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Understanding Optical Fiber

Understanding Optical Fiber

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Published by: HelmyZainuddin on Dec 15, 2011
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Io dplah the fundahorals offiber oprics,r srart*,nh sone ideo rhar may seembasic vhtu inrodkins a relarivety nerv,6eld,i, i, u.*...*pr"i.,.. i-ucn rhJntoo i,li.".d..i: trrt€ n * e o n , e e : . , . . . s : , b t e .r i n n r d e J , J t r i n s .r o . h o q h o q r h , n s .w o r k .r i m i | h e lo h.hak' tu , o ' , m p t r r t g e b r . . ^ a nrd p . h . o u g h. o _ e * - t t c . . l . J L r i o n , e $ )ou o. k h o q , h e \ s o l . I ! o _ D p " r e b e ro p r i . " i r n o r h ,r 6 . o m m o n r r , n n o t o s r eb d h i g h . sr !h r.are. rld d,Hercn.eend I h"fc ".o o,A.ni/e,i . rhcbook,. L..t;,"" .,-"* =i..n.ins and reviewof conceps. --:< bool r sruqued o inlroduce1ou to brsic conceprs {irsr,rhen ro dig deeper into ::* hardNare its apptj.",inn,. it " .t .p,"^ and "," o.sanized lo owsj as


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w{h ' gen€rar an rD The fist thre chapters Presenr ov€rvis' sta{ing oPtic' light and the i' Ct'"p,e. t. Ch'pte' z inaoduas i^,."ad." o n . e p t o f l i g h rg u i d r n gc h r p r c r J i n r r c d u c s ' o m m u "n The'e rhrpr'^ oome vou hz'e Iinle ,"1 i;L,-*,i. ,**-i* think tour i",r'. naa,l't rhevarewonh rading oen iflou i"L-..i background is adequarc od ho* the'v 4 <D Chaptcrs through8 coveroptical libers'their propatia' ro into 6vechaPtets *. "".-St.a ;",. -St.' rhe materialn divided ( h'Pt$ a rhough 6 are65daar 'o makr ,r ea,e' ro dieet Chrpter rer *" iU. -"iepo lound in r-he oldre bot ""a.'',*a;*

garns "nda frber ."* '"i;"rL,p"* nU'nu'edin fibtrrmplrt'en 8 ChaPt'r N'n lishtiis r"* "ai "ootl*r;i^ ',.t' * rrchite'LU€l
o"cn iew oi cabling



optiel Ch.pr.b 9 rh@uBhI2 oer luer ana LED l;ghrrcuo mpli6'B sd el'd'orcewen optical .p,;.1 a.,.'on r-i-;''." and (on'tab rheop€€r'on or r€enenrob. ChaPrcr l2 @mPares oPrn opiical mPlificrs and elecirc'oPflc regetrenrors Gd in frbeF Chaptes 13 through 16 cover a rargc oforher onPoocnts thn join 6bcs ootii syrens Chrptcr 13 coversconnator and splica in i,*ra "ouplers and other pusiw conponcns used dr'-J. i -*" in waT]:nctheu.. 'y","-.. ct'"pt€' 15 @ve!s the oPticau*d .i-it *t',ch olrbine and cprntc sig'alsI ditr'rent Ji';1i." -'r,iA*;"e oprical *,".r.^g'h' ,*, 'h'iat' 'hc ume 6ber Chaprerl6 <orers oPtiel kev @mPonensfor "nd "ptiJ*iichidg. -"d"I"i". Chaptei 17 coversthe fundamentals ofopticel and Gberoptic tho* -a a.cribcs how opdJ rnouremenrs ditrer fton -i"i,"-*,.. test Gb€r-oPtic Chapter ls follows,covering of otherquantitiesa n dr r o u b l e s h o o t i n g eqripment o c C h , p r e ^ I 9 t h r o u g h2 2 . o r e r p r i n ' i p l e s f l i b e r ' o P ( i@ m m u n ' a ( r o n . a.-'u'.' ,he bxic p rincrtte' behind fibo aPdc sv-rer 5 ' nd ii,i,.' r cn'*e :o 'oen m'io' rcmmuniqrion:mdard' .",'i'"i*",1''r' (insle wvelengrh '* a.{sn of Poinuto-Point ' *,rl'i' .z Jt'*.' ho* rne'e r v r e m ' , * ' r h . a * p l e . , l . u l ' t i o n \ ' ' o y o uu n u n d e r n d d pu, ros.,h. Ch'ptr' 22 orend' de'ign'o ,ir.m..* i""'" *"r':or'*rng 'nd Lhee'erg''gopriel nevork '",'.if""r'ii



) r a ( | a p r r ' . 2 r r h r o u g h - ' o ' e ' v ' r i o u "r ' P e c hJ t r e l c @ m m u n i u r ; o n " dd ror nui. .p,ics6r into net-rorkused grobal tegional JJli"'.- i.* da',nen*orL r;--.i,".'mF';on.,,b'e ref i''on md ;.il;;;.",; *Nort oeren, global lea' "nda pan orrhe ii'j'" 'i,r'.'. i..* - o (iat
,o *..p,on..p,'

of control robotic i,.r,.l**., *.1 * nu.,-opticJles for remore in 'ehicles, nerqorks air'rafiandautomobrles' and


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rD The ijnal Mo chapre.s d6c.ibe noncommuni.irionapDlicarions. ( h r | | o 2 q e \ p l J i n :r h ep r i n . i p t 6r n d o p . r u r i o n j r L o co p o Ls e n \ o , r . o r Chxprer30 cove.simagingan iltumim{ion \rrh 6bcr optics_ \lor chrpars indude ugge$ions for funh( reading, and a lrt oi resources appears at rhe back of rhe book. Linlc to Veb sircsare currcnd).be;ng added to rny Web sire, ,tp://auu.fb.rion..afu I would wetcome any suggesrions ronrmenrsyou mighr or h.!er pleese e-mait me at jefi@fiberhone.com fiber@iel1]recht.com. o. The glosnr .n the backofrhe book you quick arnslationsofspecialird rerns Sives Th;edidon alsoinclud€s appendiccs r.bulareusefulinfornarion, thar suchs rheratues ot,mponanr physiel consmnrs, convemion facrcrs, siandard dararares wavelen$hs. and /nd r feut$ ,n,muta. I harerriedro makeqdyihins cutrcntt6ur rheiechnolo$.is adhncins sofdt rharsme details ee bound ro bc@ne obslere. Vfien you 6nish i,,/o!tz,tri,i Fiba O?n6, w" should be preparedro follow the no admnces,and perh"p, -,t,iS"r. r. ri,.- * *ai



Over rhe yean, nany peoplein the GbeFopricindu$ry havegivengenerouly of their rme to patE ry anwq hy quesions.I owespeciat rhankr to Kevin Able, Bill Chsg, Eri.h Dzaklq, Jim Hays, DennisHoNjrz,lim Msi, r.vick Marsa, Jim Refi,and wav; Siddall fot reriewing parts of rhis €dirion, clerty explainingcomple coneps, aad prendce pointingme ro usetul resou'ces. Hall.@iewers Richad J. vhite, ITTTcchoical Instirure; SranleyM. Krause. PhitipsColtegei St. KenneihE. \flindham, Nrh Commun i n C o l l c g er:n d D , . I a l i iM o 8 h , d d s i .C i r y U n i v e ^ i . y r N e { y o r k B r o d C o m m u n i n o Collegerl.o prcvidedJrelpfulfeedbr.r for rhi. ediron Drvid Chrrtron, Marr Duch esne,Robetr callasa, Mike Pepper and John Schlage. helped{ith ea.tiercdnioos. I tr"nk TL edi.... Jr Pr"nu.e Halt. L*, r.*, wou. ".a t,ns,,!.d Laaaun.drioa, D a , 3 v . o rp a r i e n . e i r h m e r b o , ea n db e v o n d h e , J t o i d u o t l t ' 4 r h r n k r h e , o m D r . w r r . . . u n i v s ' . r . a , ' r d i n d i v r d u a w h o p o r e d p r p e n .r ; p t r " r i o n n o . e . . u r o r i r J , . , t u l, r n J ' d \ r n c d " r ' h . . , . o n r h e W ol d W i J e \ x c b w t - e| , e u t d r n J , I c m t r h e n q u e . r ; o n . o {ok @rside .dnal wtrking hours.And very special thanksto anvonewhos nmes trnd .ontriburions hay haveslippedthroughmy haphazard nentat fiting sy*ems._1lr. e(ors rhar remalnaremyowb. fh;s book is dedicated rhe memoryofHeather Wi|;amson Mesenqer, m s i n . d e d r . r . r . , e n d . , ,d v i .r i n o f d o n . c r i . , r o e r r . . JcfIHech!








A Personol Vew l, TheRoors Fiber of vpflcs Z, t'rbers Communicotions gos;c in 6, nber conceph 7, Thelme.ging Opticol Nel worK I t, rrber termsond Ter6i66l6gy 15 Plostic Fibers I aO,ExoticFibe,s ond Liqhl (Judes t4r'

Bosics Oprrcs t9, Ligh,c!,idinq of 22. hber tronsmirsion 30, OAer Optjcol lomponenh 35

omc coltPoNENlS t9

Fiber Grorings lj3, Doped Fibers forAmpti. ners ond.Losers 160,Side_Glowing Decororve rroers t6J, photonic Bondgop "Holev" or t'bers l6d, crodeJtndex F;ber Lenses' toZ


Cobling Eosics 173,Reosons 6r Cobling 124,Typ€s Coble l77.Ele. ol menhof Coble Shucture 182,Coble Inronotion l90, Coble Chonges Foilure t9t ond


Communicotion Concepls 41, Sysiem Func_ tons 46, Jignol Formoh 50, Anoloo . ond (onmunicotions 51, urgrtiot Cornmunicotions 5€rvices 55, FiberodicCommunicorion Equrpment 60

coitlltuNtcAfloNs 4l

tightSource Considerotions LID 195, 5ources I99, Thel,oser principle 203,Semr.

l-ightGuid;ng 62, Sbptndex Muhimode floer /o, Jvlode, ond llen E[Ie<rs 74. e.oded.rndexMuhihodeF;ber 28. SinoleMode fiber 80, D;spe.sion-Shifted Sinqje-


::Iy:ici !*1 losers Jemrconcluctor 2 i l, Diodetoser wovelengths Moteriols 212,Semicon. ond auaorOpricol Amplifiers219,Fiber Lasers ondAmptiliers220,OtherSolid.Stole tosel sources 225

s"-.es- 206, verricot cov,ry

TronsmitterTerminology Operorronol 229, lonsrderotions 230,Muhiplexino233. Modulotion 236,Single-ChonnelTronsmine, uesign 239,Somple Tronsmihers 242

iiri ,,*'

7v, vrner

in l:t.,=orion sinste.iode ber types

F;berAttenuorion 92, L,ghr Collection ond rropo€otion t03 D:spers;onlOZ, Nonlin eor Efie<ts 120, Mechon;col properties l2a

Defining Receivers Bosi(s 252, , .2a9 Derector rerbrmonce Considerotions 259,Elechonic runclions 266,Somple Receiver Circuits 269

Reqr:iremenrs lorMol;rgOprr<ol Fibers I3 r, Er. Stttco eross rrbers 132. seo Fibers ,34



ArrtPuflIRs 275

TheDistonce Problem 225,Types ofAmplilicotion 272,Requ;remenrs for


Conholled Opfics 402, Opticolly lnleoroted ond Mojulonon Switchins404

Amolilicotion279,Elecko-OpticRepeot'ers Fib€r 280, oni Reqenerotors Erbium-DoPed Fiber AmPlitiers nmolifierc 281,OtherDoped in Amplificotion fibers 288, 287.Romon Ampliffers289,RegenOpticol Semiconducior AmPliliers293 in erotion Opticol

17 cHAnER tlEtn-om€ 409 tilEAsuRtlltl{Is
Bosicsof Opticol Power^'l€osurenrenl 409, WovelenqA ond trequency t'l€osrremenb 4 | 8, Phoseond InErferencel'leosureltl€osuretnenh 4ll ments 420. Polorrzolion ['leosurem€ih 423' Timeond Bondwidth l'l€osureme.tb 426, Fib€rSiqnolQuolity 428 SoeciffcMeosuremenh


299 sPucEs

of Aoolicotions Conneclonond Splices 299, 307,Fiber'to-Fiber lniernolReflections In Considerotions Me<honicol 30l. Atlenuotion Shuclures 309, Conne<lor Connectors 307, Insiollolion 3l l, Conne<ling Conneclor

cobles 3l2,stondord i;"ole- ."d r"r"ltfibe, ond 3l2, SPlking ltsApPli Types Coinector ond ksues Perlormonce coiions 317,Splicing 319,lypesof SPlicing 321

ond Fiberoplic Troubleshoolirg139, Test 4/2, Troubleshoot' Mesuremenllnshumenb ing Procedures455

331 ond Concepts APplicotions , CouCoupler ond Types Coupler ole'thorocreri'rics334, 3r'5,Opricol i.chnolooies339,Attenuotors 347 Circulot'crs lsolotors346,Opticol

omcfl.N[I' 19 cHAmR SYSItllAl{D 455 WoTKNGCOMEPTS
An EvolvinqNetv/o* 465, Telecommunicotron Nen'ork Si'.rcture 467, Troneni$ion-ToPolo' Formob 4/U, lronsoies 470. Tronsmission ;ission Copocity 483 (


SYSITJTI 20 TIBTR CHAPTER 495 STANDARDS I5 CHAPIERWAVETINGIH.DIVISION oi 355 Whv Stondords Needed 495' Fomrlies Are oPIICS rlutllPtExlNc
ond Filters 355,Oplicol WDM Requirementr 376 ond ingMultiplexers Demr.rhiplexers

s s

366, wou :io, wou te.hnolosies Build-

Str{dords 497, toyersol Sbndords 49€' ConcePls 501' Inler Formot lronsmission 504, FiberTronsmission chonoeStondords Sidnd-ords 506. VideoStondords 510, Opticol Nel.lrorlingSlondords 510


383,Moduloiors Componenls Active Defininq in ondr*jdubrion 3tj4,Swrrc\ing Opticol Technolo s*irching Neworks 389,Opticol /01 Conversions 395,Wovelengrh o.es

Voriobles 515, Po*er Budseting 518' Budgeting 523 rronsmistor of Eromoles Loss Copo;ii/Budgel 529 Cosl/Perhotmonce Trode-offs s37


Sub sc. Fiberoptic Probes702. Esbblirhed Regionol Telecommr:nicolion Nerworis dO5.Orher Video Applicotions683 CHAPIERIIOBII..E. possive OpficolNeh{orks 635.Eco.*.Smoa Skins ond IIEI.. Emeroino Seruices Competrng ond Technologi.. * 100Cnonnek7al. GiqobnBher nerond Interner Protocol 632 APPTNDICES Appendix Importont A Conslonts.cture601.Fiber Prooerries ond WDM 550.tnrernelStructure646. sion oodCoble Systems 682. 465 trons' CHAPTIR RTGIONAI.Rrtiino Ner worksTogether 525. Equotions733.Remotely Conrolled RoCHAPIER 23 GtoBAt rH.IIttRO 24 AND TEI.Appendix C Slondord Time-Division Multiplexing Rores /39.OCAI. Appendix ITUFreqoencies WaveD ond l"rgths L-ond for C-bonds.Opticol Amplificotion WDM ond Design 555.o o cHAnEr oPTtcAt 22 NtrwoRxfi{c SYSTE|{ DtStGN 545 WDMve'sLs High-Sp€ed IDM 545. 30 AND NAITNG OmCS flBEt 7t7 Bosics Fiber of Bundles7l Z Oprics Bundreo of Frbers 722.AutoDelining Telecommunicotions the Globol 57Q Telecommunicotions Nen/ork 571. Coble Television Neworl! 6Zl..Atmospheric Ooticol Links 651. i00-GHz Spocing.orls 607.I 28 FIBTROMC a22. Vehicles690.Appendix ond B Decibles Equrvolents ond 737.58 GIoSSARY 748 tNDtx765 . Contersion Foctors. ARTA NITWORKS 643 mm Computer Phone ond Neh/orks 643. Some Fiber Sensor Exomples707.Types of Long-DislonceServices 595 motice Fiber Oplics 696 D d CHAPTER 29 AER.Nonlineor Effecrs WDMSvsin tems 554. F.iberondAccess Services 626. Digirol Telev'. R€ionol/Meho Sysrem Desion 609 CHAPIERIITAGING IUUJVII. Switching OpticolNeF ond working 558 CHAPIIR VIDEO 27 IRANS'ilISSION 669 Video Bosics 669.rtttuNtcA..Densii/ ot Opticol Chonnek 546. botic floNsAPPUCAfloilS Shipboord 569 Fiber-Optc Nehrcrks 695.Appendix Fiber-Optic t Resources 7l5 CHANER COMPUTTRS 26 AND I.s .Fiber rn Stondord DoroNer*orls . FiberSensing Mechonisms 70!. tibersin Aircroh 693.beroptic DoioUnl Desiqn 657.Tronsmission Medio 67o.OPIIC SENSORS 7OI FibeFsensing Concepts701. coililuNtcAfloNs 601 Regionol Neiwork Str.Submorine CoUes 580. FiberOpticGyroscopes 709.lmoging Applicolions725.IPHONT 25 0R "ACC[55" NEIWORKS 6t9 Structure Ae Lo<ol of Phone Nehirork 6 I 9. Metro Neh. coMrttuNtcAiloNs 689 Mobile Systems689. Long-Houl Terresiriol Systems 589. lJnirs.. Lighr Piping lll'rminotion728 ond CHAPITRtocAtIH. Aopendix tosironi E Fiber Sofety 743.30. Fiber versus Copper tinks 653.

hrve.o j:" comprnies Y:i: o e L f l o p .::: ...T. i o " t m o s ra c u r i o b t v a . . .ed I (an .1.. In coitrse s.'T:. o n .:Y.o.{irh sood reaon _de. . r f 5 . . p j . .:". i. op.:r*"i.. .. " . . . b.'il. 6 b f l . . . h e n p h o n e q nohnous rhrillinscon. fi6r oprical6be6 I sawwerein deconrive I ::5"..f. k 1 " .in.. rhe meir spread sinc rren. r e .:.. ..o Jstr. v p r i m i r n e .. e w e r er h e d a . ...i..ff:::.. .h.r rerephore . p rru lrrA .il . r e df i b a o p . n.'i::.il:. .d...'iI '".nc but r.. jl"ji:. 6^.".i::T J..... .."u. . 1 ..tujion: worksrNorh.i....'I wasar the_lirrfibo-opticrade showin the late ryl0s.:i:: ti:h*"lt#:.:. . (i d... e d t o o | ' .dr€q ne brck. a.".:.il6".r o . l"* g.:"1 :: r wff or. g_.l:.. .ibeda .. .l... andhave warched qcirc.i: .iird .a n d u \ e d r h e m r o p t a y s .-..*IT: p'". .Til"H. r $ o r k e JR .:..'-^ :I. i k ..'..''-._* r". l.l *I. r r .T h { p r o o r dr n d r r .n d 6 1 .i. i . h n o l o $ . :.. i.d .". o C r h e vu .l . t . .. e .s.hm to rrte. u ..fhe me. r h l i s h ra tbof. weie .ill. e d t i g h t r o . ..end rnrr h^ is."J::::.I:HT:: ... . ^ .onrc r p e n g i n e r i n gb u r l g h r .g* r. i.Introduction toFiber Optics A PersonolView Lish. b i l .. h e n r n d i r w o r k e dN o r o n l ! i h a r .. n \i .t. ..ing. rho had improved mrch .11. * a d r . Jn old rr.i ." . n gh r n i:orio m n u n .. h e t o o \ ". r n d r h . r n g . e . f h o .ll through$andardundergrouDd duc6. -i-y. l r m p e dt r d . Tfie .ii.* h " ..:.. r ..f'* 'o!\.udied hr i{ rnd rreci. i j .*lli..h*. b r l r h " .h.r! L o o l i n g . Each vea..rmehber Ar D o u g n t .Pi.. como. Th..:ffi.:'.."...". s l e $ 1 v . "-' .

.Q^ d. n g ) P R u l o P r i e l d e \ r L cL h M .f'6 b c ro P r i ct e ' h n o l -l -.^. "Aght line ion rheir eyesOr r o' other PurPos€s nats i. . j b . r sJ $ r \ a n i r o d " u e F r r r n s e l 1t ' e r o n Jr : : d J'ni .' . r r f i b e ' f { c m \ o n r r ) 6 .** w o r l . therealsoare rim* shen peoplewanr to look around mav iusr Ned rc piPelisht !h€.'".4 "i-.rrr'lhe n^r scntfuron ::" l o r r o * ! dq u / K r r n u . r. F .1':::ll':" .. .s. fo.. -' . " " . e r vh o m e l o d r v 6 l ' e ro p r i ' ' r b l e ' r u n o r e l d t r i h a n d J u l l ..ond modem' the happen' *.o pL".. h o m $r o d J \ 'r o r h r"q h . ... J Nw rewrurbr'. r .. r ' h " 6 b e ro p r i r r o o r u r i o n ' r r rr c r r i n u ...a . .'..oush. e r r h i n b n g . r i o nb r l i g h t w r r o u n d l ' n g b + d e rc rolk trcm (o enromoP' pl$'.r o r . . l .ommunicaring. o p o n r ' l n o r o i l t n g ' h r " n e d o v e h ev e J " ago' arefar belond "hat an\onedareddream20 vears warcha nd t€hnorog! spnng Lookrneback. .". ' d r" . .rs beenan incredibleride lt's a rhrill to frcm resarchscL -. h r . .r'" -.. .."" ad boh+and 6ber' ofthn visiooarvsruff l:t! getdowo to the nua eoough But rhar's s r . .' h e . o m e qr o e . b u r r h er c ' o m p r r \ n m e n b r .need6beroPtics .i? r. r ' r '.. n eo r r r h ' P " r e ' ( 1 .''-'.L h . " c o n o g e n e . o p ' . e l i a r r d r s hl ' n A F \ e n r h o u g h l e n $ " n b e n d l r S h h n d T i r r c r ' ' r r u v e r ' i nr n i J r g h| | n ' h t r $ e e r o P r i J l d $ r ' $ .p ' . . . J .o r e o l m ' l .*. o m m u n ^ . t : m " .".* *': m a i n l v' o b u n n ' * ' ' " : ' 6 b e r. . "' p . . o n .ook mdv vrr" tor rhe rder behind frberoptir \ p e o p l . . ' i . r n t * a q r d . o r o p r r " il. but ' L e h . :rd m*e rcd:vl 'ablemod"m"nd drgikl werc visr"arrie' sho 'Jrer$ ' wrred ''n ( vesrerdr\ 1200brr/r. I q l -$ i l l r r r .. e 'ln4\t toL'. unrl . . .'.'fl t h r r ' . 6 r " . v . ' . r " r .p1". " p " * h o m t r l e P h o nt ( h n ( i s ' .r'e realworld once I herd aboutfibe' oprics i".' ln !h^. . l l b r i n g i v m l ( u )o trn r o or n r o r m i Kn x e ( u b \ r i b € rl r n e L rron enre. ' " . .. p e e de l ( " n m t n i u r i o n ' l i b e r g o i ' r o o n l v a * rb cw n r l lu l .O u"*" '' '"''ll o.hrPrcr voJ $rrl 'r" ho$ h o r i ..ri{np ).1. r " t r h r b : ' k b o n e f r \ ' l ' r * d r r ' r n r .dio.nmu.:. o n e .. ' " u o . 1 1 ' o 1 " ' r b r oP r r $.. " " .:""'. i " l ' " .| r d o . n o .r h h r n r .'". ' + ' r ' h ' r g r u rr'c r r ' ' n n t h e m This About ChoPter l i b r r o p r i ' a $ c r e h o e ho f T h e r o e ro r .viewing' iLluninaring' whcn rher. " . . . ' i i g h rr w o L l d a tl n r m r m a g e ' rmer* brr"'ul'r' tere*ope 'nd m:crc-oP6 ' prooer it lie\rdidn rlel 'n tLrghtlin" cornen or prooe tnstoe Howertr.o. .r ' o nu r r c a d ' A r h r r JF r n r B r r o n t r e l e p l t o mt " t t ' u . . *iI r'-" " nUred scietv instod \(e canallmtch it ir. r i . d Y e t \ h e n i r d o e " o m r ' l i b o w . u l e n o ' p r o b l e mr'r ' o m m u n i r t i o n ' OPtics of Roots Fiber The rD ughtnormolly lines.

.a Concord.OFia O Piping Light a. rhe 'dee of light p p ng rerppearcd agrrn rd :gain unril.n e d6rrnr @ds. th€ solutjonws recoSnized.ns lisht(U.l'fildr. . o m er w r d r l y k n o w n h l d . r n d w r n r o n t o b e . Pat at 247. p .::.thtth tb.r phnNd ro uf ti8fi( rrom r hjindingtybrisi.inss. r l l m . Ho"ever. r e d . rheyie . in r. er c d " 1 L w r r f r h e vh . n Fv r 3n o ro n eo l h ^ ( u .e n e . Drsem€nr tIum. flfc(ic rr( in rn. Fvidcnd) nor betiwrng rhrr Thoma Edi. engrner fumcd \(ittirm wh.ll<i. He larcr foundcd a saqsfut @mpan! rhar m. .rl.229) :@. riEtlli.se ensinee.p r o ! e d o p r & r . 1881. rhrough buildins\.de pE(r. .Vteete.hool.her rooms. d n i . ' r g r t p r p .a Japan. M.l-u'on.. had alread! his help€d found. e * e s .\n.t finally coalesced lhe opiical6ber inro ...cte.a -. lhen diffiBe ir inro o.r.l pip.de s r e r r m p 5 .heme for piping tigh. ddFed r q of pip. s h . .5. n L J n d e \ e nb u t b .outd p."a conceptshownin one ofhis parentdrawings Figurel. parenredr. H. flouftt. . e r r h e t e s . w h e e t es t .2+ o.nil The problemarc* long befor.ons rhen "* ."J"ai**. cnoughr. u .r wnh refectne trningr ro and dilTuing opricsto erry lighr rhrcugh a buildiog.h " . a l. Uu]U !. a u t i c r g i n e e rN e . e .ight Alrhoush he *as in his Mendes *den he reccived patenr.sa_ In . \ I r .ghuo do rhe iob. p ^ p r o b a b tw o u t d n ih J .

:ji.'*'t*'e uP in rhe$rrer broke thebem' *i*i'iLl'*:Tlrd.'.::-#:Y.:: .:l'j.fi .:: .l*1 ..'xri.*.i'-:.:':.tr.#t#ff t#i:Jr*''""In lTtliiirilrit+iffilff E*l'* lr:ilt'trk'iffi w'delv r'(o uo in benr el*s rods bur i( $bnr i' hi' PoPJI't le'rur" on {''n" . .2 ! ! { j Lehl bean becomesmorc diltuse a.:'ill *lll"1'J. passesdovtnlhe watetlet beciuse lukulence breaksup sudace l .@..T":Ttff {ilifl ::*ifii:til'iir.J:.lfl."*l collal"n bcd n ii:''i'JJ.rr'' Reflection IotolInternql v..ir 'r'.o.1. n.::.*T':l*'#': I flGUtt1. .L I:I i::l**:rn:r." "".HTl*l'J li: *ul.

cur er my surfa.--t A" nbe6 to atisn ihen..t.rrlerr oo.. e i .". into rhe othei Th€ 6be6 "tso o s.o .v rr"*. . .thr! tib. e d b e e s w r n d p t A r i c .Lighr wm leis our wherehnserprin. so n can guidel." ."u. r. . . e .o . n .op!icendoscope becone an .1 9 5 6 . 1 t a d . .. i rhe (D perbctingo ' rcugh. a r r r " e r e . o . . The solut.a n d p t a r i ( i . n er b e . separarely suEssrcd dre ctaddins to van :.lrdfibe...hev c"" i.pt . r u d m r .fto muy bre 6bc6 are bundled bgerhe. n n e . . . A m " e r i c "e t e .. . a C c i m n m d i .I n D e l € m b e . r h n . A nie sla$ 6bq is reallvakry thin rod. . t h e r e .."*" i-.herelishr ri6 to from a nar. rheywercbeins usedto i umi nr. ( h . a n H e e lu . m r r i n gb u n d t en r q j o . h . and ns ref. u t b$ e r ei m p r a r r . cla... o" leak froh on. r t r h o u e h t c $ j i b e r s .Air is. in rhe middle. d f i b r r .J 0 .o'l-r.. .' O Gloss Guides tmoging light ond Cleatgl*s rodscouldalo guidelighr.po*. Asehbtc a blndte ofrhem. . tt "ts Uene. m c r s . Bur toral is inte.. e d. 6be. the H€inrich tamm. r . . r r y C u r u .a .*_..r O t h e r r m a g r n g . and voeminent orofessos ofoo ric'. . .a t J y e s 1 . ..narerfic .dinan glas.h.trJ 6ben bt metrrng rubeoftor_rndex r st.m r d e ' h e 6 ^ r i m a g e . .h. m J I e .Holger Moller Hansen. o u s hb e . c t a s L t a d d . which i.dran dcking a-gas lamp in rhepatienr's mouth. bur it wasftr from pe.. m J r e r .o ewine $e colon.dber ^ptvado.oJF i n gg l x . parenred @nc.. r .h cting .opaot pa.e mi(6(ope.!d:air Ho*cver total hrchal reflectioo qn o.hd. .n.nrtrefldlon bj .Th. !i. btrt be didni recognize more imponant fie lish from ! problem."-r. Bv th.000293 much loq€r rhanihar ofo. r s t " * rods io illum.nh 20/20 hindsigh(. " f + i . and @ n4er s.r." _a t o r h eo r h e rI. r n u n d e r s r r d u " rs r u d o r .*.1.oarrnro. e n ..hend. p p l u u o n \ . H o \ r e \ " . f . ihe rme prob lemprrguedtn!ftm. r r o n r .a <hownin FigureLJ.b. .on. n gu o nb e o n r \ r a i d J d . o r n b .nwhoindeprndenrtv@nvenrrdimrgingbundts.edrolatin((. .ria:. . o o n e m e r g e d o r o u r J e o r o p r e t 6 b e r ..jl.han rhe gla\.po(ahr medial tooi alrhoush has some i n ' ' r u m e n r n o " . h " . md lighr lead out ar 'hr \.: a Danishcngioeer and invcnror. .a H e e l I n 1 0 5 1 .he gts. r r d -r n r r g r d b u n o t t . Flexible fibe6 bundlesare inr(cd in rhe opposilcend ofrhe bodr. . Abmhamvan Hel in rhe N€rherlandr and Harold H.licl.. .t.acrive indexof 1. . h .u. I t J ..rarch eachorher. .. e t H r h e .Int'!d!. m . and .e $.nrheerrlytq50. a l .m( he\.rhenbd. ' i n u o b e p l . 1 r .he$orr. o v e r i nh r g t a Kh A r r e f E d P ei n d a ." tigl. " . Everyone o $arred by looking ar rorat idte. u . d i n sh s h r h .on.orii.\X. .ndd ro onewnh a lowerrefncrire index. b . rg . s u .s onro a r o d o f h i g l . e *not" inau. m m:eg Aherican optical ph/sicisr.. eerlv 1900s.d r r n G i o n G c u ^ a l o n ga sr h .nsideofthe mourh for denrnrrr. Motler Hansenprcdu. . e6 ne tl\r e np .\ h ( h * .a.l wnh a so high refactive..t .r i b e n o e r m e r e bundlcr an "pipe lighr for ilt"n]inarrr inro h.eone. h e ( n i v e b .n rhe late 1920s.t ". .lid6 Invcnrob P l r r n r e ds . .ri. t r i e t \ r engineer and prolilic inwntor. .. .l_r. . F b e r * i t h m a g : .o. r n .opcttotook 8 down he.krcljlfkerrorJ<in8Rex.shr jn thc sme warl clas ttbes alsoareffcxible. . Hopkjnsin Etr.nal rcnection ar rh€ bounddy betEen gls . * p . _ i. r y r e o \'{:. .fornins a Rexible bundterhai can be ben! ro ibllow the naturalcurves ofrhe throat. r f Dr m p l k d r o g e ' h e r d n i l d r J w n r o b r e n . u .onvenienr. . ' i . r o u w i l l l e r m i n C h r p . n e .ideh. o p . . L 8 . .I . o .rrretueorrpte. rhar prcblem seens painfulll obviousu. hisrn rdd€ rhe 6^r good gto. . r n ..r n d a g | A .

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q t r r er r o n s .rqials in a glaisyd noncrystatline snte. . J . Nch as tooki.f i b € i s ..rmue"rly when pulled. o t p u l .de. .*aefinru*d'ourn. L s h . " . i e t o h r n o .mo . . fluo. Special-purpose nbe6 may be made ftom othc nareriak.to" nU" ".6 fait ifiu. r . nuo....he 6bes usedfo. w h i . compaisonis to nonofilameir 6sh. b u ..r. n g e d n r h " \ r m e w a vo n h o . ! r h .rible rhrn rhickerona.ble ond urprisinglyslrons lmoging Bundled ond Fibers Oprr. .l ". o . T h e o p r i e l p r c p e n i e ' o f r r b c d\p e n d o n r h e . much more tl.allibo..3. Sometibe6 r. ' h .rpurities ro adjus the rcfrac rive index. u b r t e ' .o r i g n r t d r r n u a r i o nb u ro p r .t p . b e n r r o r h ed $ .nal srnight fom atier beingbenr.6ce circk\ prop. . nbe6 springba. Op. f i b . .y. u * d o n t yr { r n o u . o .om I. . L h r . so rirey are somerines usedfor infraredappliodons. clsrc$ til.. . poundsarc rmsp*ot at lons. .tldctio' b fibct oprk O Fiber Maferiqls Mor fibcs *e madeofrry puG glas.6 tom me. ^ r . for down a parienrsrhroar.i' pureglass. r \ o n e p o i n ro l : n i m r g er r o m o n e e n d o t r h e o u n d l er o . h e Flexible rigid ond o r h e : ..These 6be4 mavatJbc olled gt*sesbcrse rher arenade ofn. a w rlre. u r ci " . rre iderrified b. r . a n o e r h i n n e r .e flq.N D r u l l v i . ^ s l d . r i i .. rnantoose fiben. r i f r b u r n c x i b t en d g e n e r J l . r r u r r u r "a n dr h e r r o m p o r r i o n .p"^-.. L d s .e ssen(iallypuesilicon dioxide.e r r e . rvith the rwo endsfixed rogether and rhe fi&r loosein (he middle {ahhoughqpielly enc*ed in a p ..itr hairsor very rhin 6be6. n o r a . A be(c.. u f f e r o r e .id.r \urh. . ^ r o g e r h e r n in! r . medicJ inasing atrdilluminariona. d b . l . madefrc.D Fibers riff bur o. .rabte "unv applicdiois. g . . (D odded to chonse Fiber Properties M e c h M .vhi:i. i sn o r e f l o i b t ea n de a . e .ed ior c"-municaron\ ar oken @m.rg and :.nstine.-. e d .bletr. . n . .isid.edroush d. he n d . thev 4. Untike wncs.r t r h . .emadef.ingle r c d . h. rD e r L hh b e rL r . h h s \ " r e . .ieJ 6bq. T h i n 6 b e r s r e e r . r { c The mor o D q o u s\ r o \ .bur whwer thoughr ofrhar c"./r. i " . bur rhe. .mi. slds 61E6.im"ga. Par€db hunan hans. for€xamph. . .Dlati.e6 ukd in tetecohntuni. ( l e .. Bundles mybe fld. J n u r J .. u.ide.ia b u n d l e .t. A Rqibte hundleconsisrs ofmanyseparate fibers. i n . narerial. . .. Chs 6b<a er. intared \avetengfis rhan silie. b u ' n p i o l l v p l s r i .hanrJ damagc. hich aredescribed derril in ChaDr€r in 5 . . i N r d u " n ^ e n .and do no *rerch p.urprisinsty sron8..arions rhe a. . h . o u n c . f. I. h eo r i g i n r t t r r m a g "o n t h e o .prer30..e nDe'." n d i n . c A f N e l s .t-rdinmoredeuitInrh.ets ofi. bu( (hn.n 6ber rhnsemenr is nor d critjql.c o n l c s ' h J n l l e v b l eb u n d t e .a (SjOr).om. .sa. ( r i v c h o b i n g l t u g i db u n d l r \r ( m r o e h L m e t r i . . alrhough sl{s fibes nay brea}. p r d u r i n ! l ..kJo rheiroig.. . h i .{.. .: . h c e e u t ." "iffer ihan a men! coase beard( r the sameissrh. u l l y .i o n . h e r e n d o f . o . * . h. c r( o .r'res c \oairngsprorftr hb.From a chemiei standpoinr. but rypicalty. .[nlM d j. wnh sha lo. inflexibiiirvmakes then unsu. p l d ! r . h F b u n d t e B u n d t s o r f i b e h a t . co--*. Ior examDle..

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hrng .. t . t * . . ( h r *' .equipm.c . . . n . o n n e l . f s v:r r : n e.I h e J . o m p o n M . h r o u s h r h e r r s h rp .k. r b u . o n n e . . .!s" l. g " .(!r The Emerging Network Opticol A cohmuic. .n. lri^ . h e . re.lp. r . " r _ . . r n . r i o r t o u : n r h i n l o f r n o e .:J::il.t* *-"_.". r e do \ { . . ..hebooti. i . a . . n d . t r ! " e n d ro f p . p e . ' r h b n ._box$_erult\ spe.. J r y B o p o . . r e L o p p e \ r e . h rp p $ . h * . c ..l_ dd :T. op.twork in Fig singie lctably roubtelhoorins.:t^er). S$tched N. D . . n r . * r n c ' i m . .*.over | 6 : li.fi. . n d . ..oruau ro ruroda @ flouRt r... i. \ w i . e r o i b d .d r r e or h r:'. ( .:. bo .toi.' . * " . r n rk .r U e r h c t n r e r n eJ . :_1':.. o p r i .h.n v o r J .. hd Tle op. r . d r . h " .rre. ..w . Jnd and rhey chrprer.:j.l i n r o r m 4 i o ni . . i * * " 4<rc1 . t " y t i n t " . d i { I e .6 )41. h eb d .rJ_purpor i.. \4 p ..emcn. " . o6b d.orish(rerinsoneribersoesrtraightinrorheotherchap ro de\rihe riber\ opri. .r . b* . " . .ice( how wo. e t e D h o n(e n D . o r . .**e. . . . b e . n a " 1 ..ccommunrcanonrp em.""8r meis. ^ . . Y o L r . ." ..iide. rD . . p e r . o m i .eve^ribe. . rars en jn dhq rypq ofcommuniqrions nenrork. U . * r .. You couldevenexGnd rhe idearo rhe mDsponadon neh\ork jryou wanted.rion syiem perforns tl. o m p L r e h_ . r .rnl.. p e \ . . A t r l u u e h+ : . re.i n n e r e | .\. . .". . .o b*ic funcrions: ir transmits and dn(ibures infor_ m . .ud rheemcrg ns :::. .n't^ r m a r : o n n r h e o nrope. . " " 1 " : : i \ \ r c n . b.. d . r . j 1 :. .r n " . n r r i r a .. .

: : .D t*n" 1.1..Opfi<olneh'orks s [t*****fi***lr'*.:lliI *l* *tl*r *$f.x'f..i$J*:]-tr].'u Ironsmission $#llilr*r*H:*"r fr *****l+*r'rffi Medio **-rc*ffiql+l-**l'St*t .:.Pff.g$*:l*n ffi ilJiliT+i:ffiff "'n"H'%l'::.t: .+****r+r.7 ftGuRE b t d T d a ( T iI[i#''ir-th:nrfi:*J.

.. u tions beaerthana poor one_ Forcoppe.F. r . e .I dojd rherern %. p h e r i .ion i. h e b r .iih signalfrequenc}. r lf i b d .a largch ro digiralhnsmiss.beh"hn. h r . | .eases in $. t e r . J r J .. _i. : m J l mrodean rstind\o.. of A...1 . Bondwidtlr Distonce ond Two key facroB th. .. An addtri(.. i " \ .drh.The choi.bur fteir dansmission islimned..ai* .lfmrnlpoplernmaeire. g ! d .ut\snat5 re. tu be d s d i b e d I n q r i o u w . Signal-rmsnission ap&ir). nevo. y o " ..wir6.* . For radio tud relevision sations.Lr.opticsysrens r can (D Opricolftbe. -.t. r. a i . mcral(.p. ." "t"b. The deraikof thosetypesof transmission atc b€rond th€ scoDe ofrhis b@k Ljghi akoGn p6s rh.^. J r ' " g ( o t o p r . it depends the srcund-bas€d on o i n h . . r n a t o g o u .. oo*". Mobite .ough op. . e .opric o." t.e.tb.odLtrble.oughai. e n " . . I n e i w r . On rhe dhe. .cleLo. i g . A pa.but cabtescan oller berte. ."i. on rhe receive..bure telqision sisnalsro nany peopteover much broeder are4. io r(/h€nratkinsabourGber oprics. rad'o-tr..tbe reson is thar aftcnuarion rhe cableinc.o d. "n i-po'. m a l r b r r h e b e r w A r o r e r .. fiber.r sinil& services. prevenronfusion. r o r h e r m o u n t o f * a r e r y o r r @n get rhrousha pipe..rOrrU.D rhejoband rhenarure rh. carrya videosisnal.€vision neNo..*. hmd.. m n .j. r c h o j ( e r y b e n o n d i r e . i J n \ m i G different sion an disr. i r i vN .s &.. e n . o t p e r q i ..e depen& on . .ouh r. o m m u n j o r i o b .. e q u i r e d i o r r r n . \ h i g nF J . ro.nr. anda few communi@rion sysrems sendopticalsignals shon disranesth.quency spectrum. narion rhe signal aries and how ftu ir mur go. l u l r " d i ^ ! r o n f J h e rr $ / ) .r derernine the choice of ratrmissiotr medium are how rnuch infor. 1--.s con corD.* Dirftrenr mcdiaareprcf€mbhfor differentcomnunicadons jobs.on. Cabteral. tffpl6 InLlud. beaer *cui$.. h r c m o r e t o o r i o n s t i ( . hbe. md nsion upa. r . r 1 u .. r d q i d r h i C n e l \ o v e r m u ( h bondwidth sisnoh . e r v e .ion o. r h o n e ."1..'<rhe-mesi8nrl. in. r e rp n w e . : o ."rry vidrc signals much fanher. i J n .nsmirdie.n airorfreespace.bls rnicaly rre u"ed ro connect tued poino.I u p * .but oely a ven shon distince.*o"" rC..nal advanrage rhat nor liber. .n. . ^ . is . rhc haximun transmission distance decreses with rhesignat bandw. a . h r o u g h typ€sof m r r h er i . " " . J n d a g o o d. high\ b . r i o n r t o r ob r o a d . tan$nission medium. s u c h1 5 . . . o n g rd .. e i r e ..i h t i .mnoiirr.Co*ial e_ blescm.wh€ntjkins. " .. . p * d .. m o . un. n Bn r h e o r y p eo t .ions.aUed baadaidth ^d.t . i" !h. I you will l€arn in Chapter 3.o. sFciA. _.^. q d r p e n d .del com_ To rnunicadom" thisbook. i o n6 o m p r m tird to<j anK n n a "d l o m t a r e l h e sS r r c l l i r e . sipal quatiry.r.tu. t h r n r w c " ( n n r . convcnrionJ rclephonr. The md. a r . m i \ o n m c d.bour r sendinglish(rhroush rh€air..." s*. potarrsearch{a.) .... . U. and rhe rammission nediun.. * . a w e \ r h e .rn. r n d . r n p . .". oftelephorew. tudio r€nsdn_ sion en off. (Ar you will atso rearnlater. .rnd crbte re.o*". .". h . o r . . J a .e' be. .I t:tkztcou anospbotit L*. e t t u t .. ^. @ @nducro6 (suchs wirs or codial cablet.anshissiondnrancedepends the hnsmifter. n .Sig"l a.rcll. r r n l e v h J n .

".luct .rg i' "'ai'-*'*.ft€r r'nshtr optial 6b(s can simulrlneousrv lihnv Th'. .r. h d r o n .ip""'"". " c r b r i n e 'e l h .-.rr.le rhe backbone the lnterner... r ' . P t 6 9 ] a n to it will add a lot to the 'alrc when 6bererentuallvcomes hones' s lr it Ir T} Growth Fiber.."."-..r " "* Ur." renextensive one is undergoing -*i'*-"ld *r'.e w c n .m . r'*.ror " ' .i. .t"". o hnd'c'ar data rangingfrom nilnarv slsrcor difGcultto ep. r r e l e p h o n a l ' ' r h a rg o b e r o r d v o u rl o ' r t ' o r n m u n i n oF' \ i s n r l '5 " rr ' n ' h ' t o f 1 i .. e u s e r n d w i d r h e q u i r e m e n r s a r e d i n \ u l l e di n I h o m €r e n o \ J ' e o n r l c .".r'g up existini rlalls . i r r r u r n f r n d . i-."pn. r*. . r o ' P ' ' ..but mosr of rr would nevs hear rhe difference' "p. . . r r m a n vr p r m r " r \ f l e n g r h .in -a "'"r. .. m ^ . r i n n t st e ' d r r vl r b .il.b e r h eo n r vN p .. ' . 'o rcr' lhe $n'e e r ! e ..leir speaker. r. o D l i r ...ra..echeper for mov presenr cor' monevdnd o ns v s t o l n * a l l a r r o n f 6 b e ra n d .u $ l .emonP|c'e and like xnv cu$om equiPmeDlther oke more nme oacirv).t'. homeand officeapplicarions' gor drcre6n ad a..i...""'f.". o r ." i i ..eni readil' a'zilabLe.Optic ofoptiol 6ber har€ maderhed rhe idcaldansn6 The baad*irith md orheranractions Thev havent beeninselledwerywhereuceuservtres re siod med'um wherecables used.u'". o n r r u c r r o no f n q ' o m m u n r a r i"goldene m \ o ore" nisht s(ereofanatis with soneonehas to justito thar exth cost -wmt .--"*.*.'. o n r n d r h e w r n n go n lnr'mmedr.i *'. cB r c a d c r irn e s r . on whelmssignalransmission wres "turure-proof conmunicarionsYstems omcc buildinss in Some6ber is beinginralled to hr more opensive than installingcable i.. On F ""a-.'ii". srare nre. " r r t ' n g ' r b l r t l e \ r n o n ro anached the lib* ouside m' ofdcesindor: coaxial. b r * m ' e . rD throush slobol .'en.i. p i r d r o * e 6 b e ro p r i ' ' a b l eb e r n g h d ' d n i a d d m u ' h o r h e! o { b u \ l ' " b l . 'n' v r i U * o b l e r ' | g n t e | h a r ' o r h e 'o P e ' l r b a i ' i n h ( ' e n r r r ' u r c i. r e m t h L O l d H o h t . F b e n . . a.enal 'fhe fiberoprc tndurr rs to mnnine from . importantin applications '*'* 'p-t"' ' nust in relineties aecci. tor ccrtatnapOotical fibec barescenl otheredqnages that mav dictatethek *lection n r r n r " r r g h rp r r ' e .a Bba' Jonr hring i .nu".o-.theva.... t h a tr d d i n gl i b e r ..id. is h. m u I P l v r n tI h ' i r r " r ' l ' r ' r ' n r i ' t " t t " 1 u ' " ' r g n a l . and counrr to countrv ' '"mp. e ' l h c rn ..rhe r'ph"rc h'1s .. r o ' e ' r n r o e x * r r n gt ' l * r n d i'.' .'. o P r u F . s \ a e t h e.abl€srun to hones fron boxes to delntr high+pted iot Fibss pre.ob''".'rr. ind are iLNInerring to daraservrces somt hom are linc (DSL)' Ncw high{aPacitvhbd op!' sr5t€nN subsctiber cabiemodemsor di.to do *ith coppercables.-r. ". o n i n u ."J'*.L' I L d u r i n g o n ' r r e r i o nR a S o o d n ( n m c n t d o v a t i o ns o m e e v e t p e . i r .Ju. D l e a s d n t l v. " l o * . * . l i r * o n i b e u e d i m m e d i a t e lb . .1t. d r h ' o u l \ r h e t s l o D Jrr' r e o m m u n i ' a ' rri\c on dP'(Jr r^'r ' '" T o .1....O o"*' ahd l(Frcr to be upgraded transmnat higho speds simplv bv replachgrhe toNm. r r n r " ' o r r l n t a r o l e r p o t ' e g : l '"e r l l \ l l r ' \ h r ' h ' r n g e n e r r eb r k g r o u n d n o i e t ' r r -....'benehl'b...s r .e "t nenrc'l H o w o r ' .. o . 'a r g r . h e m r c ap L n n .in to cin.j i+.

l:..ilff.: . ktH:::..:*...o.':?"i:. dcr.rhe 6ber. $li.. lor b do wi.:. ..'.ai-ru". t ..re.jilffi fi . b l e d r1::1 " r l i..titii tiitlii l.""..h".s-. nbe..'.1[]:!til"..1\8 "..:.:n'.r .::iffi:t riti:#'J...:l*x: "r :::::.r....T: Iillll]flj. ^..I'.J h....-ffi p.. j r o n i q\ v h e r c .:'ii. . v e n r u r c ..i.. k.. .:Ti:: fi :::i....n..*" :i: :. t . .unia.h."i::#i*i.: :fi jT i:iilE::.." .:. _ l .:.:.:. *-l .i.'Jii' ff.ons around users Iechnology lime log :J:lr I :::: ..#*:#*1ffirfr f:r$l*[il".ti#i.tiir*... N ._ and du.ime nu.[-*.ff :. .".m.nrroa... q r h r n M o o r e . r . ...::: j:j ::i:[ :j":::r:tt'.il.:.:."$J.D Nev iechnology *dfl"iti**fr *fi -fi xn{fr.i*::.tri ncnirrling.Lll... " -"' " :l:.?iiu'.oprrc indssv r..:"' [i*..]"T.1. s.:.t'::::il1HHfi :t..::r$ru.\ lljo .. Fiber Terms Terminology ond ":::n :1.recohn. .i#:r..'.l'.:. fl...ff HfuE**rJx. .n." r e n1 r h r r r i .. c J .h#b:illr ..run\mir.. *..1...il.::r:11i1..* . r u r l t )( t r ..:I jH:?::.J. :l::..h.-...: ":'. (ourd be. .:::-''.:l:"ii:li."ff :l.jil:. v i .. .. e .t:ds.'.. :..:::1..j...:.:. ii r! .-.ltl\kdrh.h . rr ltg monq ar antlhing relarcd to opri.ilH:l::il.. 'ry .Opt 6 ro A r o \ i r s r r J n | .'1e n.::..ilji.r. i]1..i. t .r.l: ::". " p r r r t s r .l ..j:l:lj:*_. Hkl*.r. il::.i:t .* ... ind a.ll=n:*H*: .. ....}illil.d.::.rl.:lt....o.:ul...T#{itiniir*}. edoubting. " t e . i'l:.

". oiu..a ..'r'ua1s d Bvaar::lron rherzl'sdph to O.r and red ro '-er s.g.6 o"p r ofuiins melric units atmosrexclusiv'lv' this bok. M". Optical6bes havenrch higheruosm. Press' AHiston of Connr"'rd""r (ox{b!dunrsdir'v L".* 6bcr were usedonlv a'sinfo'medod piPes apacitv thd @PP€rcabres' 9.sion to vitch and direct optiel signals' o 'hc useof optical d*ie rO. tn. **lv pue silie' strong' optical 6ben are sdF but flexible and surPrisinglv 7...". Light nys nornalivgo in staight lines but opdcalfiber can suide them around light in oPdcal6b€rsThe low'refra'tive'inde{ 2. i^'. .J. *.' dwelopmentofclelcr glas 6ber' with dopaon added to create thc core'cladding 5.r.. 1995) Pres." r999) . -*"niotiom i.A **-r"* I 6.'"i'i.*.*.1".: .*r."''.. h J p r e i $ c € \ d i n e d r h e b a ' l g r o u n d o f n b err btiefinrrodu'rion" lhb'th ' p t e r 2 v o u l l optnre'hnolog nC to rhen 4ber set i1..ss ' "Tipei and "switches lnitialiv optical aremadeof tstems A.---*...thge(Bntzn' t99z) one:BerotdttJe wora\Yds "-* ar* ttu 2 lst Cett'ry $EEE .'ie StoryFitu Optb tpxfold ofcommrnicadonsin genern: On the developnent iir.. Gla.J 6ben on be bdnoled ws throughdr air in rhe opdcaltelegraph.t Ghbatv. Many opri. I follow the sandardindu*rv pracric A APpendix for a lnt ofmetric preGxes See fo I a Hove leorned? Whqt You l..... Total interoalrefleaionguides lighr ro rhe core claddinsconfiner rogerhelo ttrnsmir 'mJg's 3. Next? Whqtt l n r h i ' ..1.i*.i"i. . i". Plesr1999) UnnersitY of y" r*n .. . "1ttrn. tn"c' behrtul oour' Qr t. Masage: r--d. ib"."'.*. Reoding Further on the solurion offiber oPtics: 2.imura'ed ln"rcs' in op'icar comrnunica'ions ..

o m r o n e . It mur bc opaqucso lighr does'i leakour. 3 .-ni. reflecdve pipes. "fi"i * . r . .l b... d r c f i e L r e d r h es u r r . \\iat ri-r."ir..o u n di n r k i r .t .' 2 . . :. d.i . Fo.. e h a re o n e . 4. Ele(rolnasnelic inre. . Lisht can be guid. clad optical {ibe6.o.om.^.r.s c. p h o n f n e N o .n : o:o :n!r* I o r ko p t r a r o ^( o n ( i n u e w :y : .i. $ r r ^ e r e d e .. Y . . h e no r a f e L e r i . Ifopdcal6bers rrdsmirsignatsso much berer rnan wres. .rn. lr mur havea refractire indexlowerrhanrhe corero produceroralinrern."i.d aroundcorneB most eFecdvell. why d6ni etetr.. b.rung(unen. 1rnusr harc a lower ret.n fo. ba...OFfr O QueslionsThink to About forChopter I l. o n . .l"io*. t u f l r c r . . lqm. i l s . tr musrbe madeofptasiic io kccprhe 6bernexible."r. ) q q oN e g l .1. why arent tber uscd 5. r . D c v i \ c1 n I n r t o g l . fo. \ n . d. air .t. g e. BeU. M o s r o f r h el i g h r . c e l .n? in thesame partern boh ends on orrhebuodle. .onven-o" opu.. m c r e r o r w i n d o wr b { o r b . p e . n en 6 r p B c o c a t s e to p r i c a j u D a.. dn the frbes musrbc araneed deraiis rhar can be se. d o a €b y .ferenceoccu6 in wnes because elecrromagneric6etdscause erecrons'o. c r ... m i r .t. *irchins? r L rou'll Quiz Chopter for I l. @ ro.eslss 6bss.lnf o r I n eu g h ' o r e r i n g i r r n d r d n . n rf.t.n..h. r n g .*n.gn.f.i"n"t.ndd cntan Photophone.i. m i t r ... c. e o w o u r de m e .o w m u ( h h .v ikn d o w l t .tLtt bE. rn .irhg* lenses. o .r hl. h o s h o $ a b u n d t ro f r i b ( n r B . r8 n r .l o !i n g o i n g r o u g h r g t . \ \ 1 n d o w ._*i. c.t. to iuuminarenoying ietsot . e compuren..maee . d. .. m e r e r . for comhunicarionsvia opiical elegraph.1 IEEE b. in bundies examine to the insidcof rhe$oma.. . hollowpipesu.. .r.ine u L o h m o n . i r r _ p u r p o .a buodleof opr.n.act^cinds tha.qunen€Dr for a chdding on an opticatfiber? a. .et 6be6 ro rransrnir imase. r r otn s r u p o o . \VhaJis rhe principatr.gene. priel o ygnas rn r op!<al hber: ork. m p t e m . in Alex. in a.moveiNiderhesirr:. 3. .5.

one ofsoenl wa"elengds . A link ber\ eena sngre peao""l co-Pute. all . Aa opticat channcl is a. A sw'tchedtelecodmun'ca0on rysremdak€s .ll rhat 100/6 rhe lisht aher fib€r remains enterirgrhe d. brcadorting signalsover b.tions beNeen pairsofterninal d*ices Vhich is the bestermple of aswitched a. light ource and eble' c. ovet rnnsmir at Ihe highcr sPeed d. 20 km. The 6nt imPomnr rotetnat optiol 6bcn Plaredin nodern @mmuniqions ner\orkJ wr a.. arrying radiosignar:tn nobile Phones 9. light source. :1 .v 7. A c o d i a l c a b l en n s m t t t n q light ( c. d.arYing sePinresigoars th@ugh rn oPri@l frber d.lluminarehard to{each na. receiver'and fiber b. a ddision channel trosmitted oPticallY' b. d. Flex. noneofthe above 5. Ar oPticalfiberenYing a singLe' Pures2velength b.onne.k rh{ shres one printc amongfout PersonaL 8. All 6beropric communicadon nust include systems a.v e.ghsPeeds signJsmong c. examine insideofthe withott surgerY stomach thc b. . Todav\ besroPtical6bea tansmtt of lighr 5(. Cabletehvkion nevork b. cableonl. e.hinery. swirching nany tcrninal devics' d. A codial qble orrYing videosignals manY . the elecuiel inPut to an oP. all the light tmnsmtnea thrcugh a siogie 6ber c.tdce? the longest a. 100 km 6.ble bundlcsofoPtical 6bes rhe a. exarnioe insideofthe wirhout surgery colon . arrying c An oPtical6ber at signals manr seParatc rvavelengrhs ( d . ard a !.he above e. A neMo. Telephone c. fiber onl.ical umsmifter' ich ofd'.@*' 4. 50 km. follo'"ins svsreru c'tr I O. fiber and receivei d. asPiPe for loog-d*tance at rans'nission hi.w.

'lill ..1T .:ffi n#3h. Opfic Components About Chopter This .J**# tn::.!iH '1..::t.dfr . r.Ji:l :"J.Fundomenfqfs of Fiber..i$::1$.:TfiT*:f .ffi'.'il.T:i:t.::[:::i:?::"*iJ::: h € This chapterlaysrhegroundwork for uddersran...:::..in1'..::fi :..'i"'i"::."TT:r #ir.\ .ff :illl:#.::: Tt :t".n:}::ril: i.ffi J*H:ff#'3:.l il:l'"::..:i:j:.. ....il.:iffi l*1.: ::.Iii"t:*T 5*.1::::l..i:".f*.": ::i![ti1'.'ilTr":il::.If.".ffi r"he' ( qrv.:::i:iil::i:i.j.k."T.-*.."il:jr ..alrfi#iff 3:iiilfr Bssics Optics of i:.r*::11i'l.r#}itirl I "n:tr:"i:i:{r-jj.:.::tecn "\e'"rcmrsne .i?#ffi*tqt.

?T.iTill.i.T."fl..@t . .14ks rrr.. On€ wav€lengih * I M..v^* :l :::1'"1:l1l::jl: on roder' rhev rePressI.h' I.:. . s'tntbt'a rhe. r**.f'*' il"..'.. 'urhin l i g h rr r v ' r t l h c i t ..e.f ...1."owD in Fisure2 2 Like a €ortinuouswave'it hs " "...erv (nu) Greek bv w'ves)' irequencvis usuallvdenorcd the elecrcmasneric and El..onrinuor's..--":[I#**:*. r:nt ' them a A !ngK e e m r e d r e g u l J r l r ' a c h ' o n u r n i n S 'u n r to r ' N r 5 / .-a*^v.licli€ldsarc pelp.'l**:l.: lei..l':i 1\ij'. t u r l i c $ o p .om olp\".ic*o"int phining things likc ho* t:riql a::ectos work Iil:iil'..t'.*.. r u l e l e m e n r . ..g..ru*tl in as "* *i'r'.ce. *r.4"i.u.#*1x." ir'.." freqto( or waslengrh: on Th€ amouni ofenerg\ ir .. Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx li:l.Tiilnl ilJ::ir"Tl'lT *".6 o'orn.ndidhl lo 6eh otur end to dlrelid ol lishttrawl ncu$2.a i..1 A light unt I f.J.1.ll.tric magn..* ) uu&. *...J i".n amplitude'then ih"' b'ild quicklv rc a peak '* . aul r r" .. V.*i. Phoion dePends 'he osciLladon shorter the savetensth)'the higher (or equivalenrl.'ou.p.r. rrke rerm"'ion'cigo:'J:'H'tr"1TrT.".noio.' " h * r e f l e ' to r r e r i r r r b e n d ' qet'rronrc rnd 'ommuniution( Prl'ura v ror ..a 'rnc "'ve' rhJl 8o *-" f'.. 'i' f'*.L:" .v' rhe *-.** "i"a waYeredgth ...:m('/nryd&r' gh"..nv gn.

.i..".F i g u r e h 2 ...i:".2 The q u e n o o f a n c l e .ilf:I?.'.j:T.#:l.:l. J c o m p r r er...:j:5.. 1 0 ! 1 0 ! 1 0' d 1 0 l O ' 1 0 r | ...":*i:.t...:.:i.r ffiiTij?:.i d .h $ e ( h .^opri.3 r05r0-lorro..jlT.il:. rD The light.'.T: trf #*r'il:i*i:r. r or i o .'TT#iT:. ifrTF:""I#T!il : j:il .'S{rT.i. c.:u:::*::.'ti:..npol""o O flGURt 2.*:::r.. i d .oried in The Electromognetic Spectrum .:H:'jft::. frGURt 2. .Iondohcdot' ofm..10j 1oo io r r o r o.m.j. r ev i q \ .:.ff J:: $... ..:."':"*I:.. f i o m r g n e r n e t d .ilr*jii#t:.i.

n MKrenFh i ::::fffi .:fl:Tj.-. must pr"eei"e .qi. fo'm"La is in.il.r.''' d 414 x l0r5ev-s) .1":# jr'. rcrms bemesrred-in *'' -l''* I lT il. a no'e usetuL (pm) in micrcmeters voltswhen warclengthtr measured giresenerg' in clecrron rvhich = rkv)ffi .n -O'l:l: (Oe: x to-r'.. which sne5: l.andfrcq*"'v -"' ll..-l- *fr*$t$m#tl*$gn :' :::*.::*.**ff##.@ c*en.ra"elength..t'.$':'::::ffi Hlr.. .3 x lo'n/s if1ou knorvrhe wavelength: the frequencv You can alsourn thh aroundro ger ' T] T} 3x10'mt T valuecen be goaen enets lE) in 6bqr opric' but a Noi nanv peoPl€olk aboutphoton from Planck: law..f.t'.co..wa\erfnBrh: ."""".T.-.. p.iar..r **:*.lll-. mut bein meta'. a mote urtut tot rpproxrmat 'alue of ' *e h:ve fo.:l$: r ri' sprd wh*e rhe ofhsh.i.*mrumii:}**m*:ldi'. .". . .*: ii:i:t:u i*lr***'.:ru.':"" ' -.:: and'r' f(Hl'J*.:"irj:lJ. \ L h e r e i s P l a n c k 's" " * ' pat ofthe spearum measureo in the -"" ''ierest in Photonenergvis i1""".

..Fopricornporrc" of One impo.: so's .. .il} l.::il::.f : :"il*{."y"l::#Hi.ranrp..:...iff .:'ff.:.T.::Td#t?+:r.'"H:f h*:T:r?:::":*:.\r\ F+! lao phde Shifi flGUnt 2.'.::"1?.f .HHili:i:i.tiff r:rt*ltl.T rt..4 ^/\ .#tT::ff r..*:iruj:l:.iJ .gt":'*!ilr"T'#:.1ffi .nhb fih.'.'d ii-"'ij".{.. rD F. il*".r..T:: r tik' ""'"d.t'#'y.Iundah.Erir'.iru^.:Ti:.: :ffif:::'": Hn ..l. m ... il.d..*:ifl'*n"rr:i:..:X.:.x."fr *:i:h"'.:.:'Jl:i::l'ijdlj::l::ffi u. J.. :ila:.*ffi[H:d"s*"a' jrlilin .*r.rric.?:: .* rr. *a.".*: iiil::iil::i.ii.rul1 l'. .::*W*::#.ii:T'i':.t.fl i:l :HilLl.H.*J:.:x..:.t onsquence of liqhts \ @ td is in ".'*iT'.** :.J'":'"'.' .::.

peed rhe of rrr ori-':'i*':i i: T[*':l:Tli:i:ii$"#i'.ll['. :i11r:iftiu:.eriar" For op. :1ilil.1il""lii* lY.:*r::liH'.'*::*.ru"i:iiiT.1iiilT::.{i*iil11 .icar *"':'1"::i':l:jTi:l.'.'n n:x*::l*:::ii:.n:x: lqht rril+ L he 'ng the 'urta'e bc^v€en rhem L I .m r5#"::: $i-11 !Ii"1tiij:i:.1'll$:*:l l..:*..000 (0.}]il'"Tr.::*l:.ino speedof lisit in '.l-'*iil:6" whlchh:'e simrbrpropare xougt uida!ioler. :.i#r*l.tr* -'**"' l.J'- l':1il:':."ri"lifi ii.:'.r" 'p"'d oflshr in themrrer'l q..:.::. *.. r*ilnl..:i.J"i.:': l.:t ii ii:if*r m*l ttt"ll.':.{iffi .D when lighi Posses F f #::..2ro 20 Fm) ..ll"lr":' lndex Refrqctive rishrn .:ilT.:':rq-"..ll.]:ll -.i"l"il'lxI*J'"lLli'.orin{rored lisht short disances ic invisible ihe *'*' #i"t[l$ft **l+ ** ]*t**$[#[ :xlt ir.r..@."tn'r the Fdimum and minigive an intensirybeveen fercnt anounr' thev add togetheito X't-*lt+1":f iittili:"":1ilg.:*'.- ip€€d of lighl.:"1::l i[t'.ruuli. normar ma..:1'r:.* .l.Y:ll *0""*'* .1."J:ffffi'lil. '.1*yrrut. nm 20Uro 20.{:.:i * temperarure I *nosph-ic presu'e and 'oom .l]J[ .

.horer.s..lTl and rhe nedium inro -"dd Ra*he orinc"r"'..#i:"n:ti:l'::[-]"r.i*:.rundcrunr*rba...:. limtr it r LLght ilij.niriat mediuh :i:i*H:..sinI= x.:i.1"1*::l:t:i'.".ii'[..cuh) ro'hesu'rae rhe T'Fom a.D R where.:H::il'i[1.iTf]l.:*il**xt x::..s .'":t ::i#.ffH1ff:5::ff rri..shi*.#*.::im. *n...l'j'.ng 0...... *e the reliacdve indexes ofrh€... .s#d::whictr ensres "..enornar (Frpend.T*aifl:i.:*:i.:'r."7 rcm rrc t he...:f #1fl:.tliu.t.. :iil:l[::Tfi *:*:i] ::iiJ::."" .::i..aard z..:.ieqrenq air g.q* compooar u 6 flOUTI2J jr..H:::'f .. #"i*:.."1iluffi 1-.. ni..H :ilr"11::'.f iii1:i"l:-. *n. de.

l'.*l:*'-':l:*Hilf i*ili{ Thc i*i#fi[*lt'':i:. ::l. . :l*h:.Hi:jlff'.l*'*".:Li...:.'l'""'" .::.. ri .l.""lii:'#. Th( intoAe high-index fi''''''-'ilf .':i'1.-i. Htii*':ffi Hlift *'. unchanged FE Th of I 5 and the Ifthe ghs har a reftacdve index lorer rcfracdYeind* Guch x air) havins. .'lH: 0 Snell\i^vindicatesthatrefracioncmi. :'. cause o slon<ins l.':l"i:.*.r'""'.rakeP]aawheotheangleofincidmcistooltge. than l rhesin€cantb€ greater onsle.@.Jr.n o irdexof l 0' tbe equationbecomes l5sin1= IsinR rD lflighlhilto .....l.'''.11i":"'I'll': ll. :l1t''.6 Lightemergestrom ang|e. TGU$2.l.

eR 6tion ..I..h air.p.".:"''"*-* .:n *U11.h:' :.:l'r'"..rni..i:.) Figure 2. -'€.r:. opticol frber by ru. ll.::.o rhe ircn wi. "'.p.]|:.: ."kesPlace'0" qn be deduced bv turnins snell: lawaround.i ii:. ::.. = r.Sht r rcemsse gras .. = ^tcsin l.: l::.#::ii:.een coreaD..il..rnd LightisrD in guided j.x.i?j#: "..:flij.'.i:li clodding .tii.'r' -*t'-r''iir'er' The crnical ansie above whi....ii8htq'ins l.".l.i in."o{tit @ ftGURt 2.lli.g ffi:::ffi'Tiffifi:i *I:Hll.to give u.ffi ti+I.J..l. ::'"Ti:Ti."..u'. Light Guiding Thedifferoe in refrctive indexbeo.il..'. iil:.n.:l.llr*..* .:::::i:...opri cdrpon."Jtlji*"".:}.s toral intooat reflecrion thar keepstight confined in opticat liber.7 e"rii.f il:ld".h iotat inrernaj . il ..:..Tf:t .. :.ff.?. at |. .: -.7 ft I th. .tuidonrcnrrt' .ll...ffiil1'h.

.l':.': 'j''.i rigi' **'.P"l rgrc a*cprrn'e r..::.'J."--+.!y-'. il:: -gr' i'..r-'il':lX t *'J.'.'ili'..^airl^ i' I I clodding slos...". Ne:....gle rD whicho fibet lighl o<ceprt lheconbe coosidered to of8'or less the surfaceThe upPerlimir can ar cladding an angle finemcntogle in the 6ber fib€r i'-:''"1:i-'h:. . *r'i"r'io' rier'en'ering i i 1'"::il'i^.Trf 3:.T .be guidedin the fibet cote ra H 2.T.::l$ Tt..@.'."8 i' -'-lf :" 111'i. .x:. way ro lok at light guidins in a 'll:'..:1: Liahtnust fall inside thisangle t..h. .. *1..".l'[:i.'".. .'"r'.. [H:"[:'i."l"ii ..'..9 flGUIE j .'*.:-'j::::: Anorhe.{7:6 Jffi'.p*- i I I ilffi.. -gi.j51i1*..'. IKiU$2.6*..:::i*T:"T"1r::i:$i:il::1il'il:: l* *. *:*'... 1i:::i::H:liiil# 5T:?.h. -er.u.. 'h' d.'Tlil *i ..1'.1 ..ft 1l.ili'"#:"'[':lTil" . ) rh' rronairis apa nber tNir. H.8 Light g|rling .

n s t e i n { d e . . o r c r .t t *ia * i". h r g r ^ .ffiru fiil ffi jq'.:. 'h/r "ng/.'.-.:."d. \.l5l:-|.r h. s n r { u r o n r yr v e D \ m J t t € .'." Go .] . l:. bv Uve @ Light Collecrion Efficiency m i n r t e d( p o r i n r h e 6 b e r r h o w i n gt h r r r h e 6 b < r .r' -lg'. 1.'li:. tJecrrh. rcrtec.".[f:"\:'.:!:. .j.tTi:i.t.1-9' .xn.half^(epun.nihr trrgr{ gtrnrine anstr \vhi"h n tig.ut do6 rhisft€an? b{k andI@r. enrering fiber rhdr i.nHTi':*# '.:T''t* L""r ""1 -' .{* li:: . " *c i..r rnete rneib*.fit" il:il tr..t r . i o n o f r h et i s h rr h " r ( h .ll: $'.l..'"': *i. iir.". .l# criricol in <ollectins lighr.e \bu.. ".r... ".. r .i:.:::* ifu ii:r!j#g.i.:*:*Hf ff:.1r'....'::5i.:fl.1:'H:ti.r. S.tu..:#:rffi i. i. h i . ""..*"::ff i*."lr'#iJl.nr grr$...il.f iii:"::iili ''.". h .. b u l be m i 6 .a . r d a .:'llJ.*{#:l[*.rs ro co ect lishr effici( il.rish.tuid. 21 An .om ri6h.'ili:l ##:Tiil il..g :riL'p'" .e:illlff fuilT. Simple optia on focus the lighr from an ordinarl.g fl::.erEcron orndlr rrgh. ro .. .::. nysmu{r(r*e Ine(rJdd.flu f.g.lT: "::i:T::.:. r f B . # i c . " . .ir sone .f.i.Vi". r h c ...$T:i"X... a".'*iT:i: liHH: ..:.*.: [:1i '*n'rrv.i:*iril:_i:rj js:..i.i::f ilx"i'ffi :T: :iil"#:: Jf:.tg.J:::*i . \ a i r .".ns Inre.'x':j:::. bulb so n forns a na..Iure rhe.ftihk ottib*onir co6ro.5..ure{ er. . J.ord rhercrrr.. } . r hn e o r r h e .:1"9". o/r. r. r . " r .. .. ' i e . .*n:..ome.:ll:. " q . . T#::::::i.' .:*.. Mv {u. .in \ee ifyou (hn poin( lr. w h ' .:_T::.T:ff Frffi !'. € i n d e ( o t t h e .il'b.:i:".iT::1Tff . .il::*. **?'.]."ji. ra) rhe \o . T.ilIil i:ilii::"i"-". . rish.'#'l*:.rcw btu...:ft. .j::. o e. t J ..oili.]#rfif you r- *"..._"_. t . r " " * " * ..Ylrui. i .. .d.. h J r . Developids ways for 6b.]-. ..ra.::i: :".i.ar snershw of rer-a.[:t.: . j + " * ..ma e.'i.:1111". 'rde\ofrhr. ::.n o demanding rcquiremen$.i to . .*li'"l*T-f.tf .J "..i.h: .

S. l . ' o . i o . r. r . ndtklits. . Trqnsmission.o P P r t (riti€l 'o rhr p'do'mDce ol or ereboadcsr * rrdio o eldn'on sigul\' T1'de effed( rrc deI fib.@. h c . 'l-emp'oaq. ' ' ' . ' " .i * ." horvfiber optic communtcaA'i* t"t.c systems. j"nciore b. i .e . lhis n not. rhevabrtb a inv fiaaion ofthe Although opdcal6bersare ma<1e r ' e h ' p . .50willinroduce thc conceps herebeforc*ploring them in more !{ Attenuolion Fiber lighrleokoge ore Aftnuarion makes sigdal sirelgrh fade wit}l dronce ln sone ees' such ar broadcdt r out spread rhroughspace thev qn beoue signals ndio. r . likc diny windows ot cmckling rclephone l. p .sins ihro"gh n. l i ) r l p i c r l l vh l e ' l i r h r l ' h ' g h e r o \ d b u ' l l o w m u ( h S r r r e t "l. c d ' l l e ' e n tr y P e \ l a l r n u a ' r o n l h e r \ r e e P r i m a ^ e i l r ( ' ' will leam more about the 6ber core' You sorptior."ctiir. ."t g. n Fo r e r a | J g e r v d l u m e ' . s o ' p ' o n h u r.h : o n e ia ' ' I g h ' b L ' I i i a ' m I n n r o l .s-. t h e I ' g h r .t . p e n d o n t h " " ' v r l c n g l h' a J r h ep r e e n ' " o t ' rb ' . .. " . . coupli"s losses eachconnecror. iI n ( \ . . . " * .r leht ronrmined though rhem t he *me is rrue for anv k i n d o i ' i g n J ' Y o un o r . : 1 r b ." m l h . r a b ' o r s ' (or orre.1 ." for nser opt. m o u n . l i . " n u r c ' i ' a . Gcnenllv thse cff<a dcgode the to rcccive signak' nals. h c ( ^ ( i r o p ' r .u Jc\. Fiber . r n r e t o r r g u r r n e :l i b e r . . c r h s e c f i r ' s m o s tl o r p o o t n m m i t -1. .3).t."'. " .p " ' i . . r h r ' " r p r i o n . l c f l e x r h r l . r ' w h n h a e w a t e g n t u 't h a ' o n h n el i g h t ' f l e r d . d .l .* -Ls rou and light eu'c' sPlice' couPl€r. distaocealone ause amenuation a largervolume-the intensirvdrops ravel. r r o b r e . " a . "iiid^.ccourt f". -r-pts areimporunt ro understanding oforenelv pure glos.'.ns Hdaer as'rononer can 'Por beause tt the rcnuou gas dnpemd 'n inrergalectic space' which sig.he lisht p.D Ooucl nbeo inevirrblv.r t l e ' s . " ai r. r r .fle.i"g. l e ( r ' o n i s i s n J ' s o r h ' o u s h..' . g . at ih""ld.*-". r r i e l e n g r h l h i r p r e v e r " ' e n a l ' 4 o m rre d' o b u r o ... v . . o r e a l " n gr h e i r .n*en o'o 6bet cnds'madebv onnectore in scribed Chaper 1. i " ."" thq' are Prcsentaen ror rers. "r. e . . As the signalspradsovu *rrhin rhe f h i i \ r .s nropaqi'em**iats transmita litde lighr a Lnle rqv insidethem' butthevabsorb refect) mo* ofrhe incidcnrlighr' rD I- L . *a t.**. n et \ o : e \ L l .Fopt. ' a l o g o b e f f ( h w h e n .o p r in e o v o r l ' P < ( i J d f l i r a a l l c d c o u P l c ^ d B l r r b ' d iy in Chaprer 14) *e neded to pin thrce or more liber ends One of the mosr imPorrant is fundional diffednc-s beNeen nbcr-oPticand sire communications that 6ber coupler tounterparts nake than their metat-wire arcmuch hetderro bescen *ts are :o small that rhev on normallv be "el-osses transfediltgsignals io designe6 *ill seein Chapter2l' svsrem slrc(cd. p .and if iey becone l-rse enough'thev m make it imposible The three principal etrectsthar d€gade sigtrals in oPri'A 6t"'( te atualation' di'p'nior' wir'5 ' . r . i .

99 = 0.aretengrhs h rh..ignals.o .ng gone\rdng.sma .99 x 0. For a l0 here. sene.. Thus everymeierofGber shouldhaverhe same aftenudon a rhe prdiou m. l l e n g h o t r h ei n p u r\ i g n a t o r h co ( p u r . p r i o n n d i d ' r e r : n Sr . l o ._.t uso the sun rises and ses.n caled a .re!s.nheredrin allliber materials.t.904 x Input More generailn ourput is rhe Ourput = Input x (trensmnsion/unii lengrh)r-dt's'r = Inpu! x (0 99)10 Thes rcft ofcaltularionsser mesrl so arenuarionis ne$ured in 1c.t (dB).)Los iD decibets de is rD iD @ of he iens* rimes everTl0 dB dB = -ro " r.J h e n u r n n .d (nrous) of iDcreas€d il (ptur.so n es.allv which arere. norftall! decibels ptr kitorrtrer the tofil ltenurrior tjn decibcls)in rhc fiber . .99 x 0. core3dd r to. The phvsic arecompla.1. Ned in s/srohsNhererhe signdltev. scafterins but reringincreas n stb.ghr .t" . Like leakrptumbingiir'sa rareevent rhar indicares some(h.99 x 0. q h .r'shighe.r f i b r r h J .tngtong. r o .Irs no. dropletsin a fog baDk_ like Scrkrins renecGligbr offin other dircctions. \ou wi leah lar€r.e r r m p t ei. akhoughpcculiaroncs. tjght lealagr ctu6 qho light esapesfrom the 6trercoreinto the.s shouldbr Ourpur : Inpft x 0. t .omulariE.I! . shere rhe signofthe logarrhm inrti cares the iigntrl has.n."..c/afrer nlexands GrahaD Bell.aU .rq wavelensrhs.rh. rhe minus sigr ir addedro aroid negrdtenumbersin a(enuarionme:ruremenc.s boundaryar a $eep enoughargle ro a\oid toral iniernatreRecrion...he Iight cmerses liom rhe fiK nercr. * Aromsivirhin rhe glas al@ scaner light.y seful uirs. "t.r."I.er used.ncrease. has A l h o u g h r b .hally unifo&nrh.onmeir can bend nbe6 jn waysftaullo{. Arienuarionis.ened a 30 dB toss.t.taddins. The phrsicsre the sameas ior Iighr scanering dr.l€.. don.r ljribh s. in wh. ."p.a ." ro$ ft:1"') 1 hus.o *"."ilrins rhe rado ofourput ro nrput po\rr (rr is actuallya Rnth ofa u..while allo".ch sprcads shon{lvelensrh btuelisht ailorer the sky. 8 f lr r o mr h r o ' h e re n d .lishr emersi. hl. J f i b r ^ .. no. geneE ! i..rer rf99oloof.99 x 0.r..aai. the signalh3sexper. n l . isbeor sheph. c o m p r n n g } r .f q j % r r o r | n e I n p u rI ' g h te m e .ron-r.nfie tensrhofa 6b€.99 x 0_99x 0. tog"*t -i. o ._ is. -. bur drc atonx rct a if theyweretiny rellectivc panicles. iiber.".99 x 0. . dd no. t-. Each opt.he libe. a.lpesfrom rhe lib€. un. bft normallyrh.light ro leakour. J 4 r e n u l i o n a & ( u m u l d k .tng .1.ir. rtmosphere. lo$ is the smaths! ofrh€ rhrcer.lr"ao*nrol nt".".!p6.ifoutput poNer is 0. ggEo ofthat lightshoutJemerse . bur-lhat base unir is Yinua r ne.. inso rhan fored.l m. g h tr w e l 5 ( h r o u g h r n y I i t o m c l e no t 6 b e r A n e n u a r i on o r m r y i r m n m r u r c d b l .olgh rhe.:l 6ber has a chrracteriric anenurrion rhar is measured decibels in per unir lengdr. .TL.."g. Sy t i.when lishr en *. Al fiber insrallarion rnd theenvi.99 x 0..iga.ha y very tow uile$ .99 x 0..from theseond merea dd so oD.001 ofinpur powe.heanounr ofscar.Ol* t*. n o p r i . r q r c m e t y " m J l .

that meam the higher the lrequencT.the dec.bel iater' but vou elcinonis and aco"sicsaswell as optics. nal oDeraons ! . highu the artenuationPailsofcopper *irs \de Ery low atrenudon ar rhe the extremelyt". rhm audiosignals.nat creases wnh rhe speed which rhe signalraries ln pectice.Co. fora rotallos of20 dB crlculation"ofanenuation fti wide\'used in simplifies scale A5 vou can see. Thev mqsurc the Ilow of informarion For emple' telwision sigmis have nore bandwidth thrcugh a ommunicarion system. not relerisionsignak.only lOvoof n would emerge(or l% of rnr rhrough inother kilomcter . rrr..n old tuhioned elecricatrelesmPh saror coul<l the transnntingkey. genedt. Every:ddnional lo-dB loss reduce fie outpu.vaudio frequencies but tansmit higher frequencies' can distances. 'Ihe speed limir on electriel wirescomesfiom rhe natureofelectrical currenrs Moving electrcns induce cu-ens in rhe copperaround them. and it's tht problemsin rransmndnshigh-bandwidrh thar an cause oeedfor rapidlynrying signais tl"es ofconmuniations The numbet ofdoa ad 'ignals.and hos fst anothercould write down or relavthe hit inonrng.he oris.\ial cables but shown in Figu'e 2 10 ln 'onoast' as r"ith frequencv. with a {ibcrhaving from a l-kn length lf (ha( outpu! lightw*lo"zu ofrle fighrthar emus drc fibercmcrges of the sme tiber. rhe abiliq' to carrv billions ofbits Der seonds over manv kilometeE.nalsisnal). l i n d s u r p r n i n g l Bqndwidth Dispersion ond ID qticol fiber3ore ho1miting hightrw attenuarion alone is not enou$ to male 6bers inalLrable for telecomnuniqtions' The di& wnes rhit ttusmn el€cticd power also have very low los but thev an'or transmit infomation ar high sp<eds Optiel 6ber *e anraaive bcouse thev combine bs wnh high bandwidth io allow high*peed signals to mvel over long distances ln a .on teualsthe charactcrisric the rdrrnrlr high a(cnuationof l0 dB/[m That is' onlv pleexample. rhe f*ter rhe signalhr rc arv. so rhe impedanceof a re .t^ahao of 10 A 20-dB Los 0)' and a 40-dB lo$ is a fac' a is a factorof 100 (1b10).rgnaJ.usedfor ehcdcal Powerrradsnission 60 Hz in Notth over re$onabLe America and i0 Hz in Europe.equencie. 30'dB lossis a tictor of 1000 (l0r some can get verv big rert [$t AFPendixB Bives tu of 10.dth o.rhe nor ban$. increres shaqn-r rhcn atrenualjon in optical fibes haveesenrialll the sane anenuationat all signalftequencies ther norranse.D . Thes€numbers . o m p e r i . Conepts srch u banduidth nd i'forution d?aciry are sucial in communicatiotr' md the n*t chaprerwill tell you moa abour them.\bu ll learnnorc about decibels Decibckare mllr erponens' nor ordr :hould realiz that thcv areay to underestimarenary numbers.000(l0ao). btcoma high bandwidth.@'**" a timd the lensth To unde*tand whr' consider simattcnuar.Diliereotetrectilimit diFerent could tansmitwas limned bv how fas oneop d*hes. o nf:o r d e r i b eu n i u w h i c hy o u m a .and ther can can. infornadon' the be$ei In ID The more informationvou want ro rrmsmir."--""iaiion sy*em.f.

.a 2. r . a m et i m e . 'hr phoron. rrusmnrion epr irv' Thry lre eare..r. o u e hr 6 b e r . D r c a d o u r " o m u .7-.s cn..tud:. h J r d F p e .r. o r r .o ont" rd0 "".:r ror cmph.tl@qu. e . r h a r r " . . T h e t n h f r r h ep u l s e . Chapter S. o m n i c d h | f ^ i o n b . e t e n g r h . m i . b\.rundomrnrot olriheeri corn"** @ . non. l o h e . i : r m u 4 i o n . blur"ng lrer' on rh. o d i p t r i o n " r e : n r . "" "A.k. 400 \ bur .rouft 2. r h ci ) d .i. ti. r ( h . . . ..-* a Yl:-:'" t n r n Bh r ! : . d. h e p u h e . d . o r e . . . € v e t .. q K r h r ' p e d o r I ' g h rI n g l * \ a r i e . \crJt mi8h. n 8p h o r o n f. l'l.10 € lB lox 9 9 E Lossdepends trcquency on Loss does not depend on 1OOMHZ l GHZ Sign. w t h e e n ( b " r c .. e r .*sl.sh dispeF l:*. g n r .". n . ll ^ .". p e r " . at.. h e t r r e r p u t . du p ..b u r l l l". k e . e d i \ p e B i o n i i m p o k . d r f l r r e n e .o . .ncy 1OGHZ dsidrh Orher effar' do iimr hber.. r h ep r $ r n .". r ^ p e .11^". u u .. r e a d i l y . f l . ' .il hen . _ t . r p p e r l a r o e .n manr dnrirur pathsceJhd.Ih: srad u w i r h . ... 'lg:.r o v . 1 o .-' .Cbir/..i so rhrolgh fulonere fibtr. w .1r . \rhich n anothe. . r t0. s y s m p € .t.zaif you o n r d s r .r: r .. f ' e n .1l."nat td b.. no o u n r t o r .prerd ou.hw rE.1'. h r . e .t .hey haveh. i n g p u r . o n: r .ad. e " / l . e t e n g h su u . ro vnud..a.t *. g r o u po f L rar sr m! ra.rellsnore abour dispeEionand how M o . i h . r e r e . l i g h r ) v n h u . h r \ e . c Ft.} r h e ye n i Derecog.rree(r-. t o u r r ( e f l r .-" S. o mo r .e ur(h. . r { e i i a .ngup*.. . mance cm be inprckd t ' . ' n g t u r ' e \ o . r h e ( o t .mode!.A t i e . . concepryou. e I h h m e . n . . ."d .:.. h w rhc di! ( d n \ e' h e r 8 n r l s o " \ r h .a. b u .i.. h eh .i) i n r h ep h o r o nm . h c o n t a r n i n m a m p g p h o r o r o ..ioh. e \ _r e J er w r \ h b r . h e y b u r . r l l y . r .p. u r r r n a s h . I .lotioh con?n. r r n r u n e o u \u l 5 $e r . n d i { a n .. i k e. .opri.r yru r. r ).-. abt. . a. p r o o n ..ro be lr* ]. t .r shown in Figure2.

f I *[it'i+-i#.' ht.lgn::n::!$i:tiJ: .1:IT'T:T.ll t.'-*.:1"..opor hc4jtl 2..nltq''ry*lmii r'*llt-:*l-{l*.Cro$blki5fie lakose of signol' '. '.*.:T:ilT:"::x .lt' il**it*'-{il*{*-l*l'.li:nri.'. I di+enion.:::.- 6 o.i**ttf fi{":"l'.*l' :lf f-.r'r*?i*J*T{fl-.niim :. rD i*"**r**r***+m:i*:+***''.'.jls::^'-** c qnd Effeds Grosstolk Nonlineor .::i.: fi ff:1f p.'{ a .

o-" .g at diFerenrs?velengihs.re 6cd in telMmmun'q.heR rre L. lares e madefrom anothr semiconductor conpound. At lo$.n Jl 6ber-op.a1 -odahtot $* conrcj. which rnnrmnvisiblc @velens.cs rhar hoduh the t. f. ea. e p r i c r l. .t"a"**.d. . rh€ riansmifter. h m n e t . d r f f e r f t .. " " . .peci.This rechnolo$. r h a . torm!. " . e l i g h -r u r < c r * e n o d u t d t e d p 4 4 e t y * . r r y m m y o f r h e . A rpi*t "ppti.h operari. Semiconducror l$es ope.ly inexpensi"e. n a o ofthe 6ber.Elecronic in the an . d .t"n .redthrouqhrn opric.ght emissionby vo. High sped rransniners drive lasertighr sources a consb.*t sonrc. . At*+.l fiber.. emir much higherpo*ers and @ rrrn. . c .6. . r h n p r h ..rrhich lses rhemto generatr electonic curent or roltaee. n but LE Ds e nor comnon b. d \ c r a m p l r t u . r rGNm'treB ma)' @nrain muhiple lxer sour. o. .gl. y ? n a t D +pt.aring ncar t3l0 nn.i. e 5 h o n a n d \ p e e d . e ." S.t ii .i. t D . Th. LEDS atsocan b. * : . pirkup unning The transmiaer contains elecnon.fd onh in Tronsmitters lightSources ond Optlcal trd.e. n d r o . . -. t o n p .s.t .. rtrhoush rhe" mry rrtf difrfren.ins the drive curenr r. Someire siandard .\ . i n f m r e d . in the ransefrom about 1530 ro 1610 nm..". t .'nitt r' Eenetaethe signalscaried by 6ber svstens.*-* @ Other Opticol Components -{ ' rrierv of orheropdql components ued with fibe. .. bur rre n . t .. ho* n. o f o Receivers Detectors ond -{ rc."a in. .l ca. rD . r l u u b l e b v o r h f f r a u i p m e n rt h e r t .which pa$esthroush an db. r. a . " o n i .. 6 r a ( e s ..nro u ejec(ical an . r t . buildingsoo acmpu. Visible rd LEDSde uscd rh au-plLric 6b.cr converis opricdljgnal dansmi.r s i n g l ei b e ru n .D U t r .5 $ e D j r y p s o r h g h .$ride (caAlAr) emirtidg at 750 ro 900 nm r usedwith gtus opiioj fibers for smewhai longer disranc€smd speds.. * n .ause rhey ogs few advaorases ovo inapensive GaAs laser.ci. i . indiun gdli@ a6enidephosphide(InGaAsP). rhe light su(.spedr.*i . O* ** "re rrrely usedb6ru\e or rheirlowe.n"lty dro\e rhe rransmifter. rehriv.-opr. T h e . t^".. r em o d e v r . A .t. r e n r l v . . " g n .Thc standard lieht sources arc Lghttwntagdtoda rUDr) rnd semiconducror tae^. . j . * . h d i r . .s. r ' e M d .-.ecdy modulares l. a 1 r t" . . o. o. o.lion \ould be adata link on one floorofd omcc buildins Ner'infrared LEDS and scmiconducror tare6 made from gefi. produdng e ar sreadyourput beam. ^"a.r curenr. o n e n r e r J n p .Lxr. f i o mh er f u n ' m i n e r . r L e .. .mir much fircr signJr.ioh.hsb€ft€r r h r n r h e n r a r .c are sysrems.powerrnd sped rD conlointfD or lose-r i6i.*-. o k e x p f n ' v e .um .. lish (D or 13i0 nmor I530ic l610 nh. n e e d e r o e p t .ms ansing ftom inrerbuildinslinkr ro rruscon_ rinenralebles. limired in pffformane. 'y{eml.nc. " .senide (Gar) and s:llium-atuminum a. Chaprer11 co!r6 then in dedt.res...o .rar.h l i " j r e m e r g e . .. e r p t r r n c dn C h a p r e rq a n d r 0 . h e .

ourPu(muliPli'd b] rhe mPlihooon oplicn elnPline6 {e meh. and phoron eneig.****.mulated anenut.y." "'."i.'sn."a .:Jy i^. " an -.1 eq. thel mplifo noireand diston'ona w'U a lign'l rrdor ^rii." .op.tecto6 respono!n u. .T}'t -" *. sane wav ro closelr sPaced junblc rhen ing all opdcal channelsto rne sme derectorwould dr beforc ."* " nS.ly amplity thc rrengJ' oI *ak optical (he inPUt siSnJ w'th no 'dd'rroM .*^.r"ai"g ai'p'*i."."-***.. Light is p*t ofthe eLectromagnetic frequen.e" @n dcan up oprio-l srgnJs lor rumph ofdnpet'ion equrl jn mag ai'p. .oion bv "dd'ng "n ^"unt r. **r..t'.. wavelengths'$ s€ndd€t€cror bequit d.nerator are th'ee'seg€ dai6 ihat detect a *eak r r p n J ( e o P ( r c rtlh t u m i d ' i w i d t "'g*t 't'"' a"'e .aro6 Chaprcrl2 oven both opticalsplG€^ and el(- li u ll optrc cu be addcd to sonr optial ddi. U*. etre's in. omi oLherapoliuuons.' imPler and 6 thk $unds *oiic (hrn a regencmor' rho'ueh $-Nerensrhs ar rimuiranouny mpli! the opu..^i.pp*i* ta t fiber NoncommunicqlionOPtics frbeoxred hlLhoush.-sralk I fer€wnh asnission.*..s rn ih.i. Th*c 4pliution' generJh ''quite which Chapieis 29 and 30 cover in more deta! U You WhdHqve Leqrned? spectrun.i" i"^"1.. .gcne. rignalr'rcmpenerng tot r'ODriel amplifieAme..r'.e rro-opric r.i1.i. uansmnted thrcugh r singlc Ootical doiccs elled 2zr lnplc*r *pzrare opticl channels n'i.plcriry *-.@ n-.on Beaue thq direalv ampliry Thu whxdd ''ostark or orcesine.tr".al channcls msv rPante l-T'P': -" -a -.a ua'e rhr ha a dntin't wvel€ngth' l .bmmuniquon' i' Lhemor imporur applierion oilibercpriu drHetnt Dp6 or nD'rs i.i -.of \ua'elengrhequahthe speed light dividedbv the frequencv' oplicalnalerials ltequalsthespedoflight inds (a)isacrucialproPervof Refractive thd l' greater in in vaoum dividedby drespeedoflighr the naterial soit isalwvs higherreia€tiveindd ai Totatinternalreflection r!1Piisht insidea matelialwith than ns suround'ngs- F : i : 4...te6 a!.d "he'e meded to 'lean up all sigml-degniing qell s arrenuarionbetorerhevrel h lrvelsthat inrd.. *-.*. in Lrtet in sign iou *iX lern morc rbout thse and other doie ". :'l* .v 'ach 't'' *iver' rhis mut bedonc colion Regenerotion Amplifi ond optical signalwi& a G ReDe.

1976) . Fuhdan. or LLU em'i\. OP.i5A. Clds opricalfibes &ansmirsignakar 7j0 ro 900.tu"at. o . 19s7) I:ranc. T h c L d r o f n o p ..i L d t i b r r m u n h J v e h j s h . The low aaenution ofopdcai fibes allos ftem ro 6.r in rhebermrfrer ir leive.apr).l mpli6q.. rpe e6 and regeneE(o. Aphr.. pholog.'v|r't\|-rc.Plaric opiicat6bes rqnsftnvisibte lishr. o u r c e i o r 6 b e r o p r i c o m m u n i a r o n . 1310. rrd Diqd \rork.m"*. I 3 .ldhDso . i r y o r o p r i c l t6 b e ( d e p e n do n r h ed . b d l r \ e ' sd r er h e t i g h r. 16. in Latua.The largs rhe dir. Gallium asedide LED5 and lsers opeiareat 7t0 to 900 m..s .o kilomereB.Iudonc'trk fit r{ptic.and 1530to 1610no in rhc ner infrared.onofan optiqlfiber varywiih wavetength.. srmrond or tse. Artenuationand dispeE. 6 . IdGaAsplasers emit a r 1 3 0 0r o 1 6 2 0D m .ll. . 7. Opna a opricatra!ff. is sualty meourcd ia decibels kilometcrTotal artenurion per of e lensd offiber (in decibels) equats tha atue rimg rhe length.rhe lsr I t. i .r.J (Addison. Drrcr moduiatrcnofdnveruFo.\iiesley..e I ignt.a?ht. . 'I mag- 14. m i s .gt" oyerwhich totll inrernll reflrctionoccurs.pertr' Ro$r t. ". ol @ "ck ht crnid anslefor torattdterml .y high speed sisnals over 12. yringtt. r c 9... Fibq aften@rio. Die'e.Ha. t96o) liugeneHechr. L\rrrnal modulJrionchuges po{. Bril. WhqttNext? In Chapkr 3. I0. E . ts. a i o no f t i s h . + J L r n c j n d e x r h M r h e t .efiacrive indcxesofrhenaterialson.atrfering tight inro II. hangejhov mu(h tish.\ L.e dsedin communicadons.rhin an accepBnce angle. .rerchtonsmi<ron dnrra by Doo$rngrhe srrcngthof weal signals.(Do\et. . Further Reoding D^id l-JL.K."-. r ob1 v\ion and Hotig.. ]'he smallsia ofopricai 6bm maks rolennces rishr for.ither side. I I D . p .. puha \enr 5. *" t". s f r . lenkinsaDd Han. we will look ar howfiber-opticqrtens a. r n .ttalt "/O/rtr (Mccraw-H. 15. . opri.r8o/..g.efledon ar a surhc deFndr oq rhe . J d u . Lislr is glided rhrcughopricat6ben by roratinternairenecrion oflishr enterins *. i o n p a .

100 GHz Lighr X ors I l. .ir and whar dod 8.' I J . totallight intensitvfrom vo bulbs is of the Yet rhe sum ofrhe so intensides. ifthe tso waves in phare. 'onenng.i pm.'hlnsquaad means viNs contad.".p. shouldbe fbu dns tbe inr€ruiryof one bulb the. cncgy meLtingr}re 6ber. and vou doni ha'e rc worry about rhe \un\ .".g* .e rc reduce cnrireoutput ro lingl' l 3-Fm Photon -*r' *""i. Atoms md molecule in ihe anosPhe.ol6bcs havenininum los neari. is \tich oirhe foLLowing aotan wave? elecaomagnetic 2..acti'eindexof2. lnkrfcrenceseems be asta'ge etrect. how much atenuadon in dccibels scond? rcu needto rcducc the su's enfte outPur to a single 1 3-Pm Phoron Pc' x rhc sun ho* 4.3 p'n. hlediJ imaeinefiber hr auenuation I dB/mcte r optrceJ pm.h. If m enureErlsy contan( e billioi rr' ech one a luminou ru a* u '.'". Vhat is its criticalanglein that havero do with ic sParkle? 2 for Quiz Chopter l.@ o'"4*r 2 for About Chopter toThink Qubstions The to I . What is rh€ thar coftsPondsto that frequency a.'.. .e s@.".. \fter do vou rhink th' skv Setsi(s blue color *J.nrensiry ..4.'.i".. u n e m i o a n c n e r s o f r b o u r 3 . .ter lisht in the 'am' wav that atoms "isibl' d op(r-:l fibcr'Thc shoner the uvelen$h . Opt. 8 ^ I 0 " e r g "p c r : < o d A p h o t o n v i r h ' etg ll vou "a.n Lhe elar su(rr lieht in ". the light inrensitvn reallvrhe squarc dplirud'' which an and vou doublethe amplitudes.ren ha an encrgvofabout I 6 '/ l0 do *ume ihe sun emia all its enerE/ n 1. how long a 6ber would redue the sms output rn Problem 3? in 7. 20GHz c. Dioond hu a ref. 200 MHz b.r..clrnFh of LJ mi(rom.*.'i." How thick a a 5. Suppose materiat hx aftenutiotr of 10 dB/m at l 3 micromercrs entic ou'Put to a s"sre block ofthe narerial would vou ned m reduce the suni 3? phorcns in Problem wvelengr-\s lfthe of 6.ct eachodtr? Doni these Furce One photon k a wave packer that docnt lut vcrv long A contin&us tight emrtrng is the ontinuou light source wvc How cmitiaseadyot conrinuous 1 l ' : .

cal6berhs acore wirh refracdveindex of L52 and a cladding wi. neded to move an . 0. 350/0 e. cm dabofthe sme glss?(Negld surfa.lecrron acros a potential Muppose \ou colld of convcft all rhc enelsy f. by b. Lishr rhat pasrs ftom air ro dss n c.tinB 6.mple cradopd. Lighr is @nfined wirlin rhe. rorl inr.e .00t mW Vhat is rheinpurpower ro rhefibe? a. Znon haia rcfmct. O. c..05hV/ d. 0.2l pm . d. l.h index of 1.1n\v c. d 0. of What is is criticai aryle for tont inic. .15..rical aperture is z 0. 0. 0.46.ore of a s. rrs nm. refl.O *Aaa*-* t @ 2 id. | . An opt.rnal reflecrion ar rh€ outercdgeofrhe cladding.2399 p.01mW 9. 25. 5 . 62' 8.0.3t. 0."t 6be.: plstic co. 80o/o a. Theourputofa 20-kmlih€rwnh attenuetion of0. An elcaron-volrn rhc ene€r. 0. . b. erfraction of(he inptr!power remains aft( lighr ihvels rh.efl<don. \i.ve indcx 2. l2ya d. Ifa I'cm glss plar taosmirs 90o/o of rh! lighrrharenre(it.5 dB/kmir 0.20_ c.417pm b. roql inrernal refl<tion ar rhe core-dadding boundary. how muchlighrwill energe frcma 10.0.03n\f e.5pn c. 20THz e. 42" . 9'/a c.h.3dB/kn ^. 0. 8" b. 50k e.70.5m\/ b. 0. l0yo lO. c.ction from rhe libe.m 4.4t.dal r€flecrion? a. e.t"ronr-.owh 100kn ofnberwith 0.om noving an elecrrcn acrcs a potcndal of L5 V inro a phoron.l .I% b OSo/o d. 28' d. 200 THz 3. 0.r would ils 7.827pn d.) b.

Sottedng of light oui rh. \qh. sidesof the 6bcr b. k qciis acousic wivs 'n thc gl*s 12. Gias atomsaborb ia €. At. Shtinking of signn Pdses that be@meshodcr wirh d.@ o".'t lt.r? a. lt k refecrcd back towd the light surce e. \vlar happensic lighr thar is s@ft€redin an oplical frb. Strctchitrg ofsiSnal Pulses that inqe*s witl distmcc c. Gla$ atomssrorcrhe light and rcle& it leter d. Ireepes froo the sida of b.: eFec do6 disPcriod qukl a.nution ofsiSnalPulG l ( A Th Tti a Cd .

. .''. .le6ne r e l e . \ .s.sspecialkrs.. ' u n g . " f. but this chapter\rill give you the background you need(o undesrandthe rolcsofthe componen$covered rhe 6rsr halfofthe book. o m er e . Ior purposes ofrhir book..onmuniadons concep(s add how 6ber oDdcs used are . ^ 5 h o o . carryingsignals ratcsto rrillionsofbi6 per s<ond.he communicatioos Br business. 1 e . I * . . d i r . \ m r This cheprcrinroduces basic. I at.ord and brcadly appli.. i " er c r m. are and ro underandhowthev w o ' k .a wrjrer. .in.lude spech rcacbos. fiom a. n c . . n d o d e r n c t e c o m m u n r u r i u n s . Opriczl fibe6 r r y r a R f t b l e . c * * . . bur we doni need rhe etua svilables rhe rime. e . . . public relatio. I n h . .ar a unnersiryma).Fundqmentqls of Communicqtions About Chopter This The no$ widespread appliqdons offiber opriq arein comhunicaiions.rn.n " . who han norhing ro do wirh hardrrare. Tradirionaldictionaries all .r . an officr to acros rhe Paci6c.nower de6nirio! rhar means sen.o^ . wrne6. rhar dennirion.cs ro rhe borromofrhe ocern i he \prn di. I o w r o s t " p i p e r 'r o o r r y l i g h rs i g n a l i.d Tle "Communiations Deparrmcdi. o n m u n i . in . d d " .y o u n e e d.a. . o u n d e n o n d' h e b a t r . o r r a d i oL L r . vague.1 . .b n i / l m e j n \ . . e n d i n g : g n J r h r o u g6 b e r o .e. conrrolled oth. fuzzr s. i s l r t .l Communicotion Conceots Cohmuni. " n .t. r . r r o n ( n n . \ i e m \ . Th$e 6ber at optic systems pan ofa globalcomnuniorions nerwork. 1 r . r . o n dh r t f o r . r r r t " o r z r . in 't. i o n o v e rr d i { r n p b r . n J .. s o i n r o m o e d e r a i i i n. c : s .tinsinfor.arion is $e prccess ofransnirring info. A m o r p r . $e will usea n. . h i ( b ^ o k . .-. . . and broadcase. n. t r \ o m e " F .mation.rr\ a big. n c o n n u n i o ( i o n . o n c e p rb e h . h e . I h b e r p .

onwho'ee'iLonll_ye n b r ro f i n r o r m r r i o n .--.d Tlc ud rD of play a crucial rolc* the highspeedbacLbone the globalt'le@nmunicationsneFxort' how manv Fisurc r shows 3 kindsof tclecomnuniadons. e a .r. r"i"".ff"ienr tcchnophile' of in vou miehtercounter thehorne a well'otr RJdi di'ion .i. "r s-.h o .od" .-. ."i. abs<e m r ." .r'..-r. ir"e*. r .t'-" *.hat used arm positionsto indicarelerten or certain rvoJs. h r n " r . code** a serjes -.. " b €p e r r m g e d l h r P t d e n t r o h o' r " n o l t h eq u e { i o nb e r n g a k e d ' d otarenalliehrtrllsrhepa.' a'"icJ .r.pr".r.o'. M. o ra d e l i l c d m ' ' r r g e 'o u" [".tance onnuniotions w* bv signai6resthat rctaved Revolution. when Paultuver€ warched rion.D elegrophreloyed !o hilltop hilliop 2@ /eor ogo ofCommunitotions Evolution simph infornaThe earliat longi.The towere had to be in sight of qch dher' *ith an oPqatd Cla'udeChappe . . . i n g h a d . built bv French engtneer of mieht cail telecomnunications in the I 7o0s.. then moving rhe arns of his rower to relav common ChaoJ.g r i ." . by 6b.i h . i h e o p .5! . rt'.d " . His sysreo rr* called ar oPrndl khg/dPh also requned SanuelMore<s drcnral tebgra!/evenruallv repiacedChappet opticalone lt cncuit' serdins bu6s ofcu(enr r'.r"v *. . .. o t e l a ' e d a m ^ ' a g eb v m o v i n l r m \ o n r o Po r r h er c $ e r 'T h e o p ' reJdrngIne ' o e r a r o . onlt a. -."i s" land:so mern{ rhevwercgoinsb1 *a su'h sgr''i "ould br t"*i"* s*.i-r.t' . r e l e@ P e! o $ ' ' ' h t h e J m ' m o v e jt to the nexr tower' mesage.. One fmou examplecane during the Anerien bl i Nonh Ch-utch for o"e or r*o signal lmps Ooe rneant British ."a .1 TIE \ O M"b'r" Mu|ns*i@f i* L Teev's'6 Bt-" Computerlo@la@a g. .. " ' l o r .recordingir. ofdoa and d'shesGhort and long Pulset that . t . r o s e rl o o k e d n r o r g h .".ingle ould erry more informarion Thc frnt rystenswe A wriren le$ero! a human messenger "erc series hilltop rowes. .". . g r h e . .a l"''i." is+*. *i.r'. ^-" a. .@ **' f rctRl3. b u i o d . r'.

c in \trsion ofCh"pp..tp.aphcompanies do tururein i! bursoonrelephon"s .. ( h c . o \ e r d l " .b u . i . morc rgnals ar onea proe..n. A 1on Ine rBnJ b.-. r.r. \ r m i n u r e h e nd o r \ \ . g n a l .aciiir+qtrebcrmrngradiosipn.\ b. r c q t u $ m e p r n .. s q e E r e 6 . . i o nn .ied murh moc inrorm'ioo rh. Engin e..ignrl" (outd nor be aiplined until ucuun-rube cncuirswered*eloped.. e n t . (D D . mere.erlegnph f.""f iheI980s.." ". n r < d .. * 1 r h i . M. bi88e and mo. The relephone mMmk {d.s apart. " t e g .nuou{ Ro$ of inform"."*r a .red.U.i*. o u r o s e n d m a n f \ . in telephone companies b".narion. n d $ r g e r e . . \q p e n r n e .sarrir€d. q rhe X n."J.a rD . ! b t e E t a i di n 1 9 5 6 _ $ tudio ommuNo.g... t f " n o r s t . o u t a ..i-t .gt _-p".. retay. mesS$r(h a pha for h.-.. .1o". t o n 8 .r vckbrcker... *".".t. ^ r r t r c ."t.hdnne. m g i m a l e a r n . b u r o . p r p e rr a p e .ed *..t t r a d 6 r n r r p n n r e d u r o n . h e h r g h " . r p hb u r i n .oss rhe Arlanric.k becJbe o.s dflitrdMh 'o mate..r"'""i ..uned our wea_ter irdea *i.reporingsignals d elecr. th. o n v e n a r i o r .bur onlv hdio could send rftegr. r d n u n r ( r .. . r8q0:.*:.tn.oir. on m. n aio -_.. ( e p n o n e J t \ r o m u c ho t i l r * o r l d .chi"sho-.il:.r"n. e p . r o m a h r n gt h l q 1 r .. a n c e .. * o i r V o .tir e o\:t r F \ " 1" u $ e r l e . r..n reresruph. o *rc s a $<iJ_ purpo... . nir. p r $ r r o mr h c .ir.bu et\h igret qo rrll very. .. "re L o m m r n r ."t.i*^"t.oad6. *"".. o You @n rhink of eachdor and dashof rhe klegraph s a bn ofinfo.* f.f .v/hen rheAmerican lon-q_disrance nrket wa op€nedto compention &e early1980s.l. b(Jr h. ay . V" i* .i*._.r.-. T . i m p r o v e d . a. ua^mi.b u r . op. i o n s .nge ._i.'l:: ( m r i T*:*'lnnins s m d l1l::r h e mr o rj u . o ( o r r y rbour.t. n . " -o. d o wr o h n u t r i p .r. T h e \ d e v e t o p e d h i g h _ f r c q u e n c y n dco he tra r * * i r r e m rr ou r r y h c \ e c o m b i n e d . rts . e t < ' r o n n .y. g n r r' . . .r-. e ^ e a .. (omptq rhan rhe tetegEph neMo.esrcros rheArtrndc uniil r n en ' s rs u b m . Bvrhelo-0. s e p l h .lon*reU: otCarmuniorio.na. olrhesinHnBofrhrnk. rt". Tetephone :ign:Jswae noL I er) ro (ransmtriong disbnq a rete_ gEph rgnr. h e ! o . a l e d r t _ ..".on.rl. . e . C.. *d .fi:l..t co*iar ebles like the co* usedin cabte rel*ision svsemsals @uld ariy the.1 **".". and w* rhe only uav ro ser voj.t.pe.l::tunJ:rom \o 'ere'ron.oto. l l r .*. Wires worKeonne on rJnd..i.Jt. dricke.T ." r... dah*.g".. o u t d n o r d o J l t " . t t i .a' hish. calted nu@pkhng.Men maior cirie. Radio$d6$on €rneo signJj droDgh rhe a.."di" . Itw* thenihd nberopri. saw s... rh o m e \ .i.p. p t u p l c r drdnoL h ) v e r e r e g r a p h . n ge r e .rdio*t. . J ." .. n 4 .t.."s.r 6 Thc elcirical rchsmph spread acro$ the conrinen$ and in 1866 ac.uni..ion. u. bur graduaflymoed ro hieher {nd r ' .rctegrrph wire. h e .tnrhelo20!. r. Aterrna".o. r. i : o rb r .t.i"..s dor. ".. ... . o j < d o r .leregnphm re. v*h.. * s. Uo. e q k n ! k . rete. ** .. and .m.on. e \r r n v r e t e p h o n e . d i .r.s ""d.:" rcrfsraphlgnar\ shcn (hef beLne weJk but letephon€.::ii..re sere morephono./..."'.ap a.t ai. " . e . sioals.a ' d e t r € r Lo r r e l r v e d h e h r o m o . n n e .pt"".. ^ . .-."qu"n. r .rrred * tow f.r Rldio 6rqcuricd relcgnphsienats."inro.equenc... k e r s s I n v .. erry su u. e r do f . r j u t c u r r e n h r t r e p r e * n r e d c (h rr a. t e t e c o m _ u n i _ ... ."*.*.rerched bct*en potes in dowDbsn.ofretephone *iF. .led wjrh rhjps and:irplin* in wqtd !flar rr."pl..rounJrlrgtobe. r . ir s € n r a o n u n u o u \ r y & g . r o r .^ Sati.fhereteDnonennen t u o D e ( o m g r o b .u. *^.1. i g n rtJ s gd L r .e<.hip.oto.

9r a teloision broadat of a movie !t doent "inforrhtion' "i"r--".4"1r. or ndio-frequcncy. . O l e n J n ' m i ! ' i o nc a nr r r v m r n v ' h m m l l i k e I ' i n g h ( o d ialeble can deli"* mail "ideo channels ir oble telotsio^ ta oPti'al thdi"el is ^ signal rn r u r r m r r e d l o m " r e l e n g r h r a ' r n g l e t r b e r m r v .y liU*-pci. Signals may be convated fom one form into uother od vt'"" y.ngle$ mdkering bu.a rangeof fiequencies rideo o.i.'ing backbo. so let'spause *plain a Telecomnunicerio"s ncs rerms. second).".D. .ommunicarions soectrumfrom abour 10 kiloheirzto 100 g. Signalsmay take mrnv forrns. ir counts as information from muniqtions stddpoint.l 6re' ft crn bc a hugead 'ompl* mesage su'h * rhe digij filc containingar enine book.s that far exceeds ofanv other tel(ommuni@tiotu ncdium. e l l l f t h e ' y t e m d r d n r o l * ' o m e p r o b l e mi t w o u l d n rb ' u r t u r ' tuncdon' the it The rermh annoy. iigL .quipment -"sion nredi"n. lerminology Telecommunic'otions o a l l .i. b n e r . lpeD at banduhlth r \ow mu.' r mern. o m e b o d l ' .ontusing bwords.\lutt.".a] nelsin rhemuldplexed(conbined) signd. o m m u n i c a r i o nls m a v b e e v e r vi n p l e m e s a g e s l . c o u n t h d c o m p r e s e d l r r g ea m o u n r t i n f o m a r r o n' n d ' o ' r d o u t e f s ro is full oi. your mouth are convened to an dctrical signal ar the telephonc' $at sound mve fton elrctricai signal is convened to oprical form at the locrl tclephone witching office' back to at electriol fim at thc loql vitchi"g offie on rhe other cnd' end back to sund mvs the other person\ telephone." -ake a long-distuce rclephone ell' rhe dll "ontain the sane i"f-.ngbecause can conceal product's . .r. t n a u o n o * h a i .pplied rc a 'vsem o ohe produo thrr .gaheitzDifferentpartsoi thar elecrromaenetic qnd Siqnqls Systems: a .t*.D r .on a 'nrem '"n ' rrru' lr 'rn he meorred a" (negah*u)' or d a channercount a iara -re (bia pe. Spec. l .word .?"d.i the whole necwork rv longii"nnc olls How*c prs oI rhe . rcleohone * " bunch ofstuFdesignedro work rogerher -ll. r a r r r l n a d n r i n .Think of". r on e o rm a n v o p ' r c r J ' h " n n e h tnne throusha singLe so ofmuhiple channels dtr dD saveL the . 1i[etummining signal' We ofren"p€* of A nta is rheequ. w n < m i r r e d i : .. such asoptical' outic' elec'rcnic.r".ri. ofa hrge Pd ol the dt standpointdcscrib€s fiequen'ies . ryer since' dnow be! incrc!.?t"xinsis packacing rhe and rh€n separates 'hdon both endscombjnes ..Dment ofrelephomequipmmt fiom vour phone rhr khphone sy$em a' ir i.t'. t ' i g n J .D A r3zalrrmsnirs that infomation. 6k. a releconGuch * vour l*t-favorne rcloision prcgran). n inform.The epacit'7offibes ha. .'.Jlctems from 6ber.o" doant containarvthing a crnic mishr agre was -*.lrice channels). k et h ea n c i e nG t e e k r n n o u n c d r h ' t e r r r e y c r h a r o m cr n t r i p a r e d r e n rh * h r p p e n e d ri ofTro" wirn mountainrop'ign.".1 ral.f *'.. beto. obles rhar or sucht a switlhing sv{em rha(drte'ts phone swem riso mat be calledsvsrcmr.fiom a Ele. .eexplornrgthe 6eld in a bit moredeail fev imporant conceps 'rv ' . (hrr perfotm( . D i n g r o .

uhere .. ./ |..tbnad.o roOO -*.oad. the iea.. t ob.adio.r"r. .rc.. o .^r\ ci'(te 'he 8. too.".i*nJl |ai !. *li r.ioro..trrchoa et./ inctlJe rniDrne .os -"r"h". ".. a*g. f.o_ . 0 0 0 i l e .i band relei.--cenrraronducro.utarronrd wound aound each o r n e rI n J h e r r o t\ h r p e .: cvery :q t ou^ .. i 8 n " t .€. l v : r / r r l i r e a l l y r c n .*.t...i.. r.nosphere.. "gnat.2.. w L r s r n r r h r o u c h h ea i r r w t r n o u 'J p h l 5 r c r ( o n n e ( r j o ns u .6..one.r.hers*e i.nuau..ed b) a m(jlr.."a mj..tuen. rnrn hcntcel Jh. rnnsmis odio and low_freq.". i. { \ +e"...h in.oppe... fo q Vhar weusualy .*r...Th. d i v i d e dn r o m .. ".: "*. .< - .) rnd ave.Pdpa. .rainiadiofrequemis.e'..t1.r.*...he surfrce... " spatrumare. o n f i n e . use..o. "Cs. hom . w i t h o u r r c \ . r. h i r t d .i Coax I \ l-/ .t.av (Jme."L. u m i .cnar o (he rhcy 2:^!::..k1.bbon offour *.11".2{.mi.dpai.ued diffeenrpurposes. e t e p h o n e r ." i..".ualt)ptL... .:"j": .i. r.r rhey movequi."..asr i..|ie rarrh exdltv on..i.ap ofn. Ancian AM audio The b-. wtrelo\ered wi.Ifyou look closerlyoullsee. fhe hieher ".o f i o m r h eg r o .kjv acrors rhe . . Coaxial bbi a dsatabte with a entrai wire along its *is rhat n surounded by a non@nd(ri.o r.r i.rny ing rrephone igs naisin." ^* ".t\ ro rhe Brcund..h ^peajns..2 . audiob. *. I n e r J d r ..l*ril^ .r h c e r e .n.I / <>r. ri.*"r""-*O *'r*. h e .s we $ o..t.is.ttr.rc remore conrols. t _..arerireove.. n v b r n d \ j Mi... o m J s n e .2 r n r w h i t e. o..: non relephone wire in turrent useis a r.rred tiShr.7_. I n p r a .lnd may conhin nore than No wiks.t ..plae(ontinuou\tr.bove .p.11."ra a""*..i""*_"a.. yprjty rhi.-". . :*"i._-t-Jl..ow e.' irGUnI 3. @ tl. .i".Si .ur io . r . 1700 kiloherrzj Aherican audio the FM b.Uo.r p..i. \hietd..'.n ... .had r.. o ..r/. rrmoprrae.i. u u u k r r o D e r e ( \ 2 .ou* norowrer$s sy\rem..s ara.ound u@na.he proundor .oad.runys of moy toworbn satelires on reJrysi8"J.ttir.t o n g.. fmm. Oft€r call€d ... arc ndio \N( u high fre. so^i r.. beveen rcints oi rheBrcundro. Mnrd.eisJhe.. poruon ol rhJ bJnd bldd..€ '1-\t\-1.rc nor nal'smirted well rhroushrhe.oh. o h i d e R d r h en o m i n J .. applicaro s!._ -*i."1. T donr vir ndio o h.i. r u d r r d for ." 'ri.2 n r rndrhel sem to. . t \\''.t. h e r r .tJ.""_ P'e nund'ed rnd j les $oMd kilom€rers .y -i. p ( i . i c ci. . \ . h .o*"u.""" rdnrnon chrn. .*a -*t o"i..*". ."$s ! . j.. orgcr. "" t.:::o.a** U""a. rhe signal.bout I ru t0L.."r.Jn .i./....r... drr r..i. .. iU. wh. (hown a In Fieure J. ihto nrthq4.homsand otde.. at$ sh"*". m ^ b i t e .r nrknrl ru..r m c r n \ . _"_. ) r b o v e h ee q u r r o r.ic i d o f .d.rn..r udu..i.il.nt. ns -. limererand.uprsmuch rburnorallror rhe.

!. o m p l e x r r u r e ' .ri!') ua"gu'd.:H":'.line rchrhone fm"'ra(r twisedl:'::::'?.'..ngboth C.l.::..r i.-#*l**li+i+mrlv:..:::":.]'if q'iff*i=i'ilt=11 "[lij*ii[l. are.ni. can for rc calrysignars a singre 5cabre' canv * such caregary . r:.t.:.Il tumnn::. (nono ".li:.i' high freqcNies fanh'i **'h *"..3 A "i..". H TT::l::il:T:i:i"":i il'.:'$[#rltif dnb.D Broo&osting "" .:".nucrure rhrt guideelttromrgnerir Mve' The be'r known q?e( ee Ec' :* . rLarsmission o'€ wa\' lfom ns uul sinple a ' .ilil:"H.T"'.l li r# $: il'l:r o r e ' e ' o r r m u n 'tt t o n ' v ' t ' m ' n r l s ' u n d i n er h e .ilff :**il{1t':'i'Jffi:i::i :rii:?ff xil..fr1*iliil1.:'s.'J'il".p.6 h e r o p r i .* cou and tel<onmunicaoon cabl*. includ.il:::il..:l'l:. Functions System . rhe senericerm for metal rVatqui&.t+::fl $ .l@'u-' flouft 3. o m m u n n a r i o n T.ift ii Broodtosiing signalro evefone who tcceivesit' h A bto:dc*r svsem scndsrhe ume ddio rnd rnc sigral source to $e nrdiridual l-ocal is form.

a.iriif #ft ?:#r$#iT: Swikhed Systems .i?l'".:ff .:"::1in1.s *''ve' ir'he is'o wo .:ili::'#:'t..H[rT*.' a:i.tr.:il{:r*1Tffi .Tffi jfr:#+r.::.: :ilffff .:: :::ii.r" ji$'.ii:: iiliiil.:::r.1r:*::1.:.r.j{.c/z@* is usedso widetv that ils heaning often is hard .ili$r.!.-.:ru:ffj :::.ffi::*l:L:::*.*::r.111 .D to pin do$n.*f il..1:..T.:i.TilJnH: ".-r".ir"Ji.fi ."i:ii::'ffi3:'Tl.l'"[$ii.*il .ff h#T#:"* :m*llffiU::::'r.ii.rrr1'"::'t?fir."'"*-n"* "7 @ ::r..rk''e .I:i:.'1".i':i]l*.i'..oonr.".'#".::1:'l . i.t"r"r*nnr r.:l .':fX :.::1.T. ffi ii'l'f":::i ii:r.i.f.*i1n**:fu**i.T $::Til'n.xl?"r:TT".::e ww ircadc* svsrens: q..liliilil.r. I he k€r poinrs ofa *viiched systen are thar rhe c< .:ft ::.'Ti:il".1":*:: xthoush rhc hbel .i :::*:l.:. ffi'j jri:r i# t.:::t:.trJ.lr:. everyone can he&.:. i[.::it1i:.:?.**ffint*#uflx*#.. sisn. Networking .f ll:':1:r :il.TilriT.il T:i:{R rf:.rr#**.lxff.'ii. .L1t:ffi :iT:.:':L jf.:ts:L:'.1 j. nlm**:jj:rdTfi #rifrrjn::: rm:::m i.:ti ""o^1.lnTi::1 ^*r v"."r .D A switched system '.? wen goar -a'ow -'r- #irutfi'rffi ri$#:.l}:.il.h.:HJ. .I. -***** j:r.

*:1:lx.:.: ih..:""rncia'v(h€ s'rP'''.4 ftGlJRt (L4N).:*"3..il::.-.ni IJli.**i rike phone ffi :ffi* ...*tu**t'l* j:ii|lii.:T:il:l!'lI'iJ t ."''iiT'ili' l*rur::mm:i'"f.li..:['5f .!'.-. s \ou sill rd n tn rrrei d.'.ill":w*".frer 5:..:: . **. 3.Jl.:..eJ bir.*#{t*it*jffi$* J'il':'i.a.'" :iT ::l.fi #.r" +" *tv '"'*i- IJi:Lili:i.1r Pipes Switthes ...'ff ond '".'.'.H"r"fffi:: sv$em:i'H:i11.xr't*::nrt-:: r.@.":''I{Til*:':fi. ::.p*'6Jtv t" t'"\*ll":..wx*:.rft*^o*1f.i.::t:$.t"n". :j.'$*I'.-e-5i.' qui. *"*''t' i""i^'"u"t"'"a -r'' *" '-t'.ir".Hi1.:tnJ"''i .i:"lffi ofthn book) rhescoPe $***+slro.*":5H:#l.i"o'"r' '.gtlg**l*t#it1*'.

ffi .i":'t#l*..:i*:ffi Tr.:: ."i.::lHtilT"'"*iil::.::iJ::.l sending sisnols .:.':l. asdesc..llll... 0pticol Networking .:".r:rff'*'.i:H:.a -*. ::.[..1l:.:..'...rTi"'i::'J ffi:r iffi:'fl..-.'g *^i.'.T1.i b..:::..y ri."''*"n! ii. a. :l::l:#rffi-il*g. ::. . li'il"LTJ.un howi'uscd and is Fiber .'ff r:*i:**ux**rtTnf.D ..:i::i.mx:: [....i.'fi :**..p"ia."*..:'::#f'$il*::l"l*FF ig' Banduidth ls a 6road an often usedto jndicare disiial rradsmissioncapaci+ h atsocan meaiurerhe range off....t.:J'.'ffi ilH...: ffi i':ff f #"3.pej and sNir.ffi rddi- lm:#.'#":::li::.-s..#[:.ml:::..ovide both ihe p.-p".i: ifi*lrff :f :::':f:::*. suJlv mesuredx bir persec :1 J:"::ffi "".j:"*ffi.". r- Everycohmuniqtion sysem hasa cerEin capacrw $ur neasures how huch. -.il-.*i'. lsj:l. ..li:il:**"j.::..lffi:: il:.ifr* ..i.*Til:."'"*"'-t*.$:: :l''.::..::l.A r r t i n e i g t c r k r h e R @ .t-*.i'i.*:.il... #....'"'il"j.:::n::*:i*.''::#:iff *'* a".'"Tronsmission ondBondwidth €opocity D.' a'i'*gr.:..i.1*Tff..::f"T:l'#i:""_..::iffiJ?i.so rt desetues. i"y ffi Tha( 6.'::x. [:.f.nformarion r.'. of_orsmirns signals rhey pas rhough rh€ pipesefiici€nrly_nor $ jusr makins circuit Hub-lnd spoke airlinc schedrlesrvo* sonewhat tike the pipcs and $irches of rlk r € l ( o m m m i e r o B 5 t s k m .:1ri#:.i. *a' *-a.. ned.l:l'. canrhtrm't trprcce$..1.}!i':Tffi :. of bir ll].. Capacin. af.T :.eqlencies tharan analogsy*em can rransnu..8'ut apaciry i.r.ibed larer :J::ffffi.i:..5:li. optics p.i.d.gr...nni* .il'-:'.ffi rouiesurei:t:::T:-lH-# rT:i: and roen'o'*-.Ot...ti ::lnl.fi t'il::'J*:TlT"'"Til:: iiffilii..cu be measureo rn varous wa)s.r.

J'e l[.r'.Smciares t h e r ."ir \\il! tiiinlil ' :.. often rhe oro rre pr'kas'd rcg'd'er-vou' clephone i'. l l * l I lr l I .'nodubtioq are inpoflair' Thc conccps an simplest und'rsurd sion. you ned to know a bit about ond Corriers Modulqtion rD orier wrve asshownin FigurcJ 5 Both rhe d-r'Dd A sienrlcon."."*r *'4..5 s on f-_la o ..] . i " ' i .m r i r e b l e in'rudo a r..@ *-' en rcunt a oPrur net' ratherrh:n brerk them dosn inro their el<i'onl omPonenrs tetrng dln ignr workl Tl-. a c r u c i J F a c t oIrn J n v ( o m m u n n a ' D n s F G m e F o r t n n ' m i s " i o n* h i l c r r r a r F d e ' n t s ( h en g n a r n dc o n v e i i ' s s n r : ' n a f o . a i g n a l r t e x i ' r r vt h J l i i ' ..i. me$ rh:r they u* optns ro o'genir th' optici chsNls rlthough rhev u\c'r<' cbannclor habdatahet the \tn\oltot wavcl'n$h) r r seprrure individualchannels ro prccess toni6 SignolFormqts . l l r t o r a t ' h ' u d i o s u t i a ns e n ' r J r s A i :i flct Rl3. .h.i'."'. 'T. r v u . A'zNzrta.. ( . but are qune gcneral bv the engim For a mdio A carier s a nominally pure waue :t some ftcquencv chcen r-he dial su' h I 1-0 kilohdn rn drc AIV bdd ot 8q m'sa. l ' a r " . I l I-| | E^re ap. s n J i o r m r ti .rr.n . at -.he n**. 'onve6 Inform :nd r rf(erverthat ranrmrncr rhar onverr' your roi-e inro electronic fonaa cm ury widelv' rhae signat ri'o sounds an hear' vou gen€ral@nmun'@rcns tneory To unde*und sigoalforrnec.'J..issofr modulared tor rad'o rnnsmr'to .

(onrin@us !"rierio.rhe ahptirude of rh.. qnd Anolog Digitol Communicqtions rnatos ordi8. ffheroptics. i". S u n d " r dt c t e i .I n .6 []!!l :!. shr..g*r ... s r h e . c .rd retephone handser.*i. I hn J.*.i."*t"..?. an opricJ $ Nelcnerh.h odvooiog€3. r n r o .hhon) band. v e . hq r y j n g o u n d $ . wilh tuo tflels.v{eh\. ss oo n g . e .6. .x ][l_ ] [l_ .h. b u r r n d t o g o d u t .oord In brnrry tom. .'J.s. c e n . ujur y senebredb} a l&r " r** ws.. Fm rjlar @5on.oro'rghrne'.s. n r . awrao... a tu:"".h otrung rqujphenr.-. @ risnrl if:lj f.'(m\rtsrrn be moJularcdin freguent-y.i.n the anet.h \iowrr rh.D Signols be con honsmilHin o. i 8 n .. . -onolog digibl .i*.. r h ci m p l i r u d e f r h e o r r r r u . ..tadon . h lowo rreq(ncy. .i"ri'. for innrnce.r""*"*'rr. bcaronrv un ceruin di... Ou. RJJio.rc. l .howrdisibr moduhtion "r. e ..l _ia rrrngn. e w h r n m o r h e. _l I Ittttl^' flouRE 3.r i.:i.hnoro$/ F morc6mprribte widr Dtupre md mu. r*.m(. e . a . .ignajs be rransm.h.nd. L&fi fo mnla n. AM \rods tot anpLnA. h r communiorion. fonine a.e.a.s in ets.r -".:.. i o n . mu. rcnrnuosrr vJrynB 3igrut 'o a sknd. maros. rheurrier wlve i.sure Trereveroran a in J.he m dhe. fl . The otdrr rJog re.dqnrge\.i.h n ud rn rhe FM {for Fra*arv qaa.". opri . ea6. I h e\ h l i o n r n e nm d d u h . cirheroffo. e L o t l eo d r p t a y g \ .o i.udio and vdeo dmmunreroa_hav€ n:ditionJty beenin orJoe form. e a t r t r e w i " e r e . r i o n k o n p o * i b r c . . h r u r i o n \ r w a u d r e i q n a l .. i" "a*_ tageis lowernoiserhanmptirude nodulatior.i.'.. ( d p r r u r e o n d .*hith convc(s rhoseetecr o n n ! g n r r . o n t i n u o u . In fibr. on.ned rwo en in tundrrnenrrJty ditrerenr forms.hr.h i c h i t a t s $ J mu. . r g n a r o d u k 6 .i v. rhe . . mr simpty rhe prsnLe or rbrn(e ofligfir.. ud in u AM rudio . Telephone wiresdetiv€r. tser . n a t ov r d e o j g n d t .5v. done for convrntionaI rnrtog retnnion boa*".r . derrc.i. . q h i c l ( h a . r i e f E { u e o c y l h .* m o t r a n do n .hown F. nodurr..Ehmirred sisnJ modulare.i o i s t h e crtrlcr re'llen+ r he lgnrl qie.

-' Conversion AnoiogDigitol F$i{1ftffH:'i*': #*:i*i.: .im*fi{ i* .i1 .lHil.ttl':'F#'#ft '#:i i'..l:*:f's{d$r#h\""::i. f*.D bothdisitol hondle iill*l+{tilrtt*r*i:T*.l. 'r'an"anaiog ::?::.'l#ffi nlt{f}lifr k+*fr1i5ffi #..'x'.':l.. *.I".il:li:'.'i-.lrs:' i..logrmsmiss..l:ri:'ft{"*illl*[i$i*1ii" j*n*:.:*::j#:.-*i ffi li'd*#-. l!i::..l.:ff f ::illj:lli:'Y:::''lil }:"+li":ii.xi*F. 't'"J"i.'.f ffi ffi l....:ru:tl:ffi : T:.l..].1il end' form .@ o'"0'"."iaat fof sisnals '!ble televisio!' *"i .?..ill["ff ll#:*jurl ..i Nord' tapes cassette or phonosraPh s.:'''#::J.:*'.r'.T:: .kll*i'*:..i.. ".#*1ffi.Horvever..1.developer ha'e also su'ceeded l ntitt**:H'#.kto.r..vnh an.i *.:Hl[l:.*irr$ir't "lr'.oOO digitol {ormotbY 8000limei o :TI:H:LITx'tTfiiH1'.natog on rl'' orher iD i'i':..*'jj'ff ::[::fljilili1[.fr*.Fi:."'"o'r'***""0v''h!rcsur'isag'' f.:r.l'a.tr#T".r :i. sa.*ilr#f or.?ffi:':1".t*:l.i.a'nribute . el.'."}:T{i# [nt*l+gii'.|n:$H$.-".::.*.i". *:.'s:llii!.dff ti.11:::r"r5l:r.:ilt'.+.on for mostsign3rs' InJ cies.:.i.

7 nl ftis Fng I rhe Lng n- nr ighr .fFuft 3.

i.*:*ii*-*'r*n* ir..'Y-ffi1:1::.'ruilfr::ii'"' l:h:l##f dPetuPcrv less 6el hisho ...'"s e . ::::.pej signJ thrt @n be trrnsmnted \rhr ililfiT..."r'".h$ne''' re in tig!'c r .oo a *1.l@. n('*n .LiW S'ft j fi'i*{H::[*:"''ffi:fii''i:i': Lr*:{..pdr eJ(h -..l:'*''H##::f .n.lf.:fi lift:n :uj l*mJ::l r** f'".T"#P.lkf{l*.:.'.". .il.. '. 3.."ffi [Lr.'. ".r'isnarr 'hoqn v.ignoh inl.jJliltH:trH"-'.-.Ifrililff ffi *.:'ir.1*n.TJ"n*.-ru1[:'.iit-qi.*:li:..nd rrequen..:HlIT:T'JH: Yj. waw..* Ifi -? (D division sends mulfiplexins It signols r@gr' #fri{*.:..l.J:.d r."..liill l*{:i i1. ilkif ..16i$:$::f :r:.::l.'s.ffi1$: :...ri.1..8 flGURt Levels Olher Possible (256in Telephone) Tr Multiplexing !D Mollipl€xing .#f:tfi . on v .:1xl:tll.*ifiiti.?#.1th.'i#.cn$h.

ttgh- hut pt lins.al "t.*j..o disiuj rign js. cE ac rholvn rn I t0..ppa J*t ^i. Tl {anoaro rr T rrmc drvEronmutiptqing mr6 rre or ued jn t. i".e 40. sisnaj.8urc rD Time-divisioi multiplexing ro c.:.r. For rumpte ..:T::tffi. four signak rt r0 mi ion bio (meebisl ir l.:.. *. u..Your prcbabty famit.!{ilf r:.iit*i?#::ffi ff::'ff::h:t'..ar scne."*i...pr."a*. in wirh .i"" b.t0 .n.**t_. abre(.t/ t.. ride.ignars ro produe a bir srltms at e f{re.t. . diff. yo" *irr roro onr ..communjcauon.lsi\ion.eral diirerenr.:r...bour..ria.c.^ . frGUft 3.ren.s. HowRe... b_.te@mmuniedons.Mbi/. you.er.in in'oa shown j i#*ifi ilifffi l{*rf. (ombned smsa.'.d'uwn l rcmbim< brr qrealnsfiom .9 \ at difrrrht I .. rhe hood ar whrt gocr on behindrhe scenes th*e syvem"..Tg':."'-*t' @ ffuRr 3. e.t*""*.-.r thd Dm.J.ud thcrntc. prcces .mired.)arems rs lhc aeryjce! rh.*..ii..h is inhcren.':1:TJ:ffilcan be rooservdivided hierarchvorsisrens.*l:t*.fi. in rWhn mnreR molr Communicqtions Services The lelephone System lhif:'.

':#:[fi:i.".ffi I"i-n..."'o r:::::'j'li'""'^"'.*i#*f.o".'illH. .*.'.:1T::::.:?rffi :.'. *.-i.il.r'"ro."'. i. a''he il :.@.ll '. :* operarins compan..es :. "i.*''*:l**ri Crt - u :i.:..".rl:.."1 lff il".::l'.:'r:':.oo**". jii. il:il*nt?.:. $**:-i##..ffi: *J:t.:T:.l F Regional rF ::r EiE L.'i. :er.'...]lil .xi:':!.Ti l::1'5: '.P."" *'-::::I":1-:f -t':l:: '"::j:.:ilffi il^^11::'.T:*..:il"illT: ."i.5il$l.::.#t5r."r. rrnff 3..::...'l vrmg' t"dav lookruthe' *-u."i Be" Ti"':i.ii.s*..

abler tuve may dvDrags bside.l'. nerded. .om rodrrn..r .in. .tre phon. or conduct grcund_loop cu"_" ii.ru eU"" co.D Design '$e of ' j. a t}.irepaciq i."'#trii.emucn-o._.:#rii:rlti i:.i". u.i .i"" J-Uoni<s.r rr ::. . oi resiomt. Celiuh ?hon$..rl 6be6 prdid< rhr bactbonr of... alrhough rh.ommuniuriotu sysLem.T. so rhene. .ng cabres l* ns..r*.nins srik€s.i. ls::f . Adding mor. and other wirctc* nobite communia. i ' h o u 8 hm e r c i t uy y o u d o n .":.nna:prseb rd fiom ee iiar Opri. ro rhine.t]:J:H'j:l l.*ili. inrerf.b .€ading rhrough the merrc and accs ne*ork. n .ro .ac. so rha*on._' Thesebackbone s)srehs.rriot onducrors. tu et q u r e . n€sork rhe runk ca_ D.lx.:"il.k.ng ro turcpe rnd Arir..ir high rEnsmisjon eDaLiry aDdlow bip ev_ rD Opricolffhers ore ttl€ longiisionce tonal undersrcnd duc in u.^ .rs m rhe Rsr ofdc global phon.he po(enrialimsmision upr. i o no o w e .equ.es link to rhis you slob{l rele.clbtq qn Demadew'rh no ete.e.rene frcm oow.rh rcp.rbu.1.L11:"'*'re $re.t".hc tonsniiruce r.rgroundducr buil for one <opp. tonr_a. r'. n c \ ..ow.phomwrieB d. .:11.".l'lj:-Iy1"" *ch a Af&1.( o be impotur rn prrricutarsi(uarions.rn.e.:::L:[1.l i n s .r rnk cen(rer orfices wiiJr.t S"i.you un no" Uu..ipty . M( r lvortd@m upssnaL F_ ed pi.I ha. oid @ mul. Fibo{pri. kd Lhe* rtcho thar retephoneneNo.""gr.. r h blrs 6r ealily mrc an und.#il:Tff ]L.. osto -noin. o. @ mo Cqble Television Video snd Tronsmission $ . ..he ubtc' rh.pr*.*"*"*"'' "*-"** Q e'onr nodesinil r€nspon .1: ..ach oder and . l t .srems o submarine such o.r.n"" -und. conncctwith internauooar sy.J::j"iTi:. 6b. rh.sisnalsutri.nem arodd rh<@unrrv \.rill* t*fiirl* ::i'r.* *" ai.fi :liiir vidro srgnak .r. lt. *.e si'natsd. [:l':.iil #1H:1'. page$...y l!.r link (eltujrr phon.T.:il ."9 w. o r o r h e rs o u r c a u d s o m e u n a l o n g i g h r . :. sy'iem' rusmir phores dn.:::.. .ban lru n tu more cxpenrrrc"tho :lii.::::.clromasndi.tephon.1. .:*':. :il:i#+:1'.e @nvebarion.g r n e B n n gp r d r .fi ft lH. r*r*.e *.ib *.y so far hwe eched only a fw hom. Thc signals pu nom carrcr ro qrrrer.*O **i. o m p r q .[.::: ril::* fii[:3.work rhardisrributs .rvof n* obl$ rr.Tr"'.arJ ZJ .." r".d in 6bcrsonoi prct up et. ne$o4 Fib€6 arc sp.e ro rou. r e r h r k n r o u r p h o n .. l:^:i ..hl. f.d._ lmt. ble! iLnn. @b1...minin:J wirhrheq.hss- :..j9..r dinribu. Fibe.j:.ion seryi.in tutn.5p. Fibe^ ajb hre dheradwnragq th.ignrs tued r.il:::ilxi. un rfirnl of rher mobrleserur*.rqrry dangfiouscurcnr puLer in_ jeced by-lish.:..

.@.rit'r'}"'.T: :!1.utx . Hl ri.:ru:l'"'lrru:lllil:"":-.."*"'"ln:l:il"Tf Communicolions ond Ihelnternel Doto gh?*$i:r-::ff *:."1'*+ ..lii .js JiTi.{* : lllt'Ti...iliil".tn'.g l#:$rrr#".ilJ'j. lfr..'.*'i.'..riii#:**lii"".:.T *i-*l...-s-**lffi:#r*i.::'m'r"$:irl.:i .'J*i$.illt"r.lf#*.'tt'#r#fl:fr ll*i*tiirn::rr'.rti.-* sraadard<ouial cable rysten' :ff:'#l$'r.T..m:*..ffin'ni"::'J.rt':+".D ***E+**. :".l'..{H$:.'il:il":1"T.iii*il.:*.Jl:1Til:iliT.ffi '.*f*..}:ff*}T*ffi brordcasreo "'erryision Hl.r'.il'iu H.: ^i*'".H. u: gfi ill:":': r.lh{.*rni*#'['f 'ir**fttm**lrti'm. {..i|.. xt..Ufl*Tlj*{ltffit#'[#H or lioking corPoruetacttttra' .. ffH:"r"Hil:'*:':'ilf--:"f!$ili:3T:i*:1T##'* .h.[#r#t *'" "..v-ni:il': hish sP€ed it'x"$u***::l*ff-+*si'1.3.'.

ffi I ::.' .*r.l:#:h.r.'pg."i ll'i:T#:.j....ffi. rn rhe .f i!::j&rff :5t .?rjffi..:::t iild*1...*l..ry do rh. porure ncrwork which *i** hos.1.::i:: :llt.y"^)#i:?T"J..:ruffi 6.:l:l LTffi: cu..t*r"**a. ....'n:l#.i. ::..::H::.i::x*#iil'#.cnts..::H:i::=iXJ: bondwidrh Big pipes woni .::Jt.lffi{_q. New "S...i...:1...: l'fi''"'* I')il"i 7.lT::f"jillf.nw€r aI rhe probtcjN of data areopen ihan when rhe buitding is complck..2000.r.'t $$ ffi:::ru jr.... TyP- :.'j..n 1T.il$l:.i".d*n..::::t1.*.Tlt:::il::L. *.:.*.ffi. ..r...:'.hT:Hf": rn":*'i#nil"*.l'...:l"I...:ff :li.": tensedau-communiadons userssuch as tntern.ff'.G .ff.:.fi .:.'i."'"U*.::Tj:*.:**:.ru i.t#:3."#il.':.rffii*:lT"#f#:liT.:ili"iiff*::.:ff *.T:fi:ll.ffffi"i: :i. I company tvt lTl"o:-1. j *t*.." s'i'ches ne*-r"'.t:..'i.:TT:ff rD Fih€rs notco. ::!aare. so can iil'fi..*1ff:?..:ffi ..n'.d".. ordow rhe *.}:''.::i:"ffj ..*.iJi :.* .::Tl[lf j.. .*s#.'1r cbu.t'.er nb...::::n:'::11* x .. 1 .i.:T::H.l#i:::':: :. .ffi .*'*l Yni'f i:ln##..:ffi .ru:itff .jT:#:::...ti::i.m:.jin::.*".:H:#:HH:J':'*'::T'"fi'. "Jt:.a. #.*:... r.:*"":"" .E*#*-'i**#*l'...:l wheDthe klk . iri.*:iT:i:.ff "*'"0 d.q #:..r:". ."r*11*y...j:lT.y @ nerworkj of Dc.thcy bcu...'i:*:#.*ff##.i.ard.Tt.x'.." .T:jilT.1 i:..ffi:.::.1Hl:.::il.. @ .::l.fto..il.:::ili i* fff: ..1$.::l.J rD Fiber push will _ _ p.work.*ofr u*..ffi u::.il1.

.."'J':[i"il'll.il *. airc*ri .i'."#ili:::q. lronsmitters Fiber-Optic .pr...?u:.i::ffiffiT:tT ff T_..D lisht modulote signol ii.eo: Communicotions Speciol'Purpose iD Lighlweightond EMI immunit ina."..arions :.1":1ilru..r.-$s \}''ms' low cno'el for ".liba Many il'J:'.*.:jl.raiLin ChaPers9 dd l0 bv rish' a -'p'i'r ..:i#:f 1tfl..n q"rc* a" caking #H.'"r <arie6 in' iff.* x '..."l:ur:. porrab..ig$ttr**ii{'.ilrylE'JilFl!::'i"".-'.'.r$*n: -'' il*rfll i.T#*il.T:.:[.Htrll$..i*:H::::: ":":'ff:':li L 1' '.:'.-i* Equipment.-:.. .h' il:r"r#ifi :ils'"J.":'.:i::ilixi:tli::"ti::j*?"t* lf..r. Communicqtion FibenOptic $..':.:::il.:i:t1'*..i:?li' d.t": Ir1'.iffi1.il.1..".il""ni::xilfr !-+{!$tl3.:*:'.." .i.o. ::#r# t:.*' ** il.i..i*fi .-.ryb4"1 nb. appr.n i*i:11:.'l "..T#.[il.kr.# i:lH.?.* rhcn pbce' .. .:"ff .''mu"icati."."*?.varies found nbe6 opticar ls La."t.::: n1*:::.:."'J:rii::*m.5#'.lXli *i::.T:...r.r* :J-TT&:5': *u.Ied H. "".*il.de'preadure ol hbe' ff .:*:::lffJrl.@ ci.X*f::.Hj:.i:T."rie' sene.lf$*dil:'ilq'i: .lxil::run'.quic rppricaiom ror ns's -' *rractivc nmv such op'i1 shrps md noerpranes aduned use.'x ** i*:.. i'.i.-!.opdc i"r i:'.c nca..

i: f j:i:# j Opticol Rxeivers Rec€ivecare the finat elemenisin any comou :fr:.*rt .fJ.:#l'f+:..Tn:ff:f. "*aa...r isn.* ff ::' *f$.n1il.ffi il.:il: :ff il::'x.o rhe ..'*..r:.1f..H:"1 Opficol Tronsmfssion Fiber *"::..hanse beami"r.ll.::_rr.11:i:n (D ffJ:j:. t*.i: **.cduc rhe s€pa.::"j#tffi ii.r.'H.lji1. d:e.r il:l:r.'.:il"..-ffi:il rD ".:T.25g.i*r.houi di.'i'#Hi..l:*fl i:l irn.Hi*:ft111**:i#:r*._"'.. ..f :s::ff ...".to ere-..".1$H.t..:. :"lJ.lTi:? ::i: .t"*-tu.n"o*.ltf'::.ffi fl*. *.if ngt:*"kJ.* tr.j.iiir".:rrheop. ..ne ere..-_* .remersins ...il:r..: :l *itl**' :il[T'.: jl: r?:'ilrt il:.al rmpli6ff: un boosr rhe sftnst} of opocat srsnats\o rhey @ rEvet faflhel pl*"**ryt'.. @.hehberJnd. :f.:TTli[".. .::i:'.r.i..:.n".r .il:l's::1..ilft *i*Lta*_*:.Tu"*:ff il"J.*:j. a light :l.l:'.ij *.:k.rnrx #:j:t:1til..: ::r.*fl:lli.. @ ffi..:1.-.].il:*nl$..:"'x.e:e I.:.e^ ..#.re. i:jjiFilllruruliTili:Til.j:*:?::...i""ffi i a nlghr proccss decod€ sis... taror o ....::H"::.?}: k l..onve.:T.r: i.rt..ii':.. llight '..*ru.hTJ:::"it i::]i jr.:l:. iTj#.p.micdby j. .r..1 ...ljl::.arion be**.:::::#"Hi1ffi Op .ir*.'.*-'. light ltl fii"* .. .ff.i. riom i ::b:::11t..v ..r "r..".#:*i.Hx.. ""..*.:::.r ri ure..

he.. It doen'r make sense spend big bucki on a superhigh-speedreciver mirer is muchslow€."r a*.A.. a. "*'.ronis Qn enhance sigoalgenerated the detetor lo The rcceiver tl t! ta l.u-lerc R. rl'i'.ig.ii. that cancommunicat'wnh eachorher A nevork connecarnanvterminals "swjtches Fibers wereusedd *a i a ." p*r.'l':i:rl "ir" ror upbl rmpJrAingir.- 11.a. *"..g'.<r de versa. with €Lec(onic pipes sign:ls 13. Broadc$ communications the beveen termidalsr rel€phone tenporary connections makes 10.iirer ifthe tms ro nance.yu".hrnnels for sansnhsionu a single Multiplexingcombines be done opdcally or elecronielll in time' trequencv. which limirs thc whelm it.d.r'..^-i.and opticat fiber.bng pur'er idlillli Lmrred $ 'nev qnr . ennrerung. $rvclengdNrhrr unee ot *iv.@ **" and the srrcngth rhe How well thc rectivcr doa is job depcndson its kDsirivitv.sto Pft.onsysrems signal lt can duldPle .:l iim'ng.ic .itched system oehlolk is ode exmple.. .i . A elecom-"nication . "Copper' includs rwnted-wirepair ard co*ial obhs' Poinl'ro-poinr@mnuni@don slstemslink a PairofPoin6' wirb no orher sisnalto manvpoins' dtr(ibute the same 9. I he 6^t form ol relecom n ietion( 200 Tehpho'-md ad'" trormisron rollowed *i. **r. receive6 signaltormr' so ue recerrcr boih h*e to operatear rhe *me warlengrh with thc une tmnsmirs Thev 'lso should ofer simil* levelsof perfor . but nor ro th. .or wavetengtn Ar L 1 7.'-"ncc ofboth the deecrcr signal it gemato Derector repond to a rclativell' boad .a. "@h rgo El'c(iul mu Oori":l r. Gecommuniations uosmns signahovera disancc tu 'Ilmsrnissicnmediainclude a.emphswcr.' -r-'.or and rhe cn. .g.ysren includes piPes and norvopticals' nchs arebccomingavailable swnches.l.A s.rhevrlernrr. w Hove Leorned? Whot You l . BorI derector and receiver also ha'e characcrisic rise ri'nes' rhel an detect sisnals fasrest addition o bv the ele.- copper wirs.r'. spetd .. ll.cc$d \':llxs transnrtr .g i. and 'hrpening rne rim+ Ho**cr beyonda aftein lsel cleanup noise rhcr ne inevibblv Thev in and fiMsmirtcr' arederigncd prin with mrr'hed prcpenier' In p€LrLc..r* p-i.. i' -. redio waves.--.dio trarolnission moved to higher frequencia to incease i6 rrmsni$ion rransmisionin the 1980sliberopri6 b€<:me@mmon for long'distance @nsmn infornarion ?lecommunicat.lenFht. Ar opticalrevork ues oPri. h r n gt h e d a < r o r i s r o o l o w n o i ' e m i r o K F nU.l. ll =*t''"e ".pt'" "i. *r'". of i'iblc rnd inrtsd l f t h e p o t e r r e . a"p".

r us€s fiber to transmn analoss.k up? 4.ansmisionofa combinedsigMl cosrless tban separare transmnsion eachsignat? of 3.esional. How. r€a. Modzn Elean n Conn.emenbircese.*'-* 14.ralsignah? $h.onsiderinsrhar alllhre frcelydisriibute sisnals ihar many rerm.. a 15.m rhc telephone nemork. ne. 16.. \(/hrr arerhe mtn advantages offibeFopric cabtcs long disdnceransmission? for 6. A sigd. H"* do . I 998) Questions toThink About Chopter for 3 l.A. How hs the rradeolTbetween speed ofcornmunicatx. ..kbone net}o. I r r n er e n o l t h e b o o ks l l l h e l py u u l e r r nm o r ed . @ lruring WhqttNext? N o w r h r r y o u h a v e g e n e mild a h o w .hos fast nrghtiiansmissiod in 20tt? be . Fibes a.Th.d rhe amountof inforoarion rhar on be conv€yed chatrsed overrlt.s? 2. \vhy docsduhiplex t. I 999) Gil Held. narionat.longdisranceInrernetraffic aswell aswirhin corporare IE. Vntulian Int m. doesnirhN work for anal{rs 5. .o n r w o .medalog videosignals all irs cusrorners. ro 17. Freman.ead from ba.l modulatcs @rricrkve to hnsmir informa on.. r l t .cm none be cmoed from d.ntice Hal. coveropticd 6be6 and their imporrarr fearurcs. (p\.ona. rnd tocalsr5(ems. The @bleFlwision nerworkis dcsisned direrenrtyfr(.r"***ou. Miller.ns a.cqui.realjngat tlt ptescntrate.000 p. r b o L r r h er . nodem or DSL in 2u00. 1999) Tom Standage.atio.i. .la ro tocat n€&orlc s b.e u*d fo. 6 b c (o p f i a ..eascd from t200 bjrs per second wnh dial-up nrodems t98t ro abour4i10.s. lfblndNid k€eps id.nahcan. :nd ffinsmirs rhe s. .ndwidrh . 70o0) Cary M."Ut" in Ur..gnals? 7.ai. D{a rnnimissim nres to posonalcompuen hat in. h n o t o g rC h a p r e r< r h r o r g h. o m n u n i .orks and dobile ielephong drftir fnD broadesr sy$ems. . Fundawnalr ofLhconnuhicdtiohr (y4teylnteKcience. Von and Datu latmtunrkiry tMcCnw HiI. k . n o r e t e .ompue.". Further Reoding Roger L. Fibe6 wil sp. Vhar is dre only inporrant reteconmunicatbnsrsrenr rh. .t (Be*eley Books. The relephonesy$em includd jnternarional.

ls at 150 Mbit/s a'h a. \har is $e resuliing : . relegraPh a. Th-'o be Proce$ed d.lrunklrne d. 160kbir/s 288kbit/s 5. Backbon€ s. The elccwical relegraPh b The opricai c \\i'eles 3dio transni5sion \i::n ofrhe follou. One channel arr)'ing 1 2 Gbit/s ' d.e.Eighr oPtiel channelsactr carryingt50 Mbi*' b.. Eighrsign.20. : ltlr kbir s t6 kbith 144kbith Mbn/s c. One channcl*rying 120 e. Tho en be procesed elearonical\: d Thet areued in comPuter e. Backbone tstem 6. Thw ae traasmitted Parts ofthe tlcphone nevork c. vhat pan ofthe telePhone network @ries the highe'i{Petd sigoais? looP a.ngaretue for anrig signa!: 'n a. V4nt pan ofthe telePhone directlvto "esork $ connected ifYou get rour home telePhone your telePhonesenie from a local conPanY? telephone looP a. at 1 nillion channels . DedultiPldidg a 10-Gbi* signal that we'e combined inro rhe signals maken rarzarProduce to 10 channekar I Cbit/s ar 20 channels 500 Mbi* et 40 channels 250 Mbit/s l00. Ther ue ompetible with d. Subscriber b. Fecderoble c.{ll of the abotc 3. Ths are$ansmitted Partr nework ofrhe rcieghone c. Tine-divisio. All ofrhe aborc bY a 4.lsat 150 MHz 8. in b. Subscriber oble b.stem 7. .000imes a the second)dd encodins inrenstt) daa in a bi6. multiPldiog of 8 sig. Youdigidze 10-kHzsignar ir at twicethe highesr samoling ft.@ c*nt"I 3 for Quiz Chopter t. Thd rary comououslY 'n b.queno (i.! on encodeanalog signals. The..hannels at 50 Mbit^. Feeder d. \ihrh ofrhe follosing are uue for digiul signals? a.

cenralolhce. local'area nework. The place$here a telephone cohprny sFitches signals a in a. A@usic vibradonin rhe d. Radio-frequency sisnal suppliedelecoonicallv the ro c.t"ar.r"r-*t The caftiersignal'mddulated i ro produc. tbtt s.hbination of wa\rlenghs generared se\crallishr by . Single warclengrh oatighr generaied rhe rransnirter. c. A. signal Ibr r. a(n) a. 'f tl0 i : {Hz. one optiql channelin ! 6ber optic tslem . @ t0. d. b. . Backbone nenvork. in b."'.

p. a . n a o ". . bevond the scopeof this book. d r p e n do n ' h r w " \ e ' ."l i..osr1 m .t" .enr aDDIi_ d t i o n s . . .. . r e h . t . o r . n n e ' r f t c . r ..ereni rypes.. h r o r . u v n n i . * r ..n 6be."p". b o J n d J n ( m d r i o n . i. r. 10 c. .Togdhei rhrr rhee providern n*ntirt eroundr o . 6 b e .is.f. . diff€. Iis po$ible ro calculare natu.. .oncenrmres 6berderien on and IiehreLridrnp. . . . n g r h t t ..h o \ .. . t .'. o . h : o c n o r e t e c r r o n : g n e . h / p e \r h c ! o c . propsnrsor op. .o. r h . . k er h eN r ... .' e r n .r h e p h y i c . e p rL r u \ e f u t p p . . i ... e . iut rore_rn derermining rhe. suid.r. tr.r. .. o u n d c ^ t ."i".rfet rhrough hc wAc.i. . L k r o r h e rM r g u i d e .i r r e J t va u r v e s u i d a n a t . i n g t e cda dsoibed in Chaprer 2_ In essence. r trrerns . B r d e .. .traJ t'rr\. 8 h t. t t ... d e .Jthd z. y . n h o s m o ! o p .w o r l . \ e . i.. s h r h . p. r a*J. o n / t ( . . ." . " S * d r . .le.i r a l b n ...a.J U r r . r " . rheserqrirtion. i u r f i b e . .r n L h c\ : h p t c . . . s5 i m p t " o n .ery tinked rhenrc (hrprrb.. .. . p . " h t c h u n o e m r .i"" r n d r | h J ' . . i n ."it. n Lro... n f ( .. Inncad.T h " .h' fonos. r . Chaprer6 coreo the material) urd. ' . h o i n . o i " o m p t s . S".whiJ ptai.e u i d i n ei n m a n i r y p $ o i h b e r b . r o p r i o l f i b e rg u i d e . k .bur ir hkes a solid un deBtandingof advanced calculusand difterentialequatiols. . c r .. ..egii. " . . b e . : t r r g e . c ' r b e h ed i . e .i".p". .-." . *r. w r r e t r . r r i b ! r i o no r t i g h re n e r g ] .i lightGuiding Chaprcr2 sholved how rhe toral jnrernalreflect. There are severaldifi. s h . o u n d ."n. r o \ . . n. *.eofrhesetransnission the modes..._i. .yp.. \ r o r r h r w h o t e .ton -"a.s.Types Opticol of Fibers About Chopfer This Opdel fibes re nor all alike. well look at the charatrerirics oi.made fo. r h h e q u r n q i n t h eo p r . .a* _.. n d ..i i.on Iiehr ravscan guide light along of o p . n J . o .io" in *f."g*. t .rnsi. . .. I n .. . i .. \tich is fa.. r a \ m c d . crpr5beh'ndrheaiou.ip... t r e r r "r..rp'ope(ies. o r . * h i ( hs u i d cI ' s h ri n s u b ( t y i f f e r c nw r y r . ryperoffiben.oi. d c .

*'.l'::*..rn arrrhr moc liaht ios "or beha'erhe srme this chJp(er' sin.:.. rD Co$.::iiilffi xl.:$:::.*llli:H..'::'g::''.t*.lTil:t..L::I.*J]*'^"i:: .:il':. il::lilH.':H:l: .l.+ff sPreading' infiuencingPulsc 6ber chalactcr' parametersdeErnine imPortant wnh other minor hctors' rrese Crmbided istio.*m.il]il.'TJ:-..''.ru.:.j*ttlt*'"''"'.:fil:5]..lilii"r:riiiiii'ii Mv.'il.+ffi il:l:.n**.'ilT'Ti:1'i il:iilmn.*"'-:. induding A$enuarioo$ a tunctiotrof$zvele'gth' .ldingin . rD |/" ?.Co.::r.r*.'l.'lj[:T:m:.x*ll' :".:il'-.-''. r you "rll lern latct in #J:lll*t*ll* :*1'ililir*l*r l'*Irft +**. .ir"#i':lT"Tiff::m: r$m.D LighLcollecion caPaoq' Tnnsdission modes aP{iq' s ! fuoctiooofMvelesgth and spleading tnnsmts'on Pulse roere' and for rD Tolerances spLicing connecrng o o OPerrring*a'elengtL and ervironmcnd aDuse' to Tolerance high temPerarure and Rexibiliry Strength ***-'t$.. ffi :rf [*'i'.io -*^.:'5'::ffi il. il . .l.l*::r:*:**j €ule it mnsmi$ manYmodes ..sdoddins *'*' r'i*l:m itr-tr.*{*l.:"*j':.'. ti*': .o*.:TsJfi :fu*:i*:*+:.'"'iH:::J::TJil1ilry":*:r**:ili*r*:-'.: .n:.** .*.ll'.'*tT r."::l.i1..

1 _r-----L ddrng s light .tr*tqtunt*"" @ FlouRl 4.iSi. .[ _-_1----------1 _-___J1_ 1ndi.

\ o .'m..u"'"a. Toguicle thon indexh.g.:Tff Ll:T."t..*i*t+'.ly.?.:t.1.l:'3:tqr.":r it.' Ae light.*: /'to..* 't'.:'.t-.t ! t- .rl*'rs li.' :::'ji:'*r.l1Iiilfi .lndex sinprcs' :'.*li$ffJffi?ilH$'. [r:':"'ff lix*'.v.-ffim*.'."-'" \-/ fli$r:. . angleB gutdedalongr'e lDer 4.ffi l.i"lii".l .lil.]ii':..":*i*.l*f iiiif*.ffi l a I in#ii*q+x6*i: if*J*t"1'.ag in d _ _-E i'rl":r."#$i::lri:: OnlYI'ghtta ing n this..hcindo chrnge' ::?::[:'"""unded i Requiremenls tighl-Guiding r.Tlr' :#1F:ilt.'ffli.3her rhecloddins.l il:'..lD **o Fiber Multimode' bvairare'he qpe Step.H.2 Ftou$ Litht gud.'::fi d"sifu f:'J :|.."":':rii: :wt: ::: . abruprlv .* il.ln i:.i-t'$:f'.'..

.ng. e t . ..* .which guidedlishr @ sftik rhc corc.D mode fibeB." . .e4. .ve indeks. . However.lf-acceprece angle giva the tutl accepnne ogle. medured in ai. hdnielly.6--o*. t .od ofhigfi-index sl{s into a rube$irh lowerreiiacrive indq. bur lisht fall.d.". r d . b! rhe refnctive index oftla cur. You c?a calculate the half-acceprdc€ ansb dnd-d).tt "ola..claddineinre.J ' " t ' u n a t . htfaccepene ogle.loped fo. hired from one end tu rhe o$er. .o ' a b s o . r : r i m r g r n gn b e ' .ro (hc rod.. 06.. . nd fine cre. . r . by jus. .r 6. d h o e ' .om en. ca[. o . . . * a ...t* onlind$t dele neswed f.{3.rn h. The rhinner . g d B o o d l .e" r v .. " a o r o r e r n d o r r b u r d r e m e q e l r r e o r h e rI i g t . a .ks on rhe . The simple$way ro makesisndad 6bersis io slip a. r r t . .3 shows process rhe schematicsllra One subllebur crucialrequirement that the .j . " r .e: 0hji..mog.c(ion uiog rh€ stddaid taw of rc... l " ao .6e gl4s. r i sp o * s r i i f ..acdcd developnenr ms a werethefint fiherc @r ro apply a cladding ofsl6s wirh lower rcfracdv€ index rhan rhe @re..e.he of is r e r ' o n l o .h. a . Step-index including ndsdinc.. o nL . . Figu.face is musrbesmoorhand ! l e a no n r F e . The onfinemert aogle is snall enough drar you @ roushly apprcximare the hatf-ecccpienc€ osle by muldpryi. * .e-cl.*.g rhe confinemenr angl. z_.n0h"rf. p o l .p. n s .o.r. . . glus cornesin IlEy di$erent formuladons with raried refrac. Ar we will se. oonnemeor angle sNts them*inum anglea. f l . .om rhe co. m e .i. Thosenaw r. md pl$!i6.. f r * .cLercore.ns on the claddjnsis lon. r t t ..er{g.mtn "heo iod dd tube are nelred roeerher and dmwn inro 6bei and .om rhe -"t. end. a . .h* r. l e n $ h o r I i g h r T t .." . inagins were what we now ell stepind* muhi. h " f i b r r c t r .q) Th. bending lighr rowdd tfie ak of the tiber To catcdae rhe aepmne angle. rhe kcy p. . s.. ..) Doublins rhe h. J .nters Ih._t which gives $e sine of the largcsrposible angl€ fron rhe axis of rhe fiber.. r h J h e u . . .ry a bir no.o8e. " t . . n . c d e f ( l .a he *hote p. in Chapr.efr. The claddin-q imagins 6bes gederalb' a rhin lave! surroundinqa rh. b . . e m b l .dding boundary {0_6". . i . o a . t " r . ( h r ' d e . r.u ..d pu . 1 . i g nr ..s ro = 5.) b/ us.. . gling the ffiSonom. g h{' A n r r o r r .n^.li8hr. . hr rl-rm tu.d8 rhc @ ". not ir rheyaF poli. ..pg* = d6in (a. . h c. gl{s f..urfece. b. rD onsle fie lorsesl is lightroys confined clodding flish! lmoging Fibers . As longc the ligh! enters from aia you cm simplift d. . r o . . t t r n g " n .^ x sin €-"6"-. r e r . \ou mus a<ounr for rhis . Ds.hedhe.r. Iarh€ The fi6r clad oprical fib. h e ' . 4"8 x sin 0"". fnction. l.. r proce$ rhr' trde. e . hearrhe tube so rhesoliened ela$ coilars o. boundaryonceir: insid.p o t i .6 d4..d rh..lopers tesreda vdiery of claddins mater'als wirh low reriaaire indexes. .. However rcfracdoa cladding GcuK whend!.

.3 b i$.rtins asla" Mglredl ltun theh:t.O*' flGUtt4.

. t u a .rs"vurrh. n p o n b r t .02 m. t .. m m u \ . . b u n d t e : n aremadeby meltingfibers rogerhet and srretching $hote tulid btock. u l . o r * . l r d d i n S2 0 p m r h i k r b rt o r J d . o .f m8l.. . ' . Erenar rhn s.j a"-"g.r. . a .n"l r r i l e L .l n r d d . O t r ) m J l e rw p e . b e f d . . . ."a mahins ir e*ier rc handte.p. o g u i d e r ra5er Derm trorn rhe t&r 'o a rJge' or indurrial rorrpiecc. o r . n t ..s ar differenrangres ravel diftir. . r m c . a i e b ! r . e d.pic. c o r t r 0 n .th. ^ p . h er a r r . . .sa"de. . . . . The corediamecrs e r e p r o p o t i o n . u r r a c o n d q i t h i n t i e 6 b " r r f ( h eb .r ..lar to thosein risure 4.rve. n a . i " .ti"rr. n b " . . lightsoorceisuchasLEDs.n .).""in. i g h .t *. l r d d r n gb o u n d . . J t \ .0. J n c o l e . r oo r l j g h ri r q a r r h e( o r c . 1 " .s.s ortd lhe 6bq .$turion ofimaffs i. o . i . p r e d . ! *ith the cor€ dian€rer $rirt€n beftr€ rhe orc. e I r a ? . I n r * 6 a . protcctingn fron oechan.i ro 0. l f l o u r i i n k o f l i g r t i n k .. d d .meer of tire iladding. . q . l .D Lighl pulies shetch FIGURT 4. " . h b r h b F @ m eh i .core 6be6 is sin..ze.rnrmifted through a bundle. r g i h i .a di. ( J ( h l * e t .. " .. n U " ' . t . e n r d r en i n r h ef i b e . . p o s e rn o m . or.(or.i. h o w n n f r g u r c . @ the cladding. l l r . r a r r h <. . . a r s r er n . rhe mori tight falls or the tiber corcs and ihe hishcr the mdsmisiiod Redrcingthc size ind. t ^ . " " . smalhsrloce 6b$ 6ed. v o l u m e .m. e a )m .n. n s i ee p j n & \ 6 b c f i \ i ( h h r g e . _ ' N l u . r b ep o r e r d c n s i wr p o v e rp e ru ni . n c .t. p o " e . .ng$ orib". r r o ni.. y . n . . " o . r i .-able t6l. . . o r e l e * l e r i b . . { .e rhe$?velensrh ro ofvisibletishr (0.4 difrtut a"sbt . r l i . n m ( J n b e u . Typicrlty an oukr pl*tic <arins cor6 the whok fiber. . o n .D Whidlb Dtani chd Communicotion tibers Srcp-iodq hukinode 6berswirh coresnor qune d larseqD be urd for some rypes of c o m m u n i u ' o n \ . k c i r h e r : l ' o b e . ir can damase exposed endsofrhe 6b€r The desisnof these large. o.vidual of fibrs incre$q rhc r. m i r a r i oo f l a r g e .o . t h eh i g h $ .r o J .ishr -).masingbundleslre aboui l0 pm (0.) the llluminoting Fiber ( S . r . r . . Thc hree oirmer(r !. * " . r . . rheyrhain targerehrn.ti.7 pm in_ri'rrndvouunse. .1.1. because can collen li-qhr i! cldcien from inexpensive tl1.r b e u u { $ m e t d r D o s e ri n " n i k b l y n l o .db..p o " . r. a r $ r o u g h r l 4 g e . .. . @ r € n $ep indd fibe6 fd omnunnarion Gcc Firure 14). r. . . The largecoreis anracrnr ft. . __.eakage. i o nd t e . a ."OeUn*". .000i in. d l yA " r h e . ..on. .on*derrnrtrghrguiJi. and ra. t t n I p l r l l y L r t c J t 0 0 / r r 0 f i b e r .nt parr.F . " " . t O O _ p .. " o t .. . t h e t A e r p o r v eo v e r. f i b c r . .. o t r u r .t. m ."--un.""gr. . . a mnge.bur \cv 6nc 6bemarehard to handleand ""t. 0 n F h . N o p u . * . h r g " ru h e ' e d .l(a). r h i n ' 1 . .l.

.l:.'"x .D dislinr proryqhon 6ber is merelv an opti@l wavegu'de' l.'':''.il''.:ffi IiTi*::.iift Hi*iql'i.."ffi .ffi:r-ii-$ ffi #$#*##$$$#${ff : ( a t: cnd Modes lheirEffects .n -** fi.*$$t$*iix5.* n*******f**Ul*:tr* : rD ore fibers Opficol *$****rt***s***.g55'*5*: ...#t*:.l [.'.*#r *ixiri::.3u.a$i.@ cr.tr i*sf***p*ni*u**'*f l*.ug.i' *"i:ln:rn f *r*.

.igh. Thc ommunic*ion theor"ka *ho 6rt considered oprical waveguides coruideftd this a srious daback."ta U" . The number of posibh nodes increac rapidiv wirh fibercoredi. n " n CIodsinsle-mode i .gt .ence b.L{ r- :length singie nbdc... Addinq a <Lddins J$ .. could p. (Iq theoD. .. r n" largerrhe difference. .l. i .mercr . ..*. ^ .u" .Mode Wovegrjides On. l d d d .mcrc's arc belowa crrain . r ! n 8 l e m o o e .rrhrnenough'obeRqibte..*. .rur diffc."tu.ial.eLhe.ric suide$.opas. length.vcguidc etricr propagrrron toa ringtemodeonty r tnrrr d. miLing i. rarTa rhe opricl fiber. a gb. t . . o u t d r \ r J c o . $hich depend" on rhe "rv<lenFh. naking them pracdc.guidfr in *-hj(h oniy. W..u"n. jeqs buch rh. (lrdding .y *. *"."*o..***.urotr llr$hotd. and o erry nanv modes. The dny 6bcs would inevirabryr..Mkr(Mw guid6 -. t i v en d e rs " * .o. rs i a d e p e n do n r h ed i f f e r e n . bur rhewav..-fd a.of surtr. ed i r m e r e r r h : e v e r u j.n c f ..ir surfa6.ksfo. rcuqM(fibe. m. .. ln conr@r.. S". boudJyhat€ridcs Lhewrvs.na .t .tte. rn" a"aaing. = L000293).hsa@s. smallerrhe fiber musr be.n8lc mod.i p"m fo( visibte tjshi. . I h c w a v c . Crrdding r fib. im.de strucrure Chd 6bers{irh larser coredjaherds @n arry mulr. t..o wmry a@ur mulrImod.n.dtd br m r.i... r r r n s m i s s i o h . ua wav rhar inrer_ aaion"lmong mod6 can eus. ies rhd a wElensrh of lishr th..gride€iiecris disrupred iforherob.t rhe i. (. desisnedasseled_down vmions ofdiclectric ni!rc_ ware wavegddes. dt.rInlddiuon. @ Thx T h < u v e g u i d e s u r f i c ti r $ c p l r e v h e F i r .flr.wh.(/r . numbrr of mode. Th6 . bui undad Elsr 6bn dont effcdvely coofinelighr wfien rhevrouch eachorher or lrave finsdprint5 on iien surfa6. and rh-is provo rJ nrt ooer rmportmr advanrag6.nn t r o m c o n o r r : n gr h e b o u n o a qb e N e n c o r er n d .e waves!ideswork ifisolatedin rr.* .-*.".ging fibes are mey waveleng. J.a r**a il. m i n e . m r ..aj. That w* to communierioo rsachen.t ". a c r e .. I}ey winred in oprkrl w*. h d n b e r .r.*srlad fiber.ladaing .ch rhey dil nor rbink could be nade rruDsparenr enoughfor rcmmunidrions. ro ' k n \ m i ' o h ' .. . Ho\hci. o .t.. r i o h r n e e .hdgel:hc waresuidr prcpeniesof fiber. would have ro b. .rsren micrcwave qv€uides and largc core srcp-. u r o . They tICr tenned otherurse. t r. t.Althoreh a brre 6be' .eerer."t.o..t.6ie! ro hddle..The diff€nnc€ the k largefo.t .the mtre eaity ir qn coll-.n isolared plsdc diele.. because meanr rhe ir l€hr had ro rralrl rhrough rhe fibcr mare. ..rs€i Lh.hsger rh€ r'rudurc of the wavcguide od rhe way ir gu." ^ ... who l.i . whcre k cant be touchcd. _ tigt ."rin. " * .t-". becru.".n abour h*r rhe uvetength or . Single.iia.. ...ds Lshr.Iy imposible io hddl€.I q*atii*. Thar meot rhen dim€ters would hiE ro be is rhan 0.na D€our<or rhor dmcnlotu micrmdv...s @ prcpag.a-.ie r e 6 a .." +_ i *_a*g.rowaves. *.rheycarry.k rhroughthem In ont) one modr.Ja"i hde .ptenod::.ck.ft is smatr-rrpicallv hssrhan I ".ingh-mode (D .The laga rhe corc.a:.*ti.]' thar idra resir. i: glars Thc prcbhm wi. . Baresingle-mode oprical wvcguida.i the \avegu. fiber (wnh n : L 5) in a. nS.r. prcbtems mulrimodewa\esuidA.. . inpo.odex fiber n d. *outd lealout-if you could coupleany lighr into somethine (hat small.



ProPerties Modol
rD light Some clodding.

'r:i,H;rifi i:::,'ll,*rnl*$.1$.".::'#:itlll$
ofan undad dielecric w:veguide ln dad \(rc sawearlier that wavestnvclalong the surfae

#;.[:e]].1* fi*il'f:',,#r:rlil*,*u*:#
nlkd The lcakageof sone light inro iL cladding

,'*.i- *".;a rnmur'imode J:JilftU;:iilp.,."", r"a" aaddingg,:j5:;,1.^t*1 t.'"q: 6bes'sonc ffJ:T#iilft;;:J..i'l-'*'"
nodes may spend rnorc tim€ in thc claddirg h ordcr mode,signed the numbei0 Multimodr


i I'nporor

for cladding

.hrac,.:,-d_ are Mods some,ims p."ilb..::ilBl."iT,;,lhir*:I,*$lL
''"r-ili--^r","".i" bv modo N- rr aPproxima(ed ofsuch iu"' thenumbe'
/core dianerer u.ae.= o.:\- - *"".r". * h ngth )




I I -




whereI is thewavelengrh Dis (he co.€dianerer To ptug;o somereprcsennrivc and nombe6, a l00'pm corc $ep-index 6ber wirh NA = 0.29 (a epical valu4 *",ta._,.t, rhouendr of modesat 850 nb.'Ihis formuh h onlv a" "pp-";.*;"^ ",a a*. *. *".1 for fi6e6 carrv;nsonlr a fe$ modes.

Leoky Modes
Te.hniTh. ditrstr, e bes<n rhe hishe!-orde, mode. suid.d | | J hut,,mode 6berrnd rhe to$ r { ' o r d q r o d e . r h l r r c n o r g u i d e d . q u i r ew J . M o o e ,r n r r , r e i l u r b g . o n dr h er h r e . h o l d r o rp ' o p r g . r i n gn I m u l r i m o d . . F b eu n r r u v efto r . h o d t r t u n , si n , t i rr r 6 b e r. t a d d r n e in rh'scse, rhe claddinsitselfacs a an uncladopricalnO*. s"ia..h*. a"aa;g;.J.i. B a 6 e ' h e d i f T e r e n b . M e e ns u i d e d , n du n s u i d e d o o s h h i . s t ; s h , c m c h a n 8 6 I nL o n d i u o n \h r r , l l o w I i s h ' , 1 r n o r m r J t , s u i d e dm o d er o t " , r . " , " t , r , . . * . UUi".. _.. LDddnF b e r r ( a p i u r e ds t i s h (b € n , i , r r m u i r i m o d 6 b e rl r e n o J s n o r l l sattowescape l o d : T r v ro n l l n . ot rhese leakvmode5


Lddtng : guided

cloddins o{o muh;mode fiber.

Modol.Dispersion Effeds
Eachhod€ ha5iis own chaacrerisric vetocio ihroush a srepindd opticatnben6 ifii were J licn' en(erhg rhe liber rr r divitr argtr.-Ihis ,d6$ pul.6 ro jprerd ou a {he. lr trJvelJroneihe iber. in what k u|e.J nodat dnp.^j,,. $" -o,. _"at ,1" nU.. ,o",_ mrts,the more pulses spread our. I , t t r w e w i l l r e r h a 'r h e m e o r h e ,h n d \ o f d i s p e , ! o nb u r m o d a l . d i s p e r i o n r h ct a r e e v L r n m u t r . m o d r e p i n d e x6 b e r s r r e c i + , , t r u t a r i o no r l o _ . , n , . . . .J. ou." r.o* .i, r d , ' p e , n o n , e r r e l \ m r e n i n F r u lH o w F v c r o u u n m J { eu \ e t u t a . v J p p b u m J , i o n .b v u ( i n e , h er d ym o d . l r r h : . h r o r k l o r m u . r r m o d . r e p r n d e xi b * . 1 " l , o , r i c u t r r e } l e i f i e r e ; f tb J r d s r e n r h r r i r r e l r n e . u f h g h r , , y rp ^ . r n g . r u r g h tr h r o u g h 6 b c ra n d a b o u r ,i n q a t o n g , r n e t . o n h n e m e n r 8 , e . o ,r h er y p r . a t o r t i n e n e n ro g e o t 8 " m e n r ; J n c J .n F , € d t j e r; e d i F e K n c e , h propagacon rime is abour I o/0. Thar means rha. arrin$anraneous putse would $rerch out to abour30 ns (30 billionthsofa seco,d)afterpasing,r,ouE " tito-o.. ornS." Thar doesn't sourd l;ke nuch, bur ir becon,es selious.esficrion on tqnsmission a speed. beou* pulsrsrhr oredap can ;nrerfere $irh mch ott.. -"t;.g;, ;-po*;St" ," -"i,. the sigd?I. Thus pulses ha\c ro beseparated bymore th-:o *. yi" -no.;-"..,t" -"., I n L m d , r r i r k t o ' J g i L e n r t , e p r , d r n g f . m t h ee q u : r i o n p


lo.se6r of rype

pulsespreading Plus in apuly spreadinsof30ns, and lou 6nd the ndimum dau are isabour23 Mbir^. h prac.ce,the mdimun darararealsodepends other faqors. on


prcdun of the disoeaion also dependsor d6tance.'Ihe torat modal disfers;bnis rhe ..aA dnpe6ion Perunit lensrh ,o muhipliedbv the6lxr length' I: iU"ii.r'"."-";. D= Dtx L n\ o\eI husa nuLe thrr .pmds ro 30 nr over r ln will ,prerd to 60 n' oter 2 km dnd J00 N h e e - Yi r r t J c r o r t 0 l m . r F o ' ' e n a . . u m r e. r l . u l a r i o n "r o u r h o u l dr e p l a r L N i r h ' l ' v n o t m r l l r i ' 5 0' l o { e r o I t h r t r l r l o . e r c I . w h r h d c p m d . o n r h e 6 b e rv p c H o " e t e i wnh aansnissiondistan'e rh€ ma:'mum dansmtsron increases Seouse total dispersion Ifthe m*imum darante for a l -km leogthofliber is Dfu' the nxmum speed dereases. data rute for I kilometers is roughly

D * , ,


rh'ng to re' \(re will learn more abour disPesionin ChaPtei5 For !o*, rhe imPortanr in linits tnsmision sP€ed steP-indd nultinembcr is that nodal dispenionse.iouslv

Fiber Multimode Groded'lndex
Red*hg 6e $oi uo'ndo'v. bev*n -rc.o"d dodding*i|l' o rehocfive-index orodieotneo v modol eiiminores disperon

h rhee*lv 1970s' Ar comnunicauon .ngtDee6begr se'ioudyin'esiiga'rng6beropric limi'.d rh. upeciw of lergecore:rep-indo 6be single' 'h.y *, oqni^a .oa,l:;.p.^i"; mu.h more capniry. bur m'v engintr^ doubredthev could ger ..a" nui^ p'.-i*a t}ev d*eloped multim"'le 6her in rhe rinv .ore' A' an alte'nli" r"r'i;*. "".'"i ;"a* ",,ty llowl) from ore into cladding Cretul conrrol of the *l;.i 't'."'"t*.". smde' qirh .rrs ren. of : , rctra(N+'ndd gruo*n( ner a,-;n*o modal dispeoion in libo. rvingthen nrch grarer rmsmission aPaciq' thaDsteP-indd 6ber gurdclight bv refection mrod ot o-talirrsnal re{lrction' Opricalll graded-index linallt drcPPingto the indexa*i"*" The 6ber'srcfractive s'Ju"llv "*"' from rE cDts m 4 rn Figure 6 lhe change rc wlue asthe claddingar rheedgeof rhecore tu shown same rhedisa5 thcv Pds throusn o) backtorrrd refractionbendrngIight fractiveindq causes ind*es, u shownin Figure4 7 The refre'riveindd doe5no( layer with lower refract;ve refl<rion .b.uptly * thc core claddins boundarv s lh:re is rlo roul inteoal .i*g. in rigue 4,6; itt more like "fthe @t ilo,it s" ro"t.i sy tt'. .t'ang. in slo!' at :h' edge " ''"' transition ) $adns up a slNhill than hnring the diffof a s(€P-index 1",*'* in'o ihe cenrerof the 'ore beror' medeibcau. refncr;on bendsguidedlishr ravsback cannotcon6ne'll lighr s-rudient rher reachthe claddingbo'"d"'i Gh' "fr-ri"''i"dq mgle d in ieP-inde: enteringthc 6be. onLvravsthar fall within a linired coofin€nent that anglel fiber'The refractive-ind*gradientdcrermines pathsin a gnded ind* fib- Ho'ert' As in a step-inder6ber' light rars follorvdilTerenr 'vith ns refracti'e ot ligt" ln 'h" nber core changes 't'" 'p*a ,t*; ,p..j, aif.' l'ou*



disp. s h ! o d Fm rnd ..zingrhetrdsir dnes ofd.D Stondord sroded.index frbe6 ws€ der€to-oed Apecirl) tor. !u i. iIGURI 4. Rec2il rhar the sped oflighr in a marerial..iry.rsionbyequal. trdding iemeren f rZi am.. so n cabhes up withtightin the higheri ndex cente t. divided by reFacrive i'dex: 9-0s.ejr enoush .-.5-pm Gtaded-i ndex fiber bend s Ight back idto core as the rctraclive index decrcases (darke shading indicates r highet refractive index ).imr (sd l r d r v p e .r. J m e r e ^ t ( 0 o . rorro*. .ompensare rons. p".IyFdf O?ti(dti! O FIGUIE 4. ) ..e:ini s. . a"*. *..fferenr modes..r. O". d v eo r ed .q|. f-^ .Oei rh< fa.p 1 .1.-.* *. rar tnrr go Procticol Groded.ommJniuuon.e.o.qht Lightgoes kster in the towlnctexoutercole.f" _ducemod. o inda..j by.sveto. is the veiociryoflighr in aqcuuh.-. .f.lndex Fiber Gbded.. 50. inglc- lfhest nom rhe dL ofrhe fiber Clrriut rdju*menr ot the retr:ctive-inJa profil+the vdiarion in refracdve indq wjth distoc.n" *n ... b .7 I. ditrcF The s. Thu rhe fuher rheliglr g*.6 ! 1 5 . some o ... ro. t.or 62. The tons. nU* *i.

."11:'.-:.:$"trli:'..^ion . l" r .J bou* rieh' . [: :iilJ:. l. *#fr:E"1{li1..Tl: *'..il1.... ii:: "r'l' " .*:::':..'xltq'. |':nd c'. u']i"'.! srep flbe. Jr o.fffl:'.^"^..'.t'" 'odes or la! into thecladding lons' rhe rcto Prcilesd' ven 1'6ilk I'11'j:^la"Trce ditreridealrefectrve-indei rn addition' o{ lavers slighdv ot o..*]:"."" lhes . . rhe burcrequrement o::l-l""lilfn:i.*.}*ru:::Tyi5:iil.t ::lt1T.:iifii:.. rorsingre-mode is th* tt: -" inderprofile.'::Ll*'ft."#.m.i"'.*..-.".#il....o timit data''Performuc sYstems '5.'t'rr'aor *.:lt:T.fi1'[ modeun prcpee'te ..-a"..inglemodeirhs lo"e't ord* .-'..'.'.'':#" ."' ''*'"'". r *iil dscib€ disp... ot incrc2rinsrv pel"*onc" of orherrypes atspeson i"i^a"a."a".i.n.f "J*L at ".1...i:..Ti#1.l..onm'n.re..il'*.?*i .. illi".fr::: . srcd€dinde.fl:::".*.virh ..rcse'ho rhe insome donsfrom the idealarein€vitable s:dt ststens' gnded-indu riben trcm balT :el:l do levers rheselimitarions not prevent rcrhich'renoush a"' not &cumulire li'p"'" * highevenat high spee<ls' "*'* ror rong'dis.:.:'. l..1lfkl:ilJHl'"i1"*i*.:i.r"aq fibenrnd h...11.''-"'.o-"J"" rin in composniona Pec'"ii-*ij'i ent 'r'it i" iT'T'il.i.r..*.J ro' :k':h:.*n:l'':.iliJ*:::Y$'t'"i'.:ii.].n acr'$'h' .lgh' €nd.@'*'o '#:'t: j'T'l'J#ilf H:ffi :fi[l i::."'i:l"r*:f.[?:mSingle'Mode Fiber 6ber ho.::lll'.nce' ii'^ "' *"a"a t'-J:"i'".am. . 'D Residuol Fiber ofGroded'lndex Limitotions car that uliimaelv mxderh'm impm' lirnirations 6ber sutrersomes€rious Gnded-indo< forhigh-performancconmu"tcaoo- itr.hn aPPe{5 wirh €achothet senenring*i'{''i"'Jio' interrcre modesan Di*crent probrem a t'"rr prored serious und?n disdibu6 rn -"a"t )"u' :ilX .".inemuv thrn mu.9*.{l+ -c+:'.iiiii-*J euctua' ftacrive-indea sndrent and r epensive some ..*'H"ii:-!!::l:'ql:l: buig'"du'lvr'd'd u" s'm' t"r"c'm'.J:t'.i..'PI"'d.loi" 'r'i't ' l-p lighrfromlerllne out' r..rrffi ai""""'-q'pi" tv ^' "re than a couple o{ kilometer' f.

.dopedrrhfluonnerhichr- l.a $ell. en write rhe fo.y.rnce.*.r.l". p. . rhc luo : n pr .o. o o nb o..i. .carapr. t .h bouno'v sepJij.'".. ed r h e r e e & e a o u n d . ra "^i . .i. \ r h ed e p .roO.n rcre. lid.ns. .^. .de. .r cfmodes.ins ind.he(o.nr. FtGUnt 4.l.rure(NA): E:riicrio this gw ... t o n g .. d . ) A m .l. r h e . . a th€.. . " u p L " r k . 'hd. r n d e \d .nds rh. .. n .dding Fiber index differcnce is the : a D€prcssed.r." . h eh o r r o h . e da a .":r .c r a d d .o 'r h"o.r. ( r d o p e d$ r r h i o .r s:an9ard Fisure shows secr. l ( h e dr t a d d i n e d I n e r e l r c l r e . f'gl*.r dep. e d . ..lou lharrh.p". h o d .s.. i .a n d r r e o n e n u\edat rbKr speeds shoirerdis. . o r d m . rnd rqrp nde^ qi. n c t .lr'l. t.der lnnerC addnA b.d p{r @re 11ii':1T'ii:. e r e n r i rn 0 J 6 u or o r r r | i d e t vu * r F b .r . I h.r.sJrr a.er.. " t u r d \ j t i u : g e r m a n i u m x r d e C e O . .mov orthe n tu.ghl.rlair"* r..re L o . s .""..8 c. 6 e . u r..t h o \ .. o t v eh i g f id { . h c . 5 r h " m ....t*.os. . Marched ct. i g n.. a p o r .'*wrrhourrhe fluorine purcrusd rl|o. ' 1. g r n r " n i u n ro r r d c r h r n .t n r h i . n s e .o ..omnuniorroro .n... fibq core on dimer.*. indexe. ""i the wavelen$h you oflight I. $c rndcr t90. .l]'"1. l a . l g l i b s .ipa ryees. orpLrc .'tfo. i. i"". . ff-.oh tusedsilica. A n J l r e m l n e d e .acriv. } . rsingly i". i m p l e r r y p e o f r n e h . .p_ indd sinslc-mode nber madef. . r t no . h e d . ' i e n . o r er q u € d . n e e d e .msornuner. d ab.. \ r .In re. ' . h o \ | " .mul. 4. widery ucd.i..8 a.oil12^ re'1' Ihe re- r / t.r.er.h e nc r t .lla[* r. h : .in8 a.lp. numb. '.re.ir. ConditionsSingle.rire.\selns ope€. l o l e r e b .- N. .Trow dop.4q i pn *.hr @ 'i1\ lr ori.up. Oeprcs3edCt!ddins Fib€r . l .trrddinssvlound. o d e 6 b e o.sh f h e .Mode for Tronsmission chapter. n .di'mg N$ ' u . . u t s q " p m d . rndsmired bv a srcp_indq fib. 4n n l t .

j[:}r'3.il:5:$-ryi: 1iilT:ti:'.?. I t. :' .1 -.l:: ".ilT.ifi HTji.:.t*r.:*:.l@ o'+'-r f*ii:n..:'J."#$r:#:T#ill..fi +.f i..u.{Hij:H tnh:*'HTn*#.Si*+.:.f:"trHrr'H#l.d .-: *:TilLl: .lj::* *:#**xmrt.ii#r*:l I I madeto carrya singlemodeet 1 3 pn in the.T:: ffr. g"" Uaer ar shons t?relensdr' .Yr.iF.. ric libcr an c*c7 .l*.a.i"gr..::j:"5:'j:Iilf}.'li''.H':r: aper$re (at 1310 nm) is 0 14 Wovelengih Cutoff .5."*":6.i *r-*h*lt*:::r.:#ai'iilii:T*d.:.ffi :"Hiffi / nD\) 0.#il"i::*T:1 i:i']:'r4!!i l*:.l'"ifi 4 in """iL.--.n'a .ffi:f::x1ff :ii.:Gf .a" nU*.tirln#i:.x*nT$"Yffr" H{HXJ'.r*: ilt'fi:i$::li:.-naaii'-eter.m..tfr I (D ol wovelensth o a a a .fi::'i.ir uansmission to l sinsle lnodr' Bv maniP Reducine the corc dianeter sufrciendv <ao limn jlxl'J:::: *il*T:.two I.:l:H':J:::":'j ir*Iffi panicularmvelength' I: D< moaa If the corc is any larger. -.Jl:ll.::#i!': ilr':fl . .r'..*l*lffix:'.$. *vou saw Figure 5' .*:*.'it *irxltl"-llT.:l'J * :1":::.Y .:.*'r.xxl'":"5:Tm.J.

.pori.t*"0r.?q m are widelv used... t h . er i g h ( r rr o l e r a n r sh e f e p . . f: fiber lighr in v}r hrppos a wavelengrh\ . h o m e s h J. a lijrn Ii:l: a rI the tutoll uav. . rlo "-. ftodal m.tu..mpo. and ..fr.g"...ansmission one ofits is priha.. * _ " S .ponanr ra tr )ou\qn. i. Bi\. vou n. r l o K a o r c .iona..ana. .4 deceases.il oeornS." ".*na6. \ltuc ed :". f o r m a n e u p r c b t e m s .j I. r o n < B y c o n G n .gu. . begrns cary svo modesrr I tr ro " " sinsre mode \:verensrk ir ronger r. o n r h o .a. . o t r .".a.' t u ...*i ". ro $e :ll::.. .Mode with Fiber ghr fdls hl Typi The sheer simplicityofsingle-modct./n.e. ...*a."a.j j. One n a orr of b"row rhc nbq uis: the othe. i nr rood oder node n more compter and nke..m.rc i". rote. .1"i' *o .ts onl\2 sinslemode.-. o ( h e ir d e i d r h e p r i m r p m o d e .". in. t . o $ w .e. . o. o f " * a " n " .f.u3rr. ". * . i n g t " i -. * made .:ll.".. ron8e.* *.erhrn..T o g r e a : a f c n m a € . . .u.. * .eh. f ib € h a r cd 6 i a n € ds .hbf6 t. .i...1 2.*" rh" or -_. r h . vo prncrro. o v e d . on rop ol eachother md on rhe 6rr{rder nod.r."".-ii. r h er a 5 r e .r hb* rourrt sisner onri*. i o n ._r. bur6 waverensrh rhan o n g n r h r n . \Ihdgh _or/4 .5 w i t h a n yh u k i h o d e 4 * affetr propasrrion. i f .oxim.bn: orcDorr rn.11. i n s p e . n lg g h r r o r . rishrin r \insh moJfonr)n wrvercisrh.a..i.. :gil \upenmposed nDrr.odptinBli8h.". u .jily.nexp€nsilerv t. n .:P'ril: \insre-&od' men. n\dn s t e i node iibc6 (D sinsle'mode ffber 'r wa roroupte inro.:::::. .hr hbe d.mision n prricuJarlv unore l:er: T. _ .*hen .ty in r duel mod.on. I n e v i r a b t eh e .! LofT wavetcnsdb li: lT hr5 a sp€crb.t. ..". ....l"LT:-:.h. n ' e d o I l J d e .nGn\iry .6bero t i .. j mulLi. r o . m r l e r r h e t o r e .-.n.rh o l e l h d s .<rsr s@nd mod€.o.. I h e ( n .d oron wavelenghof L26 pm. . Fo eum." --IT" ". ( h i e v a b t e . h .. t .h u g h r . "r. " .nehbfl.a* * i*.^ "f n". ..a"^ o.rpt.. t . a p "". ns. r n g t e _ m o d irb e ri n r h em i d _ t q 6 0 ..y anractions fo."a" t._. t . tichr "b.t. a .." a.. r r o I n ( h el g n r t .ll"&. . p e r .t -.i.a. ' h r .!mi. o g n i r e dh ea d v a n r a g e . u. -"i. l i a n e f. -"i" . o m h u n i .inen addiriooJ mods. p"*.o*".!nrorh.-.io". Thesr *.'.ba. u r o f iE j e t e n g r h .ss rhai I an'r show ctearly in a dnwina Trode-offs Single.al in 6ber in r_l iJi_ peirormr.. (oF dirmertr ( an .no \eono_or(rr a modcsrransminedin a fiber tu you crn s. u . y.r opeaing qvdens$.:'ol lfi._ .. h e n c u r o n* r v e r e n g . b u r i r d e p e n dp I m J i t . a prir ofinknsiry pqk! jT*":..hei!..r o e L e i o p ep o . e e m e d A . Borh rher penernsappcar srmutrmmu..rdr ronsidtr{on rn hber /"r/rz. o n . n L . . \ *_.ho'rer itrn rhe curon tu rhe wavetcn$hdrc@ler..and rnn. ..ion..ho(e. 6be a.t"". : c ull".i".._.r. f r . t l e r r h ( d i .n bv @ .:n " .ihe tish.ii.igh$r l the nU* *l _a a-p..ca 9 \howr app."i* ".ommuniu..*.:::::"-"--.The BuJr i. r Eo'r . F.h ont r fs mod6.p.n o o p n D e ' ._ n r . b u t o r h e r f ..a 6b.r.of-ut.

iilil 6b.resion i::*fi:.le' lrre oo+et me <t.modc..ini* r . .'o : 4.$il{. No paneas {'ach @E'nng a patr ol ovai bnqhr ""r- p. " ' .-iiSllT:ll"i.. Loweslods modeB bnghtesrn ce er' lhe Th6 rad'noouMard eho* onrv -nmtzone ot met.i: -' -. :::p.*.." .* ll "x.r ' l \ " r r t e r ' a l ' ' ..m ' ' ' h n n ' ' o d n e wf t ' '.']..il::#*TiIrl-*'ilt]:iill :i.!:d .ffii :*ir*rn:: mode @ns'sts o.i.r.i':n:*l: 1ff -'t. -a"'r'''p I'l lljJ i:1. il..--.::#rt+::-*:s*::'l* Single'Mod9 Dispersion'Shifted rilel hT-":1b::": "..::il..:l"#l il::'*:g*fi: . : *." singh.i1'". " .l .T::1il.*.:Hi.:..ih" r*H "tt.fi '.- -.. .-*"v prust€ r@65roer ...ff & i- G a! {#.:'"'.@.1:.

. a The impo dr numb.v.e oF-ctrddins .r.r.. .i. hereye I now soeraj rvx. ro in(rca\e rhe wa\e_ gud. .ia. e q u e n e n b .n€th.. ' o n e e r.. o . ChMgms . 1 .i. shifrjne rne z. p J r i c u t r . ) ...j.an h_" o p p o \ n fs i g n r d e p c n d i no n w h d h e rr h cs p f e d r . The lossofgla$ fibe6 is lo\esr ai 1.o .r. r . . H. i.t. diner. aod qbium doped6bermplifiers opcnte io rhet raoge. . p t e u n g . t ) ."*ri. r i i or ! h ' o m a u cd ' s p r n n n . c o n .t0 r . m n ) ! o n o r n u r u p r e p n c J c h r n n e t t o . r l Io each oLher oui near l. This is a sefulwalelogth. f l e r n ' s . e d d c h d d i n g .chrcharic dispcrsion thc sum of vo quenrides. d. r d n t r i b u r i o n . T h e m r i o . d r y i n g { e m .r.5.rh*" meroiar and disposiondsins from rhc $rucru. ofsili@ 6ber rhat onot be rcad. i o n . whi. is dispedio.h. . n i n r i n g t c . .ii.. h n $ h c h o g r . h .tU. .ime ud lh*.A c h b $ i n w d . . rengrh wrtta rhc}"veguide dimensioro. "na. Thu( rhe dr(nounon o. r h e N o .avets rhrough rhe 6ber The .spend( in borhcore .decraing rhe uvetengrh sede. * .su. i.Mrfn cor and daddingchango *."j flouft4.*.i.10. r s h .nrerface . .t*r*Ortt*. y .dr tr di\per5.ro po. a .s. < i o n { o d .g..n^.p-.o 6 e d b ) l h e v b r r o n i n r h .he dsirn ofd.. r n . Mardal dispqsion is an inhden. u v c l e n g r hd i . rrghtb. . pi". wnerca in(rcrsingwrEtcngh etreclivety shrink rhe wevesuide. . ..imder. u u o u .i_ \ifaveguide dnpr^ion aiig beu6e tighr propag. . .""*.rleng. ba*d on dcigns thar charig.* .. . bur it is nor ideal...5 rh. o . " ^ . . t wh r j i i g h rb e M t r n @ . v e m s e h J rd e p c n do n . n .rh wa.r"aa.. drffercn' retpoivr indrxe.. h ed n r r i b u . "t i U . .ler w... . t h . L . r .sion.orc rnd cldding h.tr. c i m I r e r . m o dtci b e ri . u . oi dispqsion.nhere"r ro th.'p*. causrng wav.v changed wirhout aiteringglas conposi_ num by changing waveguide dispesion. . 8@6. h e o t r6 b € !h r n .3l pm in sddard sep_iDdd singie-mode6ber tu shown in Figure4. iii" ".4 L h r c u g h .in. ph. .etenFh. g o l e n g ' h { 5 e ec h a p r r r 5 l o r r m o r e t } o r o u g he r p t d n r r i o n .nt or rhrcmru( drpenion ro orhermvetengLhs. s p e .modined fibe6.on. p * a " r t i g t. **. o p r m r k d r n d ...guidedispe.rrsu.e of rh. Thai chmge in lighr disriburion aff4ts how fdt rhe lighr r.r. L r o nm u t L . " . @ rionin wap rhar incme a".. i^ . rish. 1 *2rc|.. ai.r h er " n . .ironIn J qJvesuidedepend\on weve. . Mrsurcd 'har wey. . ... .h derermine the speedof lehr . o " g t .haiacrerisri.rdividcd br w. t u l ( d i \ p e . * .l.og" sPeed.

hi{.':il':X'":':'::':.i.'""'" . wOna'v'o'' no bandu'eJ h'r rrbLdm Fiber Dispersion-Shifted Nonzero *:i3..-:ll:::.il.5*."" .i*.illrir**".f*:iJ#::::::T.':'m :::'":J:'H.1..:ji'i'l'"'flT.ii:il{i""LT:lJliL:ti l..l..:i"f:* *.i:ii::i:ilH:'."":.i*:'1ff ::T"+fr.'"".::il#'.drb.$* crosulk called founvave .:il'' waveren$n' 6berat rh' same single-mode rh*'r'he na'<h cradding .J1l"H. sv"'em' i.'il:.1:. lllx'[lni. flouft4.1f.rffi pfi 1*:.i"ri.. i*.r:.'.:*:U:f".55 Pn.t****:Fli"r.:'.il"fi *" n rcserere .ii: iili#:iljl# :::5:f :li:.:L**:.. tured onginarycaredsim r"'^ U'" eU* *i' "' i" '""t'i .*""::tlf:'#"::'r:"lin: n'.'".".J* il.:t...::::i'#1"'-*:'lm .. . .il' r.."1: =:**"rq'"'.:T:'"'"*.'iiilin^^'v:...'.ll 1.@.t"t*.ii*i::#l[{m*.".91 tiber DisPersion'shifted Zero #" :i:t' .*.. *'"a'p' r hen'xr 'aver'5^'""''""lii' 'ta"i'e to 'i'" "g"i'' .':..:[ ti.Ti:l'..r"\YlY:I:dt'P'/"o"ror 55pm.#ljf:T:: -*:i:::ff'.:**. :I:::.:illlli'JnJ".vDM :::::'::.t*'."' *.".*.'..1' t.::..J. ''.'.:T'di:Iij.:'H:'.lf *'*' illf:.* JJililft si5ff oliii."j. .:"f."'i io"'"'-*' s" ^'a "' aen'.$:::.b:i_y:-.::t..

l /\ A /I A I ftcunE 4. Fjb€r wnh tunened dispereion stope t. €.p.ning.r.J. trc. o.nron-ht id nb. A dilper. "*.r d...rea liber.r.tt*rortUnt*.r. .tl E .-/\/iyL . larg€ eficc vo.. Nonab dbp3Bton-.2 b. Anorh. F b e r a \s <^ft /'--\\/ouE @ Fl.-ron€n rd .)h.. o..12 { (OH -*"..ionsnp3nstinq nbci . zm di. (Coun6sy Co.p.o s g g c.hifted flb. \ o""' "n*'.. o.tgn tor ffi dt.

*::ft ffi "lrTiir.:lTl.i.fi i -i ? i a S ri 1 l:iffi lTft "':'tr: I flcutt4.**Tl+rLtr*r:* ili":.fltT:1.nt*.l:ir"ff **.@ tt"t'".13 L I a I ..lifJ." I i d 6 'i:'j '*rt*rm'#."r'*ii't':::*:: I i:il#iljfr inuj":.**5*.i.. a I ..'}ir:H*:*f"{#}'rn'Hr il::f *'i*t-*"i*'**#ilTffi: n":nffi"li#'.iffiillrtu:H''k "r****i***"n*Lq'. mt"":n'rmni:l. *hi'3f$."".Tl*ttlri.fi***.'r'fi d d t#*.i .'"1#:'f 'i^*#ilttil"ffitr::si*#..#*:diili#"#iilTll'fj""H'...

f rhe dispcrsion dopc is high. thcir specinetions md pfifoe Reduced Dispersion Fibers Slope Another wy ro rc6nc disp. .mi.n_.' .* ai.h. d * {- 'a/ dispeBion shifringrendrto reducc modcfictddimcter belowrhar of_isdrrd "...i".t." deaof :fl.*p..oprol chann.he middte.dispcrsion curyc.i...rhin'n errnd{ddnpe.i"i:.s ro rcdu@ the slopeof rhc.r.i" 6i"ol t€r 5.k'lns di\pebion^hi6ed p:ricutarty fiber sen"iu.r" r-p""-..pr."]a. concdrraropricar powe! a s.. whi.. .j ".slopc Sophisrietcdmulrilaya ore dcsignssuch c th. .s.r brd..! " .:" thar.p.rc.. \Vav. can au* I li80 to rh. wirh towrr disperion.:.:i"ii.omes no.p*.rres$h of nonlin@ eFec6..." . theoncin Figure tike n.1 ..-.".".p.t. rsposion rhifted hber delisn.:l.s 'mpoiianrb. Ar you can see in ligure o. O""-.h c.od in .1 ntrr.nding lnodanetd rhc drd"*. i. one in figure 4..cauk .r_c_i.o._"ui.l. ln addi- disp.12(e)ce rcdue. a.1.rcdued. "... c|Eg6 $gnrhcanrry ovq rhe dbium_6b.iam.o. (hisF\am. 6 um J I r50 nh.1.a.ionor opric.. Mvelcnelh bn8.is . For .r r. rped rhemode ovrr tr 6etd ..quire morc @n_ p<n$om 'r)u !h6.p-. Eeca$. 5p.t.05 bur 1o*. rheerrerire orerqhichopriorpowf. rhcr. wirh no rro*rossrng pornr rn . o or abou. 6be6 are retariEi.r.. n*. s6 ror suchnbea a."io.por(niTo oa. r 55. whereriJnsmis.n. ryicJtv rbour o.i dao nlcs ro r. n..on drlen<es r@ sho. prcpo*js ro usc rhc cnrir lj80 (o t6j0 nm @no ror merrc wuM qArcmrrLo faccprcbtems.::: .inn _a owing rhe useof FIrt i*"ty .::ii *. .(ral (m.powr '1.t." _u i.opri..'r'mr.Tilil::.-_."..-ii ".D Reduced slope .DoL d prnm_km ov.n. .shifred 6ber. bclow ps/nm.ns efr<.rsion. .r. ftis %rierionwiLh s/vrtcngth @mptierq rhe .rp"rq. *r*. . ddism tendto have snallcrmode_naa a. 1^..rser arc...i.l3t._km..Bion acrcs .l. bng. ou.nodifed 6be6 for dens.uicul*ly ar risk.i.il. non?f. of 100 nm. ai"*. .. wrvetrngrh chirp rhrr ..ghcr disp<rion r.o m*lnir the modc-6€ld I.n T::: T. t^.ydon'' rcquirc rons..e nontinerr to #..r r rquic-.. l" Lorge Effuciive Fibers Areo Ot}c nonzcrc.r s@nd..erhiet-_inder rr rhe p.J: i iit#::.." . rnn.. "o*Ji..0 which nn.ro .nFhs wiib h.t3.l lJnplifirrs An addedadunosc n rh..o. in ^" . denl y i" fiU.1.e rn rhc merronerwort.'I ..te.lrd.!.. raiiing rhe.J:J':.5k ofdi:persion ompcnsrrion for sr_ (ms wun mmy.he rea inrend€d. v -oa.ypi_t .n.re "j.-i :? ncF pey oftctl rhe po iv..". *..qon..e"pond.lekr d$ign.ts.) 8'8abr$P.t *p...a cnrgcs.. muh. ' nbli!.dstdc.rc dispesion{tifted mmcc are still oolving.*-.e ro. t*. 0.".na"i nS.6 *y*" I28o aDd ro20 nm opo._*.te .n c2uJ€crossraltcSysems wnh mdy \7DM channelsaft.n.ion o.._.WDM slarem .AJr}ouqh poblcms.: p_ .*..

'ff :i[l:!Ji:i{lit i'.*n'J]. oi"nederign prolile i'*"L t.i:::::n.' + t IF Fiber inSingle'Mode Polorizotion as light travels. .Jide hi-oh i:::**i:'':# Ifr.#.i:::*#-T*::T#ltljtlt"f*jft ""i.owingi"ocanrsig'' ':jilil.ir.:lm r.- @ cr'"l.r.Tr.:x":il:i:'.:i:::1.ha.1]ii.:i:.il{::T:i'.il:il--."x.'$* tibers Dispersion'ComPensoting -ove€.l['-].::J*.:i#Jr*$*f[i-]:1i:ii#.:'.li:::'.lT: hiji.[im: .n +.:'J:il:H'lJ.'.6:l."f.i1-5}:'r:ii:+Htillff .ffi*'trffi '"'.:'.. shorn in ligure 4 14 Tt*iffi.ii:.ixlrux':llil:fff ::il ff":Iil1 [i.iit*"' []ffi :':1.':r..* "" "fnrrivernder :f :.*"ft15::'ffi'":?: Fiber EvoMng Designs i. t*lil*=lff tetesrial or submalne svsrens' distance f: i 3lfil$:iffil.''j''ffi *"S*r:*t*-t"'**l#fu #['li: .:*:.iil:r{"#firli.r*jll:iriiff'x*].*}'iff *::."o '.r. jl: *cT'tT.:'".irhh:*.i-'"*-'rearea'a.'. **f purpore -"..

f i b e i\ y m m ( . r d n . . .ricata.o f $ r v e g u i d e . n e .. "iewed r. .nro ovo separle polarizarion mod$ Tbis propdn n .n. o o n e v c n r L J hp o t .h" r*o oot. . L n d t r r h ep r o p e .t.on.o ea.h o / o n r . o n d r r i o r . etr$ i. t 0 .t-t" OO-. m . r e rr h a nr b o u r2 . 1 1 * r .r. / r r i o rw e J b u r i . h r t _ ro l t .14d ri8rr.6 difbrenl llli.her. u .r has differenrarenuation for tishr of diff.. r c n g h J . ... i ' 6 r p o r r ' ! r . .. .... bu.. i r gI m e .. . 'na' tr a marr€rbeyondrhe scopc ofthis chrnre. . ... .vwt.'ailti.r\ "ld p"r. .h re. u l t l . t .hich effectivetv splja rhe : iighr . 6 b r r ..e : ' r o . r l y y m m .. " " . i . r y r r i .ns l'o$ erec'i..ro lishr @ s n r n€ a ) b e N € e n' h e N o p o t / r i z r i o nm o d r . h r ."U"a r.a|]\ hn.. r . ..r Thus. j c h . d:Rer. h c vI r n \ m i r .f.o..st'bo hasinternatsrrainor asymmcb: r. o n d i r i o n \r n d r r u . .r r u r . .r.n.. N o . . h e o T F r r h er w o m o J e .ingh-mude b$ rn .tr. aod.tn c"". k n r J i B h . r e m . . o u r r r n . . o r e . n r s o r . p 'orce\ rre.ho.t4 ^"ormal lishr n considered ccmbinarionof mo potariarions. . .r r e / r :. Thi.nted potalut_.rer. o n e p o . r h o .. . . g n a ri s . . o*. t . i ao n 6 b e .". _ . only ihe des. . i o 1 u t . o .-". m r ) e x p e . hi n i e n r i o n r\ .mode 5 b e ^ . n . . . e i ."".. .renr polariarions. . t h d w h l w eo \ i n g t r .. d i f f c r n r k r eb e r w e . k *r.'l:'' t. i o n t t i g i ..shrwavewiih ns ekrric iield dFrred ar. . . n " . o mh r r i e n d p o i i . ."". i ./o. . o n . m 1 e \ e r s . r ::r. ' h o g o n dp o l d r i a r j o nF r b e . .nIve. a ve. h .lyp6 o{OFtiolfihrt (E) flGURr 4. .i jrc w. .{k-pok/iat. m " r p o t e . o p o n n t . . r ..rph. n d p o l r i a r r o n . 0 0 0{ i . fb. d i ! . U . o n b v r h . e Mo n fn e t e .h r s h .. o r o f 1 0 0 0r .* . l t y p o t a r i r J .. + ' n r o r n e . r i .t can be imporrant in sinele. u t . . r h eJ € lR polanation almor o NeI as$andardsingle.g\-o. t y .r r by rhe 6bcr. .\ped\. c l u .. r i .* t r h ( . .node 6b. . s . .B o . atp. nelne theyie funcrionejty idenriet rnd crnr be rotd rp."". f d .. . p e r l u r m . r . p r . e \ e n .iircnr dEte j.. . dltider'. iflhecircul* s.".q.bqs werepqf<r. . a " i n s r i p " r .nmrry off.r. ..rng r\( rrbeupptred in perfeu svmmerry Jo. & .ed po 5si'on remanr af rh€ enn r: .d .. m . 5 . i n .d hor. . " . . and mrsncoL6etd\os. -dtl propag:rron. " r . a"i r . L i B h ro n J s o b r p o t J . h N e n u c r J d : f f e r c n . . r t _s i . pohiadon {ould hale lirdc pracdcalimF < r r o k o m m u n i a ' @ n \ . .r ir\ l. r c u t .!nan nai. e k . 1 .D Higher frher ocruolly w. r .lnral tdetermined rhe dnectionofrhe eiectric br 6eld). p o t " .^ . i n .na i. o t _ . . e .n... . t vd i t r r r e n . .i. r / c di r . f h € r c a o i . b n . m qeno. / ( J \tr\iel .d e . d. . e _ 1 .e.ombinarion r'\rne. J n i l .onrrot 6 r h ep o t a n a . n g t e .. ".. Pohriadon dcsi m er t ^r. "s.H o v e ( r . t a t o n g ( rhe 6ier at T'"1 !lghtrr T * " . .A sinslet. y i .. r . th e r e r e N o " r r p . m .m o d 6 b e . . n .

1'J.einrenrcti'cinder'thevrdK|.-ir. r.?i'*.iTj":irJ':'1]..@.. ^.l."i.e '-:J":.T.i*i'ii...uwhichProPrsaro i" d'"1'c"lcop'i-'l $r'esurd' .J - 6bei. -"d.t.' rron and' he ma' erials s' . 4 .Ti.:.. ".. -a -. t g u . lmunia...1: .. i'.:. .T.l. u."..*ln:*iil:."ii"i.*" 'n" sam€ 7 and14 'n ."{'*^" o Fibes d*isn.'.. t:Ti*is_::..roracrdnr\P'ed"Pol'ndrion-mrn('NngnEr 1.: .I ':"":i:1'J:TIIJ:i.ra br ariba d'po'r' on irscore t -*' "'.l.." " .'.i'llii:il*.*... 29' in appliations' covered Chaptcr for sPecificallv sensing weveLng'hr' glasrcs'which trarsmit longer infrued riU* -."r'n' u'''* u"' ril:ijilil .:l. ..a' or ***ide also in ChaPEr 6' Plsri fiben (overedin Ch'Pt'r 6 opticd prop€rties' cov€'ed $ Fiber gndngs' d6igned to havespeciGc ChaPrcr T '" cove'".:T*H::l'i.Yr1 .n-' rh!"ik'1'::i": : redn'.':::'ff b.i.1'H'..t:1il::'.i.1':il".i r L i ' h e r r e f r a c t i v n d e t h a nr h ec l a d d i n g ' l . ir'"pi.*1*'::ff .-n.".:fi:.ss H :H::i#lil hu. . *. ' *a a"ading'andthe*arclcngth 'J..'[j:*l dnpenion ion l::".:tiJ..il.. nt.ii'' -""* '"a'r" na b' modrr I ror 'peed conmunicaoons "."-ff. Thge ue sqml diFerenr proco' of lighr of lighrrav'onlv rppr"imrto theacru:l ' .tin.. ttl:Tit bundr*' o Fued6ber 6bers bt ?lau opdel wvcguid* are not mc orguidins tuncdon . 'a."'of-.h*he :Y::. d ei g h rJ h b e 'm u { n ' v e a ( o r ( $ r " ' " i e . " "H.:i'-*'.".^:'H:*lli....t'Jl' iinht in d.' -"-'r.. ff. i.".TilX..aoredianererr::::r::11:.::ffY.F :t'$.' he core-cradding ruc' ure ..t[T:li:T. .. .^ ..r 'nl*".|n*i:::ff Fiber Other IYPes ".i:llru.ion stne.i. -'-': *hich ' the 6ber is nade ---'": ie i . r' diametetherefractive lii."r.a""'.r.T.tr1il1. ff:*:..*-i"i.*$.i*"'ued brierv chaPre* You Hqve Leqrned? Whot properii€s' fibds'with distinct ofoPtical lvPes l.

. cndins the ftf.r dbo. stoddd singte-node fibss havea$rp_ildex pronleandro chrcmaticdisperion ar i.distanc€s a coupteofkiiomereB.i. h . i n r r i n i n g b e r .C. d w h e n 6 e n t eirn g r n e fiber '. Lishr can be poldized in verricalor ho. 16.e aad clidding can nearh eliminatenodal dispersion a nuldmode 6ber in t0. Opnr Fibn a:otuna"t.tidding D o ! n d n r w . bur t. t i o n r h a ti r h .ght 1. opri.)peKion(h.nd" r o d < r e a .:j' t"""' Pa?elr optnat rch"/'$/(SPIE esione Vol o' Fiha M se'ies :]]t.tqrirttritcr 6 7.izonl. p o t a . Chrcnaric dispssion is rhe sum of marer. *..m &mmjt a single modeoftight.ll .|..a\ Hilt. r h ee H e d i k .meJ unr prooe. TyPernow in se hrve oxperrcn $Iired.r ridsmirs only one mode. 14. {. o n h n e d n .rss only 6 ro l0 rl.r Antiratio.t 29.er ihe (i w|| co\er hber mareriakand fabri. oprrut mvr8uide. S.ms d'ip.j drpe^rcn ar .." i"". wirh uvetcnFh. f i b < r .mode dkpcnion.ln-c.sr-Modz Fibet Opti.ir.._. p o t . They mry be u\ed overrhoae.t a singte_mode 6b..jons."p.62.1l. 17.J:pit.active-index diEerential beMen co.al dispersion md wavesuidedispersionj ' all ihree d€pend on kvelen$h. .c6.nily tonserrhrn l.5ingh-mod. ury t. ofguidiry Whott Nexf? oil. rt is rhe najn iype of d. to ll.rmptifier b l n d . R.te\ d. 13. i Fibr.. i a r i o . Fibe6 "(h corcdio. !ddcnsh gen. rransm.den .ptrsion.sionove. Normatsingle-mode 6ber aries both polaiations ad m suFferpolariarion.}l Fm. *'"i.shr. p o t r . ha wa"eguide dispe^ior incFjfd { ir @ets mrkn..nber)areuledforhish-speed(omhunrcarronsoerdirroccsofmore .he rrrc @F .hdding rhelight LN B JeMhomn€.ryper. pm.hrp?r . i a . Tha areused tb.r d will teJ n aio. (Matcet Dektet. craded-indq 6be6 havesrahdail cored.rion Further Reoding r. a.m . .rh .ul no | .ntiok!.hap. 9. l t i o n f r b € Ft r r n ( m i rt i g h ti n o n t ) o r .k r e pt i g t i l r t n .nea've JR m more !dnrrubte ro nontineJ efl.liCned x.lT5. t 8.amere6 of50 o. . m . di5Rn6_ 12.shoneror longer*rn rhe rrbium_6b. 1 8 . i o " .ipb.ecrions. r r a q h r r et i g h rL .31 pm. . d r u J t yr o a b o u rt 5 0 0 n h o r J b o u r t o 4 0 n h . Dr.ofoprictrjhber\ .ro waKrengrh.2000) taddKet:.6imrtope m.hrn / kltomerrror rwo.rhifted6bc.t d. ) i n s t ep o hr i .. The curoffwavelengrh is the shonest mvelength ar whi.du.i"d*Ja 6ber 15. r hs o m e i s h ri n t h e c t a d d r n e .nse t6. d-ele.

11" e. Poiariation-mainldni'g 3..rvhat would the PuheLcnghbe at b.i vou u* h in rlrc<rbium-emPlifie' b"'l rvP<or6br.u. r$i/hatis the half-acccptac angle for e ldge-cor. r..' s-a.-i.tigii.dnotrg€ do. SteP'indq multinode b.. ro.4' d.b6 (\xaq'rnteMienct bhn r'.l. \?hy doant dispcrsion a$cct inagins'or illuminadon r}:ar s'rP indq 'ingiemod' fiber' 3. Your*stcm ho to tnrumir wnlength-division muJriplaed '' dealon rrc dnpe*onI il6t 6." g""n d"P'"ion rbour rarcould i". A6ber h* nodal disPesionof 20 ns/kn tfar insantaeous light pulseraveledthtough s km ofsuch 6ber. Yourchup*ate purh:'ing dePartmcnr sor s@t -' sqtcm in Quslion 5: Jit"a e*..0' c.at Frnsmita sisnal I Gbit/s? fibc6? 2.-{opcd fiber 4 for Quiz ChcPter l. \{ftn m*cr< r']'*n. Adruccd Traimcnte 1995) O?ti6t F. .is"r" *'nr hunded . Fuda@tar' of (C'mbridse Univesirv Pres' Op"6 Ajoy Ghrtak and K.k..". 14" in is 2.@*. -J-. DisPereion+hifted .s it offer? disPe6ion sloPe' 4.. Vhat arc thc tndcotrs bcareen etrccd* areaod l<30 rc 'isnJ\ rr 'rhe 3. Gtaded-indqnuhinode c. 4.. Stepindex single-mode singled.. 80 ns . 9. Thlzgr 4an' hmdnioa to Fibo 1998) 4 for About Chopter roThink Questions ofrbour J0 nJkm l 'ing the L A veo-indq muhimodehberho modeldspcoron " it how a. Greded-inda fibcr qpicallv is morecxp<roive * iJ. steP-indd fiber with corc ind* of 1 5 and dadding indexof 1. Modal dispersion largesr whar rypeoffiber? a. 7..R!. w"v *..i' ampliner''rrhar iiii..7" b.r.495? a. 20 ns d...

index singtemdde hberopearing ar 1.indq fibe.ecoregrades in(o rhe dadding i.on nar t. 4.whr applqdon i! nondo dspcsion.1pm t.-3 !"m i e. d. I l.0ph d.5.i6 . 0. wlar is the n*imuh allo$. 2 8p m d.mode srep.495? o a. 4 9 5p m 10. 0. wirh corediamerer of8 !. 8 9p m d.5 and ctaddins index f 1. 1 . 2 8p m d.abte ore dimercr for a aep-index singlc-mode 6ber operaring ar 1. Mode @nntrenenrin rh! dadding c.5.m b .and claddjnsindq of |.8pm e .l ro conrol pola!iarior.10io d.ry? 3 a. tl Fm t4 . L3l pm e .index 65e wirh c. Vhar is done ro derisn a disprBion-shifted fi ber? a. 3. . corciDd€x of 1. 8. _ 1 .l-*or. vhit is $e cutoFqwhnsth of a single. \0hai suideslishi . 5 .r€ diaherer of 8 p.34 t'. with coreindd of 1. Fo.shilied 6berrequired? n:i el. lwhar.rr'u' @ 4.5 and claddingindd of 1.49jpn 9.n rhe region wne. 6 Mbir^ e. 0 . with coreind* of 1.m. 4. . 0. 1 . wlat is rhe cutotrmvetengthofa single. Vaveguide dispersion is indesed ro otrser natcrial dispers. Marerialdnpersionis reduceda! 1. Total inrerMl reflqion b.4 Mbir/s 5.3 sm.89pm D.31 p. c.5j pm.89 pm b. b.3 pm. i. l6 Mbit/s d.5i pm.har coupt€lighr inro rhe fiber 6. 20MbnA c.496? a. 160Mbn/s 8.'.m. Marerialdispersion is increased offser ro waveguide dispesion near 1. l i5 tln c . 1. 1. Core dimeter is ince$ed io allow huftimod€ e. The fib€r @re is madc asynmeftic.m. The op.coreindq of I.mode srcp. rhe ndihum aarr hr rba(rhe 8-[h lengthofnber in Problem @dd a. Vhat is rhe mdinun core dianererfi' a step.nd claddinsiDd€xof b. 5p h 7.000j (an)? e. Refraaion .495a a. .n mulrimode 6bers? sraded_index a. 0.89 pm b.

ations c.s@n.t-d. Dense nukipldiogaroud 1 31 Pm Borh rairsmit the same ' Single-modefi bd rrasmks fewer becaue Polariar. singlc-wleleng(h at tBnsmission 1. Sho.55Pm {arelength-division e.55Pd dara b. r. Dcs single-poluizrionfi ber dmsmit more o! fewer nodes than *andtd step-inda single-modc fiber? d.om'nuni. Single-warcleogth trdsmissionat l.onsensitivefi bersdisdnguish berweenthe two onhogonal Singie polar. d.3l Pn wa.e .@ tr'"t'" a.ation 6ber crries fewer bccrur stardud steP-inda 6ben do not distingish beveen I2.Dense elengrh'division muftiplaingaround 1.-eednore infornadon to aDse r the ques0on .

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