Methods Of Cooling Of Rotating Electrical Machines - Presentation Transcript

1. 2. METHODS OF COOLING OF ROTATING ELECTRICAL MACHINES Why is cooling needed ? o Energy transfer and energy conversion in rotating machines manifest losses. o These losses appear as heat and increase temperature of the machine beyond its optimum level. o Heat is dissipated to surroundings by conduction and convection assisted by radiation from outer surfaces. What is cooling ? o Process by which heat resulting from losses occurring in a machine is given up to a primary coolant by increasing its temperature. o Heated primary coolant may be replaced by a new coolant at lower temperature or may be cooled by a secondary coolant in some form of heat exchanger. COOLANTS AND HEAT EXCHANGERS o Primary Coolant : lower temperature than machine part o Secondary Coolant : lower temperature than primary coolant o Heat Exchanger : Component that keeps two coolants separate but allows transfer of heat energy between them Methods of cooling o Size of a machine of a given duty depends on heat losses in its various parts. o Small machines ( fractional H.P.) cooled by natural means. o Modern machines require cooling. o Cooling by air stream  ventilation COOLING SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION o Based on origin of cooling : o Natural cooling o Self cooling o Separate cooling o Based on manner of cooling : o Open circuit ventilation o Surface ventilation o Closed circuit ventilation o Liquid cooling Enclosures for machines o Open machine o Protected machine o Drip proof machine o Pipe/duct ventilated machine o Totally enclosed machine o Watertight machine o Weather proof machine o Submersible machine o Flame proof machine o Totally enclosed gas circuit machine o Open pedestal machine o Open end bracket machine o Screen protected machine o Splash proof machine o Hose proof machine o Totally enclosed fan cooled o Totally enclosed separately air cooled machine o Totally enclosed liquid cooled machine o Totally enclosed closed air circuit machine TYPES OF VENTILATION o INDUCED o Fan  decrease in air pressure inside machine  air sucked in  pushed out by fan o Small, medium machines o FORCED o Fan  sucks air from atmosphere  forces it into machine  air pushed out o Temperature of cooling air rises due to heat loss o More amount of air required

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12. high speed machines) o Solid rotor  restricts radial ventilation o Holes punched where heat loss is more o Disadvantages : non-uniform heat transfer. cooling might be unstable with amount of cooling air flowing 10. driers to remove moisture o Unsuitable for large machines o CLOSED CIRCUIT VENTILATION : o Same volume of air passes through a closed ckt  path has fans. AXIAL VENTILATION o Used in induction machines (medium o/p. VENTILATED RADIATOR MACHINES o Internal fan circulates air inside machine o External fan  sucks hot air from inside  pushes it back to radiators (heat exchangers) on frame of machine o Totally enclosed machine upto 5 MW o At higher ratings. up to 20 kW rating Large machines  large core lengths  core subdivided to provide radial ventilating ducts Advantages : min. air may be cooled by water if convenient 15. almost uniform temp.coolers. small turbo-alternators o axial system  large iron loss  so mixed system is used o Rotor mounted fan forces out the air. two side axial . fan enclosed on shaft outside working part of machine o Fan enclosed by cover to secure direction of air flow for machine rating < 25 kW o For rating > 25 kW. Ventilated radiator machines 13. AXIAL-RADIAL VENTILATION o For Large motors. temperature rise is high along the length 18. internal fan( primary coolant)+ external fan( secondary coolant) o Internal fan  inside machine . o As a rule. COOLING CIRCUIT o OPEN CIRCUIT VENTILATION : o Cold air drawn in. energy loss for ventilation. multiple inlet system) o hydrogen cooled o Direct cooled 17. RADIAL VENTILATION Most common. VENTILATED FRAME MACHINES o Self ventilated frame.9. drying agents  hot air from outlets is cooled  cool air enters through the inlets 16. COOLING OF TOTALLY ENCLOSED MACHINE o Totally enclosed machines  heavy. rise in axial direction Disadvantages : makes machine length larger. hence uneconomical o Air  impurities  destroy insulation o Natural cooling  ineffective  rating reduces o Cooled by : o Self ventilated frame. expensive. air cooling unsuitable o No requisite amount of air. AIR COOLED TURBO-ALTERNATORS o 2 sided axial ventilation : o Air forced from both sides. COOLING OF TURBO-ALTERNATOR o Closed circuit ventilation o Long core length. induction motors having radial ducts in stator & rotor use forced self ventilation.avoids temp. leaves by the other o In long machines. both windings have same temperature rise o Used for machine rating up to 12MW o Multiple inlet system : larger machines o Outer stator  many chambers  alternate inlets and outlets  up to rating 60MW 19. gradient across air gap 14. small diameter o Methods : o air cooled (one side axial. AIR COOLED TURBO-ALTERNATORS o For small units used as auxilliaries in large power stations o 1 side axial ventilation : upto 3MW o Air supply by propeller fan  air enters at an end. forced out after passing over heated machine parts o filters required to clean air. HYDROGEN COOLING OF TURBO-ALTERNATORS o For machines > 50MW. increased iron loss (ducts in slots of rotor reduce amount of iron  inc flux density in core  increase in iron loss) 11. higher fan power o o o o .

rotor made hollow o Hydrogen pumped from one end to other o Used for machines with rating up to 300MW o Oil : o High grade transformer oil o Used in US-direct cooling of stator conductors o Flash point. so leakage is from machine to atmosphere o Gas pressure maintained o Explosive mix avoided o Purity of hydrogen checked by measuring its thermal conductivity 21. can be reached in fault conditions. Q&A Session o o o o o o o . oil 22. DIRECT COOLING OF TURBO-ALTERNATOR o Conventional cooling o Direct cooling : Losses dissipated to medium circulating in windings o Called supercharged/conductor cooled/ inner cooled machines o Advantages : increase in rating. low viscosity. Thank You ! Anwesa Nanda Reg. all joints gas tight o Hydrogen above atmospheric pressure.winding temperature goes down and higher output o Coolants used : hydrogen. Water as coolant in direct cooling o Higher rating  mechanical limitations for hydrogen cooling o Water : superior heat transfer property. water. damages insulation 23. HYDROGEN COOLING SYSTEM o Hydrogen(4-76 %)+air  explosive mixture o Frame strong enough. 0711014018 Branch EEE 25. No.Advantages of hydrogen cooling : Increased efficiency Increase in rating Increase in life span Elimination of fire hazard Smaller size of cooler Less noise 20. Coolants in direct cooling o Hydrogen : o Stator. no high pressure heads required for circulation o Advantages : smaller pumping power o Higher load is possible as no temperature difference between conductors and water o For rating up to 600 MW 24.

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