There are different reasons for developing cycles other than the Carnot cycle. work output.3 Btu. 29. Air mass contained in the cylinder is 0. heat added.97 kJ.58 kJ.01 kg.01 kg. A six-process internal combustion engine as shown in Figure E9.63 Btu. material limitations in the hardware and other practical consideration.1a is proposed by a junior engineer. q34=400 kJ/kg. and T5=430ºC. The following examples illustrate the design of several closed-system gas power cycles. q34=140 kJ/kg. -19.Gas Closed System Cycles 409 ANSWER: -6. V1=10V2. CyclePad is a powerful tool for cycle design and analysis. and T5=400ºC. 14. 27. T1=20ºC. the software allows users to view the cycle effects of varying design input parameters at once.52 kJ. T2=15ºC. DESIGN EXAMPLES Although the Carnot cycle is useful in determining the ideal behavior of ideal heat engine. These reasons includes the characteristics of the energy source available.6 kPa. net work output. 191. ANSWER: -1.55 kJ. The six processes are: Process 1-2 Process 2-3 Process 3-4 Process 4-5 Process 5-6 Process 6-1 isentropic compression isochoric heating isobaric heating isentropic expansion isochoric cooling isobaric cooling The following information is given: p1=100 kPa. MEP and cycle efficiency.1a. 6.10.79 Btu. 1. 8.10. A Rallis heat engine is shown in Figure E9.9.20%.93 psia. -455 kJ.70%. Due to its capabilities. 27. 9.10. q23=600 kJ/kg. Determine the work input. . heat removed.45 Btu. Draw the T-s diagram of the cycle. Air mass contained in the cylinder is 0. it is not a practical cycle to use in the design of heat engines. 30. 6.15 Btu. Example 9. q12=-140 kJ/kg. p5=700 kPa. working fluid chosen for the cycle. The six processes are: 1-2 constant volume heat removing 2-3 isothermal compression at TL 3-4 isobaric heating 4-5 constant volume heat addition 5-6 isothermal expansion at TH 6-1 isobaric cooling The following information is given: p2=100 kPa.1. 3.

W12=-3. two heaters. Build (A) Take a compression device.88 kJ. Wnet=6.1b.6ºC. heat added. Q56=-0. Analysis (A) Assume a process for each of the six processes: (a) compression device as isentropic.1a. q23=600 kJ/kg. W23=0. (c) expander as isentropic. p2=2512 kPa.69% as shown in Figure E9. T1=20ºC. we take the following steps: 1. W61=-0. MEP and cycle efficiency.9 kPa. and (d) one cooler as isochoric and the other as isobaric. W34=1. Qin=10 kJ. 2. Q23=6 kJ. W56=0. (B) Input the given information: working fluid is air. T6=266. T3=1300ºC.410 Chih Wu Determine the pressure and temperature of each state of the cycle.10. Six-process internal combustion engine design. W45=9.31 kJ. p1=100 kPa.47 kJ.7071 kJ. V1=10V2. T5=400ºC. p5=124. (b) one heater as isochoric and the other as isobaric. T4=1699ºC. an expander and two coolers from the closed system inventory shop and connect the six devices to form the cycle as shown in Figure E9. work input.1a. Qout=-3. heat removed. work output. Q61=-2. . To evaluate this design by CyclePad. The results are: p1=100 kPa. net work output.14 kJ. Wout=10.7 kPa. and η=65. The cycle is a heat engine. Q12=0.2ºC. Figure E9. m=0. 3.45 kJ.10.10. p3=5368 kPa. (B) Switch to analysis mode. Wadd=-3. p4=5368 kPa.9558 kJ. q34=400 kJ/kg. and T5=400ºC. work and heat of each process. Q34=4 kJ. Q45=0.18 kJ.57 kJ. MEP=448. Display results (A) Display the cycle properties results.01 kg.43 kJ. T2=463. p6=100 kPa. T1=20ºC.

1c.10.1b. Figure E9. the better the cycle efficiency. To improve the proposed engine.1d.Gas Closed System Cycles 411 Figure E9. a larger compression ratio could be used.10. The figure shows that the larger the compression ratio. The T-s diagram of the cycle is shown in Figure E9. .10.1c. T-s diagram. The sensitivity diagram of η (cycle efficiency) versus r (compression ratio) is plotted in Figure E9.10. Six-process internal combustion engine design results.

10.412 Chih Wu Figure E9. work output. V1=10V2. work and heat of each process. T1=20ºC. q23=600 kJ/kg.1d.1. net work output.01 kg. heat removed. A six-process internal combustion engine as shown in Figure E9. Determine the pressure and temperature of each state of the cycle.2a is proposed by a junior engineer. .10. The six processes are: Process 1-2 Process 2-3 Process 3-4 Process 4-5 Process 5-6 Process 6-1 isentropic compression isochoric heating isobaric heating isentropic expansion isobaric cooling isochoric cooling The following information is given: p1=100 kPa. MEP and cycle efficiency. Sensitivity diagram. heat added.2. Example 9. q34=400 kJ/kg. Air mass contained in the cylinder is 0.10. and T5=400ºC. Notice that process 5-6 and process 6-1of the cycle are different from process 5-6 and process 6-1of the cycle proposed in Example 9. work input.10.

95% (see Figure E9. 3. T6=92. The results are: p1=100 kPa. T2=463. Qin=10 kJ. an expander and two coolers from the closed system inventory shop and connect the four devices to form the cycle as shown in Figure E9.10. 2. Q34=4 kJ. Q12=0. T4=1699ºC. Q56=-3.01 kg.Gas Closed System Cycles 413 Figure E9. and (d) one cooler as isochoric and the other as isobaric. W61=0 kJ. p6=124. MEP=436. W12=-3. Q61=-0.45 kJ. (B) Switch to analysis mode. q23=600 kJ/kg.2a. To evaluate this design by CyclePad. p4=5368 kPa. T1=20ºC. Wnet=6. W45=9. Q23=6 kJ. p2=2512 kPa.10.10. q34=400 kJ/kg. The cycle is a heat engine. (c) expander as isentropic.09 kJ. V1=10V2. W34=1. Qout=-3.06 kJ. p1=100 kPa. p3=5368 kPa.14 kJ. W56=-0.2b).42ºC. and T5=400ºC. . Build (A) Take a compression device.18 kJ. Display results (A) Display the cycle properties results. and η=63.5191 kJ. Q45=0.7 kPa.1.2a. (B) Input the given information: working fluid is air.9 kPa.10. we take the following steps: 1. It is observed that both the cycle efficiency and MEP of the proposed cycle are less than those of the proposed cycle given by Example 9. Six process internal combustion engine. (b) one heater as isochoric and the other as isobaric. two heaters. p5=124. T1=20ºC. T3=1300ºC.61 kJ.7 kPa. W23=0.31 kJ. Wout=10. T5=400ºC.39 kJ. Analysis (A) Assume a process for each of the six processes: (a) compression device as isentropic. Wadd=-4.8818.2ºC. m=0.

414 Chih Wu Figure E9. T-s diagram and sensitivity diagram of η (cycle efficiency) vs r (compression ratio).2c. Six-process internal combustion engine design results. The T-s diagram and sensitivity diagram of η (cycle efficiency) versus r (compression ratio) is plotted in Figure E9.2c.10. Figure E9.2b. .10.10.

Build (A) Take two compression devices. T3=15ºC. p2=150 kPa.01 m3. V3=0. V3=0. T3=15ºC. (b) one heater as isochoric and the other as isobaric. Analysis (A) Assume a process for each of the seven processes: (a) compression devices as isentropic. Display results . p1=p8=101 kPa.01 m3. (B) Switch to analysis mode. r(compression ratio)=10. an expander and two coolers from the closed system inventory shop and connect the devices to form the cycle. Adding a turbo-charger and a pre-cooler to a Dual cycle is proposed as shown in Figure E9. S6 EXP1 HTG2 S5 HTG1 CLG2 S7 S4 S1 Begin1 CMP1 S2 CLG1 S3 CMP2 S8 End1 Figure E9. The basic Dual cycle and the proposed turbo-charger and pre-cooler Dual cycle information is: Basic Dual cycle: p1=p2=p3=p8=101 kPa. p2=150 kPa.3a. we take the following steps: 1.3. T1=T8=15ºC. r(compression ratio)=10. (B) Input the given information (see Figure E9.01 m3.10. (c) expander as isentropic.10. and q45=q56=300 kJ/kg. T1=T8=15ºC. 2. and q45=q56=300 kJ/kg.3b): working fluid is air. T1=T2=T3=T8=15ºC. Turbo-charger and pre-cooler Dual cycle.10. To evaluate this proposed cycle by CyclePad. The cylinder volume of the engine is 0. two heaters.01 m3. Turbo-charger and pre-cooler Dual cycle p1=p8=101 kPa.3a.Gas Closed System Cycles 415 Example 9. r(compression ratio)=10. V3=0. and q45=q56=300 kJ/kg.10. Evaluate the proposed cycle. 3. and (d) one cooler as isochoric and the other as isobaric.

and η=64.4 kPa. MEP=506.47ºC. T5=869. p3=150 kPa. Q12=0. p6=5947 kPa. Figure E9. W34=5. Qout=-3. p7=188. T3=15ºC. T2=49. Turbo-charger and pre-cooler Dual cycle input.44% as shown in Figure E9.8 kPa.32 kJ.67 kJ. T4=450.10.4486 kJ.87 kJ.25 kJ. Turbo-charger and pre-cooler Dual cycle result. W12=-0. p4=3768 kPa.76 kJ.02 kJ. W23=-0. Q56=-3. p2=150 kPa. Figure E9.1795.416 Chih Wu (A) Display the cycle properties results.3c. The cycle is a heat engine. Wnet=7. Wout=13.89 kJ.2ºC. Q23=-0. Qin=10. . p5=5947 kPa. T1=15ºC. T6=1168ºC.10. T7=264.10.3b.30 kJ.6281 kJ.3c.7ºC. W45=11. Q45=0. Wadd=-6.4ºC. The results are: p1=100 kPa.

W34=-3. 448. work produced. -454. and q45=q56=300 kJ/kg as shown in Figure E9.7 kPa. work added. For the Dual cycle without turbo-charger and pre-cooler. heat removed.6ºC. 277.8 kJ. Qout=-2.82 kJ. zero work) to 8 bar.7ºC. T7=355.01 m3. Q45=0. V3=0. and air is compressed in an isobaric compression process (Process 3-1) to 0. Q56=-2. p4=2537 kPa.94 kJ. Find the heat added.0 kJ. net work produced. air is expanded in an isentropic expansion process Process (2-3) to 1 bar. Homework 9. Qin=7.3 kJ. 27. and air is compressed in an isobaric compression process (Process 3-1) to 0.1 kJ. -129.Gas Closed System Cycles 417 Figure E9.34 kJ. net work produced. An imaginary ideal gas cycle is made by three processes. and cycle efficiency. Wadd=3. Find the heat added. zero . Q23=-0 kJ. 300.5 m3 and 300 K is compressed in a constant volume compression process (Process 1-2.7 kJ. Dual cycle without result turbo-charger and pre-cooler. and cycle efficiency. 31.34 kJ. the input are: p1=p2=p3=p8=101 kPa.7 kJ. ANSWER: 875 kJ. 2. W12=-0 kJ.7 psia.82 kJ. and η=59.3d. Wnet=4. 0. 0.10.10.2ºC. MEP=482. Air at 14. p6=4004 kPa. Q12=0.10. An imaginary ideal gas cycle is made by three processes. ANSWER: 625 kJ.10. T5=869. W45=7.5 m3 and 300 K is compressed in a constant volume compression process (Process 1-2. 3.31%.8 kJ. 170. The output results are: p1=p2=p3=101 kPa. T6=1168ºC.16 kJ.67%. Design 1. T1=T2=T3=15ºC.11 kJ. W23=-0 kJ. Wout=8. 12 ft3 and 80ºF is compressed in a constant volume compression process (Process 1-2. p5=4004 kPa. work produced.5 kJ.5 m3. zero work) to 6 bar.5 kPa. air is expanded in an isentropic expansion process Process (2-3) to 1 bar.3d. T1=T2=T3=T8=15ºC.5 m3. heat removed. work added. T4=450. p7=220. Air at 1 bar. An imaginary ideal gas cycle is made by three processes.99 kJ. It is observed that both the cycle efficiency and MEP of the proposed cycle are better than those of the Dual cycle without turbo-charger and pre-cooler.20% as shown in Figure E9. -597. Air at 1 bar. -170. r(compression ratio)=10.3d.

0 kJ.6 Btu.3 Btu. 0 kJ. and cycle efficiency. heat removed.9 Btu.5 ft3 and 80ºF.05 m3 and 300 K is compressed in a constant volume compression process (Process 1-2. Air at 14.74%.05 m3 and 300 K is compressed in a constant volume compression process (Process 1-2. net work produced. -120. heat removed. net work produced.7 Btu.2 Btu. Heat in the amount of 30 kJ is added to air at 1 bar. An imaginary ideal gas engine cycle is made by three processes. work produced.5 kJ. 0.005 m3 and 300 K. 0. -335. -397. and 120 Btu of heat is removed from air in a cooling process (Process 31) to 14. An imaginary ideal gas engine cycle is made by three processes.41%. 0 kJ. air is expanded in an isobaric expansion process Process (2-3) to 0. . zero work) to 8 bar. -100. 46. 31. Find the heat added.5 kJ. work produced. 0. ANSWER: 199. zero work) to 1 bar.5 ft3 and 80ºF is compressed in a constant volume compression process (Process 1-2. work added. 186. ANSWER: 146. work produced. and air is compressed in an isobaric process (Process 3-1) to 1 bar. 49. net work produced. work produced. ANSWER: 199. Find the heat added. net work produced. work added.0 Btu.7 psia.4 Btu. 0. 46. and air is compressed in an isobaric compression process (Process 3-1) to 12 ft3. work produced. -113. 45.9 m3. work added. 0. heat removed. air is expanded in an isobaric expansion process Process (2-3) to 0. work produced. 300. 39.80%. work added. 234. 31. -95.32 Btu. Find the heat added. work added.7 psia. Find the heat added.77 Btu. air is expanded in an isentropic expansion process Process (2-3) to 14. -120. 0.015 m3. 7. 27.9 m3.50 kJ. work produced.05 m3 and 300 K.0 kJ. net work produced. and cycle efficiency. 79. and 120 kJ of heat is removed from air in a cooling process (Process 3-1) to 1 bar. zero work) to 120 psia.34 kJ. air is expanded in an isentropic expansion process Process (2-3) to 14. net work produced. Air at 1 bar.7 psia. and cycle efficiency.05 m3 and 300 K. zero work) to 6 bar.9 m3. 8. and 100 kJ of heat is removed from air in a cooling process (Process 3-1) to 1 bar. -100. Air at 1 bar. An imaginary ideal gas engine cycle is made by three processes. work added. and 100 kJ of heat is removed from air in a cooling process (Process 3-1) to 1 bar. 99. and cycle efficiency.0 kJ. Find the heat added. heat removed. 0. 0 Btu. air is expanded in a constant volume process Process (2-3. 0.05 m3 and 300 K is compressed in a constant volume compression process (Process 1-2. An imaginary ideal gas engine cycle is made by three processes. work added. Air at 1 bar. 9. ANSWER: 584. An imaginary ideal gas cycle is made by three processes.05 m3 and 300 K. net work produced. 99.7 psia. 138. 45. 6. heat removed.50 kJ.6 Btu. Find the heat added. 79.2 Btu. 29. and cycle efficiency. zero work) to 8 bar.32 Btu. and cycle efficiency. ANSWER: 473. heat removed. ANSWER: 165. 2.7 psia.3 kJ. An imaginary ideal gas engine cycle is made by three processes.418 Chih Wu work) to 120 psia.23%. zero work) to 100 psia.6 Btu. and cycle efficiency.50 kJ.87%.9 m3. and air is compressed in an isobaric compression process (Process 3-1) to 12 ft3. 4.50 kJ. air is expanded in an isobaric expansion process Process (2-3) to 0. 2. Air at 14. heat removed.34 kJ.005 m3 and 300 K in a heating process (Process 12) to 6 bar and 0.98%. 0 kJ. 12 ft3 and 80ºF is compressed in a constant volume compression process (Process 1-2. air is expanded in an isobaric expansion process Process (23) to 0. 5.6 Btu. Find the heat added.

An imaginary ideal gas engine cycle is made by three processes.5 kJ. 1. 8. 12.005 m3 and 300 K in a heating process (Process 12) to 8 bar and 0. -22. work produced.05 m3 and 30ºC is (A) heated reversibly at constant volume until its pressure is two times of its initial value. 20.7 psia.Gas Closed System Cycles 419 10.0 kJ. -1 kJ. air is expanded in a constant volume process Process (2-3. zero work) to 14. 0. 25. -162. Find the heat added. heat removed. Air at 100 kPa. Helium at 100 kPa.0 kJ.50%. 7.0 kJ.005 m3 and 25ºC.0 kJ. and air is compressed in an isobaric process (Process 3-1) to 14.7 psia. Find the heat added. work added.0 kJ.75 kJ. -29. 20.17 Btu. net work produced. ANSWER: 40. Heat in the amount of 50 kJ is added to air at 100 kPa. and cycle efficiency. 16. 0. 22.53%. zero work) to 1 bar. work added. 10.5 kJ.4 ft3 and 77ºF. 20.0 kJ.0 kJ.005 m3 and 300 K. work produced. Heat in the amount of 30 kJ is added to air at 1 bar.83%. 13.015 m3. and (D) cooled reversibly at constant pressure to the initial state. Find the heat added.7 psia.25 kJ. 0. work produced. 13. -0.25 kJ.0 kJ. 0. 0. (B) heated reversibly at constant pressure until the volume is two times of its initial value.015 m3. 0. -1 kJ. (B) heated reversibly at constant pressure until the volume is three times of its initial value. ANSWER: 95. work added. 14. net work produced. 10. 0. net work produced. (B) heated reversibly at constant pressure until the volume is two times of its initial value.64 Btu. 0. -1 kJ. 12. ANSWER: 30.75 kJ.25 kJ. 40. and air is compressed in an isobaric process (Process 3-1) to 100 kPa. net work produced. An imaginary ideal gas engine cycle is made by three processes. net work produced. 53. Find the heat added.25 kJ.4 ft3. heat removed. 0. 0. Air at 1 bar. ANSWER: 187.75 kJ. and (D) cooled reversibly at constant pressure to the initial state. air is expanded in a constant volume process Process (2-3. -20. and (D) cooled reversibly at constant pressure to the initial state. (C) cooled reversibly at . (C) cooled reversibly at constant volume until its pressure returns to its initial value. 15. work added. and cycle efficiency.1 m3 and 300 K is (A) heated reversibly at constant volume until its pressure is two times of its initial value. work produced. An imaginary ideal gas engine cycle is made by three processes.0 kJ. and cycle efficiency. 50.05 m3 and 30ºC is (A) heated reversibly at constant volume until its pressure is two times of its initial value. -10.0 Btu. work added.1 m3 and 300 K is (A) heated reversibly at constant volume until its pressure is two times of its initial value. (C) cooled reversibly at constant volume until its pressure returns to its initial value. Find the heat added. 11. ANSWER: 30. -29. work added. (C) cooled reversibly at constant volume until its pressure returns to its initial value.0 kJ. heat removed. heat removed.0 kJ. net work produced. zero work) to 1 bar. and air is compressed in an isobaric process (Process 3-1) to 1 bar.4 ft3 and 77ºF in a heating process (Process 12) to 100 psia and 0. Air at 1 bar. air is expanded in a constant volume process Process (2-3. 21.0 kJ. Heat in the amount of 40 Btu is added to air at 14. and cycle efficiency. ANSWER: 165. 40.0 kJ.12%. heat removed. 21.39%.75 kJ. -18. -85. work produced. Find the heat added.0 kJ. and cycle efficiency.005 m3 and 25ºC in a heating process (Process 1-2) to 600 kPa and 0. 25.8162 Btu. heat removed. work produced.25 kJ. ANSWER: 50.0 kJ. -145.36 kJ. -25. (B) heated reversibly at constant pressure until the volume is two times of its initial value. 0.33%.0 kJ. and cycle efficiency.8333%. 0.

is then cooled at constant volume to 300 K. -25. -10.10%. (B) isothermal expansion to 0. Find the heat added. 21. 20. heat removed. 33.80%. net work produced. 18. work added.1 kJ. work produced. work produced. 25. ANSWER: 70. It then expands isentropically until the temperature falls to 900 K. net work produced. -10. (B) isothermal expansion to 0. heat removed. 19. ANSWER: 86.77 kJ. Find the heat added. Helium at 14. Find the heat added. 17.97 kJ. 22.99 kJ. 25. Carbon dioxide at 100 kPa.3 m3. -62.31 kJ. 1 m3 and 300 K is heated to 1200 K at constant pressure.30 kJ.5 kJ. It then expands isentropically until the temperature falls to 1000 K.65 kJ.73 kJ. work produced. and cycle efficiency. and cycle efficiency. Find the heat added. Helium at 100 kPa.0 kJ. Air at 100 kPa.3 m3. 23.46 kJ. -10.07 Btu. heat removed. -107. ANSWER: 80. net work produced. (B) heated reversibly at constant pressure until the volume is 5 ft3. heat removed. 29.61 Btu. (D) isothermal compression to the initial state.39%. 18. 29. 550 kJ. work added. (C) cooled reversibly at constant volume until its pressure returns to its initial value. work added. -35. 10. work added. 50.17 kJ. 21. work produced. (D) isothermal compression to the initial state.0 kJ.31 kJ. heat removed. and (D) cooled reversibly at constant pressure to the initial state.99 kJ.86 kJ. Find the heat added. and cycle efficiency. work added. and compressed isothermally to its initial state.8 Btu. work added. 18. heat removed. Find the heat added. -68.99 kJ. ANSWER: 1050 kJ.1 m3 and 300 K undergoes the following cycle of operations: (A) heating at constant volume from 300 K to 600 K. ANSWER: 132. work added.420 Chih Wu constant volume until its pressure returns to its initial value. 0.31 kJ. and compressed isothermally to its initial state.80%. (D) isothermal compression to the initial state. .93%. (C) cooling at constant volume from 600 K to 300 K. (C) cooling at constant volume from 800 K to 300 K.99 kJ. -10. and cycle efficiency. 0. work produced. 18. net work produced. (C) cooling at constant volume from 800 K to 300 K.30 kJ. (B) isothermal expansion to 0.33%. 18. 1 ft3 and 80ºF is (A) heated reversibly at constant volume until its pressure is 40 psia. work produced.5 kJ. 29. (D) isothermal compression to the initial state.3 m3. 25. net work produced. -210.1 m3 and 300 K undergoes the following cycle of operations: (A) heating at constant volume from 300 K to 800 K. 23. and cycle efficiency. ANSWER: 46. net work produced.1 kJ. work added. Find the heat added. -710. 29. net work produced. 24. (C) cooling at constant volume from 800 K to 300 K. work produced. Find the heat added.97 kJ. 0.1 m3 and 300 K undergoes the following cycle of operations: (A) heating at constant volume from 300 K to 800 K.88 Btu. heat removed. 18. Air at 100 kPa. and cycle efficiency. 1 m3 and 300 K is heated to 1600 K at constant pressure. net work produced.7 psia. Air at 100 kPa. Air at 100 kPa. 339.30 kJ. is then cooled at constant volume to 300 K.3 m3. 23.99 kJ. -10. and (D) cooled reversibly at constant pressure to the initial state. 21. -35. (B) isothermal expansion to 0. work produced. heat removed. and cycle efficiency. -52. and cycle efficiency.18%. 32. ANSWER: 54.5 kJ.0 kJ.99 kJ. 0.96 kJ.1 m3 and 300 K undergoes the following cycle of operations: (A) heating at constant volume from 300 K to 800 K.

45. 1 m3 and 300 K is heated to 1600 K at constant pressure. is then compressed isothermally to its initial state. 31. Carbon dioxide at 20 psia. and compressed isothermally to its initial state. heat removed.3 kJ.2a is proposed by a junior engineer.5 m3 and 300 K is heated to 1500 K at constant pressure. Find the heat added.Gas Closed System Cycles 421 26. and cycle efficiency. 57. 41.9 kJ.82 Btu. 1400 kJ. 28. 64. 42. A six-process internal combustion engine as shown in Figure E9.4 kJ. 59. net work produced. is then compressed isothermally to its initial state.5 m3 and 300 K is heated to 1800 K at constant pressure.76%. work produced.0 kJ. -401.99 Btu. 1 ft3 and 80ºF is heated to 2000ºF at constant pressure. -24. -868. 27. and cycle efficiency.7 kJ.5 m3 and 300 K is heated to 1500 K at constant pressure. Helium at 100 kPa. is then compressed isothermally to its initial state. heat removed. -627.10. work added.76%.60 kJ. and cycle efficiency. Find the heat added.75%. -329. Helium at 200 kPa. is then cooled at constant volume to 300 K. 33. work added. Air at 200 kPa. heat removed. -563. 997. work added.2 kJ. net work produced. and cycle efficiency. 57. work produced. heat removed. It then expands isentropically until the temperature falls to 80ºF.97 Btu.3 kJ. net work produced. 0.5 kJ. It then expands isentropically until the temperature falls to 80ºF. -401.2 kJ.82 Btu. heat removed. 595. 0. 58. 836. -627. and cycle efficiency. is then compressed isothermally to its initial state. ANSWER: 1400 kJ. ANSWER: 1928 kJ. It then expands isentropically until the temperature falls to 300 K. work produced. -585. ANSWER: 1517 kJ.2 kJ. Find the heat added.58 Btu. heat removed. ANSWER: 1750 kJ. work added. Helium at 20 psia.0 kJ.58 Btu. and cycle efficiency. 18. is then cooled at constant volume to 300 K. It then expands isentropically until the temperature falls to 1000 K. 29. and cycle efficiency. work produced. 30. -24. -237. work added.01 kg. 1 ft3 and 80ºF is heated to 2000ºF at constant pressure. -563.1 kJ. 0. 1123 kJ. Carbon dioxide at 100 kPa. 34. It then expands isentropically until the temperature falls to 300 K.3 kJ.1 kJ.97 Btu. work produced. ANSWER: 1080 kJ. work produced. Air at 200 kPa. net work produced. 1123 kJ. 731. 32. and compressed isothermally to its initial state.5 kJ. Find the heat added.83 kJ. 933. Find the heat added. -13.17%.8 kJ.37%. 494.8 kJ. Find the heat added. work added.76%.99 Btu.5 kJ. 33. 1 m3 and 300 K is heated to 1600 K at constant pressure. -1134 kJ. -284. net work produced. -13. is then compressed isothermally to its initial state. ANSWER: 32.9 kJ. It then expands isentropically until the temperature falls to 300 K.16%. Air mass contained in the cylinder is 0. 59.37%. ANSWER: 997.3 kJ. Find the heat added. net work produced. 648. net work produced. The six processes are: Process 1-2 isentropic compression Process 2-3 isochoric heating Process 3-4 isobaric heating Process 4-5 isentropic expansion Process 5-6 isobaric cooling . It then expands isentropically until the temperature falls to 1000 K. work added. 1750 kJ. 32. 793. heat removed. work produced. ANSWER: 58.

36. Evaluate the proposed cycle. 3 kJ). T1=60ºF. and q45=q56=300 kJ/kg.38 kJ]. q23=130 Btu/lbm.4ºC).99 kJ. The basic Dual cycle and the proposed turbo-charger and pre-cooler Dual cycle information are: Basic Dual cycle: p1=p2=p3=p8=14.10.34 kJ. [(-2. (-0.7 psia.67 Btu. and q45=q56=300 kJ/kg.92 kJ. (1.24 kJ).2b: p1=14. Turbo-charger and pre-cooler Dual cycle p1=p8=101 kPa. 6. q23=300 kJ/kg.01 m3.13 kJ. 62.34 kJ].78 kJ. 3. The six processes are: Process 1-2 isentropic compression Process 2-3 isochoric heating Process 3-4 isobaric heating Process 4-5 isentropic expansion Process 5-6 isobaric cooling Process 6-1 isochoric cooling The following information is given as shown in Figure E9. 400ºC).0145 kg. and T5=400ºC.87 kJ)].2a is proposed by a junior engineer. work input.0122 kg. MEP and cycle efficiency.4ºC)]. heat added. heat removed. V3=0. Qo=-2. -1. 807.82 kJ. V1=8V2. (5. (3000 kPa. 37. Evaluate the proposed cycle. Qi=7.5 kPa. work output. V3=0.20%.78%. heat added.3a. -1. and q45=q56=130 Btu/lbm.75 kJ. Adding a turbo-charger and a pre-cooler to a Dual cycle is proposed as shown in Figure E9.10. Wo=10.61 psia.61 Btu.10. -3. ANSWER: -2.56%. r(compression ratio)=10.68 kJ. 15ºC). (190.7 kPa. T1=T8=15ºC.52%. 0 kJ). (3000 kPa. net work output. Wi=-4. Turbo-charger and pre-cooler Dual cycle . 6 Btu. 4 kJ).02 lbm. 3.3543 kJ. Determine the work input.72 kJ. Determine the pressure and temperature of each state of the cycle. [Proposed cycle--η=61.33 kJ. 276. ANSWER: [(100 kPa. Wo=8. The cylinder volume of the engine is 0. The basic Dual cycle and the proposed turbo-charger and pre-cooler Dual cycle information are: Basic Dual cycle: p1=p2=p3=p8=101 kPa.7 kPa. T1=T2=T3=T8=60ºF. T1=15ºC. 1206ºC). (190. MEP and cycle efficiency.11 kJ. Adding a turbo-charger and a pre-cooler to a Dual cycle is proposed as shown in Figure E9. Air mass contained in the cylinder is 0. 5. -3. 427.16 kJ.33 Btu. V3=0. 0 kJ).10.01 m3. MEP=494.422 Chih Wu Process 6-1 isochoric cooling The following information is given as shown in Figure E9.2b: p1=100 kPa. -2.3 ft3. MEP=482. r(compression ratio)=10. m=0.95 Btu. ANSWER: [Dual cycle--η=59.8 kPa. T3=15ºC. (0 kJ. 388. q34=400 kJ/kg.89 kJ. A six-process internal combustion engine as shown in Figure E9. heat removed.7 psia.3 ft3.7 kPa. 7 kJ. net work output. T1=T2=T3=T8=15ºC. 55.01 m3. 55. V1=8V2. work and heat of each process.14 kJ.03 kJ. (1838 kPa. The cylinder volume of the engine is 0.8ºC). Wi=-3. Wn=4.3a. work output.10. Qo=-3. Wn=5. q34=170 Btu/lbm. 35. p2=120 kPa. Qi=8. (0 kJ. r(compression ratio)=8. m=0. and T5=750ºF.

3 ft3.66 Btu.53 Btu]. Wi=-4. Wi=-3. Miller. Wo=6.96 Btu.65 Btu.11. m=0.19%. The Lenoir cycle was the first commercially successful internal combustion engine.91 psia. The Miller cycle uses variable valve timing for compression ratio control to improve the performance of internal combustion engines. It behaves more like an actual cycle than either Otto or Diesel cycle. Turbo-charger and pre-cooler Dual cycle p1=p8=14. and a constant volume cooling process. Qo=-2. p2=20 psia. Wo=8. The Dual cycle involves two heat addition processes. Wn=3. The compression ratio is defined as r=Vmax/Vmin. T1=T8=60ºF. Wn=3. an isentropic expansion process.64 psia. The thermal efficiency of the Otto cycle depends on its compression ratio and cut-off ratio. V3=0. Stirling cycle is an external combustion engine. Wi=-2.48%. Qi=8.11 Btu.96 Btu. one at constant volume and one at constant pressure.32%. and Dual cycle are internal combustion engines. and q45=q56=130 Btu/lbm. and q45=q56=130 Btu/lbm.0312 lbm. m=0.0229 lbm. Qi=8.83 Btu.95 Btu. a constant volume combustion process.7 psia. Qi=5. The Stirling cycle and Wicks cycle are attempt to achieve the Carnot efficiency. Wo=5.08 Btu. Qi=5. r(compression ratio)=8. [Proposed cycle-η=60.0312 lbm.24 Btu. The compression ratio is defined as r=Vmax/Vmin. Adding a turbo-charger and a pre-cooler to a Dual cycle is proposed as shown in Figure E9.10.Gas Closed System Cycles 423 p1=p8=14. Otto cycle. p2=20 psia. and a constant volume cooling process. m=0. 38. The cylinder volume of the engine is 0.7 psia.3a. The cut-off ratio is defined as rcutoff=Vcombustion off/Vmin. 9.59 psia. Wi=-3.3 ft3. r(compression ratio)=8.15 Btu]].61 Btu. T3=60ºF. V3=0.87 Btu]]. The Otto cycle is a spark-ignition reciprocating engine made of an isentropic compression process. ANSWER: [Dual cycle--η=59.55 Btu. The thermal efficiency of the Otto cycle depends on its compression ratio. ANSWER: [Dual cycle--η=55. MEP=70. a constant pressure combustion process. MEP=73.11 Btu.06%. Qo=-2. Evaluate the proposed cycle.7 psia.96 Btu. Wo=9. Wn=4.70 Btu. 39. T1=T8=60ºF.3 ft3.30 Btu]. The Otto cycle efficiency is limited by the compression ratio because of the engine knock problem. Qo=-3. MEP=67. T3=60ºF.0229 lbm.43 Btu. m=0. . T1=T2=T3=T8=60ºF. Qo=-2. MEP=71. V3=0. an isentropic expansion process. r(compression ratio)=10.96 Btu. The basic Dual cycle and the proposed turbo-charger and pre-cooler Dual cycle information are: Basic Dual cycle: p1=p2=p3=p8=14. The Diesel cycle is a compression-ignition reciprocating engine made of an isentropic compression process. Diesel.3 ft3. SUMMARY Heat engines that use gases as the working fluid in a closed system model were discussed in this chapter. and q45=q56=130 Btu/lbm. [Proposed cycle-η=63.04 psia. Wn=5.

.

and the working fluid expands through the turbine and exhausts to the atmosphere. Brayton cycle p-v and T-s diagrams.1.Chapter 10 GAS OPEN SYSTEM CYCLES 10. an isentropic expansion process 3-4. in which atmospheric air is continuously drawn into the compressor. The gas turbine cycle consists of four processes: an isentropic compression process 1-2. BRAYTON OR JOULE CYCLE The ideal Brayton (sometimes called Joule cycle) gas turbine cycle is named after an American engineer.1.2. George Brayton. the heat is added to the fluid in a heat exchanger from an external heat source.1. T 3 p 3 4 2 1 2 s 1 4 v Figure 10.2. A schematic diagram of an open Brayton cycle.1. such as nuclear reactor.1. The p-v and T-s diagrams for an ideal Brayton cycle are illustrated in Figure 10. Open Brayton cycle.1. Figure 10. The more common cycle is the open one. is shown in Figure 10. and the fluid is cooled in another heat exchanger after it . The gas turbine cycle may be either closed or open. and a constant pressure cooling process 4-1.1. who proposed the cycle in the 1870s. a constant pressure combustion process 2-3. In the closed cycle. heat is added to the air by the combustion of fuel in the combustion chamber. which is assumed to operate steadily as an open system.

h2) Q34 = 0 W34 = m(h3 .9) (10. which is also equal to net heat (Qnet). A schematic diagram of a closed Brayton cycle is shown in Figure 10.426 Chih Wu leaves the turbine and before it enters the compressor.1.1.3.h4) The net work (Wnet).h2) W23 = 0 Q23 .0 = m(h3 .4) (10.1.6) (10.1.3. Figure 10.1.1.1) (10. is Wnet = W12+W34 = Qnet = Q23 + Q41 (10.8) (10.1.2) (10. Closed Brayton cycle.1. Applying the First law and Second law of thermodynamics for an open system to each of the four processes of the Brayton cycle yields: Q12 = 0 W12 = m(h1 .h4) W41 = 0 and Q41 .1.5) (10.1.0 = m(h1 .1.3) (10.7) .

at a mass flow rate of 0. Build (A) Take a compressor.Q41 /Q23 =1.(h4 . and net power of the cycle.h1)/(h3 .1. In the gas turbine cycle.12) The highest temperature in the cycle occurs at the end of the combustion process (state 3). and it is limited by the maximum temperature that the turbine blade can withstand. (c) the compression ratio of the compressor is 8. Air. An engine operates on the open Brayton cycle and has a compression ratio of eight. a combustion chamber (heater).Gas Open System Cycles The thermal efficiency of the cycle is η = Wnet /Q23 =Qnet /Q23 = 1.1. enters the engine at 27ºC and 100 kPa. Equation (10. Example 10. (B) Switch to analysis mode. (b) the inlet pressure and temperature of the compression device are 100 kPa and 27ºC. the ratio of the compressor work to the turbine work is called back work ratio. we take the following steps: 1.1 kg/s.10) is reduced to: η = 1. 2. (b) combustion chamber and cooler as isobaric.1.11) where rp is the pressure compression ratio for the compressor defined by the equation rp = p2 /p1 (10. and (c) turbine as isentropic. To solve this problem by CyclePad. Determine the efficiency. compressor power input.T2) = 1-(rp)(k-1)/k (10. (d) the heat addition is 1000 kJ/kg in the combustion chamber. usually more than 40 percent.1. turbine power output.(T4 . The maximum temperature does have an effect on the optimal performance of the gas turbine cycle. Analysis (A) Assume a process for each of the four processes: (a) compressor device as isentropic.T1)/(T3 .10) This expression for thermal efficiency of an ideal Brayton cycle can be simplified if air is assumed to be the working fluid with constant specific heats. back-work-ratio.1 kg/s. .1. (e) mass flow rate of air is 0. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is air.h2) 427 (10. a turbine and a cooler from the open system inventory shop and connect the four devices to form the open Brayton cycle. The back work ratio is very high.1. and (f) the exit pressure of the turbine is 100 kPa. The amount of heat addition is 1000 kJ/kg.

The effect of irreversibilities on the thermal efficiency of a Brayton cycle is illustrated in the following example.1. Figure E10.4. The cycle is a heat engine. The major irreversibilities occurs within the turbine and compressor. backwork-ratio=35.1. Turbine power=69. Open Brayton cycle.428 Chih Wu 3. Figure 10.30%. Display results (A) Display cycle properties results. turbine efficiency and compressor efficiency must be used in computing the actual work produced or consumed.4.44 kW. . many irreversibilities in various components are present.1. The T-s diagram of an actual Brayton cycle is shown in Figure 10. The answers are η=44. Compressor power=-24. and Net power=69.1.23 kW.23 kW. Actual Brayton cycle T-s diagram. COMMENT: The cycle efficiency increases as compressor ratio increases For actual Brayton cycles.80%. To account for these irreversibility effects.

(c) the compression ratio of the compressor is 8.1 kg/s.79% and net-power=34. (b) combustion chamber as isobaric. Display results (A) Display the cycle properties results. The compressor efficiency is 86% and the turbine efficiency is 89%.1. (B) Switch to analysis mode. Figure E10. An engine operates on an open actual Brayton cycle and has a compression ratio of 8. (e) the compressor efficiency is 86% and the turbine efficiency is 89%. a combustion chamber (heater). Analysis (A) Assume a process for three of the devics: (a) compressor device as adiabatic.2.Gas Open System Cycles 429 Example 10. (f) mass flow rate of air is 0.79 kW. and (g) the exit pressure of the turbine is 100 kPa. The amount of heat addition is 1000 kJ/kg. a turbine and a sink from the open system inventory shop and connect the five devices to form the open actual Brayton cycle. we take the following steps: 1.1 kg/s. 3. The mass flow rate of air is 0. Open actual Brayton cycle. The answers are η=34. a compressor. To solve this problem by CyclePad. Build (A) Take a source. and (c) turbine as adiabatic. (b) the inlet pressure and temperature of the compression device are 100 kPa and 27ºC. .1. Determine the efficiency and work output per kilogram of air. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is air.2. The cycle is a heat engine. 2. (d) the heat addition is 1000 kJ/kg in the combustion chamber. The air enters the engine at 27ºC and 100 kPa.

430 Chih Wu Example 10. Determine the highest temperature of the cycle. (b) combustion chamber as isobaric. The mass flow rate of helium is 1. Display results (A) Display the cycle properties results. (B) Switch to analysis mode. and η=56. the back work ratio.58%. we take the following steps: 1. Compressor power=-2592 kW.4ºC. and the cycle efficiency. (d) the mass flow rate of helium is 1. The cycle is a heat engine. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is helium. Helium enters the engine at 47ºC and 200 kPa.2 kg/s. 3. and (d) the heat addition is 1000 kJ/kg in the combustion chamber. (c) turbine as adiabatic and isentropic. the rate of heat added. Analysis (A) Assume a process for each of the four processes: (a) compressor device as adiabatic and isentropic. To solve this problem by CyclePad. (b) the inlet pressure and temperature of the compression device are 200 kPa and 47ºC. 2. . Qdot in=1200 kW. a turbine and a cooler from the open system inventory shop and connect the four devices to form the closed Brayton cycle. Turbine power=3271 kW. and (d) cooler as isobaric.24%. backwork-ratio=79. the turbine power produced.1. An engine operates on the closed Brayton cycle and has a compression ratio of 8.3. a combustion chamber (heater). the compressor power required. Build (A) Take a compressor. (c) the compressor exit pressure is 1600 kPa. The amount of heat addition is 1000 kJ/kg.2 kg/s. The answers are Tmax=657.

In comparison with an ideal . The efficiency formula for the Carnot and the Brayton cycles have the same form. How does the Brayton cycle efficiency compare to the Otto cycle efficiency for the same compression ratio? 4. why is that? 13. Homework 10.1.Gas Open System Cycles 431 Figure E10. On what single factor does the Brayton cycle efficiency depend? 5. What is the net work of the airplane Brayton cycle? 9. How is the efficiency of the turbine affect the back work ratio of the Brayton cycle? 11. What is the back work ratio of the airplane Brayton cycle? 10. What is the back work ratio? 7. Describe the Brayton cycle. How is the efficiency of the compressor affect the efficiency of the Brayton cycle? 12.3. while the Brayton is not. Brayton Cycle 1. The Brayton cycle has the same four processes as the Rankine cycle. but the p-v and T-s diagrams look very different. What four processes make up the Brayton cycle? 2. How is the compression ratio in the Otto cycle differ from that of the Brayton cycle? 3. Assume that the minimum and maximum temperatures and the minimum and maximum pressures are fixed for a Brayton cycle. Closed Brayton cycle. How does the operation of the closed Brayton cycle differ from the open Brayton cycle? 6. Is the back work ratio of the Brayton cycle higher than that of the Rankine cycle? Why? 8.1. What is the distinction in this respect? 14. yet the Carnot is often referred to as an example of a cycle with the maximum possible thermal efficiency.

7 Btu/s.2 kJ/kg. and (D) the thermal efficiency of the cycle. (B) the specific work produced by the turbine.0 kJ/kg. The air enters the compressor at 100 kPa and 37ºC. 17. (B) 1321 Btu/s. A Brayton engine receives air at 103 kPa and 27ºC. (B) 799. (D) 28. The air mass rate of flow is 4. what is the effect of the efficiency of the turbine in the following values: (A) Heat added per unit of mass? (a) same (b) larger (c) smaller (B) Work per unit of mass? (a) same (b) larger (c) smaller (C) Net work per unit of mass? (a) same (b) larger (c) smaller (D) Heat rejected per unit of mass? (a) same (b) larger (c) smaller (E) Thermal cycle effiency? (a) same (b) larger (c) smaller An ideal Brayton cycle uses air as a working fluid.2 hp. and (E) the thermal efficiency of the cycle. ANSWER: (A) -346. and (D) the thermal efficiency of the cycle. and (D) the thermal efficiency of the cycle. what is the effect of the efficiency of the compressor in the following values: (A) Heat added per unit of mass? (a) same (b) larger (c) smaller (B) Work per unit of mass? (a) same (b) larger (c) smaller (C) Net work per unit of mass? (a) same (b) larger (c) smaller (D) Heat rejected per unit of mass? (a) same (b) larger (c) smaller (E) Thermal cycle effiency? (a) same (b) larger (c) smaller Assume that the minimum and maximum temperatures and the minimum and maximum pressures are fixed for a Brayton cycle.83%.432 Chih Wu Brayton cycle. 20.21%. . (C) 287.20%. The mass rate flow of air is 135 lbm/s. (B) 680. A Brayton engine receives air at 15 psia and 70ºF. (D) 70. ANSWER: (A) -321. (C) 938. (B) the rate of heat added to the air during the heating process. (B) 176. Determine (A) the work added during the compression process. (C) 538. 16. ANSWER: (A) -440. (C) the work done during the expansion process.1 kJ/kg. (D) 50. (D) 48. In comparison with an ideal Brayton cycle. The maximum cycle temperature is 1300ºF and the compressor pressure ratio of the engine is 10. 19. The maximum cycle temperature is 1740ºF and the air turbine discharge temperature is 1161ºF. (C) the heat transfer added to the air in the combustion chamber. The maximum cycle temperature is 1050ºC and the compressor discharge pressure is 1120 kPa. (B) the heat added to the air during the heating process. (D) the turbine efficiency. Determine (A) the power added during the compression process. The pressure ratio of the compressor is 12:1. An ideal Brayton engine receives 1 lbm/s of air at 15 psia and 70ºF. Determine (A) the power added during the compression 15. (C) 801.3 kJ/kg. The maximum cycle temperature is 1800ºF and the compressor discharge pressure is 225 psia. Assuming variable specific heats. Determine (A) the power added during the compression process. The discharge pressure of the compressor is 78 psia. (C) the power produced during the expansion process. (C) the power done during the expansion process.07%.08 lbm/s. An ideal Brayton engine receives air at 15 psia and 80ºF.8 kJ/kg. 18. ANSWER: (A) -167. (B) the rate of heat added to the air during the heating process. and the temperature of the air as it leaves the turbine is 497ºC.0 hp.9 hp. determine (A) the specific work required to operate the compressor. (E) 19.26%.6 hp. The compressor efficiency is 85% and the turbine efficiency is 82%.8 kJ/kg.

6 Btu/lbm. and (C) the net power developed. 26. A Brayton engine receives air at 14 psia and 70ºF. (D) the turbine efficiency. The compressor discharge pressure is 260 psia. ANSWER: (A) -371. (B) the heat added to the air during the heating process. The compression ratio is 10.57%. ANSWER: (A) -28851 hp. (D) the turbine efficiency. (E) 48. and the temperature of the air leaves the turbine at 780 K. (B) the heat added to the air during the heating process. The turbine inlet temperature is 2000 F. The compressor pressure ratio is 10.21%. (E) 45. (B) the rate of heat added to the air during the heating process. (C) the heat added during the combustion.2 Btu/s.Gas Open System Cycles 433 21.0 kJ/kg. Assume variable specific heats. (C) 2308 kW. process. (B) 688. (C) the work done during the expansion process. (D) the net power produced by the engine. ANSWER: (A) -149. (D) 26874 hp. (B) 41.7 psia and 520 R. (B) the back work ratio. Determine (A) the work done during the compression process. (B) the heat added to the air during the heating process. determine (A) the compressor work required. 23. Determine (A) the work done during the compression process. (C) the work done during the expansion process.11%. Air enters the compressor of an ideal Brayton cycle at 100 kPa and 300 K with a volumetric flow rate of 5 m3/s. and (E) the thermal efficiency of the cycle. The maximum cycle temperature is 1750ºF and the compressor discharge pressure is 147 psia. (D) 50. (E) 53. The maximum cycle temperature is 1500ºF. (B) 397. 22. and (F) the thermal efficiency of the cycle. (C) the power produced during the expansion process. Determine (A) the thermal efficiency of the cycle. (B) 66. (C) 150.8 Btu/lbm. (B) the back work ratio. (D) 2958 hp. (C) 5418 hp. (D) 0. 24. (B) the turbine work produced. ANSWER: (A) -2460 hp.9 kJ/kg. (D) the net power produced by the engine. The air temperature at the turbine exit is 536ºC.6 kJ/kg. The compressor efficiency is 87%. An ideal air Brayton cycle has air enters the compressor at a temperature of 310 K and a pressure of 100 kPa. (C) 55725 hp. The turbine inlet temperature is 1400 K. .7 kJ/kg. and (D) the thermal efficiency of the cycle.87%.37%. and (E) the thermal efficiency of the cycle.7340. (B) 4337 Btu/s. (C) the power produced during the expansion process.41%. The mass rate flow of air is 15 lbm/s. (D) 77.77%. Determine (A) the power added during the compression process.21%.7 psia and 60ºF. (C) 10395 hp. (E) 28. The pressure ratio across the compressor is 12. and (F) the thermal efficiency of the cycle. (E) the back work ratio. The air mass rate of flow is 16 lbm/s. (E) 51. The maximum cycle temperature is 1082ºC and the compressor discharge pressure is 1300 kPa. The compressor efficiency is 79% and the turbine efficiency is 90%.9 kJ/kg. A Brayton engine receives air at 100 kPa and 25ºC. ANSWER: (A) 35. (C) 203.83%. (B) 193. (E) 25. An ideal Brayton engine receives air at 14.000 ft3/s. (B) 35261 Btu/s.9 kJ/kg. ANSWER: (A) -321. and a volumetric flow rate of 1.56%. (C) 574. ANSWER: (A) 48. Air enters the compressor of a simple gas turbine at 14.06%. Determine (A) the thermal efficiency of the cycle. (E) the back work ratio. and (C) the net power developed. The turbine efficiency is 87% and the compressor efficiency is 83%.52%. 25.

and the compressor pressure ratio is 4 to 1. and the pressure ratio across the compressor is 12:1.1 kW. rate of heat added in the combustion chamber. 32. The mass flow rate through the compressor is 1 kg/s. 396. and the compressor pressure ratio is 4 to 1.8 kW. 30. the mass rate of flow of air. ANSWER: -172. Determine the power input to the compressor. the temperature at the exit of the turbine (T4). 24. An ideal Brayton cycle with 101 kPa and 300 K at the intake of the compressor is to produce net useful work.3 kW.9 K.83%. power produced by the turbine. rate of heat added in the combustion chamber. ANSWER: 430. 32. Determine the temperature at the exit of the compressor (T2). power produced by the turbine. and the pressure ratio across the compressor is 12:1. power produced by the turbine. the back work ratio (the ratio of compressor work to the turbine work).5 K. 779. The compressor efficiency is 85%.70%.6 kg/s. The turbine efficiency is 85%. net power produced by the plant. The maximum and minimum temperatures and pressures of a 40 MW turbine shaft output power ideal air Brayton power plant are 1200K (T3).7 kJ/kg. Determine the power input to the compressor. net power produced by the plant. The compressor efficiency is 85%. The maximum temperature in the cycle is 1100ºC. ANSWER: -357.7%. 446.4 kW.6 kW. 237. 274. -141. 28.38 MPa (P3) and 290K (T1). 31.22%.8 kJ/kg. rate of heat added in the combustion chamber. 1132 kW. 0.1 kW.1 kW. and the thermal efficiency of the cycle. rate of heat added in the combustion chamber. By what percentage could the thermal efficiency be improved if the allowable high temperature at turbine inlet were increased from 1000 K to 1400 K? An ideal Brayton cycle with 101 kPa and 300 K at the intake of the compressor is to produce the maximum net useful work. The minimum pressure is 100 kPa. 771.434 Chih Wu 27. Consider a Brayton cycle in which the air into the compressor is at 100 kPa and 20ºC with a mass flow rate of 1 kg/s. 725. 0.095 MPa (P1). The turbine efficiency is 85%. the turbine work. 807. 50.9 kW. and the thermal efficiency of the cycle. Determine the power input to the compressor. The minimum temperature in a Brayton cycle is 300 K. power produced by the turbine. Determine the power input to the compressor. net power produced by the plant. and the maximum temperature is 1600 K. 101.3591. 0. 1158 kW. The allowable high temperature at turbine inlet is 1400 K. 700. and the maximum temperature is 1600 K. 393. respectively.4 kJ/kg. net power produced by the plant.73%.8 kW. the compressor work. Consider a Brayton cycle in which the air into the compressor is at 100 kPa and 20ºC with a mass flow rate of 1 kg/s. and the thermal efficiency of the cycle. ANSWER: -146. The minimum pressure is 100 kPa. the heat added. What is the pressure ratio across the compressor at the maximum net useful work condition? What is the compressor work at the maximum net useful work condition? .4 kW. 29. 32.2 kW.3 kW. ANSWER: -304. 32. The minimum temperature in a Brayton cycle is 300 K. 525. 595. The mass flow rate through the compressor is 1 kg/s. The maximum temperature in the cycle is 1100ºC.5 kW. 378. and the thermal efficiency of the cycle. and the thermal efficiency of the cycle.3 kW.

The sole function of the first turbine is to drive the compressor at a steady speed without being influenced by the load. The net power of the gas turbine is produced by the second turbine as shown by Figure 10. (B) Switch to analysis mode.2. The amount of heat addition is 1000 kJ/kg. Determine the highest temperature of the cycle.1. Example 10.2.1.1 kg/s. the rate of heat added. When the load is increased. SPLIT-SHAFT GAS TURBINE CYCLE Gas turbines can be arranged either in single-shaft or split shaft types. In this arrangement.1.Gas Open System Cycles 435 What is the turbine work at the maximum net useful work condition? What is the heat added at the maximum net useful work condition? 10. The air enters the engine at 27ºC and 100 kPa. we take the following steps: 1. An engine operates on the split-shaft actual open Brayton cycle and has a compression ratio of 8. This means that the compressor is influenced by the load. The compressor efficiency is 86% and the efficiency is 89% for both turbines. a compressor. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is air. (c) the compressor . 2. Split-shaft gas turbine. Build (A) Take a source. a combustion chamber (heater). Figure 10. The single-shaft arrangement requires the turbine to provide power to drive both the compressor and the load. the back work ratio. there are two turbines each with its own independent shaft. and (c) turbines as adiabatic and η=89%. It is very desirable to make the gas turbine a reliable shaft driven propulsion system. the compressor power required.2. Hence the splitshaft gas turbines are developed.2. the turbine power produced. therefore the compressor speed must be held constant. two turbines and a sink from the open system inventory shop and connect the four devices to form the open actual Brayton cycle. (b) the inlet pressure and temperature of the compression device are 100 kPa and 27ºC. The compressor efficiency is a function of the speed. The mass flow rate of air is 0. the pressure and temperature between the two turbines. Analysis (A) Assume a process for each of the four processes: (a) compressor device as adiabatic and η=86%. and the cycle efficiency. the compressor speed is slowed down which is not desirable. (b) combustion chamber as isobaric. To solve this problem by CyclePad.

42 kW. An ideal split shaft Brayton cycle receives air at 14.7 psia and 70ºF.42 kW. first turbine power=28. p4=36. T5=857.42 kW. Find the temperature and pressure of all states of the cycle. (d) the heat addition is 1000 kJ/kg in the combustion chamber.9 Btu/lbm. The answers are Tmax=1307ºC. heat supplied in the combustion chamber. T1=70ºF. Find the input compressor work.42 kW. compressor power=-28. ANSWER: p1=14.1 kg/s. . The cycle is a heat engine. the output power turbine work. p2=60 psia.5ºF. T2=332ºF.2. 3. second turbine power=35.436 Chih Wu exit pressure is 800 kPa. Why do we need a split shaft gas turbine engine? 2.7 psia. Homework 10.1 kPa and 1024ºC.09%.2.83 Btu/lbm. Split-shaft open Brayton cycle. and (h) the exit pressure of the turbine is 100 kPa. T3=1500ºF. input compressor work=-88. the pressure and temperature between the two turbines are 364. Display results (A) Display the cycle properties results. heat supplied in the combustion chamber=280. The upper pressure and temperature limits of the cycle are 60 psia and 1500ºF. respectively. Split-Shaft Gas Turbine Cycle 1. What is the function of each turbine in a split shaft gas turbine engine? 3. (e) mass flow rate of air is 0. and the thermal efficiency of the cycle. the output power turbine work=219.35 psia. T4=1239ºF.28%.75%. (f) Display the compressor and find the power required to run the compressor. back-work-ratio=44.75 kW. the finding is -28. and the thermal efficiency of the cycle=33. p3=60 psia. (g) input the first turbine power (which is used to operate the compressor) 28. Qdot in=100 kW.0 Btu/lbm. Figure E10.7 psia. and η=35. p5=14.1.

1 Btu/lbm. 6. ANSWER: p2=60 psia. ANSWER: Tcompressor exit=543. Wdotc=-111. and cycle efficiency. p3=60 psia. T4a=1507ºF. Calculate the input compressor power.7 psia and 70ºF. compressor work required per unit mass.4 Btu/s=740.1ºF. Powerpower turbine #2=-113.5ºF. Find the temperature and pressure of all states of the cycle.3 Btu/s. Wdott1=111. gas generator turbine work produced per unit mass. power produced by the Turbine #1. total power produced by the cycle. An actual split shaft Brayton cycle receives air at 14. A split shaft Brayton gas turbine operates with the following information: inlet compressor temperature=60ºF=T1 . ANSWER: T2=563. cycle efficiency.0 hp.7 psia.1 Btu/lbm. power produced by the Power Turbine #2. power output=113.3ºF. T2=397.85. 7. Powercompressor=-163. power turbine work produced per unit mass. net work produced per unit mass. exit pressure=14. 5.8 hp. T=60ºF Compressor– inlet pressure=14. The mass flow rate of air is 1 lbm/s. wt1=118. exit pressure=99 psia Turbine #1--η=0.0ºF.04%. and the thermal efficiency of the cycle. and power output. Tturbine #1 exit=1317ºF. mdot=1 lbm/s.9 psia Find the temperatures of all states of the cycle.9 hp. The following are operating characteristics of a split-shaft gas turbine: Atmospheric conditions– p=14.7 Btu/lbm. based on variable specific heats. T3=1500ºF. rate of heat supplied in the combustion chamber. Qdots=264. Find the temperature at the exit of the compressor (T2). the temperature at the exit of the gas generator turbine (T4).71%. the temperature at the exit of the power turbine (T5a). Qdotcombustion chamber=301. Wdott2=78. T4=1516ºF.8 psia=p5a air mass rate of flow=2 lbm/s power turbine efficiency=85% gas generator turbine efficiency=100% compressor efficiency=100% Draw the T-s diagram of the cycle. T5=940. η=0. Pnet=287.0 Btu/lbm.72%. Powerturbine #1=163. qs=344. A split shaft Brayton gas turbine operates with the following information: inlet compressor temperature=70ºF=T1 inlet compressor pressure=14.8. η=41.Gas Open System Cycles 437 4.85 Power Turbine #2--η=0.7 Btu/lbm.6ºF.7 psia. respectively. The compressor efficiency is 80%. rate of heat transfer supplied in the combustion chamber.5 psia Combustion chamber-. wt2=143.2 Btu/s.7 hp. η=21.0 hp. exit pressure=101. Tpower turbine #2 exit=981.8 hp. wnet=143.5 psia.exit temperature=1800ºF.5 psia=p1 inlet combustion chamber pressure=145 psia=p2 inlet ggt (gas generator turbine) temperature=2000ºF=T3 exit pt (power turbine) pressure=14. The turbine efficiency is 85% for both turbines. The upper pressure and temperature limits of the cycle are 60 psia and 1500ºF. power required by the compressor. wc=-118. inlet temperature=60ºF. heat supplied per unit mass.8 hp. p5=14. η=26. the output power turbine power.8 hp.

wc=-115. the temperature at the exit of the gas generator turbine (T4). wnet=141. power turbine work produced per unit mass. A multi-stage turbine is used. regeneration. the temperature at the exit of the power turbine (T5a). Increasing the average temperature during the heat addition process with a re-heater without increasing the compressor pressure ratio increases the net work of the Brayton cycle. IMPROVEMENTS TO BRAYTON CYCLE The thermal efficiency or net work of the Brayton cycle can be improved by several modifications to the basic cycle. Using an inter-cooler without increasing the compressor pressure ratio increases the net work of the Brayton cycle. Gas is cooled between stages. qs=349.3. and cycle efficiency.9 Btu/lbm.9 Btu/lbm. Homework 10. It is limited by the metallurgical material problem in the turbine blade. the amount of heat added at the low temperature is reduced.54%.4 hp. wt1=115. What is the effect of reheating the gas on the cycle net work? . etc. 10.3. Gas is reheated between stages.438 Chih Wu inlet compressor pressure=14. Consider a simple ideal Brayton cycle with fixed maximum temperature and fixed minimum temperature.5 psia=p1 inlet combustion chamber pressure=145 psia=p2 inlet ggt (gas generator turbine) temperature=2000ºF=T3 exit pt (power turbine) pressure=14. reheating. ANSWER: T2=543. wt2=141. The exhaust gas is used to preheat the air before it is heated in the combustion chamber. net work produced per unit mass. So the average temperature during the heat addition process is increased. In this way.0 Btu/lbm. T5a=926ºF. T4=1516ºF.5 Btu/lbm. A multi-stage turbine is used. These modifications include increasing the turbine inlet temperature.0 Btu/s=400. compressor work required per unit mass. Consider a simple ideal Brayton cycle with fixed turbine inlet temperature and fixed compressor inlet temperature. Increasing the average temperature during the heat addition process can also be done by regenerating the gas. η=40.7ºF. gas generator turbine work produced per unit mass. inter-cooling. A multi-stage compressor is used. Improvements to Brayton Cycle 1. Pnet=283. heat supplied per unit mass.5 Btu/lbm. Find the temperature at the exit of the compressor (T2). total power produced by the cycle. What is the effect of the pressure ratio on the cycle efficiency? 2. Increasing the turbine inlet temperature increases the thermal efficiency of the Brayton cycle.8 psia=p5a air mass rate of flow=2 lbm/s power turbine efficiency=85% gas generator turbine efficiency=100% compressor efficiency=100% Draw the T-s diagram of the cycle.

4. but not necessarily the efficiency. .4. Notice that reheat and inter-cool increase the net work of the gas turbine cycle. REHEAT AND INTER-COOL BRAYTON CYCLE Methods for improving the gas turbine cycle performance are available. The products of combustion reentering the turbine are usually at the same temperature as those entering the turbine.4. Reheat Brayton cycle.4.3. unless a regenerator is also added.1. Since there is more than sufficient air for combustion.4. Reheat and inter-cool Brayton cycle T-s diagram.3. The schematic diagram and T-s diagram for a reheat and inter-cool gas turbine cycle is illustrated in Figure 10. T 6 8 5 7 4 2 10 3 1 9 s Figure 10. Figure 10. The schematic diagram of a reheat open Brayton cycle is illustrated in Figure 10. Reheat and inter-cool Brayton cycle. Figure 10. cooling the air as it passes from one stage to another.1. Consider a simple ideal Brayton cycle with fixed maximum temperature and fixed minimum temperature.4. Similarly. The reheated products of combustion return to the turbine.2. Two ways to improve the cycle net work are to reduce the compressor work and to increase the turbine work. What is the effect of intercooling the gas on the cycle net work? 10. The inter-cool may be accomplished by compressing in stages with an inter-cooler.2 and Figure 10. respectively.4. the reheat may be accomplished by the expansion in stages with a re-heater. some more can be injected.Gas Open System Cycles 439 3.

34 kW. the power required for the second compressor. (f) display the exit temperature of the combustion chamber (maximum temperature of cycle). The cycle is a heat engine. Air expands to 200 kPa through the first turbine. (d) the heat added in the combustion chamber is 1000 kJ/kg. Display results (A) Display the T-s diagram and cycle properties results. the rate of heat added in the re-heater=47.11 kW. The low-pressure compressor has a compression ratio of 2. (e) the inlet pressure of the reheater is 200 kPa. Show the cycle on T-s diagram. The answers are power required for the first compressor=-6. (c) the inlet temperature and pressure of the high-pressure compressor are 27ºC and 200 kPa. (c) turbines as adiabatic.1 kg/s. the maximum temperature of the cycle =1169ºC. To solve this problem by CyclePad. and two turbines from the open system inventory shop and connect the devices to form the reheat and inter-cooling Brayton cycle. (g) input the exit temperature of the re-heater (same as the exit temperature of the combustion chamber as found in part f). (B) Switch to analysis mode. (d) inter-cooler as isobaric. and the efficiency of the cycle η=35. and the high-pressure compressor has a compression ratio of 4. Build (A) Take two compressors. (e) re-heater as isobaric. The heat added in the combustion chamber is 1000 kJ/kg and air is heated to the maximum temperature of the cycle. The mass flow rate of air is 0. (h) the mass flow rate of air is 0.95%.4.. back work ratio=28.60 kW. the net power produced. 2. the power required for the second compressor=-14. the rate of heat added in the re-heater. Air is heated again by the re-heater to the maximum temperature of the cycle and then expanded through the second turbine to 100 kPa.64 kW. two coolers (one is the inter-cooler).00 kW. Analysis (A) Assume a process for each of the eight processes: (a) compressors as adiabatic and compressor efficiency is 86%.1. and both turbine efficiency is 89%. back work ratio.29 kW. (b) combustion chamber as isobaric. and (i) the exit pressure of the low-pressure turbine is 100 kPa. and the efficiency of the cycle. 3. we take the following steps: 1. The air enters the engine at 27ºC and 100 kPa. the maximum temperature of the cycle (at the exit of the combustion chamber). The air is cooled to 27ºC at the inlet of the high-pressure compressor. An engine operates on an ideal reheat and inter-cooling Brayton cycle. the power produced by the first turbine.1 kg/s. (b) the inlet temperature and pressure of the compressor are 27ºC and 100 kPa.440 Chih Wu Example 10. the net power produced=52.38%. the power produced by the second turbine. the power produced by the first turbine=47. . two combustion chambers (one is the re-heater). the power produced by the second turbine=26. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is air. Determine the power required for the first compressor.

and leaves at 120 psia. we see that: (1) the efficiency of the reheat and intercooler cycle does not increase.4. The maximum cycle temperature (at the exit of the combustion chamber) allowed due to material limitation is 2000ºF. Ideal reheat and inter-cool Brayton cycle. the net power produced. . The compressor efficiency is 86% and the turbine efficiency is 89%. the power produced by the second turbine.1.Gas Open System Cycles 441 Figure E10. The exit pressure of the low-pressure turbine is 14. The exit pressure of the high-pressure turbine is 50 psia.2. The air enters the compressor at 60ºF and 14. Determine the power required for the compressor. An engine operates on an actual reheat open Brayton cycle. and the efficiency of the cycle.1. Example 10.7 psia. the rate of heat added in the re-heater. The air is reheated to 2000ºF. the power produced by the first turbine. The mass flow rate of air is 1 lbm/s. Show the cycle on T-s diagram. back work ratio. Comment: Comparing with Example 10.7 psia. and (2) the net power of the reheat and intercooler cycle does increase.1.4.

2. Actual reheat open Brayton cycle.4.2a. and (d) re-heater as isobaric. and (h) the exit pressure of the turbine is 15 psia.5 Btu/s. back work ratio=44. Analysis (A) Assume a process for each of the five processes: (a) compressor as adiabatic with 85% efficiency.1 hp. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is air. (g) the mass flow rate of air is 1 lbm/s. (b) combustion chamber as isobaric. (c) turbines as adiabatic with 89% efficiency.3 hp. the power produced by the second turbine=219. and the efficiency of the cycle η=32. (f) the inlet temperature of the low-pressure turbine is 2000ºF. (e) the exit pressure of the high-pressure turbine is 50 psia. a reheater. (b) the inlet pressure and temperature of the compression device are 15 psia and 60ºF.442 Chih Wu Figure E10. the rate of heat added in the combustion chamber=334. The cycle is a heat engine. The answers are power required for the compressor=-170. Build (A) Take a source. 3. Display results Display the cycle properties results. (d) the exit temperature of the combustion chamber is 2000ºF. the power produced by the first turbine=164.1 Btu/s. the net power produced=213. two turbines and a sink from the open system inventory shop and connect the seven devices to form the actual reheat open Brayton cycle. (B) Switch to analysis mode. the rate of heat added in the re-heater=116. To solve this problem by CyclePad. (c) the exit pressure of the compressor is 120 psia. a compressors.4 hp.45%. a combustion chamber (heater). we take the following steps: 1. .0 hp.68%.

and multi-stage expansion with reheating. An ideal Brayton cycle is modified to incorporate multi-stage compression with inter-cooling. Does reheat or inter-cooling increase the net work of the Brayton cycle? 2. 1 kg/s of air at 800 kPa and 1200 K enters an actual two-stage (high-pressure stage and low-pressure stage) adiabatic turbine at steady state and exits to 100 kPa. does the net work increase? 10. Homework 10. does the back work ratio increase? 8. An ideal Brayton cycle is modified to incorporate multi-stage compression with inter-cooling. Atmospheric air is at 100 kPa and 300 K.Gas Open System Cycles 443 Figure E10. Does reheat or inter-cooling increase the efficiency of the Brayton cycle? 3.1 kPa is measured at the exit of the highpressure stage turbine. Air is reheated to 1200 K and enters the lowpressure turbine. As a result of these modifications. Actual reheat open Brayton cycle sensitivity analysis. Air pressure at 300. Do the inlet pressure and inlet temperature have any influence on the efficiency of the Brayton cycle? 4. As a result of these modifications. Reheat and Inter-Cool Brayton Cycle 1. The high-pressure stage turbine. Why do you add a reheater between the turbine stages? Why do you add an intercooler between the compressor stages? 5. does the efficiency of the cycle approach to 100%? 11. Does the turbine work increase? 7.2b. and multi-stage expansion with reheating. An ideal Brayton cycle is modified to incorporate multi-stage compression with inter-cooling. An ideal Brayton cycle is modified to incorporate multi-stage compression with inter-cooling. As a result of these modifications.4. Determine . low-pressure stage turbine. does the efficiency increase? 9. An ideal Brayton cycle is modified to incorporate multi-stage expansion with reheat.4. and multi-stage expansion with reheating. and multi-stage expansion with reheating. and the compressor all are known to have an isentropic efficiency of 85%. As a result of these modifications. In an ideal Brayton cycle with many number multi-stage compression with intercooling. Does the compressor work increase? 6.

and (G) 163.8 K.26%.5240. The air pressure at the inlet of the second stage turbine is 307 kPa. indicating that a large portion of available energy is . (D) power produced by the turbine.1 kW. (F) back work ratio. (B) 643 kPa. and (F) the cycle efficiency. low-pressure stage turbine. ANSWER: (A) 950.1 kW. (D) net power produced by the cycle. (E) 158. The mass rate of air flow is 0. and the compressor all are known to have an isentropic efficiency of 85%. (C) rate of heat added.7 kW.55%.5. (E) -287. The air pressure at the inlet of the second stage turbine is 50 psia. (B) power produced by the turbine. The mass rate of air flow is 0. 10. (C) the cycle efficiency. 12. (F) 250. and (F) the cycle efficiency. determine (A) the maximum cycle efficiency by showing the sensitivity diagram. Air enters each stage of the turbine at 1350 K.5465. (G) power produced by the low-pressure turbine. (D) back work ratio. (C) 27. (C) rate of heat added. (C) power required by the compressor. (I) the rate of heat added in the combustion chamber.56 kg/s. (B) 361. and (J) 250. (D) 0. and (G) net power produced. (B) 1015 hp. (C) 600. (D) 342. and (J) the rate of heat added in the reheater.4 hp.4971. (H) 0.7 kW.8 kW. (C) -179.8439. 13. (E) net power produced. The highpressure stage turbine. Air enters each stage of the turbine at 1350 K. (E) 181. and the compressor all are known to have an isentropic efficiency of 85%.1 K.444 Chih Wu (A) the actual temperature at the exit of the high-pressure stage turbine.7 kW. It is observed that the exhaust temperature of the turbine is quite high.8 kW. Atmospheric air is at 101 kPa and 292 K. An ideal Brayton cycle with a one-stage compressor and a two-stage turbine has an overall pressure ratio of 10. (I) 615. The mass rate of air flow is 1.3 hp. (D) back work ratio. Atmospheric air is at 14. ANSWER: (A) -179.4 kW. low-pressure stage turbine.2 kW. Determine (A) the power required by the compressor. (D) 238. ANSWER: (A) 33. An ideal Brayton cycle with a one-stage compressor and a two-stage turbine has an overall pressure ratio of 10. (B) 925.12%. REGENERATIVE BRAYTON CYCLE The thermal efficiency of the gas turbine cycle is not high. (G) 275. low-pressure stage turbine. (F) 0. (E) 492.4 kW. and (F) 22. (B) the actual temperature at the exit of the low-pressure stage turbine. and the compressor all are known to have an isentropic efficiency of 85%.7 kW. (D) 0.6 psia and 65 F. Air enters each stage of the turbine at 2000 F. (E) power required by the compressor. (E) net power produced. Atmospheric air is at 101 kPa and 292 K. An ideal Brayton cycle with a one-stage compressor and a two-stage turbine has an overall pressure ratio of 10.25%. and (F) 30. (B) power produced by the turbine. (B) the optimum air pressure at the inlet of the second stage turbine at the maximum cycle efficiency condition. (F) power produced by the high-pressure turbine. (C) 503 Btu/s. Use air pressure at the inlet of the second stage turbine as a parameter (from 400 to 800 kPa). The highpressure stage turbine. ANSWER: (A) -856.5 kW. (E) rate of heat added.5 lbm/s.56 kg/s. Determine (A) the power required by the compressor. The highpressure stage turbine.8 kW.7 kW. 14. (H) the back work ratio.

Regenerative Brayton cycle T-s diagram.5.1. Regenerative Brayton cycle.1. respectively. and the efficiency of the cycle.2. This increases the overall efficiency by decreasing the fuel required.5. T 4 3 2 5 6 1 s Figure 10. The compressor efficiency is 85% and the turbine efficiency is 89%.7 psia. Plot the sensitivity diagram of cycle efficiency vs exit temperature of the turbine exhaust stream in the heat exchanger. The maximum cycle temperature and the maximum pressure are 2000ºF and 120 psia. the rate of heat added in the combustion chamber.1 and Figure 10. the net power produced. back work ratio.5.5. Determine the power required for the compressor.2. . the power produced by the turbine.Gas Open System Cycles 445 wasted. The mass flow rate of air is 1 lbm/s. Example 10. Figure 10. One way to put this high-temperature available energy to use is to preheat the combustion air before it enters the combustion chamber. The schematic diagram and T-s diagram for an ideal regenerative gas turbine cycle is illustrated in Figure 10.5. An engine operates on the actual regenerative Brayton cycle. Air enters the engine at 60ºF and 14.

Analysis (A) Assume a process for each of the four devices: (a) compressor as adiabatic with efficiency of 85%. . back work ratio=50. a compressor. Display results Display the cycle properties results.5. it is 562. (b) the inlet pressure and temperature of the compression device are 14.5ºF. Figure E10.1a. (f) display the exit temperature of the compressor. Actual regenerative Brayton cycle.5 hp. Build (A) Take a source. 2.446 Chih Wu To solve this problem by CyclePad. The cycle is a heat engine.7 psia and 60ºF.7 psia. a turbine and a sink from the open system inventory shop and connect the six devices to form the actual regenerative Brayton cycle. a combustion chamber (heater). we take the following steps: 1. (e) the exit pressure of the turbine is 14.88%. the power produced by the turbine=334. (c) turbine as adiabatic with efficiency of 89%.9 hp. by assuming perfect regeneration. the rate of heat added in the combustion chamber=236. (d) the mass flow rate of air is 1 lbm/s. The answers are power required for the compressor=-170. and the efficiency of the cycle η=49.7 Btu/s. (c) the inlet pressure and temperature of the turbine are 120 psia and 2000ºF. a heat exchanger. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is air. and (d) heat exchanger as isobaric on both hot and cold sides. 3. (b) combustion chamber as isobaric.5ºF. the net power produced=164. and (g) input the exit temperature of the exhaust turbine gas be the same as the compressor exit temperature. 562.4 hp. (B) Switch to analysis mode.12%.

the less waste energy is used. 3. Actual Regenerative Brayton cycle sensitive analysis. 2. Regenerative Brayton Cycle. TH=1300 K. and regeneration. many number multi-stage expansion with reheating.Gas Open System Cycles 447 Figure E10. What is regeneration? Why is regeneration added to a Brayton cycle? How does regeneration affect the efficiency of the Brayton cycle? In a regenerator. The higher the exit temperature of the heat exchanger in the exhaust turbine gas stream. As a result of these modifications. and regeneration. 5. does the efficiency of the cycle approach to the efficiency of the Carnot cycle? An ideal Brayton cycle is modified to incorporate multi-stage compression with inter-cooling. . Comment: The cycle efficiency is increased because the rate of heat added is decreased by making use of the waste energy. As a result of these modifications. and therefore the less the efficiency as shown by the sensitivity diagram. 7. 10. Homework 10. 4. 1. Let TL=300 K.1b. Calculate the thermal efficiency of the cycle. is regeneration theoretically possible at pH/pL=15? Referring to the last homework problem. can the air leaving the compressor heated to a temperature above that of the turbine exit? In an ideal Brayton cycle with many number multi-stage compression with intercooling. multi-stage expansion with reheating. does the efficiency increase? An ideal regenerative Brayton cycle with perfect regeneration has the thermal efficiency expression.5. η=1-(TL/TH)(pH/pL)(k-1)/k. and pH/pL=6. at what pressure ratio does regenerator become useless? A regenerative gas-turbine power plant is to be designed according to the following specifications: Maximum cycle temperature=1200 K Turbine efficiency=85% Compressor efficiency=82% 6. 9. Referring to the last homework problem. 8.5.

12. when one enters a commercial aircraft. the cabin temperature is normally pleasant and the small vents above the seats are providing plenty of fresh air. The turbine efficiency is 85%. (D) power produced by the turbine.46 kg/s.6356. Air enters the compressor at 101 kPa and 290 K. (D) 112.4 kW. (C) -77. (G) 34.4 kg/s Determine (A) the exit air temperature of the compressor. The air mass flow rate is 0. (F) 0. Air enters the turbine at 1520ºF. Air enters the turbine at 1220 K. but only a fraction of the flow passes through the combustion chamber and the turbine. ANSWER: (A) -124. (B) the inlet air temperature of the combustion chamber. Air enters the combustion chamber at 610ºF. For example.4589. and (F) the cycle efficiency. (F) back work ratio. (E) rate of heat added. and to drive ancillary equipments such as air conditioning and ventilation. BLEED AIR BRAYTON CYCLE Real gas turbine engines send a portion of the air supplied by the compressor through alternative flow paths to provide cooling to the outside of the engine. and the compressor efficiency is 82%.6. (B) 610 F. (C) the power required by the compressor. (E) net power produced.2 hp. An ideal Brayton cycle with regeneration has a pressure ratio of 10. because the pilot has temporarily reduced the bleed air so that .42 Btu/s. Inlet air pressure to the compressor=100 kPa Turbine exit air pressure=110 kPa Exit air pressure of the compressor=800 kPa Mass flow rate of air=1. (C) rate of heat added. (C) the power required by the compressor. to protect nearby components.63%. The ventilation reduces dramatically as the aircraft prepares to take off.0 psia. (D) 0. and (H) the cycle efficiency. ANSWER: (A) 583. (E) rate of heat added. Air enters the compressor at 14.1 hp. (D) back work ratio. Determine (A) the exit air temperature of the compressor. The schematic diagram for the bleed air Brayton cycle is illustrated in Figure 10.1. (E) 146. (B) 597 K.7 psia and 29ºF. Bleed air is a necessary feature of practical gas turbine engines.28%.6880. and (H) 27.41 lbm/s.1 hp. An ideal Brayton cycle with regeneration has a pressure ratio of 10. 11. (B) the inlet air temperature of the combustion chamber.9 kW.96 hp. (B) power produced by the turbine. (C) 295. It can be seen from the diagram that the engine’s entire flow rate passes through the compressor.1 Btu/s. and (H) the cycle efficiency. (G) 231. (D) power produced by the turbine. and (H) 27. 10. (E) 847. The air mass flow rate is 0. and (F) 49. (D) 634.11 hp. The rate of the bleed air can be controlled.5 kW. Air leaves the regenerator and enters the combustion chamber at 580 K. (G) net power produced.6. ANSWER: (A) 577 K.6 kW. (F) 0. Determine (A) the power required by the compressor.72%. The turbine exit air pressure is 15. (B) 271. to be re-mixed with the combustion products.448 Chih Wu Inlet air temperature of the combustion chamber is 20 K higher than the exit air temperature of the compressor. (E) 89. (C) -403.6 F. (G) net power produced.1 hp. (F) back work ratio.

turbine efficiency=80%. input turbine #1 power=205 hp. compressor inlet pressure=14.6. compressor power=-205 hp.9 psia. and cycle efficiency. power turbine exit pressure=14.1 has the following information: Compressor efficiency=80%. Find the temperature of all states. Example 10.66 hp. power required by the compressor. compressor inlet temperature=60ºF. bleed air Brayton cycle illustrated in Figure 10.6ºF. combustion chamber exit temperature=1800ºF. rate of heat supplied by the combustion chamber.9 psia. power produced by the power turbine. and air mass flow rate through combustion chamber=0. air mass flow rate through state 9=0 lbm/s. Figure 10. combustion chamber exit temperature=1800ºF.1. power produced by turbine #1 which drives the compressor.5 psia.6. (D) Display compressor power (-205 hp).6. Bleed air does not improve the efficiency of the Brayton cycle.5 psia. compressor inlet temperature=60ºF. T6=1128ºF. (E) Display the cycle properties results and state results. split-shaft. turbine #2 power=65.1 (B) Assume compressor as adiabatic and 80% efficient.9 lbm/s. An open. and turbines as adiabatic and 80% efficient. air mass flow rate through compressor=1 lbm/s. To solve this problem by CyclePad. power turbine exit pressure=14. compressor exit pressure=145 psia.1.6. rate of heat added in the .Gas Open System Cycles 449 more air will flow through the combustion chamber to give the pilot more power available to get airborne. T7=913. and air mass flow rate through combustion chamber=0. combustion chamber and mixing chamber as isobaric.9 lbm/s. air mass flow rate through compressor=1 lbm/s. (C) Input working fluid is air. turbine #1 power=205 hp. compressor exit pressure=145 psia. Bleed air Brayton cycle. we take the following steps: (A) Build the cycle as shown by Figure 10. The answers are T2=664.6ºF. compressor inlet pressure=14.1ºF. T3=T4=T8=T9=T10= 664.

and air mass flow rate through combustion chamber=0. compressor inlet pressure=14. turbine efficiency=80%. Example 10. and air mass flow rate through combustion chamber=0.9 psia. and cycle efficiency. input turbine #1 power=205 hp. combustion chamber and mixing chamber as isobaric. air mass flow rate through state 9=0. . split-shaft. power produced by turbine #1 which drives the compressor.2. An open. compressor inlet temperature=60ºF. combustion chamber exit temperature=1800ºF. compressor power=-205 hp. we take the following steps: (A) Build the cycle as shown by Figure 10.66 hp.1 (B) Assume compressor as adiabatic and 80% efficient.9 psia. The answers are T2=664. compressor inlet pressure=14. and cycle efficiency=18. air mass flow rate through compressor=1 lbm/s. Bleed air Brayton cycle.1.5 psia. T6=1164ºF. compressor exit pressure=145 psia. rate of heat supplied by the combustion chamber. compressor exit pressure=145 psia. Find the temperature of all states. compressor inlet temperature=60ºF. air mass flow rate through compressor=1 lbm/s. power turbine exit pressure=14.95%. T3=T4=T8=T9=T10= 664.9 lbm/s. power required by the compressor.1 has the following information: Compressor efficiency=80%. To solve this problem by CyclePad.6.450 Chih Wu combustion chamber=244. (D) Display compressor power (-205 hp). and turbines as adiabatic and 80% efficient.6.5 psia. power turbine exit pressure=14. (E) Display the cycle properties results and state results. T7=911.6.6.9 lbm/s. Figure E10. combustion chamber exit temperature=1800ºF.6ºF. power produced by the power turbine.9 Btu/s. net cycle power=65.05 lbm/s.1ºF. (C) Input working fluid is air.6ºF. air bleed Brayton cycle illustrated in Figure 10.

Example 10. power required by the compressors.2.and cold-side) and mixing chamber as isobaric.Gas Open System Cycles 451 turbine #1 power=205 hp. . one re-heater (htr2). compressor #1 exit pressure=40 psia. and one regenerator (hx1) is illustrated in Figure E10. power produced by turbine #1 which drives the compressor #1. power produced by the power turbine #3. and all turbines as adiabatic and 80% efficient. one inter-cooler (clr1). Bleed air Brayton cycle. net cycle power=81.1 lbm/s. compressor inlet temperature=60ºF.33 hp.6. rate of heat supplied by the combustion chamber. three turbines (tur1. compressor inlet pressure=14.33 hp. power produced by turbine #2 which drives the compressor #2.3a.3a has the following information: Compressor efficiency=80%. inter-cooler. (B) Assume all compressors as adiabatic and 80% efficient. power turbine exit pressure=14. To solve this problem by CyclePad. air mass flow rate through compressor #2=1 lbm/s. we take the following steps: (A) Build the cycle as shown by Figure E10. and air mass flow rate through combustion chamber=0. regenerator hot-side exit temperature=500ºF. combustion chamber exit temperature=1800ºF. Figure E10. reheater exit temperature=1800ºF. one combustion chamber (htr1). rate of heat added in the combustion chamber=258. heat exchanger (both hot. air bleed Brayton cycle with two compressors (cmp1 and cmp2). rate of heat removed from the inter-cooler. tur2.3. air mass flow rate through state 15=0. and cycle efficiency=22. compressor #2 exit pressure=140 psia. turbine efficiency=80%.6. and cycle efficiency. inter-cooler exit temperature=100ºF.24%.9 psia. turbine #2 power=81. Find the temperature of all states. An open.5 Btu/s.6. and tur3).01 lbm/s. reheater.5 psia. rate of heat supplied by the reheater.9 lbm/s. combustion chamber. and air mass flow rate through state 13=0 lbm/s (regenerator is off).6. split-shaft. air mass flow rate through state 17=0.

01 lbm/s. turbine #3 power=148. T3=100ºF.94%.1ºF. T8=1673ºF.1ºF=T5=T15=T17=401.5ºF.1 hp. (D) Display compressor power #1 (-74. and air mass flow rate through combustion chamber=0. turbine #2 power=102. rate of heat removed in the inter-cooler=-42.1 hp. net cycle power=148. input turbine #2 power=102.78 Btu/s. .7 Btu/s. Figure E10. rate of heat added in the re-heater=154. T10=1148ºF.5 psia. and air mass flow rate through state 13=0 lbm/s (regenerator is off). re-heater exit temperature=1800ºF.9 lbm/s.8 Btu/s. regenerator hot-side exit temperature=500ºF.1 hp. compressor inlet temperature=60ºF.452 Chih Wu (C) Input working fluid is air. air mass flow rate through state 15=0. rate of heat added in the combustion chamber=301. compressor #2 exit pressure=140 psia.9 psia. compressor inlet pressure=14.1 hp. T7=T11=1800ºF. compressor #2 power=-102.08 hp). inter-cooler exit temperature=100ºF.3a.08 hp. input turbine #1 power=74. (E) Display the cycle properties results and state results. turbine #1 power=74. T12=1359ºF.08 hp. combustion chamber exit temperature=1800ºF. and cycle efficiency=22. Display compressor power #2 (-102. Bleed air Brayton cycle (regenerator off). power turbine exit pressure=14.6. compressor #1 exit pressure=40 psia. The answers are T2=278. air mass flow rate through compressor #2=1 lbm/s. air mass flow rate through state 17=0.1 hp).1 hp. T4=401.08 hp. compressor #1power=-74. T9=1452ºF.1 lbm/s.

air bleed Brayton cycle with two compressors (cmp1 and cmp2). and air mass flow rate through state 13=0. one re-heater (htr2).99 lbm/s (regenerator is on). Find the temperature of all states.6. power produced by the power turbine #3. one inter-cooler (clr1). and tur3). compressor #1 exit pressure=40 psia. inter-cooler exit temperature=100ºF. compressor inlet temperature=60ºF.6. power required by the compressors. air mass flow rate through state 15=0. combustion chamber exit . we take the following steps: (A) Build the cycle as shown by Figure E10.9 psia. reheater. re-heater exit temperature=1800ºF. air mass flow rate through compressor #2=1 lbm/s. and air mass flow rate through combustion chamber=0. power produced by turbine #1 which drives the compressor #1.6. three turbines (tur1. one combustion chamber (htr1). An open.9 lbm/s. power produced by turbine #2 which drives the compressor #2. power turbine exit pressure=14. compressor inlet pressure=14. turbine efficiency=80%. Example 10. compressor inlet temperature=60ºF. and all turbines as adiabatic and 80% efficient.3a. and one regenerator (hx1) is illustrated in Figure E10. rate of heat supplied by the reheater. (C) Input working fluid is air.3b.5 psia.6.4 has the following information: Compressor efficiency=80%. and cycle efficiency. Bleed air Brayton cycle (regenerator off). tur2. compressor #2 exit pressure=140 psia. rate of heat supplied by the combustion chamber.4. compressor #1 exit pressure=40 psia. regenerator hot-side exit temperature=500ºF. rate of heat removed from the inter-cooler.Gas Open System Cycles 453 Figure E10.and cold-side) and mixing chamber as isobaric. combustion chamber.5 psia. combustion chamber exit temperature=1800ºF.01 lbm/s. compressor inlet pressure=14. inter-cooler. compressor #2 exit pressure=140 psia.1 lbm/s. inter-cooler exit temperature=100ºF. (B) Assume all compressors as adiabatic and 80% efficient. heat exchanger (both hot. air mass flow rate through state 17=0. To solve this problem by CyclePad. split-shaft.

1 hp. rate of heat removed in the inter-cooler=-42. rate of heat added in the combustion chamber=301. The answers are T2=278. and mdot=1 lbm/s (no bleed air) Turbine #1 – efficiency=92. Why do we need bleed air in practical gas turbine cycles? How do you control the power output of a real gas turbine cycle using bleed air? Does the efficiency of a real gas turbine cycle increase using bleed air? Bleed air is used in a split-shaft gas turbine cycle. 3.1 hp. Figure E10. T9=1452ºF.1 hp.3% Turbine #2 – efficiency=92. turbine #1 power=74. (E) Display the cycle properties results and state results. air mass flow rate through state 15=0.8 Btu/s. Bleed air Brayton cycle (regenerator on).5ºF. efficiency=85%.08 hp). air mass flow rate through state 17=0. and air mass flow rate through state 13=0. Homework 10. T12=1359ºF. and mdot=1 lbm/s Combustion chamber–qsupply=400 Btu/lbm. compressor #2 power=-102.78 Btu/s.9 lbm/s.6. turbine #3 power=148.7 Btu/s. T3=100ºF.08 hp.08 hp. turbine #2 power=102. input turbine #1 power=74. (D) Display compressor power #1 (-74. Bleed Air Brayton Cycle 1. The following information is provided: Compressor–air inlet temperature and pressure are 60ºF and14. T4=401.94%. regenerator hot-side exit temperature=500ºF. air mass flow rate through compressor #2=1 lbm/s.1ºF=T5=T15=T17=401. net cycle power=148.454 Chih Wu temperature=1800ºF. compressor #1power=-74.1 hp).01 lbm/s.1ºF. and cycle efficiency=22.1 hp. and air mass flow rate through combustion chamber=0.9 psia. re-heater exit temperature=1800ºF.1 hp. exit pressure is 145 psia. rate of heat added in the re-heater=154.3%. 4.99 lbm/s (regenerator is on).08 hp. input turbine #2 power=102. T7=T11=1800ºF.6. T10=1148ºF.4.5 psia. Display compressor power #2 (-102. power turbine exit pressure=14. T8=1673ºF.1 lbm/s. 2. air exit pressure=15 psia .

T3=629ºF. Wdotcompressor=-192. T7=768. air exit pressure=15 psia.2 hp. 5. η=37. Wdotcompressor=-192. T5=1881ºF. compressor power required. power produced by turbine #1. T3=629ºF. power produced by turbine #2.7. T7=837. efficiency=85%. 6. η=37. and cycle efficiency.14%.88%. and mdot=1 lbm/s Combustion chamber–qsupply=400 Btu/lbm. power produced by turbine #1. T5=1756ºF. efficiency=85%. power produced by turbine #2. The components of the cycle are identical to those of Brayton cycle except that the higher pressures permit a substantial reduction in the size of all components. The following information is provided: Compressor–air inlet temperature and pressure are 60ºF and14.8 hp. and cycle efficiency. and cycle efficiency. η=32. ANSWER: T2=629ºF. and mdot=1 lbm/s Combustion chamber–qsupply=400 Btu/lbm.95 lbm/s Turbine #1 – efficiency=92. Wdotturbine #2=160. Wdotturbine #2=125. T4=1881ºF. air exit pressure=15 psia Determine temperature of all states of the cycle.9 hp. T5=1881ºF. T3=629ºF.49%. power produced by turbine #2. FEHER CYCLE The Feher cycle as shown in Figure 10. compressor power required.3% Turbine #2 – efficiency=92. Wdotturbine #2=141. T6=1187ºF.3%. power produced by turbine #1.4 hp. power produced by turbine #1.6ºF. η=35. air exit pressure=15 psia Determine temperature of all states of the cycle. mdot=1 lbm/s Turbine #2 – efficiency=92. T4=1881ºF. and mdot=0. The following information is provided: Compressor–air inlet temperature and pressure are 60ºF and14.5 psia. Wdotcompressor=-192. T4=1881ºF.9 hp. Bleed air is used in a split-shaft gas turbine cycle. Wdotturbine #1=192. mdot=1lbm/s Determine temperature of all states of the cycle. and mdot=0.83%. T7=837.3% Turbine #2 – efficiency=92.3%.Gas Open System Cycles 455 Determine temperature of all states of the cycle. exit pressure is 145 psia. Bleed air is used in a split-shaft gas turbine cycle.7. T6=1282ºF. T6=1249ºF. 10.3%. ANSWER: T2=629ºF. and mdot=1 lbm/s Combustion chamber–qsupply=400 Btu/lbm. and mdot=0. compressor power required.9 lbm/s Turbine #1 – efficiency=92. Wdotturbine #1=192. Wdotturbine #1=192.6ºF. Wdotturbine #2=143. exit pressure is 145 psia. ANSWER: T2=629ºF.5 psia. power produced by turbine #2. The following information is provided: Compressor–air inlet temperature and pressure are 60ºF and14.2ºF. and cycle efficiency. ANSWER: T2=629ºF.9 hp.9 hp. Wdotturbine #1=192. T3=629ºF.9 hp.3%. T5=1881ºF. T4=1881ºF. 7. exit pressure is 145 psia.9 hp. The T-s .9 hp.9 hp. T6=1312ºF.9 lbm/s Turbine #1 – efficiency=92. Bleed air is used in a split-shaft gas turbine cycle.9 hp. Wdotcompressor=-192. compressor power required. It incorporates the efficient pumping of the Rankine cycle with the regenerative heating features of the Brayton cycle to achieve higher theoretical efficiencies.5 psia. efficiency=85%.6ºF. T7=837.1 is a single-phase cycle operating above the critical point of the working fluid.

4) (10.W41 = m(h1 .7. W41 = 0 The net work (Wnet).7.7.7.Q34=0 and Q41 . Figure 10.h3).2.h1).1.h2). Applying the First law and Second law of thermodynamics of the closed system to each of the four processes of the cycle yields: Q12 .456 Chih Wu diagram of the cycle is shown in Figure 10. The four processes of the Feher cycle are isentropic compression process 1-2.7. which is also equal to net heat (Qnet). .h4). Feher cycle.2. and isobaric heat removal process 4-1.1) (10.7.3) Figure 10.7.5) (10.W23 = m(h3 .2) (10. Feher cycle T-s diagram.W23=0 Q34 .W12 = m(h2 .6) (10. Q12=0 Q23 .7. is Wnet =W12 +W34 = Qnet = Q23+ Q41 η = Wnet /Q23 (10. Carbon dioxide with a critical pressure of 73.9 bars (1072 psia) and critical temperature of 304 K (88ºF) appears to be the most suitable working fluid for such a cycle. isobaric heat addition process 2-3. isentropic expansion process 3-4.W34 = m(h4 .7.

mass rate flow of carbon dioxide=1 lbm/s.3. and turbine inlet temperature=1300ºF. The cycle would have an efficiency of 39.7. turbine inlet pressure=4000 psia.7.1. turbine power. and cycle efficiency.82%. compressor inlet temperature=100ºF. which is comparable to today’s best steam power plant.3 and the following example. compressor efficiency=0. rate of heat added.88. . A proposed Feher cycle using carbon dioxide has the following design information: turbine efficiency=0. Figure 10. Example 10. Feher cycle with regenerator.88. compressor inlet pressure=1950 psia. Determine the compressor power.Gas Open System Cycles 457 If a regenerator is added to the Feher cycle as shown in Figure 10.7. rate of heat removed.

9. Determine the compressor power. The answers are: Wdotcompressor=-31.30 hp.66 hp. What are the four processes of the Feher cycle? 2.82%. Qdotheater=218. compressor inlet pressure=1950 psia. and turbine inlet temperature=1400ºF. and cycle efficiency. mass rate flow of carbon dioxide=1 lbm/s. -203.7. rate of heat added. 4.46 hp. rate of heat removed. Homework 10. A proposed Feher cycle with a regenerator using carbon dioxide has the following design information: . compressor efficiency=0.458 Chih Wu Example 10. ANSWER: -36.88%. turbine power. mass rate flow of carbon dioxide=1 lbm/s. Feher Cycle 1. rate of heat added. and turbine inlet temperature=1300ºF. Feher cycle with regenerator. and 11. 75. 231. compressor efficiency=0. and cycle efficiency. Wdotturbine=-65. η=39.7 Btu/s. compressor inlet temperature=120ºF. turbine power.59 hp.85. A proposed Feher cycle using carbon dioxide has the following design information: turbine efficiency=0. compressor inlet pressure=1950 psia.88.2. A proposed Feher cycle with a regenerator using carbon dioxide has the following design information: turbine efficiency=0.5 Btu/s.88. compressor inlet temperature=100ºF. turbine inlet pressure=4000 psia. What is the difference between the Feher and the Brayton cycle? 3.7. Figure E10. Qdotcooler=-194.2.2 Btu/s. combustion chamber inlet temperature=1000ºF.7. Determine the compressor power.5 Btu/s. rate of heat removed. turbine inlet pressure=4200 psia.

This limiting Brayton cycle becomes an Ericsson cycle. and cycle efficiency.5 Btu/s.8. and re-heaters and turbines are added to a basic ideal Brayton cycle.4) . w23 =0 q34 .h2. compressor inlet pressure=1950 psia.w34 = h4 .h3 q41 . and 11.8. The four processes of the Ericsson cycle are isothermal compression process 1-2 (compressor). ERICSSON CYCLE Thermal cycle efficiency of a Brayton cycle can be increased by adding more intercoolers. and regeneration. 211.8. turbine power. w41 =0 The net work produced by the cycle is wnet = w12 +w34 (10.1) (10. and re-heaters and turbines. isobaric compression heating process 2-3 (heater). compressor inlet temperature=120ºF. turbine inlet pressure=4200 psia. rate of heat added.1. there is an economic limit to the number of stages of inter-coolers and compressors. 10. and isobaric expansion cooling process 4-1 (cooler).3) (10. ANSWER: -36. Applying the basic laws of thermodynamics.2.1.8.5) (10.1 Btu/s. However.9. Figure 10. The schematic Ericsson cycle is shown in Figure 10. and turbine inlet temperature=1300ºF. combustion chamber inlet temperature=1000ºF.8. Determine the compressor power.46 hp.8.8.Gas Open System Cycles 459 turbine efficiency=0.w23 = h3 . compressor efficiency=0.65%. the reheat and multi-expansion processes approaches another isothermal process. isothermal expansion process 3-4 (turbine). The cycle consists of two isothermal processes and two isobaric processes.8. the inter-cooling and multi-compression processes approaches an isothermal process.85. If an infinite number of inter-coolers and compressors. turbines. re-heaters. mass rate flow of carbon dioxide=1 lbm/s. 71. Schematic Ericsson cycle.h4. rate of heat removed. -186. Similarly.8. compressors.w12 = h2 .25 hp. we have q12 .2) (10.h1 q23 . The p-v and T-s diagrams of the cycle is shown in Figure 10.w41 = h1 .

7) T 3 qin 3 qin 4 qout 1 u 4 2 qout s 1 Figure 10.460 The heat added to the cycle is qadd =q23 +q34. p 2 Chih Wu (10.1.8. Assuming the compressor is isothermal.1.3.8.8. . Figure 10.8.2. power and rate of heat added in each of the four devices. at a mass flow rate of 1 kg/s. Schematic Ericsson cycle with a regenerator. Ericsson cycle p-v and T-s diagram. To solve this problem by CyclePad. the heater is isobaric.8. The cycle efficiency is η=wnet /qadd. and the cooler is isobaric. and cycle efficiency. the turbine is isothermal. we do the following steps: (A) Build the cycle as shown in Figure 10. Air. Determine the pressure and temperature of each of the four states. Example 10.6) (10. is compressed and heated from 100 kPa and 100ºC in an Ericsson cycle to a turbine inlet at 1000 kPa and 1000ºC.8.

and cycle efficiency. To solve this problem by CyclePad. T4=1000ºC.8.4 kW. Then the heat loss by the hot-side stream gas (Q56) equals to the heat gain by the cold-side stream gas (Q23).3 kW.8. and η=34. Example 10. Wdotcmp=-246. compressor inlet pressure=100 kPa.1. In the regenerator. p2=100 kPa.8. Determine the pressure and temperature of each of the four states. Ericsson cycle. Suppose there is only a small temperature difference between the two gas streams at any one section of the regenerator. Qdothtr=903. The inlet temperature of the hot stream in the regenerator is 995ºC. The gas from the turbine enters as a hot-side stream at a high temperature (T5)and leaves at a low temperature (T6). Qdotclr=-903.Gas Open System Cycles 461 (B) Input working fluid=air. Notice that ηCarnot=70. so that the operation of the regenerator is almost ideal. Qdottur=840. gas from the compressor enters as a cold-side stream at a low temperature (T2) and leaves at a high temperature (T1). Wdotcmp=840. p2=1000 kPa.3 kW. The answers are: T2=100ºC. (C) Display results.1 kW.1 kW. Figure E10. at a mass flow rate of 1 kg/s. compressor inlet temperature=100ºC. Air.2. A regenerator is added. we do the following steps: .08. and turbine inlet temperature=1000ºC.3 shows a schematic Ericsson cycle with a regenerator. Figure 10. power and rate of heat added in each of the four devices. turbine inlet pressure=1000 kPa. An attempt to achieve Carnot cycle efficiency is made by the Ericsson cycle using an ideal regenerator. mass flow rate=1 kg/s.4 kW. The cycle efficiency is close to that of the Carnot cycle operating between the same two temperatures.69%. Qdotcmp=-246. is compressed and heated from 100 kPa and 100ºC in an Ericsson cycle to a turbine inlet at 1000 kPa and 1000ºC.

Determine the pressure and temperature of each of the four states. compressor inlet temperature=100ºC. 4.5 kW. 1500 K). and (100 kPa. 1282 kW). is compressed and heated from 100 kPa and 300 K in an Ericsson cycle to a turbine inlet at 1200 kPa and 1500 K. 3. and regenerator hot-side inlet temperature=995ºC. Qdotcmp=-246. (1200 kPa. The turbine efficiency is 85% and the compressor efficiency is 88%.3.52 is very close to ηCarnot=70. Wdotcmp=840. and the hot-side and cold-side of the regenerator are isobaric. turbine inlet temperature=1000ºC.8. Qdothtr=903. Notice that η=70. T4=1000ºC.1 kW. and (0. 1445 kW)]. power and rate of heat added in each of the four devices. (1282 kW.2 kg/s.8.1 kW. the heater is isobaric. p2=1000 kPa. mass flow rate=1 kg/s. 2. What would be the difference between the Ericsson cycle efficiency and the Carnot cycle efficiency? 5. Ericsson Cycle 1. Figure E10. Ericsson cycle with regenerator. at a mass flow rate of 1. 1500 K)].2. p4=100 kPa. ANSWER: [(100 kPa. compressor inlet pressure=100 kPa. Wdotcmp=-246.462 Chih Wu (A) Build the cycle as shown in Figure 10. 37. [ (-256. What are the four processes of the Ericsson cycle? What is the function of a regenerator? Does the regenerator improve the efficiency of the Ericsson cycle? Suppose an ideal regenerator is added to an Ericsson cycle. -256. 300 K). . the cooler is isobaric. and cycle efficiency.62%.52. and η=70. The regenerator would absorb heat from the system during part of the cycle and return exactly the same amount of heat to the system during another part of the cycle.3 kW.69%. turbine inlet pressure=1000 kPa. Qdotclr=-903. Air. The answers are: T2=100ºC.T6=105ºC. (1200 kPa. Homework 10. (B) Input working fluid=air. the turbine is isothermal. Assuming the compressor is isothermal. (C) Display results.4 kW. ( 0. T3=995ºC. 1445 kW). Qdottur=840. 300 K).5 kW).4 kW.8.3 kW.

1282 kW). two turbines. and two coolers is shown in Figure 10.A1.2 kg/s.02 kW)]. -256. Intelligent computer aided optimization of power and energy systems. The total power output of the Braysson cycle is the summation of the power produced by the top and bottom cycles.63%. one combustion chamber. Another arrangement of the Braysson cycle consisting of four compressors. (1200 kPa.A2. vol. BRAYSSON CYCLE A Braysson cycle proposed by Frost. is compressed and heated from 100 kPa and 300 K in an Ericsson cycle to a turbine inlet at 1200 kPa and 1500 K.1) Σmdote = Σmdoti. The T-s diagram of the Braysson cycle is shown in Figure 10. Part A. and Qdot-Wdot=Σmdotehe . and B. Anderson and Agnew [Reference: Frost.H. A regenerator is added. 1495 K). Journal of Power and Energy. 1439 kW)..1. 6. 1500 K). power and rate of heat added in each of the four devices. 1999] consisting of four compressors. What would be the efficiency of the Carnot cycle operating between 300 K and 1500 K? ANSWER: [ (100 kPa.2) The energy input of the cycle is the heat added in the heater. It employs one working fluid in the two cycles in such a way that the full waste heat from the top Brayton cycle serves as the heat source for the bottom Ericsson cycle. 300 K). The cycle takes advantage of the high-temperature heat addition process of the Brayton cycle and the low-temperature heat rejection process of the Ericsson cycle. A. (1282 kW. n.213. Journal of Power and Energy. Neglecting kinetic and potential energy changes. T.2. and two coolers is shown in Figure 10. (100 kPa. A design of such a novel Braysson cycle [Reference: Wu. vol.9. 1500 K). and (100 kPa.Gas Open System Cycles 463 6. two turbines. n. [ (-256. The net energy output of the cycle is the sum of the work added to the individual compressors and work produced by the turbines Wdotnet=ΣWdotcompressor+ΣWdotturbine (10. A hybrid gas turbine cycle (Brayton/Ericsson): an alternative to conventional combined gas and steam turbine power plant.Σmdotihi. 10. (1200 kPa. (0. 1997] is an alternative to the Brayton/Rankine combined gas and steam turbine power plant. 300 K).3. pp1-6. and 79. pp121-131. a steady state and steady flow mass and energy balance on the components of the Braysson cycle have the general forms (10. Anderson. Air.3) . (10. The Braysson cycle is a combination of a single Brayton cycle and an Ericsson cycle. Determine the pressure and temperature of each of the states. one combustion chamber.02 kW).9. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers.211. at a mass flow rate of 1. 305 K)]. (1200 kPa.. The inlet temperature of the hot stream in the regenerator is 1495 K.9. C.9.5 kW). Agnew.5 kW. and (0. and cycle efficiency. 80%. Part A. The turbine efficiency is 85% and the compressor efficiency is 88%.9. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. (0. -6.9.9.

9.9.3.9. Braysson cycle.9. . Figure 10.464 Chih Wu and the efficiency of the cycle is η=Wdot/Qdotheater The following examples illustrate the analysis of the Braysson cycle. Figure 10.4) Figure 10. Braysson cycle.2. Braysson cycle T-s diagram.1. (10.

1b and c).2 bar. the turbines are adiabatic and isentropic.9.1a. p2=8 bar. p8=0. Air enters a low pressure isentropic turbine and leaves at 0. and p10=1bar.9. T3=1100ºC.4 kW. and power input=-570. and air is discharged to the atmospheric sink.1a).2 kW.0 kW (see Figure E10. (D) Display sensitivity diagram of η (cycle efficiency) vs p6 (pressure at state 6) and sensitivity diagram of η (cycle efficiency) vs p8 (pressure at state 8) (see Figure E10. Assuming the compressors are adiabatic and isentropic. T1=20ºC. air enters an isobaric heater (combustion chamber) and leaves at 1100ºC (state 3). and the coolers are isobaric. (B) Input working fluid=air. To solve this problem by CyclePad.Gas Open System Cycles 465 Example 10. . we do the following steps: (A) Build the cycle as shown in Figure 10. Figure E10.6 bar.1. p1=1bar.9. p5=0.9. p4=1bar. (C) Display results. Qdot in=845. air enters a high pressure isentropic turbine and leaves at 1 bar (state 4). power output=1075 kW. Plot the sensitivity diagram of η (cycle efficiency) vs p6 (pressure at state 6) and sensitivity diagram of η (cycle efficiency) vs p8 (pressure at state 8). net power output=504. turbine inlet temperature=1000ºC. compressor inlet temperature=100ºC. air enters an isobaric inter-cooler and leaves at 20ºC (state 7).1. turbine inlet pressure=1000 kPa. T9=20ºC. the heater is isobaric.67%.2 bar (state 6). T7=20ºC. p6=0. 10. mdot=1 kg/s. In the cycle.1) uses air as the working fluid with 1 kg/s of mass flow rate through the cycle. air enters a secondstage isentropic compressor and leaves at 1 bar (state 8). air enters a first-stage isentropic compressor and leaves at 0.04 bar (state 5). Determine the thermodynamic efficiency and the net power output of the Braysson combined plant.9. air enters from the atmospheric source to an isentropic compressor at 20ºC and 1 bar (state 1) and leaves at 8 bar (state 2).04 bar.9. Braysson cycle. A Braysson cycle (Fig. The answers are η=59.

Homework 10. Braysson cycle sensitivity diagram. (2) more re-heaters and more turbines added in the Brayton cycle. Braysson Cycle 1. (3) more compressors and more inter-coolers added in the Ericsson cycle. Braysson cycle sensitivity diagram. Design of differently arranged Braysson cycles such as a simple Braysson cycle with two-stage compressor.9. The four-stage compressor Braysson cycle is a refinement of the three-stage compressor Braysson cycle. and a Braysson cycle with four-stage compressor can be made. What is a Braysson cycle? 2. Figure E10.466 Chih Wu Figure E10.1b. etc.9. Other improvement include (1) a re-heater added in the Brayton cycle of the combined cycle.9.1c. Why is the efficiency of the Braysson cycle high? .

9 Kw. The mass flow rate of injected steam is of the order of 15% of the .1) uses air as the working fluid with 1 kg/s mass flow rate through the cycle. air enters a first-stage compressor and leaves at 0.. air enters a second-stage compressor and leaves at 1 bar (state 8).26%. A Braysson cycle (Fig. 1951) as an efficient method for NOx abatement and power boosting. Plot the sensitivity diagram of η (cycle efficiency) vs p6 (pressure at state 6) and sensitivity diagram of η (cycle efficiency) vs p8 (pressure at state 8). air enters a high pressure turbine and leaves at 1 bar (state 4). 10. Sweden. Air and steam is then heated in the combustion chamber from state 3 to state 4.1 kW. Assume all compressors have 85% efficiency. and exhausted to the recovery boiler from state 5 to state 6. A gas turbine with steam injection. In the Ericsson cycle. Stockholm.34%.9 kW.3 kW.10.9. ANSWER: η=26. air enters a first-stage compressor and leaves at 0. Steam at state 9 is generated in a recovery boiler (heat exchanger) from state 8 by the hot exhaust gas. Several cycle configurations are possible with respect to water/steam injection.7 kW. and air is discharged to the atmospheric sink. A Braysson cycle (Fig. air enters an isobaric inter-cooler and leaves at 20ºC (state 7). air enters a second-stage compressor and leaves at 1 bar (state 8). air enters an isobaric heater (combustion chamber) and leaves at 1100ºC (state 3). Determine the thermodynamic efficiency and the net power output of the Braysson combined plant. Plot the sensitivity diagram of η (cycle efficiency) vs p6 (pressure at state 6) and sensitivity diagram of η (cycle efficiency) vs p8 (pressure at state 8).2 bar (state 6). air enters an isobaric heater (combustion chamber) and leaves at 1100ºC (state 3).04 bar(state 5). air enters from the atmospheric source to a compressor at 20ºC and 1 bar (state 1) and leaves at 8 bar (state 2). expanded in the gas turbine from state 4 to state 5.04 bar(state 5). In the Brayton cycle. Figure 10. air enters an isobaric intercooler and leaves at 20ºC (state 7). Determine the thermodynamic efficiency and the net power output of the Braysson combined plant. The mixing chamber can be located either between the compressor and the combustion chamber (heater). and air is discharged to the atmospheric sink. Swedish Patent application No. air enters a low pressure turbine and leaves at 0.9.Gas Open System Cycles 467 3.8112/51.2 bar (state 6).1 is the schematic diagram of the Steam injection gas turbine cycle. air enters a high pressure isentropic turbine and leaves at 1 bar (state 4). 10. In the Ericsson cycle. or between the combustion chamber (heater) and the turbine. air enters from the atmospheric source to a compressor at 20ºC and 1 bar (state 1) and leaves at 8 bar (state 2). STEAM INJECTION GAS TURBINE CYCLE The injection of water or steam in gas turbines has been known (Reference: Nicolin. Water is pumped from state 7 to state 8. Power input=-671.1) uses air as the working fluid with 1 kg/s of mass flow rate through the cycle. Power output=960. Qdot in=802. Power output=1075 kW. ANSWER: η=50. 4. Assume all turbines and compressors have 85% efficiency. In the Brayton cycle. 10. Qdot in=802.10. Steam at state 8 is injected into air at state 2 in a mixing chamber. Air is compressed from state 1 to state 2. Power input=-749. air enters a low pressure isentropic turbine and leaves at 0. C.

it is able to achieve .468 Chih Wu mass flow rate of air supplied to the gas turbine. Steam Injection Gas Turbine Cycle 1. J.. Therefore. it results in a reduction in the emission of noxious oxides of nitrogen. Therefore the net output work of the steam injection gas turbine cycle increases. 2.11. CyclePad is not able to do the steam injection gas turbine cycle. because there is no binary working fluid in the substance menu of the software. from the cycle. For a given temperature at inlet to the gas turbine. we can see that the compressor work is not effected. n209. Homework 10. Draw the schematic diagram of the Steam injection gas turbine cycle by putting the mixing chamber between the combustion chamber (heater) and the turbine. extra fuel has to be supplied in order to heat the injected steam to that temperature. p153. Proceedings of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers.10. Figure 10. v162.1. (2) As a result of the cooling effect of the steam in the primary flame zone of the combustion chamber. Comparing the cycle with a gas turbine cycle without steam injection.F. but the turbine work increases considerably due to increasing of gas mass and increasing of substance specific heat (cp). FIELD CYCLE The Field cycle (Reference: Field. Steam injection gas turbine cycle. but the additional power arising from the expansion of the injected steam as it passes through the gas turbine more than offsets the otherwise adverse effect on the overall efficiency of the cycle of the increase in fuel supply. What are the main beneficial influences of the steam injection gas turbine cycle? 10. NOx. The beneficial influences of the steam injection gas turbine cycle include: (1) It provides an increase in both power output and overall efficiency.10. The application of gas turbine Technique to steam power. 1950) is a super-generative cycle which makes use of the high-temperature heat addition of the Brayton cycle and the low-temperature heat removal of Rankine cycle.

and the splitters are iso-parametric. p5=4000 kPa.1 kg/s. To solve this problem by CyclePad. and (3) net power produced by the cycle. one boiler and one reheater (heaters). x19=0. Figure 10.11. T4=500 ºC. and 6-7 takes advantage of the high-temperature heat addition of Brayton cycle. T8=300 ºC.11.1. and mdot17=0. and mdot17=0. p2=6000 kPa. Field cycle schematic diagram. 2-3. (B) Input working fluid=water. and two splitters. An ideal Field cycle with perfect regeneration as shown in Figure 10.1.9 kg/s. mdot10=0. three pumps. p19=200 kPa. The arrangement includes one compressor.Gas Open System Cycles 469 a high mean temperature of heat addition. p16=10 kPa. Example 10. Determine (1) the pressure and temperature of each state of the cycle. rate of heat removed by the condenser.11. one condenser (cooler). rate of heat added by each of the two heaters. p19=200 kPa. p23=2000 kPa. T6=500 ºC. The schematic diagram of the Field cycle is shown in Figure 4. and the rest of the processes takes advantage of the low-temperature heat removing and regenerative condensing of Rankine cycle. p5=4000 kPa. the heaters. mixing chambers. (2) power produced by each of the five turbines.9 kg/s. Assuming the compressor. T8=300 ºC. one regenerator (heat exchanger).1. T4=500 ºC. 5-6. 4-5. and cycle efficiency. .9 kg/s. x19=0. power reuired by the compressor and each of the three pumps. x22=0. mdot10=0. mdot4=1 kg/s. five turbines.1 is designed according to the following data: p16=10 kPa. x16=0. cooler and regenerator are isobaric. mdot4=1 kg/s. three mixing chambers.1. x16=0. however. Process 1-2.11. p22=1000 kPa. p23=2000 kPa. p2=6000 kPa. is offset by the reduction in cycle efficiency resulting from the irreversibility of the mixing process. turbines and pump are adiabatic and isentropic.11. we do the following steps: (A) Build the cycle as shown in Figure 10. 3-4. x22=0. p22=1000 kPa. The gain due to high-temperature heat addition. T6=500 ºC.

9ºC. WdotP#1=-0. p12=1000 kPa.83ºC.1 is designed according to the following data: .2 kW. p10=2000 kPa.1 kW. mdot4=1 kg/s. net power produced by the cycle. p9=2000 kPa. T13=120. x19=0. p17=200 kPa. T8=300ºC. x22=0. p8=2000 kPa.26%. T1=212. T6=500ºC.3ºC.11. WdotCompressor=7. p5=4000 kPa. ANSWER: Qdotadd=2393 kW.82ºC. T4=500 ºC. T17=179.11. T5=432. total power required by the pumps and compressor.2ºC.1598 kW. p22=2000 kPa. x16=0. p2=6000 kPa. p13=200 kPa.7 kW. p14=200 kPa. p7=2000 kPa. Homework 10. Determine rate of heat added by the heaters.45 kW. T6=500 ºC.4 ºC. mdot10=0.9 kg/s.11.8 ºC. T21=120. p3=6000 kPa. T8=300 ºC.2ºC. p23=2000 kPa. p18=200 kPa. p22=1000 kPa.82ºC. and η=43. p19=200 kPa. p16=10 kPa. Field Cycle 1. p11=1000 kPa. WdotT#5=293. T19=120. T11=214. Figure E10. T7=388.1.1 kg/s.4 kW. WdotT#3=144.11. T16=45. Wdotnet=1035 kW.6ºC. p19=200 kPa. T17=120.9 kW. total power produced by the turbines. T18=45. An ideal field cycle with perfect regeneration as shown in Figure 10. and cycle efficiency. WdotT#4=238. WdotP#2=-0. T15=45. and mdot17=0. T14=120.57 kW. QdotHtr#1=2197 kW. and QdotCondenser=-1358 kW. T12=214. An ideal field cycle with perfect regeneration as shown in Figure 10. WdotPumps and Compressor=-38.7ºC.9 kW. WdotT#2=222. p20=1000 kPa.470 Chih Wu (C) Display results as shown in Figure E10. Field cycle. T10=300ºC.0 kW. T3=275.11. and η=42.1 is designed according to the following data: p16=10 kPa.26%. T20=214. QdotHtr#2=155 kW.2ºC.6973 kW. (3) Wdotnet=994. p2=7000 kPa.1. WdotP#3=-28. T4=500 ºC. T2=237.6 ºC. p21=1000 kPa.9 ºC. p4=6000 kPa. p15=10 kPa. 3. T17=185. The answers are: (1) p1=2000 kPa.6ºC. (2) WdotT#1=131. WdotTurbines=1073 kW.2ºC. What is the concept of the Field cycle? 2.3 ºC.6ºC. and p23=2000 kPa. p5=4000 kPa. p6=4000 kPa. T9=300 ºC.

12. the conditions of constant temperature hot and cold surrounding thermal reservoirs do not exist for fuel burning engines. and turbine are isothermal. Thus. rate of heat added. total power produced by the turbines.9 kg/s.12. 1991) proposed a three-process ideal fuel burning engine consisting of an isothermal compression.Gas Open System Cycles 471 p16=10 kPa. net power produced by the cycle.. To solve this problem by CyclePad. The natural environment in terms of air or water bodies is the cold reservoir and can be considered as an infinite reservoir relative to the engine. the combustion products are artificially created as a finite size hot reservoir that releases heat over the entire temperature range from its maximum to ambient temperature. mdot4=1 kg/s.1. and T4=5ºC.1 is designed according to the following data: p1=101 kPa.12. p5=4000 kPa. Figure 10. ANSWER: Qdotadd=2393 kW. an isobaric heat addition. Example 10. The thermodynamic theory and design of an ideal fuel burning engine. Wdotnet=1036 kW. x22=0.1 kW. WICKS CYCLE The Carnot cycle is the ideal cycle only for the conditions of constant temperature hot and cold surrounding thermal reservoirs.12. heater. T6=500 ºC. and mdot17=0. p22=1000 kPa. and cycle efficiency. For fuel burning engines. pp474-481.1. T8=300 ºC. x16=0. However. Proceedings of the Intersociety Engineering Conference of Energy Conversion. p2=28000 kPa. power input.12. Wicks (Reference: Wicks.1. and η=43.1. WdotPumps and Compressor=-38. we do the following steps: (A) Build the cycle as shown in Figure 10. x19=0. Determine rate of heat added by the heaters. WdotTurbines=1074 kW. A Wicks cycle as shown in Figure 10. mdot10=0. and isentropic. mdot1=1 kg/s. and cycle efficiency. The schematic Wicks cycle is shown in Figure 10.1. T4=500 ºC.12 kg/s. p19=200 kPa.12. Assuming the compressor. and an example of the cycle is given in Example 10. v2. an ideal fuel burning engine should operate reversibly between a finite size hot reservoir and an infinite size cold reservoir. p23=2000 kPa. T1=5 ºC. Determine power produced. Wicks cycle.28%. isobaric. total power required by the pumps and compressor. F.12. 10. T3=1100 ºC. and an adiabatic expansion process. p2=7000 kPa. net power produced by the cycle. .

1. 54. The answers are: Wdotin=-448.1. and T4=10ºC. and T4=5ºC. Determine power produced.24%. Wdotout=1099 kW. A Wicks cycle as shown in Figure 10. and T4=20ºC. and T4=0ºC. (C) Display results. ANSWER: 1023 kW. and cycle efficiency. rate of heat added. ANSWER: 1034 kW. 1034 kW. Determine power produced. net power produced by the cycle. 586. net power produced by the cycle.12. mdot1=1 kg/s. p2=28000 kPa. A Wicks cycle as shown in Figure 10. p2=28000 kPa. power input.5 kW. mdot1=1 kg/s. .6 kW. T1=10ºC.18% as shown in Figure E10. 52. mdot1=1 kg/s. 5. 3. 534. Qdotin=1099 kW. T3=1050ºC. A Wicks cycle as shown in Figure 10. -472.12. T1=30ºC. 1023 kW.1 is designed according to the following data: p1=101 kPa. rate of heat added. A Wicks cycle as shown in Figure 10. 1044 kW.9 kW. p1=101 kPa. -488. T1=0ºC.1 is designed according to the following data: p1=101 kPa.12.12. p2=28000 kPa. and T4=30ºC.12. power input. Wdotnet=650. Determine power produced.9 kW.1 is designed according to the following data: p1=101 kPa. Qdotout=-448. T3=1050ºC. and mdot1=1 kg/s. T1=5 ºC. T1=20ºC. and cycle efficiency.1 is designed according to the following data: p1=101 kPa. Wicks Cycle 1. What is the concept of the Wicks cycle? 2. -456. power input. mdot1=1 kg/s.2 kW. T3=1050ºC. 56. p2=28000 kPa.5 kW. Homework 10.8 kW.6 kW. and cycle efficiency.25%. net power produced by the cycle. T3=1050ºC. and η=59.12. Figure E10. T3=1100 ºC.7 kW.472 Chih Wu (B) Input working fluid=air. p2=28000 kPa.12. 560. 4.26%. Wicks cycle. rate of heat added. ANSWER: 1044 kW.

13.13.1.1 kW. power input. peak temperatures below 1080 K. The T-s diagram of the cycle is shown in Figure 10. 51.6 kW.12. ANSWER: 1054 kW.13. and T4=0ºC.1. an isentropic compression. ANSWER: 1003 kW. A Wicks cycle as shown in Figure 10. Heat pipe heat exchanger appears to be particularly well adapted to integral inter-cooling and re-heat. -440.5 kW. Its efficiency is the same as that of the Carnot cycle. 1988) proposed an Ice cycle.Gas Open System Cycles 473 Determine power produced. T1=0ºC. 1054 kW. The use of pressure rather than temperature and/or regenerative heat exchange to achieve high cycle efficiency can lead to major design and economic benefits of gas turbine cycle. . an isothermal expansion. Determine power produced. Determine power produced. power input.13. and cycle efficiency. and cycle efficiency. 562. rate of heat added. p2=28000 kPa. ICE CYCLE Silverstein (Reference: Silverstein.2.C.1 kW. and cycle efficiency.5 kW.12. ANSWER: 903. Ice cycle. -440. The Ice cycle: High gas turbine efficiency at moderate temperature. 903. 7. Proceedings of the Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference. 462. A Wicks cycle as shown in Figure 10. T1=0ºC.1 kW. rate of heat added. mdot1=1 kg/s. C.5 kW. p2=28000 kPa. rate of heat added. T3=1000ºC. paper number 889341. 56. Figure 10. mdot1=1 kg/s. 6. and T4=0ºC. 58. power input.1 is designed according to the following data: p1=101 kPa. An actual Ice cycle is characterized by efficiencies of 35-40%. pp285-289. 1003 kW. net power produced by the cycle. Compressors and turbines can be fabricated from materials which will retain good strength characteristics at peak operating temperatures.1 is designed according to the following data: p1=101 kPa.22%. net power produced by the cycle.19%.10%. Isothermal compression and isothermal expansion are approximated by the use of heat exchanger after each stage which are an integral part of the rotating equipment. which consists of an isothermal compression. 10. -440. net power produced by the cycle.9 kW. and overall pressure ratios of 300 to 500. and an isentropic expansion process as shown in Figure 10. T3=900ºC. 613.

13. and cycle efficiency.13.1. (B) Input working fluid=air. p2=200 kPa. rate of heat added. and mdot1=1 kg/s.13. An Ice cycle as shown in Figure 10. T1=300 K. and T3=1200 K. p1=100 kPa. Determine power produced. Figure E10. Ice cycle T-s diagram. net power produced by the cycle. .1 is designed according to the following data: p1=100 kPa. mdot1=1 kg/s.13.474 Chih Wu Figure 10. Example 10. To solve this problem by CyclePad. T1=300 K.1. Assuming the compressors and turbines are isothermal and isentropic. p2=200 kPa.1.2. power input.13. and T3=1200 K. we do the following steps: (A) Build the Ice cycle as shown in Figure 10. Ice cycle.

net power produced by the cycle. the software will prompt the designer to stay in the “build” mode or move on to “analysis” mode. -884.2. 4. An Ice cycle as shown in Figure 10. T1=273 K. and η=75% as shown in Figure E10. mdot1=1 kg/s. 75%.1 is designed according to the following data: p1=100 kPa. CyclePad enters the “contradiction” mode. the designer is told of a conflict and the program will not proceed until the contradiction is resolved. etc. 75.13.5 kW. mdot1=1 kg/s.18%. a very useful function indeed. In the “analysis” mode.1 is designed according to the following data: p1=100 kPa. Wdotnet=178. Each component is clearly labeled with its input and output denoted by arrows.8 kW. In this way. and boundary conditions. net power produced by the cycle.14. and T3=1100 K. CyclePad’s “build” mode allows the designer to select parts from one of its two inventory shops (closed system and open system) and connect them.4 kW.028 kW. component properties. the designer does not necessarily have to remove the entry that forced the contradiction. rate of heat added. An Ice cycle as shown in Figure 10. ANSWER: 1048 kW. power input. Qdotin=238.18%. net power produced by the cycle. p2=200 kPa. rate of heat added. and cycle efficiency. p2=200 kPa. net power. total heat output. Ice Cycle 1.7 kW. Wdotout=1142 kW. This editing technique is very similar to the senior design engineer monitoring junior engineers who are not yet experienced enough to see the error in advance. power input. ANSWER: 1142 kW. CyclePad solves all possible variables as the designer adds conditions to the cycle.14 kg/s. CyclePad combines user input and thermodynamic principles to numerically solve cycles. 164.13. What is the concept of the Ice cycle? 2. ANSWER: 177. T1=290 K. In this mode. and T3=1400 K.Gas Open System Cycles 475 (C) Display results. Any complicated gas cycle can be easily designed and analyzed using . 75. the software will have solved for properties such as total heat input.4 kW. This is done in a pop-up window which shows all inputs that contributes to the error.1 is designed according to the following data: p1=100 kPa.21 kW. 218. The answers are: Wdotin=-962. 46. 61.7 kW.13. Homework 10. 238. An Ice cycle as shown in Figure 10. Determine power produced. In the event that the designer enters conflicting conditions. and T3=1100 K. power input. If the designer wishes. Determine power produced. CyclePad will explain what the contradiction is and how the current assumptions cannot be correct. 10. After connecting the parts in a complete cycle. DESIGN EXAMPLES Typically.13. p2=400 kPa. thermal efficiency. -962.13. The intelligent computer software CyclePad is a very effective tool in design cycles.62 kW. and cycle efficiency. T1=273 K. When all necessary entries have been made.8 kW. and cycle efficiency.3 kW. 3. rate of heat added. 178.5 kW.6 kW. Qdotout=-59. -131. mdot1=0. Determine power produced. Here the designer selects the working fluid.1 kW.

Qdotadd=1349 kW. Qdotclr2=-75. Qdothtr3=99.8ºC. Qdotremove=-605. T11=959. Example 10. Wdottur4=225. Qdothtr1=241. Wdotcmp4=-29.65 kW.4 kW.0 kW.16%.79 kW.50 kW. and T21=400ºC. Wdottur3=137.1c are obtained from his design: ηcycle=55. Wdottur1=645. p8=p9=p13=p14=800 kPa.8ºC. T1=T3=T5=T7=T9=20ºC. Wdotcmp1=-75.8 kW. Qdotclr4=42.7 kW. Wdottur5=225. 4-stage reheat and 4-stage inter-cool Brayton air cycle. mdot1=1 kg/s.4 kW. Wdotcmp5=-366.1 kW. Wdotinput=-589.1.50 kW. and ηcmpr1=ηcmpr2=ηcmpr3=ηcmpr4=ηcmpr5=85%.7 kW. Qdothtr4=137.4 kW. Wdotnet output=744.1a has been designed by a junior engineer with the following design input information: Figure E10. . Wdotoutput=-1334 kW. ηtur1=ηtur2=ηtur3=ηtur4=ηtur5=85%.14.1a.14 kW.79 kW. p4=p5=p17=p18= 400 kPa. p2=p3=p20= p19=200 kPa. T10=384.79 kW.14 kW.65 kW.9 kW. Wdottur2=99. Optimization of design parameters of the cycle is demonstrated by the following examples.14. Qdotclr3=-75. Qdothtr5=225.476 Chih Wu CyclePad.9 kW. T22=400ºC. A 4-stage reheat and 4-stage inter-cool Brayton air cycle as shown in Figure E10. Qdothtr2=645. Design input information: p1=p21=p22=100 kPa. Qdotclr5=-29. The following output results as shown in Figure 10. Wdotcmp2=-75.14.7 kW.79 kW. p10=p11=p12=1000 kPa.1 kW. Qdotclr1=-381. Wdotcmp3=-42. p6=p7=p15= p16=600 kPa.0 kW. T12=T14=T16=T18=T20=1200ºC.14.

.1b.14.1d. Brayton air cycle design input. The T-s diagram of the cycle is shown in Figure E10. Brayton air cycle design output.14.Gas Open System Cycles 477 Figure E10. Figure E10.1c.14.

p6 and p8 as design parameters only) to get a better cycle thermal efficiency than his ηcycle=55.1e.14. The optimization design values of p16 and p18 can be easily identified. Brayton air cycle T-s diagram. The sensitivity analyses of ηcycle versus p16. Figure E10. Brayton air cycle design parameter optimization.16%. .1d.478 Chih Wu Figure E10. Try to modify his design (use p16. and ηcycle versus p18 are shown in the following diagrams. p18.14.

.14. p2=p3=p20= p19=200 kPa. p16=700 T1=T3=T5=T7=T9=20ºC. p8=p9=p13=p14=900 kPa.1f. p18. The net work of the basic Brayton cycle can be improved by inter-cooling. p6=p7=p15= kPa. 10. an isobaric combustion process. A 4-stage reheat and 4-stage inter-cool Brayton air cycle as shown in Figure E10. Homework 10. The modern gas-turbine engine operates on the Brayton cycle.15. p10=p11=p12=1100 kPa. SUMMARY Heat engines that use gases as the working fluid in an open system model are treated in this chapter. and ηcmpr1=ηcmpr2=ηcmpr3=ηcmpr4=ηcmpr5=80%. The basic Brayton cycle consists of an isentropic compression process.14. T12=T14=T16=T18=T20=1200ºC. T22=400ºC. ηtur1=ηtur2=ηtur3=ηtur4=ηtur5=83%. and regeneration. and reheating. an isentropic expansion process. The performance of the basic Brayton cycle can be improved by split-shaft. The compression ratio is defined as rp= pcompressor exit /pcompressor inlet. Brayton air cycle design parameter optimization. p6 and p8 as design parameters only) to get a better cycle thermal efficiency than his cycle efficiency. Design 1. mdot1=1 kg/s. p4=p5=p17=p18= 500 kPa. The thermal efficiency of the basic Brayton cycle depends on the compression ratio across the compressor. and an isobaric cooling process.14. Try to modify his design (use p16.Gas Open System Cycles 479 Figure E10. The power of the basic Brayton cycle can be controlled by air-bleed.1a has been designed by a junior engineer with the following design input information: Design input information: p1=p21=p22=100 kPa.

The Feher cycle is a cycle operating above the critical point of the working fluid. The steam injection gas turbine cycle provides an increase in both power output and overall efficiency. The field cycle is a super-regenerative cycle. . Wicks and Ice cycles are modified Brayton cycles with many stages of inter-cooling and re-heat. It has the same efficiency of the Carnot cycle operating between the same temperature limits. The Braysson cycle is a combination of Brayton cycle and Ericsson cycle.480 Chih Wu The Ericsson.

Chapter 11 COMBINED CYCLE AND CO-GENERATION 11. 5-6-7-85. The waste heat of the upstream cycle is the heat input of the downstream cycle. 1-2-3-4-1. is the topping cycle. COMBINED CYCLE There are situations where it is desirable to combine several cycles in series in order to take advantage of a very wide temperature range or to utilize what would otherwise be waste heat to improve efficiency.1. is the upstream topping cycle. and Sub-cycle B. A cascaded cycle made of two cycles in series called combined cycle is shown schematically in Figure 11. 5-6-7-8-5. . The combined cycle is made of two sub-cycles. a substantial efficiency increase is possible. Since the net work output is equal to the sum of the three outputs and the heat input is that of the topping cycle alone.1. The power output is the sum of the output of the upstream topping cycle and the output of the downstream bottom cycle.1. 9-10-11-12-9. is the downstream bottom cycle. A cascaded cycle made of three Rankine cycles in series is shown schematically in Figure 11. and Sub-cycle C.2. Sub-cycle A. Sub-cycle A.1. is the bottom cycle.1. Such a cycle is called cascaded cycle. Sub-cycle B.1. 1-2-3-4-1. Cascaded cycle. The waste heat of the upstream topping cycle is the heat added to the downstream bottom cycle. is the middle cycle. The cascaded cycle is made of three sub-cycles. S2 HTR1 S1 PMP1 S8 HX1 S9 S7 PMP2 HX2 S6 TUR2 S3 TUR1 S5 S4 S12 S11 PMP3 CLR1 S10 TUR3 Figure 11.

and W2=ηBQ2. Referring to Figure 11. Combined cycle energy flow diagram. TH Q1 A Q2 B Q3 TL W2 W1 Figure 11. we have η= (W1+W2)/Q1.1.3.1.1. the following efficiency expression is obtained.3. (11.2) Substituting W1 and W2 into Equation (11.3) (11.3.4) The combined cycle efficiency therefore may be substantially greater than the cycle efficiency of any of its components operating alone.482 Chih Wu PDF to PDF C+ Disk Kashina Figure 11. η=1-(1-ηA)(1-ηB) (11.2. Combined cycle. The overall efficiency of the combined cycle is the total output work (W1+W2) divided by the heat input.1) (11. The energy flow of the combined cycle is shown in Figure 11.1.1.1. Q1.1.1).1. . W1=ηAQ1.1.

(B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid of cycle B is ammonia. rate of heat added=2994 kW.73%.75 kg/s. (b) the inlet pressure and quality of the ammonia pump are 800 kPa and 0.7 kW. ammonia condenser pressure=800 kPa.1. net power output=78.27 kW. (e) the inlet pressure and quality of the water pump are 20 kPa and 0.5 kW. Build as shown in Figure 11. To solve this problem with CyclePad. mass rate flow=1. rate of heat added=2994 kW. and (d) steam boiler as isobaric. rate of heat removed=-2019 kW. . (d) the inlet quality and pressure of the ammonia turbine are 1 and 1200 kPa.1.Combined Cycle and Co-Generation 483 A numerical example is given in the following to illustrate the cycle analysis of the combined cycle. (d) ammonia condenser as isobaric. rate of heat removed=-2098 kW. net power output=974. total turbine power output. ammonia boiler (heat exchanger) pressure=1200 kPa. steam condenser (heat exchanger) pressure=20 kPa. rate of heat added. net power output=896. Example 11. η=3. A combined cycle made of two cycles is shown in Figure 11. η=29. and mass flow rate of steam is 1 kg/s. rate of heat removed=-2019 kW. The upstream topping cycle is a steam Rankine cycle and the downstream bottom cycle is an ammonia Rankine cycle.2. steam superheater temperature=400ºC. we take the following steps: 1.2 2. 3. rate of heat removed. The following information is provided: steam boiler pressure=2 MPa. and working fluid of cycle A is water.28 kW. η=32.0 kW. and mass flow rate of ammonia. (b) turbines as adiabatic with 100% efficiency. Bottom ammonia cycle–power input=-11. power output=988.1.1. rate of heat added=2098 kW.53 kW.56%. (c) the inlet temperature and pressure of the steam turbine are 400ºC and 2000 kPa.94%. (c) heat exchanger as isobaric on both cold-side and hot-side.02 kW. Topping steam cycle–power input=-2. Determine the total pump power input. Display result The answers are: combined cycle–power input=-13. Analysis (A) Assume a process each for the seven devices: (a) pumps as adiabatic with 100% efficiency.26 kW.5 kW. power output=89. power output=898. cycle efficiency. and (f) the steam mass flow rate is 1 kg/s.

cycle efficiency of the Brayton plant.1. The generator is provided with a gas burner for supplementary additional heat when the demand of steam power is high. T11=500ºC. p6=5 kPa. T5=200ºC. rate of heat exchanged in the heat exchanger. mass rate flow of helium in the Brayton cycle. The Rankine plant is a regenerative cycle. rate of heat added in the gas burner. produced by turbine #3. rate of heat removed by cooler #1. p2=800 kPa. and cycle efficiency of the combined Brayton-Rankine plant. T10=400ºC. Combined Rankine cycle. T3=1400ºC.2. Example 11. Figure E11. p1=100 kPa. rate of heat added by the nuclear reactor.484 Chih Wu Figure E11. p9=6000 kPa. . cycle efficiency of the Rankine plant. power produced by turbine #2. ηcompressor=ηturbine=ηpump=100%. power required by pump #1 and #2. rate of heat removed by cooler #2.2a depicts a combined plant in which a closed Brayton helium nuclear plant releases heat to a recovery steam generator. power produced by turbine #1. net power produced by the Brayton gas-turbine plant.2a. mdot10=1 kg/s. x6=0.1. HTR2 S11 S3 RCT1 TUR1 S4 S2 HX1 S9 S1 S5 S4 S8 PMP2 MXR1 S7 PMP1 TUR3 TUR2 S12 SPL1 S13 S10 S15 CLR2 S14 CMP1 CLR1 Figure E11. and x8=0. T1=30ºC.1. Determine the power required by the compressor. which supplies heat to a Rankine steam plant.1. Combined Rankine cycle. mass rate flow of steam extracted to the feed water heater (mixing chamber). p8=1000 kPa. net power produced by the Rankine plant. The data given below correspond approximately to the design conditions for the combined plant.1.

Wdotturbine#1=9001 kW.73 %.3)=67. Wdotnee Brayton=5245 kW. ηRankine=1134/2654=42. mdot15=0. p6=5 kPa. Proceedings of the Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference. 3. 1990). J. . ηBrayton=5245/9270=56. Rankine engine compounding of Diesel engines. p2=800 kPa. pp955-958. Analysis (A) Assume a process each for the twelve devices: (a) pumps as adiabatic with 100% efficiency. both cycles are used for the same purpose-usually to generate electricity.58 %.C..1. and T11=500ºC. mixing chamber. Display result: Wdotcompressor=-3756 kW. Combined cycle is designed to gain maximum efficiency from the primary heat source. v1. and ηcombined=(5245+1134)/(9270+245.46 kW. Figure E11.3 kW. T1=30ºC. T10=400ºC.2b. T5=200ºC. p8=1000 kPa.E. x8=0. heater. v2. Wdotturbine#3=637. Qdotcooler#2=-1520 kW. p9=6000 kPa. Wdotpump #1 and #2=-6. QdotHX=2408 kW. Wdotnet Rankine=1134 kW. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid of cycle A is helium.84 kg/s. T3=1400ºC. Other combined cycles include Diesel/Rankine cycle (Reference: Boretz. Build as shown in Figure E11. and magneto-hydro-dynamics with vapor cycles. mdot10=1 kg/s. x6=0. Qdotgas burner=245. 1993). Qdotcooler#1=1616 kW.. pp193-197. mdothelium=1. Combined Rankine cycle. The major combined-cycle options currently under development include open-cycle gas turbines. and coolers as isobaric. Proceedings of the Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference. (b) p1=100 kPa.2a 2.04 %.1. Dual gas turbine combined cycle (Reference: Weston. fuel cells. (c) heat exchanger as isobaric on both cold-side and hot-side. K. closed-cycle turbines.2245 kg/s. etc. Wdotturbine#2=512. Qdotreactor=9270 kW. we take the following steps: 485 1.7 kW. and working fluid of cycle B is water. In most cases.5 kW. (d) nuclear reactor. (b) turbines as adiabatic with 100% efficiency.Combined Cycle and Co-Generation To solve this problem with CyclePad. and (e) splitter as iso-parametric.

56. (B) the steam cycle and (C) the combined cycle. p2=800 kPa. 6. 1140 kW. and cycle efficiency for (A) the nuclear power cycle. p8=1000 kPa.45 kW. 42. 4902 kW. power output. and cycle efficiency for (A) the nuclear power cycle. Redo Example 11.31%.45 kW. x6=0. p2=800 kPa. x8=0. ηhelium uurbine=85%.2a depicts a combined plant in which a closed Brayton helium nuclear plant releases heat to a recovery steam generator. net power output. mdot10=1 kg/s. 6043 kW. T3=1400ºC. 995. (C) -2413 kW. 58. 5904 kW. ANSWER: (A) -3756 kW. 6240 kW. 41.2a depicts a combined plant in which a closed Brayton helium nuclear plant releases heat to a recovery steam generator.0 kW. and ηcompressor=ηsteam t urbine=ηpump=100%.72%. Figure E11. 1134 kW. (C) -2413 kW. Find the power input. T11=400ºC. 2408 kW. 6185 kW. ηhelium turbine=ηsteam t urbine= 85%. The data given below correspond approximately to the design conditions for the combined plant.58%. Figure E11. (C) -3762 kW.1. p6=5 kPa. 995. What is a combined cycle? What is the heat input to the whole combined cycle? What is the total work output of the whole combined cycle? Is the efficiency of the combined cycle better than any of the individual efficiency of the cycles which made the combined cycle? Why? 5.46 kW. 67. The generator is provided with a gas burner for supplementary additional heat when the demand of steam power is high.486 Chih Wu Homework 11. 2654 kW. The data given below correspond approximately to the design conditions for the combined plant. 3444 kW. and cycle efficiency for (A) the nuclear power cycle. x6=0. Combined Cycle 1. 4.02%. ANSWER: (A) -2407 kW. T5=200ºC. 7. T1=30ºC. which supplies heat to a Rankine steam plant. 4902 kW.31%. The Rankine plant is a regenerative cycle. 10002 kW. 42. T10=400ºC.1.68%. rate of heat added. p6=5 kPa. power output. 3.2 without the gas burner. 41.02%. (B) -6. T11=500ºC.31%. which supplies heat to a Rankine steam plant. rate of heat added. x8=0. 1001 kW. p9=6000 kPa. p8=1000 kPa. net power output. 58. Determine the power input. 2496 kW.0 kW. 5940 kW. (B) -6. p1=100 kPa. 2. 3491 kW.1. 9001 kW. and ηcompressor=ηpump=100%. T3=1400ºC. 5940 kW. 9270 kW. ANSWER: (A) -2407 kW.77%. 2408 kW.1. net power output. Determine the power input. mdot10=1 kg/s. 1001 kW. 3629 kW. 5245 kW. T5=200ºC. T1=30ºC. (B) the steam cycle and (C) the combined cycle. p1=100 kPa. 42. 9270 kW. The Rankine plant is a regenerative cycle. (B) -6. power output. 2496 kW. T10=400ºC. (B) the steam cycle and (C) the combined cycle. . The generator is provided with a gas burner for supplementary additional heat when the demand of steam power is high. p9=6000 kPa. rate of heat added.

The generator is provided with a gas burner for supplementary additional heat when the demand of steam power is high. total power output.2 hp. T1=90ºF. power output.1. 2772 kW. p8=150 psia. Figure E11. 1415 Btu/s.96%. (B) the steam cycle and (C) the combined cycle. the adiabatic compressor is 85% efficient. steam entering the isentropic pump at 0. T5=400ºF. power output.35%. (B) -6. (B) -4. The generator is provided with a gas burner for supplementary additional heat when the demand of steam power is high.5 hp. p2=120 psia. T1=30ºC. 733. 56. 37. rate of heat added. 4609 hp. T3=1400ºC. p9=800 psia. mdot10=1 kg/s. 373. T3=2400ºF. x6=0.02%. x6=0. p8=1000 kPa. The following information is provided: air entering the isobaric precooler at 1000 bar. rate of heat added. p1=100 kPa. x8=0. 41. (C) -2020 hp. the adiabatic low-pressure turbine efficiency is 85%.1 K and 1 kg/s. 1052 kW. 4902 kW.1. p6=1 psia.2a depicts a combined plant in which a closed Brayton helium nuclear plant releases heat to a recovery steam generator. The upstream topping cycle is a reheated air Brayton closed cycle with a pre-cooler and the downstream bottom cycle is a steam Rankine cycle. total net power output.2 lbm/s. A combined cycle made of two cycles. (C) -2413 kW. p6=5 kPa.73%. 42. 2588 hp. air leaving the isobaric reheater at 3 bar. . net power output. the adiabatic steam turbine efficiency is 85%. p2=800 kPa. ANSWER: (A) -2407 kW. 6303 kW. The Rankine plant is a regenerative cycle. 10. T10=400ºC. Figure E11. 2496 kW. T11=1000ºF. and ηcompressor=ηpump=100%.2a depicts a combined plant in which a closed Brayton helium nuclear plant releases heat to a recovery steam generator. The data given below correspond approximately to the design conditions for the combined plant. steam leaving the isobaric heat exchangerer between the two cycles at 80 bar and 673. and ηcompressor=ηpump=100%. ηhelium turbine=ηsteam t urbine= 85%.1 K. 5940 kW. which supplies heat to a Rankine steam plant.29%. The data given below correspond approximately to the design conditions for the combined plant. 3343 Btu/s. T10=750ºF. Determine the mass flow rate of steam in the Rankine cycle. and cycle efficiency for (A) the nuclear power cycle. and cycle efficiency for (A) the nuclear power cycle. air leaving the preheater at 293. T11=550ºC. 36.ηall turbine=85%. ANSWER: (A) -2016 hp. mdot10=1. 3548 kW. 5961 kW.48 kW. which supplies heat to a Rankine steam plant. rate of heat added. the adiabatic high-pressure turbine efficiency is 85%. 9. Determine the power input. 3871 hp.air leaving the isobaric combustion chamber at 16 bar and 1023 K.Combined Cycle and Co-Generation 487 8. p1=15 psia. Determine the power input. 3171 Btu/s. and cycle efficiency of the combined cycle. x8=0. total power input. 1059 kW. 737. 1855 hp. net power output.63%. (B) the steam cycle and (C) the combined cycle. p9=6000 kPa. The Rankine plant is a regenerative cycle.16 bar as saturated liquid. T5=200ºC. 54.1 K.34 hp.

total power output. steam leaving the isobaric heat exchangerer between the two cycles at 80 bar and 673. 646. total net power output. 725.air leaving the isobaric combustion chamber at 16 bar and 1100 K. Determine the mass flow rate of steam in the Rankine cycle. The upstream topping cycle is a reheated air Brayton closed cycle with a pre-cooler and the downstream bottom cycle is a steam Rankine cycle.6 kW. air leaving the isobaric reheater at 3 bar.12 hp. 766.0342 lbm/s.488 Chih Wu ANSWER: 0. Determine the mass flow rate of steam in the Rankine cycle.1 K. steam entering the isentropic pump at 0.1439 kg/s. 46. total net power output.5 kW.7 kW. kW.26%. rate of heat added. -419. ANSWER: 0. the adiabatic compressor is 85% efficient. the adiabatic steam turbine efficiency is 80%.air leaving the isobaric combustion chamber at 230 psia and 1500ºF. air leaving the precooler at 68ºF. the adiabatic compressor is 85% efficient. the adiabatic low-pressure turbine efficiency is 80%. rate of heat added. and cycle efficiency of the combined cycle.09%. air leaving the isobaric reheater at 50 psia. 697. steam leaving the isobaric heat exchangerer between the two cycles at 80 bar and 673. total power output. steam entering the isentropic pump at 3 psia as saturated liquid. The following information is provided: air entering the isobaric precooler at 1 bar.14 hp.1 kW.1725 kg/s. -419. A combined cycle made of two cycles. air leaving the isobaric reheater at 3 bar.2 kW. Determine the mass flow rate of steam in the Rankine cycle. 727. The upstream topping cycle is a reheated air Brayton closed cycle with a pre-cooler and the downstream bottom cycle is a steam Rankine cycle. 748. 60 Btu/s. steam leaving the isobaric heat exchangerer between the two cycles at 1000 psia and 700ºF.5 kW. the adiabatic compressor is 85% efficient. 350 K and 1 kg/s. A combined cycle made of two cycles. 85. the adiabatic low-pressure turbine efficiency is 80%. The following information is provided: air entering the isobaric precooler at 1 bar. ANSWER: 0. steam entering the isentropic pump at 0.2 kW.4 kW. the adiabatic low-pressure turbine efficiency is 85%. -419.16 bar as saturated liquid. total power input. air leaving the preheater at 293. A combined cycle made of two cycles. and cycle efficiency of the combined cycle. ANSWER: 0. the adiabatic highpressure turbine efficiency is 80%.air leaving the isobaric combustion chamber at 16 bar and 1100 K.02 hp. the adiabatic highpressure turbine efficiency is 85%.1776 kg/s. air leaving the preheater at 293.08%. 180ºF and 0. 41. 12. 346. the adiabatic steam turbine efficiency is 80%. the adiabatic steam turbine efficiency is 85%.2 kW. 350 K and 1 kg/s. total net power output. the adiabatic highpressure turbine efficiency is 80%.1 K. 35. 43. and cycle efficiency of the combined cycle. . 306. total power input. 11. total power output.2 lbm/s.1 K.16 bar as saturated liquid. The upstream topping cycle is a reheated air Brayton closed cycle with a pre-cooler and the downstream bottom cycle is a steam Rankine cycle.35%. 42. The following information is provided: air entering the isobaric preheater at 15 psia.1 K. 13.7 kW. -50.3 kW. 278. total power input. rate of heat added.

the adiabatic low-pressure turbine efficiency is 85%. 180ºF and 0. 11. total net power output. the adiabatic compressor is 85% efficient. steam leaving the isobaric heat exchangerer between the two cycles at 1000 psia and 700ºF.0241 lbm/s.09 hp. and the waste heat of the mid cycle is the heat added to the downstream bottom cycle. and cycle efficiency of the combined cycle. 39. rate of heat added. total power input. 74. ANSWER: 0. The power output is the sum of the output of the upstream topping cycle. is the mid cycle. A combined cycle made of two cycles.1. 17. The combined cycle is made of three sub-cycles. steam entering the isentropic pump at 3 psia as saturated liquid. 1-2-3-4-5. the adiabatic low-pressure turbine efficiency is 80%.48 Btu/s.51 hp. 78. The following information is provided: air entering the isobaric preheater at 15 psia. the output of the mid cycle.86%.09 hp. is the downstream bottom cycle. 41.air leaving the isobaric combustion chamber at 300 psia and 1200ºF. the adiabatic highpressure turbine efficiency is 85%.9%. Determine the mass flow rate of steam in the Rankine cycle. air leaving the isobaric reheater at 50 psia. Sub-cycle C. ANSWER: 0. 30. and Sub-cycle B. total power input.2 lbm/s. air leaving the precooler at 68ºF. A combined cycle made of two cycles. -57. Sub-cycle A. and the output of the downstream bottom cycle. TRIPLE CYCLE IN SERIES A cascaded cycle made of three cycles in series called triple cycle is shown schematically in Figure 11. total power output. A part of the waste heat of the upstream topping cycle is the heat added to the mid cycle. steam entering the isentropic pump at 3 psia as saturated liquid. 36. The upstream topping cycle is a reheated air Brayton closed cycle with a pre-cooler and the downstream bottom cycle is a steam Rankine cycle. 10-1112-13-10. 21. rate of heat added. 180ºF and 0. . Determine the mass flow rate of steam in the Rankine cycle. the adiabatic compressor is 85% efficient. steam leaving the isobaric heat exchangerer between the two cycles at 1000 psia and 700ºF.air leaving the isobaric combustion chamber at 300 psia and 1200ºF.26 hp.42 hp. is the upstream topping cycle.0251 lbm/s. the adiabatic highpressure turbine efficiency is 80%. The following information is provided: air entering the isobaric preheater at 15 psia. 6-7-8-9-6. The upstream topping cycle is a reheated air Brayton closed cycle with a pre-cooler and the downstream bottom cycle is a steam Rankine cycle. -57. air leaving the precooler at 68ºF. the adiabatic steam turbine efficiency is 80%. total net power output. and cycle efficiency of the combined cycle. the adiabatic steam turbine efficiency is 85%.08 Btu/s. 15.Combined Cycle and Co-Generation 489 14.2. air leaving the isobaric reheater at 50 psia. total power output.2 lbm/s.35 hp.2.

490 Chih Wu PDF to PDF C+ Disk Kashina Figure 11. the following efficiency expression is obtained. Q1.2.2. Referring to Figure 11.2.2.2. TH Q1 A Q2 B Q3 C Q4 TL W3 W2 W1 Figure 11. .2.W2 and W3 into Equation (11. Triple cycle in series energy flow diagram. we have η= (W1+W2+W3)/Q1 W1=ηAQ1 W2=ηBQ2 and W3=ηCQ3 (11.2) (11. The energy flow of the combined cycle is shown in Figure 11. The overall efficiency of the triple cycle is the total output work (W1+W2+W3) divided by the heat input.2.2.4) (11.2.2.2.1) (11.2.1. Triple cycle.1).3) Substituting W1.

net power produced by the steam Rankine plant. power produced by turbine #1. mdot1=1 kg/s. we take the following steps: 1. Analysis (A) Assume a process each for the devices: (a) pumps as adiabatic with 100% efficiency.2.3 kPa. T5=450ºC. Determine the power required by the compressor. mass rate flow of R-12 in the Rankine R-12 plant.1a.2. Example 11. cycle efficiency of the steam Rankine plant. p1=101.Combined Cycle and Co-Generation η=1-(1-ηA)(1-ηB)(1-ηc) 491 (11. power required by pump #1 and #2.1. x10=0. and coolers as isobaric.2.3 kPa. T1=15ºC.2. and cycle efficiency of the triple plant.1 depicts a triple cycle in which an open air Brayton plant releases heat to a recovery steam generator. and ηcompressor=ηturbine=ηpump=100%. PDF to PDF C+ Disk Kashina Figure E11. (c) heat exchanger as isobaric on both cold-side and hot-side. . Build as shown in Figure 11. A numerical example is given in the following to illustrate the cycle analysis of the triple cycle in series. The data given below correspond approximately to the design conditions for the triple plant. p2=8 p1. p8=2000 kPa. mass rate flow of steam in the Rankine steam plant. rate of heat exchanged in the heat exchanger #1. rate of heat added to the Brayton cycle. which supplies heat to a Rankine steam plant. x12=1. power produced by turbine #2. Input information. p6=20 kPa.1.5) The triple cycle efficiency therefore may be substantially greater than the cycle efficiency of any of its components operating alone. p10=500 kPa. which supplies heat to a Rankine R-12 plant. produced by turbine #3. p12=900 kPa. p4=101.2. x6=0. rate of heat added to the R-12 Rankine plant. T7=60. T10=400ºC. cycle efficiency of the Brayton plant. To solve this problem with CyclePad. T3=1200ºC. T8=400ºC. and (d) heater.1 ºC. net power produced by the Brayton gas-turbine plant. mass rate flow of air in the Brayton cycle. Figure 11. cycle efficiency of the R-12 Rankine plant. 2. The Rankine steam plant releases heat to a recovery R-12 generator. (b) turbines as adiabatic with 100% efficiency.

Triple Cycle in Series 1. p8=2000 kPa.3 kPa. net power output. QdotHTR #1=954. Wdotturbine#2=27. T7=60. 312. Output information.3 kPa. Redo Example 11. and ηcompressor=ηturbine=83% and ηpump=100%.1 kW. rate of heat added.0 kW. x12=1. T8=400ºC.2. 906.3 kPa.1a: (a) working fluid of cycle A is air.2.07 kW. and cycle efficiency of the triple cycle. x10=0. ηBrayton=44. x6=0. net power output.0 kW. Wdotnet R12 Rankine=3. T3=1200ºC.0302 kg/s. p2=8 p1.3 kW. ANSWER: -285. p4=101.8 kW. 35. which supplies heat to a Rankine steam plant. 2. and cycle efficiency of the triple cycle. 323.2. Qdotcooler#1=-59. T7=60. 864. Wdotturbine#3=4.1 ºC. Figure 11.8 kW. p12=900 kPa. Wdotpump #1=-0. Find the power input. Figure E11. ηsteam Rankine=29. T1=15ºC.8 %. ηR12 Rankine=5. power output.492 Chih Wu (B) Input the given information as shown in Figure E11. Wdotnet triple=458. x10=0.40 kW.2.93 kW. power output. which supplies heat to a Rankine R-12 plant.32 kW. and working fluid of cycle C is water. p1=101.8 kW.2 kW. 608. mdot1=1 kg/s. x12=1. Wdotnet steam Rankine=27.2.4 kW. ANSWER: -326. T5=450ºC. mdotR12=0. 638. T10=400ºC. mdotsteam=0.6 kW. x6=0. and mdot1=1 kg/s. Display result The answers shown in Figure E11. rate of heat added. p10=500 kPa.99 %. and ηtriple=47.38 %.1b are: Wdotcompressor #1=-234.0609 kW. p2=10 p1.4 kW. T5=450ºC. p12=900 kPa. T8=400ºC.9171 kW. Wdotnet Brayton=427.72%.Wdotpump #2=-0.12%.1b.4237 kg/s.1 depicts a triple cycle in which an open air Brayton plant releases heat to a recovery steam generator. The Rankine steam plant releases heat to a recovery R-12 generator. p4=101. Homework 11. Find the power input.1 with ηcompressor=ηturbine=83% and ηpump=100%. . The data given below correspond approximately to the design conditions for the triple plant. Wdotturbine#1=662. p8=2000 kPa. p6=20 kPa. working fluid of cycle B is R-12. 3. p6=20 kPa.4 kW. 36.1 ºC.94 %.13 kW.2. T1=15ºC. T10=400ºC.5 kW. T3=1200ºC. p10=500 kPa.3 kPa. (b) p1=101.

and ηcompressor=ηturbine=85% and ηpump=100%. power output. 37. Figure 11. p8=2000 kPa. T3=1200ºC. T5=450ºC. 2062 Btu/s.96%. p8=2000 kPa. T10=400ºC.7 psia. 331. p6=20 kPa. T5=450ºC. The data given below correspond approximately to the design conditions for the triple plant. . 35. x6=0.2.3 kW. which supplies heat to a Rankine R-12 plant. 35. which supplies heat to a Rankine steam plant.1 depicts a triple cycle in which an open helium Brayton plant releases heat to a recovery steam generator.3 kPa. ANSWER: -2665 kW. ANSWER: -318. power output. x10=0. 1035 hp.47%. p2=10 p1. ANSWER: -2437 hp. p4=101. x10=0.2 kW. p8=2000 kPa.3 kPa. Find the power input.62%.5 kW. which supplies heat to a Rankine steam plant. p1=101. mdot1=1 kg/s. rate of heat added. p12=900 kPa. x10=0. T10=400ºC. p10=500 kPa. net power output.3 kPa. mdot1=1 kg/s. 5. x12=1. net power output. p4=101. p1=101. 1236 kW.2.Combined Cycle and Co-Generation 493 3. p10=500 kPa. Figure 11.62%.3 kPa. The Rankine steam plant releases heat to a recovery R-12 generator. p1=14. which supplies heat to a Rankine steam plant. p10=70 psia. T3=2100ºF.2. The data given below correspond approximately to the design conditions for the triple plant.1 depicts a triple cycle in which an open helium Brayton plant releases heat to a recovery steam generator. and cycle efficiency of the triple cycle. x6=0. 3472 hp.2. and ηcompressor=ηturbine=85% and ηpump=100%. rate of heat added. x10=0. The data given below correspond approximately to the design conditions for the triple plant. x12=1.1 depicts a triple cycle in which an open helium Brayton plant releases heat to a recovery steam generator. p2=10 p1. x6=0. and cycle efficiency of the triple cycle. rate of heat added. 35. which supplies heat to a Rankine R-12 plant. T8=400ºC. x12=1.5 kW.3 kPa. T3=1200ºC. The Rankine steam plant releases heat to a recovery ammonia generator. p6=20 kPa.1 depicts a triple cycle in which an open helium Brayton plant releases heat to a recovery steam generator. Figure 11. T8=400ºC. T1=15ºC. T10=400ºC.5 lbm/s. p10=500 kPa. 3901 kW. x12=1. mdot1=1 kg/s. T7=60. p1=101. 6. which supplies heat to a Rankine steam plant. T1=15ºC. Find the power input. ANSWER: -2665 kW.1 depicts a triple cycle in which an open air Brayton plant releases heat to a recovery steam generator. Find the power input. 3469 kW. x6=0. Find the power input. T1=15ºC. p12=900 kPa. p2=10 p1. T8=400ºC. which supplies heat to a Rankine ammonia plant. which supplies heat to a Rankine steam plant. p6=3 psia. 872.3 kPa. p4=101. 1236 kW. and cycle efficiency of the triple cycle. net power output. T5=450ºC. 4. and cycle efficiency of the triple cycle.7 psia. 7. 649. rate of heat added. mdot1=1. 3901 kW. p6=20 kPa. T3=1200ºC. The data given below correspond approximately to the design conditions for the triple plant. p2=10 p1. power output. p12=130 psia. and ηcompressor=ηturbine=85% and ηpump=100%. and ηcompressor=ηturbine=85% and ηpump=100%. p8=300 psia. T7=60. power output. p12=900 kPa. T8=720ºF. p4=14. Figure 11. The Rankine steam plant releases heat to a recovery R-12 generator. T5=750ºF.2. which supplies heat to a Rankine ammonia plant.1 ºC.1 ºC. T1=60ºF. net power output. 3469 kW.1 ºC. Figure 11. T7=60. The Rankine steam plant releases heat to a recovery ammonia generator.

7 psia. The power output is the sum of the output of Subcycle A. Sub-cycle B. is the upstream topping open gas turbine cycle. p6=3 psia. x12=1. Q1.A+Wnet.3.494 Chih Wu The Rankine steam plant releases heat to a recovery ammonia generator. Sub-cycle C.1) Figure 11.B+WNet. T5=750ºF.C)/Q1 (11. . rate of heat added.70%. p8=300 psia. and cycle efficiency of the triple cycle. and Sub-cycle C. 7-8-9-10-7 and Sub-cycle B. Triple cycle in parallel. TRIPLE CYCLE IN PARALLEL A cycle made of three cycles in parallel is shown schematically in Figure 11. p10=70 psia. A part of the waste heat of the upstream topping cycle is the heat added to the Sub-cycle C. T8=720ºF. 3403 hp. The triple cycle is made of three sub-cycles.C) divided by the heat input added to the heater in the gas turbine cycle. net power output. mdot1=1. p4=14. A numerical example is given in the following to illustrate the cycle analysis of the triple cycle in parallel.3. Sub-cycle A. p2=9 p1. 11-12-13-14-11. 36. power output. The data given below correspond approximately to the design conditions for the triple plant. and ηcompressor=ηturbine=85% and ηpump=100%.5 lbm/s. p12=130 psia. which supplies heat to a Rankine ammonia plant.1. The overall efficiency of the triple cycle in parallel is the total output work (Wnet.A+Wnet. and another part of the waste heat of the upstream topping cycle is the heat added to the Sub-cycle B. 1132 hp. Find the power input.3. 11. ANSWER: -2271 hp. T1=60ºF.7 psia.3. p1=14. x10=0.B+WNet. η=(Wnet. are the downstream parallel bottom cycles.1. T3=2100ºF. x6=0. The triple cycle efficiency therefore may be substantially greater than the cycle efficiency of any of its components operating alone. 1-2-3-4-5-6. 2180 Btu/s.

net power produced by the steam Rankine plant. T1=15ºC. working fluid of cycle B is R-12. p11=500 kPa.1. To solve this problem with CyclePad. cycle efficiency of the R-12 Rankine plant. (b) p1=101. (B) Input the given information as shown in Figure E11. and another part of its waste heat to a recovery R-12 generator.3 kPa. mass rate flow of air in the Brayton cycle. x7=0.3.3 kPa. rate of heat added to the Brayton cycle. p4=101. p4=101. p13=900 kPa. p9=2000 kPa. x11=0. power produced by turbine #2. net power produced by the Brayton gas-turbine plant. mdot1=1 kg/s. which supplies heat to a Rankine steam plant. T5=450ºC.3 kPa. mass rate flow of R-12 in the Rankine R-12 plant. Determine the power required by the compressor. T1=15ºC.1a. which supplies heat to a Rankine R-12 plant. power produced by turbine #1. mass rate flow of steam in the Rankine steam plant. p7=20 kPa. Build as shown in Figure 11. (c) heat exchanger as isobaric on both cold-side and hot-side.1. T5=450ºC. (b) turbines as adiabatic with 100% efficiency. T9=400ºC. cycle efficiency of the Brayton plant. Input information. rate of heat added to the R-12 Rankine plant. and working fluid of cycle C is water.1a: (a) working fluid of cycle A is air. mdot1=1 kg/s. and coolers as isobaric. 2. T6=40ºC. x7=0. T3=1200ºC. rate of heat exchanged in the heat exchanger #1. p2=8 p1. An open Brayton plant releases a part of its waste heat to a recovery steam generator. Analysis (A) Assume a process each for the devices: (a) pumps as adiabatic with 100% efficiency. produced by turbine #3. power required by pump #1 and #2.Combined Cycle and Co-Generation 495 Example 11. cycle efficiency of the steam Rankine plant. T9=400ºC. p7=20 kPa. T3=1200ºC. and cycle efficiency of the triple plant. and ηcompressor=ηturbine=ηpump=100%. .3. p13=900 kPa. The data given below correspond approximately to the design conditions for a triple plant in parallel. p2=8 p1. Figure E11. we take the following steps: 1.3 kPa. x13=1. p11=500 kPa.3. and (d) heater. x11=0. p9=2000 kPa. p1=101.3. T6=40ºC. x13=1. and mdot1=1 kg/s.

Redo Example 11. rate of heat added. and another part of its waste heat to a recovery R-12 generator.3 kPa.4 kW.6 kW.2 kW. p9=2000 kPa.496 Chih Wu 3.0302 kg/s. Wdotnet R12 Rankine=22.12 kW.8 kW. QdotHTR #1=954. net power output. and ηtriple=49. rate of heat added. 663. Display result The answers shown in Figure E11. ηsteam Rankine=29. ANSWER: -266.3. and cycle efficiency of the triple cycle. p2=10 p1. T3=1200ºC. 44.3 kPa. An open Brayton plant releases a part of its waste heat to a recovery steam generator.6 kW. and another part of its waste heat to a recovery ammonia generator. ANSWER: -305.07 kW. mdotsteam=0. 890. ηcompressor=ηturbine=90%. x11=0. Triple Cycle in Parallel 1.96 kW. mdotR12=2.5 kW.5 kW.75 kg/s. 396. p11=500 kPa.6 kW. Homework 11. p1=101. T1=15ºC. Figure E11.74%. T5=450ºC. Qdotcooler#1=-63.7 kW.33 kW. x7=0. which supplies heat to a Rankine steam plant. mdot1=1 kg/s. Find the power input. 3.3. and cycle efficiency of the triple cycle. power output. which supplies heat to a Rankine steam plant.Wdotpump #2=-5. Wdotnet Brayton=427.13 kW. 42. . Wdotturbine#2=27. ηR12 Rankine=5. p4=101. The data given below correspond approximately to the design conditions for a triple plant in parallel. Wdotturbine#1=662. T9=400ºC.1b are: Wdotcompressor #1=-234.3. power output. x13=1.07 kW.0609 kW. p13=900 kPa.1 with ηcompressor=ηturbine=90% and ηpump=100%.94 %. Wdotnet steam Rankine=27.8 %.4 kW. which supplies heat to a Rankine R-12 plant. T6=40ºC. Wdotturbine#3=28. Output information. 696. Wdotpump #1=-0. Determine the power input. and ηpump=100%.3.95 %.1b. 2. p7=20 kPa. ηBrayton=44. The data given below correspond approximately to the design conditions for a triple plant in parallel. An open Brayton plant releases a part of its waste heat to a recovery steam generator. 928. 391. net power output.6 kW.7 kW.0 kW.38 %. which supplies heat to a Rankine ammonia plant.00%. Wdotnet triple=476.

T1=15ºC. p13=130 psia. p4=14. T3=1200ºC. x7=0. which supplies heat to a Rankine R-12 plant. and ηpump=100%. 242. p11=500 kPa. p2=10 p1.8 kW. T1=60ºF. p1=14. p13=130 psia. mdot1=1. An open Brayton plant releases a part of its waste heat to a recovery steam generator. net power output. mdot1=1. p1=14. Determine the power input. mdot1=1 kg/s. T3=2000ºF. T6=40ºC. net power output. p9=300 psia. power output. 41.93%.53%. T5=850ºF. A cascade cycle must be used to gain maximum . and cycle efficiency of the triple cycle. 41.0 hp. An open Brayton plant releases a part of its waste heat to a recovery steam generator. and another part of its waste heat to a recovery ammonia generator.8 kW.9 Btu/s.3 hp. 403. p4=101. x13=1. x11=0. T5=450ºC. T3=2000ºF. 41. 890. p9=2000 kPa. T9=750ºF. and cycle efficiency of the triple cycle. net power output. The data given below correspond approximately to the design conditions for a triple plant in parallel.7 kPa. T1=60ºF. Determine the power input. T5=850ºF.2 lbm/s.8 hp. which supplies heat to a Rankine R-12 plant. An open Brayton plant releases a part of its waste heat to a recovery steam generator. p2=10 p1. p4=14. rate of heat added. T1=60ºF. and another part of its waste heat to a recovery R-12 generator. 391.7 kPa. Determine the power input. p11=70 psia. rate of heat added. 692. ANSWER: -209. rate of heat added.7 kPa. which supplies heat to a Rankine steam plant.7 psia. x13=1. ηcompressor=ηturbine=90%.4 Btu/s. and another part of its waste heat to a recovery R-12 generator.6 hp. and cycle efficiency of the triple cycle. CASCADED CYCLE There are applications when the temperature difference between the heat source and the heat sink is quite large.0 kW.Combined Cycle and Co-Generation 497 p1=101.7 hp.2 lbm/s. p11=70 psia.1 hp. which supplies heat to a Rankine steam plant.0 kW. x7=0. 452. 43. x7=0. ηcompressor=ηturbine=90%. 239.4. x7=0. ηcompressor=ηturbine=90%. 462. ANSWER: -301. x13=1. A single power cycle usually can not be used to utilize the full range of the available temperature difference. 403. T9=750ºF.88%.2 lbm/s. 5. and cycle efficiency of the triple cycle. net power output. T6=110ºF. and ηpump=100%. 11. ηcompressor=ηturbine=90%.97%. power output. Determine the power input. 459. p2=10 p1. ANSWER: -220.7 psia. T5=850ºF.8 hp. p7=3 psia. T9=750ºF.7 psia. power output.6 hp. power output. x11=0. p7=20 kPa.3 kPa. which supplies heat to a Rankine ammonia plant. ANSWER: -223. p11=70 psia. x11=0. The data given below correspond approximately to the design conditions for a triple plant in parallel. 239. and ηpump=100%. T6=110ºF.4 Btu/s. p2=9 p1. T3=2000ºF. p13=130 psia. p13=900 kPa. x13=1. 6. p1=14. rate of heat added. p7=3 psia. p4=14.7 hp. T9=400ºC. p9=300 psia. mdot1=1.3 kPa. x11=0. and ηpump=100%. p9=300 psia. which supplies heat to a Rankine steam plant. p7=3 psia. 412. The data given below correspond approximately to the design conditions for a triple plant in parallel. 4. T6=110ºF.

..1) (11.. . Referring to Figure 11.2.4.. Cascade cycle with n=3.4. Q1.2) (11..... A cascade cycle is several (n) power cycles connecting in series or in parallel.4.+WN)/Q1 W1=ηAQ1 W2=ηBQ2 .+WN) divided by the heat input. CMP3 S1 HTR1 S2 TUR1 S3 HX1 S6 S4 CMP1 S10 TUR2 S8 S9 CLR1 S12 S7 S11 S5 HX2 PMP1 TUR3 Figure 11.. The cooler of the highest-temperature cycle (cycle A) provides the heat input to the heater of the second-highest-temperature cycle (cycle B). Cascade cycle energy flow diagram.4. we have η= (W1+W2+.1.1. (11..... A cascade cycle of three cycles in series is shown in Figure 11..3) Figure 11. The energy flow diagram of n cycles in series cascade cycle is illustrated in Figure 11..498 Chih Wu possible efficiency from the primary heat source. . and the cooler of the next-tothe-lowest-temperature cycle provides the heat input to the heater of the lowest-temperature cycle (cycle N).4..4.4.4. The overall efficiency of the cascaded cycle is the total output work (W1+W2+.2....2..

and WN into Equation (11.Combined Cycle and Co-Generation and WN=ηNQn 499 (11.. Another arrangement of the Brayton/Rankine cycle which is a combination of a two-stage reheat Brayton cycle and a two-stage reheat Rankine cycle is shown in Figure 11. the following efficiency expression is obtained..4) Substituting W1. a substantial cycle efficiency increase is possible.1. the exhaust gases of the gas turbine cycle with a temperature of 500ºC could be used for the boiler heat the boiler heat input.4. Build a cascaded cycle in parallel with n=5 using CyclePad.1). ηcascaded=1-(1-η1)(1-η2). One arrangement of the Brayton/Rankine cycle which is a combination of a two-stage reheat Brayton cycle and a two-stage reheat Rankine cycle is shown in Figure 11. 2. For example. Improvement on cycle efficiency can be achieved by using the hot exhaust waste heat of a high-temperature cycle to either partially or totally power a low-temperature cycle.4..(1-ηN) (11.2. . 11.. Cascaded Cycle 1..5.5. The cascaded cycle efficiency therefore may be substantially greater than the cycle efficiency of any of its components operating alone. modifications of both the Brayton and Rankine cycles could also be included.5. BRAYTON/RANKINE COMBINED CYCLE Advances in combined cycle power plant focus on high temperature gas turbine cycle combined with steam vapor cycle. Build a cascaded cycle in series with n=5 using CyclePad. since the boiler temperature of the basic Rankine cycle is about 500ºC.4.4. . Homework 11. In general. Since the net work output is equal to the sum of the two outputs and the heat input is that of the topping cycle alone.5) where ηcascaded is the efficiency of a cascaded cycle with n-component cycles. The topping cycle is an open gas turbine cycle.W2.

1) uses water as the working fluid with 1 kg/s mass flow rate through the Rankine cycle. air enters from the atmospheric source to an isentropic compressor at 20ºC and 100 kPa (T7 and p7). Example 11. Plot the sensitivity diagram of η (cycle efficiency) vs p11 (pressure at state 11). thermodynamic efficiency and the net power output of the Brayton/Rankine combined plant. air enters an isobaric regenerator and leaves at 500ºC (T13). the re-heater pressure is 5000 kPa (p4). Figure 11. . and air as the working fluid in the Brayton cycle. A Brayton/Rankine cycle (Fig.1. the boiler pressure is 8000 kPa (p2).11. Determine the mass rate flow of air through the Brayton cycle. Air enters a low pressure isentropic turbine and leaves at 100 kPa (p12).5. In the Brayton cycle. (Two-stage-Brayton)/(Two-stage-Rankine) combined cycle. Brayton/Rankine combined cycle.2. the condenser pressure is 15 kPa (p1).1.500 Chih Wu Figure 11. and air is discharged to the atmospheric sink.5. air enters a high pressure isentropic turbine and leaves at 600 kPa ( p11).5. In the Rankine cycle. air enters an isobaric heater (combustion chamber) and leaves at 1800ºC (T9). and leaves at 1000 kPa (p8). the super-heater and re-heater temperature (T3 and T5) are both 400ºC.5.

.1. Qdot in=13380 kW. p9=1000 kPa.5. p5=5000 kPa. The answers shown in Figure E11.5. x1=0. (D) Display sensitivity diagram of η (cycle efficiency) vs p11(pressure at state 11) as shown in Figure E11. To solve this problem by CyclePad. cooler and regenerator are isobaric. T11=1600ºC.79%.Combined Cycle and Co-Generation 501 Figure E11. power output=8575 kW.5. p12=100 kPa. net power output=1157 kW. mdot=1 kg/s. Brayton/Rankine combined cycle. and the heater.28 kg/s.1b. Qdot in=3084 kW. mdot=8. power output=9740 kW. Figure E11. net power output=6308 kW. we do the following steps: (A) Build the cycle as shown in Figure 11. (2) Cycle B: η=47. Qdot in=13200 kW. T9=1800ºC. turbines and pump are adiabatic and isentropic. T5=400ºC.79%. power input=-8. p1=15 kPa.5.1a are: (1) Cycle A: η=37. p11=600 kPa.5. and T13=500ºC. (C) Display results.1b. power output=1165 kW. power input=-2275 kW. T7=20ºC. T3=400ºC. p3=8000 kPa. and (3) combined Cycle: η=55. Assuming the compressor.12 kW.1a. p7=100 kPa. power input=-2267 kW. net power output=7465 kW. (B) Input working fluid=air. Brayton/Rankine combined cycle.52%.

A Brayton/Rankine cycle (Fig. net power output=5908 kW.12 kW. Air enters a low pressure isentropic turbine and leaves at 100 kPa (p12). thermodynamic efficiency and the net power output of the Brayton/Rankine combined plant. Qdot in=3084 kW. power output=1165 kW. What is the heat source for the Rankine cycle in the combined Brayton/Rankine cycle? 3. air enters an isobaric heater (combustion chamber) and leaves at 1800ºC (T9). the boiler pressure is 8000 kPa (p2). (2) Cycle B: η=46. power output=6678 kW. Qdot in=12980 kW. mdot=6. Qdot in=9596 kW.43%. net power output=7065 kW. mdot=8. 5. air enters from the atmospheric source to an isentropic compressor at 20ºC and 100 kPa (T7 and p7). A Brayton/Rankine cycle (Fig. and air as the working fluid in the Brayton cycle.1) uses water as the working fluid with 1 kg/s mass rate of flow through the Rankine cycle. power output=1165 kW. air enters an isobaric heater (combustion chamber) and leaves at 1800ºC (T9). power output=5513 kW. power input=-8.26 kg/s. Determine the mass rate flow of air through the Brayton cycle. 6. power input=2675 kW. power output=9740 kW. and (3) combined Cycle: η=54. Why is the combined Brayton/Rankine cycle more efficient than either of the cycles operating alone? 4. air enters from the atmospheric source to an isentropic compressor at 20ºC and 100 kPa (T7 and p7). Brayton/Rankine Combined Cycle 1. 11.12%.52%. and air is discharged to the atmospheric sink.5. and air as the working fluid in the . power input=-2017 kW. the super-heater and reheater temperature (T3 and T5) are both 400ºC.52%. In the Brayton cycle. power input=2025 kW. and air is discharged to the atmospheric sink. the condenser pressure is 15 kPa (p1). the thermodynamic efficiency and the net power output of the Brayton/Rankine combined plant.5. net power output=3496 kW.5.16%.502 Chih Wu Homework 11. power output=8575 kW.5. In the Rankine cycle. Assume the gas turbines and compressor efficiency are 85%. A Brayton/Rankine cycle (Fig. and air as the working fluid in the Brayton cycle. (2) Cycle B: η=37. 11. ANSWER: (1) Cycle A: η=37. and leaves at 1000 kPa (p8). power input=-2667 kW. the reheater pressure is 5000 kPa (p4). Determine the mass flow rate of air through the Brayton cycle. air enters an isobaric regenerator and leaves at 500ºC (T13). Assume the compressor efficiency is 85%. Qdot in=12800 kW. Qdot in=9416 kW. air enters a high pressure isentropic turbine and leaves at 600 kPa ( p11). In the Brayton cycle. 11. air enters a high pressure isentropic turbine and leaves at 600 kPa ( p11). net power output=1157 kW. What is a combined Brayton/Rankine cycle? What is its purpose? 2. In the Rankine cycle. Qdot in=3084 kW.1) uses water as the working fluid with 1 kg/s mass flow rate through the Rankine cycle. net power output=1157 kW. and (3) combined Cycle: η=48. and leaves at 1000 kPa (p8). the boiler pressure is 8000 kPa (p2).28 kg/s.48%. the reheater pressure is 5000 kPa (p4). the super-heater and reheater temperature (T3 and T5) are both 400ºC. net power output=4653 kW. Air enters a low pressure isentropic turbine and leaves at 100 kPa (p12). power input=-8. air enters an isobaric regenerator and leaves at 500ºC (T13). the condenser pressure is 15 kPa (p1).1) uses water as the working fluid with 1 kg/s of mass flow rate through the Rankine cycle. ANSWER: (1) Cycle A: η=37.12 kW.

In the Brayton cycle. an air turbine is used to convert the split-shaft turbine exhaust heat from the top cycle. (2) Cycle B: η=37. produces power. A Brayton/Brayton combined cycle is shown in Figure 11. Performance analysis of gas turbine airbottoming combined system.12%. the condenser pressure is 15 kPa (p1).3 kW.12 kW. thermodynamic efficiency and the net power output of the Brayton/Rankine combined plant. net power output=982.1. One of the technologies adopted nowadays for efficiency improvement is the utilization of Brayton/Brayton combined cycles (Reference: Y. Qdot in=9416 kW. air enters a high pressure isentropic turbine and leaves at 600 kPa ( p11). air enters an isobaric regenerator and leaves at 500ºC (T13). Assume all turbine and compressor efficiencies are 85%. net power output=3496 kW. However. In this system.6. and (3) combined Cycle: η=46. the re-heater pressure is 5000 kPa (p4). which does not deteriorate at part load as happens with the basic Brayton gas turbine engine. BRAYTON/BRAYTON COMBINED CYCLE The Brayton gas turbine engine has low capital cost compared with steam power plants. Qdot in=3066 kW.2 kW. 37(4). mdot=6. The combined system is expected to be simpler and much less expensive to build. ANSWER: (1) Cycle A: η=32. power output=5513 kW.S. 11. Air.26 kg/s. Three inter-cooled compressor stages are used to reduce the compressor work and the temperature of the air delivered to an air-to-gas heat exchanger.Combined Cycle and Co-Generation 503 Brayton cycle. air enters from the atmospheric source to an isentropic compressor at 20ºC and 100 kPa (T7 and p7). is then delivered to the air turbine which. 399-403.75%. net power output=4478 kW. power input=-8. power input=-2017 kW. operate and maintain than the Brayton/Rankine combined system.04%. Determine the mass flow rate of air through the Brayton cycle. power output=990.6. Qdot in=9578 kW. heated by the exhaust gas. Air enters a low pressure isentropic turbine and leaves at 100 kPa (p12). the boiler pressure is 8000 kPa (p2). power input=2025 kW. in turn. Air-bottoming cycle instead of steam-bottoming reduces the cost of hardware installations and could achieve a thermal efficiency of about 49%. Zaamout. 1996).S. . In the Rankine cycle. the super-heater and re-heater temperature (T3 and T5) are both 400ºC. conventional industrial Brayton gas turbine engines have lower efficiencies. power output=6503 kW. It has environmental advantages and short construction lead time.H. and air is discharged to the atmospheric sink. air enters an isobaric heater (combustion chamber) and leaves at 1800ºC (T9). Energy Conversion and Management. Najjar and M. and leaves at 1000 kPa (p8).

power net output of the topping cycle. power net output of the bottom cycle. air goes through a high pressure isentropic turbine (tur1) and a low pressure isentropic turbine (tur2). power input to the bottom cycle. power produced by the topping-cycle turbines.6. and leaves at 200 kPa (p2). rate of heat removed from the combined cycle. air leaves another isentropic compressor (Cmp4) at 800 kPa (p12). rate of heat removed from the topping cycle. and air as the working fluid in the bottom Brayton cycle. and leaves at 1000 kPa (p2). and air at 473 K and 100 kPa (T14 and p14) is discharged to the atmospheric sink. power net output of the combined cycle. and rate of heat removed from bottom the cycle. air enters an isobaric inter-cooler (Clr1) and leaves at 290 K (T9). To solve this problem by CyclePad. power output by the combined cycle.504 Chih Wu Figure 11. rate of heat added to the topping cycle. thermal efficiency of the combined cycle. power input to the topping cycle. thermal efficiency of the topping cycle. air enters an isobaric inter-cooler (Clr2) and leaves at 290 K (T11). A Brayton/Brayton cycle (Fig.1.6. rate of heat added to the combined cycle. and air is discharged to the atmospheric sink.6.1. air enters an isobaric heat exchanger and leaves at 700 K (T6) and 100 kPa (p6). Brayton/Brayton combined cycle. Example 11.1) uses air as the working fluid with 1 kg/s mass flow rate through the top Brayton split-shaft turbine cycle. Determine the pressure and temperature of each state. power output by the topping cycle. air at a mass flow rate of 1 kg/s enters from the atmospheric source to an isentropic compressor at 290 K and 100 kPa (T1 and p1). air leaves an isentropic compressor (Cmp3) at 400 kPa (p10). rate of heat added to the bottom cycle. power required by the toppingcycle compressor. In the top-Brayton cycle. air at a mass flow rate of 0.12 kg/s enters from the atmospheric source to an isentropic compressor (Cmp2) at 290 K and 100 kPa (T7 and p7). power output by the bottom cycle. we do the following steps: . 11. air enters an isobaric heater (combustion chamber) and leaves at 1400 K (T3). thermal efficiency of the bottom cycle. In the bottom-Brayton cycle. power input to the combined cycle.

p1=100 kPa. p11=400 kPa.Combined Cycle and Co-Generation 505 (A) Build the cycle as shown in Figure 11.1.6 kPa. (2) ηcomb=49. T6=700 K.5 K.1a. p12=800 kPa. p6=100 kPa. mdot=1 kg/s. T10=353. T13=562. (Qdot in)comb=843. coolers and heat exchanger are isobaric. p10=400 kPa. p2=1000 kPa.1 K. (net power output)top=406.9 K. T9=290 K. Brayton/Brayton combined cycle result. p7=100 kPa.5 kW. ηbot=29.21%. T8=353. (Qdot out)top=25.0 kW. (net power output)comb=413.4 kW.8 kW as shown in Figure E11. p12=800 kPa.42 kW. p14=100 kPa. T3=1400 K. and Wdotcmp1=270. T1=290 K.2 kW.9 K.8 kW and input Wdottur1=270. and the heater. (power output)bot=30. T12=353.43%. . T14=310.21 kW.5 K. (power output)top=677. p9=200 kPa. (C) Display results.1a. Assuming the compressors and turbines are adiabatic and isentropic. p8=200 kPa. p14=100 kPa. T5=725. p2=1000 kPa. T11=290 K. and (Qdot out)bot=-15. The answers are: (1) p1=100 kPa. and T14=473 K. T11=290 K.3 kW as shown in Figure E11.6.8 kW. (Qdot out)comb=-15. T2=559. (Qdot in)bot=25.94 kW.3 kW. Read Wdotcmp1=-270.8 kW. (net power output)bot=7. ηtop=48. Figure E11.6. T1=290 K. T9=290 K. (Qdot in)top=843. p7=100 kPa.2 kW. (B) Input working fluid=air.1a and b. (power output)comb=707. T7=290 K. p4=472. p5=100 kPa.21 kW.5 K. T3=1400 K. p11=400 kPa.36 kW.6. p13=800 kPa. (power input)top=-270. T6=700 K.8 kW. p3=1000 kPa.6. T4=1130 K. p6=100 kPa. (power input)bot=-22.0 kW. (power input)comb=-293. T7=290 K. p9=100 kPa.7 K.09%.

air enters an isobaric heat exchanger and leaves at 700 K (T6) and 100 kPa (p6). air leaves another adiabatic compressor (Cmp4) at 800 kPa (p12).59%. air at a mass flow rate of 1 kg/s enters from the atmospheric source to an adiabatic compressor at 290 K and 100 kPa (T1 and p1).1 kW. net power output. 795.6.506 Chih Wu Figure E11. air enters an isobaric inter-cooler (Clr2) and leaves at 290 K (T11).6. air enters an isobaric heater (combustion chamber) and leaves at 1400 K (T3).1) uses air as the working fluid with 1 kg/s mass flow rate through the top Brayton split-shaft turbine cycle. and air as the working fluid in the bottom Brayton cycle. air goes through a high pressure isentropic turbine (tur1) and a low pressure isentropic turbine (tur2). and leaves at 1000 kPa (p2).6. Brayton/Brayton Combined Cycle 1. air leaves an adiabatic compressor (Cmp3) at 400 kPa (p10). A Brayton/Brayton cycle (Fig. and leaves at 1000 kPa (p2). and air is discharged to the atmospheric sink. What are the advantages of a combined Brayton/Brayton cycle? 2.6. Let ηcompressor=85%. 362. . 11.12 kg/s enters from the atmospheric source to an adiabatic compressor (Cmp2) at 290 K and 100 kPa (T7 and p7). and leaves at 200 kPa (p2).2 kW. rate of heat added. 3. In the top-Brayton cycle. 45. 11. ANSWER: -345.6 kW. and air as the working fluid in the bottom Brayton cycle. air goes through a high pressure isentropic turbine (tur1) and a low pressure isentropic turbine (tur2).5 kW. A Brayton/Brayton cycle (Fig. and air at 473 K and 100 kPa (T14 and p14) is discharged to the atmospheric sink. air enters an isobaric inter-cooler (Clr1) and leaves at 290 K (T9). In the bottom-Brayton cycle. Homework 11. and air is discharged to the atmospheric sink. power output. and cycle efficiency of the triple cycle. Determine the power input. air enters an isobaric heat exchanger and leaves at 700 K (T6) and 100 kPa (p6). air at a mass flow rate of 0. air enters an isobaric heater (combustion chamber) and leaves at 1400 K (T3). 708. air at a mass flow rate of 1 kg/s enters from the atmospheric source to an adiabatic compressor at 290 K and 100 kPa (T1 and p1).1b. In the top-Brayton cycle.1) uses air as the working fluid with 1 kg/s mass flow rate through the top Brayton split-shaft turbine cycle. Brayton/Brayton combined cycle result.

air leaves an adiabatic compressor (Cmp3) at 400 kPa (p10).3 kW. 11. and leaves at 200 kPa (p2). power output.1 kW.5 kW. and air as the working fluid in the bottom Brayton cycle. In the bottom-Brayton cycle. and leaves at 30 psia (p2). power output. net power output. 45. 4. air leaves another adiabatic compressor (Cmp4) at 120 psia (p12). air at a mass flow rate of 2. and air as the working fluid in the bottom Brayton cycle. ANSWER: -376. A Brayton/Brayton cycle (Fig.2 lbm/s enters from the atmospheric source to an adiabatic compressor (Cmp2) at 520 R and 14. air at a mass flow rate of 0. air leaves an adiabatic compressor (Cmp3) at 60 psia (p10). air at a mass flow rate of 0. In the top-Brayton cycle. air enters an isobaric inter-cooler (Clr1) and leaves at 290 K (T9). and air at 473 K and 100 kPa (T14 and p14) is discharged to the atmospheric sink. Let ηcompressor=85%.2 kW. 725.5 lbm/s mass flow rate through the top Brayton split-shaft turbine cycle. air goes through a high pressure isentropic turbine (tur1) and a low pressure isentropic turbine (tur2).1) uses air as the working fluid with 2. 11.5 lbm/s enters from the atmospheric source to an adiabatic compressor at 520 R and 14.8 kW. rate of heat added. 348. air enters an isobaric inter-cooler (Clr1) and leaves at 290 K (T9). rate of heat added. air at a mass flow rate of 0. A Brayton/Brayton cycle (Fig. In the top-Brayton cycle. and air is discharged to the atmospheric sink. air enters an isobaric inter-cooler (Clr2) and leaves at 290 K (T11). air goes through a high pressure isentropic turbine (tur1) and a low pressure isentropic turbine (tur2). net power output.Combined Cycle and Co-Generation 507 In the bottom-Brayton cycle. and leaves at 200 kPa (p2). 795.6. and cycle efficiency of the triple cycle. 759. air enters an isobaric heat exchanger and leaves at 1260 R (T6) and 14. air enters an isobaric inter-cooler (Clr2) and leaves at 290 K (T11). and cycle efficiency of the triple cycle. air enters an isobaric heater (combustion chamber) and leaves at 2500 R (T3). and leaves at 1200 kPa (p2). air enters an isobaric inter-cooler (Clr2) and leaves at 520 R (T11). Let ηcompressor=85%. net power output.8 kW.9 kW. Let ηcompressor=85%. Determine the power input. Determine the power input.7 psia (T7 and p7). and air at 473 K and 100 kPa (T14 and p14) is discharged to the atmospheric sink. air leaves another adiabatic compressor (Cmp4) at 800 kPa (p12). rate of heat added.91%. air enters an isobaric heater (combustion chamber) and leaves at 1400 K (T3). air at a mass flow rate of 1 kg/s enters from the atmospheric source to an adiabatic compressor at 290 K and 100 kPa (T1 and p1).7 psia (p6). Determine the power input. ANSWER: -341. power output. and air is discharged to the atmospheric sink. air enters an isobaric inter-cooler (Clr1) and leaves at 520 R (T9).1 kg/s enters from the atmospheric source to an adiabatic compressor (Cmp2) at 290 K and 100 kPa (T7 and p7). and leaves at 150 psia (p2). air leaves another adiabatic compressor (Cmp4) at 800 kPa (p12).75%. air enters an isobaric heat exchanger and leaves at 700 K (T6) and 100 kPa (p6). . In the bottom-Brayton cycle.1 kg/s enters from the atmospheric source to an adiabatic compressor (Cmp2) at 290 K and 100 kPa (T7 and p7).7 psia (T1 and p1).6. 363. air leaves an adiabatic compressor (Cmp3) at 400 kPa (p10).8 kW. and cycle efficiency of the triple cycle. 5. 45. 704.1) uses air as the working fluid with 1 kg/s mass flow rate through the top Brayton split-shaft turbine cycle.

61%. 542. The Rankine/Rankine combined cycle has a thermal efficiency greater than either steam or freon . Let ηcompressor=85%.5 lbm/s mass flow rate through the top Brayton split-shaft turbine cycle.1. and leaves at 30 psia (p2).7 hp.1 Btu/s. net power output. rate of heat added.58%. In the bottom-Brayton cycle. A Brayton/Brayton cycle (Fig. and cycle efficiency of the triple cycle. and air is discharged to the atmospheric sink. air enters an isobaric heater (combustion chamber) and leaves at 2400 R (T3). air goes through a high pressure isentropic turbine (tur1) and a low pressure isentropic turbine (tur2). Let ηcompressor=85%.5 lbm/s enters from the atmospheric source to an adiabatic compressor at 520 R and 14. air at a mass flow rate of 0.5 lbm/s enters from the atmospheric source to an adiabatic compressor at 520 R and 14.0 hp.4 hp. air enters an isobaric inter-cooler (Clr2) and leaves at 520 R (T11). air enters an isobaric inter-cooler (Clr1) and leaves at 520 R (T9). 11. and leaves at 30 psia (p2). and cycle efficiency of the triple cycle.2 lbm/s enters from the atmospheric source to an adiabatic compressor (Cmp2) at 520 R and 14.8 hp.56%. 482.7 psia (p6).1 Btu/s. In the top-Brayton cycle. power output.8 hp. In the bottom-Brayton cycle. air enters an isobaric inter-cooler (Clr2) and leaves at 520 R (T11).7 psia (T1 and p1).6. 43.6.508 Chih Wu ANSWER: -516. air at a mass flow rate of 2. and leaves at 150 psia (p2). RANKINE/RANKINE COMBINED CYCLE A Rankine/Rankine combined cycle is shown in Figure 11. Determine the power input. 11.2 Btu/s. rate of heat added. and air is discharged to the atmospheric sink. air goes through a high pressure isentropic turbine (tur1) and a low pressure isentropic turbine (tur2). 6.7 psia (T7 and p7). air enters an isobaric heat exchanger and leaves at 1260 R (T6) and 14. In the top-Brayton cycle.7 psia (T7 and p7).4 hp. 996. 781. ANSWER: -514. and air as the working fluid in the bottom Brayton cycle. 841. The freon vapor generated can power a freon turbine. air leaves an adiabatic compressor (Cmp3) at 60 psia (p10). 7. 542. power output. 1057 hp. 45. and air as the working fluid in the bottom Brayton cycle. ANSWER: -514.1) uses air as the working fluid with 2.7. and leaves at 150 psia (p2). 841. air at a mass flow rate of 0. 11. 1058 hp. net power output. air leaves another adiabatic compressor (Cmp4) at 110 psia (p12).7 psia (T1 and p1). air enters an isobaric heater (combustion chamber) and leaves at 2500 R (T3). air at a mass flow rate of 2. Determine the power input. air leaves another adiabatic compressor (Cmp4) at 110 psia (p12).1) uses air as the working fluid with 2.7 psia (p6).0 hp. 45. A Brayton/Brayton cycle (Fig. air leaves an adiabatic compressor (Cmp3) at 60 psia (p10).2 lbm/s enters from the atmospheric source to an adiabatic compressor (Cmp2) at 520 R and 14. thus increasing the total work produced. air enters an isobaric heat exchanger and leaves at 1260 R (T6) and 14. The exhaust from the topping steam turbine (Tur1) is hot enough to generate freon vapor in a waste-heat boiler. air enters an isobaric inter-cooler (Clr1) and leaves at 520 R (T9).7.5 lbm/s mass flow rate through the top Brayton split-shaft turbine cycle.

7. the boiler pressure is 3000 kPa. and the fuel requirements are less. and Freon12 as the working fluid in the bottom Rankine cycle. and the steam super-heater temperature is 400ºC.1.1) uses steam as the working fluid with 1 kg/s mass flow rate through the top Rankine cycle.Combined Cycle and Co-Generation 509 cycle may have by itself.7. In the bottom cycle. The power plant occupies less area. Example 11.7.1. and the freon boiler temperature is 35ºC. . 11. Figure 11.1a. the freon condenser (CLR1) temperature is 20ºC. The steam condenser (HX1) pressure is 20 kPa. Figure E11. A Rankine/Rankine cycle (Fig. The steam mass flow rate is 1 kg/s.7. Rankine/Rankine combined cycle. Rankine/Rankine combined cycle. There is no super-heater in the freon cycle.

and T5=20ºC. ηcombined cycle=34.7. T3=400ºC. T7=35ºC. T8=20ºC. power output by the combined cycle. p2=3000 kPa. Wdotin topping cycle=-3. and (2) mdotFreon=14. rate of heat added to the bottom cycle.7. bottom cycle working fluid=Freon12. p6=847.1b.3 kPa.7. and the heater. T7=35ºC. we do the following steps: (A) Build the cycle as shown in Figure 11.1. mdot=1 kg/s.7ºC. p4=20 kPa. Wdotnet bottom cycle=75. T1=60. Figure E11. Qdotin combined cycle=2038 kW. Assuming the pumps and turbines are adiabatic and isentropic. x1=0. power net output of the combined cycle.06%. and rate of heat removed from bottom the cycle.96ºC. thermal efficiency of the topping cycle. rate of heat added to the topping cycle. power input to the bottom cycle. power input to the topping cycle. p7=847.04 kW. x5=0. T3=400ºC. Wdotout bottom cycle=98. (C) Display results. T2=60. p1=20 kPa. rate of heat removed from the combined cycle. Qdotin combined cycle=2976 kW. Wdotturb topping cycle=941. T4=60.20ºC. The answers are given in Figure E11. Qdotin combined cycle=2976 kW. power output by the bottom cycle. thermal efficiency of the combined cycle.1 kW.9 kPa.9 kPa. ηbottom cycle=3. p3=3000 kPa. Wdotout combined cycle=1039 kW.19 kW. p8=567.1 kW. rate of heat added to the combined cycle.1 kW. thermal efficiency of the bottom cycle. Wdotout topping cycle=941. power output by the topping cycle. T6=20. Qdotout combined cycle=-1962 kW.46 kW.1b as: (1) p1=20 kPa. p5=567.06 kg/s.1a and Figure E11. . ηtopping cycle=31.510 Chih Wu Determine (1) the temperature and pressure of each state. cooler and heat exchanger are isobaric. To solve this problem by CyclePad. Wdotin bottom cycle=-22. T5=20ºC.76 kW. rate of heat removed from the topping cycle.52%.3 kPa. Wdotnet combined cycle=1014 kW. power net output of the topping cycle. and (2) the mass flow rate of the freon cycle.7.04 kW. power net output of the bottom cycle.07ºC. x7=1. Wdotnet topping cycle=938. p3=3000 kPa. power input to the combined cycle. Rankine/Rankine combined cycle. Qdotout combined cycle=-2038 kW. Wdotpump topping cycle=3.70%.71 kW. Wdotin combined cycle=-25. (B) Input topping cycle working fluid=steam. and Qdotout combined cycle=-1962 kW.

4-5. and the steam super-heater temperature is 400ºC. In the bottom cycle. the boiler pressure is 2000 kPa. Therefore. and rate of heat removed from the combined cycle. it is able to achieve a high mean temperature of heat addition. the boiler pressure is 3000 kPa. Rankine/Rankine Combined Cycle 1. power input to the combined cycle. Wdotout combined cycle=1038 kW. A Rankine/Rankine cycle (Fig. In the bottom cycle. Determine the mass flow rate of the freon cycle.7. however. three pumps. thermal efficiency of the combined cycle. the freon condenser (CLR1) temperature is 20ºC. The steam mass flow rate is 1 kg/s. Wdotout combined cycle=998. Qdotin combined cycle=2976 kW. and the freon boiler temperature is 35ºC. 5-6. and Freon134a as the working fluid in the bottom Rankine cycle. and rate of heat removed from the combined cycle. Wdotin combined cycle=24.1.6 kW. A Rankine/Rankine cycle (Fig. Process 1-2. There is no super-heater in the freon cycle. 3-4. Wdotnet combined cycle=973. and 6-7 takes advantage of the high-temperature heat addition of Brayton cycle. power net output of the combined cycle. and two splitters. and the rest of the processes takes advantage of the low-temperature heat removing and regenerative condensing of Rankine cycle. Qdotout combined cycle=-2020 kW. five turbines.04%. power output by the combined cycle. The steam condenser (HX1) pressure is 20 kPa.Combined Cycle and Co-Generation 511 Homework 11.94 kW. FIELD CYCLE The Field cycle is a super-generative cycle which makes use of the high-temperature heat addition of the Brayton cycle and the low-temperature heat removal of Rankine cycle.16 kg/s. .6 kW. power net output of the combined cycle. power input to the combined cycle. Wdotin combined cycle=25. 2. power output by the combined cycle.7. the freon condenser (CLR1) temperature is 20ºC. and the steam super-heater temperature is 400ºC.8. thermal efficiency of the combined cycle. rate of heat added to the combined cycle. Qdotout combined cycle=-1963 kW. ANSWER: mdotFreon=10. and the freon boiler temperature is 35ºC.1) uses steam as the working fluid with 1 kg/s mass flow rate through the top Rankine cycle. one regenerator (heat exchanger). one boiler and one re-heater (heaters). ηcombined cycle=32. The schematic diagram of the Field cycle is shown in Figure 11. ηcombined cycle=34.84 kg/s.31 kW.8.7. Wdotnet combined cycle=1013 kW. There is no super-heater in the freon cycle. ANSWER: mdotFreon=11. Determine the mass flow rate of the freon cycle. The steam mass flow rate is 1 kg/s. The arrangement includes one compressor. and Freon134a as the working fluid in the bottom Rankine cycle.1) uses steam as the working fluid with 1 kg/s mass flow rate through the top Rankine cycle. The gain due to high-temperature heat addition. three mixing chambers. rate of heat added to the combined cycle. 11. 2-3. The steam condenser (HX1) pressure is 20 kPa.52%. 11. Qdotin combined cycle=2994 kW. 11. one condenser (cooler). is offset by the reduction in cycle efficiency resulting from the irreversibility of the mixing process.

. T6=500 ºC.1. p5=4000 kPa. p20=1000 kPa. QdotHtr#2=155 kW. p5=4000 kPa. power required by the compressor and each of the three pumps.9 kW.45 kW. and the splitters are iso-parametric. rate of heat added by each of the two heaters. T8=300 ºC. p23=2000 kPa.26% as shown in Figure E11.4 ºC. cooler and regenerator are isobaric.8. p11=1000 kPa.57 kW. p19=200 kPa. mdot4=1 kg/s.1. WdotT#4=238. T8=300ºC.8.7 kW. and (3) net power produced by the cycle. T9=300 ºC.8. The answers are: (1) p1=2000 kPa.9ºC. and mdot17=0. we do the following steps: (A) Build the cycle as shown in Figure 11. p15=10 kPa. p22=2000 kPa. rate of heat removed by the condenser.1598 kW. WdotCompressor=-7.9 kg/s.2ºC. p3=6000 kPa.2ºC. x22=0.82ºC. (2) power produced by each of the five turbines. WdotT#2=222. p9=2000 kPa. (B) Input working fluid=water. (C) Display results. p22=1000 kPa. T4=500 ºC. p21=1000 kPa.2ºC.8. T6=500ºC. and p23=2000 kPa. Field cycle schematic diagram. and η=42.9 kg/s. p22=1000 kPa. x16=0. mdot4=1 kg/s. mixing chambers. T4=500 ºC.4 kW. p4=6000 kPa. mdot10=0. turbines and pump are adiabatic and isentropic. p19=200 kPa. T16=45. WdotT#3=144.83ºC. T14=120.6ºC. T21=120. T17=120. WdotT#5=293.3ºC. QdotHtr#1=2197 kW. p6=4000 kPa.1. T10=300ºC. x19=0.8. (2) WdotT#1=131. x19=0.3 ºC. Example 11. p10=2000 kPa.9 kg/s. T18=45. and QdotCondenser=-1358 kW.2ºC. p17=200 kPa. T13=120. T17=179.9 kW.6ºC. and mdot17=0. T5=432. T20=214.512 S4 HTR1 Chih Wu S5 TUR1 HTR2 S6 TUR2 TUR3 S11 S12 SPL1 CMP1 S1 S3 HX1 S2 TUR4 S7 MXR1 S8 S10 S13 S17 MXR2 SPL2 S9 S23 MXR3 SPL3 S21 S20 S19 PMP2 S18 S14 PMP3 S22 PMP1 S16 CLR1 S15 TUR5 Figure 11.1 kg/s.6973 kW.8 ºC. T1=212. T19=120. T4=500 ºC. x16=0. WdotP#2=-0. T7=388.1 is designed according to the following data: p16=10 kPa. p12=1000 kPa. p2=6000 kPa. p16=10 kPa.6ºC. x22=0. p18=200 kPa. T12=214. p16=10 kPa. p7=2000 kPa.0 kW. WdotP#3=-28. T17=185. Determine (1) the pressure and temperature of each state of the cycle. p14=200 kPa.82ºC. T2=237. p13=200 kPa.9 ºC. and cycle efficiency. Assuming the compressor. T15=45. To solve this problem by CyclePad. T11=214. T3=275. mdot10=0.6 ºC.1.7ºC.2 kW. p2=6000 kPa. T6=500 ºC. p5=4000 kPa. An ideal Field cycle with perfect regeneration as shown in Figure 11. T8=300 ºC. the heaters. (3) Wdotnet=994. p8=2000 kPa. p2=6000 kPa. WdotP#1=-0. p23=2000 kPa. p19=200 kPa.

1 kW. ANSWER: Qdotadd=2393 kW. An ideal field cycle with perfect regeneration as shown in Figure 11. total power produced by the turbines. Wdotnet=1035 kW. p5=4000 kPa.Combined Cycle and Co-Generation 513 Figure E11. WdotTurbines=1074 kW. WdotPumps and Compressor=38. x19=0.28%. T6=500 ºC. An ideal field cycle with perfect regeneration as shown in Figure 11. mdot4=1 kg/s. WdotPumps and Compressor=38.8.12 kg/s. p23=2000 kPa.1 is designed according to the following data: p16=10 kPa.8. T4=500 ºC. x22=0. Determine rate of heat added by the heaters. Wdotnet=1036 kW. p22=1000 kPa.8. Field Cycle 1. x16=0. . mdot10=0. p2=7000 kPa. WdotTurbines=1073 kW. total power required by the pumps and compressor. and η=43. p19=200 kPa. total power required by the pumps and compressor. net power produced by the cycle. x19=0. 3. and mdot17=0. What is the concept of the Field cycle? 2. Determine rate of heat added by the heaters.9 kg/s.26%. p23=2000 kPa. and mdot17=0. total power produced by the turbines.1 kg/s. and cycle efficiency. x22=0. net power produced by the cycle.1 kW. T6=500 ºC. Field cycle . p19=200 kPa. Homework 11. ANSWER: Qdotadd=2393 kW. x16=0. T4=500 ºC. p22=1000 kPa. p5=4000 kPa.9 kg/s.1 is designed according to the following data: p16=10 kPa. and η=43. mdot10=0. mdot4=1 kg/s. p2=7000 kPa.1. and cycle efficiency. T8=300 ºC. T8=300 ºC.8.

2) (11.9. A schematic co-generation plant is illustrated in Figure 11. The heat may be used as process steam for industrial processes.h6) The net work (Wnet) is Wnet = W56 + W9-10+ W12 The thermal efficiency of the cycle is η = Wnet /Q34 (11.9.h8) and W56 = m5(h5 . there are applications in which Rankine cycles are used for the combined supply of power and process heat.9. This type of combined heat and power plant is called cogeneration. A different schematic co-generation plant is illustrated in Figure 11.514 Chih Wu 11.1) (11.9.9.9.9. The one regenerative Rankine basic cycle is composed of the following six processes: 1-2 3-4 5-6 6-1 7-8 8-9 9-10 isentropic compression isobaric heat addition isentropic expansion isobaric heat removing constant enthalpy throttling isobaric heat removing isentropic compression Applying the mass balance and the First law and Second law of thermodynamics of the open system to the mixing chamber and the splitter of the co-generation Rankine cycle yields: m3=m2+m10 m4 = m7 + m5 Q89 = m9(h9 .5) (11. CO-GENERATION The cycles considered so far in this chapter are power cycles.7) Therefore.9. However. the combined power and heat co-generation energy utility factor (EUF) is . or steam to heat water for central or district heating.2.9.3) To take account of the desired heat output from process 8-9 (Q89). the co-generation ratio λ is λ = Q89 /Q34 (11.4) (11.1.9.6) (11.

(b) turbines as adiabatic with 100% efficiency. Co-generation plant. mass rate flow through the boiler=15 kg/s.9. and mass rate flow through the turbine=14 kg/s. cycle efficiency. boiler pressure=7000 kPa.Combined Cycle and Co-Generation EUF=η+λ 515 (11. Co-generation plant. co-generation ratio.8) S4 SPL1 S5 TUR1 S6 HTR1 S7 THR1 S8 CLR1 S3 MXR1 S10 PMP2 S9 CLR2 S2 PMP1 S1 Figure 11.9. and energy utility factor of the cycle. To solve this problem with CyclePad.2. A co-generation cycle as shown in Figure 11.1 2.1. (c) splitter as .9. Analysis (A) Assume a process each for the following devices: (a) pumps as adiabatic with 100% efficiency. Determine the rate of heat supply. condenser pressure=5 kPa.1.9. process heat output.9. Build as shown in Figure 11.1 is to be designed according to the following specifications: boiler temperature=500ºC. we take the following steps: 1.9. net power output. process steam (cooler #2) pressure=500 kPa. SPL1 S4 S5 TUR1 S6 SPL2 S7 S11 TUR2 S8 HTR1 MXR2 CLR1 S3 S14 MXR1 S9 THR1 S10 S13 PMP2 CLR2 S12 S1 S2 PMP1 Figure 11. Example 11.

Co-generation.9. If the co-generation cycle as shown in Figure 11.0571=0. process steam (cooler #2) pressure=500 kPa. co-generation ratio=2770/48482=0.0571.516 Chih Wu iso-parametric.9.3838.1 is to produce power only according to the following specifications: boiler temperature=500ºC. (e) the steam mass flow rate is 15 kg/s at state 4. Example 11. Figure E11.1. 3. (d) the inlet quality and pressure of pump #2 are 0 and 500 kPa. and cycle efficiency of the cycle.4409. Build as shown in Figure 11. net power output=18607 kW. and mass rate flow through the turbine=15 kg/s. process heat output=2770 kW. rate of heat supply. mass rate flow through the boiler=15 kg/s. and energy utility factor of the cycle=0. To solve this problem with CyclePad. (d) mixing chamber as isobaric.9.9. (b) the inlet pressure and quality of pump #1 are 5 kPa and 0.1 2. (c) the inlet temperature and pressure of the turbine are 500ºC and 7000 kPa. boiler pressure=7000 kPa. and (e) boiler as isobaric. (d) condenser and cooler as isobaric. Determine the net power output. we take the following steps: 1. Analysis .3838+0.2. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is water. condenser pressure=5 kPa. cycle efficiency=0. Display result The answers are: rate of heat supply=48482 kW. and (f) the steam mass flow rate is 14 kg/s at state 5.

boiler pressure=40 bar. To solve this problem with CyclePad. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is water. (c) splitter as iso-parametric. Co-generation without heat output. (b) the inlet pressure and quality of pump #1 are 5 kPa and 0. (d) the inlet quality and pressure of pump #2 are 0 and 500 kPa. Determine the rate of heat supply. and (f) the steam mass flow rate is 15 kg/s at state 5.2 is to be designed according to the following specifications: boiler temperature=400ºC.98 kg/s. (e) the steam mass flow rate is 15 kg/s at state 4. cycle efficiency. condenser pressure=0. co-generation ratio. A co-generation cycle as shown in Figure 11. we take the following steps: 1. and mass rate flow through the turbine #1=0. Analysis . process heat output. (d) condenser and cooler as isobaric.9. Figure E11. process steam (cooler #2) pressure=10 bar.9.Combined Cycle and Co-Generation 517 (A) Assume a process each for the following devices: (a) pumps as adiabatic with 100% efficiency. net power output=19944 kW. Build as shown in Figure 11.2 2. inlet pressure of low-pressure turbine=10 bar. and (e) boiler as isobaric. (d) mixing chamber as isobaric.9.3.1 bar.4071. Display result The answers are: rate of heat supply=48985 kW.9. and energy utility factor of the cycle. mass rate flow through the turbine #1=0. and cycle efficiency=0. net power output. 3. Example 11. (b) turbines as adiabatic with 100% efficiency. (c) the inlet temperature and pressure of the turbine are 500ºC and 7000 kPa.2.95 kg/s. mass rate flow through the boiler=1 kg/s.

9. A schematic co-generation plant is illustrated in Figure 11.03 kg/s.03747.1 bar. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is water.4 depicts a co-generation plant in which an open Brayton gas-turbine plant exhausts to a heat recovery steam generator (heat exchanger).3421+0. There are co-generation applications in which gas cycles are used to supply both gas power and process heat.02 kg/s. The open Brayton gas-turbine is a split-shaft plant.518 Chih Wu (A) Assume a process each for the following devices: (a) pumps as adiabatic with 100% efficiency. process heat output=112 kW. p6=10 bar. 3. Co-generation. or steam to heat water for central or district heating. (d) condenser and cooler as isobaric. . p2=40 bar. The generator is provided with a gas burner (heater #2) for supplementary heat when the demand of process steam is high. mdot4=1 kg/s. and (e) boiler as isobaric.3796. co-generation ratio=112/2989=0. Display result The answers are: rate of heat supply=2989 kW. (d) mixing chamber as isobaric. (b) turbines as adiabatic with 100% efficiency.3421. (c) splitter as iso-parametric. and energy utility factor of the cycle=0. mdot9=0. Figure E11.03747=0.9. The heat may be used as process steam for industrial processes. net power output=1023 kW. cycle efficiency=0. and x13=0.3. Figure 11. mdot11=0. T4=400ºC. (b) p1=0.3. x1=0. which supplies process steam to a dairy factory.9.

Combined Cycle and Co-Generation 519 Figure 11. Co-generation. Figure 11.3.4.9. The co-generation cycle is composed of the following six processes: 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 5-6 7-8 8-9 isentropic compression isobaric heat addition isentropic expansion isentropic expansion isobaric heat removing isobaric heat addition isobaric heat addition Applying the First law of thermodynamics of the open system to the cogeneration cycle yields: .9. Co-generation.

T1=25ºC. To solve this problem by CyclePad. Wdotturbine#2=3172 kW.h6) = mdot7 (h8 .11) The combined power and heat co-generation energy utility factor (EUF) is EUF= [Wnet + mdot5(h5 . T6=138ºC. rate of heat added to the combustion chamber. and EUF=(3172+6086)/11576=0. -Wdot12=Wdot34. (B) Input cycle A working fluid=air. and x9=1.4. T7=90ºC.520 Wdot12=Wdot34 mdot5(h5 . p1=1 bar.9.4. Wdotturbine#1=5352 kW. Determine the power required by the compressor. p8=13 bar.9. The answers are: Wdotcompressor=-5352 kW. power produced by turbine #1. T3=850ºC.12) Example 11.45 kg/s. mdotsteam=2. power produced by turbine #2. p2=7 bar.9. net power produced by the open Brayton gas-turbine plant. η=3172/11576=27. ηcompressor=ηturbine#1=ηturbine#2=85%. and the heaters and heat exchanger are isobaric. p7=13 bar. p1=1 bar. T3=850ºC. T7=90ºC. The data given below correspond approximately to the design conditions for the dairy factory co-generation plant: mdot1=20. p5=1 bar. QdotHX=-6086 kW. cycle efficiency of the open Brayton gas-turbine plant.h7) The net work (Wnet) is Wnet = W12 + W34 + W45 = W45 Chih Wu (11.45 kg/s.40 %. cycle B working fluid=water.h6)] / (Qdot23+Qdot89). (11. Qdotcomb chamber=11576 kW. and x8=1. we do the following steps: (A) Build the cycle as shown in Figure 11. and energy utility of the cogeneration plant. . rate of process steam. p2=7 bar. (C) Display results.9. T1=25ºC. mdot1=20.9. rate of heat added to the process steam.9. T6=138ºC.9) (11. Assuming the compressor and turbines are adiabatic and 85% efficient. Wdotnet=3172 kW.53 kg/s.7998.10) (11.

determine the rate of heat provided by the gas burner. delete x8=1. Referring to the dairy factory co-generation design conditions where 5 kg/s of process steam is needed.Combined Cycle and Co-Generation 521 Figure E11. Co-generation.9. we do the same thing as Example 11.5279. and let x9=1and mdot8=5 kg/s.9.4. Example 11. Figure E11. To solve this problem by CyclePad.4.9. . The answer are Qdot=5960 kW and and EUF=(3172+6086)/(11576+5960)=0.9. Co-generation.5.5.

4) conditions. net power output. Determine the rate of heat supply.7 kW.01%. and mass rate flow through the turbine #1=0. A co-generation cycle as shown in Figure 11.95 kg/s. determine the power required by the compressor.1 is to be designed according to the following specifications: turbine efficiency=89%. rate of cogeneration heat=-5540 kW. rate of cogeneration heat=-2770 kW. and mass rate flow through the turbine=13 kg/s. Determine the rate of heat supply. boiler pressure=40 bar. cycle efficiency. ANSWER: cycle efficiency=33.522 Chih Wu Homework 11. process heat output. boiler pressure=7000 kPa. and mass rate flow through the turbine=13 kg/s. Co-generation 1. boiler temperature=400ºC. mass rate flow through the turbine #1=0.2 is to be designed according to the following specifications: high-pressure turbine efficiency=84%. 7. condenser pressure=0.63%. ANSWER: cycle efficiency=31. process heat output. condenser pressure=5 kPa. 2. co-generation ratio. mass rate flow through the boiler=15 kg/s. boiler temperature=500ºC. cycle efficiency. ANSWER: cycle efficiency=32. and energy utility factor of the cycle. rate of cogeneration heat=-113. power produced by turbine #1. process steam (cooler #2) pressure=10 bar.1 is to be designed according to the following specifications: turbine efficiency=89%. rate of heat supply=48482 kW. process steam (cooler #2) pressure=500 kPa. and mass rate flow through the turbine=14 kg/s. co-generation ratio. co-generation ratio.9. inlet pressure of low-pressure turbine=10 bar. 3.9. mass rate flow through the boiler=1 kg/s. mass rate flow through the boiler=15 kg/s. boiler temperature=500ºC. A co-generation cycle as shown in Figure 11. except that the compressor efficiency is 80% and the mass flow rate of process steam is 4 kg/s.1 bar. boiler pressure=6000 kPa. process heat output. net power output. Determine the rate of heat supply.1 is to be designed according to the following specifications: turbine efficiency=89%.9. ANSWER: cycle efficiency=38. process steam (cooler #2) pressure=500 kPa. and energy utility factor of the cycle. condenser pressure=5 kPa. low-pressure turbine efficiency=100%.02%. cycle efficiency. 5. Determine the rate of heat supply. rate of heat supply=48173 kW. mass rate flow through the boiler=15 kg/s. and energy utility factor of the cycle. rate of heat supply=47980 kW. 4. rate of heat supply=2989 kW. boiler pressure=7000 kPa. co-generation ratio. and energy utility factor of the cycle. rate of cogeneration heat=-5564 kW.98 kg/s. .38%. net power output. net power output. process steam (cooler #2) pressure=500 kPa.9. 8. cycle efficiency.9. A co-generation cycle as shown in Figure 11. What is co-generation? How is co-generation ratio is defined? How is co-generation energy utility factor is defined? A co-generation cycle as shown in Figure 11. boiler temperature=500ºC. Referring to the dairy factory design (Example 11. process heat output. 6. condenser pressure=5 kPa.9.

10. 6. Possible steps in an intelligent computer aided design process as shown in the following example 11. 7. rate of heat added in the gas burner.1. the intent is to build upon and extended information previously acquired in thermodynamics. Example 11. A 3-stage regenerative steam Rankine cycle and a 4-stage inter-cool and 4-stage reheat air Brayton cycle is combined by a heat exchanger as shown in Figure E11. η=3172/11576=27. Qdotcomb chamber=11576 kW. cycle efficiency of the open Brayton gas-turbine plant. and EUF=(3172+6086)/11576=0. The third step is to model the components of the conceptual plant.1b: . The second step is to develop several conceptual plants (for example Cycle A. 4. and energy utility of the co-generation plant. a power plant manager might decide that use of a combined cycle would increase cycle efficiency. The fifth step is to analyze the conceptual thermodynamic cycle. Wdotturbine#1=5352 kW. a three-stage regenerative steam Rankine cycle and a four-stage inter-cool and four-stage reheat air Brayton cycle are combined to meet the need. One of the several plants is shown in example 11. 11.10. In this endeavor. 5. The first step is to identify a need.40 %.7998. The seventh step is to compare the optimal cycles and choose the best cycle.1.1a has been designed by a junior engineer with the following design input information as shown in Figure E11. In example 11. 2.53 kg/s. 3. Cycle B. For example.1 involves the following steps: 1. Qdotgas burner=2.10.1.10.10. rate of heat added to the process steam. the inlet gas temperature to a gas turbine is 1200ºC based on physical feasibility. For example. net power produced by the open Brayton gas-turbine plant. QdotHX=-6086 kW. For example. and Cycle C) to meet the identified need.10. The sixth step is to refine and optimize the conceptual thermodynamic cycle with sensitivity analysis. Wdotturbine#2=3172 kW. a steam turbine may be modeled as an adiabatic process with 85% isentropic efficiency.Combined Cycle and Co-Generation 523 power produced by turbine #2. DESIGN EXAMPLES One of the purpose of this book is to illuminate elements of conceptual thermodynamic cycle design. The fourth step is to estimate input numerical values for the major parameters. ANSWER: Wdotcompressor=-5352 kW.10. Wdotnet=3172 kW. rate of heat added to the combustion chamber.

p15=500 kPa. p19=200 kPa. T5=20ºC. p9=800 kPa. T9=20ºC. p26=4000 kPa.10. ηcmp1=ηcmp2=ηcmp3=ηcmp4=ηcmp5=85%. Figure E11. p11=1200 kPa. p20=100 kPa. ηtur1=ηtur2=ηtur3=ηtur4=ηtur5=85%.10. p7=500 kPa. Combined Brayton-Rankine cycle input. p13=800 kPa. .524 Chih Wu S29 S21 HX1 S20 TUR5 S17 HTR4 S15 TUR3 S1 SOURCE1 CMP1 S2 CLR1 HTR3 SINK1 TUR6 S31 S30 SPL1 TUR7 S33 S34 S32 SPL2 TUR8 S35 TUR9 S36 SPL3 S37 S38 S19 PMP1 S28 HTR5 S18 TUR4 S14 TUR2 S3 CMP2 S4 CLR2 S13 HTR2 S5 MXR3 S39 S40 CLR5 S27 S26 PMP2 S12 MXR2 S25 PMP3 MXR1 S24 S23 S22 PMP4 S10 S9 CMP5 S8 CMP4 CLR4 S16 S11 TUR1 S6 HTR1 S7 CLR3 CMP3 Figure E11. ηtur6=ηtur7=ηtur8=ηtur9=85%. p24=2000 kPa.1a. x28=0. and T21=550ºC. T15=1200ºC. x24=0. x26=0. T30=500ºC. p5=300 kPa. Combined Brayton-Rankine cycle. p28=8000 kPa. p17=300 kPa. and ηpmp1=ηpmp2=ηpmp3=ηpmp4=85%. T7=20ºC. p3=200 kPa. T19=1200ºC. p30=12000 kPa. T3=20ºC. x22=0. T17=1200ºC. mdot1=1 kg/s. T13=1200ºC. T1=20ºC. Rankine Cycle p22=7 kPa. The preliminary design information is: Brayton Cycle p1=100 kPa.1b. T11=1200ºC.

2164 kg/s. Wdotoutput=829.91 kW. output=727. mdot38=0.9 kW. Wdotcmp5=-42.6 kW. and mdot40=0.14 Wdotpmp3=-0. Rankine Cycle ηcycle=38.5 kW. Wdotpmp1=-13.20 kW.56 kW. kW. p7.67%. ηcycle versus p7. Qdothtr1=1142 kW.0 kW. mdot34=0.1 kW.4 kW. p7. Qdotclr3=-54. mdot24=0. Wdotinput=-15. Qdotheat exch=426. Wdottur1=137.6 kW.50 kW.3131 kW.5 kW. Wdotinput=-280. p15. mdot31=0.38 kW.26 kW. p15 and p18 can be easily identified.0478 kg/s. Qdotclr2=-42.9 kW. Qdothtr2=137. Qdotclr4=-49. Qdothtr5=137. mdot28=0.4943 kW. Wdotoutput=178. Wdottur3=170.50 kW. Qdotclr5=-263. Wdottur4=137. Wdotinput=-264. Wdotnet output=162.38 kW.1 kW.2164 mdot32=0.0157 kg/s. Wdotcmp1=-75. Wdotcmp3=-54. The sensitivity analysis of ηcycle versus p5. and ηcycle versus p17 are shown in the following diagrams.64 Wdottur8=25.67%.50 kW.33%.4 kW. kW. Wdottur5=225.79 kW.10. Figure E11.4 kW.1304 kg/s. Wdotcmp2=-42. Qdothtr4=170. Wdottur2=157.1 kW. .1782 kg/s.1 kW.Combined Cycle and Co-Generation 525 The following output results as shown in Figure 11.4 kW. Wdottur9=98.10. Brayton Cycle ηcycle=32. Wdotpmp4=-0.1c. Wdotpmp2=-1.6 kW.5 kW. kW. Wdotnet output=564. Qdotremove=-486. kg/s. Wdottur6=22. mdot36=0. Qdotadd=1745 kW. Qdotremove=-648.6 kW.0225 mdot39=0. Qdotclr1=75. Combined Brayton-Rankine cycle output. Qdotremove=-263.9 kW. mdot26=0. Qdotheat exch=-426.9 kW.1939 kg/s. Wdotnet Qdotadd=1745 kW.1782 kg/s.20%.7 kW. kg/s. Qdothtr3=157.01 kW. and p17 as design parameters only) to get a better cycle thermal efficiency than his ηcycle=41.74 kW. Let us try to modify his design (use p5. Wdotoutput=1007 kW. The optimization design values of p5.74 kW.79 kW. Wdottur7=31. Wdotcmp4=-49.9 Qdotadd=426.2 kW.1939 kg/s. ηcycle versus p15.1c are obtained from his design: Combined Cycle ηcycle=41.

Combined Brayton-Rankine cycle sensitivity diagram.1e.526 Chih Wu Figure E11.1d.1f.10. . Figure E11. Figure E11.10. Combined Brayton-Rankine cycle sensitivity diagram. Combined Brayton-Rankine cycle sensitivity diagram.10.

as shown in Figure 11.26%.Combined Cycle and Co-Generation 527 Figure E11. Qdotadd=1886 kW. Qdotremove=-538. T1=20ºC. 2.10.1a. T21=550ºC.9 kW. p15=500 kPa. Combined Brayton-Rankine cycle sensitivity diagram. has been designed by a junior engineer with the following design input information: . p24=2000 kPa.10. T19=1300ºC. T15=1300ºC. T13=1300ºC. p17=300 kPa. p26. p19=200 kPa. p11=1200 kPa. T7=20ºC.1g. Wdotoutput=1099 kW. p5.5 kW. x24=0. T9=20ºC. A 3-stage regenerative steam Rankine cycle and a 4-stage inter-cool and 4-stage reheat air Brayton cycle combined with a heat exchanger.1a. p26=4000 kPa.26%. p7=500 kPa. and p28 as design parameters only) and get a better cycle thermal efficiency than his ηcycle=43. Try to improve his design (use p3. Homework 11. ηpmp1=ηpmp2=ηpmp3=ηpmp4=85%.10. p20=100 kPa. Wdotinput=-283. p5=300 kPa. p28=8000 kPa. ηtur6=ηtur7=ηtur8=ηtur9=85%. p13=800 kPa. p3=200 kPa. p7.10. Wdotnet output=815. x22=0. x26=0. T11=1300ºC. T5=20ºC. p24. A 3-stage regenerative steam Rankine cycle and a 4-stage inter-cool and 4-stage reheat air Brayton cycle combined with a heat exchanger. and ηcmp1=ηcmp2=ηcmp3=ηcmp4=ηcmp5=85%. ηtur1=ηtur2=ηtur3=ηtur4=ηtur5=85%. p9. Rankine cycle p22=7 kPa. The following output results are obtained from his design: Combined cycle ηcycle=43. and x28=0. p9=800 kPa. has been designed by a junior engineer with the following design input information: Brayton cycle p1=100 kPa. p30=12000 kPa. mdot1=1 kg/s. T3=20ºC.2 kW. Design 1. as shown in Figure 11. T17=1300ºC. T30=500ºC.

11. ηpmp1=ηpmp2=ηpmp3=ηpmp4=85%. p5=300 kPa. The hot exhaust gases from a gas turbine Brayton cycle can be used in the boiler of a steam Rankine cycle to produce work. T1=20ºC. p15=500 kPa. x24=0.9 kW. Try to improve his design (use p3. and x28=0.9 kW. p19=200 kPa. Wdotoutput=1099 kW. Qdotremove=-530. Rankine cycle p22=7 kPa. p9.70%. x26=0. The heat can be used for heating or in a process facility adjacent to the cogeneration facility. p26=4000 kPa.528 Chih Wu Brayton cycle p1=100 kPa. p20=100 kPa. p28=8000 kPa. T7=20ºC. p11=1200 kPa. x22=0. ηtur6=ηtur7=ηtur8=ηtur9=85%. T21=550ºC. Most combined cycles are coupled in a cascaded arrangement with the heat being rejected from one cycle serving as the heat supply for another cycle. p7=500 kPa. SUMMARY Combined. T15=1300ºC. In a similar fashion. T11=1300ºC. 11. p24=2000 kPa. Cogeneration plants use the same fuel source to produce both work and heat. The advantage of cogeneration lies in the fact that both work and heat for an intended use can be accomplished with a total fuel expendiyure that is less than would be required to produce them individually. Many different combined cycles are possible. p3=200 kPa. p5. T9=20ºC.1 kW. T30=500ºC. and ηcmp1=ηcmp2=ηcmp3=ηcmp4=ηcmp5=88%. co-generation which produces thermal energy and electric energy can also result in significant energy savings. T13=1300ºC. ηtur1=ηtur2=ηtur3=ηtur4=ηtur5=85%.70%. T3=20ºC. p7. mdot1=1 kg/s. T17=1300ºC. . p17=300 kPa. p24. T5=20ºC. Wdotinput=-274. p30=12000 kPa. p26. p9=800 kPa. Wdotnet output=824. Qdotadd=1888 kW. T19=1300ºC. The following output results are obtained from his design: Combined cycle ηcycle=43. and p28 as design parameters only) and get a better cycle thermal efficiency than his ηcycle=43. p13=800 kPa.and cascaded-cycle heat engines of several types discussed in the chapter can improve cycle efficiency and reduce the fuel required for producing work or electric energy.

Therefore a reversed Carnot vapor heat engine is either a Carnot vapor refrigerator or a Carnot vapor heat pump depending upon the function of the cycle. Reversing the cycle will also reverse the directions of heat and work interactions. Carnot refrigerator or Carnot heat pump. If the purpose of the system is to remove heat from a low temperature thermal reservoir. 1-2 isentropic compression 2-3 isothermal cooling 3-4 isentropic expansion 4-1 isothermal heating Applying the First law and Second law of thermodynamics of the open system to each of the four processes of the basic vapor refrigeration cycle at steady flow and steady state condition yields: Q12 = 0 (12. Figure 12.Chapter 12 REFRIGERATION AND HEAT PUMP CYCLES 12.1) .1.1. it is a refrigerator.1. CARNOT REFRIGERATOR AND HEAT PUMP A system is called a refrigerator or a heat pump depending on the purpose of the system. The reversed Carnot heat engine cycles are Carnot refrigeration and Carnot heat pump cycles.1. Carnot cycle is a reversible cycle. it is a heat pump. A schematic diagram of the Carnot refrigerator or Carnot heat pump is illustrated in Figure 12.1.1. If the purpose of the system is to deliver heat to a high temperature thermal reservoir.

2) (12. The circulation rate of fluid is 0. and COP of the refrigerator. Determine the COP.1. net power required.1. The net work (Wnet) required to operate the cycle is (W12+W34).8) The desirable energy output of the refrigeration cycle is the heat added to the evaporator (or heat removed from the inner space or the low temperature reservoir of the refrigerator). A ton of refrigeration is the rate of cooling required to make a ton of ice per day.1.1. The cooling load of a refrigeration system is sometimes giving a unit in tons of refrigeration.0 = m(h3 .7) (12.1. quality at the inlet of the compressor. 2.3) (12. Determine the compressor power required.h4) W41 = 0 and Q41 .1.9) The rate of the heat removed from the inner space of the refrigerator is called cooling load or cooling capacity.1.1. horsepower required and cooling load of a Carnot vapor refrigeration cycle using R-12 as the working fluid in which the condenser temperature is 100ºF and the evaporation temperature is 20ºF.1. a turbine. The energy produced is the turbine work. (B) Switch to analysis mode.52 kW).1 lbm/s.5) (12. and a heater (evaporator) from the open system inventory shop and connect the four devices to form the basic vapor refrigeration cycle.4) (12.530 0 .h1) W23 = 0 Q23 . we take the following steps: 1. Thus the coefficient of performance (COP) of the cycle is βR = Q41 /Wnet (12. The energy input to the cycle is the compressor work required. turbine power produced.6) (12. Example 12.W34 = m(h3 .1. Analysis .h4) Chih Wu (12. Build (A) Take a compressor. a cooler (condenser). A ton of refrigeration is the removal of heat from the cold space at a rate of 200 Btu/min (12000 Btu/h) or 211 kJ/min (3.0 = m(h1 . To solve this problem by CyclePad.h2) Q34 = 0 0 . quality at the inlet of the evaporator. cooling load.W12 = m(h2 .

Refrigeration and Heat Pump Cycles 531 (A) Assume a process for each of the four devices: (a) compressor as isentropic. The answers are the compressor power required=-1. The expansion process can be achieved by a simple throttling valve. It is not practical. (c) the inlet temperature and quality of the turbine are 100ºF and 0.79 Btu/s. (d) the phase of the exit refrigerant from the turbine is saturated mixture.1 lbm/s. The cycle is a refrigerator. Carnot Refrigerator and Heat Pump 1. Does the Carnot heat pump cycle involve any internal irreversibilities? . Therefore. cooling load=4. net power required=-1. (b) condenser as isobaric.1. The compressor handles the refrigerant as a mixture of saturated liquid and saturated vapor. the compression process should be move out of the mixture region to the superheated region. quality at the inlet of the evaporator=0. (b) the inlet temperature and quality of the compressor are 20ºF and 1. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is R-12.. (c)turbine as isentropic. Carnot vapor refrigeration cycle. and (d) evaporator as isobaric.. Does the area enclosed by the Carnot heat pump cycle on a T-s diagram represent the net work input for the heat pump? 2. turbine power produced=0.1.99 Figure E12. Display results Display the cycle properties results. Comments: 1.1.13 hp.36 hp. and (e) the mass flow rate is 0. and COP=5. It does not pay to install an expansive device to produce a small amount of work. 2. The turbine work produced is very small. 3. Homework 12.2504.2234 hp.

The T-s diagram of the cycle is shown in Figure 12.2.2. Therefore the Carnot refrigeration cycle is modified to have the compression process completely in the superheated region and the turbine is replaced by an inexpensive throttling valve termed thermal expansion valve to form a basic vapor refrigeration cycle. Notice that the throttling process 3-4 is an irreversible process and is indicated by a broken line on the T-s diagram.2. Basic vapor refrigeration system. BASIC VAPOR REFRIGERATION CYCLE The Carnot refrigerator is not a practical cycle.2. because the compressor is designed to handle superheated vapor or gas. a condenser. Figure 12. The basic vapor refrigeration cycle consists of the following four processes: 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-1 isentropic compression isobaric cooling throttling isobaric heating Applying the First law and Second law of thermodynamics of the open system to each of the four processes of the basic vapor refrigeration cycle yields: . It is not worth of to have an expensive turbine in the cycle to produce a very small amount of work. The schematic diagram of the basic vapor refrigeration system is shown in Figure 12. The components of the basic vapor refrigeration cycle include a compressor. The turbine in the small temperature and pressure range produces very small amount work. T 2 3 4 1 s Figure 12.1.532 Chih Wu 12. T-s diagram of the basic vapor refrigeration cycle. an expansion valve and an evaporator.2.2.1.2.

h1)/(h2 . Analysis .5) (12.2) (12. Example 12. horsepower required and cooling load of a basic vapor refrigeration cycle using R-12 as the working fluid in which the condenser pressure is 130 psia and the evaporation pressure is 35 psia. a valve.8) The desirable energy output of the basic vapor refrigeration cycle is the heat added to the evaporator (or heat removed from the inner space of the refrigerator.2.4) (12.h1) (12.0 = m(h3 .h2) Q34 = 0 and W34 =0 0 .2.2.2. we take the following steps: 1.\ 533 (12. a condenser. The energy input to the cycle is the compressor work required (W12).2.0 = m(h1 .2.2. The circulation rate of fluid is 0.2. 2. and a heater (evaporator) from the open system inventory shop and connect the four devices to form the basic vapor refrigeration cycle.9) The rate of the heat removed from the inner space of the refrigerator is called cooling load or cooling capacity.1.h4).1 lbm/s.7) (12.h1) W23 = 0 Q23 .3) (12.6) (12.h4) W41 = 0 and Q41 . Determine the COP. Build (A) Take a compressor. cooling load.Refrigeration and Heat Pump Cycles Q12 = 0 0 . and COP of the refrigerator. quality at the inlet of the evaporator. A ton of refrigeration is the removal of heat from the cold space at a rate of 12000 Btu/h.0 = m(h3 .2.2. (B) Switch to analysis mode.1) (12. Q41). Thus the coefficient of performance (COP) of the basic refrigeration cycle is βR = Q41 /W12 = (h4 .W12 = m(h2 . To solve this problem by CyclePad. Determine the compressor power required. The cooling load of a refrigeration system is sometimes giving a unit in tons of refrigeration.

cooling load. (B) Switch to analysis mode. Determine the COP.2. horsepower required and cooling load of a basic vapor refrigeration cycle using R-12 as the working fluid in which the condenser pressure is 130 psia and the evaporation pressure is 35 psia. The temperature of the refrigerant at the exit of the compressor is 117ºF. and a heater (evaporator) from the open system inventory shop and connect the four devices to form the basic vapor refrigeration cycle. Figure E12.1 lbm/s. a valve. Determine the compressor power required. a condenser. quality at the inlet of the evaporator=0. (c) the inlet pressure and quality of the valve are 130 psia and 0. Basic vapor refrigeration cycle.1 lbm/s. we take the following steps: 1. (b) the inlet pressure and quality of the compressor are 35 psia 20ºF and 1.38. 2. quality at the inlet of the evaporator. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is R-12. Example 12.1. . and COP of the refrigerator.2738. Display results Display the cycle properties results. The cycle is a refrigerator. and COP=5.534 Chih Wu (A) Assume a process for each of the four devices: (a) compressor as isentropic. 3.2. and (d) evaporator as isobaric.2. cooling load=4. (c) valve as constant enthalpy. The answers are the compressor power required=-1. (c) valve as constant enthalpy. To solve this problem by CyclePad.84 Btu/s=1. (b) condenser as isobaric. and (d) evaporator as isobaric.27 hp.45 ton. and (d) the mass flow rate is 0. Build (A) Take a compressor. Analysis (A) Assume a process for each of the four devices: (a) compressor as adiabatic. The circulation rate of fluid is 0. (b) condenser as isobaric.

2. (b) the inlet pressure and quality of the compressor are 35 psia and 1. Why is the Carnot refrigeration cycle executed within the saturation dome not a realistic model for refrigeration cycles? 2. cooling load=4. (G) The entropy change of the refrigerant across the evaporator is negative. (c) the temperature of the refrigerant at the exit of the compressor is 117ºF.2. (H) The entropy of the refrigerant increases upon passing through the throttle valve. The answers are the compressor power required=-1. Display results Display the cycle properties results.2. and COP=4.44. Actual vapor refrigeration cycle. (E) The pressure at the compressor outlet depends the evaporator temperature. What is the area enclosed by the refrigeration cycle on a T-s diagram? 5. (B) COP equals that of a Carnot cycle.54 hp. Why is the throttling valve not replaced by an isentropic turbine in the ideal refrigeration cycle? 4. Homework 12. and (e) the mass flow rate is 0. In an ideal refrigeration cycle. . (C) COP increases with the evaporator temperature. (F) The lowest pressure in the cycle is atmospheric.2738.1 lbm/s. quality at the inlet of the evaporator=0.84 Btu/s=1. Basic vapor refrigeration cycle 1.Refrigeration and Heat Pump Cycles 535 (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is R-12. Figure E12. 3. indicate whether the following statements are true or false: (A) All the processes are internally reversible. (d) the inlet pressure and quality of the valve are 130 psia and 0. Does the ideal vapor compression refrigeration cycle involve any internal irreversibility? 6. (J) The condenser temperature is lower than that of the surroundings. (I) The evaporator temperature is higher than that of the surroundings. What is the difference between a refrigerator and a heat pump? 3. The cycle is a refrigerator.45 ton. (D) COP increases with the condenser temperature.

(E) the compressor efficiency. ANSWER: (A) 4. cooling load and COP of the refrigerator. ANSWER: -4.38 kJ/kg. (B) the compressor power required.34 kW.64.2923. 7.55 kW. and (F) 4.1 kg/s. (E) 83. and (F) the COP. Superheated vapor enters the condenser at 311 K.36 ton. (B) -33.41 kW. The evaporator pressure is 120 kPa. and (C) 4. (B) the rate of heat absorbed from the refrigerated space. and (D) 4.1 kg/s. A steady flow ideal 0. 10. (B) -32.22 kg/s. (B) 6. An actual vapor compression refrigeration cycle operates at steady state with refrigerant 134a as the working fluid.72. (B) the refrigerating capacity.4 tons refrigerator use refrigerant R134a as the working fluid. (C) 726 kPa. ANSWER: (A) -3. Determine the compressor power required. The evaporator pressure is 120 kPa. The efficiency of the compressor is 85%. quality of the refrigerant at the end of the throttling process. The compressor efficiency is 68 percent. Determine (A) the compressor power. The refrigerant is circulated at the rate of 0. Determine (A) the cooling load. (D) the rate of heat removed from the condenser. cooling load and COP of the refrigerator.65.14 Mpa and -10ºC at a rate of 0. The condenser pressure is 600 kPa. ANSWER: (A) 0. The condenser pressure is 600 kPa.1604. The mass flow rate of refrigerant is 0.71 kW. Refrigerant R134a enters the compressor of a steady flow vapor compression refrigeration cycle as superheated vapor at 0.0091 kg/s. (D) the rate of heat removed from the condenser. The refrigerant is circulated at the rate of 0. Saturated liquid leaves the condenser at 301 K. 0.40 ton.031 kg/s. and (C) the coefficient of performance (COP). The mass rate flow of refrigerant 12 is 0. and it leaves at 0.7368 kW. 0. (C) 42. and 4. (D) -1. The temperature of the refrigerant in the evaporator is -10ºC and in the condenser it is 38ºC. The refrigerant is cooled in the condenser to 24ºC and saturated liquid. Consider an ideal refrigerator which uses refrigerant-12 as the working fluid. (C) 1. Find the compressor power required.57.04 kg/s.64. quality of the refrigerant at the end of the throttling process. and 6.38 C. (C) the rate of heat absorbed from the refrigerated space. (B) the compressor work required. An ideal refrigerator uses ammonia as the working fluid. and (D) the COP. 13. ANSWER: (A) -35.80. 8. and (E) 4. (B) 4. The mass flow rate of refrigerant is 0. Determine (A) the mass rate flow. ANSWER: -0. (C) the condenser pressure. The temperature of the refrigerant in the evaporator is 20ºF and the pressure in the condenser is 140 psia. 0.7 Mpa and 50ºC. Saturated vapor enters the compressor at 263 K. 9.10 kW.536 Chih Wu (K) COP always larger than 1. (C) the compressor efficiency. Determine the compressor power required.9752 ton. 11. . Determine (A) the compressor power required. (D) -18. 7. cooling load and COP for a refrigerator that uses refrigerant-12 as the working fluid and is designed to operate at an evaporator temperature of 5ºC and a condenser temperature of 30ºC.01 kJ/kg. 12.051 lbm/s.35%.43 kW. An actual vapor compression refrigeration cycle operates at steady state with refrigerant 134a as the working fluid.18 kJ/kg.82 ton. and (E) the COP.

1. An ice-making machine operates on an ideal refrigeration cycle using refrigerant134a. and 5. 0.000 Btu/h) of refrigeration. ANSWER:-2. For 1 ton (12.3165.3. The degree of superheat of the refrigerant at the inlet of the compressor determines the extent of opening of the expansion valve. Find the compressor power required. and 9. The refrigerant enters the compressor as saturated vapor at 140 kPa and is compressed to 800 kPa. ANSWER: -1. The refrigerant that enters the throttling valve is usually compressed rather than at saturated liquid state. and COP of the refrigerator. The refrigerant enters the compressor at 18 psia and 0ºF. 7. and COP of the refrigerator. 7.37 hp. 0. and 3.96 kW. ANSWER: -0.000 Btu/h) air conditioning unit that operates on an ideal refrigeration cycle with refrigerant-134a as the working fluid. determine the compressor power required. ACTUAL VAPOR REFRIGERATION CYCLE The actual vapor refrigeration cycle deviates from the ideal cycle primarily because of the inefficiency of the compressor as shown in Figure 12. 0. mass rate flow of refrigerant-134a. determine the compressor power required.79 kW. 15.3. . and 3.2. In industry. pressure drops associated with fluid flow and heat transfer to or from the surroundings are also considered. and COP of the refrigerator. 12. The refrigerant enters the compressor as saturated vapor at 20 psia and leaves the condenser as saturated liquid at 80 psia.58 hp. Consider a 2-ton (24.Refrigeration and Heat Pump Cycles 537 14. 17. and leaves the condenser at 125 psia and 90ºF.74.52 ton.0636 kg/s. The mass flow rate of refrigerant 12 is 0.44. Determine the compressor power required.22 kg/s. mass rate flow of refrigerant-134a. cooling load and COP for a refrigerator that uses refrigerant-12 as the working fluid and is designed to operate at an evaporator temperature of 5ºC and a condenser temperature of 30ºC. ANSWER: -4. ANSWER: -1. This is a principal way to control the refrigeration cycle.88.8378 hp. An ice-making machine operates on an ideal refrigeration cycle using refrigerant134a.0482 lbm/s. mass rate flow of refrigerant-134a.82 ton.3. 0.000 Btu/h) of refrigeration. quality of the refrigerant at the end of the throttling process. The vapor that enters the compressor is usually superheated rather than at saturated vapor state.0542 lbm/s.63. For 1 ton (12. 16. and 7.59. The T-s diagram of the actual vapor refrigeration cycle is shown in Figure 12.

horsepower required and cooling load of an actual air conditioning unit using R-12 as the working fluid. The refrigerant enters the throttling valve at 1.3. Figure 12. Determine the COP. a valve.1. .2 MPa and 45ºC.3.538 Chih Wu Figure 12. T-s diagram of actual vapor refrigeration cycle.3. Build (A) Take a compressor. To solve this problem by CyclePad. T-s diagram of actual vapor refrigeration cycle.05 kg/s. a condenser. The refrigerant enters the compressor at 100 kPa and 5ºC. Determine the COP and cooling load of the air conditioning unit. Show the cycle on T-s diagram.2. The circulation rate of fluid is 0. Plot the sensitivity diagram of COP vs condenser pressure. we take the following steps: 1. Example 12.1. and the power required for the compressor. (B) Switch to analysis mode. and a heater (evaporator) from the open system inventory shop and connect the four devices to form the actual vapor refrigeration cycle. The compressor efficiency is 87%.

81 kW. Figure E12. The cycle is a refrigerator. (b) the inlet temperature and pressure of the compressor are 5ºC and 100 kPa. and (e) The compressor efficiency is 87%. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is R-12. Figure E12. (d) the mass flow rate is 0.88 kW=1.1a. and (d) evaporator as isobaric. Actual refrigeration cycle sensitivity analysis.3. Display results Display the T-s diagram and cycle properties results.3.2 MPa and 45ºC.09. Actual refrigeration cycle. (b) condenser as isobaric. Analysis (A) Assume a process for each of the four devices: (a) compressor as adiabatic. (c) the inlet pressure and temperature of the valve are 1. The answers are COP=2. and net power input=-2. . and (B) Display the sensitivity diagram of cycle COP vs condenser pressure as shown in Figure E12.1b. 3. (c) valve as constant enthalpy.67 ton.05 kg/s.1b.3. cooling load=5.Refrigeration and Heat Pump Cycles 539 2.

Basic vapor heat pump. The schematic diagram of a basic vapor heat pump is shown in Figure 12. and 3.02. and COP of the actual refrigerator. If the purpose of the system is to deliver heat to a high temperature thermal reservoir. Actual Vapor Refrigeration Cycle 1.24 kW.4. power input. -2.05 kg/s and leaves at 800 kPa.1. R-134a enters the compressor of an actual refrigerator at 140 kPa and -10ºC at a rate of 0. Why is the inlet state of the throttling process of the actual vapor refrigeration cycle in the compressed liquid region? 4. R-22 enters the compressor of an actual refrigerator at 140 kPa and -10ºC at a rate of 0. power input.3.2: . Does the ideal vapor refrigeration cycle involve any internal irreversibility? 2. 2. 6. Figure 12. and COP of the actual refrigerator.540 Chih Wu Homework 12. ANSWER: 59. The components of the basic vapor heat pump include a compressor. BASIC VAPOR HEAT PUMP CYCLE A system is called a refrigerator or a heat pump depending on the purpose of the system. Determine the rate of heat added.1. the methodology of analysis for heat pump is identical to that for refrigerator.05 kg/s and leaves at 800 kPa. and 3.56. Why is the inlet state of the compressor of the actual vapor refrigeration cycle in the superheated vapor region? 3.78 kW.4. -16.05 kg/s and leaves at 800 kPa.4. and 3. rate of heat removed.27 kW. Determine the rate of heat added. The compressor efficiency is 80%. If the purpose of the system is to remove heat from a low temperature thermal reservoir. it is a refrigerator. 12. -2. The compressor efficiency is 80%. The compressor efficiency is 80%.30. rate of heat removed.60 kW. a condenser. power input. Ammonia enters the compressor of an actual refrigerator at 140 kPa and -10ºC at a rate of 0.88 kW.00 Ton. Consequently. 1. ANSWER: 7.24 Ton. cooling load. The refrigerant is cooled in the condenser to 26ºC. an expansion valve and an evaporator.76 Ton. The T-s diagram of the basic vapor heat pump cycle which consists of the following four processes is shown in Figure 12. Determine the rate of heat added. The refrigerant is cooled in the condenser to 26ºC.39 kW.19 kW. -10. 17. rate of heat removed.4. and COP of the actual refrigerator.82 kW.05 kW. it is a heat pump. The refrigerant is cooled in the condenser to 26ºC. 5. -8. cooling load. ANSWER: 6. cooling load. -76.

4.5) (12. T-s diagram of the basic vapor heat pump cycle.3) (12. 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-1 isentropic compression isobaric cooling throttling isobaric heating Applying the First law and Second law of thermodynamics of the open system to each of the four processes of the basic vapor heat pump yields: Q12 = 0 0 .W12 = m(h2 .4) (12. Thus the coefficient of performance (COP) of the cycle is βHP = Q23 /W12 = (h3 .4.8) (12.h1) W23 = 0 Q23 .0 = m(h1 . .1) (12.Refrigeration and Heat Pump Cycles T 2 541 3 4 1 s Figure 12.4.h2) Q34 = 0 and W34 =0 0 .h4) (12.4.4.4.h4) W41 = 0 and Q41 .4.h2)/(h2 . The energy input to the cycle is the compressor work required.0 = m(h3 .2) (12.9) The rate of the heat removed from the inner space of the heat pump is called heating load or heating capacity.4.7) The desirable energy output of the basic vapor heat pump is the heat removed from the condenser (or heat added to the high temperature thermal reservoir).0 = m(h3 .2.6) (12.h1) (12.4.4.

To solve this problem by CyclePad. Display results (A) Display the cycle properties results. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is R-134a. (B) Switch to analysis mode. Plot the sensitivity diagram of COP vs condenser pressure. and a heater (evaporator) from the open system inventory shop and connect the four devices to form the basic heat pump cycle. a condenser.542 Chih Wu Example 12. and (d) the mass flow rate is 0.4.75 kW as shown in Figure E12.1kg/s. and (B) Display the sensitivity diagram of cycle COP versus evaporation pressure as shown in Figure E12. The circulation rate of fluid is 0. Figure E12. heating load=-17. we take the following steps: 1. . The answers are COP=6. and Net power input=-2. Analysis (A) Assume a process for each of the four devices: (a) compressor as isentropic. Build (A) Take a compressor. (c) valve as constant enthalpy. (b) the inlet pressure and quality of the compressor are 240 kPa and 1.1.1a.1b. a valve. The cycle is a heat pump. (b) condenser as isobaric. Determine the COP.1 kg/s. and (d) evaporator as isobaric.4.1a.27 kW. Show the cycle on a T-s diagram. horsepower required and heating load of a basic vapor heat pump cycle using R-134a as the working fluid in which the condenser pressure is 900 kPa and the evaporation pressure is 240 kPa.4. Basic vapor heat pump cycle. 2. (c) the inlet pressure and quality of the valve are 900 kPa and 0. 3.28.4.

4. The mass rate flow of refrigerant 12 is 0.Refrigeration and Heat Pump Cycles 543 Figure E12.15. 0.8490 kW.46 kW.53 kW. The refrigerant is circulated at the rate of 0.30 hp. An ideal heat pump uses ammonia as the working fluid. ANSWER: -0. 28.1b. heating load and COP for a heat pump that uses refrigerant-12 as the working fluid and is designed to operate at an evaporator saturation temperature of 2ºC and a condenser temperature of 39ºC. Consider an ideal heat pump which uses refrigerant-12 as the working fluid. ANSWER: -7 kW. and 6. ANSWER: -6. 0. ANSWER: -2. and 9. 3. Basic vapor heat pump cycle sensitivity analysis. ANSWER: -5. quality of the refrigerant at the end of the throttling process. 28. Determine the compressor power required. Find the compressor power required.32 kg/s.00. 0.051 lbm/s.16 Btu/s. and 9. quality of the refrigerant at the end of the throttling process. 5. Find the compressor power required. 43. 42. heating load and COP of the heat pump.22 kg/s. 2.5064 kW.4. turbine power produced. The mass rate flow of refrigerant 12 is 0.32. Homework 12. and 6. and 5. Find the compressor power required.32 kg/s. The mass rate flow of refrigerant 12 is 0. heating load and COP for a heat pump that uses refrigerant-12 as the working fluid and is designed to operate at an evaporator saturation temperature of 10ºC and a condenser saturation temperature of 40ºC. Heat Pump 1.021 kg/s.1996. The saturation temperature of the refrigerant in the evaporator is 6ºC and in the condenser it is 58ºC.74 kW. .-2.76 kW. The compressor efficiency is 78 percent. 4. The refrigerant is circulated at the rate of 0. heating load and COP for a heat pump that uses refrigerant-12 as the working fluid and is designed to operate at an evaporator saturation temperature of 2ºC and a condenser saturation temperature of 39ºC.20 kW. The saturation temperature of the refrigerant in the evaporator is 22ºF and in the condenser it is 98ºF. The throttling valve is replaced by an adiabatic turbine with 74% efficiency.25.3498.62. Determine the compressor power required.99 kW. heating load and COP of the heat pump.

52 kW. Example 12. 2. The compressor efficiency is 88%. (B) Input the given information: (a) working fluid is R-134a. a cooler (condenser).65. pressure drops associated with fluid flow and heat transfer to or from the surroundings. The cycle is a heat pump. The refrigerant entering the throttling valve is usually compressed liquid rather than a saturated liquid.1kg/s. The answers are COP=5. Show the cycle on T-s diagram. horsepower required and heating load of a basic vapor heat pump cycle using R-134a as the working fluid in which the condenser pressure is 900 kPa and the evaporation pressure is 240 kPa. and (e) the mass flow rate is 0. (b) condenser as isobaric. Build (A) Take a compressor. Analysis (A) Assume a process for each of the four devices: (a) compressor as isentropic. and (d) evaporator as isobaric.12 kW. and a heater (evaporator) from the open system inventory shop and connect the four devices to form the basic heat pump cycle.5. Determine the COP. Display results Display the cycle properties results. To solve this problem by CyclePad. ACTUAL VAPOR HEAT PUMP CYCLE The actual vapor heat pump cycle deviates from the ideal cycle primarily because of inefficiency of the compressor. we take the following steps: 1. and net power input=-3. The vapor entering the compressor must be superheated slightly rather than a saturated vapor. (b) the inlet pressure and quality of the compressor are 240 kPa and 1. a valve. (d) the compressor efficiency is 88%. .544 Chih Wu 12.1. (B) Switch to analysis mode. The circulation rate of fluid is 0. heating load=14.5.1 kg/s. (c) the inlet pressure and quality of the valve are 900 kPa and 0. (c) valve as constant enthalpy. 3.

17 kW and 6.32 kg/s.00 kW.6282 kW.5. heating load and COP of the heat pump. ANSWER: -0. Consider a heat pump which uses refrigerant-12 as the working fluid. heating load and COP for a heat pump that uses refrigerant-12 as the working fluid and is designed to operate at an evaporator temperature of 2ºC and a condenser temperature of 39ºC.Refrigeration and Heat Pump Cycles 545 Figure E12.3498. The refrigerant is circulated at the rate of 0. The compressor efficiency is 80%. Find the compressor power required. The saturation temperature of the refrigerant in the evaporator is 6ºC and in the condenser it is 58ºC.1996. Homework 12.20. 3.04 Btu/s and 5.021 kg/s. heating load and COP for a heat pump that uses refrigerant-12 as the working fluid and is designed to operate at an evaporator saturation temperature of 2ºC and a condenser temperature of 39ºC. Actual Vapor Heat Pump 1. . 0.74 kW and 6.86.32 kg/s. The compressor efficiency is 80%. 0. Determine the compressor power required. 2. Find the compressor power required. turbine power produced.7614 hp. Determine the compressor power required. The throttling valve is replaced by an adiabatic turbine with 74% efficiency. heating load and COP for a heat pump that uses refrigerant-12 as the working fluid and is designed to operate at an evaporator saturation temperature of 10ºC and a condenser saturation temperature of 40ºC.25.22 kg/s.00 kW. The mass rate flow of refrigerant 12 is 0.39 kW. 4. Basic vapor heat pump cycle. ANSWER: -0.64.5. quality of the refrigerant at the end of the throttling process. 5. A heat pump uses ammonia as the working fluid. ANSWER: -7. The refrigerant is circulated at the rate of 0.74 kW and 6. The saturation temperature of the refrigerant in the evaporator is 22ºF and in the condenser it is 98ºF. -3.66 kW and 4. -30. The mass rate flow of refrigerant 12 is 0.86. heating load and COP of the heat pump. -43. quality of the refrigerant at the end of the throttling process. Find the compressor power required.633 kW.1. -2. The compressor efficiency is 68 percent. The compressor efficiency is 78 percent. ANSWER: -4.051 lbm/s. 0. The mass rate flow of refrigerant 12 is 0. The compressor efficiency is 78 percent. ANSWER: -7. -43.

-20.67. -4.14 kW.65 Mpa.0 kW. the second digit is the number of hydrogen atoms +1 and the third digit is the number of fluorine atoms. and sulphur dioxide were used widely in early years of refrigeration in industrial refrigeration applications. N is a three digit integer.23 kW. and COP of the refrigerator. non-toxic. CCl2F2 is R12. ANSWER: -4. non-explosive. Determine the COP. R22 and R134a. R-134a enters the compressor of a refrigerator at 0.-20. 12. and 4. R-134a enters the compressor of a refrigerator at 0.6. The desirable properties of working fluids for vapor refrigeration and heat pump systems include high critical temperature and low pressure. The refrigerant is throttled to 0. inexpensive. cooling effect. . The refrigerant is cooled in the condenser to 26ºC and 0.g. e. The refrigerant is throttled to 0. C2Cl2F4 is R114. The three refrigerants are R12.14 Mpa and -10ºC at a rate of 0.g. The number allocated to the halogenated hydrocarbons (freons) are derived as follows: for refrigerants derived from methane (CH4).51. Determine the compressor efficiency.1 kg/s and leaves at 0.19%. The refrigerant is throttled to 0. R-134a enters the compressor of a refrigerator at 0. The first digit is always 1. WORKING FLUIDS FOR VAPOR REFRIGERATION AND HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS Ammonia.15 Mpa. Determine the power input to the compressor.14 Mpa and -10ºC at a rate of 0. The compressor efficiency is 85%.89. cooling effect.15 Mpa.8 Mpa. 7.28 kW.05 kW. The refrigerant is cooled in the condenser to 24ºC and 0. ANSWER: 82.15 Mpa. The circulation rate of fluid is 0.50 kW. and 4. For refrigerants derived from ethane (C2H6). etc. nonflammable. the effects of freons on the ozone layer have been critically evaluated.65 Mpa. There are three R number refrigerants on the substance menu of CyclePad. and COP of the refrigerator.7 Mpa and 50ºC. ANSWER: -4. The compressor efficiency is 85%. low specific volume. R signifying refrigerant and the number N specifically identifying the chemical compound. -3. The first digit indicates the number of hydrogen atoms +1 and the second digit indicates the number of fluorine atoms.1 kg/s and leaves at 0. the principal refrigerants have been man-made freons. ANSWER: 5..53 kW and-18. -20. and COP of the refrigerator. e. inert and stable. Some freons such as R12 having leaked from refrigeration systems into the atmosphere. cooling effect. and 4. carbon dioxide. For domestic and industrial applications now.7 Mpa.546 Chih Wu 6.14 Mpa and -10ºC at a rate of 0. 9. In recent years. N is a two digit integer. This family of substances are known by an R number of the general form RN.12. The refrigerant is cooled in the condenser to 24ºC and 0.1 kg/s and leaves at 0. The compressor efficiency is 78%. 8. Determine the power input to the compressor.corrosive. power input to the compressor.. horsepower required and heating load of a basic vapor heat pump cycle using R-134a as the working fluid in which the condenser pressure is 900 kPa and the evaporator pressure is 240 kPa.75 Mpa.1 kg/s. non.27 kW.

5-6-7-8-5). carbon dioxide.Refrigeration and Heat Pump Cycles 547 spend many years slowly diffusing upward into the stratosphere. . Why are ammonia.1. A cascade cycle is several vapor refrigeration cycles connecting in series. New desirable refrigerants which contains no chlorine atoms are found to be suitable and acceptable replacements. CASCADE AND MULTI-STAGED VAPOR REFRIGERATORS There are several variations of the basic vapor refrigeration cycle. 4. A single vapor refrigeration cycle usually can not be used to achieve the large difference.1.7. List five desirable properties of working fluids for vapor refrigeration and heat pump systems. There it is broken down. 1-2-3-4-1) provides the heat input to the evaporator of the mid-temperature cycle (cycle B. Working Fluids for Vapor Refrigeration and Heat Pump Systems 1. The condenser of the mid-temperature cycle (cycle B) provides the heat input to the evaporator of the highesttemperature cycle (cycle C. Homework 12. What devastating consequence result in our environment by refrigerants leaking out from refrigeration systems into the atmosphere? 3.6. releasing chlorine which depletes the protective ozone layer surrounding the Earth's stratosphere. A cascade cycle is used when the temperature difference between the evaporator and the condenser is quite large. It is therefore important to human beings to ban these freons such as the widely used but life threatening R12. a cascade vapor refrigeration cycle must be used. and sulphur dioxide no longer used in domestic refrigerators and heat pumps? 2. Cascade Vapor Refrigerators There are applications when the temperature difference between the evaporator and the condenser is quite large.1 The condenser of the lowest-temperature cycle (cycle A. Different working fluids may be used in each of the individual cycle. Ozone is a critical component of the atmospheric system both for climate control and for reducing solar radiation.7. What does the refrigerant number mean? 12. 12. To solve this problem and still using vapor refrigeration cycles. A cascade cycle made of three cycles in series is illustrated in Figure 12. 9-10-11-12-9).7. The multi-staged cycle is used to reduced the required compressor power input.

1) The cooling load of the cascade vapor refrigeration cycle is the rate of heat added in the evaporator of the lowest temperature cycle.7.1.3) The following examples illustrate the analysis of the cascade vapor refrigeration cycle.1.1. .1. x1=1. and x7=0.1. Cascade vapor refrigerator.7. a steady state and steady flow mass and energy balance on the components of the cascade vapor refrigeration cycle have the general forms Σmdote = Σmdoti and Qdot-Wdot=Σmdotehe . Neglecting kinetic and potential energy changes. The power added to the cycle and is the sum of the power added to the indiviual compressors Wdot=ΣWdotcompressor and the COP of the cycle is β=Qdotlowest T evaporator /Wdot (12. p7=500 kPa. Bottoming cycle: working fluid=R134a. p5=200 kPa. p3=250 kPa.Σmdotihi (12.7.7.4) (12. mdot1=1 kg/s.7.548 Chih Wu S12 CLR1 S11 CMP3 THR3 S10 S8 S9 THR2 S3 S5 THR1 S4 HX2 S7 CMP2 S6 HX1 S2 CMP1 HTR1 S1 Figure 12.1.2) (12. p1=85 kPa.1. A cascade vapor refrigeration cycle made of two separate vapor refrigeration cycles has the following information: Topping cycle: working fluid=R134a. and x3=0. Example 12.7.1. x5=1.

power required by compressor #1. x5=1. mdot1=1 kg/s. power input by compressor 2=-22.7. we do the following steps: 1. cooling load=52. x1=1.87 kW. and both hot-side and cold-side of the heat exchanger are isobaric.1. rate of heat added in the evaporator.1a.1.17. power required by compressor #2. Assume compressors are adiabatic with 100% efficiency. power input by compressor 1=-21. p3=250 kPa.7. total power required by the compressors.1b. cooling load. COP=4. Figure E12.1a.64 kW. and x3=0. .7. and x7=0.2 kW. Cascade refrigerator. power input by compressors =-44. p1=85 kPa.1. 3.17. Build the cycle as shown in Figure E12. p5=200 kPa. Cascade refrigerator.7 kW. 2. rate of heat removed by the condenser=-230. Figure E12. p7=500 kPa. To solve the problem by CyclePad. 4. rate of heat added to the evaporator=185. heater and cooler be isobaric. and COP of the cascade vapor refrigeration cycle.Refrigeration and Heat Pump Cycles 549 Determine the mass rate flow of the topping cycle.21 kg/s.81 ton. and COP=4. working fluid is R134a at state 5. Display the cycle property results: mdot5=1. Input working fluid is R134a at state 1.5 kW.

3. In this arrangement.5 kW. and COP of the cascade vapor refrigeration cycle. and x7=0.1. p5=200 kPa.56. 40. 12. and COP of the cascade vapor refrigeration cycle. By adjusting the mass flow rate flowing in the separator. ANSWER: -44. x1=1. A cascade vapor refrigeration cycle made of two separate vapor refrigeration cycles as shown in Figure E12. cooling load. A schematic diagram of a two-stage vapor refrigerator is shown in Figure 12.2.7. and x3=0.77. ANSWER: -279.1. the working fluid flowing throughout the whole system must be the same.550 Chih Wu Homework 12. CLR1 S5 S4 CMP1 THR1 S3 SPL1 S6 S9 MXR1 S7 S2 THR2 S8 HTR1 S1 CMP2 Figure 12. where it mixes with the vapor leaving the low-pressure compressor at state 2. Saturated vapor separated from the liquid in the flashing chamber enters a mixing chamber. mdot1=1 kg/s. Determine total power required by the compressors.1a has the following information: Topping cycle: working fluid=R12. It is therefore used to r