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illness. 17 % of the earth’s population (1.2 billion people) do not have a reliable water and 40% of the population do not have access to adequate sanitation.
Suspended – Suspended solids are large enough to settle out of solution or be removed by filtration In envi engg., suspended solids are defined as those solids that can be filtered by a glass fiber disc and are properly called filterable solids. Suspended solids can be removed from water by physical methods such as sedimentation, filtration and centrifugation
Basic Definitions Pathogen = An organism which causes disease Potable = Safe to drink Palatable = Pleasing to drink Why make water palatable?=we have learned that we must provide a water that is both potable and palatable, for it is not palatable people will turn to untreated water that may not be potable. • •
Colloidal particles are in the size range between the dissolved substances and suspended particles. They are in a solid state and can be removed from the liquid by physical means such as very high force centrifugation or filtration through membranes with very small pore spaces.
Concentration of Solutions
Water Chemistry • Physical Properties of Water (mass density, specific weight, specific gravity) State of Solution Impurities (suspended, colloidal, or dissolved) Chemical units (weight percent and milligram per liter, molarity and normality)
The concentration of a chemical solution refers to the amount of solute that is dissolved in a solvent. We normally think of a solute as a solid that is added to a solvent (e.g., adding table salt to water), but the solute could just as easily exist in another phase. For example, if we add a small amount of ethanol to water, then the ethanol is the solute and the water is the solvent. If we add a smaller amount of water to a larger amount of ethanol, then the water could be the solute!
State of Solution Impurities • Dissolved – – A dissolved substance is one which is truly in solution The substance is homogeneously dispersed in liquid Dissolved substances are in the liquid, that is, there is only one phase present The substance cannot be removed from the liquid without accomplishing a phase change such as distillation, precipitation, adsorption, extraction or passage through “ionic” pore sized membranes
Chemical Units: Units of Concentration • Once you have identified the solute and solvent in a solution, you are ready to determine its concentration. Concentration may be expressed several different ways, using percent composition by mass, mole fraction, molarity, molality, or normality.
Percent Composition by Mass (%) This is the mass of the solute divided by the mass of the solution (mass of solute plus mass of solvent), multiplied by 100.
molality = 0.10 mol CaCl2 100 mL x 1 L / 1000 mL = 0.000 Molarity (M) Molarity is probably the most commonly used unit of concentration. • Example: What is the molarity of a solution made when water is added to 11 g CaCl2 to make 100 mL of solution? Solution: 11 g CaCl2 / (110 g CaCl2 / mol CaCl2) = 0.0 M Equivalent Weight • • • • Example 1 Calcium (Ca2+) Molality (m) Molality is the number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent. or uses a solvent other than water. since 1 mole of sulfuric acid provides 1 mole of sulfate ions.10 mol / 0.10 L molarity = 1. Example 2 Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) Example 3 Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) Problem 4-1 .50 kg molality = 0.50 kg water molality = 0. It is the number of moles of solute per liter of solution (not necessarily the same as the volume of solvent!).50 m Normality (N) Normality is equal to the gram equivalent weight of a solute per liter of solution.25 mol / 0.10 L molarity = 0. Keep in mind.167 It's a good idea to check your math by making sure the mole fractions add up to 1: xwater + xglycerol = . A gram equivalent weight or equivalent is a measure of the reactive capacity of a given molecule. This is a useful approximation. Example: What are the mole fractions of the components of the solution formed when 92 g glycerol is mixed with 90 g water? (molecular weight water = 18. On the other hand. 1 M sulfuric acid is 1 N for sulfate precipitation. Example: 1 M sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is 2 N for acid-base reactions because each mole of sulfuric acid provides 2 moles of H+ ions. but remember that it is only an approximation and doesn't apply when the solution is at a different temperature. Mole Fraction (X) This is the number of moles of a compound divided by the total number of moles of all chemical species in the solution. Normality is the only concentration unit that is reaction dependent. isn't dilute.833 x glycerol = 1 mol / 6 mol = 0. molecular weight of glycerol = 92) Example: What is the molality of a solution of 10 g NaOH in 500 g water? Solution: 10 g NaOH / (4 g NaOH / 1 mol NaOH) = 0. Solution: 20 g NaCl / 100 g solution x 100 = 20% NaCl solution Because the density of water at 25°C is about 1 kilogram per liter.833 + 0.167 = 1. molality is approximately equal to molarity for dilute aqueous solutions at this temperature. the sum of all mole fractions in a solution always equals 1.25 mol NaOH 500 g water x 1 kg / 1000 g = 0.Example: Determine the percent composition by mass of a 100 g salt solution which contains 20 g salt.05 M / kg Solution: 90 g water = 90 g x 1 mol / 18 g = 5 mol water 92 g glycerol = 92 g x 1 mol / 92 g = 1 mol glycerol total mol = 5 + 1 = 6 mol xwater = 5 mol / 6 mol = 0.
5 =(0. ρH2O = 1000 kg/m3 Required: Mass and Concentration Solution: a.3 x 10-6 N • In a now antiquated and we hope.3 x 10-6 M)(1) = 1. it was common to consider water flows in terms of million of gallons per day (MGD). MGD f. Determine the numbers of MGD equivalent to the following flows in m3/s: 0.8245) = 99.5. Solution: Use conversion factor from inside back cover a.38)(22. all in m3/s b.38 =(4. 0. c.438 =(0.05.41 or 10 MGD e.000 kg/m3).05.001kg/g) x (1000 mL/L) x (1000L/m3) =1000 kg/m3 Problem 4-3 • What is the concentration of NH3 (in mg/L) of household ammonia that contains 3. 0.0300)(1000 kg/m3) = 30 kg/m3 b. 4.015 g/mol) =1.5. and 5. 0. HNO3 Converting micrograms to milligrams =(80µg/L)x(1/1000µg/mg)=0.00 MGD b.135 mg/L . Record both your calculated answer and the answer rounded to include only significant figures. MGD c. (Hint: Some useful conversions are listed inside the back cover of this book). CaCO3 Converting micrograms to milligrams =(135µg/L)x(1/1000µg/mg)=0.• Show that a density of 1g/mL is the same as a density of 1.9713 or 100.05 (1 significant figure) =(0. Problem 4-3 Concentration of NH3 in mg/L Given: Household ammonia at 3.5)(22.0438 m3/s)(22.00% by weight. 4. 0.438)(22. 80 µg/L HNO3 Problem 4-1 Show that 1 g/mL = 1000 kg/m3 Given: Conversion factors inside back cover Required: Conversion of mg/L to kg/m3 Solution: =(1g/mL) x (0.0 MGD d. soon forgotten system of measurements. Convert kg/m3 to mg/L =(30 kg/m3)(106 mg/kg)(10-3 m3/L) = 30.99971 or 1.08 mg/L Molarity=(0.8245) = 1.8245) = 0. 135µg/L CaCO3 10µg/L Cr(OH)3 1000µg/L Ca(OH)2 a.00 percent by weight of NH3? Assume the density of water=1.8245): = 11.438. 0. Problem 4-7 Convert m3/s to MGD Given: Flows of 0. 0.3 x10-6 M Normality=(1.0438.14123 or 1.0438.38. 4.05)(22.8245) = 9. 5 =(5)(22.000 kg/m3.08mg/L)/(1000mg/g)(63.38. 0.99713 or 10. 0.1225 or 100 MGD Problem 4-9 Calculate the molarity and normality of the following: a. Calculate the mass/concentration of NH3 =(0.0438 (3 significant figures) =(0. 0.000 mg/L Problem 4-7 Problem 4-9 Molarity and Normality Given: concentrations in μg/L Solution: a. b. 0.8245) = 114.438. 5.
02000 M SO42Problem 4-11 Converting to mg/L Given: Molarity and normality Required: Convert Normality to Molarity Solution: • • • Dissolved ions can react with each other and form a solid compound. a. (bases are those compounds that accept protons) Ion Association • In some cases. Acid/Base Reaction • Acid/Base reactions are a special type of ionization when a hydrogen ion is added to or removed from a solution. Ca(OH)2 – Converting micrograms to milligrams Precipitation =(1000µg/L)x(1/1000µg/mg)=1. Ca 2+ (n = 2 since charge is +2) • =(0.016 g/mole)(1000 mg/g) = 61. it releases electrons.0 x 10-7 M)(3) = 3 x 10-7 N – d. HCO3. When iron metal corrodes. 1. An acid can be added to water to produce a hydrogen ion (acids are those compounds that release protons) An hydrogen ion could be removed from the water.02000 N H2SO4 d. Cr(OH)3 Converting micrograms to milligrams =(10µg/L)x(1/1000µg/mg)=0. SO42=(0.Molarity=(0. then another must be available to accept the electrons.921 mg/L Chemical Reactions • There are four principal types of reactions of importance in environmental engineering: – Precipitation Acid/Base Ion association Oxidation/reduction Normality = (1. if one element releases electrons.7 x 10-6 N c.0 x10-7 M – Normality = (1. 0.01000N)x(40.02 g/mol) =1.0mg/L)/(1000mg/g)(74. 0.054 g/mole)(1000 mg/g) =1.08/2)g/eqx(1000mg/g) =200.(n = 1 since charge is 1) =(1.09 g/mol) =1.000 M HCO3c.01 mg/L Molarity=(0. H2SO4 (n = 2) =(0.135mg/L)/(1000mg/g)(100.3 x 10-6 M)(2) = 2. as the addition of a base.020 mg/L c. In this case.096 g/mol) =1.01mg/L)/(1000mg/g)(103.35 x10-5 M Normality = (1. 0.3 x10 M -6 =980.07/2)g/eqx(1000mg/g) Oxidation/Reduction Reactions • • Oxidation/reductions involve valence changes and the transfer of electrons.02000N)x(98.4 mg/L b.7 x 10-5 N Problem 4 -11 Calculate the mg/L of the following: a.7 mg/L d.02000 M)(96.0 mg/L • Molarity=(1.000 M)(61.01000 N Ca2+ b.35 x 10-5 M)(2) = 2. This phase change reaction of dissolved to solid state is called a precipitation reaction. ions may exist in water complexed with other ions. Formation of dissolved complexes are ion association reactions. In . the ions are “tied” together in the solution.
CaCO3/E. color or turbidity. temperature. Species] By convention. alkalinity is not expressed in molarity units. but rather in mg/L as CaCO3. and other particulate material in water is known as turbidity. Types of Standards • • • • Physical (appearance. Buffer Solution • • A solution which resists large changes in pH when an acid or base is added A solution containing a weak acid and its salts is an example of a buffer Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) produces a natural buffer.iron pipes corrosion. Alkaline water has a pH greater than 7. while a water with high alkalinity has a buffering capacity. finely divided organic materials and plankton.5. mg/L as CaCO3 = mg/L as Species [E.W. hydrogen gas is often produced. The unit of measure is a Turbidity Unit (TU) or Nephlometric Turbidity Unit (NTU): it is determined by reference to a chemical – . taste and odor) Chemical (comparative performance of hard and soft waters) Microbiological (in relation to public health) Radiological (contact with radioactive substances) Physical Characteristics • Turbidity: – the presence of suspended materials such as clay. silt. Likewise. ALK = [HCO3] + 2[CO3] + [OH] .[H] The greater the alkalinity. An alkaline water may or may not have a high buffering capacity. a water with a high alkalinity may or may not have a high pH. the greater the buffering capacity. this is perhaps the most important buffer system in water and wastewater treatment • ALKALINITY is defined as the sum of all titratable bases down to about pH 4.W.
Most individuals find that water having a temperature between 10º-15º is most palatable. The amount present can be caused by the leaching of marine sedimentary deposits or by pollution from sea water. agricultural. These materials may come from domestic. • – – – Lead: – Exposure to the body to lead. • • Color: – Dissolved organic materials from decaying vegetation and certain inorganic matter cause color in water. • Taste and Odor: – Taste and odor in water can be caused by foreign matter such as organic compounds. It flavors coffee and tea with a medicinal tastes. beneficial health have been observed. The presence of iron in water is considered objectionable because it imparts a brownish color to laundered goals and affects the taste of beverages such as tea and coffee.mixture that produces a reproducible refraction of light. When a strict sodium free diet is recommended. • Sulfate: – Waters containing high concentrations of sulfate. which increases as the optimum fluoride level exceeded. can be seriously damaging to health. or dissolved gases. brine or industrial or domestic wastes. any water should be regarded with suspicion. excessive blooms of algae or the growth of aquatic microorganisms may impart color. inorganic salts. caused by the leaching of . Drinking water should be free from any objectionable taste or odor at point of use. • Temperature: – The most desirable drinking water are consistently cool and do not have a temperature fluctuations of more than a few degrees. kidney or circulatory ailments. – – Chemical Characteristics • Chlorides: – Most water contain some chlorides. Prolonged exposure to relatively small quantities may result in serious illness or death. however brief. Groundwater and surface water from mountainous areas generally meet this criteria. water sources contain natural fluoride. – • Sodium: – The presence of sodium in water can affect persons suffering from heart. Occasionally. Its presence is aesthetically objectionable and suggests that the water needs appropriate treatment. Where the concentrations approach optimum levels. Excessive fluoride in drinking water supplies may produce flurosis (mottling) of teeth. Fluoride: – – In some areas. • Manganese: – Manganese imparts a brownish color to water and to cloth that is washed in it. or natural sources. – – – • Iron: – Small amounts of iron frequently are present in water because of large amount of iron in the geologic materials.
Like the inorganic substances. bacteria. • Zinc: – Zinc is found in some natural waters. Water with high radioactivity is not normal and is confined in great degree to areas where nuclear industries are situated. protozoa. and manufacturing of gallium arsenide wafers. Cyanides. Why Coli forms Were Selected As An indicator Organism • • • • Common inhabitants of intestinal tract Excreted in large quantities Can survive in water Are relatively easy to culture – Radiological Characteristics • The effects of human exposure to radiation or radioactive materials are harmful. – – EPA National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations Establish advisable MCL’s allowed in public water supply Microbiological Characteristics • Water for drinking and cooking purposes must be free from diseaseproducing organisms (pathogens). Of nitrates Cyanide causes chronic effects on the thyroid and central nervous system. agricultural chemicals. • These organisms include viruses. • Toxic Inorganic Substances: – Nitrates. and helminthes (worms). and Heavy Metals constitute the major classes of inorganic substances of health concern Methemoglobinemia (infant cyanosis or blue baby syndrome) – given water or fed formula high conc. • – • – Water Quality Standards EPA National Primary Drinking Water Regulations Establish maximum contaminant levels (MCL’s) allowed in public water supply • Toxic Organic Substances – There are over 120 toxic organic compounds listed on the US EPA Priority List. insecticides and solvents. These includes pesticides. • • – • Arsenic: – Arsenic occurs naturally in the environment. Some organisms which cause disease in people originate with the fecal discharges of infected individuals. their effect may be acute or chronic. and it is also widely used in timber treatment. Arsenic in drinking water is associated with lung and urinary bladder cancer. particularly in areas where zinc ore deposits have been mined. Humans have always been exposed to natural radiation from water. may be undesirable because of their laxative effects. but it will impart an undesirable taste to drinking water. Zinc is not considered detrimental to health. American Water Works Association (AWWA) . and any unnecessary exposure should be avoided. Others from the fecal discharge of animals. The most widely used test estimates the number of microorganisms of the coli form group. glass and alloys.natural deposits of magnesium sulfate or sodium sulfate. food and air.
either as precipitates or suspended particles. and bacteria into larger flocs. it immediately disassociates.H2O complexes. A test is often conducted by first dosing each jar with the same alum does and varying the pH in each jar. Regardless of the actual species produced.Establish GOALS which are DESIRABLE for levels of contaminants Two important factors in coagulation are pH and dose. alkalies-lime or soda ash) .OH. turbidity. The optimal pH range for alum is approximately 5. The aluminum ion immediately starts to reacting with the water.5 with adequate coagulation possible between pH 5 to pH 8 under some conditions. The jars are square in order to prevent swirling and are called gator jars. the complex is a very large precipitate that removes many colloids by enmeshmest as it falls through the water. which actually precipitation A method to alter the colloids so that they will be approach and adhere to each other to form larger floc particles Coagulation • When the alum is added to the water. the addition of sodium ions (Na+) should reduce the charge. Nontoxic and insoluble in the neutral pH range) The two most commonly used coagulants are Aluminum (dry or liquid alum) and Ferric iron (sulfates salt) • • • • Coagulant Aids • Acid adjusters (acid-sulfuric acid. Floc formation is one of the important properties of a coagulant for a efficient colloidal removal. resulting in the release of an aluminum ion surrounded by water molecules. This precipitate is referred to as a floc. Applies more loosely to removal of dissolved ions.5 to 6. Six beakers are filled with water and then each is mixed and flocculated uniformly by a gang stirrer. forming large Al. • • • • Coagulation = Charge reduction Flocculation = Contact of particles Colloidal Destabilization • • • Colloids are stable because of their surface In order to destabilize the particles. • • • Alkalinity in Coagulation Needed to neutralize acid formed Coagulants • Is the substance (chemical) that is added to the water to accomplish coagulations Properties (Trivalent cations. The test can be then be repeated in a second set of jars by holding the pH constant and varying the coagulant dose. 2. Filtering Plant Softening Plant • The optimum dose and pH must be determined from laboratory tests. • Jar Test • One of the most common methods to evaluate coagulation efficiency is to conduct jar test. Coagulation • The object of coagulation (and subsequently flocculation) is to turn the small particles of color. we must neutralize this charge Such neutralization can take place by the addition of an ion of opposite charge to the colloid Since most colloids found in water are negatively charged. • Types of Water Treatment 1.
1 s Rapid mixing can be accomplished within the tank utilizing a vertical shaft mixer. Gypsum (CaSO4) and MgSO4 may also go into solution to contribute to the hardness. so we must leave as much Mg+ in the water as possible. It is more expensive to remove noncarbonate hardness than carbonate hardness because we must add another chemical to provide them CO32- • • • • • Hardness • Is used to characterize a water that does not lather well. Limestone. tea kettles. most useful for colored. low turbidity waters) Polymers (can have a negative charge. • • • Total Hardness • Because Ca2+and Mg2+ predominate. causes a scum in the bathtub. low turbidity) Clays (can act much like activated silica. crusty deposits (scale) on coffee pots. as it is called. within a pipe using an in line blender. the bicarbonates are quite soluble. the pH of the water must be raised to about 10. which is made up of solid CaCO3 and MgCO3 reacts with the carbonic acid to form calcium bicarbonate and magnesium bicarbonate. Magnesium is more expensive to remove than calcium. • Lime-Soda Softening • . white. it is often convenient in performing softening calculations to define the total hardness (TH) Total Hardness is often broken down into two components: Carbonate Hardness (temporary hardness-heating removes it) and Non carbonate Hardness (permanent hardness) Flocculation • The precipitates formed in these processes must be brought into contact with one another so that they can agglomerate and form larger particles. polyamphotype. and hot water heaters Is defined as the sum of all polyvalent cations (in mg/L as CaCO3 or meq/L) • • Alkalinity in Softening Needed to provide CO3 for CaCO3 Precipitation Natural Process by which water is made hard Mixing • Mixing or rapid mixing. is the process whereby the chemicals are quickly and uniformly dispersed in water Ideally.• Activated silica (can unite with the positively charge aluminum or with iron flocs. the pH must be raised to about 11. or no charge. the chemicals would be instantaneously dispersed throughout the water During coagulation and softening the chemical reactions that take place in rapid mixing form precipitates. denser floc that settles faster and highly colored. positive and negative charge. the respiration of microorganisms increases the CO2 content in water. nonionic • The objective is to precipitate the calcium as CaCO3 and the magnesium as Mg(OH)2 In order to precipitate CaCO3. or in a pipe using a static mixer. anionic. • As rain water enters the top soil. called flocs This contact process is called flocculation. resulting in a larger. CO2 reacts with the water to form H2CO3. While CaCO3 & MgCO3 are both insoluble in water. and leaves hard.3 To precipitate magnesium. • • • • • Rapid Mix • Is probably the most important physical operation affecting coagulant dose efficiency The chemical reaction in coagulation is completed in less than 0.
the particles fall downward and the water rises vertically. Based on loading rate. • • • • Is used in water treatment to reduce pathogens to an acceptable level. • THEORETICAL DETENTION TIME (q) Sedimentation Concepts • There are two important terms to understand in sedimentation zone designs. Purposeful disinfection must be capable of destroying all three. usually a bed of sand or other medium. or high rate sand filters. rapid sand filters. as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) or as calcium hypochlorite [Ca(OCl)2].20 mm/s Sedimentation • Particles that will settle within a reasonable period of time can be removed in a sedimentation basin Sedimentation basins are usually rectangular or circular with either a radial or upward water flow pattern Regardless of the type of basin. either clogged in the open spaces or attached to the sand itself. the design can be divided into four zones (inlet.Let’s say v0 = 0. such as sand. Water fills the pores (open spaces) between the sand particles. and the impurities are left behind. outlet and sludge storage) • What % removal for particles with settling velocity = 0. • • • Chlorine Reaction in Water • • Chlorine is the most common disinfecting chemical used.15 mm/s? Filtration • • Water filtration is a process for separating suspended or colloidal impurities from water by passage through a porous medium. called the overflow rate (vo). Chlorination is often used synonymously with disinfection. viruses and amebic cysts. and the velocity of the liquid rising is the overflow rate. coal (called anthracite). The first is the particle (floc) settling velocity (vs) The second is the velocity at which the tank is design to operate. the filters are described as being slow sand filters. Is not the same as sterilization (implies the destruction of all living organisms) Drinking water need not be sterile. settling. Chlorine may be used as the element (Cl2). dual media (coal plus sand) or mixed media (coal. There are several methods of classifying filters: • One way is to classify them according to the type of medium used. sand and garnet). Three categories of human enteric pathogens are normally of consequence: bacteria. • . If a particle is to be removed from the bottom of the clarifier and not go out in the settled water. Another common way to classify the filters is by allowable loading rate (is the flow rate of water applied per unit area of the filter). The rate at which the particle is settling downward is the particle settling velocity. • • • • OVERFLOW RATE (Vo) Disinfection Settling in an upflow clarifier • In this design. then the particlesettling velocity must be greater than the liquid-rise velocity.
Sludge Treatment • The treatment of solid/liquid waste produced in water treatment process . a mixture of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) • involves the separation of the water from the solid constituents to the degree necessary for the selected disposal method. Figure 4-52 shows the most common sludge handling options available. dewatering. listed by general categories of thickening. and disposal.• When chlorine is added to water.
• • Non-Point Sources • Urban and agricultural runoff are characterized by multiple charge points. • Oxygen Demanding Materials • Anything that can be oxidized in the receiving water with the consumption of dissolved molecular oxygen is termed OXYGEN DEMANDING MATERIAL. you must know the type of pollutants discharged and the manner in which they affect water quality. shipping and waste disposal have very different requirements for WATER QUALITY. contributes nutrient. Water Pollutants • • • Oxygen Demanding Material Nutrients Pathogens Suspended solids • Point Sources • Domestic sewage and industrial wastes are called POINT SOURCES because they are generally collected by a network of pipes and channels and conveyed to a single point of discharge into a receiving water. Often the polluted water flows over the surface of the land or along natural drainage channels to the nearest water body. schools. whether in the form of manure and commercial fertilizer and pesticides. • • • • Water Pollution • Water pollution occurs when a body of water is adversely affected due to the addition of large amounts of materials to the water. These are called NON POINT SOURCES. ponds and streams is greatly influenced by the quality of the water found in them. boating. Activities such as fishing. Fertilizer. When it is unfit for its intended use. swimming. and stores. water is considered polluted. . Water Quality Management • Is concerned with the control of pollution from human activity so that water is not degraded to the point that it is no longer suitable for intended use. Run off agricultural land is a significant non point source.Chapter 5 Water Quality Introduction • The use we make of water in lakes. The term “municipal sewage” is used to mean domestic sewage into which industrial wastes are also discharged. In general. Non point pollution from urban storm water and in particular storm water collected in combined sewers that carry both storm water and municipal sewage may require major engineering work to correct. office buildings. To know how much waste can be tolerated (assimilated) by a water body. point source pollution can be reduced or eliminated through waste minimization and proper wastewater treatment prior to discharge to a natural water body. • Domestic sewage consists of wastes from homes.
When the speed of the water is reduced by flowing into a pool or a lake. viruses and protozoa excreted by diseased persons or animals. Many industrial wastewaters contain either toxic metals or toxic organic substances. many of these particles settle down to the bottom as sediment. two nutrients of primary concern. Dissolved Oxygen • • Abbreviated DO Pronounced “dee oh” Suspended Solids • • Is dissolved molecular oxygen (O2) Consumption of DO. The zinc comes from tire wear. making fish and shellfish unsafe for human consumption. Many toxic compounds are concentrated in the food chain. they make the water unfit for drinking (that is. • 384. Some major sources of nutrients are phosphorus based detergents. • Organic and inorganic particles that are carried by the wastewater into a receiving water are termed SUSPENDED SOLIDS (SS). and food processing wastes. which in turn become oxygen demanding material when they die and settle to the bottom. all water contain some salt. are considered pollutants because they are too much of a good thing. • • • • • • Toxic Metals and Toxic Organic Compounds • Agricultural runoff often contains pesticides and herbicides that have been used on crops. The salts and other things that don’t evaporate are called TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS (TDS). poses a threat to fish and other higher forms of aquatic life that must have oxygen to live. Excessive nutrients often lead to large growth of algae.• This material is usually biodegradable organic matter but also includes certain organic compounds. Importance of Dissolved Oxygen Higher forms of aquatic life must have DO to live Nutrients • Nitrogen and phosphorus. If concentration of pathogens is sufficiently high. which causes some organisms to proliferate at the expense of others. Pathogenic Organisms • Microorganisms found in wastewater include bacteria. When discharged into surface waters. The widespread disease causing organism in the US are Giardia lambia and Cryptosporiduim parvum. Problems arise when nutrient levels became excessive and the food web is grossly disturbed. A problem arises when the salt concentration in normally fresh water increases to the point where the natural population of plants and animals is threatened or the water is no longer useful for public water supplies or irrigation. • Salts • Although most people associate salty water with oceans and salt lakes. non potable). Urban runoff is a major source of zinc in many water bodies. the water may also be unsafe for swimming and fishing.000 cases of cholera and 16 million cases of typhoid per year. These are protozoan pathogens from both human and animal sources. These salts are often measured by evaporation of a filtered water sample. Cholera and typhoid are endemic diseases in the world with over • • • • • • . fertilizers.
The introduction of oxygen demanding material. birds. • DEFINITION OF COD • Amount of dichromate consumed in the oxidation of inorganic and organic matter. We must be able to measure the pollutants. reptiles. High temperatures also increase the rate of oxygen depletion in areas where oxygen demanding wastes are present. • • Theoretical Oxygen Demand (ThOD) • The amount of oxygen required to oxidize a substance to carbon dioxide and water may be calculated by stoichiometry if the chemical composition of the substance is known. alter the normal physiological function of the endocrine system and can affect the synthesis of hormones. into a river causes depletion of the dissolved oxygen in the water. Organic oxygen demanding materials are commonly measured by determining the amount of oxygen consumed during degradation in a manner approximating in natural waters. In the COD Test. EDC’s can mimic estrogen. and decide the levels acceptable for intended uses of the water. This poses a treat to fish and other higher forms of aquatic life if the concentration of oxygen falls below a critical point. determine the background water quality which would be present without human intervention. a strong chemical oxidizing agent (chromic acid) is mixed with a water sample and then boiled. This amount of oxygen is known as the Theoretical Oxygen Demand (ThOD). The difference between the amount of oxidizing agent at the beginning of the test and that remaining at the end of the test is used to calculate the COD. either organic or inorganic. or EDC’s. Waters released by many industrial processes are much hotter than the receiving waters. • • • • Oxygen Demanding Material • Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) (pronounced “bee oh dee”) Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) (pronounced as “see oh dee”) Heat • Water comes primarily from industry through use of cooling water. If the oxidation of an organic compound is carried out by microorganisms using the organic matter as a food source. • • • Major pollutants Affecting Rivers • Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Ammonia (NH3) DEFINITION OF BOD • Amount of oxygen consumed by microorganisms as they consume biodegradable organic matter. androgens. They can interfere with the regulation of reproductive and developmental process in mammals. the oxygen • • Effects of Oxygen Demanding Waste on Rivers .• Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals • The class of chemicals known an ENDOCRINE DISRUPTERS. predict the impact of the pollutant on water quality. • Water Quality Management in Rivers • The objective of water quality management is simple: to control the discharge of pollutants so that the water quality is not degraded to an unacceptable extent below the natural background level. and fish. or thyroid hormones or their antagonists.
As the concentration of organic matter decreases.Where Lo is often considered to as the ULTIMATE BOD.F. the oxygen consumption typically follows the pattern shown in FIG. During the first few days the rate of oxygen depletion is rapid because the high concentration of organic matter present. K = BOD rate constant in base 10 k = 2. • 4. = 100 / Sample Size (%) BOD RATE EQUATION BODt = Lo (1-10-Kt ) BODt = Lo (1. 4 and 20ºC 20 and 30ºC θ = 1. • Dilution Sample Size (%) =V of Undiluted Sample /V of Diluted Samplex100 DILUTION FACTOR D.e-kt ) BOD CALCULATION . 5-2.consumed is known as biochemical oxygen demand. 3. Is still the most widely used method of measuring organic matter because of the direct conceptual relationship between BOD and oxygen depletion in receiving waters. the maximum oxygen consumption possible when the waste has been completely degraded. oxygen consumption is mostly associated with the decay of the bacteria that grew during the early part of the test. so does the rate of oxygen consumption. Prepare a Blank-containing only the inoculated dilution water Incubate Sample and Blank 5 days (in the dark) @ 20 º C Measure DO Remaining and Calculate BOD • • 2.completely filled of water that has been appropriately diluted and inoculated with microorganisms (seed). . that is.35 θ = 1. RATE CONSTANT NOTATION k = BOD rate constant in base e BOD Test • Is an indirect measurement of organic matter because we actually measure only the change in dissolved oxygen concentration caused by the microorganisms as they degrade the organic matter. Prepare Dilution of Wastewater Sample.056 Laboratory measurement of BOD 1. During the last part of the BOD Curve. the oxygen consumption. It is generally assumed that the rate at which oxygen is consumed is directly proportional to the concentration of degradable organic matter remaining at any time.303 K Factors Which Affect K • • • Nature of Waste Ability of Organisms to use Waste Temperature • Temperature Correction KT = K20 (θ ) Between T-20 Biochemical Oxygen Demand • When a water sample containing degradable organic matter is placed in a closed container and inoculated with bacteria. • The actual BOD is less than the ThOD due to the incorporation of some of the carbon into new bacterial cells.
fish and other higher animals are killed or driven out and extreme noxious conditions result. This profile is the DO SAG CURVE (see Fig 5-8) because the DO concentration dips as oxygen demanding materials are oxidized and then rises again further downstream as the oxygen is replenished from the atmosphere. For any one type of waste having a defined BOD rate constant. the self purification capacity is exceeded. As the amount of waste increases.PHELPS MODEL • • DEOXYGENATION RATE CONSTANT at 20ºC (BASE e) REAERATION RATE CONSTANT at 20ºC (BASE e) DEOXYGENATION RATE CONSTANT at 20ºC (BASE 10) REAERATION RATE CONSTANT at 20ºC (BASE 10) .t . If the DO is completely removed. The stream losses its ability to cleanse itself and the DO level decreases. ultimate BOD is actually a better indicator of total waste strength. the DO level will remain high and a diverse population of plants and animals. STREETER. the ultimate BOD is the same only.t) (D. For different types of waste having the same BOD5. When the DO drops below about 4 to 5 mg/L. where rivers have travel times to the sea of less than 5 days. As long as the discharge of oxygen demanding wastes is well within the self purification capacity. including game fish. causing detrimental changes in plant and animal life.F. can be found. All rivers have some capacity for self purification. if by chance BOD rate constants are the same. • • • • • • • • • • DO SAG CURVE • The concentration of dissolved oxygen in a river is an indicator of the general health of the river. most game fish will have been driven out. The 5-day BOD was chosen as the standard value for most purposes because the test was devised by environmental engineers in England. The water becomes blackish and foul smelling as the sewage and dead animal life decompose under anaerobic conditions (that is without oxygen) One of the major tools of water quality management in rivers is the ability to assess the capability of a stream to absorb a waste load.BODt = (DOb. This is done by determining the profile of the DO concentration downstream from a waste discharge.DOs.) • Additional Notes on Biochemical Oxygen Demand • Although the 5-day BOD has been chosen as the standard value for most wastewater analysis and for regulatory purposes. so that there was no need to consider oxygen demand at long times. the ratio between ultimate BOD and BOD5 is constant so that BOD5 indicates relative waste strength.
024 T-20 2. nutrients can also contribute to deteriorating water quality in rivers by causing excessive plant growth. Effects of Phosphorus 1. Nutrients are those elements required by plants for their growth. The conversion of NH4+ to NO3consumes large quantities of dissolved oxygen. NH3. 3.CONVERTING kr OR Kr TO STREAM TEMPERATURE Kt = K20 θ θ = 1. in low concentrations. and a variety of trace elements. They include. The major deleterious effect of phosphorus is that it serves as a vital nutrient for the growth of algae. they become an oxygen demanding organic material as bacteria seek to degrade them. 2. In high concentrations. and NO3serves for excessive growth of algae. . NH3-N is TOXIC to fish. nitrogen. When the algae die. Limnology Types of Lakes • • • • TIME TO CRITICAL POINT (BASE 10) Oligotrophic Eutrophic Mesotrophic Senescent Algal Growth Requirements • • • Carbon Nitrogen Phosphorus Trace Elements Effects of Nutrients on Water Quality of Rivers • Although oxygen demanding materials are the most important river pollutants on the overall basis. • “ The” limiting Nutrient is P • • Effects of Nitrogen 1. phosphorus. in order of abundance in plant tissue: carbon.
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