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SRAL XD System Technical Description

CODE: ISSUE/UPDATE: VERSION SOURCE: TD-040203-1 21 February 2008 2.0 COO IPT MWR ProdM

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SRAL XD System Technical Description

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INDEX 1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................4


1.1. 1.2. 1.3. Scope.............................................................................................................................. 4 Related Documents......................................................................................................... 4 Revision Information........................................................................................................ 4

2.

System Overview .........................................................................................................................5


2.1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 5 2.2. Indoor Unit....................................................................................................................... 6 2.2.1. IDU Plug-in .............................................................................................................. 7 2.2.2. IDU SingleBoard2 .................................................................................................... 8 2.2.3. Outdoor Access Unit................................................................................................ 9 2.3. Outdoor Unit.................................................................................................................. 10 2.3.1. Normal Density ODU ............................................................................................. 10 2.3.2. High Density enhanced ODU ................................................................................. 10 2.4. Configurations ............................................................................................................... 11 2.4.1. Unprotected terminal ............................................................................................. 11 2.4.2 Protected terminal ..................................................................................................... 11 2.4.3 Add-Drop/Repeater ................................................................................................... 13 2.4.4 2x(1+0) ...................................................................................................................... 14 2.4.5 Ring........................................................................................................................... 14 2.5 Installation ..................................................................................................................... 15

3.

System Description....................................................................................................................20
3.1. IDU Plug-In.................................................................................................................... 20 3.1.1. Access Card .......................................................................................................... 21 3.1.2. Controller ............................................................................................................... 21 3.1.3. BaseBand .............................................................................................................. 22 3.2. IDU SingleBoard2.......................................................................................................... 24 3.3. Outdoor Access Unit...................................................................................................... 25 3.4. Outdoor Unit.................................................................................................................. 26 3.4.1. ODU ND ................................................................................................................ 27 3.4.2. ODU HD/HP .......................................................................................................... 28 3.4.3. ODU HDe .............................................................................................................. 29 3.5. Frequency Setting ......................................................................................................... 29 3.6. Output Power ................................................................................................................ 30 3.6.1. Coupling loss ......................................................................................................... 31 3.7. Radiating System .......................................................................................................... 32

4.

Cross Connect Functionality....................................................................................................35


4.1. 4.2. 4.3. Cross Connection Matrix on IDU PI 16xE1 .................................................................... 35 Cross Connection Matrix on IDU Plug-in 32xE1 ............................................................ 36 Preservation of the cross-connection matrix .................................................................. 37 Switching ................................................................................................................... 40 Filtering ..................................................................................................................... 40 Forwarding ................................................................................................................ 40 Scheduling................................................................................................................. 42 Basic behaviour............................................................................................................. 44 Switch-over criteria........................................................................................................ 45 S/N measurement ......................................................................................................... 45

5.

Ethernet functionalities ............................................................................................................38


5.1.1. 5.1.2. 5.1.3. 5.1.4.

6.

Dynamic Modulation ................................................................................................................44


6.1. 6.2. 6.3.

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6.4. 6.5.

Working mode change criteria ....................................................................................... 46 Working mode parameters ............................................................................................ 47 DCN .............................................................................................................................. 48

7. 7

Management .............................................................................................................................48
7.1.

Network Management System..................................................................................................52


7.1 Security ......................................................................................................................... 53 7.1.1 Access Security ......................................................................................................... 53 7.1.2 Protocol ports security ............................................................................................... 53 7.1.3 Same Admin password for FTP/TELNET/TNMP........................................................ 54 7.1.4 SSH on FTP / Telnet session..................................................................................... 54 7.1.5 Accounting log ........................................................................................................... 54 7.2 Configuration management: .......................................................................................... 54 7.3 Commissioning Facilities: .............................................................................................. 55 7.3.1 Long period performance monitoring recording.......................................................... 55 7.3.2 Time switched forcing ................................................................................................ 55 7.3.3 Local History Log....................................................................................................... 56 7.3.4 Measurement ............................................................................................................ 56 7.3.5 Performance Monitoring ............................................................................................ 56 7.4 Fault management: ....................................................................................................... 58 7.5 Maintenance.................................................................................................................. 59 7.6 SNTP Support ............................................................................................................... 59 7.7 NAPT on F interface ...................................................................................................... 60 7.8 OSPF ............................................................................................................................ 60

8 9 10 11

Software Download...................................................................................................................61 Engineering Order Wire...........................................................................................................62 VoIP...........................................................................................................................................63 Alarm converter ........................................................................................................................64

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1. Introduction
1.1. Scope
Scope of this document is to give an overview of SRAL XD product family focusing on architectural aspect and main features.

1.2. Related Documents


In order to have a complete description of the performance of the equipment refer to SRAL XD System Technical Specification (TS-310706-1) For a complete description of the available features for each Software Version Release refer to the latest version of Customer Feature List and Customer Release Note

1.3. Revision Information The here listed configuration and feature are related to the last SVR released according.
Issue 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 Date February 2004 March 2004 March 2004 August 2004 Author F. Tammaro F. Tammaro F. Tammaro F. Tammaro Notes First Issue Second Issue Third Issue Update: Ethernet Version Update: 32xE1 version and E3 version Update Update Update: new values ODU HDe Update: Outdoor Access Unit Update Update up to SVR 3.7 Revision Update to SVR 3.8 and IDU SB2 insertion Update up to SVR 3.10

5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 11.1

November 2004 January 2005 April 2005 May 2005 June 2005 August 2005 August 2006 August 2006

D. Cattelan D. Cattelan D. Cattelan D. Cattelan F.Tammaro F.Tammaro F.Tammaro V. Colaleo/D. Cattelan V. Colaleo/D. Cattelan F.Tammaro

12.0 13.0

October 2006 February 2008

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2. System Overview
2.1. Introduction
SRAL XD is a PDH MW equipment able to transmit a traffic load from 2xE1 to 32xE1 in the frequency bands 7- 38 GHz according to ETSI radio channel arrangements. The equipment adopts a split configuration composed of one Indoor Unit connected to one or two Outdoor Units, by means of a coaxial cable. The ODU is directly connected to the rear of antenna by means of four retaining latches without using any waveguide.

The IDU (Indoor Unit) provides traffic and auxiliary channels interfaces and performs baseband and control processing independently from operating frequency. The ODU (Outdoor Unit) performs the Mo-Demodulation and houses the RF Tx/Rx unit. It is independent from traffic capacity. The following system configurations are available: (1+0) unprotected terminal 2x(1+0) unprotected terminal Add-Drop / Repeater Ring (1+1) hot stand-by protected terminal (1+1) Frequency Diversity protected terminal (1+1) Polarization Diversity protected terminal

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2.2. Indoor Unit


The indoor unit provides the tributaries input and output interfaces as well as interfaces for service channels, network maintenance facilities, alarms and connection to the power supply. The Indoor Unit performs baseband processing, scrambler/descrambler and FEC functionalities. The IDU also equips the Switching logic offering protection against multipath fading and hardware failure. The unit adopts a 1U high case that can be mounted in a 19 or 600 mm rack. All the connectors for the traffic, service channels and maintenance operation are in the front of the equipment. Three different IDU versions are available Plug-In Single Board2 Outdoor Access Unit

IDU Plug-in

IDU SingleBoard2

Outdoor Access Unit

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2.2.1.

IDU Plug-in

The Plug-In version has been designed to provide a full set of configurations: (1+0) 2x(1+0) unprotected terminal Add-Drop / Repeater Ring (1+1) hot stand-by protected terminal (1+1) Frequency/Polarization Diversity protected terminal

The IDU adopts a modular architecture composed of four cards housed in a 1U high shelf: Access Card : 16xE1, 32xE1, 1xE3+E1, 4xFE+ 8xE1, 3xFE+1xGE+16xE1 Controller Card Base Band 16E1:16xE1 (to be used w/ 16xE1 Access Card and 4xFE + 8xE1 Access Card) Base Band 32E1:32xE1 (to be used w/ 32xE1 Access Card and 3xFE+1xGE+16xE1 Access Card) Base Band E3 :E3+E1 (to be used with 1xE3+E1 Access Card) The listed configurations are related to the maximum hardware capacity: the wanted set of features can be enabled by means of a user fee mechanism. In the following figure the different cards are shown and the description of the relevant interfaces is provided.

12 s
Q-LAN V-LAN V-BUS LCT T E S T M N / W C / M J ' ODU CABLE

03
C H A C H B C B L O D U '

01
PS

SRAL XD

CAUTION Vbatter y

ODU CABLE

H A

H B

B L

D U

' P S

CAUTION Vbatter y

10

11

09

04

02

2 M bit/s I/O TRIBUT ARIES 18

2 M bit/s I/O TRIBUT ARIES 916

34M bit/s

2Mbit/s

ALMs

USER/D ext

USER/D ext

or
A B

or
A B

ALMs

USER/D ext

Dext

or
A B

2 M bit/s I/O TRIBUT ARIES 1-8 ALMs USER/D ext

LAN 1 Dext

LAN 2

LAN 3

LAN 4

06

07

08

06

07

08

06

07

08

06

07

08

A B

IDU Plugin: cards and interfaces

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Ref Description POWER SUPPLY A I/O 01 PS 02 PS IF 03 ODU CABLE 04 ODU CABLE TRIBUTARY 05a 2MB/s I/O TRIB.s 18 05b 2MB/s I/O TRIB.s 916 2MB/s I/O TRIB.s 18 2MB/s I/O TRIB.s 916 05c 2MB/s I/O TRIB.s 1724 2MB/s I/O TRIB.s 2532 05d 34 Mbit/s 05f LAN1..LAN4 ALARMS 06 ALARMS SERVICE 07 USER/Dext 08 USER/Dext or Dext 05e 2Mb/s SETTING 09 LCT B MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 10 Q-LAN 11 V-LAN 12 VBUS

Functions POWER ON/OFF ST PS 1 BASE BAND ND PS 2 BASE BAND 1 IDU/ODU CONNECTION nd 2 IDU/ODU CONNECTION 2Mb/s 75/120 Ohm
ST

2Mb/s 75/120 Ohm 34 Mbit/s 75 Ohm 10/100 BaseT ALARMS 1 64 Kb/s V11 Data Channel nd 2 64 Kb/s V11 Data Channel 2Mb/s 75 Ohm F interface expansion for PC Back-up memory key 10/100 BaseT 10 BaseT 128 Kb/s Data Channel
st

Such architecture allows to upgrade an unprotected configuration, just adding in the same shelf an additional base-band card which can be individually supplied. In case of failure in a Protected configuration the BaseBand can be replaced without traffic interruption. In this version the Baseband Card also houses the Hitless Switch logic providing an error free connection in case of fading. 2.2.2. IDU SingleBoard2

The SingleBoard2 IDU adopts a monolithic architecture, consisting in a single replacement unit, tailored on a selected set of features. It is available in the following hardware versions: 8xE1 (1+0) 16xE1(1+0) 16xE1(1+1)Hsby

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The listed configurations are related to the maximum hardware capacity: the wanted set of features can be enabled by means of a user fee mechanism.
Ref A 01 02 03 04a 04b 05 06 07 B 08 09 07 Description Functions POWER SUPPLY I/O POWER ON/OFF PS POWER SUPPLY IF ST ODU CABLE 1 IDU/ODU CONNECTION nd ODU CABLE 2 IDU/ODU CONNECTION TRIBUTARY 2MB/s I/O TRIB.s 18 2Mb/s 75/120 Ohm 2MB/s I/O TRIB.s 916 ALARMS ALARMS ALARMS SERVICE st USER/Dext 1 64 Kb/s V11 Data Channel SETTING LCT F interface expansion for PC Back-up memory key MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Q-LAN 10/100 BaseT V-LAN 10 BaseT LCT F interworkng-S channel

2.2.3.

Outdoor Access Unit

The Outdoor Access Unit implements all access and baseband functions in a waterproof case suitable for outdoor installation. The mechanical structure of the OAU consists of a compact sealed box suitable for wall mounting and pole mounting. Suitable flanges are foreseen for the installation of the OAU into ETSI and/or 19 rack.

90

PC CONNECTION CONNECTOR

POWER SUPPLY CONNECTOR CONNECTION PANEL

GROUNDING POINT

DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETERS

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2.3. Outdoor Unit


The Outdoor Unit (ODU) is in charge of the following tasks: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. IDU-ODU cable interface management (pwr supply and in/out base-band signals); Modulation of base-band digital signal received from the IDU; Demodulation of received RF signal and delivery of recovered base-band signal to IDU; Supervision and configuration/management of the ODU; Management of the communication channel from/to IDU CONTROLLER.

The Outdoor Unit adopts a Frequency Division Duplexing technique as showed in the relevant ETSI recommendations. RF transmitter and Receiver frequencies can be set by the user by means of SW command. Any change of Tx (Rx) frequency automatically involves the change of Rx (Tx) frequency according to the ODU shifter. Three ODU versions are available: 2.3.1. Normal Density ODU Provides a 4CPM modulation format for 2/4/8/16x2Mbps Traffic Capacity, with a channel spacing of 3.5/7/14/28 MHz 2.3.2. High Density enhanced ODU Provides two different modulation formats selectable via software: 4 QAM or 16 TCM. The 4QAM modulation allows traffic capacity of 4/8/16x2Mbps with a channel spacing of 7/14/28 MHz. The 16TCM modulation is provided for payload of 8/16/32x2Mbps with a channel spacing of 7/14/28 MHz.

(DOWN VIEW)

(SIDE VIEW) (FRONT VIEW)


28 1 12 3

26 23 7 8

ODU ND and HDe

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2.4. Configurations
2.4.1. Unprotected terminal In this configuration the equipment consists of: One ODU One Antenna One IDU One coaxial cable for IDU-ODU interconnection

Tributaries (1+0)

2.4.2 Protected terminal The equipment consists of: Two ODUs One or two antennas One IDU One coaxial cable for each IDU-ODU interconnection Following options are available for protected configuration: Hot Stand-by Frequency Diversity Polarization Diversity 1+1 Hot Standby This method offers protection against HW failures providing two independent TX/RX chains. In (1+1)HSby one transmitter is working, while the other one is in stand-by; both receivers are active and the best ODU source is selected. When an HW failure is detected the system actuates the hardware switch:

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On IDU Plug-in, TX (BB+ODU) and RX chain (BB+ODU) are switched independently according to the occurence of the fault On IDU Single Board2, both TX (BB+ODU) and RX chain (BB+ODU) are switched at the same time This switch cannot avoid error bursts during the protection switching, because it is a hardware switch, controlled by alarm signals generated by already happened hardware defects Both ODUs are connected to a single antenna via a power splitter, balanced (3dB symmetric loss) or un-balanced (stand-by channel loss ~ 10 dB, main channel loss ~ 1 dB). Either remote or separate mounting is available.

Main

Hsby

Tributaries (1+1)Hsby On Single Antenna

Alternatively, each ODU can be connected to an individual antenna.

Main

Tributaries
Hsby

(1+1)Hsby On Double Antennas

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1+1 Frequency Diversity This method offers protection against selective and temporary link quality degradation. In (1+1) Frequency Diversity, both radio paths are active in parallel using different frequencies; this method, based on memory buffer that guarantee the bit to bit alignment, can offers error free protection against fading (via a hitless switch) up to 100dB/sec. Both two antennas and single antenna (dual polarized) mounting arrangements are available. (1+1) Polarization Diversity adopts the same concepts of FD, but in this case the same RF signal is transmitted on two different polarizations (H/V) by means of a single double polarized antenna.
F1

Tributaries

F2

(1+1)Frequency Diversity 2.4.3 Add-Drop/Repeater Add/Drop-Repeater system type is characterized by two different radio directions each one employs one ODU. This system allows partially dropping and/or adding tributaries to the radio payload (ADD/DROP mode) or to redirect the whole payload from one radio direction to another one without any access tributary management (Repeater mode) This configuration is used in the sites where local traffic is collected.

PassThrough

Tributaries
Localy AddDropped

AddDrop

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2.4.4 2x(1+0) This solution provides an equivalent two radios back-to-back configuration. In this case the two directions are treated as separated ones but they are managed by just one IDU

Tributaries W

Tributaries E

2X(1+0)

2.4.5 Ring RING system type (supported only by 32xE1units) is characterized by two different radio directions and it employs two ODUs. Its function is to perform a path protection (SNCP like mechanism): the payload is transmitted towards the two opposite directions, but it is received from the best direction; the choice of the receiving direction is based on AIS signal.

Tributaries Ring

A B

For each E1 terminated on the Access side (A), there is a switch selecting the best of the two signals coming from the two Base Band units; the transmitted signal is duplicated from the Access side towards both the BB units. B and B may be different E1 lines on the two BB units (for example, line 3 on BB1 and line 26 on BB2).

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Each switch is independent from the other ones and switching takes places according to AIS detection at E1 level; for each protected connection it is possible to set the switch in automatic mode (switch based on path AIS detection) or to force the position on one of the two sides by LCT/NMS. In this way any physical interruption in a Network ring configuration can be bypassed.

2.5

Installation

Indoor unit fits in 19 racks and cabinets, as well as in ETSI cabinets or directly on a desk/wall. The interconnection between the outdoor unit and the indoor part is a single coaxial cable carrying full duplex traffic, DC power supply, service traffic as well as operation and maintenance data. The ODU can be either mounted directly to the antenna or mounted separately and connected by a flexible waveguide. Two Outdoor units, in a protected (1+1) configuration, can be connected to a single antenna using a power splitter. In the following pictures, several installation alternatives regarding ODUs and antennas are shown:

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INTEGRATED ANTENNA

OUTDOOR ASSEMBLY

(1+0) Integrated

INTEGRATED ANTENNA

FLEXIBLE WAVEGUIDE ODU VERTICAL (1+0) FRAME BRAIDED COAXIAL CABLE

(1+0) Not Integrated

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ODU

INTEGRATED ANTENNA

(1+1) INTEGRATED SUPPORTING FRAME

BRAIDED COAXIAL CABLE

(1+1) Integrated

INTEGRATED ANTENNA

ODU FLEXIBLE WAVEGUIDE (1+1) FRAME

(1+1) Not integrated

In the following pictures, examples regarding fully outdoor system are shown:

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IN/OUT BRAIDED COAXIAL CABLE

OAU UNIT

(1+0) Integrated

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INTEGRATED ANTENNA

ODU FLEX WAVEGUIDE


(

VERTICAL (1+0) FRAME

BRAIDED COAXIAL CABLE

OAU UNIT

(1+0) Not Integrated

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3. System Description
This section describes the system main units.

3.1. IDU Plug-In


The IDU Plug-In adopts a modular architecture composed by: The Access Card that represents the physical access of the equipment for the Tributary streams from the public network, it also includes all the alarms and service channels interfaces. A memory key containing the configuration parameter is equipped onto this unit. One Controller Card that includes all the control and supervisory functions. It also contains a EEPROM for inventory/user data and alarm history One BaseBand Card, that includes all the base band processing, cable protection and IDUODU auxiliary service channel management The modular architecture allows obtaining all the other configurations of the IDU (2(1+0), A/DRPT, Ring, (1+1) FD, PD and H/S) by duplicating only the BaseBand unit.

A 1U Subrack B Access Card C Controller D BaseBand 1 E Baseband 2(opt.)

Alarm Service

Access To ODU BB2 BB1 Tributaries

Controller

The cards are housed in a 1U high subrack which provides electrical interconnections between them by means of its backplane.

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3.1.1. Access Card The Access card is responsible of the following tasks: Physical interface management of auxiliary channels (User/D external/Alarms) and Tributaries Interface. Each tributary can be enabled or disabled. When a tributary is enabled, hardware must provide fault monitoring associated to each tributary, including AIS IN, LOS, Code error and AIS OUT detection. Auxiliary channel fault monitoring is not provided. The Access Board allows local and remote loopback for each tributary signal. Cross connect function allows to cross-connect the tributaries signals. Each local E1 input port can be switched to any E1 tributary output port, at the other side of the link. Cross connect E1 configuration must be set by using suitable software commands, issued via LCT or Netviewer. E1 tributary can be also connected in path protection mode, used only in Ring system type, allowing the selection of the E1 signal between the two received signals according to the AIS selection criteria. Stuffing / destuffing Multiplexing of tributary signals (after the stuffing block) into an aggregate frame for backplane connection. De- multiplexing of the same signals is required in the opposite direction on the aggregate frame received from BaseBand boards. Access Card also houses the memory key containing the licence fees (Configuration: (1+ 0) or (1+1)1 / Traffic Capacity: NxE1 / Modulation format: HD or ND) and all Configuration Parameters. Four versions are available: 16xE1 Version: Traffic capacity up to 16xE1 1xE3 Version: E3 traffic capacity and a 2Mbps wayside channel 32xE1 Version: Traffic capacity 32xE1 8xE1+4xFE Version: Mixed TDM and Ethernet traffic interface up to 32Mbps 16xE1+3xFE+1xGE Version: Mixed TDM and Ethernet traffic interface p to 64 Mbps All Access Card versions provide the same service channel interfaces: 2 x User/ Dext Channel (Sw selectable) Alarm interfaces. 3.1.2. Controller The Controller implements the system control functionalities. The main functions are: Collection of alarms and working parameters from the system units (IDU and ODU); transmission of this information to a local PC or to a network supervision system Activation of system commands coming from a local PC or from a network supervision system (status forcing, modification of equipment parameters, etc.)

(1+1) licence enables 1+1, Ring, 2x(1+0) and Add-drop/Repeater System Types

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Storage on a Memory key of the system configurations and on EEPROMs the inventory / user data and alarms history. Routing of messages among controllers and the network supervision system manager Electrical and protocol translation between the radio environment (which uses a proprietary protocol channel, embedded in the radio frame, to transport management information) and the supervision system (which requests that this information is available on a public connector, with a standard protocol). Measuring the IDU temperature2: the measurement has 1C resolution and is updated once every 15 s. Functional blocks of the IDU are shown in the following figure:

LoopBack & AIS Logic

CK Recovery

Fault Moniotring

Line Decoder

Stuffing Mux

BackPlane I/F

External I/F AIS In/Los


D- Emb Dropping

Stuffing Mux

BackPlane I/F

DEmb to Controller
D- Emb aDDING

DeStuffing DeMux Protection Logic

BackPlane I/F

DEmb from Controller


LoopBack AIS Inserction Detection Line Decoder Dejjitter PLL DeStuffing DeMux BackPlane I/F

External I/F

Access Card functional architecture

3.1.3. BaseBand The unit carries out the following functions: Regeneration of the 2 Mbit/s input tributary signals in compliance with Rec. G.703 and HDB3 -> NRZ conversion Generation of the aggregate frame and multiplexing of the input tributary signals into one main stream Scrambling (212-1 length stream seeded at the beginning of each frame, 215-1 for E3) FEC insertion (Reed Solomon type, with a correction capacity of up to 5 errored bytes per frame) Interleaving

functionality supported by Controller Unit code 634-001/74 from HW edition n8

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Generation of a 128 kbit/s auxiliary service channel for the transmission of data channels, alarms etc., between the IDU and the ODU (inserted into the main stream) Generation of the switching command for the Tx HW switch Automatic level control on the signal incoming from the ODU. Power Supply conversion and distribution The unit also comprises all the circuitry necessary to: Carry out the hitless switching function between the two aggregate signals when the equipment has been set to the protected configuration. Send and receive the following signals from the ODU via the connecting coaxial cable: Aggregate stream power supply voltage for the ODU

From access unit From access unit

MUX / DEMUX

Service Drop-Insert

Scrambling FEC Interleaving

Hitless Switch

I/F cable
to ODU

HW Control Logic

to ODU

Power Supply

DC/DC

Secondary Voltage

to Access to CTRL

Baseband Card functional architecture

Three BaseBand versions are available depending on Multiplexer functions: BaseBand 16xE1 BaseBand 32xE1 BaseBand E3 Each of these cards has to be used in conjunction with the relevant Access Card. The Ethernet Access Card works in conjunction with BaseBand 16xE1.

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3.2. IDU SingleBoard2


The SingleBoard2 IDU adopts a monolithic architecture, consisting in a single replacement unit, tailored on a selected set of features. It is available in the following hardware versions: 8xE1 (1+0) 16xE1(1+0) 16xE1(1+1)Hsby The listed configurations are related to the maximum hardware capacity: the wanted set of features can be enabled by means of a user fee mechanism, within this constraint. Protected Configuration is provided with ODU redundancy only. In the Figure the block diagram of the IDU architecture is shown.
CONTROL BUS SIGNAL BUS POWER SUPPLY BUS PS Section Tributary Section Control Section BaseBand Section 1 BaseBand Section 2 (Opt)

PS

User/Dext TRIB

Q-LAN

V-LAN

LCT

ALM

IF CABLE

IF CABLE

The Power Section provides the interface to the external Power Supply. The Control Section is in charge of the management of the complete system, and provides the interfaces to the supervision systems. Tributary Section interfaces the equipment to external tributaries and user-available signals. The BB section is in charge of the following tasks: Regeneration of the 2 Mbit/s input tributary signals in compliance with Rec. G.703 and HDB3 -> NRZ conversion Generation of the aggregate frame and multiplexing of the input tributary signals into one main stream Scrambling (212-1 length stream seeded at the beginning of each frame, 215-1 for E3) FEC insertion (Reed Solomon type (152,142), with a correction capacity of up to 5 errored bytes per frame) Interleaving Generation of a 128 kbit/s auxiliary service channel for the transmission of data channels, alarms etc., between the IDU and the ODU (inserted into the main stream) Automatic level control on the signal incoming from the ODU. Power Supply conversion and distribution

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3.3. Outdoor Access Unit


The Outdoor Access Unit implements all access and baseband functions in a waterproof case suitable for outdoor installation. The mechanical structure of the OAU consists of a compact sealed box suitable for wall mounting and pole mounting. Suitable flanges are foreseen for the installation of the OAU into ETSI and/or 19 rack. The OAU works with all ODU versions in all the frequency bands. The connection between the waterproof unit and the ODU is performed by means of a coaxial cable carrying traffic, power supply and management information.

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3.4. Outdoor Unit


The ODU is the system part in charge of RF processing of the signal. It is connected to the IDU by a coaxial cable and to an antenna by means of four latches providing fast and easy mounting. The main functions of the ODU are: IDU-ODU interface management : Performs the IDU-ODU physical interfacing, allows splitting power supply input signal and the cable frame to demux the radio payload which must be transmitted to modem section and the cable overhead used for IDU-ODU interface management and for ODU control. IF+RF block: it is responsible for up/down conversion of In-Phase and Quadrature signals to the desired RF/IF frequency. Modulation/Demodulation of base-band digital signal received/transmitted from/to the IDU Supervision and configuration/management of the ODU Management of the communication channel from/to IDU CONTROLLER RF processing: Transmitting and receiving of the modulated signal The Outdoor Unit adopts a Frequency Division Duplexing technique as showed in the relevant ETSI recommendations. RF transmitters and Receivers frequencies can be set by the user through the system Controller by means of SW command. Tx and Rx frequencies are joined by the shifter value: any change of Tx (Rx) frequency automatically involves the change of Rx (Tx) frequency according to the ODU shifter. The figure below shows the ODU functional view.
POWER BUS CONTROL BUS SIGNAL BUS

Controller

PS Section

CABLE I/F

MODEM

IF Section

RF

DUPLEXER RSSI IDU / ODU CABLE ANTENNA

The RF unit and the Duplexer are the only frequency dependent blocks. Within a frequency band, typical a quarter of band tunability is obtained trough independent Tx/Rx synthesized VCOs with a step size of 250 kHz. Three external interfaces are available:

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IDU/ODU Cable allows the connection of the coaxial cable carrying traffic power and supervision information RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator) interface allows to get information about the received RF signal level by a standard voltmeter as measuring instrument. Antenna interface allow the direct connection of an antenna or of flexible waveguide. It adopts a standard PBR or PDR flange depending on the frequency bands. Three types of Outdoor Unit are available: ODU ND ODU ND/HP ODU HDe 3.4.1. ODU ND The Normal Density ODU is composed of two main boards and the duplexer. The MODEM board contains the following section: Cable Interface MODEM section: realizes a 4-level continuous phase modulation (4-CPM) of the baseband signal Microprocessor PS section The IF/RF Board is in charge of the following tasks: Up-conversion to desired radio frequency of the input base band signal, through preliminary fixed IF up-conversion, delivered by Modem unit RF power transmission of up-converted signal to duplexer interface; Low-noise amplification of the RF signal from duplexer interface; Down-conversion to base band signal of the low-noise amplified RF signal, through preliminary fixed IF down-conversion, and delivery it to the Modem unit

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RSSI

ANTENNA I/F

Power Section
ATPC

I F C A B L E

Cable I/F C? C

SINTH TX

VCO VCO

XN

SINTH RX
M O D E M AGC

VCO

XN

MODEM UNIT IF/RF SECTION

LN

DUPLEXER

3.4.2. ODU HD/HP The High Density/ High Performance ODU allows the selection, via SW, of the modulation format: 16 TCM or 4QAM. The Outdoor Unit is composed by the following subunits: MicroWave Transceiver Front-end (MWTF): equips the microwave transmitter, receiver, VCOs and control board. Dual UHF VCO: Is a part of the synthesizer used to synchronize the MW VCOs. Modem/IF: includes dual IF processing, modulation and demodulation system, dual PLL low frequency synthesizer, ODU hardware controller. Power supply: Converts the DC voltage to the voltages required by other subunits and provides alarm for failures. It extracts also the DC voltage from the cable and insures the primary lightning protection. Filter diplexer: insures the tunability according to the frequency

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Power Supply

To/From Duplexer

To/From IDU

MODEM/IF UNIT

MWTF Dual VCO

The aggregated signals, coming/sent from/to the IDU are treated in the Modem/IF subunit. The IF signal is filtered and sent to the transmitter to be up-converted to the microwave band. An output power control facility moves the transmitted power level in Output Power range. The Rx IF signal, coming from the receiver is demodulated and sent to the IDU. The IF unit houses the cable equalizer, the PLL circuits, a frequency reference oscillator (TCXO) and a microprocessor controller unit for the management of the hardware inside the ODU. The dual VCO unit provides a very low phase noise UHF signals to synchronize a couple of RF VCOs placed in the Microwave Transceiver Front-end (MWTF). The MWTF interfaces the microwave filter diplexer which insures the required decoupling between transmitter and receiver subunits. 3.4.3. ODU HDe This ODU, besides the same functionalities of ODU HD/HP3, provides also the support of 32xE1 capacity in 28MHz with 16TCM modulation. Moreover, it is fully backward compatible with ODU HD/HP, in order to be used as spare part of the previous family. The High Density enhanced ODU is composed of two main boards. Modem unit: it is in charge for power supply function, control function, cable interface management and modem function (4QAM/16TCM modulation). This board contains all processing which is common for all RF bands RF/IF unit: it is in charge for up and down conversion from the modulated signal to RF frequency. The RF/IF unit architecture is different for each band.

This type of ODU is mandatory with IDU PI 32xE1 version

3.5. Frequency Setting


The system provides two different setting modes of the operating frequencies: Continuous frequency: The user can set for the transmission frequency every value comprised into the operating band of the equipment with a step of 250 Khz. It is necessary to set manually the values of the transmission and reception RF frequencies. It is sufficient to set one of the two RF
3

Except the 2xE1 capacity in 3.5MHz that is not supported

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frequency values, because the system automatically calculates and sets the other one according to the shift frequency. The user can set every value of the frequency, but this value must be within the operating band of the ODU (TF Min and TF Max). Frequency plan: The user can arrange a channelling plan that stays inside the operating band of the equipment. The numbers of the channel are dependent on operating band and transmission capacity. Each couple TX Freq- RX freq is identified by a Channel Number that can be used to set the operating frequency.

3.6. Output Power


Two Output Power setting modes are provided: Fixed/RTPC This power setting mode allows the user to select the output power of Tx chain, with 1dB granularity, within the Output Power Range allowed by the ODU version. ATPC ATPC (Automatic Transmit Power Control) feature allows to modify the remote transmit power automatically, in order to limit interference while guaranteeing certain quality performance in the local radio unit, even if a fading event has affected the radio channel: the far side terminal sends a signal regarding the received signal level and the near side terminal adjust its transmit power in order to meet a wanted RSL (named ATPC Threshold, can be set by the user) on the far side. The remote ODU ask an increasing or decreasing of the TX power on the basis of the comparison of received signal power compared to ATPC Threshold value. If the received power is in the range ATPC_Th 3dB, the command transmitted to the remote side is not o modify the transmit power (note that the value 3dB is fixed). For lower received power levels the command is to increase the power (1 dB) whereas for higher power levels the command is to decrease the power (by 1 dB). In ATPC mode the output power can be modified in the range PminATPC PmaxATPC. The parameter Pmin ATPC can be set by the user in all ODU version. Pmax ATPC is fixed to maximum output power provided by the ODU for ND ODU, while it can be configured by the user for the ODU HD/HP and HDe by means of the parameter ATPC Range (note that PminATPC+ATPC Range has to be less or equal to PTmax provided by the ODU).
Received Power PmaxATPC

1dB decreasing request

ATPC_Th

No modification

=3dB

1dB increasing request


PminATPC

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3.6.1. Coupling loss In (1+1) H/S System Type, if ATPC is disabled, it is necessary to specify the value of the coupling loss (Coupling Loss parameter) for the RF connection of ODU, since RF TX power should be the same for the active and protection chain. This value depends on the hardware used for the implementation of the (1+1) Hot-Standby protection (allowed range of RF couplers loss is between 0 dB and 15 dB). Coupling loss parameter is used to increase the internal Tx power of the same value of the RF coupling loss, in order to have the desired power level after the RF coupler. For instance, when the unbalanced coupler is used, the coupling loss parameter for the Stand-by ODU is set to 10 dB, so that when the switch occurs its tx power is increased of 10 dB (anyway it cant be raised over Pmax ; PS-by ODU =min (Pmax , PAct-ODU + 10)).

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3.7. Radiating System


The system in both (1+ 0) and (1+1) configurations allows integrated as well as separately mounted antennas. In case of integrated mounting, the outdoor unit is directly mounted onto the rear of antenna without any waveguide connection. The antenna is provided with a bracket to be mounted on a pole. The antenna mounting supports the outdoor unit, which is easily removable by means of simple retaining latches.

(1+0) Integrated Mounting

In case of remote mounting, a flexible waveguide is provided for the connection of antenna to the ODU

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The (1+1) hot stand-by configuration on a single antenna is provided by means of a coupler in Balanced or Unbalanced version. The supporting frame can be mounted directly on the rear of the antenna or separated (pole, wall).
PROTECTION COVER

O-RING

PROTECTION COVER

(1+1) Supporting frame for integrated antenna mounting

Examples of integrated antenna mounting in (1+0)/ (1+1) configurations:

Polarization diversity is possible by means of a dual polarisation antenna.

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Daul Polarized Antenna Mounting

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4. Cross Connect Functionality


The cross-connect functionality is available only for Plug-In version. It allows, by means of SW setting, to cross connect the tributary interface toward the Radio Interface, both in Unprotected and Protected configuration.

CrossConnect Matrix Layout

The functionality, available by LCT/Netviewer, is provided by a CrossConnect matrix that provides three interfaces: Tributary Side Radio Side 1 Radio Side 2

4.1. Cross Connection Matrix on IDU PI 16xE1


Unrestricted Cross Connection functionality for all System Types (1+0, 1+1, Adddrop/Repeater) is provided. Added tributaries: it is possible to add/drop all 16 Radio tributaries for each Radio side. Pass-through signals: it is possible to cross connect all tributary signals West side of any position with tributary signals East side of any position

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Radio side A
1

Radio side B
1

16 1

16

Tributaries

16 32

4.2. Cross Connection Matrix on IDU Plug-in 32xE1


For all system types (1+0, 1+1 Hot Stand-by/FD, A-D/Repeater, Ring) a full cross-connection matrix is supported: each of the 32 E1 lines of the Access (tributary) side can be connected to any of the 32 E1 lines Base Band side. In case of Ring system type with 32xE1 radio capacity the cross-connection matrix supports only 32 connections of any type (theoretically 48 connections should be available) because of the following limitation: each connection involving a tributary line reduces by one unit the amount of available pass-through connections and vice-versa.

Radio side A
1

Radio side B 1

32 1 32

32 Tributaries

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4.3. Preservation of the cross-connection matrix


This functionality simplifies the configuration of the NE when changing from one system type to another. In the following table the behavior of the cross-connection matrix in case of system type change (keeping the same access unit) from type A to type B and viceversa is shown: System type A 1+0 1+0 1+0 1+0 1+1 1+1 1+1 2x(1+0)
( )

System type B 1+1(*) 2x(1+0) (*) Add/Drop Repeater (*) Ring (*) 2x(1+0) Add/Drop Repeater Ring Add/Drop Repeater

Cross-connection matrix preserved preserved preserved preserved reset to default reset to default reset to default preserved

* When changing from system type B to system type A the NE embedded SW deletes the connections involving Base Band 2 side.

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5. Ethernet functionalities
Ethernet functionalities are available on IDU Plug-In platform by means of a dedicated Access Card, featuring a mixed TDM and Ethernet interface: 8xE1+4xFE or 16xE1+3xFE+1xGE, and supporting L2 switching and QoS management. The selected on-air capacity (trunk port capacity), is shared between Ethernet Traffic and PDH traffic as showed in the diagram below.

Radio Capacity LAN port 1 LAN port 2 LAN port 3 LAN port 4

S R A L X D

LAN port 1

Ethernet
(Trunk capacity)

LAN port 2 LAN port 3 LAN port 4

TDM
TDM

TDM

On Air Capacity

On Air Capacity

The capacity reserved for Ethernet traffic is dynamically shared among the 4 LAN ports according to QoS setting. Ethernet frames transmitted towards the radio are inserted in a NxE1 channel, with N configurable between 1 and 16, with a resolution of a single E1. N synchronous E1 signals are generated by a framer, according to the configured Trunk side capacity, while a proprietary mapping of the Ethernet frames into the NxE1 channel is performed by a mapper device. On the receiving side, N E1 de-framers and a demapper retrieve the original Ethernet frame transmitted by the remote station. IDU PlugIn provides two4 Trunk Interfaces to support both (2+0) and Add-Drop configurations. A block scheme of the Data interface unit is shown in the following figure.

IDU PlugIn 16xE1 provides one trunk interface only

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E1Framer/Deframer Mapper/Demapper

Cross Connect

To BB1 card To BB2 card

Scheduler

Trunk Ports

Switching Block

LAN Ports

TDM

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Each LAN port can be individually enabled/disabled. LAN interface is auto sensing (10 or 100 Mbit/s, half or full duplex); in any case it is possible, via management software, to set half/ fullduplex or auto-sensing mode as well as 10, 100 Mbit/s capacity. Ethernet frames with a length up to 1536 bytes are supported by LAN ports. 5.1.1. Switching The DATA Access unit implements an Ethernet bridge that has the function of Ethernet switch and manages the access on Ethernet interface to the BB cross-connection matrix. The L2 Switching is performed among the following Ethernet ports: Four LAN ports: input/output ports on LAN network of the traffic Ethernet frames Trunk port: it is the input/output port of the Ethernet traffic towards the radio link. Each LAN port can be enabled/disabled and configured by the user, while the Trunk port is always enabled. Each LAN port provides the following settings: Interface enable/disable Flow Control enable/disable VLAN Tagging enabled/disable: if enabled Tag removal is applied (Trunk > LAN) and the following shall be configured: o o o VLAN ID User priority Tagging type: Overwrite, Double VLAN tagging (LAN > Trunk)

The switching can be performed on the basis of the MAC Address or the VLAN ID. The switching functionalities are subdivided in Filtering the Ethernet frames and Forwarding them among the available ports. 5.1.2. Filtering Filtering is performed according to the source MAC address of the incoming packets. Source MAC addresses received from LAN Ports are stored, along with the corresponding port the frame was received from (LAN and Trunk), in a data-base (MAC DB) which is continuously updated (Auto-learning mode). Each entry is stored within a configurable aging-time. Frames received from a port are discarded if the destination MAC address matches one of the MAC addresses contained in the data-base and the input port is equal to the one contained in the data-base. Also frames received from or sent to a disabled port are discarded. In case of VLAN-based switching, filtering rules are based on VLAN ID, too (see following section). 5.1.3. Forwarding All filtered frames are forwarded among the ports according to the selected forwarding mode: Fully connected LAN ports:

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Each frame in input is routed only on the basis of the destination MAC address. The LAN ports are fully interconnected; this causes that the frame in input from a LAN port can be sent to any other port (LAN and Trunk), without any restriction. An uplink frame (frame in input from a LAN port): - is sent to only one LAN port if the destination MAC address is stored in the MAC DB and the corresponding port is a LAN port (LAN and Trunk), different from that in input -is sent both to the Trunk port and to all the other enabled LAN ports if the destination MAC address is unknown. A downlink frame (frame in input from the Trunk port): - is sent to only one LAN port if the destination MAC address is stored in the MAC DB and the corresponding port is a LAN port - is sent to all the enabled LAN ports in the other cases. Isolated LAN ports The LAN ports are isolated; this causes that the frames in input from a LAN port can be sent only to the Trunk port (they cannot be sent to another LAN port). An uplink frame (frame in input from a LAN port): - is sent to the Trunk port in all cases. A downlink frame (frame in input from the Trunk port): - is sent to only one LAN port if the destination MAC address is stored in the MAC DB and the corresponding port is a LAN port - is sent to all the enabled LAN ports in the other cases. Selective VLAN forwarding In each port only the passage of the frames containing a VLAN tag with the value of VLAN ID included in the list of VLAN ID associated to the port is allowed. The user can configure up to 64 different VLAN IDs, specifying the LAN port associated to each VLAN ID. All the configured VLAN IDs are always automatically associated to the Trunk port. Each frame in input from a port is discarded: - if it satisfies the filtering rules - if it does not contain a VLAN tag - if it contains a VLAN tag that is not included in the list of the VLAN tags associated to the input port - if the destination MAC address is stored in the MAC DB and the corresponding port is not included within the ports associated to the VLAN ID contained in the frame. Each received frame containing a VLAN ID associated to the input port is sent: - to only one of the other ports associated to the VLAN ID contained in the frame, if the destination MAC address is stored in the MAC DB and the corresponding port is included within the ports associated to the VLAN ID contained in the frame - to all the other ports associated to the VLAN ID contained in the frame, if the destination MAC address is unknown.

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Uplink VLAN ID tagging and Replacing To each LAN port is associated only a unique VLAN ID, which can be configured by the user; it is possible to associate the same VLAN ID to more LAN ports. The frames in input from a port are managed in the following way: - if the frame contains a VLAN tag, there is the replacement of the VLAN ID contained in the frame with the VLAN ID associated to the input port - if the frame does not contain a VLAN tag, there is the insertion, into the frame, of a VLAN ID equal to that associated to the input port. Frames entering the switch from the Trunk port contain a VLAN tag otherwise they are discarded. Frames are internally forwarded according to the same rules explained for the selective VLAN forwarding mode. VLAN tag is removed from Ethernet frames exiting from LAN ports, whereas frames exiting from Trunk port keep their VLAN tag. 5.1.4. Scheduling QoS management is provided by Scheduling Ethernet frames in upstream direction (from User side to Radio side) used to transmit data frames with different priority on the radio channel, according to one of the following criteria or possibly a combination of them: first arrived first served (no priority); LAN port; VLAN Identifier IEEE 802.1p (3 bit VLAN priority field) IPv4 (ToS or Diff-Serv) IPv6 (Traffic Class)

The selected criterion is used to accommodate the frame in the related queue. The relationship between queue and priority parameters value is SW configurable by the user. In the scheduler, up to 4 different queues are available, according to the selected criteria and the enabled options.

F I L T E R I N G

F O R W A R D I N G

Queue 1 Queue 2 Queue 3 Queue 4 SCHEDULER

Selection of the frame to be transmitted from the different queues towards the radio is done according to a fixed priority scheme or using a WFQ algorithm with fixed weights.

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If Fixed priority is selected, frames with higher priority are always transmitted first. WFQ allows to share the channel bandwidth among the four different priority levels. The four weights are fixed and respectively equal to 8, 4, 2 and 1.

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6. Dynamic Modulation
IDU PlugIn provides Dynamic Modulation feature: it is supported by 16xE1 Access and Baseband 16xE1 boards with ODU HD/HP and HDe. This feature can be enabled via SW configuration on already installed SRAL XD without HW modification. Dynamic modulation is managed by (1+0) and (1+1) Hot-standby system types.

6.1. Basic behaviour


Target of Dynamic modulation is to vary signal modulation and transmission power according to the received signal strength, which is determined by path loss, interference, etc. More efficient modulations can be used during good weather conditions, doubling system capacity, while lower modulation schemes can be used during rain fading conditions, thus preserving high quality traffic (e.g. voice).

16- TCM (16xE1) 14 MHz

Data Voice Voice

4-QAM (8xE1) 14 MHz

Data Voice

Figure 1: Dynamic modulation behaviour

When dynamic modulation is enabled, two different working modes (WM in the following) are defined:

Enhanced mode: it corresponds to NE nominal configuration and it is used during normal propagation conditions, allowing a double system capacity to be transmitted compared to the other working mode. This working mode is associated to 16-TCM modulation type (high density). Normal mode: this mode is used when a fading phenomena or interference happens. It allows increasing system gain and system availability. This working mode is associated to 4QAM modulation type (normal density).
Using dynamic modulation, system changes automatically between 16-TCM and 4-QAM modulation formats. Switch between WM is non hitless.

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6.2. Switch-over criteria


S/N measurement is the main criterion to switch working mode. It measures the signal degradation due to different propagation conditions. Other conditions cause a Working Mode change, such as the occurrence of alarms in the Rx chain (demodulator alarm), or the state of the remote NE (each IDU controller transmits to the remote IDU controller a piece of information relevant to the status of the NE; this information is updated every 40 ms). Each ODU independently checks the condition to require a working mode change (from 16TCM to 4-QAM) as well as the availability to use a more efficient working mode (from 4-QAM to 16-TCM), then it transmits its request/availability to the NE controller (IDU controller). Each NE decides what to do (change Working Mode or maintain the present one) according to the request/availability state(s) of its own ODU(s) and to the information received from the remote IDU controller, as well as according to local settings.

6.3. S/N measurement


Two different thresholds are defined to switch between working modes:

(S/N)
Threshold 2 (Normal to Enhanced WM)

Threshold 1 (Enhanced to Normal WM)

Enhanced WM
Switch from 16 -QAM to 4 -QAM

Normal WM

Enhanced WM
Time
Switch from 4 -QAM to 16 -QAM

Threshold 1: is used as S/N threshold to switch from Enhanced to Normal WM. When system works in Enhanced mode, if measured S/N value is lower than Threshold 1, a switch-over request to Normal WM is forwarded from ODU controller to IDU controller. Threshold 1 is defined as: Threshold 1 (Enhanced to Normal) = 16TCM_Threshold Where 16TCM_Threshold corresponds to the S/N value which provides an estimate BER=10-9 when system works in Enhanced WM (16 dB default).

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Threshold 2: is used as threshold to switch from Normal to Enhanced WM. When system works in Normal mode, if measured S/N is higher than Threshold 2, a switch-over request to Enhanced WM is forwarded from ODU controller to IDU controller. Threshold 2 is defined as: Threshold 2 (Normal to Enhanced) = Threshold 1 + Hysteresis + TX power Threshold 1 is the threshold associated to change from Enhanced to Normal WM. Hysteresis is a configurable value (default 2 dB, allowed range is 15 dB) introduced between Thresholds 1 and Threshold 2 to avoid oscillations between Working Modes. TX power is managed automatically by the system and it contains the difference between the maximum TX powers in Normal WM compared to Enhanced WM.

6.4. Working mode change criteria


When dynamic modulation is enabled, system starts in Enhanced WM; in this phase it ignores all requests to use Normal WM for a fixed interval in order to avoid algorithm instability. Then, if local S/N is lower than Threshold1 or if there are stable alarms in the Rx chain the local system swaps to Normal WM; the remote NE reacts by switching to Normal WM, too. In case of local controller failure, change of modulation is inhibited on both local and remote side of the radio link. In (1+1) HSby system local TX/RX HW failure causes automatic HSby switch; the remote ODUs do not request to IDU controller to switch to 4-QAM because they recognize an RF loss period longer than the one due to a remote WM change, so the radio hop keeps on working using 16-TCM modulation. As soon as the NE enters the Normal WM, it ignores any request to use Enhanced WM for a given time interval. When this time is elapsed, local controller starts managing current states. If no alarms are present and dynamic modulation is enabled, each NE independently switches modulation format when local ODU gives its availability to support 16-TCM and the remote NE is signalling its ready to support 16-TCM too (that is when both NEs detect local S/N higher than the given threshold 2). As soon as both the conditions are simultaneously verified, the NE controller waits for a fixed time interval (user selectable) and then it changes the modulation format from 4-QAM to 16-TCM. No switching is performed if the remote NE controller is declared failed by the local NE controller. In (1+1) HS-by system type the NE takes into account 16-TCM availability indication transmitted by the ODU supporting the signal transmitted to the Access unit.

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6.5. Working mode parameters


Using 16xE1 Access and Baseband boards, the payload types and associated modulation types involved in dynamic modulation procedure are shown in Table1.
Enhanced WM Chann el size 14 MHz 7 MHz Modulation type 16-TCM Radio Capacity
16xE1 (14 MHz) 8xE1 (7 MHz)

Normal WM Modulatio n type 4-QAM Radio Capacity 8xE1 4xE1

User needs to activate a license to enable dynamic modulation and 8xE1 capacity is licensed at least (16xE1 license is also needed if this Enhanced WM capacity needs to be configured).

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7. Management
7.1. DCN
In the SRAL XD product line, system concept and embedded software architecture have been designed to permit a user-friendly and effective local and remote terminals management. TCP/IP Communication protocols and standard physical interfaces have been adopted to simplify and speed up DCN implementation and to allow an easy integration in 3rd party Management Systems.

OMC

DCN

SRAL XD

The management information are stored and processed by the NE controller and made available externally to the network operator through standard interfaces:

Q LAN 10/100BaseT: The Q LAN interface carries the Transmission Network Management (TNM) information used by Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC) to manage the network nodes. The Q channel can operate with auto-negotiation both half duplex and full duplex, both 10 BaseT or 100 BaseT. V-LAN 10BaseT interface5: The V LAN is made available for the interconnection among the equipment Controllers of several systems located in the same site

Not available on Outdoor Access Unit

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VLAN

VLAN

HUB

VLAN

The V LAN interface together with the Q LAN makes available the connection, throughout Tx/Rx crossover cables, among more equipment Controllers of the same site and the OMC without applying external elements.

QLAN

VLAN

QLAN

VLAN

QLAN

VLAN

D-ext Channel V.11 contra-directional6:

Allows to carry the management information through a data network. The standard PPP over HDLC is the protocol of this channel for the interconnection with third part equipment (routers). The D-ext channel also allows the connection with SRA L equipped with V.11 card.

66

Not available on Outdoor Access Unit

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DATA NETWORK ROUTER ROUTER ROUTER WITH V.11 INTERFACE

LAN

NE

The interface is fully routed and routing protocol announcements are supported (dynamic routing and associated announcements can be switched on or off by NMS for this interface).

User Channel V.11 co/contra-directional7: The User channel is a general purpose data channel, which is made available for user-defined applications. The equipment performs the point-to-point transport of this channel, and is completely transparent to channels content. The User and Dext Channel are provided by means of the same connector. The functionality actually implemented has to be configured by SW setting. D-Embedded Channel8 It is a 64kbps channel framed in a single time slot inside one E1 stream. The time slot and the specific E1 stream9 can be set via software. D-Embedded channel is used to carry the management information between two NEs, that are not connected by means of any other transmission media.

D-Embedded

PSTN
D-Embedded

NE NE R Channel NE

7 8 9

V bus Channel

Not available on Outdoor Access Unit In case of IDU PI 16xE1 in 2x(1+0) or Add/Drop system types, two D-emb channels are available. In case of IDU PI 16xE1, only tributaries 14 Radio-side can be used for D-emb channel transport; in case of IDU 32xE1 any tributary radio-side can be used for D-emb channel transport.

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The V bus interface is available on IDU Plug-in controller in order to interconnect SRA L equipment located in the same station. The V bus channel utilizes a proprietary protocol. Up to 32 independent SRA L units placed in the same site can be connected to the V-bus 120 cable.

R Channel R channel is a 64 kbps out of band channel accessible only via the controller, that carries management IP packets over the radio interface. The interface is fully routed and routing announcements are supported (dynamic routing and associated announcements can be switched on or off by NMS for this interface). Standard PPP protocols over HDLC

O D U

R CHANNEL User CHANNEL Payload

RS 232 DEmbedded Traffic

V LAN

Q LAN

Vbus

Dext

User

Local Craft Terminal Interface: A 38,4 kbps synchronous data channel is available to connect a PC to the NE for local management adopting a standard PPP protocol. A relevant software package, LinkViewer, is provided for local management and maintenance. This interface can be also used for DCN purpose.

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Network Management System

A continuous supervision of the whole SRAL XD network is available, with automatic alarm reporting and complete network block representation, using the NetViewer software package. The NetViewer system platform comprises standard PCs under Microsoft Windows NT/ Windows 2000 for reduced costs and increased simplicity. The user interface, developed with the look and feel of standard Windows applications, is designed for intuitive operation.

In order to increase efficiency and reduce staff training time, NetViewer supports different interfaces to the Data Communication Networks (DCN) giving a wide level of freedom for creating networks of different sizes. For controlling DCN, often designed with devices based on SNMP protocol such as routers and interface converters, the SNMP device management performed by NetViewer allows the complete monitoring of all the Network Elements included in the network. NetViewer supplies the HTTP interface enabling the user to access it via Internet and Intranet using browsers as Netscape and Microsoft Explorer for supervisioning the SRAL XD networks. The tunnelling of IP over OSI allows a SRAL XD network to be connected to the TMN of a SDH network This integration gives the big advantage of having an integrated solution for the management of a mixed PDH-SDH network. This advantage is further highlighted by the fact that the Siemens SDH operating system can also perform the network control layer facilities. Siemens Management System portfolio also comprises TNMS Core (Siemens SDH TMN platform) and Radio Commander (Siemens Mobile TMN platform). Also devices of different vendors based on SNMP protocol can be managed by NetViewer.

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INTRANET

INTERNET

Local Management and Maintenance of the SRAL XD is performed by LinkViewer, the Element Manager running on LCT.

7.1 Security

7.1.1 Access Security


The access to the equipment, by means of LCT/NMS, is allowed to authorized users on the basis of three different user classes: Read Only: Read/Write: Admin The configuration of the Security (enabling status and password) is stored into the equipment memory.

7.1.1.1 Priority in Read/Write Access It is possible to select the priority in write access of an LCT/NMS connecting to the NE with respect to the LCT/NMS already connected to the NE. Since the NE supports only one user at a time with read/write capability, the Admin or Read/write user that was previously connected is disconnected by the NE itself, unless it changes its user level to Read/only after a warning transmitted by the NE10. Aim of this feature is to allow a connection with read/write properties at any time, in order to perform an urgent maintenance operation on the appliance without the need to request to the main NMS, usually connected with read/write capability, a manual change of its access level.

7.1.2 Protocol ports security


The ports relevant to debugging IP-based protocols (Telnet, TNMP, HTTP, FTP) can be enabled/disabled by the operator.

10

This feature is supported by Netviewer 7.0 onwards.

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7.1.3 Same Admin password for FTP/TELNET/TNMP


Password of both FTP and Telnet Admin user is the same as TNMP Admin user class password. It isnt possible to directly modify the FTP and/or Telnet Admin password, but any change in the TNMP Admin password affect s both the FTP and Telnet Admin password.

7.1.4 SSH on FTP / Telnet session


NE embedded SW includes an SSH server running SSH-2 protocol version and supporting file transfer and remote command execution. SSH functionalities (enabled/ disabled via TNMP configuration) allow user authentication and traffic encryption between two hosts, thus improving the security of communication. User authentication/ authorization is password-based (the password is linked to TNMP Admin password). File transfer is carried via sftp protocol (same users and passwords used by FTP are supported), whereas remote command execution is carried via ssh: this sw tool is similar to TELNET but commands, passwords and data are encrypted.

7.1.5 Accounting log


The Accounting log functionality allows storing in the NE (non volatile memory) a list of up to 120 records of relevant log actions (login or logout) performed by users. When the reserved memory is full, a new log action will cause the oldest one to be deleted (overwritten by the new one). Each record will include the following information fields: IP address of the user; user class (Admin, Read Write or Read Only); log action; date and time of the log action. The accounting Log file is available uploading a file via FTP.

7.2 Configuration management:


The Status and Config function allows checking the operating status of the equipment and configuring, according to the available hardware and license, all the system, operating and network parameters. Equipment: System capacity, Modulation Format, Operating channel, RF channel plan, RF output power, BB and RF switches, Link ID Software: Management of the equipment software Network: Link ID, System address (NMS), D-embedded Management Alarms Config: Alarm configuration Time Settings: Synchronization configuration In case of protected configuration it is needed to set the TX/Rx channel for just one ODU, the second one will be aligned automatically by the SW command RF Channel Self Alignment

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7.3 Commissioning Facilities:


The SRAL XD provides a set of feature for support during commissioning activities in order to monitor the performance of the NE during a stated period of time and the correct working of protection switching allowing to force each available switch.

7.3.1 Long period performance monitoring recording


In order to verify the proper set up of the radio hop, Performance Monitoring data (G.826, RSPI and RPS) relative to last 192 consecutive and complete 15minutes periods are stored and can be transferred via FTP, in order to be processed by MS office SW. Two options are available: - Last Quarter: storing continuous and cyclical - From Start Time: to set the beginning of data collection
Start Tim e Last Q uarters PM R ecording duration (192 15 periods) Start of current 15 period Tim e

From Start Tim e

PM R ecording duration (192 15 periods) Tim e G et results

7.3.2 Time switched forcing


It allows forcing the switch position for a certain period (selected by the user). The following options are available: - Single sequence - Periodic (for Hot Stand-by System Types): the switch is forced every n days (n=0400), in order to verify the integrity of the complete Stand-by transmission chain.

Stand By

Working Repetition Period

The following switchings are performed according to the System Type: -Base Band:

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FD

: selection of BB in Tx and Rx side

HSBY : selection of the active ODU in Tx side and the BB in Rx side - Hitless Rx Switch (for FD configuration)

7.3.3 Local History Log


This feature supports the recovery of the recent history of the appliance: the Network Element controller saves in its volatile memory the last 4000 events and pseudo-events. It is possible to retrieve both a subset of events and pseudo-events to complete a missing portion of the Network Element history (for example in case of temporary disconnection of the NE from the NMS) and the complete saved history (for example a local download from NE not connected to a network management system)

7.3.4 Measurement
The NE allows the measurement of the following parameters by means of both LCT/NMS: Inner temperature of the ODU Inner temperature of the IDU (functionality supported by Controller Unit of IDU Plug-in11): Received power (RF RX) and transmitted power (RF TX) Statistic measures of the Ethernet traffic interface (only for DATA Access unit)

7.3.5 Performance Monitoring


The system allows the execution of the analysis and the recording on file of the performance data. Several types of performance data are available: quality and unavailability counters, applied to the aggregated radio signal, measured in according to ITU- T G.826 recommendation RSPI (Radio Synchronous Physical Interface) parameters, applied to each transceiver, and mainly related to the received and transmitted power RPS (Radio Protection Switching) event counters, applied to each switching functionality Measurements periods are 15 minutes or 24 hours; besides the current periods, the NE stores the last 16 completed 15 minute periods and the last 4 completed 24 hour periods. There are 3 major measurement points: before protection switching (one per transceiver) after protection switching (one in 1+0 and two in 2x(1+0); only one in protected 1+1 system types) at Radio Protection switching level (one per network element)

11

Code 634-001/74 from HW edition n8

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Radio Interface #1 Protection Switching Radio Interface #2

Mesurement Point After protection

Each measurement period is characterized by: all the applicable measurements; a time counter for each measurement point: the actual number of seconds in the interval (namely 900 and 86400); a suspect interval flag for each measurement point: boolean indication of abnormal situation during measured performance. Configuration of performance data is possible in case of login (via NMS or LCT) with read/write privileges; collected data can be displayed on a quarter of hour basis (current quarter of an hour and sixteen previous ones) or on a daily basis (current 24 hours and previous four intervals of 24 hours).

Displaying G.826 performance (Day)

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Displaying G.826 performance (Quarter)

Netviewer /LCT allow recording on file of the performance data referred to quarters of hour, according to the selected System type.

7.4 Fault management:


The SRAL XD equipment is provided with an alarm system, with different signaling modes (via software, LED, connector outputs), that starting from an alarm signal allows to the operator to identify quickly the failed module or function. Software Alarms are reported on LCT/NMS and are organized in different groups: Physical TX/RX Tributary Network Station Each board is equipped with some LEDs reporting alarms related to the board. Moreover, the IDU is equipped with an Alarms Connector carrying a number of signal lines, associated to these main functionalities: Delivery to the outside of radio equipment of summarized alarms related to equipment status Transparent transport 12 via radio link of up to 4 13, externally supplied, alarm lines i.e., open-door alarm, smoke alarm, switch commands, etc (input lines) It is possible selecting independently for each line the electrical condition (ground or open) corresponding to a rising of an alarm. Delivery12 to the outside of radio equipment of the 413, externally supplied, alarm lines transported via radio link from the far-end

12

13

Functionality supported by IDU Plug-in and OAU 2 input alarm lines are supported by OAU.

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7.5 Maintenance
For maintenance purpose the following loop-backs can be provided:

Local loop-back
The E1 tributary signal can be looped back in the base-band unit at the E1 input interface level. This type of loop-back when activated allows testing the integrity of the circuitry related to line interface access.

E1

E1

Local loop-back

Remote loop-back
Each E1 tributary stream can be looped back in the remote station, just before the E1 output interface. This type of loop-back when activated allows testing connection integrity between two terminals, with the only exception of the E1 physical output drivers of the remote terminal.

E1

E1

Remote loop-back

Each available E1 tributary (i.e., each enabled tributary) can be looped back either locally or remotely by properly configuration.

7.6 SNTP Support


The SRAL XD implements SNTP according to RFC 2030. This protocol is designed to synchronize the clock on the NE with the clock on network time servers, thus offering synchronization accuracy higher than the one obtained via Netviewer synchronization mechanism. The NE performs a clock update by placing a SNTP request to the configured server in the following occasions: - At NE controller reset (if the address is already set to a meaningful value). -Every 2 hours (related to 50 ppm clock precision combined with a requirement to avoid corrections greater than 0.5 seconds that would bring to a wrong interval duration in performance monitoring data) since the last NE controller reset.

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- When the IP address of the time server is changed. In such a case an additional asynchronous request is performed; then the next request will be performed respecting the 2-hour period with the origin corresponding to the controller reset. If the SNTP is disabled the NE synchronization is performed via Netviewer.

7.7 NAPT on F interface


Use of NAPT (Network Address Protocol Translation) for F interface allows saving the IP address to be reserved to LCT: a private IP address is assigned to LCT, and the NE completely masks the private IP address when it communicates with another NE of the public network. In the following figure the effects of NAPT on the IP packets routing process is shown:
Only IP packets supporting traffic relevant to NE management

Only IP packets supporting traffic relevant to LCT

NE management

NAPT matching

NAPT translation

F interface

IP packets having the source or destination IP address equal to the NE IP address (they support both traffic relevant to NE management and traffic relevant to LCT)

LAN interface

...

R1 interface

When NAPT is enabled, the private IP address of the LCT is changed into the NE IP address by the NAPT process. F interface is hidden to the router by the NAPT protocol; the real LCT IP address is masked by NAPT and it is not present in the routing table. When NAPT is disabled (default condition) a public IP address must be reserved to LCT.

7.8 OSPF
NE supports not only RIP as dynamic routing protocol, but also the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Version 2. The selection between RIP and OSPF is enabled via SW license and the two protocols are mutually exclusive (cannot run at the same time in the same NE). OSPF is a link-state routing protocol, whereas RIP is a distance-vector routing protocol. The former runs directly over IP, whereas the latter uses UDP as intermediate layer. OSPF offers several advantages compared to RIP: Routers using OSPF have a better knowledge of the network topology than routers using RIP, so forwarding decisions can be more accurate. It is possible to use variable length sub-netting; this results in saving IP addresses. It is possible to reduce both the protocol traffic and the router processing time by applying network summarizations (this implies a proper network addresses design). There is no theoretical limit to the number of hops the protocol is allowed to handle. In stable network conditions a very low traffic is generated to keep all the routers updated. When the network topology changes, OSPF should reach a new stable situation in a shorter time than RIP.

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Inter-working with 3rd party equipment supporting OSPF is easier and faster (no need of staticroutes setting)

8 Software Download
The equipment software is composed by the set (build software) of all the units software. The equipment units, provided with software/firmware, are the following ones: Controller unit FPGA module(s) of BB unit FPGA module of Access unit ODU The unit that manages the equipment operation is the Controller unit. It is a unit with microprocessor, provided with two banks of non volatile memory, over which it is uploaded the equipment software: one bank is active, the other one is a standby one. The standby bank ensures the redundancy of the equipment software and it operates if the active bank fails; the system uses the standby bank also for the download of the equipment build software. The ODU is provided with a non volatile memory bank (two banks on ODU HDe), over which the system uploads the corresponding unit software only. Into the FPGA modules of the Access and BB units, the system uploads the firmware at the starting-up of the Controller unit. From LCT/NMS, it is possible via FTP to execute the download of the equipment build software, without any interruption of Controller operation. The download procedure via FTP uploads the software build on the standby bank of the Controller unit only; the system keeps running the pre-existing software on the active bank of the Controller unit and on the other units. To make active the new build software, it is necessary to execute the switching of the banks on the Controller unit. The switching operation runs the new version of the Controller unit software; on the other units, the system keeps on execution the pre-existing software. Then, the Controller unit executes the comparison between the versions of the unit software present into the build software uploaded over the active bank and the versions of the unit software currently on progress, signalling the possible misalignment situations. From NetViewer/LCT, the user can, by means of manual command, execute the software alignment of every unit: this procedure consists in the download operation of the unit software/firmware (ODU SW or FPGA firmware) from the active bank of the Controller unit to the unit (Access, BB or ODU) memory. The download of the build software can be executed as through local mode as through remote one: local download: from LCT (on F interface or on Ethernet Q/V interface) remote download: from LCT and from NetViewer

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9 Engineering Order Wire


The Engineering Order Wire (EOW) is an external unit used to provide a Voice Service Channel and inter-working capabilities between SRAL XD and other MW appliances. The EOW external unit is composed of a standard 1U high IDU that may be mounted on a standard rack. The subrack can be equipped with one or two EOW cards.

EOW Card #1 EOW Layout

EOW Card #1

Each EOW card is equipped with the following interfaces: Power Supply 48Volts PC interface (RS-232) Tel 2x V.11 interfaces for connection to SRAL XD and SRA 4; the connection is performed by the USER channel interface (V.11 @ 64 Kbit/s) 2xExpansion interfaces for a) Connection vs. EOW Unit (old SRA L version), 4 Wires + E&M b) EOW expansion Providing two V.11 interfaces, each card is able to provide a voice service channel for up to two NEs. A second EOW card can be added in the same shelf, in such a way a single 1U high IDU can provide up to four voice channels. The unit can performs either selective or omnibus calls; the phone number for selective call and other settings are configurable via RS232 interface. The diagram below shows possible applications of the EOW:

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SRAL XD/SRA4 (1+1) V11

SRAL XD/SRA4 (1+1)

SRAL XD/SRA4 (1+1)

V11

EOW Card

EOW Card

V11

4 wires intra-office analogue link

EOW SRAL

EOW SRAL

EOW SRAL

SRA L

SRA L

SRAL

SRAL XD SRA4 V11


EOW Card 1

SRAL XD SRA4 V11


EOW Card 2

V11 SRAL XD SRA4

SRAL 4W SRAL EOW

4W

10 VoIP
Voice Service Channel via IP on a single link is available through V LAN interface. Recommended voice codings are G.723 and G.729 in order to reduce the bandwidth occupation of the voice channel. Anyway, Siemens strongly advice to utilise VOIP phones that have been tested and homologated in conjunction with Siemens MW equipment.

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11 Alarm converter
Alarm Converter is a device which collects 24 external alarms and provides 24 output commands. The Alarm Converter, 1/2 U high, adopts a monolithic architecture, consisting of a single replacement unit; and it is supplied with dedicated brackets suitable for assembly in 19"or ETSI N3 racks. On the frontal the following connectors are present: - 1 sub-D 3W3 connector for the -48V power supply - 1 RJ-45 connectors for the Ethernet interface (Q interface) - 1 sub-D 9 connector for LCT interface (F interface) - 1 sub-D 25 connector for the 24 inputs - 1 sub-D 25 connector for the 24 outputs A dual-color LED (green/red) is available on the front panel to indicate power On/ Card Fail condition.

Siemens LCT

MNG

COMMAND OUTPUTS

ALARM INPUTS

Card Fail

-48V Battery

Alarm Converter collects 24 external alarms, called Station alarms. The status of 24 input lines and each station alarm variation is notified to NMS and/or to a remote Alarm Converter via Ethernet interface (Q) through MW DCN (or any other DCN based on standard IP protocol). Station alarms name, polarity and severity are configurable via LCT, as well as IP destination address of the remote Alarm Converter receiving the station alarm. Alarm notifications can be sent alternatively to NMS (via SNMP trap), to remote Alarm Converter (via a proprietary protocol over TCP/IP) or to both of them according to LCT setting. Alarm Converter provides also 24 output lines, called output commands. Each output command can be forced to a fixed value by LCT or can remotise a station alarm input of a remote Alarm Converter. Output commands name and polarity are configurable via LCT, as well as the source (LCT or remote Converter) which can modify the output command value. When Alarm converter receives a message from a remote Converter, it checks if the received Alarm ID matches with a configured one. If so, the corresponding output command value is modified properly, otherwise the message is discarded. An example of appliance scenario concerning Alarm remotization is shown in the following figure:

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Node D
CMD 1-8 (from Node A) Alarm converter CMD 9-16 (from Node B) CMD 17-24 (from Node C) Q interface

Q interface

EMS

Microwave DCN network


Q interface Q interface Node B Alarm converter Node C Alarm converter

Q interface Node A Alarm converter

ALM 1-8

ALM 1-8

ALM 1-8

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