MATERI PENUNJANG KULIAH

METODOLOGI PENELITIAN KUALITATIF

IMPLIKASI METODOLOGI BEBERAPA PARADIGMA ILMU-ILMU SOSIAL

DEDY N. HIDAYAT

DISAMPAIKAN UNTUKPELATIHAN METODOLOGI PENELITIAN KUALITATIF OKTOBER 2001

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PERBEDAAN PARADIGMATIK PENELITIAN KUANTITATIF DAN KUALITATIF
(Diadopsi dari: Bryman, Quantity and Quality in Social Research, 1988; hal. 94)

QUANTITATIVE ”objective” 1.Kedudukan penelitian kualitatif 2.Hubungan peneliti dan yang diteliti 3.Hubungan teori/konsep dengan data empirik 4.Strategi penelitian 5.Lingkup/klaim temuan
6.Konsepsi

QUALITATIVE “reflective” penggalian interpretasi subjek dekat ( empati ) insider

studi awal jauh (peneliti objek penelitian) outsider konfirmatori

emergent

berstruktur nomothetic1 “the truth” statis dan eksternal individual single-level analysis

tidak berstruktur ideographic “a truth” prosesual, konstruksi sosial holistikdan kontekstual multi-level analysis

tentang realitas sosial

7.Analisis data subjek yg. diteliti

Komentar: Bila perbedaan antara metode kuantitatif dan kualitatif telah
Pendekatan nomothetic berusaha memperoleh temuan-temuan yang berlaku umum, baik untuk semua konteks sosial, konteks waktu dan sejarah, ataupun tempat. Penalaran ideographic menempatkan temuan penelitian dalam konteks sosial-budaya serta konteks waktu dan konteks historis, yang spesifik, dimana penelitian telah dilakukan.
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mencapai taraf perbedaan sebagaimana digambarkan oleh Bryman tersebut diatas, maka perbedaan keduanya telah merupakan perbedaan metodologi, atau perbedaan paradigmatik (yang menyangkut asumsiasumsi epistemologi, ontologi, dan metodologi).

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Metodologi Penelitian Sosial - Semester Ganjil ‘98

Program Pascasarjana Ilmu-ilmu Sosial Universitas Indonesia

PENELITIAN SOSIAL KUANTITATIF:
Pengukuran Fenomena Sosial Pengukuran (measurement): ". . . the assignment of numeral symbols to objects or events according to rules."(Stevens, 1987) Kuantifikasi fenomena sosial, berdasarkan aturan dan kriteria kuantitatif Deskripsi kuantitatif fenomena sosial yang diteliti Bagaimanakah Tingkat Partisipasi Politik mahasiswa Universitas Indonesia Kuantifikasi: skoring var. Partisipasi Politik: rata-rata skor

Partisipasi Politik (univariate statistical analysis) Kuantifikasi hubungan antar fenomena sosial Bagaimanakah hubungan Partisipasi Politik dengan SES? Kuantifikasi: kuat-lemahnya hubungan statistik antara Partisipasi Politik dan SES (bivariate & multivariate
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Metodologi Penelitian Sosial - Semester Ganjil ‘98

Program Pascasarjana Ilmu-ilmu Sosial Universitas Indonesia

analysis) Kuantifikasi kriteria pengambilan keputusan Apakah Partisipasi Politik sampel mewakili kondisi Partisipasi Pol. dalam populasi? Apakah pengukuran Partisipasi Politik valid dan reliable? Apakah hubungan statistik antara Partisipasi Politik dengan SES benar-benar signifikan? Kriteria kuantitatif: e.g., sampling error Kriteria kuantitatif: e.g., validity and reliability coefficients, etc. Kriteria kuantitatif: statistical significance level

METHODOLOGY AND METHODS
By “method” we simply mean the research technique or tool used to gather data . By “methodology” we mean the philosophy of the research process. This include the
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Metodologi Penelitian Sosial - Semester Ganjil ‘98

Program Pascasarjana Ilmu-ilmu Sosial Universitas Indonesia

assumptions and values that serve as a rationale for research and the standards or criteria the researcher uses for interpreting data and reaching conclusions. (Bailey 1987;
pp.32-33)

METHODOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES = PARADIGMATIC DIFFERENCES ‘. . . both qualitative and quantitative methods may be used appropriately with any research paradigm. Questions of method are secondary to questions of paradigm, which we define as the basic belief system . . .that guides the investigator, not only in choices of method but in ontologically and epistemologically fundamental ways
(Guba and Lincoln, 1994; p. 105).

PERBEDAAN PARADIGMATIK
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Metodologi Penelitian Sosial - Semester Ganjil ‘98

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( Guba, 1990 )

ONTOLOGY
Asumsi tentang "realitas"

EPISTEMOLOGY
Asumsi tentang hubungan antara peneliti dan yang diteliti What is the nature of the relationship between the inquirer and the knowable?

METHODOLOGY
Asumsi metodologis tentang bagaimana peneliti memperoleh pengetahuan How should the inquirer go about finding out knowledge?

What is the nature of "reality" ?

KONTINUM PERBEDAAN PARADIGMATIK
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Metodologi Penelitian Sosial - Semester Ganjil ‘98

Program Pascasarjana Ilmu-ilmu Sosial Universitas Indonesia

Peneliti Positivist (Kuantitatif) dan Peneliti Constructivist (Kualitatif)
(Berdasarkan uraian Guba, The Paradigm Dialog, 1990)

POSITIVIST ONTOLOGY Realist
Realitas ada "diluar sana" dan diatur oleh hukum-hukum dan mekanisme alamiah (seperti cause-effect laws) yang berlaku universal (time and context free generalizations)

CONSTRUCTIVIST Relativist
Realitas merupakan suatu konstruksi mental, dipahami secara beragam berdasarkan pengalaman serta konteks lokal dan spesifik para individu yang bersangkutan

EPISTEMOLOGY Dualist/Objectivist
Peneliti bisa dan perlu membuat jarak dengan objek/realitas yang diteliti. Penilaian subjektif danbias pribadi harus bisa dipisahkan dari temuan penelitian

Subjectivist
Peneliti dan realitas/fenomena yang diteliti menyatu sebagai satu entitas. Temuan penelitian merupakan hasil interaksi antara peneliti dengan yang diteliti

METHODOLOGY Experimental/ manipulative
Hypothetico-deductive approachL Pertanyaan penelitian atau hipotesis dinyatakan pada awal penelitian, untuk diuji secara empiris dalam kondisi yang
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Dialectic/ hermeneutic,
Konstruksi mental individu digali dan dibentuk dalam setting alamiah, secara hermeunetik, serta diperbandingkan secara dialektik
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Metodologi Penelitian Sosial - Semester Ganjil ‘98

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terkontrol

MacQuail, Denis (1988). Mass Communication Theories

Radical Humanism

Dominance Marxist critical theory Hegemony (Gramsci)
centrifugal(-) centrifugal(-)

Radical Structuralism

Marxist materialist

Mass Sociey theory Political economy

Frankfurt school (Adorno)
technology Media centered content

Social-cultural approach

social Society centered material / behavioral

Individual functionalism

Structural functionalism

Interpretive
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centripetal (+)
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Functionalism
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Sociology

centrifugal (+)

Pluralism

TIGA PERSPEKTIF/PARADIGMA ILMU SOSIAL
POSITIVISM SOCIAL SCIENCE
Menempatkan ilmu sosial seperti ilmu-ilmu alam, yakni sebagai suatu metode yang terorganisir untuk mengkombinasikan deductive logic dengan pengamatan empiris, guna secara probabilistik menemukan -atau memperoleh konfirmasi tentang – hukum sebab-akibat yang bisa dipergunakan memprediksi pola-pola umum gejala sosial tertentu. Contoh Teori/Penelitian •Liberal political-economy (mainstreams) •Agenda setting, teori-teori
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INTERPRETIVE SOCIAL SCIENCE
Memandang ilmu sosial sebagai analisis sistematis terhadap socially meaningful action melalui pengamatan langsung dan terperinci terhadap para pelaku sosial dalam setting sehari-harinya yang alamiah, agar mampu memahami dan menafsirkan bagaimana para pelaku sosial yang bersangkutan menciptakan dan memelihara/mengelola dunia sosial mereka. Contoh Teori/Penelitian

CRITICAL SOCIAL SCIENCE
Mendefinisikan ilmu sosial sebagai suatu proses yang secara kritis berusaha mengungkap “the real structures” dibalik ilusi, false needs, yang dinampakkan dunia materi, dengan tujuan membantu membentuk suatu kesadaran sosial, DEMI memperbaiki dan merobah kondisi kehidupan mereka

Contoh Teori /Penelitian

•Cultural/onstructivism political- •Structuralism political economy (Golding&Murdock) economy (Schudson) •Phenomenology,
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•Instrumentalism political
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Metodologi Penelitian Sosial - Semester Ganjil ‘98

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fungsi media •cultivation theory, •symbolic interactionsim (Iowa School) •uses&gratifications •the covering law model
.

ethnometodology •symbolic interactionism (Chicago School) •constructionism (e.g., social construction of reality - Berger)

economy (Chomsky, Gramsci, Adorno)

ASUMSI-ASUMSI DASAR POSPOSITIVISM CONSTRUCTIVISM
(Guba) (Guba)

CRITICAL THEORIES

POSITIVISM
ONTOLOGY
What is the nature of "reality" ?

(Lawrence)

INTERPRETIVE
(Neuman) • relativism - realitas • historical realism -

• adanya patterns dan

orders yang dapat ditemukan (Lawrence)

• critical realism -

adanya “real reality” tapi hanya bisa difahami secara tak sempurna dan •realitas merupakan probabilistik (Guba) definisi situasi yang bersifat dinamis, hasil
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hanya dapat difahami secara relatif,dan merupakan konstruksi lokal yang spesifik (Guba)

realitas empirik merupakan virtual reality yg terbentuk oleh berbagai kekuatan sosial,ekonomi, dan politik yang telah mengkristal dalam proses sejarah (Guba)
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Metodologi Penelitian Sosial - Semester Ganjil ‘98

Program Pascasarjana Ilmu-ilmu Sosial Universitas Indonesia

interaksi sosial (Lawrence)

• realitas penuh berisi

konflik dan diatur oleh hidden underlying structures (Lawrence)

EPISTEMOLO GY
What is the nature of the relationship b/w the inquirer and the knowable?

• modified

dualist/objectivist; kebenaran temuan penelitian merupakan probabilistas (Guba)

• transactioal/subjectivi

st; temuan penelitian merupakan produk interaksi peneliti dengan yang diteliti (Guba)

•transactional/subjectivist ; hubungan antara peneliti dengan apa yang ditemukan dijembatani oleh nilai-nilai yang dimiliki peneliti (Guba) •dialectical (between theory and praxis)

METHODOLOG • experimental, Y falsification of hypotheses; may How should the include qualitative inquirer go about finding out methods (Guba)
knowledge?

•hermeneutical/ dialectical (between researcher-empirical observations)

Disarikan dari: Guba and Lincoln (1994), “Competing Paradigms in Qualitative Research”, in Denzin and Lincoln (Eds.). Handbook of Qualitative Research. London: SAGE Publications. Neuman, L. (1997), Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Third Edition. New York: Allyn and Bacon.

PARADIGM POSITIONS ON SELECTED PRACTICAL ISSUES POSPOSITIVISM
(Guba)
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CONSTRUCTIVISM
(Guba)
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CRITICAL

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Metodologi Penelitian Sosial - Semester Ganjil ‘98

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POSITIVISM
INQUIRY AIM

(Lawrence)

INTERPRETIVE
(Neuman)

explanation: prediction and control (Guba)

understanding; reconstruction (Guba)

To discover natural laws To understand and in order to predict and describe meaningful control events (Lawrence) social action (Lawrence)

critique and transformation; restitution and emancipation (Guba) To smash myths and empower people to change society (Lawrence) A critique that reveals true conditions and helps people see the way to a better world (Lawrence) False beliefs that hide power and objective conditions

THEORY

A logical, deductive system of inter-connected definitions, axioms and laws (Lawrence) clearly distinct from and less valid than science (Lawrence)

A description of how a group’s meaning system is generated and sustained (Lawrence) Powerful everyday theories used by ordinary people (Lawrence)

ROLE OF COMMON SENSE

Disarikan dari: Guba and Lincoln (1994), “Competing Paradigms in Qualitative Research”, in Denzin and Lincoln (Eds.). Handbook of Qualitative Research. London: SAGE Publications. Neuman, L. (1997), Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Third Edition. New York: Allyn and Bacon.

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Metodologi Penelitian Sosial - Semester Ganjil ‘98

Program Pascasarjana Ilmu-ilmu Sosial Universitas Indonesia

PARADIGM POSITIONS ON SELECTED METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES POSPOSITIVISM
(Guba)

CONSTRUCTIVISM
(Guba)

CRITICAL THEORIES

POSITIVISM Values

(Lawrence)

INTERPRETIVE
(Neuman)

excluded – influence denied (Guba) Science is value free, and value have no place except when choosing a topic (Lawrence)

included – formative (Guba) Values are an integral part of social life: no group’s values are wrong, only different (Lawrence)

included – formative (Guba) All science must begin with a value position, some positions are right, some are wromg
(Lawrence)

is logically connected to True explanatio laws and based on facts (Lawrence) n

Resonates or feels right to Supplies people with tools those who are being needed to vhange the studied (Lawrence) world (Lawrence) is embedded in the context of fluid social interactions (Lawrence) trustworthiness and authenticity (Guba)
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Good evidence Goodness criteria

is based on precise observations that others can repeat (Lawrence) conventional benchmark of “rigor”: internal and external validityt,

is informed by a theory that unveils illusions (Lawrence) historical situatedness; erosion of ignorance (Guba)
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reliability and objectivity (Guba) nomothetic Scope of explanatio n ideographic mixed ideographic dan nomothetic

Disarikan dari: Guba and Lincoln (1994), “Competing Paradigms in Qualitative Research”, in Denzin and Lincoln (Eds.). Handbook of Qualitative Research. London: SAGE Publications. Neuman, L. (1997), Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Third Edition. New York: Allyn and Bacon.

BASIC BELIEFS OF ALTERNATIVE INQUIRY PARADIGMS Positivism Ontology
What is the nature of "reality" ?

Pospositivism Critical Theories
critical realism “real” reality but only imperfectly and probabilistically apprehendable historical realism - virtual reality shaped by social, political, cultural, economic, ethnic, and gender values; crystallized over time

Constructivis m
relativism - local and specific constructed realities

naïve realism “real” reality apprehendable

Epistemol ogy What is

dualist/objectivist modified transactional/subj transactional/subj ; findings true dualist/objectivist ectivist; value ectivist; created ; findings mediated
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Metodologi Penelitian Sosial - Semester Ganjil ‘98

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the nature of the relationship between the inquirer and the knowable?

probably true

findings

findings

Methodolo experimental/ manipulative; gy How
should the inquirer go about finding out knowledge?

verification of hypotheses; chiefly quantitative methods

modified experimental/ manipulative; falsification of hypotheses; may include qualitative methods

dialogical/dialecti cal (between theory and praxis)

hermeneutical/ dialectical

Guba and Lincoln (1994), Competing Paradigms in Qualitative Research, in Denzin and Lincoln (Eds.). Handbook of Qualitative Research. London: SAGE Publications.

CRITERIA FOR JUDGING THE GOODNESS OR QUALITY OF A RESEARCH
POSITIVISM / POST-POSITIVISM •INTERNAL VALIDITY •EXTERNAL VALIDITY •RELIABILITY •OBJECTIVITY •Isomorphism of findings •generalizability •stability/consistency of measurement •distanced - neutral observer ( for postpositivism: probabilistics and interdedy n. hidayat

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subjetivity) CRITICAL THEORIES •HISTORICAL SITUATEDNESS OF THE INQUIRY •WHOLENESS •i.e., that it takes account of the social, political, cultural, economic, ethnic and gender antecedents of the studied situation •the extent to which the inquiry yakes account the wider social totality within which the subject of the inquiry located • credibility (paralleling internal validity) • transferability (paralleling external validity) • confirmability (“objectivity”) • Ontological authenticity (enlarges personal construction) • Educative authenticity (leads to improved understanding of others) • Catalytic authenticity (stimulates to action) • Tactical authenticity (empowers action)

CONSTRUCTIVISM

•TRUSTWORTHINESS

•AUTHENTICITY

Diadopsi dari: Guba and Lincoln (1994), “Competing Paradigms in Qualitative Research”, in Denzin and Lincoln (Eds.). Handbook of Qualitative Research. London: SAGE Publications.

**formulasi

penulis

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Kasus 9: “The countries which are now relatively developed have at some time in the past gone through a rapid acceleration in the course of which their rate of net investment has moved from 5 percent (of national income) or less to 12 per cent or more . . . The central problem in the theory of economic growth is to understand the process by which a community is converted from being a 5 per cent to a 12 per cent saver”
(Arthur Lewis, The Theory of Economic Growth, 1953; pp. 208, 226).

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The Wheel of Science - Hypothetico-deductive Method Constructing theory Applying theory Inductive methods Deductive methods ProblemsIdentification Theoretica l Framewor k Theorizing Logic methods

THEORY

Theoretic hypotheses

Theory Evaluation Data

Propositions
EMPIRICAL GENERALIZATION S

Logical Deduction Theoretical interpretation explanation Propositions

I IV
Data analysis

II III
application

HYPOTHES ES Research methods

Research hypotheses
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Metodologi Penelitian Sosial - Semester Ganjil 1996

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Research methods

Logical EMPIRICAL OBSERVATIONS

Instrumentation Induction induction sampling Statistical
Rectangles : Ovals : methodological

hypothesesAdopsi dari Wallace (1971)
informational components controls

Data collection, measurement Hypothesis testing

SIGNIFIKANSI PENELITIAN

AKADEMIS
Jawaban yang diperoleh menyumbang pemahaman ilmiah,
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PRAKTIS
Jawaban yang diperoleh dapat dimanfaatkan untuk tujuan dan kepentingan
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TEHNIS
Usaha untuk menjawab masalah penelitian melahirkan

SOSIAL
Jawaban yang diperoleh bermanfaat bagi pembentukan kesadaran,

Metodologi Penelitian Sosial - Semester Ganjil 1996

Program Pascasarjana Ilmu-ilmu Sosial Universitas Indonesia

pembentukan konsep atau teori baru, perbaikan atau modifikasi teori yang telah ada, mengisi gap dalam suatu teori, dsb.

praktis

tehnik/metode penelitian, pengukuran, pengamatan dsb. yang lebih valid dan reliable.

pengetahuan serta sikap masyarakat atau kelompok sosial tertentu.

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Metodologi Penelitian Sosial - Semester Ganjil 1996 Sosial Universitas Indonesia

Program Pascasarjana Ilmu-ilmu

HYPOTHETICO-DEDUCTIVE METHOD

. . . “the hypothetico-deductive method” is defined as that of deducing the hypothesis in question from higher-level hypotheses . . . (Braithwaite, 1960; p.261)

Beberapa Asumsi Dasar HYPOTHETICO-DEDUCTIVE METHOD

Ontology Methodology

Epistemology

Realist: Realitas bersifat eksternal dan diatur oleh kaidah-kaidah tertentu (e.g., cause-effect laws) yang berlaku universal (time-context free generalizations

Dualist: peneliti bisa dan harus membuat jarak dengan objek realitas yang diteliti; subjektivitas peneliti harus dipisahkan dari temuan penelitian

Objectivist: Pengetahuan yang objektif bisa diperoleh melalui pengujian empiris terkontrol, yang memiliki validitas internal dan eksternal

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Metodologi Penelitian Sosial - Semester Ganjil 1996 Sosial Universitas Indonesia

Program Pascasarjana Ilmu-ilmu

)

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Metodologi Penelitian Sosial - Semester Ganjil 1996

Program Pascasarjana Ilmu-ilmu Sosial Universitas Indonesia

KRITERIA KUALITAS PENELITIAN DALAM HYPOTHETICO-DEDUCTIVE METHOD KUALITAS PENELITIAN VALIDITAS INTERNAL b VALIDITAS DAN RELIABILITAS PENGUKURA N
• Apakah pengukuran konsep-konsep reliable? reliable dalam pengertian apa? Stabil,
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VALIDITAS EKSTERNAL

VALIDITAS DISAIN DAN ANALISIS
• Apakah alat statistik yang dipakai benar? • Apakah hubunganantar konsep bisa ditafsirkan
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GENERALISASI DESKRIPTIF

GENERALISA SI KONTEKSTUA L
• Apakah temuan yang diperoleh dalam setting/konteks dimana penelitian telah dilakukan bisa

• Apakah temuan dalam sampel bisa dianggap mewakili keadaan sebenarnya dalam populasi?

Metodologi Penelitian Sosial - Semester Ganjil 1996

Program Pascasarjana Ilmu-ilmu Sosial Universitas Indonesia

equivalent, homogen? • Apakah pengukuran konsep-konsep bisa dinilai valid? Dan valid dalam arti bagaimana?

sebagai hubungan kausal? Sejauhmana variabel lain dikontrol?

dan apakah bisa ditarik inferensi yang secara statistik signifikan?

digeneralisasi ke konteks/setting yang lebih umum dan berlaku seharihari

KUALITAS STUDI EMPIRIK DALAM PERSPEKTIF DOMINANT METHODOLOGY

SIGNIFIKANSI STUDI: AKADEMIK, PRAKTIS, TEKNIS, SOSIAL KUALITAS KERANGKA TEORI, PROPOSISI VALIDITAS INTERNAL
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VALIDITA S EKSTERN

Metodologi Penelitian Sosial - Semester Ganjil 1996

Program Pascasarjana Ilmu-ilmu Sosial Universitas Indonesia

AL
VALIDITAS DAN RELIABILITAS PENGUKURAN VALIDITAS DISAIN DAN ANALISIS GENERALISA SI DESKRIPTIF GENERALISA SI KONTEKS

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