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ㅛ "yo" Consonants : ㄱ "g" or "k"
ㅜ "oo" or "u"
ㅠ "yoo" or "yu"
ㄷ "d" or "t"
ㄹ " r " or " l "
ㅂ "b" or "p"
ㅈ " ch "
ㅊ " ch' "
ㅋ " g' " or " k' "
ㅌ " d' "
ㅍ " p' "
Note that " ' " means the letter is aspirated, i.e a sharp sound. ㅎ+ ㅏ+ ㄴ= h a n ㄱ+ ㅜ+ ㄱ= g u k 한 han
guk 한국 pronounced HanGuk meaning Korea
Lesson 2 Double vowels (218 total words in this text) ㅐ ㅒ ㅔ ㅖ eir yeir ere yere ㅟ ㅢ weou wei Lesson 3 Use of Consonants (자음) and Vowels (모음) ㅘ wa ㅙ where ㅝ wo ㅞ weo
you must add a mixture of consonants and vowels. the final consonant. the following are examples of their use : - 가 = ka 갸 = kya 바 = pa 뵤 = pyo 즈 = chu 머 = meo 너 = neo 디 = ti 요 = yo 드 = tu 거 = keo 기 = ki 버 = peo 지 = chi 조 = cho 무 = mo 이=i 고 = ko 오=o 두 = too 겨 = kyeo 고 = ko 부 = pu 저 = cheo 마 = ma 나 = na 야 = ya 댜 = tya 도 = to 그 = ku When constructing a word.or floor -of that syllable. there is no need to use a consonant at the beginning in which case ㅇ (null character) is used. beginning with the consonant at the beginning of the word. ㅇ ㄹ ㄱ ㄲ ㅇ ㅇ ㄲ ㅎ ㄱ + + + + + + + + + ㅏ ㅡ ㅏ ㅜ ㅗ ㅓ ㅗ ㅏ ㅡ + + + + + + + + = ㅁ = ㅁ = ㅇ = ㅅ = ㅂㅅ = ㅊ = ㄴ = ㄱ = 아 름 감 꿍 옷 없 꽃 한 극 a rum kam kkoong ot eop kkot han guk More on constructing words A syllable that consists of a consonant and a "vertical vowel" is written with the consonant on the left and the vowel on the right ㄴ+ㅏ=나 n + a = na A syllable that consists of a consonant and a "horizontal vowel" is written with the consonant on top and the vowel underneath: ㅁ+ㅗ=모 m + o = mo If a syllable has a consonant.(788 total words in this text) Vowels in the korean languages may be attached to the left. . called patch'im (meaning "supporting floor" in Korean) goes to the bottom -. vowel. and consonant. right or beneath each other in order to form a word. In some cases.
or can be a question stating that you are fine. these include -yo which makes sentences polite. and -ro which means "in order to".in-order to in-order -to buy bread shops to go The Konglish for this sentence in Korean would be na-do ppang sa-ro kayo (I-do bread buy-in order-to go). (In English) (in Korean) I I (optional) go to the shops bread buy .. questions.verb "Jon the ball kicked" "To Go" in order to do sentences There are a few words that you may add to the end of verb stems at the end of sentences. such as using their first name. suggestions or commands. it is the followed by a two-syllable first name. Chal Chinaessoyo may be both expressed as a question by asking how someone is. or "I go" or "he goes" ).Grammer (259 total words in this text) Korean Names In general. or am meeting for the first time. For example. .ㅁ+ㅏ+ㄴ=만 m + a + n = man [ Back to 1 Basics of the Korean Language | Class Index ] Lesson 4 . then the "in order section" is next. However when youare introduced to someone to whom you are not familiar with. Verbs in the polite style can be used as statements. The order of the sentences for an example sentence of "in order to buy bread I am goin to the shops" is restructured as "bread buy-in order-to the shops go" In Korean unlike English. the surname always comes first which is opposite of Western Names such as Doojin Pak instead of the Korean method of Pak Doojin.and sa.object . An example of this would be Doojinssi Making Polite Sentences With verb stems which end in vowels such a ka-. ha. for example the phrase Chal Chinaessooyo literally means "Well have you been getting on?" which is the opposite from English. which is then followed by "the place you are going". Lee and Pak ). Another example is the more common Annyong Haseyo. Lesson 5 . In general the structure of the Korean sentences is broken down as subject . then you may be able to refer to them directly. In some cases the verb stems may in effect end in consonants in which case -uro is utilised. The first part is the Surname ( such as Kim. it is possible to make these into polite sentences by adding -yo to the end of the words. and may be further emphasised by the tone of your voice. When you are referring to someone who you know well. then you would add -ssi to the end of the name. Korean names consist of 3 syllables.Sentence Structure and order (276 total words in this text) Korean Sentence Structure and Word order In Korean the structure of sentence differ to English sentences. such as Kayo ( which means "to go". the subject of the sentences is optional like "I". In Korean.
with the inclusion of o and the polite particle -yo. and for younger woman agassi is used for young women. attached to chu-.Korean Names and Topics (389 total words in this text) In Korean. we use -a or -o. Uses of the verbs chogi issoyo means "it exist over there". The word chuseyo utilises the polite word stem -yo. .yo Consonant stem . this literally means teacher.oyo In context the oppposite of iss. whereas Korean is 'me-with'. we would say 'with-me'. For example we would say. and on what you are talking about. Using 'and' In Korean. we use a particle which comes after a noun that it relates to. However in the case where the verb stem ends in vowel. such as na-do (me-too). it is the opposite. Vowel stem . such as -ayo. one would use the word songsaegnim attached to their surname or full name.is ops. Ordering with numbers When asking for 'one' item we say 'hana' which is said after you have selected the meal you wish to order.Asking for things (431 total words in this text) There Are / There is The Korean verb which means either "there are" and "there is" is issoyo ( 있 어요 ) They are dependent on the context in which you use them. For example. The word hago becomes part of burger. Koreans use ajossi literally meaning uncle.ayo if the last vowel ends with -a or -o Consonant Stem . this is a particle so when it is to be used it must be attached to a noun. the word for and is -hago. soju hana chuseyo meaning "soju one give me please". In English. one would say Yoo Songsaegnim or with the full name Yoo SangHyun Songsaegnim. it is only for the referral of a man. In Korean.* The construction can only be used in verbs involving 'going' and 'coming' and cannot be used with other verbs at the end of sentences. which means "give me please" Lesson 7 . For example. Lesson 6 . but is used as a general word when addressing someone in a shop. However if it were to be used in a formal way.which literally means "there isnt" or "there arent". for people over 35-ish. when you say 'burger and chips'. in Korean it would be 'burger-hago chips. Doojin-hago shinae-e kayo meaning 'I am going to town with Doojin'. thus forming the ending -oyo. For females the word ajumma meaning aunt is used. The stem of the verb is iss. when you want to address men politely. The particle hago can also mean with such as. or "its over there" Issoyo on its own can mean "I have/he has" Opsoyo means "I dont have" or "I havent got" In a shop When addressing a shop keeper or waiters.
. which is comprised of the verb stem shille ha-. there is a special verb which may be used in the event where you want to ask someone if they are someone.More on Grammar (272 total words in this text) -hamnida and -jiman In Korean.It is not possible to a Korean persons first name. We would use -iseyo. used in attachment to place emphasis on what is being talked about.. If you want to say A is B(like "This is a Korean book"):A B-ieyo (or B-eyo) this Korean book-ieyo It is obvious that you would use -eyo when B ends in a vowel.) which is a abbreviation of the verb and stem shillye ha-jiman .. Songsaengnim-un (as for teacher). as in: songsaengnim ottaeyo? ( How is teacher ? or What is teacher like? ) saob ottaeyo? (How is business? or What is business like?) Kuraeyo literally means "it is like that". For that same reason. . such like SangHyun Songsaegnim. it makes As for Business or As for me. whereas -un is attached to a vowel. but would rather say SangHyun-ssi. Korean has a special particle. Using Copula to describe "this is that" In Korean... EG soju-nun (as for soju). It cant be used to say "is located in"(is underneath". In Korea. and may be used as a statement such as "it's like that". Asking a person In Korean. -nun is attached to a noun. and simply add this to the end of a phrase. but -ieyo when B ends on a consonant. "is happy"). it is possible to add polite endings to verbs. Addressing Korean women. "thats right". or she maybe reffered to in a similar English terminology such as Misesu Han(Mrs Han). On the other hand it may be used as a question Kuraeyo? meaning "is it like that?". then she may referred to as Kim songsaengnim-puin (Kim mrwife).e "is red". you will have to use special verbs called copula. if you want to describe A is B . There is also the verb and stem. or Yoo SangHyun-ssi. you cannot say Yoo-ssi. "is near") nor can it be used to say "is a certain way" (i. "really?" or "is that so?". and the verb ending hamnida (note this is the formal style). "it is". containing the ending -jiman which means but. Describi ng how things are Korean possess words which mean "is a certain way". when you use the ssi. this copula is present at the end of a sentence. Lesson 8 .. songsaengnim-ieyo (is teacher) soju-eyo (is soju) IMPORTANT to note that in Korean the copula is only used to describe when this "is equivalent to". shillye-jiman (I'm sorry but.. For example if Mrs Han is married to Mr Kim. Ottaeyo means is how?. in Korea women do not take their husbands surname when they get married.for example "Are you Mr Han". by adding -un or nun. and behaves a little differently to ordinary verbs. shillye hamnida (excuse me). for example.
.. The topic particle.( buy ) sa-jiman ( buys. it is also possible to say (X-subject) odi issoyo? When answering a Where is question. you must always use issoyo as a verb such that:hakkyo-ga kogi issoyo ( the school is over there ).. I do like it" or "Yes i dont" As you can see. We have previously seen that shillye hamnida and the equivalent shillye-jiman mean "Excuse me. this is switched back to the topic particle. she hates it. For example. but.. is similar to that of the english "As for". but later on in a conversation.but..but.. Where is it? When asking where something is in Korean.Han songsaengnim-iseyo? ( Are you Mr Han?) Hangungmal songsaengnim-iseyo? (Are you the Korean Teacher?) Subjects and topics of Korean sentences In Korean.but. so you will need to think carefully. hanguk hakkwa-ga anieyo ( Not the Korean department ).it can be confusing at first...) iss. On the other hand.. we use the negative copula anieyo. Using Korean sentences with but. the subject particle is used. There are lots of verbs where you may attach -jiman onto. For instance. or attach -ga to the end of nouns which end in a vowel. the subject in this case would be The man... but . when you are trying to say something is not something else. we attach -i to the end of nouns which end with consonants.. Lesson 9 ... here are a few of them:ka. songsaenim-i ( teacher ) or maekju-ga (beer) give emphasis on each of these subjects in a sentence. For a sentence . By doing this...Using Negative Copula's (519 total words in this text) Negative Copula In Korean..but" or "I'm Sorry.. When saying 'A is not B'. have ) it-jiman ( has. you would say (X-subject) odieyo? However. on subjects in sentences.( is/are. For example. For example: Question in English = "Do you like Korea ?" Answer in English = "Yes I do like it" or "No i dont" Answer in Korean = "No..) ha. it is quite different to how we would speak in English. we would say :cho-nun songsaengnim-i anieyo ( I am not a teacher ).." . and is best used in order to compare two things. I love shopping as for mum (ma-nun). when a subject is mentioned for the first time.) ... "The man kissed the dog"..( go ) ka-jiman ( goes. it is possible to give emphasis.) sa.( do ) ha-jiman ( does.. as for me ( na-nun )... Answeri ng questions with Yes and No in Korean This is a tricky aspect of the Korean language.
it takes on the effect of please.( drink ) mok.. chom may be used to soften up requests by making it more polite... or you might use it in Soju chom chuseyo ( Please give me the Soju ).. when you use chom in a request immediately before the verb at the end of the sentence. As you can see.. ... but. kong il i sam sa o yuk ch'il p'al ku ship saship kuship paek ch'on man 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 40 90 100 1000 10. -seyo is used when the verb stem ends in in a vowel.. for example Han songsaengnim chom pakkwo-juseyo( Can I speak to Mr Han ).. however do not mistake it to mean the same as the English word for please for all occurances. The use of these numbers depends on the context in which it is used.(sit ) mashi-jiman ( drinks.000 shibil shibi shipsam shipsa shibo shimnyuk shipch'il shipp'al shibku iship 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 ishibil ishibi ishipsam ishipsa 21 22 23 24 ishipku samship 29 30 Lesson 11 Using -seyo (207 total words in this text) Making requests more polite The polite honorific -seyo can be used to make requests more polite..) Note that for the word iss-jiman the double ss is re-written to itjiman Using polite requests In Korean. and the sino korean when used to count minutes.) mok-jiman ( eats. the first set are known as pure Korean numbers.) anj-jiman ( sits. It is most frequently using in relation to chu. and -useyo is used when the verb stem ends in a consonant.( eat ) anj. and the other are Sino-korean which is based on the chinese numerals. the word chom is used to mean "please". For instance.but... for example the pure korean numbers are used when counting hours.when making requests.mashi. Lesson 10 Numbers and Counting (472 total words in this text) In Korean there are two sets of numbers which are used when counting. but...
Koreans use -(u)pshida ( literally means lets do).. . and -upshida is attached to verbstems ending in a consonant.] 1. 시계가 비쌉니다. 네가 갔니? 제가 가겠습니다. 누가'로 된다.becomes mashiseyo ha. [Subject particle. . Particles which come after a noun shows 'subject' are: -께서.' the words change into '내가.연필이 있습니다. Making Suggestions When making suggestions. "-이" --> 선행 명사가 자음으로 끝날 때 : When the noun ends in a consonant. add 가 보기~ 1. 누가 갑니까? 예문~ . 저. 네가. for example if you say hansongsaengnim-i hakkyo-e kaseyo . the -ko is utilised by being added to the end of the verb stem.you are saying Mr Han is going to school. -(에)서. etc. add 이 2. 저. What you want to do ? Koreans use -ko ship'oyo which literally means want to. as you may have guessed. -(에)서' 등이더 있다. ( But you are also showing special respect for him ).becomes issuseyo anj. The use of -seyo means that you have a special respect for the person. and 누구. 안경이 없습니다. 제가.becomes anjuseyo If you want to request someone to wait for you. There is a pencil. "-가" --> 선행 명사가 모음으로 끝날 때 : When the noun ends in a vowel. 사과: 사과 +가 --> 사과가 참고 '나. When 이/가 is attached at the end of '나.Examples of these are:mashi. -pshida is attached onto verb stems ending in a vowel. cho-nun mok-ko ship'oyo which means I want to eat. 누구' 뒤에 붙으면 '내가. and 누가. 너. 책상: 책상 + 이 --> 책상이 2. . and this can be added to a verb stem. There is not a pair of glasses.Grammar 1 + 2 (383 total words in this text) Grammar 1 이/가 [Lesson Created By KkOmA] 주격 조사. 명사 뒤에 봍어서 주어를 나타내는 조사로는 '-께서.becomes haseyo kidari. . For example you may say. The watch is expensive. you would say kidariseyo (Please wait !!). notice that when it is used.. 너. Here are some examples:Umryosu mashipshida ( Lets have a drink ) Lesson 12 . 제가. 네가. The strawberry is delicious.becomes kidariseyo iss.' 내가 가요. 딸기가 맛있습니다.
Comes after a noun and shows the "object" of the verb. 자우개를 삽니다. 책: 책 + 을 --> 책을 2. [Object particle. "-을" --> 자음으로 끝나는 명사일 때: When the noun ends in a consonant. it may be omitted or abbreviated into '-ㄹ' after a vowel." 예문~ .. . 신문을 봅니다. I drink a cup of coffee.] 1. 영화를 보고 커피를 마셨어요.. add 을 2. 교과서: 교과서 + 를 --> 교과서를 참고~ 구어에서는 생략되거나 모음 뒤에서 '-ㄹ'만으로 줄여 쓰기도 한다. I swim. I read a newspaper. 커피를 마십니다. . --> "영활 보고 커필 마셨어요. 명사에 붙어서 동사의 '목적어'를 나타낸다. add 를 보기~ 1.Grammar 2 을/를 조사. [ In spoken language. . . I buy an eraser. "-를" --> 모음으로 끝나는 명사일 때: When the noun ends in a vowel. 수영을 합니다.
'또. 신문도 읽습니다. that is what the letter should be romanized as the final letter when found at the end of a syllable. -----> 책이 있습니다. 책을 읽습니다. 02. too] . ㄷ. ㄹ. too] .'] [Similar to 'also. ㅂ are found directly before a consonant. When ㄱ.Grammar 3 + 4 (263 total words in this text) Grammar 3 도 [Lesson Created By KkOmA] 조사.Rules: 01. 책이 있습니다. 2. 노트도 있습니다. 복습도 합니다. t. 예습을 합니다. If a character has a romanization with letters separated by an "/". ㄷ. + 수박을 먹습니다. 04. 예문~ . they should be romanized as k. too' May be attached to the end of other particles as in '-에게도 and -과도. '-에게도. too'] 보기~ 1. 사과를 먹습니다. I read a newspaper. d. When ㄱ. 역시'의 의미를 나타내는 보조사. + 노트가 있습니다. When ㅅ is followed directly by ㅣ. 03. r. 수박도 먹습니다. Example: 다시 (again) would be dashi. p. 05. they are romanized as g. 또한. [ I read a book. Lesson 13 . Example: 밥 (rice) would be bap. Example: 후에 (after) would be hu-e. ------> 사과를 먹습니다. b. -와/과도' 처럼 다른 조사 뒤에 붙기도 한다. a hyphen can be used. I go over the lessons. ㄹ. ㅂ are found directly before vowel. To avoid confusion of syllables. [ I prepare the lessons. r. [Particle with the meaning of 'also. it should be romanized as shi.
[ I meet a teacher. ] Lesson 14 . ] . I go to the bank now. 옷 한 벌에 4 만원입니다. Grammar 6 에 셈을 세는 단위 명사와 결합하여 단위나 셈의 '기준'을 나타낸다. ] 1. There is not a dictionary. . 선생님을 만납니다. it's cold in winter. -----> 한 그롯을 이천 원입니다. . 아침: 아침 + 에 ---> 아침에 [때: time] 3. direction or time'. ] . However. . 냉장고: 냉장고 + 에 ---> 냉장고에 [위치: place] 2. . [ It's hot in summer. It costs 40.책이 있습니다. 일 주일에 두 번 갑니다. I read 20 pages per hour. or by'] 보기~ 1.이천 원입니다. other particles or endings. My family is at church. However.] [Similar to 'a. too] Grammar 4 은/는 조사. 다른 조사나 어미에 붙어서 문장의 주제임을 나타내거나 '대조'.] [ Similar to 'in/at or to' ] 보기~ 1. [ The tie is cheap. [ The movie is interesting. 명사나 부사. add "은" 2. Attached to nouns. 한 그롯 -. 장소나 시간 명사 뒤에 쓴다.여섯 개입니다. 사전은 없습니다.넥타이가 쌉니다. 예문~ . 겨울은 춥습니다.Grammar 5 + 6 (189 total words in this text) Grammar 5 에 [Lesson Created By KkOmA] 위치격 조사. 한 시간에 20 페이지를 읽습니다. "은" ----> 자음으로 끝나는 명사일 때: When the noun ends in a consonant. [ The bus is slow. '강조'의 뜻으로 쓴다. 물: 물 + 은 ---> 물은 2. 우유: 우유 + 는 ---> 우유는 예문~ . ] . "는" ----> 모음으로 끝나는 명사일 때: When the noun ends in vowel. '때'를 나타낸다. 도서관: 도서관 + 에 ---> 도서관에 [방향: direction] 예문~ . 우유가 가게에 있어요. 만 원 -. it shows the subject of the sentence or may be used to show 'contrast' or 'emphasis'.버스가 느립니다. per. the clothes are expensive. 영화가 재미있습니다. '위치'나 '방향'.000 won by the set. [ There is a book. . though. too] . 옷은 비쌉니다. the subway train is fast. . [Added to the unit noun which counts numbers. add "는" 보기~ 1. [Locative particle. The novel is interesting. I read a book at night. [ Topic particle. adverbs. 한 반에 10 명입니다. it shows the 'standard' of the counting or unit. 지하철은 빠릅니다. Milk is in the shop. I meet a friend. There are 10 students in a class. 소설책도 재미있습니다. However.. 가족이 교회에 있어요. Used after place or time noun and shows 'location. -----> 만 원에 여섯 개입니다. . 친구도 만납니다.여름이 덥습니다. 2. 지금 은행에 가요. I go twice a week. 밤에 착을 읽어요.
jang in uh reun Dad .아저씨 .Family Members (159 total words in this text) Relative Titles .시아버지 .장모님 .아주머니 .shi uh muh ni Mother in law .oppa (If the speaker is female) Older Sister .nuna (If the speaker is male) Older Brother .hyung (If the speaker is male) Younger Sibling .시어머니 .unni (If the speaker is female) Older Brother .jang mo nim Siblings .형 .손위 형제 자매 Older Sister .umma Mother .오빠 .shi ah buh ji Father in law .hal muh ni (Grandmother) [Polite] Elderly Man .누나 .Lesson 15 .아빠 .appa [Informal] Mum .엄마 .장인어른 .ajumni (aunt) [Polite] Older Woman .언니 .어머니 .아줌마 .ajussi (Uncle) Elderly Woman .할아버지 .할머니 .ah buh ji Father in law .uh muh ni Mother in law .친척과 관계된 호칭 Older Woman .동생 .ajumma (auntie) [Less Polite] Older Man .dong saeng (Regardless of speaker's gender) .아버지 .hara buh ji (Grandpa) [Less Polite] Father .
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