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Published by: Marknel Laserna on Dec 15, 2011
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Caraig, Marjorie Grace E.

BSBM Origin of ethics In western philosophy there are generally three views as to the origin of ethics. Firstly there is the "Divine Command Theory of Ethics" which contends that ethics originates from G-d -- that which G-d commands is arbitrarily good and ethical. The counterargument to this maintains that this view leads to the absurdity where G-d can, in theory, decree adultery to be ethical. If one argues that G-d cannot do this one is admitting that ethical standards are set by something outside G-d.1 Following on from the "Divine Command Theory" is the "Theory of Forms," put forward by Plato, which holds that there is an independent "form" outside of G-d which is the absolute standard of morality and ethics. The problem here is that this absolute standard was never revealed to a spatio-temporal world, so one could never be certain that one has attained the absolute standard of ethics. We therefore face the original dilemma: what is ethical? The third view holds that all knowledge is relative to the individual, in which case there cannot be absolute morality: all ethics are relative to circumstances, people and cultures. This view too is problematic because, taken to its logical conclusion, there is no such thing as ethics at all. Nature of Ethics 1. MORAL RIGHTS are tightly correlated with duties. Duties are generally the other side of moral rights (Smith, 2003). For example, my right to work implies the government's duty to make jobs available to the people. 2. MORAL RIGHTS provide individuals with autonomy and equality in the free pursuit of their interests (Smith, 2003). For example, the right to worship as I choose implies that I am free to pursue this interest as I personally choose. No one can dictate to me how I ought to worship (Halle, 2000). 3. MORAL RIGHTS provide a basis for justifying one's actions and for invoking the protection or aid of others. My right to something is my justification for doing it. For example, why do I work? - Because it is my right to work! And no one can restrain me from working group, or an exchange (Smith, 2003). The better the quality of a person's contributed product, the more he or she should receive.

in most advanced societies and organisations. organising cooperatives. (2) providing the environment for efficient communication and knowledge management (of which development of an information technology infrastructure is merely a subset of). . not legal. and systems/procedures. leadership and management of changes such as those above have actually been delegated down to middle management level. or cheating at cards or sports. In fact. Optimisation of one's operations includes but is not limited to. common sense today).e. (3) good old-fashined cost cutting and efficiency enhancement (consultant-speak in the past. it is integral to the responsibility of any manager to ensure that he/she optimises his operations so that they provide the best service economically in the employment of the resources said manager is entrusted responsibility over. For example breaking the norms governing current sensibilities by eating in a gross manner The other form of ethical norms are 'mores' Again they are usually only underpinned by social. i. controls . Ethical Norms and Law Laws are underpinned by the power of the State . (1) rationalising staff and physical assets. they are tactical achievements that are routinely expected of any chief executive. For example laws covering the crime of stealing Ethical norms are the unofficial laws or rules underpinned by the cultural power of society.if you break a law you can be legally charged and punished. developing/acquiring labour-saving devices. For example treating others in an unduly harsh manner.Ethics and Filipinos From a broader perspective. and.if you break them you might suffer the social punishment of being made to feel a social outcast or being humiliated. . things like looking for better suppliers/vendors. equipment.but these are acts against the ethics or mores of the community and have a moral connotation.

Kantian = Of the theories of Immanuel Kant. Teleological = concerned with an end or goal Virtue = A characteristic or quality possessed by a person which is ethically prized by people. rather than its consequences Utilitarian = Theories which say that the ethical status of an action is determined by the amount of pleasure or pain it causes. A deontologist. he believed that goodness consisted in the will directed in accordance with reason or duty.Ethical Approaches Deontological = Ethical theories which hold that the ethical status of an action is within the action itself. wisdom. or humility. General and Special Ethics . e.g. courage. this is often formulated as the Categorical Imperative.

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