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The artist Anya Calderona constructs the mobile shown in the figure. In the illustrated configuration, the mobile is perfectly balanced. If Anya decides to make the star twice as massive, and not change the length of any crossbar or the location of any object, what does she have to do with the mass of the smiley face to keep the mobile in perfect balance? Note that she may have to change masses of other objects to keep the entire structure balanced. Answer: make it twice as massive.
Test Your Understanding 10.3: Rigid-Body Rotation about a Moving Axis. A uniform cylinder rolls up an incline without slipping. As it rolls uphill, its speed decreases. The surface of the incline and the cylinder are both perfectly rigid. Which of the forces on the cylinder exert(s) a torque about the center of the cylinder? Answer: the friction force. Since the surface and incline are perfectly rigid, the normal force exerted by the incline on the cylinder is directed toward the cylinder's center. Hence, this force exerts zero torque about the center. The weight of the cylinder acts at its center (because the cylinder is uniform), so this force also exerts zero torque around the center. The friction force acts tangential to the circumference of the cylinder, so it does exert a torque around the center. Torque Magnitude Ranking Task. The wrench in the figure has six forces of equal magnitude. Rank these forces (A through F) on the basis of the magnitude of the torque they apply to the wrench, measured about an axis centered on the bolt. Rank from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. We assume that all the forces are of the same magnitude. The moment arm values (ranked from largest to smallest): D, B and E, F, A, C. The moment arm that corresponds to F is greater than that for A because the angle between the wrench axis and horizontal direction is less than 450. Net Torque on a Pulley. The figure below shows two blocks suspended by a cord over a pulley. The mass of block B is twice the mass of block A, while the mass of the pulley is equal to the mass of block A. The blocks are let free to move and the cord moves on the pulley without slipping or stretching. There is no friction in the pulley axle, and the cord's weight can be ignored.
However. What happens to the merry-goround? It begins to rotate counterclockwise (as observed from above). block B moves with acceleration down. To stop the wheel from spinning (counterclockwise). Exercise 10. and the bicycle wheel) the angular momentum originally stored in the bicycle wheel is conserved. EXECUTE: The fraction of the total kinetic energy that is rotational is Apply Eq. this torque from the wheel will make you spin counterclockwise. dt dt ⎝ r ⎠ where r is the radius of the pulley. increases. Since the cord moves on the pulley without slipping. because its moment of inertia is much larger. What fraction of the total kinetic energy is rotational for the following objects rolling without slipping on a horizontal surface? IDENTIFY: 1 1 2 2 Mvcm + I cmω 2 2 2 SET UP: For an object that is rolling without slipping. the linear speed of the pulley surface. i. The wheel is rotating counterclockwise when observed from above. K = . Suppose you are standing on the center of a merry-go-round that is at rest. vcm = Rω . As long as there are no external torques acting on the system (which includes yourself. to prevent relative motion. By extending Newton's third law. It is well known that for a hollow. stopping it from spinning. the floor exerts a clockwise torque on you.The statement that correctly describes the system shown in the figure: the angular acceleration of the pulley is nonzero. neglect any air resistance or friction between the merry-go-round and its foundation. On the other hand. and this means that the dω d ⎛ v ⎞ angular acceleration is nonzero: α = = ⎜ ⎟. If the axle is completely smooth. if the floor of the latter is completely smooth. Spinning Situations. if there is friction between your shoe soles and the floor. Indeed. the ride will spin much slower than the wheel. Of course. For this problem. I is the pulley’s moment of inertia. If there is no friction between you and the merry-go-round. and you exert a counterclockwise torque on the floor of the merry-go-round.e. the merry-go-round. this time. this also means that the net torque on the pulley is nonzero: α= τ I where τ is the net torque on the pulley.21. cylindrical shell rolling without slipping on a horizontal surface. v. half of the total kinetic energy is translational and half is rotational.. block A moves with acceleration up. this means that the wheel exerts a counterclockwise torque on you. then this torque will now make the merry-go-round spin counterclockwise. you must exert a clockwise torque on it. Suppose you now grab the edge of the wheel with your hand. You are holding a spinning bicycle wheel over your head so that its rotation axis is pointing upward.
1 1 EXECUTE: (a) Motion from the release point to the bottom of the bowl: mgh = mv 2 + I ω 2 . Let y = 0 at the bottom of the bowl. all the initial potential energy gets converted back to potential energy.24 . so the above ratio is 1 3. Without friction on the right half some of the energy is still in rotational kinetic energy when the marble is at its maximum height.24. The left half of the bowl is rough enough to cause the marble to roll without slipping. cylinder with outer radius R and inner radius R/2 I cm = (5 8)MR 2 so the ratio is 5 13. How high would the marble go if both sides were as rough as the left side? IDENTIFY: Apply conservation of energy to the motion of the marble. EVALUATE: (c) With friction on both halves. R⎠ 2 2⎝ 5 7 ⎠⎝ Motion along the smooth side: The rotational kinetic energy does not change. mv 2 + K rot = mgh′ + K rot . (d) a hollow. starting from rest at the top of the left side. 10. vcm = Rω for no slipping . How far up the smooth side will the marble go. with I = 5 MR 2 . (c) a thin-walled hollow sphere I cm = (2 3) MR 2 so the ratio is 2 5 . The top of each side is a distance h above the bottom of the bowl. The ratio increases as β increases.(1 2 ) I cmω 2 2 (1 2 ) Mvcm + (1 2 ) I cmω 2 = 1 1 = 2 2 1( M/I cm )vcm /ω 1 + ( MR 2 / I cm ) The moment of inertia of each object takes the form I = β MR 2 . measured vertically from the bottom? Express your answer in terms of h. 1 + 1/ β 1 + β (a) a uniform solid cylinder I cm = (1 2) MR 2 . 2 2 1 1⎛ 2 10 ⎞⎛ v ⎞ mgh = mv 2 + ⎜ mR 2 ⎟⎜ ⎟ and v = gh . (b) a uniform sphere I cm = (2 5) MR 2 so the above ratio is 2 7 . but the right half has no friction because it is coated with oil. A uniform marble rolls down a symmetric bowl. The ratio of rotational kinetic energy to total 1 β = kinetic energy can be written as . 2 Figure 10. 2 SET UP: K = 1 mv 2 + 1 I ω 2 . h′ = = 7 = h 2 2g 2g 7 (b) mgh = mgh′ so h′ = h .24. since there is no friction torque on 1 v 2 10 gh 5 the marble. 2 2 The marble at its initial and final locations is sketched in Figure 10.
3 Let counterclockwise be the positive sense of rotation.78 N ⋅ m = 2.0 N. Answer: IDENTIFY and SET UP: Use Eq. which means it tends to produce a counterclockwise rotation.0 N.50 N ⋅ m EVALUATE: The net torque is positive.3 A square metal plate 0.0 N)(0.0 N)(0.0900 m τ 1 = −(18.0900 m τ 2 = + (26.1273 m) = +1.62 N ⋅ m + 2.090 m) 2 + (0.(10. The plate and all forces are in the plane of the page.4) to determine the direction.2) to calculate the magnitude of each torque and use the right-hand rule (Fig. In summing the torques it is important to include + or − signs to show direction.10.1273 m τ 3 = +(14.1273 m)sin135° = 0.78 N ⋅ m r τ 3 is directed out of paper ∑τ = τ 1 + τ 2 + τ 3 = −1.62 N ⋅ m r τ 1 is directed into paper τ 2 = + F2l2 l2 = r2 sin φ2 = (0. Consider Figure 10.0900 m) = +2. and F3 = 17. Calculate the net torque about this axis due to the three forces shown in the figure if the magnitudes of the forces are F1 = 28. Take positive torques to be counterclockwise. the vector torque is directed out of the plane of the paper. EXECUTE: r1 = r2 = r3 = (0.34 N ⋅ m + 1.090 m) 2 = 0. .0900 m) = −1.1273 m)sin135° = 0.0 N)(0. F2 = 14.1273 m τ 1 = − F1l1 l1 = r1 sin φ1 = (0.1273 m)sin 90° = 0.180 m on each side is pivoted about an axis through point O at its center and perpendicular to the plate.Exercise 10.3 N.3 Figure 10.34 N ⋅ m r τ 2 is directed out of paper τ 3 = + F3l3 l3 = r3 sin φ3 = (0.
70 kg attached to its outer surface and equally spaced around it. m = 2.56 N ⋅ m .250 m and φ = 37° EXECUTE: (a) τ = (17.d) The torque is maximum when φ = 90° and the force is perpendicular to the wrench. This maximum torque is (17.8 A uniform spherical shell of mass 8. r = 0. EVALUATE: The torque is negative because its direction is opposite to the direction of rotation. SET UP: In part (a). . ωz = 50. so I = 0. The force is maintained perpendicular to the rod and to the axis of rotation.0 N)(0. The torque increases as the angle between the force and the handle increases.250 m) = 4.6 A machinist is using a wrench to loosen a nut. a) What is the magnitude of the torque does the machinist exert about the center of the nut? b) What is the direction of the torque in part (A).90 kg with diameter 48. τ z = Iαz = −0. This combination is spinning about an axis running through the center of the sphere and two of the small masses.600 kg ⋅ m 2 . EVALUATE: If the force is directed along the handle then the torque is zero. 3 ωz = ω0z + αz t gives αz = −0. Calculate the magnitude of the angular acceleration of the rod.25 N ⋅ m .18 A thin.0 rpm = 7.0 N)(0. What friction torque is needed to reduce its angular speed from 76.08726 rad s . Exercise 10.0 rpm in a time interval of 30. SET UP: EXECUTE: ω0 z = 75.0 s .0 s? IDENTIFY: Use a constant acceleration equation to calculate α z and then apply I = 2 MR 2 + 2mR 2 . horizontal rod with length l and mass M pivots about a vertical axis at one end. and he exerts a 17.0524 N ⋅ m 2 ∑τ z = Iα z . IDENTIFY: Apply ∑τ z = Iα z to the rod.Exercise 10. c) What is the maximum torque he could exert with this force? d) How should the force mentioned in part (C) be oriented? IDENTIFY: Use τ = Fl = rF sin φ for the magnitude of the torque and the right-hand rule for the direction.0 cm has four small masses of mass 1. t = 30. which must be the case for the speed to decrease.0 cm long.854 rad s.250 m)sin 37° = 2.0 rpm = 5. c. The wrench is 25.00 kg .236 rad s. A force with constant magnitude F is applied to the other end. causing the rod to rotate in a horizontal plane. Exercise 10. b)The torque is counterclockwise.0 N force at the end of the handle at 370 with the handle (the figure).40 kg. where M = 8.0 rpm to 45.
306 × 105 W . 1 rev = 2π rad . 7 7 If all the hill was rough enough to cause rolling without slipping. I = 1 Ml 2 .80 m/s 2 )(25 m) + 2(9. 1 hp = 746 W . A 7 smaller fraction of the initial gravitational potential energy goes into translational kinetic energy of the center of mass than if part of the hill is smooth. π rad/s = 30 rev/min . but the lower half is covered with ice and there is no friction. EXECUTE: (a) τ = = π rad/s ⎞ ω ( 2400 rev/min ) ⎛ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 30 rev/min ⎠ (b) W = τΔθ = ( 519 N ⋅ m )( 2π rad ) = 3260 J EVALUATE: ω = 40 rev/s . P (175 hp )( 746 W / hp ) = 519 N ⋅ m. a) How much torque does the aircraft engine provide? b) How much work does the engine do in one revolution of the propeller? IDENTIFY: Apply P = τω and W = τΔθ . so the time for one revolution is 0. mgh1 = mv 2 + ⎜ mR 2 ⎟⎜ ⎟ .025 s. gh2 + ⎜ gh1 ⎟ = vB . I = 5 mR 2 . so in one revolution.0 m high hill. W = Pt = 3260 J . vB = EVALUATE: 10 g (50 m) = 26. What is the translational speed of the boulder when it reaches the bottom of the hill? IDENTIFY: Apply conservation of energy to the motion of the boulder. SET UP: K = 1 mv 2 + 1 I ω 2 and v = Rω when there is rolling 2 2 2 without slipping. If the entire hill is smooth and the boulder slides without slipping. SET UP: P must be in watts. Exercise 10.0 m/s . 2⎝ 7 2 2 ⎠ 2 v2 = vB = 10 10 gh1 + 2 gh2 = (9. = Ml 2 Ml EVALUATE: Note that α decreases with the length of the rod. 7 Smooth: Rotational kinetic energy does not change.5 m/s . 2 2 2 2⎝ 5 ⎠⎝ R ⎠ 10 gh1 . EXECUTE: Break into 2 parts. which agrees with our previous result.SET UP: EXECUTE: For the rod and axis at one end. Δθ must be in radians. and ω must be in rad/s. uniform spherical boulder starts from rest and rolls down a 50.80 m/s 2 )(25 m) = 29. 2 1 1⎛ 2 ⎞⎛ v ⎞ Rough: mgh1 = 1 mv 2 + 1 I ω 2 . the rough and smooth sections. even though the torque increases. P = 1. 1 1 2 1 ⎛ 10 ⎞ 1 2 mgh2 + mv 2 + K rot = mvBottom + K rot . Problem 10.75: Rolling Stones A solid. . 3 α= τ I = 1 3 Fl 3F . The top half of the hill is rough enough to cause the boulder to roll without slipping.28 The engine of an aircraft propeller delivers an amount of power 179 hp to the propeller at a rotational velocity of 2500 rev/min. as shown in the figure .
In this case all the initial gravitational potential energy goes into the kinetic energy of the translational motion. SET UP: The system before and after the collision is sketched in Figure 10. EXECUTE: (a) mb = 1 mrod 4 EXECUTE: L1 = mbvr = 1 mrod v ( L / 2) 4 L1 = mrod vL 1 8 L2 = ( I rod + I b )ω I rod = 1 mrod L2 3 I b = mb r 2 = 1 mrod ( L / 2) 2 4 1 I b = 16 mrod L2 Figure 10.vB = 2 g (50 m) = 31. A bullet traveling parallel to the horizontal surface and perpendicular to the rod with speed v strikes the rod at its center and becomes embedded in it. The rod pivots about a fixed frictionless axis at one end. Linear momentum is not conserved because of the force applied to the rod at the axis. But since this external force acts at the axis.87 A uniform rod of length L rests on a frictionless horizontal surface. The mass of the bullet is one-fourth the mass of the rod. it produces no torque and angular momentum is conserved.3 m/s . The rod is initially at rest.87 1 Thus L1 = L2 gives 1 mrod vL = ( 1 mrod L2 + 16 mrod L2 ) ω 8 3 1 8 v = 19 Lω 48 6 ω = 19 v / L (b) K1 = 1 mv 2 = 1 mrod v 2 2 8 K 2 = 1 I ω 2 = 1 ( I rod + I b )ω 2 = 2 2 2 1 2 ( 1 3 1 mrod L2 + 16 mrod L2 ) (6v /19 L) 2 6 3 K 2 = 1 ( 19 )( 19 ) mrod v 2 = 152 mrod v 2 2 48 Then K2 = K1 3 152 1 8 mrod v 2 = 3/19. b) What is the ratio of the kinetic energy of the system after the collision to the kinetic energy of the bullet before the collision? IDENTIFY: Apply conservation of angular momentum to the collision. a) What is the final angular speed of the rod? Express your answer in terms of the variables v and L. mrod v 2 The collision is inelastic and K 2 < K1.87. Problem 10. EVALUATE: .
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