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Unit-01-Introduction to Management Structure: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 1.2 Definitions of Management 1.3 Characteristics of Management 1.4 Scope and Levels of Management 1.5 Importance of Management 1.6 Role of Management 1.7 Administration and Management Self Assessment Questions 1.8 Summary 1.9 Terminal Questions 1.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 1.1 Introduction Management is a global need. It is essential to every individual, a family, educational institution, hospital, religious organizations, team of players, a government, military systems, cultural body, urban centers and business enterprises. No individual can satisfy all his needs by himself. Men should join together and accomplish goals through co-operation. Whenever, there is an organized group of people working towards a common goal, some type of management is needed. A business enterprise must be directed and controlled by a group of people to achieve its goals. The resources of money, manpower, material and technology will be waste unless they are out to work in a co-ordinated manner. It is the ‘management’ which uses the available resources in such a manner that a business enterprise is able to earn ‘surplus’ to meet the needs of growth and expansion. Management is required to plan, organize, co-
ordinate and control the affairs of a business concern. It brings together all resources and motivates people to achieve the objectives of a business enterprise. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Define management. · Explain the characteristics of management. · Differentiate between management and administration. · State the principles of management. · Explain the roles of managers. · Explain managerial skills. 1.2 Definitions of Management Management may be defined in many different ways. Many eminent authors on the subject have defined the term “management”. Some of these definitions are reproduced below: According to Lawerence A. Appley – “Management is the development of people and not the direction of things.” In the words of George R. Terry – “Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.” According to James L. Lundy – “Management is principally the task of planning, co-ordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective.” In the words of Henry Fayol – “To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.” According to Peter F. Drucker – “Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages a business and managers and manages worker and work”. In the words of Koontz and O’Donnel – “Management is defined as the creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals working together in groups can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals”.
According to Newman, Summer and Warren – “The job of management is to make co-operative endeavor to function properly. A Manager is one who gets things done by working with people and other resources.” From the definitions quoted above, it is clear that “management” is a technique of extracting work from others in an integrated and co-ordinated manner for realizing the specific objectives through productive use of material resources. Mobilizing the physical, human and financial resources and planning their utilization for business operations in such a manner as to reach the defined goals can be referred to as “management”. If the views of the various authorities are combined, management could be defined as a “distinct ongoing process of allocating inputs of an organization (human and economic resources) by typical managerial functions (planning, organizing, directing and controlling) for the purpose of achieving stated objectives, namelyoutput of goods and services desired by its customers (environment). In the process, work is performed with and through personnel of the organization in an ever-changing business environment.” From the above, it is clear that management refers to the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people. The process represents the functions or primary activities engaged in by managers. These functions are typically labeled planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Efficiency is a vital part of management. It refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs. If you can get more output from the given inputs, you have increased efficiency. Similarly, if you can get the same output from less input, you also have increased efficiency. Since managers deal with input resources that are scarce-mainly people, money and equipment-they are concerned with the efficient use of these resources. Management, therefore, is concerned with minimizing resource costs. Efficiency is often referred to as “doing things right”. However, it is not enough simply to be efficient. Management is also concerned with getting activities completed; i.e. it seeks effectiveness. When managers achieve their organization’s goals, we say they are effective. Effectiveness can be described as “doing the right things”. So efficiency is concerned with means and effectiveness with ends. Efficiency and effectiveness are interrelated. For instance, it is easier to be effective if one ignores efficiency. Timex could produce more accurate and attractive watches if it disregarded labour and material input costs. Some federal government agencies have been criticized regularly on the grounds that they are reasonably effective but extremely inefficient; that is, they get their jobs done but at a very high cost. Management is concerned, then, not only with getting activities completed (effectiveness), but also with doing so as efficiently as possible. Can organization be efficient and yet not effective? Yes, by doing the wrong things well. Many colleges have become highly efficient in processing students. By using computer-assisted learning, large lecture classes, and heavy reliance on part-time faculty, administrators have significantly cut the cost of educating each student. Yet students, alumni, and accrediting agencies have criticized some of these colleges for failing to educate their students properly. Of
It is the force which assembles and integrates other resources. All these resources are made available to those who manage. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others. It is imperative that the organizational goals must be well-defined and properly understood by the mangers at various levels. It is the most critical input in the success of any organized group activity. 2. Results through Others: The managers cannot do everything themselves. informed employees. 1. experience and management principles for getting the results from the workers by the use of non-human resources. directing and controlling. labour and capital. buoyant spirit and adequate work output. Integrative Force: The essence of management is integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives. feeling of management is result-oriented. Thus. These factors do not by themselves ensure production. Managers also seek to harmonize the individuals’ goals with the organizational goals for the smooth working of the organization. organizing. In essence. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the organizational goals are achieved. management is an essential ingredient of an organization. namely. . They must motivate the subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them. high efficiency is associated more typically with high effectiveness. 6. the process of management involves decision-making and putting of decisions into practice. Its presence is evidenced by the result of its efforts-orderliness. Thus. Managers apply knowledge. And poor management is most often due to both inefficiency and ineffectiveness or to effectiveness achieved through inefficiency. they require the catalyst of management to produce goods and services required by the society. labour. 4.course. Goal-oriented: Management is a purposeful activity. although they can’t observe it during operation. capital and materials. Economic Resource: Management is one of the factors of production together with land. staffing.3 Characteristics of Management Management is a distinct activity having the following salient features or characteristics: 1. 5. It co-ordinates the efforts of workers to achieve the goals of the organization. 3. One may not see with the naked eyes the functioning of management but its results are apparently known. Intangible Force: Management has been called an unseen force. Distinct Process: Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning. People often remark of the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of management on the basis of the end results. These functions are so interwoven that it is not possible to lay down exactly the sequence of various functions or their relative significance.
7. how effectively and economically the five M’s are combined together to produce desired results. 9. a hierarchy of command and control. 8. principles and techniques requires specialized knowledge and skills on the part of the manager. (ii) a system of authority. Much of the management literature is the result of association of these disciplines. Similarly. So it is treated as a science. Generally. According to Newman. discipline) taking the help of so many other disciplines such as Engineering. Sociology and Psychology. For instance. It is bound together by a web of relationships between superiors and subordinates. useful. management may be understood as (i) an economic resource. manpower. and (iii) a class or elite. money and machines into a productive. principles and techniques which have wide applications. on-going concern. Universal Application: Management is universal in character. Anthropology. 1. Henri Fayol suggested that principles of management would apply more or less in every situation. The principles are working guidelines which are flexible and capable of adaptation to every organization where the efforts of human beings are to be co-ordinated. people . the effective use of the five M’s of management (money. Multi-disciplinary Subject: Management has grown as a field of study (i.e. government and hospital. management is the rule-making and rule-enforcing body. In other words. materials. management is required to covert the disorganized resources of men. education. According to Herbision and Myers. 10. management is viewed as an art. A Science and an Art: Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of welldefined concepts.4 Scope of Management The scope of management is very wide. Managers at different levels possess varying degrees of authority. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively. The application of these concepts. labour and capital. Since the skills acquired by a manager are his personal possession. The principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the fields of business. · Management as a system of authority According to Herbison and Myers. that is. Sociology and Operations Research have also contributed to the development of management science. as we move down in the managerial hierarchy. productivity orientation drew its inspiration from Industrial Engineering and human relations orientation from Psychology. System of Authority: Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority. · Management as an economic resource Management is one of the factors of production along with land. Basically. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. In modern organizations. military. it refers to three distinct ideas. the degree of authority gets gradually reduced. materials.
For instance. wage and salary director of a company may assist in fixing wages and salary structure as a member of the Board of Directors. planning and setting up of standards.. Instructions and decisions downward and carry the problem and suggestions upward.e. finance manager. Board of Directors. Top management determines objectives and provides direction to enterprise activities. Administrative management is concerned with “thinking” functions such as laying down policy. or. ranks. Middle management (departmental heads like work manage. and the range of production. Considering the hierarchy of authority and responsibility. one can identify three levels of management namely: i) Top management of a company consists of owners/shareholders.are bound by authority relationships. . but as head of wages and salary department. the term management refers to the group of individuals occupying managerial positions. day-to-day matters. They transmit orders. Levels of Management An enterprise may have different levels of management. Lower management (first line supervisors) is concerned with routine. technical facilities. All the managers form the chief executive to the first line supervisors are collectively addressed as ‘Management’ which refers to the group. the upper level of management) and (ii) operating management (i. or the Chief Executive. and directing the operations to attain the objectives of the enterprise. The real significance of levels is that they explain authority relationships in an organization. The managerial class has become very important in modern organizations owing to its contribution to business success. (i) administrative management (i. As a separate group. Managers working at top levels enjoy more authority than people working at lower levels. We generally come across two broad levels of management. the lower level of management). personnel manager etc.. his job is to see that the decisions are implemented.e. Levels of management refer to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an enterprise. viz. it is difficult of draw any clear-cut demarcation between thinking function and doing function as the basic/fundamental managerial functions are performed by all managers irrespective of their levels. The levels of management depend upon its size. But in actual practice. · Management as a class or elite Sociologists view management as a distinct class in society having its own value system. Managing Director. its Chairman. Operative management is concerned with the “doing” function such as implementation of policies. or the General Manager or Executive Committee having key officers.) interprets and explains the policies framed by the top management.
Production Manager. b) To interpret the policies chalked out by top management. It devotes more time on planning and co-ordinating functions. It is accountable to the owners of the business of the overall management. 1. Financial Controller. c) To set up an organizational framework to conduct the operations as per plans. etc.ii) Middle management of a company consists of heads of functional departments namely.. The following are the main functions of middle management: a) To establish the objective or goals of the enterprise. They provide the guidance and the structure for a purposeful enterprise. It serves as an essential link between the top management and the lower level or operative management. e) To assign activities. d) To assemble the resources of money. Supervisors. Purchase Manager. Middle management: The job of middle management is to implement the policies and plans framed by the top management. 2. . Foremen. Without them the top management’s plans and ambitious expectations will not be fruitfully realized. e) To exercise effective control of the operations. iii) Lower level or operative management of a company consists of Superintendents. b) To make policies and frame plans to attain the objectives laid. and Divisional Sectional Officers working under these Functional Heads. etc. The important functions of top management include: a) To establish the objectives or goals of the enterprise. f) To provide overall leadership to the enterprise. Marketing Manager. c) To prepare the organizational set up in their own departments for fulfilling the objectives implied in various business policies. policies and plans for the enterprise. Top management: Top management is the ultimate source of authority and it lays down goals. It is also described as the policy-making group responsible for the overall direction and success of all company activities. They are responsible to the top management for the functioning of their department. duties and responsibilities for timely implementation of the plans. They devote more time on the organization and motivation functions of management. men. machines and methods to put the plans into action. d) To recruit and select suitable operative and supervisory staff. materials.
They are in direct touch with the rank and file or workers. A right climate is created for workers to put in their best and show superior performance. money and material.f) To compile all the instructions and issue them to supervisors under their control. evaluate their performance and report to the middle level management. They allot various jobs to the workers. The importance of management can be understood from the following points. machines. In its absence. h) To co-operate with the other departments for ensuring a smooth functioning of the entire organization. g) To motivate personnel to attain higher productivity and to reward them properly. They devote more time in the supervision of the workers. It is the activating force that gets things done through people. They are concerned with direction and control functions of management. They interpret and divide the plans of the management into short-range operating plans. the working of an enterprise will become random and haphazard in nature. 1. Their authority and responsibility is limited. Employees feel a sense of security when they find a body of individual’s working day and night for the continued growth of an organization. It helps in putting the resources to the best advantage within the limitations set by the organization and its environment. supervisors. They have to get the work done through the workers.5 Importance of Management According to Drucker. the resources of production remain resources and never become production. They are also involved in the process of decisions-making. (ii) Effective leadership and motivation: In the absence of management. management is the dynamic lift-giving element in every organization. i) To collect reports and information on performance in their departments. (i) Optimum use of resources: Management ensures optimum utilization of resources by attempting to avoid wastage of all kinds. It enables employees to move cooperatively and achieve goals in a coordinated manner. Lower or operative management: It is placed at the bottom of the hierarchy of management. Management creates teamwork and . Management makes group effort more effective. and actual operations are the responsibility of this level of management. Without management. an organization is merely a collection of men. j) To report to top management. They pass on the instructions of the middle management to workers. sales officers. It consists of foreman. 3. accounts officers and so on. k) To make suitable recommendations to the top management for the better execution of plans and policies.
To this end. An enterprise has to take note of these changes and adapt itself quickly. a profession possesses the following characteristics: i) A body of principles. In the final analysis. iii) The establishment of a representative organization with professiona-lizing as its goal. They initiate prompt actions whenever workers express dissatisfaction over organizational rules. (b) Ensuring the survival of the firm in the face of continued changes. Management is goal-oriented. techniques. etc.. procedures and reward systems. Failure to take note of customer’s needs regarding full efficiently has spelt doom for ‘Ideal java’ in the two-wheeler market in India. Management as a profession By a professional manager. With a view to realize the predetermined goals-managers plan carefully. (iii) Establishers sound industrial relations: Management minimizes industrial disputes and contributes to sound industrial relations in an undertaking. counseling and effective leadership. Managers help an organization by anticipating these changes (carefull planning. Objective can be achieved only when the human and non-human resources are combined in a proper way. They try to put everything on the right tract. Overlapping efforts and waste motions are avoided. methods. . and specialized knowledge. Industrial peace is an essential requirement for increasing productivity. manager tries to strike a happy balance between the demands of employees and organizational requirements. Organize the resources properly. (vi) Improves standard of living : Management improves the standard of living of people by (a) using scarce resources efficiently and turning out profits. According to McFarland. (c) Exploiting new ideas for the benefit of society as a whole and (d) developing employee talents and capabilities while at work and prompting them to show peak performance. Thus unnecessary deviations. often threaten the survival of a firm. (iv) Achievement of goals: Management plays an important role in the achievement of objectives of an organization. we generally mean a manager who undertakes management as a career and is not interested in acquiring ownership share in the enterprise which he manages. government policy. hire competent people and provide necessary guidance. forecasting combined with efficient use of resources) and taking appropriate steps. competition.motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. (v) Change and growth: Changes in technology. all these help in realizing goals with maximum efficiency. Successful managers are the ones who anticipate and adjust to changing circumstances rather than being passively swept along or caught unprepared. skills. ii) Formalized methods of acquiring training and experience.
It has also developed a vast number of tools and techniques. Training facilities are provided in most companies by their training divisions. try to develop a code of conduct for their own managers but there is no general and uniform code of conduct for all managers. We have a number of institutes of management and university departments of management which provide formal education in this field. an art as well as a profession. Management Development Institute. There is no ethical code of conduct for managers as for doctors and lawyers. and v) The charging of fees based on the nature of services. the American Management Association in U. Mintberz found that his managers engaged in a large number of varied. There was little time for reflective thinking because the managers encountered . But unlike medicine or law. Henry Mintzberg did a careful study of five chief executives at work. do not seem to adhere to the principle of “service above self”. For instance. a management degree is not a pre-requisite to become a manager.iv) The formation of ethical codes for the guidance of conduct. the Indian Institute of Management. Management partially fulfils the third characteristic of profession.6 Role of Management In the late 1960s. A number of organizations such as the Administrative Staff College of India. bribing public officials to gain favours. in contrast to the predominant views at the time that managers were reflective thinkers who carefully and systematically processed information before making decisions. Some individual business organizations. manipulating prices and markets are by no means uncommon management practices. What he discovered challenged several long-held notions about the manager’s job. little regard is paid to the elevation of service over the desire for monetary compensation is evident by switching of jobs by managers. and the university departments of management offer a variety of short-term management training programmes. sabotaging trade unions. As a social science. the All India Management Association. It is a profession in the sense that there is a systematized body of management. However. Management is also a profession in the sense that formalized methods of training is available to those who desire to be managers. unpatterned. managers in general. In fact. none of them has the professionalizing of the management as its goal. and it is distinct. management is not as exact as natural sciences. however. Furthermore. and it is not as fully a profession as medicine and law. Management does not fulfill the last two requirements of a profession. There are a number of representative organizations of management practitioners almost in all countries such as the All India Management Association in India. etc. Management is a profession to the extent it fulfils the above conditions. It may be concluded from the above discussion that management is a science.S. Indeed such mobile managers are regarded as more progressive and modern than others..A. However. identifiable discipline. and short-duration activities. 1.
and associated duties. Interpersonal Roles: All managers are required to perform duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature – interpersonal roles. and disciplining employees. signing perform a number of routine legal documents. he or she has an outside liaison relationship. fulfill informational roles-receiving and collecting information from organizations and institutions outside their own. the transfer of information. These ten roles can be grouped as those primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships.constant interruptions. . manages also perform a spokesperson role. This role includes hiring. Mintzberg concluded that managers perform ten different but highly interrelated roles. obliged to Greeting visitors. When they represent the organisation to outsiders. Table 1. The term ‘management roles’ refers to specific categories of managerial behaviour. All managers have a role as a leader. Managers also act as a conduit to transmit information to organizational members. subordinates. training. Mintzberg called this the monitor role. they do so by reading magazines and talking with others to learn of changes in the public’s tastes. and the like. But in addition to these insights. what competitors may be planning.1: Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles Role Interpersonal Figurehead Description Identifiable Activities Leader Symbolic head. The third role within the interpersonal grouping is the liaison role. activities that involve responsible for staffing. These sources are individuals or groups outside the manager’s unit. he or she is acting in a figurehead role. This is the disseminator role. Mintzberg described this activity as contacting external sources who provide the manager with information. When that sales manager confers with other sales executives through a marketing trade association. and decision-making. Informational Roles: All managers. Half of these managers’ activities lasted less than nine minutes each. Responsible for the motivation Performing virtually all and activation of subordinates. and may be inside or outside the organization. to some degree. The sales manager who obtains information from the human resources manager in his or her same company has an internal liaison relationship. Typically. motivating. duties of a legal or social nature. When the president of a college hands out diplomas at commencement or a factory supervisor gives a group of high school students a tour of the plant. training. Mintzberg provided a categorization scheme for defining what managers do based on actual managers on the job.
network of outside contacts doing external board and informers who provide work. policies. performing other favors and information. requesting of organizational resources of authorization. emerges as nerve center of internal and external information about the organization. activities that involve outsiders. unexpected involve disturbances and disturbances crises Responsible for the allocation Scheduling. Seeks and receives wide variety Reading periodicals and of special information (much of reports. the making any activity that involves or approval of all significant budgeting and the Informational Monitor Disseminator Spokesperson Decisional Entrepreneur Disturbance handler Resource allocator . making phone subordinates to members of calls to relay information. outsiders on organization’s giving information of the plans. etc. Transmits information to Holding board meetings. serves as expert on organization’s industry. results. Transmits information received Holding informational from outsides or from other meetings. projects” to bring about change.Liaison Maintains self-developed Acknowledging mail. performing all kinds – in effect. understanding of organization and environment. some involves interpretation and integration of diverse value positions of organizational influencers. the organization – some information is factual. actions. media. supervises design of certain projects as well.. Searches organization and its Organizing strategy and environment for opportunities review sessions to and initiates “improvement develop new programs. maintaining it current) to develop thorough personal contacts. Responsible for corrective Organizing strategy and action when organization faces review sessions that important.
Managerial Skills As you can see from the preceding discussion. As disturbance handlers. An Evaluation: A number of follow-up studies have tested the validity of Mintzberg’s role categories across different types of organizations and at different levels within given organizations. human. Negotiator programming of subordinates work. negotiator. Decisional Roles: Finally. Publishers. and conceptual. negotiations. Technical Skills: First-line managers. the emphasis that managers give to the various roles seems to change with hierarchical level. Source: Henry Mintzberg. Inc. research by Robert L. such as engineering. Last. For example. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row. managers are responsible for allocating human. pp 93-94 Copyright Ó 1973 by Hency Mintzberg. He also found that the relative importance of these skills varied according to the manager’s level within the organization. managers take corrective action in response to previously unforeseen problems. However. figurehead. as well as many middle managers. Katz found that managers need three essential skills or competencies: technical. Mintzberg identified four decisional roles which revolve around the making of choices. Responsible for representing Participating in union the organization at major contract negotiations.organizational decisions. During the early 1970. liaison. an accounts payable manager must be proficient in accounting rules and standardized . managers perform as negotiators when they discuss and bargain with other groups to gain advantages for their own units. Specifically. a manager’s job is varied and complex. are heavily involved in technical aspects of the organization’s operations. Managers need certain skills to perform the duties and activities associated with being a manager. or manufacturing. Technical skills include knowledge of and proficiency in a certain specialized field. computers. managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization’s performance. The evidence generally supports the idea that managers – regardless of the type of organization or level in the organization-perform similar roles. As entrepreneurs. The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper & Row. 1973). and spokesperson are more important at the higher levels of the organization than at the lower ones. As resource allocators. the leader role is more important for lowerlevel managers than it is for either middle-or-top-level managers. finance. Conversely. the roles of disseminator. physical and monetary resources.
iii) There is no distinction between the terms ‘management’ and ‘administration’ and they are used interchangeably. These abilities are essential to effective decision-making. motivate.forms so that she can resolve problems and answer questions that her accounts payable clerks might encounter. it remains just as important at the top levels of management as it is at the lower levels. this skill is crucial. while others maintain that administration and management are two different functions. Although technical skills become less important as manager moves into higher levels of management. management is a lower-level function and is concerned primarily with the execution of policies laid down by administration. Since managers deal directly with people. Some writers do not see any difference between the two terms. lead. These types of conceptual skills are needed by all managers at all levels but become more important as they move up the organizational hierarchy. and inspire enthusiasm and trust. They must be able to see the organization as a whole and the relationships among its various subunits and to visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment. 1. Human Skills: The ability to work well with other people both individually and in a group is a human skill. even top managers need some proficiency in the organization’s speciality. Spriegal and Lansburg. and all managers are involved in making decisions. Managers with good human skills can get the best out of their people. etc. But some English authors like Brech are of the opinion that management is a wider term including administration. They know how to communicate. According to them. ii) Management is a generic term and includes administration. administration is a higher level function.7 Administration and Management The use of two terms ‘management’ and ‘administration’ has been a controversial issue in the management literature. Thus. Administration is a higher level function: . Floerence and Tead. Conceptual Skills: Managers also must have the ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract situations. Those who held management and administration distinct include Oliver Sheldon. This controversy is discussed as under in three heads: i) Administration is concerned with the determination of policies and management with the implementation of policies. In fact.
Administration is the phase of business enterprise that concerns itself with the overall determination of institutional objectives and the policies necessary to be followed in achieving those objectives. Thus. administrative decisions. 3. of human resources. at lower levels of management. administration involves broad policy-making and management involves the execution of policies laid down by the administration. management as an executive function which is primarily concerned with carrying out of the broad policies laid down by the administration. Nature Administration relates to the Management relates to decision-making.. objectives.e. Table 1. 2. Meaning Administration Management Administration is concerned Management means with the formulation of getting the work done objectives. Administration is a determinative function. Status Administration refers to Management is relevant higher levels of management. 7. 4. whereas management refers to execution of policies laid down by administration. of the organisation. policies. It thinking function. Environment Administration has direct Management is mainly interaction with external concerned with internal environment of business and forces. Spriegel and Walter. on the other hand. 8. operative workforce for the execution of plans. 6. It is a execution of decisions. environmental forces. Usage of Term The term ‘administration’ is The term ‘management’ is often associated with widely used in business .Administration refers to policy-making. i. Managers are Administrators are basically concerned mainly with concerned with planning and organisation and direction control. Scope It is concerned with It is concerned with the determination of major implementation of objectives and policies. making strategic plans to deal plans and policies of the effectively with the organisation. Decision. Direction of It is concerned with leading It is concerned with Human Resources and motivation of middle leading and motivation of level executives. plans and policies through and with others.2: Distinction between Administration and Management: Basic 1. 5.Administration determines Management decides who Making what is to be done and when shall implement the it is to be done. is a doing function. This view is held by Tead.
middle and lower.9 Terminal Questions 1. Discuss the importance of management. 3. Management is largely found at the middle and lower levels and administration is found at the higher levels. manpower 3. Lower level managers require and use a greater degree of technical skill and managers at higher levels use a greater degree of conceptual skill.government offices. motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective. __________is principally the task of planning. materials. Management creates ________ and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. Management 2. Explain its characteristics. teamwork . There are three levels of management-top. Money. organisations. 3. Five M’s of management (________. 2. 1. counseling and effective leadership. co-ordinating. Self Assessment Questions in the 1. ___________. Still management is not completely a profession.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management.8 Summary Management is concerned with getting things done through other people. Human skills are important at all managerial levels. _________. Bring out the difference between Administration and Management. Managers perform different roles to discharge their responsibilities. Define management. public organisations sector and non-business private sector. 1. 1. It is the management which transforms physical resources of an organization into productive resources. 2.
Refer section 1.7 Motivating Self Assessment Questions 2.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs .3 2. Refer section 1.Answers to TQs: 1.8 Summary 2.9 Terminal Questions 2. Refer section 1.3 Planning 2.5 3.2.5 Staffing 2. MU0004-Unit-02-Management Process Unit-02-Management Process Structure: 2.6 Directing 2.7 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .1.4 Organizing 2.2 Process of Management 2.1 Introduction Objectives 2.
Management is about accomplishing a goal efficiently.1 Introduction Follett (1933) defined management as "the art of getting things done through people”. There is a degree of overlap between the two. Organizing 3. It is difficult to say where objectives end and policies begin. as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan. · Explain Planning. · Explain different functions of management Process. Controlling However. in recent time. the two are not quite the same. you will be able to: · Define Management process. Staffing. Commanding 4.2. leadership is about setting the desirable goals. 1949): 1. Planning 2.2 Management Process Peter Drucker said: “Management is doing things right. management functions have been regrouped into four categories. Even . One can also think of management functionally. Policy Formulation We have noted earlier that all organizations have well-defined goals and objectives. Through leadership and management often overlap. Coordinating 5. 2. Management functions are as follows (Fayol. Organizing. Directing. leadership is doing the right things“. You might well ask what the need for a policy is when objectives are already defined. Objectives: After this studying this unit. Motivating. since the managerial tasks have become highly challenging a fluid in nature making distinctions redundant to certain extent.
Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. a process in which one chooses a course which one thinks is the best. Objectives are the ends. is an enduring decision which holds good on a continuing basis to guide the members of the organization in doing what they are called upon to do. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. The mission statement is broad. or where you want go to.so. kicking the ball with the left foot or right foot is a reflex action. and then set out the method for achieving it. 2. overall goals. say a passenger car. planning is often referred to as strategic in nature and also termed as strategic planning. should precede a good deal of research involving market surveys. driving comfort. what distinguishers policies form objectives is that you first decide the objective. Decision – Making Taking decisions is a process. All levels of management engage in planning in their own way for achieving their preset goals. The mission statement may be accompanied by an overarching . policies are the means to achieve those ends. general strategies.3 Planning It involves the process of defining goals. A mission statement should be short – and should be easily understood and every employee should ideally be able to narrate it from memory. It provides the direction for the other functions of management and for effective teamwork. Planning in order to be useful must be linked to the strategic intent of an organization. while a policy. summarizing what the organization does. However. and allocating resources. studies on passenger comfort. Effective planning enables an organization adapt to change by identifying opportunities and avoiding problems. Therefore. An explicit mission guides employees to work independently and yet collectively toward the realization of the organization’s potential. planning begins with clearly defining the mission of the organization. fuel and machine efficiency. The tasks of the strategic planning process include the following steps: Define the mission: A mission is the purpose of the organization. Thus. Planning also enhances the decisionmaking process. cost structure and so on. it would be correct to assume that an objective is what you want to accomplish. it is not a decision in which any process is involved. Strategic Planning: Top level managers engage chiefly in strategic planning or long range planning Strategic planning is the process of developing and analyzing the organization’s mission. In the football field. thus. the decision to change the design of a product.
governments (local. What financing is available? 6. suppliers.statement of philosophy or strategic purpose designed to convey a vision for the future as envisaged by top management. and trade). For assessing the strengths of the organization the following questions are important: 1. Threats) analysis is vital for the creation of any strategic plan. Are the facilities outdated? 3. What are the vulnerable areas of the organization that could be exploited? 2. Weaknesses. What are the possible new markets? . state. Are the technologies obsolete? For identifying opportunities the following elements need to be looked at: 1. journals and reports (scientific. Organizations need to examine their business situation in order to map out the opportunities and threats present in their environments. Analyzing strengths and weaknesses comprises the internal assessment of the organization. federal. SWOT analysis provides the assumptions and facts on which a plan will be based. Sources of information may include stakeholders like. How skilled is our workforce? 4. customers (internal and external). professional or trade associations (conventions and exhibitions). professional. Do we have a superior reputation? For assessing the weaknesses of the organization the following questions are important: 1. The SWOT analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. Conduct a situational or SWOT analysis A situation or SWOT (Strengths. Is research and development adequate? 4. How efficient is our manufacturing? 3. What makes the organization distinctive? 2. Opportunities. international). In which areas is the competition not meeting customer needs? 2. What is our market share? 5.
tactical. as well as gap analysis. Strategic. What are the emerging technologies? 6. Objectives are also called performance goals. What are the new regulations? 6. They are aligned with the mission and form the basis for the action plans of an organization. return on investment. Are there new competitors? 3. Set goals and objectives Strategic goals and objectives are developed to fill the gap between current capability and the mission. Comparing the organization to external benchmarks (the best practices) is used to assess current capabilities. or outcomes of an organization against similar measures from other internal or external organizations. Are our rivals weak? 5. Develop related strategies (tactical and operational) Tactical plans are based on the organization’s strategic plan. Benchmarking systematically compares performance measures such as efficiency. and operational planning . Generally. etc. In which areas does the competition meet customer needs more effectively? 2. Is there a shortage of resources? 4. In turn. earnings per share. organizations have longterm objectives for factors such as. The SWOT analysis is used as a baseline for future improvement. These are specific plans that are needed for each task or supportive activity comprising the whole. effectiveness. operational plans are based on the organization’s tactical plans. What is the strength of the economy? 4. Is there a possibility of growth of existing market?) Identifying threats involves the following: 1. It also helps in setting minimum acceptable standards or common-sense minimums. What substitute products exist? In general terms.3. Are market tastes changing? 5. the best strategy is one that fits the organization’s strengths to opportunities in the environment.
It is the extent to which the units of the organization are explicitly defined and its policies. To develop an environmental monitoring procedure.4 Organizing It involves designing. grouped. 2. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. with ideas and resources. Monitor the plan A systematic method of monitoring the environment must be adopted to continuously improve the strategic planning process.must be accompanied by controls to ensure proper implantation of the plans. Delegate authority to establish relationships between jobs and groups of jobs. Group related jobs together in a logical and efficient manner 5. and where decisions are to be made. Organizational structure is the formal decision-making framework by which job tasks are divided. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. and coordinated. short-term standards for key variables that will tend to validate and support the long-range estimates must be established. Assign work to individuals 6. A key issue in accomplishing the goals identified in the planning process is structuring the work of the organization. This review is used for the next planning cycle and review. working toward common goals. how the tasks are to be grouped. who is to do. and relationships between departments. The steps in the organizing process include: 1. Feedback is encouraged and incorporated to determine if goals and objectives are feasible. and goals are clearly stated. procedures. An organization chart displays the organizational structure and shows job titles. who reports to whom. structuring. It is the official organizational structure conceived and built by top management. lines of authority. The formal organization can be seen and represented in chart form. necessary to maintain competitive advantage in the said market. Review plans 2. Organizations are groups of people.5 Staffing . Divide tasks into groups one person can accomplish – a job 4. List all tasks to be accomplished 3. Formalization is an important aspect of structure. The purpose of the organizing function is to make the best use of the organization’s resources to achieve organizational goals. 2.
selection. Pervasiveness of Staffing: Effective execution of staffing function is the responsibility of all managers in the organization. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. It aims at right man at right position: Staffing aims at selection of right person for right place at right time and retaining them in the organization. Managers of the concerned departments are responsible for the selection and development of qualified people for their department and maintain them in their department. It has many sub-functions: Staffing involves determination of the manpower requirement. placement. Definition: 1. 2. 4. recruitment. compensation and training of needed people”. Koontz. Therefore it is the responsibility of the management to secure and maintain competent and dedicated workforce including managers and operatives. appraisal. promotion. selection. placement. 2. O’Donnell & Weihrich have defined staffing as “filling positions in the organization structure through identifying work force requirements. training. transfer and appraisal of personnel to fill the organizational positions. performance appraisal etc.It is not the machines. Curther Geelick Cyndall Urwick – “Staffing is the whole personnel function of brining in and training the staff and marinating of favorable conditions of work” Features of Staffing The analysis of the above definitions highlights the following features: 1. development. recruitment. 3. 3. materials. growth and development of all those members of the organization whose function is to get things done through the efforts of other individuals”. Deals with people: Staffing is a separate managerial function which deals with people in the organization. . money. transport system and other physical resources that make the organization to achieve its goals but it is the competency and efficiency of the people who handle resources contributes for the accomplishment of objectives of the enterprise. This task has been referred to as staffing. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. inventorying the people available. Theo Haimann – “Concerned with the placement.
overseeing and leading people. 8. It is a continuing function. management initiates actions in the organization. etc. Direction function is performed at every level of management. It deals with future requirements: Staffing deals with current and future personnel requirements. Thus staffing is an ongoing process through – out the life of an organization. Through direction. Direction is an important managerial function. 3. 7. A manger needs to give orders to his subordinates. lead them and guide them on a continuous basis. recruitment. 2. training development and maintenance of personnel. promotion. It is an important managerial function. directing is the “interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals”. Definition According to Koontz and O’Donnel. It is instructing people as to what to do. vacancies arise out of retirement. It is a continuous function: With the growth and expansion of business additional manpower is needed. Characteristics of Direction The characteristic features of direction are as follow: 1. resignation.e. Thus staffing deals with the future requirements also. induction. It is performed in the context of superior-subordinate relationship and every manager in the organization performs his duties both as a superior and subordinate. 6. Personnel policies and programs must be formulated as guides to perform the staffing function effectively. motivate them. Present positions must be filled keeping in mind the future requirements. It is a process: it is a process having a logical sequence i. selection. . Direction is the managerial function of guiding. 2.5.6 Directing Direction is one of the functions of management. identifying the manpower requirements. Direction is continuous process and it continues throughout the life-time of the organization. how to do and telling them to do to the best of their ability.
The further they progress up the hierarchy. proposed by Maslow (1943). The needs are arranged in order of importance. Nature of Directing The nature of directing can be discussed under the following: 1. without guiding and overseeing subordinates. nothing or at the best very little would be accomplished”. the number of subordinate he has and the other duties he is expected to perform. 2. It is an important function of management: Directing is an important management function which provides a connecting link between planning. humanness and psychological health a person will show. teach. it aims at getting things done by subordinates and. to provide superiors opportunities for some more important work which their subordinates cannot do. and other bodily needs . will vary depending upon his level. “without the issuance of directives. The five needs are: · Physiological: Includes hunger. The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. 4. satisfied needs cannot. on the other. Pervasive function: Directing is a managerial function performed by all mangers at all levels of the organization. only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior. Essence of performance: Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. 2. sex. Direction has dual objectives. coach and supervise his subordinates.4. 5. The manager never ceases to direct. 3. guide. It emphasizes that a subordinate is to be directed by his own superior only. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory According to this theory. As Theo Haimann puts it. human beings have wants and desires which influence their behaviour. Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. Theories X and Y. On the one hand. shelter. The amount of time and effort an executive spends in directing however. the more individuality. organizing and staffing on one hand and controlling on the other. Direction imitates at the top level in the organization and follows to bottom through the hierarchy. Continuous function: Directing is a continuous process.7 Motivating Motivating In the 1950s three specific theories were formulated and are the best known: Hierarchy of Needs theory. thirst. from the basic to the complex. and the Two-Factor theory.
It is also believed that. autonomy and empowerment. and self-fulfillment Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders. Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor argued that a manager’s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and he or she tends to mould his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions. such as. status. and exercise self-control. if they can. Workers need to be closely supervised and a comprehensive system of controls and a hierarchical structure is needed to supervise the workers closely. Social.· Safety: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm · Social: Includes affection. and friendship · Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors. Theory Y – In this theory management assumes employees may be ambitious. esteem. self-direction. belongingness. includes growth. and achievement. and attention · Self-actualization: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming. self-respect. and self-actualization are classified as higherorder needs. Physiological and safety needs are described as lower-order. It is also assumed that workers generally place security above all other factors and will display little ambition. Lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory . if given the chance employees have the desire to be creative and forward thinking in the workplace. whereas. autonomy. such as. There is a chance for greater productivity by giving employees the freedom to perform to the best of their abilities without being bogged down by rules. Higher-order needs are satisfied internally. anxious to accept greater responsibility. recognition. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. it is clear that Theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals. and external esteem factors. Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. Theory X – In this theory management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work. externally. self-motivated. From the above. acceptance. achieving one’s potential.
and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. performance appraisal etc. responsibility. The satisfiers relate to what a person does while the dissatisfiers relate to the situation in which the person does what he or she does. Presence of these factors ensure job satisfaction. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. Planning involves the process of defining goals. motivators describe a person’s relationship with what she or he does. many related to the tasks being performed.Herzberg (1959) constructed a two-dimensional paradigm of factors affecting people’s attitudes about work. These two factors are motivators and hygiene factors and this theory is also called motivation-hygiene theory. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. company policy. Directing is the interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. advancement. . who reports to whom. have to do with a person’s relationship to the context or environment in which she or he performs the job. such as. recruitment. and where decisions are to be made. people will not be dissatisfied. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning.8 Summary Management is the art of getting things done through people. When hygiene factors are adequate. who is to do. 2. how the tasks are to be grouped. Self Assessment Questions 1. and salary are hygiene factors. emphasize factors intrinsically rewarding that are associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it. and achievement. _______refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. interpersonal relations. ____defined management as the art of getting things done through people. 3. neither will they be satisfied. such as. but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction. Organization involves designing. In summary. Hygiene factors on the other hand. To motivate people. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. supervision. working conditions. Extrinsic factors. structuring. The _____analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. recognition. Job satisfaction factors are separate and distinct from job dissatisfaction factors. 2. The absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction. Motivators are intrinsic factors.
1 Introduction Objectives .2. Reference 2. Explain Staffing in detail 3. Staffing Answers to TQs: 1. MU0002-Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Structure: 3. SWOT 3. 2. Write a short not on directing.9 Terminal Questions 1.3 2.6 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Follett 2. What is planning? 2. Reference 2. Reference 2.5 3.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.
3.2 Definitions 3.3 Characteristics of OD 3.4 Categories of OD 3.5 Goals of OD 3.6 OD and Management Development 3.7 Role of OD 3.8 Problems in OD Self Assessment Questions 3.9 Summary 3.10 Terminal Questions 3.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 3.1 Introduction Organization development is the applied behavioural science discipline dedicated to improving organizations and the people in them through the use of the theory and practice of planned change. Organizations face multiple challenges and threats today – threats to effectiveness, efficiency, and profitability; challenges from turbulent environments, increased competition, and changing customer demands; and the constant challenge to maintain congruence among organizational dimensions such as technology, strategy, culture, and processes. Keeping organizations healthy and viable in today’s world is a daunting task. Individuals in organizations likewise face multiple challenges – finding satisfaction in and through work, fighting obsolescence of one’s knowledge and skills, maintaining dignity and purpose in pursuit of organizational goals, and achieving human connectedness and community in the workplace. Simple survival – continuing to have an adequate job – is a major challenge today in the light of constant layoffs and cutbacks. Although new jobs are being created at record rates, old jobs are being destroyed at an accelerating pace. “Knowledge” work is replacing “muscle” work. In summary, organizations and the individuals in them face an enormously demanding present and future. Are any strategies available to help people and organizations cope, adapt, survive, and even prosper in these vexing times? Fortunately, the answer is “yes”. A variety of solutions exists. And organization development (OD) is one of them. Basically, organization development is a
process of teaching people how to solve problems, take advantage of opportunities, and learn how to do that better and better over time. OD focuses on issues related to the “human side” of organizations by finding ways to increase the effectiveness of individuals, teams, and the organization’s human and social processes. Organization development is a relatively recent invention. It started in the late 1950s when behavioural scientists steeped in the lore and technology of group dynamics attempted to apply that knowledge to improve team functioning and inter-group relations in organizations. Early returns were encouraging, and attention was soon directed toward other human and social processes in organizations such as the design of work tasks, organization structure, conflict resolution, strategy formulation and implementation, and the like. The field of OD grew rapidly in the 1970s and the 1980s with thousands of organizations in the private and public sectors using the theory and methods of OD with great success. Today, organization development represents one of the best strategies for coping with the rampant changes occurring in the marketplace and society. We predict that organization development will be preferred improvement strategy in future. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Define organization development. · Explain the characteristics of OD. · Discuss the categories of OD programme. · State the goals of OD. · Distinguish between OD and Management Development · Explore the problems in OD. 3.2 Definitions Organization Development (OD) is a response to change, a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs, attitudes, values and structure of organization so that they can better adapt to new technologies, markets, and challenges, and the dizzying rate of change itself. (Bennis, 1969). OD can be defined as a planned and sustained effort to apply behavioural science for system improvement, using reflexive, self-analytic methods. (Schmuck and Miles, 1971)
Organizational development is a process of planned change- change of an organization’s culture from one which avoids an examination of social processes (especially decision making, planning and communication) to one which institutionalizes and legitimizes this examination. (Burke and Hornstein, 1972) The aims of OD are: 1) Enhancing congruence between organizational structure, processes, strategy, people, and culture; 2) Developing new and creative organizational solutions; and 3) Developing the organization’s self-renewing capacity (Beer, 1980). Organization development is an organizational process for understanding and improving any and all substantive processes an organization may develop for performing any task and pursuing any objectives…. A “process for improving processes” – that is what OD has basically sought to be for approximately 25 years (Vaill, 1989) “Organizational development is a set of behavioural science-based theories, values, strategies, and techniques aimed at the planned change of the organizational work setting for the purpose of enhancing individual development and improving organizational performance, through the alteration of organizational members’ on-the-job behaviours.” (Porras and Robertson, 1992) “OD is a systematic application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies, structure, and processes for improving an organization’s effectiveness.” (Cummings and Worley, 1993) “Organization development is a planned process of change in an organization’s culture through the utilization of behavioural science technologies, research, and theory.” (Burke, 1994) As you can see, these definitions overlap a great deal (that’s encouraging), and contain several unique insights (that’s enlightening). All authors agree that OD applies behavioural science to achieve planned change. Likewise, they agree that the target of change is the total organization or system and that the goals are increased organizational effectiveness and individual development. Collectively, these definitions convey a sense of what organization development is and does. They describe in broad outline the nature and methods of OD. There is no set definition of OD and no agreement on the boundaries of the field, that is, what practices should be included and excluded. But these are not serious constraints given that the field is still evolving, and that practitioners share a central core of understanding as shown in the preceding definitions.
Now let’s turn to our definition of organization development. but it includes a number of components that we consider essential. and problem-solving processes. we mean those leadership behaviours and human resource practices that enable organization members to develop and use their talents as fully as possible toward individual growth and organizational success. We do not propose it as the “right” definition. structure. then another moves it to yet a higher plateau of effectiveness. we mean those interacting. through an ongoing. By learning processes. collaborative management of organization culture-with special emphasis on the culture of intact work teams and other team configurations-using the consultantfacilitator role and the theory and technology of applied behavioural science. it is more accurate to describe “improvement” as a never-ending journey of continuous change. By empowerment. Peter Senge describes learning organizations as “… organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire. One program or initiative moves the organization to a higher plateau. or became distracted with other duties. In fact. we mean that organizational change and development takes time. For empowerment to become fact of life. Most OD programs that fail do so because top management was ambivalent. coherent. learning. By visioning processes. processes. empowerment. “Organization development is a long-term effort. lost its commitment. Top management must initiate the improvement “journey” and be committed to seeing it through. the ways those goods will be produced and delivered to customers. Visioning means creating a picture of the desired future that includes salient features of the human side of the organization and then working together to make that picture a reality.several years in most cases. The phrase led and supported by top management states an imperative: Top management must lead and actively encourage the change effort. Organizational change is hard. By empowerment processes. including action research.” This definition is lengthy. it includes pain and setbacks as well as success. led and supported by top management. and self-examining processes that facilitate individual. where . There is no “quick fix” when it comes to lasting organizational improvement. serious business. and shared picture of the nature of the products and services the organization offers. developing the strategy for getting there. it must be built into the very fabric of the organization-its strategy. We will explain this definition in some detail. where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured. team. listening. but as one that includes characteristics we think are important for the present and future of the field. and organizational learning. we mean involving large numbers of people in building the vision of tomorrow. By long-term effort. we mean those processes through which organization members develop a viable. to improve an organization’s visioning. and making it happen. and culture. and what the organization and its members can expect from each other.
and we highlight the importance of visioning. learning. (d) that has worked well enough to be considered valid and. and problem-solving processes are opportunities for collaboration in organization development. and common purposes of all members of the organization. commitment. empowerment. so they are the place OD programs often begin – getting people to stop doing things one way and start doing them a different way. empowerment. learning. managing the culture should be a collaborative business. We believe that when the culture promotes collaboration. By including culture so prominently in our definition. and continuous learning the organization is bound to succeed. that one of the most important things to manage in organizations is the culture: the prevailing pattern of values. not just a small group.” Problem-solving processes refer to the ways organization members diagnose situations. (b) invented. Processes are relatively easy to change. solve problems. beliefs. But change becomes permanent when the culture changes and people accept the new ways as the “right” ways. Edgar Schein clarifies the nature and power of culture in his definition: “Culture can now be defined as (a) a pattern of basic assumptions. widely shared vision of a desired future creates the best climate for effective problem-solving by all the organization’s members. empowerment. structure. The reciprocal influence among culture. so is managing the culture. assumptions. activities. attitudes. has a stake in making the organization work. expectations. and challenges in the organization’s environment and its internal functioning. Michael Beer’s definition called for “developing new and creative organizational solutions”. and where people are continually learning how to learn together. and feel-that is why culture change is necessary for true organizational improvement. and feel in relation to those problems. By ongoing collaborative management of the organization’s culture. and artifacts. norms. and take actions on problems. . Empowerment means involving people in problems and decisions and letting them be responsible for results. values. therefore (e) is to be taught to new members as the (f) correct way to perceive. one of wide-spread participation in creating and managing a culture that satisfies that wants and needs of individuals at the same time that it fosters the organization’s purposes. culture is of primary importance. first. we mean. we affirm our belief that culture is the bedrock of behaviour in organizations.collective aspiration is set free. discovered. and norms of behaviour that are viewed as the correct way to perceive. or developed by a given group. Just as visioning. and processes makes each important. We further believe that having compelling. in contrast to having only a select few involved. We believe solutions to problems are enhanced by tapping deeply into the creativity. vitality. Still. Collaborative management of the culture means that everyone. think. and each influences the others. strategy. interactions. Our definition also places considerable weight on organizational processes. opportunities. make decisions. And second. So culture consists of basic assumptions. (c) as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. sentiments. Processes are how things get done. and problem-solving processes. think.
By intact work teams and other configurations. When teams function well. and considerable antagonism among the separate functional specialists. the process “threw the results over the wall” to the next functional unit. such as design. The definition we have just analyzed contains the elements we believe are important for OD. OD focuses on culture and processes. self-directed teams control performance appraisals. maintaining quality control. multifunctional. wasted time. The old method was to have functional specialists work on the problem sequentially. members are trained in competencies such as planning. The thesis of Liberation Management is that contemporary bureaucratic structures with their functional specialties and rigid hierarchies are all wrong for the demands of today’s fast-paced market place. manufacturing. and training. constantly shifting teams will be the dominant configuration for getting work done. In Liberation Management. Further. . hiring. Team building and role and goal clarification interventions are standard activities in OD programs directed toward intact work teams. 2. To summarize. The results are usually highly gratifying both for the team members and for the organization. When one function finished with its part of the project. Tom Peters predicts that the work of tomorrow (most of which will be “brain work”) will be done by ad hoc teams brought together to accomplish a task. Today’s organizations increasingly use ad hoc teams that perform a specific task and disband when the task is completed. Specifically. The most prevalent form of teams in organizations is intact work teams consisting of superior and subordinates with a specific job to perform. This method resulted in loss of synergy. and using management information. OD encourages collaboration between organization leaders and members in managing culture and processes. according to Peters. individuals and the organization function well. firing. Over time. and procurement. The current method for getting complex tasks done in organizations is to assemble a cross-functional team comprised of members from all the functional specialities required to get the job done. But in many organizations today. Temporary. We think teams are the basic building blocks of organizations. much rework. we recognize that teams are central to accomplishing work in organizations. and then disbanded with the people going on to new tasks. He uses the terms ‘multifunctional projectization’ and ‘horizontal systems’ to describe these teams and their work. team culture can be collaboratively managed to ensure effectiveness. In addition to team building and role and goal clarification. here are the primary distinguishing characteristics of organization development: 1. engineering. These self-directed teams assume complete responsibility for planning and executing work assignments. intact work teams do not have a boss in the traditional sense-the teams manage themselves.
OD relies on an action research model with extensive participation by client system members. OD focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. so the methods of attaining these goals should also change. . Dynamic Process: OD is a dynamic process and includes the efforts to guide and direct changes as well as to cope with or adapt changes imposed. Rather. 3. they are ongoing. OD practitioners are facilitators. OD efforts are not one-shot actions. 5. Long-range Change: OD efforts are not meant for solving short-term. collaborators. OD focuses on total system change and views organizations as complex social systems. The concept of comprehensive change is based on the systems concept-open. Participation and involvement in problem-solving and decision-making by all levels of the organization are hallmarks of OD. 10. 6.3 Characteristics of OD 1. 7. Attempting to create “win-win” solutions is standard practice in OD programs. Planned Change: OD is a strategy of planned change for organizational improvement. OD focuses on the elevation of an organization to a higher level of functioning by improving the performance and satisfaction. OD efforts take an organization as an interrelated whole and no part of it can be changed meaningfully without making corresponding changes in other parts. and co-learners with the client system. 3.3. so that change is easily observed. 4. This ‘planned’ emphasis separates OD efforts from other kinds of more haphazard changes that are frequently undertaken by organizations. It recognizes that organizational goals change. Comprehensive Change: OD efforts focus on comprehensive change in the organization. 8. An overarching goal is to make the client system able to solve its problems on its own by teaching the skills and knowledge of continuous learning through self-analytical methods. 4. interactive. Teams of all kinds are particularly important for accomplishing tasks and are targets for OD activities. 2. Thus. dynamic and adaptive system. OD takes a developmental view that seeks the betterment of both individuals and the organization. 9. and cyclic processes. rather than focusing attention on individuals. temporary. OD views organization improvement as an ongoing process in the context of a constantly changing environment. rather. or isolated problems.
The change agent is a humanist seeking to get a humanistic philosophy in the organization.5.4 Categories of OD Programmes In general. evaluates these data. and adaptability for the organization as a whole. it is a programme with a purpose that is to guide present and future action. first. the importance and centrality of goals and objectives and the different role requirements of the consultant change agent vis-à-vis the clients. the element which links Organization Development with the scientific method of inquiry and. He designs intervention strategies based on these data. and mutual influence. . further more. This is done to arrive at certain desirable outcomes that may be in the form of increased effectiveness. The relationship involves mutual trust. 7. Emphasis on Intervention and Action Research: OD approach results in an active intervention in the ongoing activities of the organization. the collaborative relationships between the scientists. practitioners and the client laymen. participation. 3. collects relevant data. takes actions for intervention. A change agent in OD process does not just introspect the people and introduce changes. all types of experience requiring Organization Development efforts may be grouped into three categories: (a) Problems of destiny. growth. (b) The interventions are primarily directed towards problems and issues identified by the client group. second. yet following features are common to most of the programmes: (a) The client is a total system or major subunit of total system. OD attempts to provide opportunities to be ‘human’ and to increase awareness. or catalyst. problem-solving. There is a close working relationship between the change agent and the target organizational members to be changed. he conducts surveys. Normative Educational Process: OD is based on the principle that ‘norms form the basis for behaviour and change is a re-educative process of replacing old norms by new ones’. rather. (b) Problems of human satisfaction and development. 6. Organization Development is inextricably linked with action. and (c) Problems of organizational effectiveness. Two important elements of Organization Development are. He shares a social philosophy about human values. Although Organization Development Programmes vary. Participation of Change Agent: Most OD experts emphasize the need for an outside. and revitalization. They discourage ‘do it yourself’ approach. Key areas are the normative type of model. identity. At the individual level. Action research is the basis for such intervention. and integrate individual and organizational goals. third party change agent. and then. joint goals and means.
(c) The interventions are directed towards problem-solving and improved functioning for the client system. (d) To build trust among persons and groups throughout an organization. should begin with a clear-cut statement of specific objectives and criteria for determining if these objectives have been met from the stand point of the employee/employees simply as team member or for the total group. like other normative re-educative programmes. 3. (j) To improve effectiveness of the organization. (h) To help managers to manage according to relevant objectives rather than according to past practices or according to objectives which do not make sense for one’s area of responsibility. problem solving climate throughout an organization.6 OD and Management Development . This Organization Development progrmmes. (f) To develop a reward system which recognizes both the achievement of the organization’s goals (profit or service) and development of people. (g) To increase the sense of ‘ownership’ or organization’s objectives throughout the work force.5 Goals of Organization Development Following are the generally accepted goals of OD: (a) To create an open. We need to examine carefully the techniques of Organization Development. with the authority of knowledge and competence. (i) To increase self-control and self-direction for people within the organization. (b) To supplement the authority associated with role or status. and (d) The interventions are based on behavioural science theory and technology. (e) To make competition more relevant to work goals and to maximize collaborative efforts. (c) To locate decision making and problem-solving responsibilities as close to sources of information as possible. 3. its underlying theory and assumptions and some of the pitfall and challenges in attempting to improve organizations through behavioural science.
less individual competitiveness. (ii) competitiveness. He feels that management development reinforces the above four qualities and helps managers cultivate and develop the will to manage. While the latter aims at developing the mangers individually for the accomplishment of better performance in organizational setting. Based on this.” Organization development differs from management development. (iii) assertiveness. with their existing objectives and structure. OD tries to fit the organization to the men.At this stage. accomplishments. organization. Before making a comparison between the two. Miner has drawn difference between two processes. focus on achieving better in existing improvement in design. Burke and Schmidt have made this difference more clear which is presented in the following table. not on the and managers to perform managers. then would the results be functional for managing organization activity in a competitive world? Thus. he appears to be biased against OD and the real distinction between OD and MD lies in between these two extremes. according to him. If OD efforts train people towards anti-authority value. management development has been defined as follows: “Management development is all those activities and programmes when recognized and controlled. there are four attributes of effective managers in large organization. whereas OD efforts within organizations may cause confusion and chaos for incoming human resources if the organization is underplayed and the humanistic dimension alone is emphasized. have substantial influence in changing the capacity of the individual to perform his assignment better and in so doing are likely to increase his potential for future management assignment. and techniques adopted in both may overlap to some extent. These are: (i) a positive attitude towards authority. Train and equip employees Focus on design. Difference between Management Development and OD Factors Objectives Management Development Organization Development Increasing manager’s Changing the nature of the contributions to goal organization. However. The term ‘development’ refers broadly to the nature and direction of change induced in personnel through the process of training and education. Focus . According to him. it is beneficial to make a comparison between OD and Management Development (MD) as both have some common objectives that betterment of an organization. and (iv) a sense of responsibility. let us define management development as we have seen the definition of OD. the former goes one step further and purports to change the entire organizational climate where the mangers work. MD tries to fit the men to the organization. more attention to peer-groups. and greater display of feelings and emotions.
and laterally. By 70s. Since OD attempts to bring comprehensive change in the organization. 3. OD became quite successful with many professional consultants offering high services and programmes to various organizations. 7. as a long-term strategy for organizational change. 3. 4. 3.8 Problems in Organization Development Organization development. To treat each human being as a complex person with a complex set of needs important in his work and his life. Problem-solving approach. To increase the openness of communications in all directions-vertically. 6. To increase the level of trust and mutual emotional support among all organization members. Specialist No special requirement. however. To create an environment in which authority of assigned role is augmented by authority based on knowledge and skills. Research studies have also failed to conclude . has invited sharp criticism as a strategy to increase organizational viability and effectiveness because many OD programmes have failed. To increase the level of enthusiasms and personal satisfaction at all levels of the organization. In early 60s.7 Role of Organization Development Organization development. To increase the level of self and group responsibility in planning and its implementation. Thus. The basic problem in a change effort which is not comprehensive is that it does not work properly unless there is a proper change in the internal environment of the organization in which people work. Trained specialists required. however. it is quite suitable for improving organizational performance on long-term basis.Approach Time Educative and training Short-range. Long-range strategy for organizational innovation and renewal. confrontation techniques. substantial disenchantment with OD became evident because of many controversial OD techniques like sensitivity training. 2. OD can be utilized for the following results in the organization: 1. 5. horizontally. etc. To place emphasis on humanistic values and goals consistent with these vales. Much of the enthusiasm created at the beginning of OD programmes vanished over the period of time. plays key role in organizational improvement.
OD programmes are often quite costly. and (iii) failure to increase employee motivation through participation and development of personal growth and self-esteem. Evans has identified three factors which have been responsible for the failure of OD programmes: (i) failure of the management consultant group to correctly tailor the programme to actual needs of the organization. In general. OD can not be taken as panacea for curing all organizational problems. particularly in bottom-line ones. OD fails to motivate people with low level of achievement needs. . Therefore. 2. it may be emphasized that OD programmes are likely to fail when these are not programmes and hence failure. Hence. Resistance to change is a natural phenomenon and OD puts undue pressure to change. Some of these efforts are as follows: 1. These should be based on the specific needs of the organization. 5. 2. OD makes people unfit for the real organizations world because no organization can fully adopt open system concept.significant contributions of OD in all organizations. 5. For example. some specific efforts are required. 4. Only fully competent OD consultant should be pressed for the service and he should develop understanding with internal change agents. There should be genuine support of OD programme from top management. Enough time should be allowed so that the effects of OD programme are realized. it is useless to try OD. OD tries to achieve ideal without taking into account real. It can be seen that many of these criticisms are based on reality and experience. There should be proper use of OD interventions. OD is criticized on the following lines: 1. and only large organizations can afford this luxury without any guarantee of positive outcome. Organization must formulate the objectives of OD programme very clearly and specifically. People realized its dysfunctional aspects only when many OD efforts failed. 4. However. Thus. 3. There is discrepancy between ideal and real situations. Therefore. 3. it can be visualized that OD itself may not be dysfunctional but application may be. and (ii) failure to correctly model appropriate personnel behaviour in the programme. If an organization is laden with these people. it fails even as a long-term strategy. in order to make best use of OD efforts.
11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. There is no ‘quick fix’ to organizations’ problems. 2. Distinguish between ‘organizational development’ and ‘management development’. 5. OD is the ultimate remedy for organizational improvements and developments. State the various roles of OD. Explain its salient features. Who is associated with the “Learning Organizations”? 5.10 Terminal Questions 1.9 Summary The definitions clarify the distinctive features of OD and suggest why it is such a powerful change strategy. ––––––– is associated with “Liberation Management”. Define OD. _____________is a short-term strategy. It focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. collaborative. 3. Empowerment . Tom Peters 3. problem-focused ‘nature of OD’ marshals the experience and expertise of organization members for problem-solving and capitalizes the opportunities in the organization. ––––––––– is a process which includes leadership behaviours and human resource practices. What are the problems involved in the implementation of OD? 3. 4. 3. 4. But OD aims at changing the entire organizational climate where the managers work. Top management 2. Organization development should be led and supported by –––––––. Management development aims at developing the managers individually. 3. Explain the various characteristics of OD. 3. The participative. OD focuses on culture and processes. 2.Self Assessment Questions 1.
1 Introduction Objectives 4.Organization Development – Interventions Structure: 4. Peter Senge 5.6 Team-building .7 5.2 2.4.3 Process Consultation 4. Refer section 3.5 Leadership Development 4. Management development Answers to TQs: 1.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer section 3. Refer section 3.4 Grid Training 4.Organization Development – Interventions Unit-04.3 3. Refer section 3.6 4.2 Survey Feedback 4. MU0002-Unit-04. Refer section 3.
and organizational culture. A meaningful classification of OD interventions may be based on the improvement in the behaviour of people in the organization as OD is basically a behavioural approach.8 Change Agents 4. group level. the classification of OD interventions shows variation.11 Terminal Questions 4. survey feedback. Thus. team-building. they make things happen.9 Role of Change Agents Self Assessment Questions 4. process consultation. and organizational level. mediation and negotiation activities. techno-structural activities. For example.10 Summary 4. This classification of OD interventions is very comprehensive and many activities do not strictly form the part of OD as process of organizational improvement but other methods of improving the performance of the organization. Nevertheless.” There are various OD interventions and they are classified in different ways.4. management grid. French and Bell have defined OD intervention as: “Sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage with a task or a sequence of tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvement.7 Inter Group Development 4. Interventions constitute the action thrust of organization development.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 4.1 Introduction OD interventions refer to various activities which a consultant and client organization perform for improving organizational performance through enabling organizational members better manage their behaviour. interventions may be required to change people at all these levels. Further. work group. People’s behaviour may be relevant to understand at individual level. various consultants and practitioners have different opinions about the activities which can be included in interventions. such a classification of interventions may not put them into mutually exclusive categories as a particular intervention may be applied at more than one level. the classification appears to be more relevant because it may specify the . inter-group level. education and training. French and Bell have suggested twelve families of OD interventions: diagnostic. Therefore. many of them visualize data gathering as an intervention whereas it is treated as only preparatory work for OD by others. interpersonal level. inter-group activities. However.
managerial work facilitation. Institute for Social Research (ISR) of University of Michigan. developing action plans based on feedback. and participative goal-setting which has become more popular as management by objectives. · Describe process consultation. and follow up. · Role of change agents. feedback of information. other techniques like process consultation. Though some type of survey method was prevalent in various organizations earlier. To assist the organization in diagnosing its problems and developing action plan for problemsolving. . Data Collection: The first step in survey feedback is data collection usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. managerial goal emphasis. peer goal emphasis. Historically. Objectives: After studying this unit. · Realize the importance of team-building. USA developed a comprehensive questionnaire for conducting survey in different aspects of an organization. Subsequently. Process of Survey Feedback Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection. The basic objectives of survey feedback are as follows: 1. and survey feedback method. OD efforts were attempted through sensitivity training. have been added. and peer interaction facilitation. you will be able to: · Describe survey feedback. team. The questionnaire may include different aspects of organizational functioning. peer work facilitation. To assist the group members to improve the relationships through discussion of common problems. Our further discussion follows this development.range of change that an organization requires. 2. 1. ISR has prepared a questionnaire which includes questions on leadership – managerial support. the other major thrust in the development of OD has come from survey research and feedback of data.2 Survey Feedback Besides laboratory training (sensitivity and grid). peer support. 4. · Explain grid training.building. grid training.
Alternatively. It is cost-effective means of implementing a comprehensive OD programme making it a highly desirable technique. If it is biased. and general management. 2. 3. rather. and satisfaction with the work group. it is of no use unless follow-up action is taken based on the . satisfaction with the supervisor. data are classified. it is provided through group discussion or problem-solving sessions conducted by the consultant. Second. co-ordination between departments. 3. questionnaire used and method adopted for its administration should be reliable and valid. Whatever the method of giving feedback is adopted. it should be constructive and suggestive. decision-making. Decision-making and problem-solving abilities of organization can be improved tremendously because this approach applies the competence and knowledge throughout the organization and the problems faced by it. However. threatening and emotion-hurting as survey feedback is aimed at identifying weaknesses which must be overcome through follow-up actions and not the fault-finding technique for criticism. Evaluation of Survey Feedback Survey feedback provides a base for many managerial actions which has been confirmed by various research studies. and satisfaction-satisfaction with the company. even if valid and reliable information is collected. survey feedback contributes in the following manner: 1. In particular. follow-up action may be in the form of developing some specific OD interventions particularly process consultation and team-building. After the questionnaires are completed. by the consultant. 2. First. feedback may be given in the form of a written summary of findings. One such follow-up action may be to advise the participants to develop their own action plans to overcome the problems revealed through a feedback or as is more commonly the case. The questionnaire is administered personally either by the members of consulting firm or by organization’s personnel. effectiveness of survey feedback depends on two factors. The feedback may be given either orally or in a written form.organizational climate-communication with the company. motivation. control within the company. It generates great amount of information efficiently and quickly which can be used in solving problems faced by the organization and its members. feedback is given to the persons who have participated in the fulfilling up of questionnaire. tabulated. In oral system of feedback. satisfaction with the pay. satisfaction with the job. Follow-up Action: Survey feedback programme is not meaningful unless some follow-up action is taken based on the data collected. and analysis is made to arrive at some meaningful conclusions. all attempts to diagnose the problems will be abortive and futile. Feedback of Information: After the data are analyzed.
etc. communication. 2. group decision-making and problemsolving. the client’s expectations and hoped-for results are also decided. This data gathering occurs simultaneously with the entire consultative process. 3. 1. Gather Data and Make a Diagnosis: Information is collected from various sources thorough the use of questionnaires. and inter-group co-operation and conflicts. The basic content of P.information. At this stage. . 4.” The basic objectives of P. To understand how various organizational processes can be linked to objective achievement in the organization. understand. Define the Relationship: At this stage.C) is a technique for intervening in an ongoing system. To bring desired change in the various organizational processes like leadership. 4. and act upon the process events which occur in the client’s environment. At this stage. Select the Setting and the Method: It involves a clear-cut understanding of where and how the consultant will do the job that is required.C has defined it as follows: “The set of activities on the part of the consultant which help the client to perceive. group norms. and spelling out services. it provides base for action for change. Edgar Schein. observations. spelled out at the initial stage. Steps in Process Consultation Schein has suggested following specific steps which the consultant would follow in a P.C programme of OD.C are as follows: 1.3 Process Consultation Process Consultation (P.C in which the client makes initial contact with the consultant with a view to solve the problems faced by the organization which cannot be solved by existing processes or resources. roles and functions of group members. the leading writer and consultant on P.C are communicated to them with a view that they co-operate with the consultant.C is that the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. 2. Initiate Contact: This is beginning stage of P. time. client and consultant enter into agreement covering various aspects of consultancy services like fees. A survey feedback is not a technique in itself for change. the consultant is introduced to the organizational members and basic objectives of the P. and interview about the problems. Information collected is processed to diagnose the problems and their underlying causes.
5. The whole orientation is to develop managerial style through the application of behavioural science knowledge. It utilizes a considerable number of instruments. One basic reason for this phenomenon may be the consultant’s inability to steer the organization out of troubles. Another problem may emerge at the level of the organization and its members in terms of how they inculcate the new processes and culture as suggested by the consultant. In the review of various P. and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. P. 2. Intervene: At this stage.C is also not free from criticisms. the consultant disengages from the client organization by mutual agreement but leaves the door open for future involvement.4 Grid Training Grid training is basically based on grid organization development developed by Blake and Mouton. group. Though he is involved only in suggesting the various changes in the processes. the consultant intervenes in the organizational processes by using different interventions like agenda-setting. . and the organization as a whole. To understand the importance and rationale of systematic change. 3.C is completed. inter-group.C programmes. groups. Evaluation of Process Consultation: Process consultation is quite in-depth activity of OD in which the consultant plays a major role. coaching. Its specific objectives are as follows: 1. Process of Grid Training The basic content of grid organization development is managerial grid as discussed. P. feedback. From this point of view. 4. knowledge. However. focuses on skills.C is very effective intervention for organizational improvement. It is a comprehensive and systematic OD programme which aims at individuals. like other OD intervention techniques. However. The grid organization development consists of six phases. and total organizational levels. Reduce Involvement and Terminate: When the work of P. he assists the organizational members to incorporate those changes. and/or structural change. 6. To study the organization as an interactive system and apply techniques of analysis in diagnosing its problems. significant correlation between the outcomes has not been found. To evaluate the styles of leadership and techniques of participation to produce desirable results. both these problems may be overcome by engaging a suitable consultant and developing willingness among the members for change. enabling individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses.
Action steps to move towards the ideal are developed and assigned to individuals who may be engaged in building co-operative inter-group relationships. Developing Ideal Strategic Corporate Model: At this stage. Teamwork Development: The focus in this stage is to develop teamwork by analyzing team culture. problem-solving. the various programmes may be redesigned. Implementing the Ideal Strategic Model: The implementation stage includes the building of the organization on the model of ideal organization on the basis of concepts developed under stage 4. Each group separately analyses the ideal inter-group relations. The skills relating to planning. The strategy is then implemented. 3. The thrust is on moving groups from conflict to co-operation. it appears that this type of educational strategy can help to make significant contributions to organizational effectiveness. they maintained the same stand. Each group may be given assignment to evolve strategy for making ideal organization with the help of the consultant. The analysis will bring out the shortcomings that may be there. Inter-group Development: At this phase. The individuals try to learn to become managers by practice. Evaluation of Grid Training Most of the support of grid training has come from its originators-Blake and Mouton. In this light. Systematic Critique: In this stage. therefore. 4. 4. in spite of these criticisms. The members of the organization are trained for achieving this excellence. the various efforts from phase 1 to phase 5 are evaluated and critical analysis is made. the focus is on inter-group behaviour and relations. and teamwork. and alike. Grid training programme is criticized on the basis that it lacks contingency approach and. the focus shifts to the total organization and to develop skills necessary for organizational excellence. traditions. grid training has some positive contributions for organizational effectiveness. Furthermore. They have maintained that “managerial and team effectiveness can be taught to managers with outside assistance. and problemsolving are also developed.” In a later work.5 Leadership Development . Though research studies on the application of grid training are not many. some of them have not supported the claims made by Blake and Mouton. Further. The action is designed to identify the characteristics of the ideal organization. 6. it discounts reality. communication skills. grid training is a non-rigorous method. 5. objective-setting.1. Managerial grid: It covers various aspects of assessing managerial styles. 2.
brings hope for better times in the future. The best way to summarize is that there is a climate of trust between leader and the rest of the team. which. complete communication that is timely. widely accepted. 4. employees expect nothing positive.” A possible reason for this phenomenon is that people in the organization work in groups (teams) and the effectiveness of these groups ultimately determine organizational effectiveness. The Role of Leadership In an organization where there is faith in the abilities of formal leaders. employees will look towards the leaders for a number of things. French and Bell have opined that “probably the most important single group of interventions in the OD are the team-building activities the goals of which are the improvement and increased effectiveness of various teams within the organization. while at the same time recognizing that tough decisions need to be made. We can call these Preparing For the Journey. The literature on the subject indicates that the nature of the change is secondary to the perceptions that employees have regarding the ability. employees learn that leaders will act in indecipherable ways and in ways that do not seem to be in anyone’s best interests. but more importantly. therefore. employees will perceive leadership as supportive. lead. Slogging Through The Swamp. are closely associated with a very few advocates and practitioners. Leadership before. As against these. and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. concerned and committed to their welfare. teambuilding is the most important. Poor leadership means an absence of hope. let us consider the life cycle of a team. For example. and that makes coping with drastic change much easier. and credibility of senior and middle management. if allowed to go on for too long. clearly the most important determinant of "getting through the swamp". employees will expect effective and sensible planning. results in an organization becoming completely nonfunctioning. We will look more carefully at each of these. must labor under the weight of employees who have given up. In organizations characterized by poor leadership. by the time you have to deal with difficult changes. and After Arrival. competence. The existence of this trust. how synergy is generated through team-work. have no faith in the system or in the ability of leaders to turn the organization around. In a climate of distrust. if haven’t established a track record of effective leadership. during and after change implementation is THE key to getting through the swamp. Also during these times of change. Unfortunately. you need to be aware that there are three distinct times zones where leadership is important. Before going through how team-building exercise can be undertaken to develop effective teams. If you are to manage change effectively. During drastic change times. confident and effective decision-making. problems in .6 Team-building Various OD interventions discussed so far have their specific implications for OD and.When change is imposed (as in downsizing scenarios). is the ability of leadership to…well. The organization must deal with the practical impact of unpleasant change. it may be too late. and regular.
team members get introduced to each other if they have not interacted earlier. they do represent a broad pattern that may be observed and predicted in many settings across team’s time together. and features of effective team so that team-building exercises focus more sharply on developing effective team. they often pass through several stages as they learn to work together as a team. 5. because of individual differences. and begin to turn their attention to the group tasks. interaction among team members is often cautious especially when they are new to one another. These typical stages of life cycle of a team are described below: 1. Norming: After storming stage. The . each team has to be adjourned. These stages are the result of a variety of questions and issues that team members face such as “who will be members of the team?” “Who will perform what functions?” “Who will contribute what?” “What rules will be followed?” “How can conflicts among members be resolved?” and so on. performing. and tasks are accompanied efficiently. The team begins to move in a co-operative fashion and a tentative balance among competing forces too is struck. 4. 4. storming. Life Cycle of a Team When a number of individuals begin to work at interdependent jobs. Sooner or later. they learn to handle complex problems that come before the team.1: Life Cycle of a Team Though these are not followed rigidly.team-work. 3. Functional roles are performed and exchanged as needed. These stages are: forming. 2. and adjourning as shown below: Fig. Forming: At the first stage of the life cycle. Performing: When team members interact among themselves on the basis of norms that have emerged in the team. team members start settling. At this stage. even the most successful teams as they have completed their mission. They share personal information. and arguing for appropriate strategies to be adopted for achieving team’s goals. group norms emerge to guide individual behaviour which form the basis for co-operative feelings and behaviour among members. norming. Adjourning: Adjourning is the end phase of cycle of a team. members start interaction among themselves in the form of competing for status. Storming: After the forming stage which is mostly related to perceiving and assessing each other. At this stage. start to accept others. jockeying for relative control. different members may experience varying degree of tension and anxiety out of this interaction pattern.
committee.adjournment phase takes place in the case of those teams which are created for some special purposes like task force. . concept of stages is significant in the context of the nature of problem which team members are likely to face in team-work. They rely on the fact the more reliable members will complete the project without their help. After the adjournment of the team. the complementarity among members is achieved. students find that one or two students do not put their weight for the completion of the project. Other types of team like a department in an organization run on the basis of some permanency though there may be changes in team members. These students may be called loafers (not attaching the same connotation which is attached with the term loafer in our social phenomenon) who frequently miss the project group’s meetings. However. in one experiment. To the extent. For example. Putting the concept of synergy in teamwork means members of the team are complementary to each other and they contribute positively to one another. synergistic effect is not automatic but depends on the complementarity of different elements that are put together and the way they interact among themselves. and still expect to share the credit and obtain the same marks from the professor since he will be concerned with determining who worked and who did not. This phenomenon may happen in teams in work organizations too. the team would be effective. In fact. The concept of synergy is quite popular in strategic management and it is defined as follows: “Synergy is the process of putting two or more elements together to achieve a sum total greater than the sum total of individual elements separately. A simple phenomenon of social loafing may be observed in a group assignment to students during their study. a team is created to undertake a task which requires a variety of skills and single individual cannot perform that task alone. etc. how a particular element affects another and is affected by it. other factors remaining the same. intense social relationship among members comes to an end. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts. fail to perform their assigned tasks. Social Loafing Social loafing is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. that is. This effect can be described as 2+2=5 effect. In such an assignment. It is not necessary that all teams follow the rigid pattern prescribed here and the similar problems they face at each stage because each team is different in some respect based on the type of members and problems and functions assigned. Synergy in Team-work Another important feature of a team is the concept of synergy which generates in team-work and the understanding of which helps in developing effective team. and so on.” Thus.
The phenomenon of social loafing can be minimized by constituting effective team for group performance. team members may not show high degree of enthusiasm and they will use only a part of their skills in performing the jobs. 2. Thus. skills which are complementary to the team requirement and understanding of one’s own role as well as roles of other members. super-ordinate goals and team rewards. goals. In the above paragraph. Even if one member lacks behind. When the same individuals pulled on the rope of groups of three. .6 pound of pressure while tugging on the rope. group efforts tend to slacken. From this statement. Therefore. understanding of roles helps members to meet the requirement of one another thereby solving the problems which the team faces. The possibility of occurring of social loafing in a team-work increases because of the following reasons: 1. Individuals were asked to pull alone as hard as possible on a rope attached to a strain gauge.2 pounds. managers at higher levels particularly at the top level should set organizational climate and culture which enthuse team members to put their best. Effective Team An effective team is one which contributes to the achievement of organizational objectives by performing the task assigned to it and providing satisfaction to its members. supportive environment. group of eight. Let us see how these factors make a team effective. it appears that there are many factors in an effective team. the individual average dropped down still lower68. team members may tend to contribute positively to the teamwork. he may tend to affect others because of chain reaction just like a rotten apple injures its companions.it was found that individuals’ total efforts were much higher than the group efforts. two things are required from its members. other factors remaining the same. When the group is not cohesive with high output norms. Dropping of average output in group efforts indicates that some members of the group were not contributing as much as they did individually. and attitudes. If the organizational climate is not in tune with high achievement. They averaged 138. When the division of work cannot be accomplished properly and individual efforts are hard to determine. Skills and Role Clarity: For an effective team. Supportive Environment: A team loaded with skilled members cannot perform well if the organizational climate is not supportive for that. 1. we have mentioned that team effectiveness depends on the complementarity of team members. individual members do not contribute to the fullest extent. 2. These factors are skills and role clarity. A group is not merely an assemblage of individuals but there should be a feeling that they are members of the group and share common interests. While skills are relevant for job performance.
3. Super-ordinate Goals: Super-ordinate goals are those which are above the goals of a single team or a single individual. An individual works better if he is able to link how his goal attainment leads to the attainment of a higher-level goal. These super-ordinate goals, then, serve to focus attention, unify efforts, and stimulate more cohesive team efforts. 4. Team Rewards: Team performance depends on how reward is linked to team performance and how members perceive this linkage. If team members perceive that reward to contingent on team performance, they will put their maximum. Rewards of both types- financial and nonfinancial-should be taken into consideration. Further, organizations need to achieve a careful balance between encouraging and rewarding individual initiative and growth and stimulating full contributions to team success. Innovative non-financial team rewards for responsible behaviour may include the authority to select new members of the group, make recommendations regarding a new supervisor, or propose discipline for team members. The positive aspect of all these factors leads to team effectiveness and team members share common values regarding product quality, customer satisfaction, and share the responsibility for completing a project on schedule. Katzenbatch and Smith, management consultants, have suggested the concept of real team and they feel that this concept is relatively unexploited despite its capacity to outperform other groups and individuals. They define four characteristics of real teams: small size; complementary skills; common purpose, goals, and working approach: and willingness to be held mutually accountable. Real teams can be created and sustained by: 1. Selecting members for their complementary skills and potentials; 2. Developing clear rules of conduct and challenging performance goals; 3. Establishing a sense of urgency right from the first meeting. 4. Providing substantial time together in which new information is constantly shared; and 5. Providing positive feedback, recognition, and rewards. Team-building Process: Team-building attempts to improve effectiveness of the team by having team members to concentrate on: 1. Setting goals and priorities for the team. 2. Analyzing how team’s goals and priorities are linked to those of the organization. 3. Analyzing how the work is performed. 4. Analyzing how the team is working, and
5. Analyzing the relationships among the members who are performing the job. For achieving these, the team-building exercise proceeds in a particular way as shown in figure.
Fig. 4.2: Process of Team-building Various steps of team-building process are not one-shot action, rather, they are repetitive and cyclical as indicated by arrows in the figure. 1. Problem-sensing: There are a number of ways in which problems of a team can be obtained. Often the team itself defines which aspects of team-building it wishes to work on. This problem can better be identified in terms of what is hindering group effectiveness. At this stage, generally most of the members come forward with their arguments as to what the real problems are. The view may be quite different ranging from the organizational problem, group problems to even personal problem. In problem identification, the emphasis should be on consensus. The consensus-seeking part of the process necessitates that each person becomes thoroughly aware and understand clearly the basic concepts of team-development. Much of the problems may be solved through effective communication and training sessions. 2. Examining Differences: The perception of people on an issue differs because of their differing backgrounds, such as, their value systems, personality and attitudes. The perception may be brought to conformity through the process of exercise on perception which involves a number of psychological exercises particularly on perceptual differences. The role of communication is important in this context because it will help in clarifying the actual problems to the members. 3. Giving and Receiving Feedback: The step of perceiving things and listening to each other may be relayed back to the members as there is a possibility that such processes may create tense situation in the group. Often, members report about the painful feelings that they have at the time of evaluation of their feelings. The discussion should continue until all members of the team have commented. The feedback should be given to the members about their feelings, about the issue, the way people talk about the issue, the stying with the topic or going off on tangents, who was talking more or who was talking less, who was trying to resolve the differences, etc. Such feedback generally provides members to evaluate the values but at the same time, also provides opportunity to understand themselves. The concept of Johari Window may also be applied. This suggests that even people are not fully aware of themselves. 4. Developing Interactive Skills: The basic objective of this process is to increase the ability among the people as to how they should interact with others and engage in constructive behaviour. Following are the examples of constructive and negative behaviours:
Constructive Behaviour: (i) Building: developing and expanding the ideas of others. (ii) Bringing in: harmonizing, encouraging others to participate. (iii) Clarifying: resting, ensuring, understanding, seeking relevant information. (iv) Innovative: bringing in new relevant ideas, information, feelings, etc.
(i) Over talk: interrupting, talking together with speaker. (ii) Attacking: deriding, belittling, criticizing person. (iii) Negative: cooling, cynicism, undermining morale. At the time of discussion of feedback, people themselves take assignments to increase specific constructive behaviours and decrease specific negative behaviours. If this process is adopted several times, there is a strong possibility that members may learn constructive behaviours and leave negative behaviours. This is quite helpful in developing teamwork. 5. Follow-up Action: This is the final stage in team-building. At this stage, the total team is convened to review what has been learned and to identify what the next step should be. Follow-up action also helps in overcoming the drawback involved at the initial stages of teambuilding. It involves deciding who will take care of each area of the team’s responsibilities, and who will be responsible for team projects in a group that has not developed a satisfactory division of responsibility; clarifying and setting differences in perception concerning responsibility and authority in the team, with complex division of responsibility and authority among members. These attempts bring co-operative and supportive feelings among people involved in the team functioning. When this exercise is undertaken at the initial stage, it contributes positively towards the feelings of the people. However, to encourage and sustain such feelings, management should take such actions at regular intervals so that members feel reinforced and sustain their positive behaviour. Such actions will go a long way in shaping the organizational climate quite conducive to members for their efficient working. Evaluation of Team-building As mentioned earlier, team-building as an OD intervention has attracted maximum attention. Many research studies have also confirmed the positive contributions of team-building on the
there have been calls for combining team-building with organization behaviour modification approaches. and feedback skills). team-building has a positive outlook. 3. New member may find it difficult to adjust with the team because of his confusion over his roles in terms of task performance and building good relationships. Therefore. each group meets independently to develop lists of its perception of itself. However. team-building contributes to the organizational performance in the following manner: 1. etc. this has been a subject to which change efforts have been directed.organization’s outcomes. listening.7 Inter-group Development A major area of concern is OD is the dysfunctional conflict that exists between groups. It improves the organization’s problem-solving and decision-making ability. 4. 2. It helps developing communication within the group and inter-group and overcoming many psychological barriers that block communication flow.. In spite of these problems. Although there are several approaches for improving intergroup relations. in different degrees. 2. are not given adequate attention. communicating. Differences are clearly articulate. As a result. though. one of the more Popular methods emphasize problem solving. monitoring. The groups then share their lists. Team-building becomes a complicated exercise when there is frequent change in team members. However. In general. . stereotypes. It focuses only on work groups and other major organizational variables such as technology. and the groups look for the causes of the disparities. It helps in developing effective interpersonal relationships by stimulating the group members for that. Once the causes of the difficulty have been identified. structure. One such suggestion is to use a task hierarchy to reinforce the team as it progresses up a behaviour skill hierarchy (for example. the other group. the groups can move to the integration phase – working to develop solutions that will improve relations. team-building has been termed as one-sided effort and it suffers from the following limitations: 1. and perceptions that groups have of each other. and how it believes the other group perceivers it. it is not that effective in isolation. In this method. It seeks to change to attitudes. after which similarities and differences are discussed.
as the radiator absorbing some of the heat of the controversy. as the break for too quick action. presentations. internal management often will hire the services or outside consultants to provide advice and assistance. changing (intervening) and refreezing. The consultant may fulfill a variety of functions.Subgroups. The trainer role is most widely and intensively used at all stages of a change project: unfreezing. may be more thoughtful (and possibly cautious) because they to live with the consequences of their actions. 4. Trainer A change agent needs to be a trainer and educator. or as fog lamp when the future is hazy. role-plays and instruments. Outside consultants also may be prone to initiating more drastic changes – which can be benefit or a disadvantage – because they don’t have to live with the repercussions after the change is implemented.These three roles are having been brief described below: Consultant A consultant is a professional (internal or external) who applies behavioral Science knowledge in an ongoing organization (or client system) with clear objectives of managing change and improving effectiveness. as the accelerator to build up momentum. group discussions.8 Change Agents Change agents: Can be managers or nonmanagers. however. internal staff specialists or managers when acting as change agents. enabling the client to let off steam: as the ignition to spark action. as the shock absorber when the going is rough. but one thing he/she is not the driver”. employees of the organization. For major change efforts. or outside consultants. Because they are from the outside these individuals an offer can offer an objective perspective often unavailable to insiders. films. and personnel. are disadvantaged because they usually have an inadequate understanding of the organization’s history.9 Role of Change Agents The change agent may play different roles according to the need of organization development . culture. He has to educate people on the need and importance o change using a variety of methodologies – lectures. can now be created for further diagnosis and to begin to formulate possible alternative actions that will improve relations. 4. cases and experiential learning etc. . According to Curtis Mial: “The Consultant may serve as the exhaust value. In contrast. with members from each of the conflicting groups. operating procedures. Outside consultants.
10 Summary OD intervention strategies are various activities which a consultant and client organization performs for improving organizational performance. widely accepted and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. 4. Training is used both in ‘content orientation’ and process orientation’. Sensitivity training focuses on small group ranging from ten to twelve. evolving best strategies for change by assessing alternatives and the important stages in a change project where the change agent has to be a Researcher. Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection. Data collection. 2. It focuses on skills. Researcher A change agent has to carry out some research activities for the purpose of generating valid information prior to and during the change process. developing action plans based on feedback and follow-up. skills and change in behavior. attitudes and beliefs. Teambuilding is most important. group. knowledge and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. What is survey feedback as an intervention of OD? How does it provide base for other OD interventions? . Grid training focuses on individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses.11 Terminal Questions 1. Self Assessment Questions 1. In process consultation. diagnosis. Useful hypothesis are to be formulated and tested. ________is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. generation of new behavioral science knowledge. the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. feedback of information. inter-group and total organization levels. Grid Training was developed by –––––––––––– 3. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts 4. The first step in survey feedback is ______ usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. What is Grid Training? How does it help in improving individual performance in an organization? 2.Training is required for enhancing knowledge.
2 3.2 Definitions and . Refer section 4. MU0002-Unit-05-Values. Beliefs in Organization Development Unit-05-Values. Assumptions.6 4. What is team-building? What are the stages of life cycle of a team? 4.4 2. Refer section 4. Blake and Mouton. Explain Change agents and discuss the role of change agents in detail. Assumptions.1 Introduction Objectives 5. Data collection 2.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Social loafing Answers to TQs: 1.3. 3. and Beliefs in Organization Development Structure: 5. 4. Refer section 4.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Refer section 4.
Objectives: After studying this unit. · Give the statement of OD values and assumptions. · List the chronology of events of values.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations 5.6 Summary Self Assessment Questions 5.5.4 Early Statements of OD Values and Assumptions 5. assumptions. and they continue to evolve as the field itself evolves. beliefs and assumptions. 5.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought 5.1 Introduction A set of values.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals 5. beliefs and assumptions. and beliefs constitutes an integral part of organization development.2 Definitions A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. shaping the goals and methods of the field and distinguishing OD from other improvement strategies.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 5. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of values. it is a cognitive fact for the person.7 Terminal Questions 22.214.171.124. These values and assumptions have developed from research and theory by behavioural scientists and from the experiences and observations of practicing managers. . Most of these beliefs were formulated early in the development of the field.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups 5.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions 5. · State the implications of OD values and assumptions.
Optimistic values posit that people are basically good. reason. that progress is possible and desirable in human affairs. OD values tend to be humanistic. view all people as having the potential for growth and development. the human relations movement. free speech) and what is undesirable or ‘bad’ (e. values. repetitive tasks in an attempt to find "the one best way" to do each job. and the like. and beliefs are all cognitive facts or propositions. and democratic. Simple. with values being beliefs about good and bad. the laboratory training movement. the importance of fair and equitable treatment for all. Values and assumptions do not spring full grown from individuals or societies they are formed from the collective beliefs of an era-the zeitgeist. research on the effects of different leadership styles.g. and beliefs provide structure and stability for people as they attempt to understand the world around them. the clash between fascism and democracy in World War II.g. assume that everyone has intrinsic worth." or slacking off. As these ingredients accumulated. or spirit of the time. Thus.. Major ingredients of the zeitgeist that influenced OD values and assumptions are presented here in a brief chronology. greater understanding of individual motivation and group dynamics. Evidence for the validity of these values and their supporting assumptions comes from many sources – the Hawthorne studies.. increasing awareness of the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. assumptions. assumptions. they were fashioned into a coherent value foundation for the theory and practice of organization development. and assumptions being. Values. the right of people to be free from arbitrary misuse of power. relatively unexamined beliefs accepted as the truth. Democratic values assert the sanctity of the individual. . optimistic. repetitive tasks minimized the skills required to do the job." Assumptions are beliefs that are regarded as so valuable and obviously correct that they are taken for granted and rarely examined or questioned. and the need for justice through the rule of law and due process. treat people with respect and dignity.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought Frederick Winslow Taylor’s ‘The Principles of Scientific Management’ (1911) launched the scientific management movement with its emphasis on time and motion studies and breaking jobs into small. dishonesty). strongly held. and that rationality. and goodwill are the tools for making progress. Piece-rate pay systems were designed to increase motivation and to prevent "soldiering. Taylor’s methods quickly swept the country and the world as the way to organize work. Humanistic values proclaim the importance of the individual: respect the whole person. Expert engineers and supervisors designed each task and ensured it was done correctly.Values are also beliefs and are defined as: "Beliefs about what is desirable or ‘good’ (e. 5.
. Mary Parker Follett (1926). organizations were not machines. apathy. by Roethlisberger and Dickson in 1939. theory. Democratic leadership seemed to bring out the best in the groups. People were not cogs. and White demonstrated that democratic leadership was superior to authoritarian leadership and laissez-faire leadership in affecting group climate and group performance. and the supervisor determined their performance. Lippitt (1939). Barnard viewed organizations as social systems that must be effective (achieve goals) and efficient (satisfy the needs of employees). extensive division of labor. Group norms had more powerful effects on productivity than economic incentives. Much of her career was devoted to finding ways to reduce adversarial relationships between workers and management. their feelings and attitudes about the work. His acceptance theory of authority proposed that authority derives from the willingness of subordinates to comply with directions rather than from position power. much of the research. and by Homans in 1950 profoundly and irreversibly affected people’s beliefs about organizational behaviour. impersonal rules. the work environment. Some early experiments were conducted in the late 1930s. Research by Lewin. In a sense. aggressiveness and poor performance. These approaches possessed many desirable features. The research demonstrated the primacy of social factors on productivity and morale. People came to work as whole people. Their simple. ‘The Functions of the Executive’ by Chester 1. and rigid procedures would create a well-oiled human machine called the organization. The great German sociologist Max Weber (1922) introduced the concept of “bureaucracy” as the best. Group Dynamics (1940) – The scientific study of groups using experimental research methods-was launched by Kurt Lewin and his students. wrote an article on “The Giving of Orders” advocating participative leadership and joint problem-solving by labour and management. Scientific management as the way to organize work and bureaucracy as the way to organize people were the prevailing paradigms for organizations in the early 1900s. but also contained serious flaws that led to unintended consequences. Reports on these studies by Mayo in 1933 and 1945. a management theorist and astute observer of labourmanagement relations. most efficient way to organize people. A strong hierarchy of authority. Barnard (1938) presented insights from his experiences as President of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. The Famous Hawthorne Studies (1927 to 1932) were conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company. and practice since the late 1920s have focused on the shortcomings of these two paradigms and how to overcome the limitations. authoritarian leadership caused dependency. repetitive jobs left them feeling alienated and dispirited.
The human relations movement advocated participative management. P. dislike responsibility. The Hawthorne Studies (1940s to 1960) spawned the human relations movement that was in full flower from the 1930s to the 1960s. “Overcoming Resistance to Change. These years witnessed the beginnings of the laboratory training movement (1946 and 1947). are self-centered. caring social climate. a direct precursor of OD.” reported that resistance to change could be minimized by communicating the need for change and allowing the people affected by the change to participate in planning it. proposed that the leadership functions of a group should be shared between the leader and group members and showed how that could be done. Maslow suggested that human motivation is arranged in a hierarchy of needs from lower-level needs such as physiological and survival needs to higher-level needs such as esteem and self-actualization. greater attention to workers’ social needs. and a general “humanizing” of the workplace. which holds that individuals have within themselves the capacity to assume responsibility for their behaviour and mental health when provided with a supportive. increase self-understanding. lack ambition. pioneers in laboratory training. This article introduced the concept of organizations as sociotechnical systems. Ken Benne and Paul Sheats (1948). Those who subscribe to Theory X assume that people are lazy. . Chris Argyrif’s Personality and Organization (1957) was the first of several books in which he stated that there is an inherent conflict between the needs of organizations and the needs of mature. Rogers’ focus on effective interpersonal communications was applicable to superior-subordinate relations. which postulates that organizations are comprised of a social system and a technological system and that changes in one system will produce changes in the other system. The theory postulated that when lowerlevel needs are satisfied. Carl Rogers’ Client-Centered Therapy (1951) demonstrated the efficacy of non-directive psychotherapy. Motivation and Personality by Abraham Maslow (1954) presented a new view of human motivation. Humanistic and democratic values suffused the movement. Laboratory training taught people how to improve interpersonal relations. Eric Trist and Ken Bamforth of the Tavistock Clinic (1951) published the results of their work in British coal mines. higher-level needs become dominant. and understand group dynamics. French’s (1948) article. Douglas McGregor wrote ‘The Human Side of Enterprise’ (1960) in which he described his famous Theory X and Theory Y assumptions. training in interpersonal skills for supervisors. Lester Coch and John R. healthy adults.
and shares decision-making with the work group. In addition to presenting Theory X and Y. summarized the state of organization development a decade or so after its inception. and to pursue organizational goals if given the chance and the social environment to do so. and introduced practicing managers to the concepts of need hierarchy and self-actualization. and human resource practices to allow individual potential to be released. Values have always been an integral part of OD. and values of the field. We will examine three early statements regarding OD values that had a significant impact on the field. a mechanistic organization structure may be appropriate. management practices. groups. Out of this zeitgeist. bureaucracy. optimistic. and authoritarian leadership gave way to increasing doubts about these organizational practices as theory and research pointed up their limitations. In an environment of slow change. humanistic.” (1969) a set of six little books on OD by prominent practitioners. Tannenbaum and Davis presented their ideas in an article appearing in Industrial Management Review. goal-oriented. organization development practitioners formulated a set of values and assumptions regarding people. and democratic. and negative consequences. dysfunctions. one-on-one leadership style. Kahn (1966) presented the first comprehensive exposition of organizations as open systems. and organizations that is. . The task of management is to change organizational structures. Rensis Likert’s ‘New Patterns of Management’ (1961) presented data and theory showing the overwhelming superiority of a democratic leadership style in which the leader is group oriented. To summarize the intellectual climate of this period. and observations utilized by OD practitioners. as we have said.indifferent to the organization’s needs. to assume responsibility. practice. The Bennis and Beckhard quotations come from their books in the Addison-Wesley Six-Pack. The Addison-Wesley Publishing Company “OD Six-Pack. This leadership style was contrasted with an authoritarian. This chronology captures most of the significant influences from research. an organic organization form is preferred. Those who subscribe to Theory Y assume that people have the potential to develop. Burns and Stalker (1961) described two very different forms of organization structuremechanistic and organic. open communications. and need to be led. in an environment of high change. and greater individual autonomy. the initial enthusiasm for scientific management. this book popularized Maslow’s motivation theory. theory. ‘The Social Psychology of Organizations’ by Daniel Katz and Robert L. resist change. Organic structures encourage decentralized decision making and authority. These six books presented the theory.
· Development of increased understanding between and within working groups in order to reduce tensions. mechanical systems rely on "authority-obedience relationships" while organic systems rely on "mutual confidence and trust. Therefore. The earlier work by Tom Burns and G. not individuals. the capacity for functional groups to work more competently." He then went on to state what he believed to be the central value underlying organization development theory and practice: The basic value underlying all organization development theory and practice is that of choice. · Development of organic rather than mechanical systems.” For example." that is. more choices become available and hence better decisions are made. Rather than the usual bureaucratic methods which rely mainly on suppression. more rational and open methods of conflict resolution are sought." Mechanical systems insist on "strict division of labour and hierarchical supervision" while organic systems foster "multi-group membership and responsibility. and unprincipled power. The basic building blocks of an organization are groups (teams). Another major player in the field was Richard Beckhard. · A shift in values so that human factors and feelings come to be considered legitimate. 1. compromise. · Development of more effective "team management. This is a strong reaction against the idea of organizations as mechanisms which managers "work on. . Warren Bennis proposed that OD practitioners (change agents) share a set of normative goals based on their humanistic/ democratic philosophy. In his 1969 book he described "several assumptions about the nature and functioning of organizations" held by OD practitioners. Through focused attention and through the collection and feedback of relevant data to relevant people.Writing in 1969. Here is his list. Bennis clarified some of the salient differences between mechanical systems and organic systems. Stalker used the term “mechanistic” in contrast to “mechanical." like pushing buttons. He listed these normative goals as follows: · Improvement in interpersonal competence. the basic units of change are groups. · Development of better methods of conflict resolution." Mechanical systems encourage "centralized decision-making" while organic systems encourage "wide sharing of responsibility and control. M.
not the basis of managerial strategy. mutual trust. · Away from a view of individuals as fixed. rather than in a particular role or level of hierarchy. toward seeing them as being in process.2." People affected by a change must be allowed active participation and a sense of ownership in the planning and conduct of the change. 4. · Away from distrusting people toward trusting them. director of organization development. · Away from walling off the expression of feelings toward making possible both appropriate expression and effective use. a professor and Sheldon Davis. An always relevant change goal is the reduction of inappropriate competition between parts of the organization and the development of a more collaborative condition. One goal of a healthy organization is to develop generally open communication. · Away from maskmanship and game-playing toward authentic behaviour. · Away from resisting and fearing individual differences toward accepting and utilizing them. They asserted that an important shift in values was occurring and that this shift signaled a more appropriate and accurate view of people in organizations. 3. and individuals continuously manage their affairs against goals. 5. · Away from avoidance of negative evaluation of individuals toward confirming them as human beings. · Away from use of status for maintaining power and personal prestige toward use of status for organizationally relevant purposes. · Away from avoiding facing others with relevant data toward making appropriate confrontation. sub-units of organizations. Organizations. Controls are interim measurements. · Away from utilizing an individual primarily with reference to his or her job description toward viewing an individual as a whole person. and confidence between and across levels. Robert Tannenbaum. "People support what they help create. 6. . Decision-making in a healthy organization is located where the information sources are. presented their view of OD values in a 1969 article. They listed these “values in transition” as follows: · Away from a view of people as essentially bad toward a view of people as basically good.
and are capable of making. give autonomy. and reward success. groups.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals Two basic assumptions about individuals in organizations pervade organization development.5. support. remove obstacles and barriers. We answer the question: What are some of the implications of OD assumptions and values for dealing with individuals. appropriate uses of power. Beliefs such as trust and respect for the individual. We think most organization development practitioners held these humanistic and democratic values with their implications for different and "better" ways to run organizations and deal with people. The humanistic values prompted a search for better ways to run organizations and develop the people in them. The democratic values prompted a critique of authoritarian.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups . Most people want to develop their potential.5. A tremendous amount of constructive energy can be tapped if organizations realize and act on these assumptions. set high standards. but in the 1950s and 1960s they represented a radical departure from accepted beliefs and assumptions. and arbitrary management practices as well as the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. a greater contribution to attaining organization goals than most organizational environments permit. These values and assumptions may not seem profound today. The implications of these two assumptions are straightforward: Ask. participation and contribution by all organization members. · Away from a view of process work as being unproductive effort toward seeing it as essential to effective task accomplishment. 5. listen. permit failure. the legitimacy of feelings. open communication. The first assumption is that most individuals have drives toward personal growth and development if provided an environment that is both supportive and challenging. collaboration and co-operation.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions Let us examine specific assumptions and their implications for organization leaders and members.· Away from avoidance of risk-taking toward willingness to risk. The second assumption is that most people desire to make. 5. autocratic. give responsibility. The people doing the work are generally experts on how to do it and how to do it better. · Away from a primary emphasis on competition toward a much greater emphasis on collaboration. decentralized decision making. authentic interpersonal relations. and so forth were seldom espoused and rarely implemented in the vast majority of organizations at that time. encourage risk-taking. challenge. and organizations? 5.
and co-operation within the group. Frequently the challenge is broader. this group perspective requires a shift from viewing problems as "within the problem person" to viewing problems and solutions as transactional and as embedded in a system. Therefore. are the best way to satisfy social and emotional needs at work. facilitation.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations Clearly. including peers and boss. Finally. invest energy and intelligence in creating a positive climate. and usually with more than one group.5. In addition. and job satisfaction. This skill is a trainable one. greatly influences feelings of satisfaction and competence. support. The question becomes not how A can get B to perform better. but how A and B can work together to modify their interactions toward the goal of B becoming more effective and A and B becoming more mutually effective. group members should be encouraged to learn to deal effectively with positive and negative feelings. adherence to the chain of command. at both the formal and informal levels. the family. and E can support these changes. leaders need to give important work to teams. conflict management. To do this. most people wish to be accepted and to interact co-operatively with at least one small reference group. a church or club group. Also. One implication is that group members should receive training in group effectiveness skills such as group problem-solving and decision-making. Second. group members should assist the leader with the multiple roles required for group effectiveness. Another assumption is that the formal leader cannot perform all the leadership and maintenance functions required for a group to optimize its effectiveness. Dealing appropriately with feelings and attitudes increases the level of interpersonal trust. such as a work group. one of the most psychologically relevant reference groups for most people is the work group. emphasis on topdown directives. They cannot meet the demands of the marketplace. And because suppressed feelings and attitudes adversely affect problem-solving. in which one side wins and the other side loses. traditional hierarchical forms of organization-fairly steep pyramid. Third. not a one-on-one leadership style. not individuals. Such problems have the greatest chance of constructive solution if all parties in the system alter their mutual relationships. and so on. First. Implications of these assumptions are several. the assumption is that many attitudinal and motivational problems in organizations require interactive and transactional solutions. including how persons C. in addition.Several assumptions relate to the importance of work teams and the collaborative management of team culture. experimenting with new organization structures and new forms of authority is imperative. Let teams flourish because they are often the best way to get work done and. grouping by specialized function. personal growth. 5. D. most people are capable of making greater contributions to a group’s effectiveness and development. are dysfunctional . What occurs in the work group. and interpersonal communication. invest training time and money to increase group members’ skills. a growing awareness that “win-lose” organizational situations. It is especially important that leaders adopt a team leadership style. and so on-are obsolete. Hence. leaders should invest in groups: Invest the time required for group development. By implication. formalized cross-functional communication.
Finally. Such an orientation creates a self-fulfilling prophecy. and organizational changes taking place assure that tomorrow will bring new definitions of what is "true" and new beliefs about what is "good. values are never static. The belief that people can grow and develop in terms of personal and organizational competency tends to produce that result. beliefs and assumptions are cognitive facts. The rapid technological. A key assumption in organization development is that the needs and aspirations of human beings are the reasons for organized effort in society.6 Summary The field of OD rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. Values. Creating co-operative rather than competitive organizational dynamics is a primary task of the organization’s leaders. Evidence for this assumption comes from numerous examples where “putting people first” paid off handsomely in profits and performance. quality of output. By implication. and profitability. developmental. The implication is that people are an organization’s most important resource." as behavioural scientists and managers continue to develop better understanding of authority structures. This notion suggests it is good to have a developmental outlook and seek opportunities in which people can experience personal and professional growth. Values. optimistic and democratic. they are the source of productivity and profits and should be treated with care. and empowering. societal. Self Assessment Questions . and on the other hand are high performing in terms of productivity. 5. This discussion was intended to articulate an appreciation of OD values and explain where they came from. These beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. Values are also beliefs. an optimistic. These OD values were considered revolutionary when they emerged in the 1950s. Concluding Comment: The field of organization development rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. assumptions and beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. The belief that people are important tends to result in their being important. they change over time. developmental set of assumptions about people is likely to reap rewards beneficial to both the organization and its members. it is possible to create organizations that on the one hand are humane. organizing structures. Still. but are widely accepted today. Chronology of events in management and OD tremendously influenced OD practitioners.over the long run and highlight the need for a “win win” attitude. OD values tend to be humanistic. and ways to optimize human potential.
4. 3. Values. 2. The concept of –––––––––– was introduced by MaxWeber.2 2. Refer section 5. beliefs. 5. 2. 5. Define concepts. Douglas McGregor Answers to TQs: 1. Refer section 5.7 Terminal Questions 1.W. Write a note about F.3 . 5. The outcome of –––––––– was that people were not cogs and organizations were not machines. and assumptions are all –––––––––– facts. State the assumptions of Theory X and Theory Y. Taylor’s principles of scientific management. __________ is associated with scientific management. What are values and assumptions developed by Richard Bechard in the field of organizational development? 5.1. Bureaucracy 4. W. What was the outcome of Hawthorne Experiments? 4. Hawthorne experiments 5. F.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.3 3. _______________ gave theory X and theory Y. values. beliefs and assumptions. 3. Cognitive 2. Refer section 5. Taylor 3.
2 Beyond the Quick Fix 126.96.36.199.2.2.1 The Nature of Systems 6.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends 6.3.3 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .3. Refer section 5.2.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change 6.4 Open Systems Thinking 6.3 Systems Theory 6.1 Introduction Objectives 6.3.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change 6. MU0002-Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Structure: 6.3 Socio-technical Theory and Open Systems Planning 6. Refer section 5.2 Congruence among System Elements 6.4 Participation and Empowerment .4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change 6.3 5.
11 Terminal Questions 6.6.8 Applied Behavioural Science 6. · Realize the importance of teams and teamwork. · Explain systems theory.9 Action Research Self Assessment Questions 6. In this discussion. Objectives: After studying this unit. · Describe the parallel learning structures. · Explain the terms ‘participation’ and ‘empowerment’.7 A Normative – Re-educative Strategy of Changing 6. Here we describe what we believe are the most important underpinnings for the field.6 Parallel Learning Structures 6. art and science which form the knowledge base upon which OD is constructed. you will learn what OD practitioners think and how they think as they engage in the complicated task of improving organizational functioning. We will examine the following concepts: . Leaders and OD practitioners use this knowledge base to plan and implement effective change programs.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 6.1 Introduction This unit describes the foundations of organization development theory and practice. you will be able to: · Explain various models and theories of planned change. · Explain normative-re-educative strategy of changing The knowledge base of OD is extensive and is constantly growing.5 Teams and Teamwork 6.10 Summary 6.
but pretty good for identifying the important variables involved. Likewise. The production level tends to remain fairly constant because the field of forces remains fairly constant. some forces pushing toward higher morale and some pushing toward lower morale. Models and theories depict. we can think of the production level of a manufacturing plant as a resultant equilibrium point in a field of forces. Several recent theories show great promise for increasing our understanding of what happens and how it happens in planned change. it generally hovers around some equilibrium point that is the resultant in a field of forces. 6.2. Planned change theories are rudimentary as far as explaining relationships among variables. the status quo-whatever is happening right now-is the result of forces pushing in opposing directions. That is. we can identify the major forces that make up the field of forces and then develop action plans for moving the equilibrium point in one direction or the other. The development of models of planned change facilitated the development of OD. Lewin’s second idea was a model of the change process itself. the important features of some phenomenon. in words or pictures.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change Organization development is planned change in an organizational context. The first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces. with some forces pushing toward higher levels of production and some forces pushing toward lower levels of production. describe those features as variables.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change that have been influential since the 1940s. and specify the relationships among the variables. This concept is useful for thinking about the dynamics of change situations. With a technique called the force-field analysis. Although morale may get a little better or a little worse on occasion. Here we provide a framework for thinking about planned change by exploring several models from the literature.· Models and theories of planned change · Systems theory · Participation and empowerment · Teams and teamwork · Parallel and learning structures · A normative-re-educative strategy of changing · Action research 6. For example. we can think of the level of morale in that plant as a resultant equilibrium point. He suggested that change is a three-stage process: .
which motivate the person to change. judge things. Provision of psychological safety Stage 2: Changing through Cognitive Restructuring: Helping the client to see things. that is. and react to things differently based on a new point of view obtained through a. b. Refreezing the desired behaviour requires establishing a new field of forces to support the new behaviour. the non-smoking behaviour must become permanent. Creation of guilt or anxiety c. that is. The total personality and self-concept. Change entails moving from one equilibrium point to another. That is. the person must develop a sense of psychological safety in order to replace the old behaviours with new behaviours. moving to new level of behaviour. feel things. Take the example of a man who smokes cigarettes and wants to quit. unfreezing. which cause guilt and anxiety. believe that cigarette smoking is bad for him and that he should stop smoking. Next. change will not occur. But unless the person feels comfortable with dropping the old behaviours and acquiring new ones. Lewin’s three-stage model is a powerful tool for understanding change situations. . Edgar Schein took this excellent idea and improved it by specifying the psychological mechanisms involved in each stage.Unfreezing the old behaviour (or situation). disconfirmation creates pain and discomfort. change his behaviour from being a smoker to being a non-smoker. The three-stage model says he must first unfreeze the old behaviour of smoking. he must move. In stage 1. b. A Three-Stage Model of the Change Process: Stage 1: Unfreezing: Creating motivation and readiness to change through a. Scanning the environment for new relevant information Stage 3: Refreezing: Helping the client to integrate the new point of view into a.non-smoking becomes the new equilibrium point. etc. Significant relationships. Disconfirmation or lack of confirmation b. mentor. Finally. Identifying with a new role model. Refreezing the behaviour at the new level.
for example. This phase corresponds to Lewin’s unfreezing phase. terminating the client-consultant relationship. The phrase significant relationships refer to important people in the person’s social environment-do these significant others approve of the changes? Another modification of Lewin’s model was proposed by Ronald Lippitt. They expanded the three-stage model into a seven-stage model representing the consulting process.2. In this phase a client system in need of help and a change agent from outside the system establish a working relationship. Jeanne Watson. . and attitudes. and 5 correspond ro Lewin’s moving phase. Phase 5: Transforming intentions into actual change efforts. moving. Phase 6: Generalizing and stabilizing change. Phases 3. stabilizing the changes requires testing to see if they fit-fit with the individual. the person undergoes cognitive restructuring. 6. Their seven stages are as follows: Phase 1: Developing a need for change. These "road maps" are useful for thinking about change. Phase 4: Examining alternative routes and goals. This phase corresponds to Lewin’s refreezing phase. establishing goals and intentions of action. The primary task in stage 3. 4. Phase 2: Establishing a change relationship. that is. Phase 3: Clarifying or diagnosing the client system’s problem. and Bruce Westley. Phase 7: Achieving a terminal relationship. This motivating evidence is gained by.2 Beyond the “Quick Fix” A comprehensive change model by Ralph Kilmann specifies the critical leverage points for organizational change. and fit with the individual’s social surroundings.In stage 2. The person acquires information and evidence showing that the change is desirable and possible. This seven-stage model lays out the logical steps involved in OD consulting. This model has five sequential stages: 1) Initiating the program. That is. Similar models have been developed by Kolb and Frohman and by Burke. identifying with ex-smokers and learning about the health risks of smoking. refreezing. is to integrate the new behaviours into the person’s personality.
Kilmann’s five tracks are: 1) The culture track. These problems and opportunities will be the targets of later interventions. critique practices and procedures. cause the organization to be successful. and so forth. called "tracks. . communication." that. and willingness to change among members the conditions that must exist before any other improvement effort can succeed. 2) The management skills track. Kilmann describes the five tracks: What does each track do for the organization? The culture track enhances trust. Change programs take from one to five years to complete. and 5) The reward system track. 4) The strategy-structure track. Diagnosing the problems requires a thorough analysis of the problems and opportunities facing the organization. The management-skills track provides all management personnel with new ways of coping with complex problems and hidden assumptions. 4) Implementing the "tracks" 5) Evaluating the results. problem-solving sessions. The team-building track infuses the new culture and updated management skills into each work unit – thereby instilling co-operation organization-wide so that complex problems can be addressed with all the expertise and information available.2) Diagnosing the problems. information sharing. when functioning properly. 3) The team-building track. Scheduling and implementing the "tracks" involve intervening in five critical leverage points. 3) Scheduling the "tracks". Interventions include training programs. Initiating the program entails securing commitment from top management.
and Xerox with good results. some features of the organization change but the fundamental nature of the organization remains the same. organizational culture is defined as deep-seated assumptions. and difficult to change. and all resources with the new strategic direction. and so forth. revolutionary. its identification of the five tracks as critical leverage points. developed by Warner Burke and George Litwin. and co-operative team efforts within and among all work groups. often unconscious. then moving to the management skills track. Second-order change goes by many different labels: transformational. The model distinguishes between organizational climate and organizational culture. In first-order change. the use of updated management skills.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change The next model to be examined is the Burke-Litwin model of individual and organizational performance. and its holistic view of organization change and development. management practices. then moving to the team-building track. OD programs are directed toward both first. work groups. with an increasing emphasis on second-order transformational change. jobs. adaptive. General Foods. One likes this model because of its comprehensive nature. TRW. An OD consultant implements the tracks in a phased sequence. Kilmann has tested his model at AT&T. In second-order change. beginning with the culture track. departments. 6. Organizational climate is defined as people’s perceptions and attitudes about the organizationwhether it is a good or bad place to work. The premise of the BurkeLitwin model is this: OD interventions directed toward structure. and so forth. This model shows how to create first-order and second-order change (which the authors call “transactional change” and “transformational change”).2. and beliefs that are enduring.and second-order change. First-order change goes by many different labels: transactional. On the other hand. The reward-system track establishes a performance-based reward system that sustains all improvements by officially sanctioning the new culture. Westinghouse. evolutionary. values. or continuous change. radical. the nature of the organization is fundamentally and substantially altered – the organization is transformed. Changing culture is much more difficult than changing climate. These perceptions are relatively easy to change because they are built on employees’ reactions to current managerial and organization practices. Ford General Electric. friendly or unfriendly. Eastman Kodak. incremental. hard-working or easy-going. and . or discontinuous change.The strategy-structure track develops either a completely new or a revised strategic plan for the firm and then aligns divisions.
in turn.systems (policies and procedures) result in first-order change." Transformational leadership embodies inspiration which leads to new heights of performance. management practices. Now let us look at the Burke-Litwin model. Following figure shows the factors involved in first-order (transactional) change. Fig. and systems cause changes in work unit climate. and organization culture result in second-order change. Transformational leaders are "leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interest for the good of the organization and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers." Transactional leadership embodies a fair exchange between leader and follower that leads to "normal" performance. interventions directed toward mission and strategy. Transactional leaders are "leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. which change motivation and. The model also makes a distinction between transactional and transformational leadership styles. 6. We will do so in several steps. Transformational leadership is required for causing second-order change.1: The Transactional Factors Involved in First – Order Change . Transactional leadership is sufficient for causing first-order change. These two concepts come from leadership research which found that some leaders are capable of obtaining extraordinary performance from followers while other leaders are not. Changing structure. individual and organizational performance. Transactional leadership is required to make this change in organizational climate. leadership.
These factors are able to change the climate. and organization culture. as shown in the above figure. mission and strategy. Research by Burke and his students suggests the model performs as intended.2: The Transformational Factors Involved in Second – Order Change On the other hand. that is. and organization culture produce transformational change or fundamental change in the organization’s culture. The bottom half of figure displays the factors involved in transactional change. Burke says: “Thus there are two distinct sets of organizational dynamics. One set primarily is associated with the transactional level of human behaviour or the everyday interactions and exchanges that create the climate. Interventions directed toward management practices. The second set of dynamics is concerned with processes of human transformation. we must change mission and strategy. The top half of figure displays the factors involved in transformational change.” We consider the Burke-Litwin model to be a significant advance in thinking about planned change. To summarize. and then targets interventions toward factors of the organization that produce the desired change. these transformational processes are required for genuine change in the culture of an organization.Fig. sudden "leaps" in behaviour. The OD practitioner sizes up the change situation. which produces changes in individual and organizational performance. The above two figures together yield the full Burke-Litwin model shown in the following figure. determines the kind of change required (transactional or transformational). structure. Interventions directed toward these factors transform the organization and cause a permanent change in organization culture. leadership styles. 6. . if we want to cause second-order (transformational) change. These factors are powerful enough to change the culture fundamentally. Burke and Litwin propose that interventions directed toward leadership. and systems produce transactional change or change in organizational climate.
4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change Jerry Porras and his associates developed a model of how organization development works.3: The Burke Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change 6. which determine organizational performance and individual development.Fig. Following figure shows the work setting in the larger organizational framework. and technology.4: Organizational Work-Setting Factors This model is extremely useful for OD practitioners and organizational leaders. rewarded). strategies. 6. The premise modeled here is that work setting factors influence organizational members’ cognitions (they learn what is expected. according to Porras and Robertson. OD interventions that focus on goals. Organizational change occurs only when individuals change their behaviour. physical setting. it is described in a discussion by Porras and Peter Robertson. and these behaviour changes occur when elements of the work setting have been modified by OD interventions. This model shows how OD interventions can be linked to factors in the work setting. . It is how OD works. 6. The basic premise is that OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals’ behaviours. and interaction processes will affect social factors.2. social factors. and rewards will affect organizing arrangements. required. which influence on-the job behaviours. Keep this framework in mind as you read the units on OD interventions because all interventions target one or more factors shown in figures. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements. Fig. management style. Interventions that focus on culture. Interventions that focus on job design and work flow design will affect technology. For example. The work setting plays a central role in this model and consists of four factors: organizing arrangements.
or subsystems. Thus. and shows how systems theory enhances the practice of OD.5: A Change-based Organizational Framework 6. and interrelatedness among elements in a set that constitutes an identifiable whole or gestalt." To summarize.system. 6. system denotes interdependency. This section explains systems theory. Systems theory is one of the most powerful conceptual tools available for understanding the dynamics of organizations and organizational change.3 Systems Theory A second foundation of organization development is systems theory." Kast and Rosenzweig define system as "an organized. that is the system.Fig. Ludwig Von Bertalanffy first articulated the principles of general systems theory in 1950. and Katz and Kahn were the first to apply open systems theory to organizations in 1966. interconnectedness. one begins by identifying the individual parts and then seeks to understand the nature of their collective interaction. and delineated by identifiable boundaries from its environmental supra." Von Bertalanffy refers to a system as a set of "elements standing in interaction. components." Hanna says: "A system is an arrangement of interrelated parts. unitary whole composed of two or more interdependent parts. . The words ‘arrangement’ and ‘interrelated’ describe interdependent elements forming an entity. when taking a systems approach. describes the characteristics of systems. which views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. Fagen defines system as "a set of objects together with relationships between the objects and between their attributes.
people. Here. . A good rule of thumb for drawing the boundary is that more energy exchange occurs within the boundary than across the boundary.6. Every system is delineated by a boundary. Open systems have purposes and goals. These purposes must align with purposes or needs in the environment. Fig. and if the environment does not want these outputs. conversion. studying open systems leads to a good understanding of organizations.6: A System in Interaction with its Environment The law of entropy states that all systems “run down” and disintegrate unless they reverse the entropic process by importing more energy than they use. in that they permit exchange of information. dynamics. and they export products to the environment in the form of outputs. money. Organizations achieve negative entropy when they are able to exchange their outputs for enough inputs to keep the system from running down. or transformation processes that change the inputs.1 The Nature of Systems The nature. 6. Each of these three system processes must work well if the system is to be effective and survive. Organizations are open systems. They do something to the inputs via throughput. Systems take inputs from the environment in the form of energy.3. we examine the characteristics of open systems drawing OD expositions by Katz and Kahn and Hanna. information. resources. and energy between system and environment. What is inside the boundary is the system. All open systems are input-throughput-output mechanisms. the organization will cease to exist. Therefore. raw material and so on. and characteristics of open systems are well-known. and what is outside the boundary is the environment. Boundaries of open systems are permeable. For example. the organization’s purposes will be reflected in its outputs. the reasons for their existence.
It is also known as deviation-correcting feedback. Positive feedback comes from the environment. and the production plan calls for 100 buggy whips per month. and complex over time. It is sometimes called deviation-amplifying feed back. specialized. By the same token. organizations in the fast-food industry pay a lot of attention to information about their industry-nutrition. Negative feedback tells you if you are on track with your scheduled production output. and makes a course correction. and the system adjusts to a new goal. Survival of the system is equally influenced by whether or not the targets themselves are appropriate. Systems "code" useful information and incorporate it. 6. systems tend to get more elaborated. Systems require two kinds of feedback. however." Here is another example of negative and positive feedback.” Also. the principle that there are multiple ways to arrive at a particular outcome or state – systems have multiple paths to goals. this process is called differentiation. differentiated. while screening out other information. if a rocket ship traveling to the moon strays off its trajectory. either internal or external. eating fads. competitors. and the like. Another characteristic of systems is equifinality. Positive feedback measures whether or not the purpose and goals are aligned with environmental needs. "return to earth. aerospace.3. mining. With increased differentiation. but most are not useful. This model depicts the organization as an input-throughput-output system. and so on. For example. Subsystems exist within larger systems. The usefulness of the two concepts is that they demonstrate that it is not enough to merely measure our outputs versus the intended targets. Feedback is information from the environment about system performance. it receives information to that effect in the form of negative feedback. These subsystems can be arranged into a hierarchy of systems moving from less important to more important. Systems achieve a steady state or equilibrium point and seek to maintain this equilibrium against disruptive forces. they usually ignore information about other industries such as electronics. Say your company makes buggy whips. negative and positive. Another characteristic of open systems is steady state or dynamic homeostasis. increased integration and co-ordination are necessary. that information is called positive feedback. it will signal whether the environment needs and/or wants buggy whips. Negative feedback measures whether or not the output is on course with the purpose and goals.2 Congruence among System Elements David Nadler and associates at Delta Consulting Group developed the congruence model for understanding organizational dynamics and change. If the mission (target) changes.Information is important to systems in several ways. As Katz and Kahn say: “The basic principle is the preservation of the character of the system. Systems are bombarded by all kinds of information: some are useful. The three major input factors are: . For example. say.
perceptions. . and 2) Evaluating the "goodness of fit" or how well the elements "go together. unit/group level. and informal organization. what the organization is trying to accomplish and how it plans to do it. formal organization. processes. and systems for performing the work. and 3) History which consists of memories of past successes. Elements of the organization per se are labeled strategy. For example. 2) Resources available to the organization. which components are "not functioning correctly. knowledge. and technology. knowledge. which includes formal structures. work. fit) must be present among the system’s components’ for the organization to produce satisfactory outputs. Outputs are performance at the total organization level. You can use this model to analyze organizations with which you are familiar. and the workforce’s expectations. In a company that is performing poorly. If the organization’s culture (informal organization) praises individual accomplishments and the work requires teamwork and collaboration. which includes skills. performance will suffer.1) The environment. 6. Fig. performance will suffer. such as capital. people. which imposes constraints and opportunities about what the organization can and can not do. if people don’t have the skills and knowledge required to do the work. the tasks people perform to create products and service markets people. and critical decisions that still influence behaviour today.7: The Congruence Model Showing the Organization as a System The congruence model’s value is as an analytical tool for: 1) Assessing the characteristics and functioning of each of the elements. which includes the organization’s culture informal rules and understandings. failures. If the strategy calls for entrepreneurial quickness and risk-taking and the formal organization is bureaucratic and highly centralized. performance will suffer." The premise is that alignment (harmony. important events." and which elements . and individual level. and how things really work (versus how they are supposed to work as defined by the formal organization).
Their technology became known as Open systems Planning (OSP). Principles such as optimizing the social and technical systems. Fred Emery.3 Socio-technical Systems Theory and Open Systems Planning Two major variations of open systems theory. training group members in multiple skills. 2) Developing scenarios of possible futures. that is. STS is the principal conceptual foundation for efforts in work redesign and organization restructuring. organizations must optimize both systems. Open systems planning entails: 1) Scanning the environment to determine the expectations of external organizations and stake-holders. Another important application of systems theory in organization development is open systems planning. Systems models are essential for the practice of OD. two active segments of OD today. High-performance organizations almost always use principles from socio-technical systems theory. a social system and a technical system. Hanna writes: In the late 1960s a small team of consultants led by James Clark. what is it about each element that causes that part of the system to function well and what are the characteristics of each element that cause all of them to fit together smoothly? The congruence model is an excellent diagnostic tool. To achieve high productivity and employee satisfaction. G. and others at the Tavistock Institute in the 1950s.3. and that changes in one system affect the other system.KI Jayaram. and . and identifying core tasks help STS consultants structure organizations and tasks for maximum effectiveness and efficiency. especially autonomous work groups (self-regulated teams or self-direct teams). giving information and feedback to the people doing the work. The thesis of STS is that all organizations are comprised of two interdependent systems. both realistic (likely to happen if the organization continues on its current course) and ideal (what the organization would like to see happen). forming autonomous work groups. Socio-technical systems theory was developed by Eric Trist. and information to the point of action. 6. and Will McWhinney developed a technology for addressing the interface between organization and the environment. Charles Krone. It was the first attempt to help organizations methodically analyze the environmental demands and expectations placed on them and plan to successfully meet these demands and expectations.are poorly aligned? In companies showing outstanding performance.socio-technical systems theory (STS) and open systems planning (OSP)-play an important role in organization development. to the workers doing the job. controlling variance at the source. A number of design principles have been developed to implement socio-technical systems theory. multi-skilled teams.
4 Participation of Empowerment One of the most important foundations of organization development is a participation/ empowerment model. It keeps them from being separate gimmicks or the latest organization change fads. is the most important. according to Peter Senge. according to field theory (Kurt Lewin). to change a system. because most phenomena have more than one cause. the fifth discipline. the forces in the field at the time of the event are the relevant forces for analysis. Learning organizations can cope effectively with rapidly changing environmental demands.” In conclusion. For example. Participation in OD programs is not restricted to elites or the top people. fusing them into a coherent body of theory and practice. not single effects. This idea moves the practitioner away from analyzing historical events and toward examining contemporary events and forces. forces. OD practitioners expect multiple effects. mental models. it continually reminds us that the whole can exceed the sum of its parts. First. 6.3. Most OD practitioners engaged in redesign projects use a combination of socio-technical systems theory and open systems planning. 6. events. and systems thinking. systems theory pervades the theory and practice of organization development. Without a systemic orientation. but seen in relation to other issues. this combination is often used in designing high-performance organizations. team learning. Viewing organizations from this perspective has several consequences. not just its component parts. therefore. By enhancing each of the other disciplines. from their activities. events and forces.3) Developing action plans to ensure that a desirable future occurs. it is extended broadly throughout the organization. issues. Third. and incidents are not viewed as isolated phenomena. a systems approach encourages analysis of events in terms of multiple causation rather than single causation. Senge believes that five disciplines must be mastered to create a learning organization: personal mastery. from diagnosis to intervention to evaluation. Second. there is no motivation to look at how the disciplines interrelate. He says of systems thinking: “It is the discipline that integrates the disciplines.4 Open Systems Thinking Open systems thinking is required for creating learning organizations. Fourth. systems thinking. And fifth. changing one part of a system influences other parts. Increased participation and empowerment . Of all these disciplines. one changes the system. building shared vision.
survey feedback. the organic approach unleashes talent and energy in people that are best channeled by providing clear guidelines and boundaries. Robert Quinn and Gretchen Spreitzer found two vastly different views of empowerment. and change. Researchers found that group dynamics work to overcome resistance to change. quality of work life programs. which is done by giving individuals the authority to make decisions. is not something that management does to employees. and the culture audit are all predicated on the belief that increased participation will lead to better solutions. Further. Quinn and Spreitzer conclude: “Empowerment. The entire field of OD is about empowerment. Participation is a powerful elixir-it is good for people and performance. with its emphasis on risk-taking. The other view. and give more power to more people. treat those closest to the problem as the relevant experts. autonomous work groups. For example. personal initiative. increase commitment to the organization." and "Have decisions made by those who are closest to the problem. To empower is to give someone power. but rather a mind-set that employees have about their roles in the organization. and growth. They must see themselves as having freedom and discretion. These pillars of OD practice are validated by both research and practice. and empowerment in turn enhances performance and individual well-being. OD interventions are deliberately designed to increase involvement and participation by organization leaders and members.have always been central goals and fundamental values of the field. They describe the organic view: "The other group of executives saw empowerment much differently. This research demonstrated that most people desire increased involvement and participation. OD interventions are basically methods for increasing participation. The most important contrast between the two views involves the implicit but potentially volatile assumptions people make about trust and contro1. and to be responsible. then. One view. growth. quality circles. involvement and participation energize greater performance. and generally make people feel better about themselves and their worlds. They believed that it was about risk-taking. Research on group dynamics began in the 1940s and achieved exponential growth in the 1950s and 1960s. Participation is an especially effective form of empowerment. employees must choose to be empowered. team building. While management can create a context that is more empowering. which they call "mechanistic." is a top-down delegation of decision-making with clear boundaries and strict accountability that increases managerial control. search conferences. But both views contain valid ideas: for example. is the more useful perspective. they must if personally connected to ." direct leaders to push decision-making lower in the organization. and greatly enhance acceptance of decisions. Participation enhances empowerment." is bottom-up and less controlling. produce better solutions to problems. to contribute their ideas." These authors believe the organic view. reduce stress levels. called "organic. Rules of thumb such as "Involve all those who are part of the problem or part of the solution. Empowerment meant trusting people and tolerating their imperfections. to exert influence.
Teams are important for a number of reasons: First. inter-group team-building. HPOs (high-performance organizations). process consultation. Theory. teams satisfy people’s needs for social interaction.the organization. QCs (quality circles). people must work together to accomplish them. and explore ways to realize that potential. STS (socio-technical systems). we examine the potential of teams and teamwork. Third.5 Team and Teamwork A fundamental belief in organization development is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. The previous discussion focused on empowerment and concluded that the act of empowering individuals greatly increased their performance and satisfaction. systems. that is. and relationships if they are to be effective. processes. Teams and teamwork are part of the foundation of organization development. the noun team has become a verb. . crossfunctional "design-build" teams developed the Boeing 777. recognition. A number of OD interventions are specifically designed to improve team performance. research. status. teaming. The message of this section is that putting those empowered individuals into teams creates extraordinary effects on performance and satisfaction. the effects on individual behaviour are immediate and lasting. and respectteams nurture human nature. and capable of having an impact on the system in which they are embedded. teams at 3M generate the hundreds of innovations that keep 3M ahead of its competition. Fourth. HPWSs (high-performance work systems). quality circles. teams create synergy. Synergy is a principal reason teams are so important. much individual behaviour is rooted in the socio-cultural norms and values of the work team. many tasks are so complex they cannot be performed by individuals. to name just a few. If the team. Team Taurus developed Ford’s best-selling automobile. Examples are team-building. Teams at Motorola produced its bestselling cellular phones. as a team. Second. confident about their abilities. changes those norms and values. In this section. Teams and teamwork are "in. Teams and teamwork are among the "hottest" things happening in organizations today – gurus extol the virtues of teams. the sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of the individual efforts of people working alone. and team-related acronyms abound-SDTs (self-directed teams). and practice attest to the central role teams play in organizational success.” 6. "The evidence is abundantly clear: Effective teams produce results far beyond the performance of unrelated individuals. Team Saturn produced the Saturn automobile. A second fundamental belief is that teams must manage their culture.
Larson and LaFasto also discovered that the most frequent cause of team failure was letting personal or political agendas take precedence over the clear and elevating team goal. people are trained in group dynamics and group problem-solving skills. role negotiation technique. including collegiate football national champions. When any one feature is lost. and individuals are trained as group leaders and group facilitators. the crew of the USS Kitty Hawk. team performance declines. Investigators are discovering why some teams are successful while others are not. cross-functional teams. and others. Asea Brown Boveri. High-performance teams regulate the behaviour of team members. and that teamwork becomes more satisfying for team members. elevating goal 2) A results-driven structure 3) Competent team members 4) Unified commitment 5) A collaborative climate 6) Standards of excellence 7) External support and recognition Principled leadership. Larson and LaFasto studied a number of high-performance teams.parallel learning structures. Tom Peters asserts in Liberation Management that cross-functional. All these characteristics are required for superior team performance. to determine the characteristics that make them successful. The net effect is that teams perform at increasingly higher levels. find innovative ways around barriers. that they achieve synergy. empowered teams are what the best organizations are using right now to outdistance the competition. Union Pacific Railroad. socio-technical systems programs. He uses examples from EDS (Electronic Data Systems). Grid OD and techniques such as role analysis technique. heart transplant surgical teams. autonomous. Teams periodically hold team-building meetings. help each other. . Team-building activities are now a way of life for many organizations. These interventions apply to formal work teams as well as startup teams. and responsibility charting. temporary teams. and set ever-higher goals. and the like. Larson and LaFasto found eight characteristics always present: 1) A clear. Organizations using autonomous work groups or self-directed teams devote considerable time and effort to ensure that team members possess the skills to be effective groups.
and then leading the process. 6. 6. normal hierarchical considerations become obsolete for these project teams-you could be the boss of one team. parallel structures are a vehicle for learning how to change the system. deciding. At Ford Motor Company. In essence. clear objectives. Most socio-technical systems redesign efforts and open systems planning programs use parallel structures. Considerable experimentation with collateral organizations occurred in the 1970s and 1980s. specially created organizational structures for planning and guiding change programs. and high accountability drive these project teams to outperform traditional organization structures on every measurable dimension. It isn’t the supplemental structure that’s important. and acting differently than normally takes place at work. constitute another important foundation of organization development. Parallel learning structures are a foundation of OD because they are prevalent in so many different OD programs. Projects are the work of the future. superior customer service. and initiate needed changes. The most important and difficult task for the people creating the parallel learning structure is to create a different culture within it. especially when the change involves a fundamental shift in the organization’s methods of work and/or culture. talking. managers. and employees.” Parallel structures help people break free of the normal constraints imposed by the organization. projects will be performed by teams. engage in genuine inquiry and experimentation. Bushe and Shani say: “The key thing about parallel structures is that they create a bounded space and time for thinking. High responsibility.” The purpose of the collateral organization is to deal with "ill-structured" problems the formal organization is unable to resolve. Parallel learning structures are often the best way to initiate change in large bureaucratic organizations. and continuous learning. The quality of work life programs of the 1970s and 1980s used parallel structures composed of union leaders.6 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel learning structures. What’s important is that people act in a way that promotes learning and adaptation. High-performance organizations often use parallel structures to co-ordinate self-directed teams. and countless other organizations to demonstrate the ability of small project teams to produce high quality. and report to one of your subordinates on another team. you don’t have a parallel structure. If you don’t implement different norms and procedures. Dale had introduced this concept in 1974 under the label collateral organization and defined it as “a supplemental organization coexisting with the usual formal organization. Interestingly. a steering committee and working groups were used to co-ordinate the employee involvement teams.Titeflex. flexible response.7 A Normative – Re-educative Strategy of Changing . The charge to members of the parallel learning structure is to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization.
based on the assumptions that norms form the basis for behaviour. they impel a collaborative effort rather than a "doing something to" effort. OD clearly falls within the normativere-educative category. and’ negative feelings are surfaced for "working through. Anything hindering effective problem solving is brought to light and publicly examined. the practitioner intervenes in a collaborative way with the clients. and will change if and when they come to realize change is advantageous to them. Chin and Benne indicate the nature of the normative-reductive strategy as follows: A second group of strategies we call normative-re-educative.Organization development involves change. These strategies build upon assumptions about human motivation different from those underlying the first. Patterns of action and practice are supported – by socio-cultural norms and by commitments on the part of the individuals to these norms. anxieties. The second group of strategies is normative-re-educative strategies. The client system members define what changes and improvements they want to make. not just changes in knowledge. Evaluated against these three change strategies. according to this view. . skills. values. relationships and customary ways of doing things. and it rests on a particular strategy for change that has implications for practitioners and organization members alike. Chin and Benne describe three types of strategies for changing. strategy has the following implications for the practice of OD. information. and together they define problems and seek solutions. Change in a pattern of practice or action. rather than the OD practitioner. although often OD represents a combination of the normative-reeductive and the empirical-rational strategies. These implications give clients considerable control over the situation. or intellectual rationales for action and practice. will follow their rational self-interest. based on the assumption that change is compliance of those who have less power with the desires of those who have are power. and significant relationships. and OD is based primarily on a normative-re-educative strategy and secondarily on a rational-empirical strategy. and they give more options to both the clients and the practitioner. The point here is that different strategies are available for effecting change. The rationality and intelligence of men are not denied. The norms to be changed and the form of re-education are decided by the client system members." Solutions to problems are not a priori assigned to greater technical information but may reside in values. and change comes through re-education in which old norms are discarded and supplanted by new ones. attitudes. The first type is empirical rational strategies. doubts. The third set of strategies is the power-coercive strategies. And changes in normative orientations involve changes in attitudes. that is. Chin and Benne suggest that a normative-re-educative. will occur only as the persons involved are brought to change their normative orientations to old patterns and develop commitments to new ones. based on the assumptions that people are rational. Sociocultural norms are supported by the attitude and value systems of individuals-normative outlooks which undergird their commitments.
. i. the treatment typology allows the practitioner to know what remedial efforts to apply to correct the problem. Thus. applied science or practice. placing it in a classification scheme or typology." applied science. failure negating it and thus requiring re-diagnosis. and skills in ongoing systems in collaboration with system members. lawful patterns of events produce effectiveness and ineffectiveness. The principles of diagnosis and of treatment constitute the principles of practice.” . on the basis of which he or she prescribes a solution that. success corroborating the diagnosis. 6. re-establishes the equilibrium. with their elaborations and implications constitute practice theory. the object of which is knowledge to solve practical. norms can best be changed by focusing on the group. Greenwood discusses the activities of the practitioner as follows: "The problem that confronts a practitioner is customarily a state of disequilibrium that requires rectification. hopefully. A conventional distinction is made between (1) "pure" or basic science. the object of which is knowledge for its own sake. OD emphasizes the latter. or practice. and (2) "technology. OD practitioners know about these patterns through research and theory. on the basis of selected variables. behavioural science knowledge. then the individual will be a deviate and either will come under pressure from the group to get back into line or will be rejected entirely. thereby solving the problem. The diagnostic typology allows the practitioner to know what category of situation he or she has examined.Because norms are socially accepted beliefs held by groups about appropriate and inappropriate behaviours.e. pressing problems. OD is the application of behavioural science knowledge. Each type description of the diagnostic typology contains implications for a certain type of treatment. The practitioner uses treatment as the empirical test of his diagnosis." Both diagnosis and treatment consist of observing a situation and. the major leverage point for change is at the group level. practices. Burke writes: “If one attempts to change an attitude or the behaviour of an individual without attempting to change the same attitude or behaviour in the group to which the individual belongs. not the individual. The practitioner examines the problem situation. The aim of this discussion is to look briefly at how behavioural science knowledge becomes applied behavioural science knowledge. for example. by modifying a group norm or standards.” Norms help determine individual behaviour and a normative-re-educative strategy of changing pervades the practice of OD. Greenwood states: “The diagnostic and treatment typologies are employed together. On this point. Although human behaviour in organizations is far from an exact science. This process is customarily referred to as diagnosis and treatment.8 Applied Behavioural Science This foundation of OD relates to the primary knowledge base of the field.
a comparative search on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action. and doing or implementing change efforts.8: Composition of Applied Behavioural Science Organization development is both a result of applied behavioural science and a. and action planning based on the data.” Concluding Comments: . problem-solving method that replicates the steps involved in the scientific method of inquiry underlies most OD activities." the OD practitioner works: first diagnosing the situation. feedback of the data to the client system members. Action research involves three processes: data collection. Action research is especially well-suited for planned change programs. 6. The two bottom inputs. had this to say about it: “The research needed for social practice can best be characterized as research for social management or social engineering. I am inclined to hold the opposite to be true. perhaps more accurately. represent contributions from applied science. who developed the concept of action research.From this "practice theory. and research leading to social action… This by no means implies that the research needed is in any respect less scientific or "lower" than what would be required for pure science in the field of social events. it is a program of applying behavioural science to organizations. form of applied behavioural science. Kurt Lewin. 6. Fig. represent contributions from pure or basic science. It is a type of action-research. practice research and practice theory.9 Action Research The action research model – a data-based. behavioural science research and two behavioural science theory. then selecting and implementing treatments based on the diagnosis. and finally evaluating the effects of the treatments. Action research is a method that combines learning and doing – learning about the dynamics of organizational change. the two top in puts.
Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change the first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces and the second is the model of the change process. –––––––––– means moving to new level of behaviour. _____________ means sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of individual efforts of members. OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals’ behaviours. First—order change is also called ___________. Bring out the essence of “managing beyond the quick fix” model of organizational development. . Taken collectively. Self Assessment Questions 1. each is a powerful conceptual tool for thinking out and implementing change. they constitute the beginning of a theory of organization development and change that has enormous potential for improving organizational performance and individual development. 6. A fundamental belief in OD is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. The Burke-Litwin model emphasized on first-order and second-order change. In parallel learning structures members have to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. Ralph Kilmann specified the critical leverage points for organizational change. 3. What are first-order and second order change according to Burke-Litwin Model of organizational change? Explain. Taken separately.These foundations of organization development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. 6. –––––––––– gave the model “Beyond the Quick Fix”. 2.10 Summary The foundations of organizational development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. 4. Systems theory views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment.” 5.11 Terminal Questions 1. 2. A _____________ is defined as “a set of elements standing in interaction. Explain Kurt Lewin’s models and theories of planned organizational change. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements is the principle of Porras and Robertson model organizational change. 3. Action research model combines learning and doing.
Synergy Answers to TQs: 1.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Transactional change 4.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Ralph Kilmann 3.Refer section 6. “Work teams are building blocks of organizational development. Refer section 6.2. What are the features of systems theory of organizational development? 5. 6.2.2 3. Unfreezing 2.3 4. MU0002-Unit-07-Organization Climate Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Structure: 7. Refer section 6.3 5. System 5. Refer section 6.1 2.1 Introduction Objectives 7. Refer section 6.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture Culture and .4.2.” Comment on this statement.
. etc. 1986).3 Types of Organization Culture. norms and tangible signs (artifacts) of organization members and their behaviors. 7. what they brag about.7. thinking. The concept of culture is particularly important when attempting to manage organization-wide change. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. Members of an organization soon come to sense the particular culture of an organization.1 Introduction Basically. but everyone knows it when they sense it. Culture is one of those terms that’s difficult to express distinctly. values. Practitioners are coming to realize that.7 Terminal Questions 7.5 Developing and changing Organization Culture Self Assessment Questions 7. discovered. · Describe different types of Organization Culture · Explain organization culture and effectiveness.6 Summary 7. the culture of a large. Martin and Meyerson. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving. For example. organizational change must include not only changing structures and processes. Culture is comprised of the assumptions. but also changing the corporate culture as well. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. for-profit corporation is quite different than that of a hospital which is quite different than that of a university. organizational culture is the personality of the organization.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 7.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness 7. Objectives: After studying this unit. You can tell the culture of an organization by looking at the arrangement of furniture. despite the best-laid plans. what members wear. – similar to what you can use to get a feeling about someone’s personality. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. you will be able to: · Understand Organization Culture.
Note that the Market organization is not one which is focused just on marketing. and the way members of the organization conduct themselves with customers or other outsiders. Which in many organizations come down to “Do not do too much. including guidelines on how much work to do. Observed behavioral regularities. Some of the most readily agreed upon are the following: 1. the way participants interact. Low absenteeism and high efficiency. 4. Standards of behavior exist. Typical examples are high product quality. internal and external are viewed in market . 5. and rituals related to deference and demeanor. When organizational participants interact with one another. Norms. For many years. Hierarchical leaders are typically coordinators and organizers who keep a close eye on what is happening. Hierarchies have respect for position and power.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture Organizational culture has a number of important characteristics. They often have well-defined policies. 7. 7. they use common language. Dominate value: These are major values that the organization advocates and expects the participants to share. Organizational climate: This is an overall “feeling” that is conveyed by the physical layout. this was considered the only effective way of organizing and is still a basic element of the vast majority of organizations. do not do too little?” 3. and in particular taking note of transaction cost.3 Types of Organization Culture Hierarchy The hierarchy has a traditional approach to structure and control that flows from a strict chain of command as in Max Weber’s original view of bureaucracy. but one where all transactions. Philosophy: These are policies that set forth the organization’s beliefs about how employees and/or customers are to be treated. terminology.· Discuss about developing and changing organization culture. Rules: There are strict guidelines related to getting along in the organization. 6. processes and procedures. 2. New-comers must learn those “ropes” in order to be accepted as full-fledged members of the group. Market The Market organization also seeks control but does so by looking outward.
people are driven through vision. strongly driven by loyalty to one another and the shared cause. culture is like the DNA of an organization. invisible to the naked eye. the adhocracy will rapidly form teams to face new challenges. It may be defined as the ethos of a company (as US firms do) or the shared value and team sprit (as European firms prefer to define it). 1993). big-bang projects and development. value flows between people and stakeholders with minimal cost and delay. Market cultures are outward looking. do still exist and are often communicated and inculcated socially. Transactions are exchanges of value. 1995) and how problems are solved in an organization. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. Clan leaders act in a facilitative. Leaders in market cultures are often hard-driving competitors who seek always to deliver the goods. although not necessarily documented. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of . discovered. Adhocracy The Adhocracy has even greater independence and flexibility than the Clan. clans often have flat organizations and people and teams act more autonomousl. supportive way and may take on a parental role.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness It is reflected in how things are done (Flanagan. 7. which is necessary in a rapidly changing business climate. One culture could be distinguished from another in terms of how some commonly shared human problems are addressed and the specific solutions that one sought (Trompenaars. In contrast to Hierarchies.terms. outputs and outcomes. It has an inward focus and a sense of family and people work well together. In biological terms. Leaders in an adhocracy are visionary. Rather than strict rules and procedures. Where market success goes to those with greatest speed and adaptability. innovative entrepreneurs who take calculated risks to make significant gains. It will use prototyping and experimenting rather than long. but critical to shaping its behavior. shared goals. Rules. Clan The Clan organization has less focus on structure and control and a greater concern for flexibility. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. affecting the performance of every-one within the culture in positive or negative ways. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. In an efficient market organization.
and shaping organization values is difficult as values relate more to employee emotions and feeling (affective dimension) than to their rational thinking (cognitive dimension) Norms: These are a significant element of the organization’s social environment and evolve of behavior. reflecting what is important in the organization and determining how the organization ought to be (the ethos. . thinking. also called as organizational success or growth. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. Values: These are the social principles. · The observable behavior of its members (the way they talk.perceiving. and no unanimity is found in different approaches. and are generally not compromised for short-term benefits or financial gains. from the basis of its policies and action. plaques. and doing. the jargon they use. The various approaches are judgmental and open to question. Though an organization espouses a series of values. productivity. believing. 1986). etc.the informal rules of the fame telling employees what they are supposed to be saying. goals. systems and subsystems. and procedures. individually and collectively. · Public documents it releases and media reports and stories about it. Organization Effectiveness Organizational effectiveness. These are the essential and enduring tenets of an organization. the personality of the organization). Values evolve out of the basic assumption and form the core (or heart) of the culture. For example. Martin and Meyerson. Identifying. Artifacts: The visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization such as: · Its structure. The set of basic assumptions evolve into values artifacts and norms in terms of which an organization culture may be examined and understood. IBM norms dictate that employees should actively listen and respond to customer demands and complaints. various terms such as efficiency. or standards held by members of an organization. communicating. They are reflected in the core capabilities of a company. there is often contradiction in various approaches. its core value are limited to a few in number. and what is right and what is wrong. symbols. · Its rituals. Though a large volume of literature is available on the concept and working of organizational effectiveness. norms. is defined and conceptualized in different ways. the way they dress etc. Thus. rules.
7. 3. e. decisions. Causal Variables: Causal variables are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. End – result Variables: End-result variable are those factors which are caused by causal and intervening variable and are often in terms of the factors in which managers are interested or measure their effectiveness. are often used interchangeably. 2. These causal variables include only those independent variables which can be altered or changed by the organization and its management. there are numerous variables. 1. and perceptual cluster. and they tend to be long-term goals. These variables have been classified by Likert into three groups-causal.g. scrap loss. costs.profitability. motivations. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and its management. organizational growth. Though each individual’s effectiveness is significant but perhaps the most important aspect of effectiveness is its relationship to the entire organization. and earnings. Intervening Variables: Intervening variables are those factors which are reflected as the internal state of organization.. to denote organizational effectiveness.which are useful in discussing organizational effectiveness over time. and (ii) the intervening behavioral cluster. and decision-making. attitudes. and behaviour. Likert states that causal variables are independent variables which determine the course of developments within an organization and the results achieved by the organization. Likert states that the intervening variables reflect the internal state and health of the organization. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and management’s policies. the process usually involves some version of the following steps: . end-result variables are the dependent variables which reflect the achievements in the organization such as its productivity. Whatever the criteria adopted for organizational effectiveness. business and leadership strategies. According to Likert. This is one part of effectiveness that many managers overlook because it emphasis long-term potential as well as short-term performance. Grouping variables into these categories aids greatly in the correct interpretation of the data and their use for diagnostic and other purposes. The intervening variables may be divided into two broad categories: (i) the intervening attitudinal.5 Developing and Changing Organization Culture How Organizational Cultures Start Although organizational cultures can develop in a number of different ways. motivational. communication. the organizational analysis is incomplete for a practicing manager unless the factors underlying effectiveness are identifying. the loyalties. skills. From this point of view. and perceptions of all members and their collective capacity for effective interaction. Many of these variables are caused by causal variables. Intervening variables are concerned with building and developing the organization. intervening and end result. performance goals.
That is. if the appropriate organization culture is in place. obtaining patents. These factors from the two cultures include the size. roles. New product development and information technology is changing so rapidly that any example would be soon out-of –date. Structure. the industry in which the partners come from and now reside. 2. In addition. Changing Organizational Culture Sometimes an organization determines that its culture has to be changed. the geographic location.1. 2. is worth running some risks for. Politics. and whether products and/or services are involved. and so on. locating space. 4. incorporating. moving to a new culture or changing old cultures can be quite difficult: a case can even be made that it really can’t be done successfully?. the current environmental context has undergone drastic change and either the organization must adapt to these new conditions or it may not survive. powerful stakeholders such as unions. and energy that will be required. and history of two firms. . The founder brings in one or more other key people and creates a core group that shares a common vision with the founder. or even customers may support the existing culture. then such rapid change can be welcomed and accommodated with as little disruption and as few problems as possible. is workable. and is worth the investment of time. money. A single person (founder) has an idea for a new enterprise. and a common history begins to be built. building. age. and how this plays out among the partners will be important to cultural compatibility. At this point. For example. Predictable obstacles include entrenched skills. The case of Mergers and Acquisitions The clash between the two cultures in a merger or acquisition can be focused into three major areas: 1. management. However. others are brought into the organization. 3. Where does the power and managerial decision making really reside? Corporate cultures range from autocratic extremes to total employee empowerment. relationships. and structures that work together to reinforce traditional cultural patterns. Even through some firms have had a culture in place to anticipate change. Staffs. The founding core group beings to act in concert to create an organization by raising funds. all in this core group believe that the idea is a good one.
attitudes. Stay the course by being persistent. so that they are able to interact well with the organizational personnel. 7. This attempt to change culture can take many different forms. and patterns of daily behavior. so that a consistent message is delivered from all management team members. Move quickly and decisively to build momentum and to defuse resistance to the new culture. Include employees in the culture change process. if possible. 9. 3. Set realistic goals that impact on the bottom line. organizational cultures can be managed and changed over time. 2. Simple guidelines such as the following can be helpful. The personal feelings. 2. especially when making changes in rules and processes. Self Assessment Questions 1. 6. commitment. the “culture contract” that individuals have bought into to guide their day-to-day thoughts. 7.6 Summary . Emotions. Make changes from the top down. 1. Take out all trappings that remind the personnel of the previous culture. take these losses early. These emotions will be a major input into the clash or compatibility of the two cultures. 8. 3. Expect to have some problems and find people who would rather move than change with the culture and. habits. 5. Assess the current culture.3. ________cultures are outward looking. Recruit outside personnel with industry experience. _____are the visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization. Guidelines for change Despite the significant barriers and resistance to change. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. 4. ___________are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment.
Factors in organizational effectiveness include casual variables. Refer section 7.2 2. 3.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. . Explain the characteristics of organization culture. system-resource approach. 2. Discuss the development and change of organizational development. behavioural approach. Causal variables Answers to TQs: 1.goal approach.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . 7.Organizational effectiveness is the degree to which organization is successful in accomplishing its goals. intervening variables and end-result variables and there exists interrelationship among these variables. Artifacts 2. Finally. Market 3. Refer section 7. Organizations to be successful must be efficient and effective. Organizational effectiveness can be measured through various approaches. effectiveness through adaptive-coping cycle has been discussed. Effectiveness of an organization can be increased through economic man approach and administrative man approach. 7.7 Terminal Questions 1. Refer section 7. Briefly explain different types of organizational culture.3 3. and strategic constituencies approach.
11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 8.Power.1 Introduction Objectives 8.MU0002-Unit-08Power. Politics and Organization Development Structure: 8. As Warner Burke observes: "Organization development signifies change.7 Operating in a Political Environment 8. Organization Development Unit-08.8 Acquiring and using Power Skills Self Assessment Questions 8. That criticism was essentially correct for many years although it is less valid . In this unit.10 Terminal Questions 8. must be understood if one is to be effective in organizations.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored 8. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. power must be exercised.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice of OD 8.9 Summary 8.3 Two Faces of Power 8.1 Introduction Politics and Power and politics. we examine power and politics in relation to organization development.2 Power Defined and Explored 8.” Organization development has been criticized for not taking into account power in organizations. indisputable facts of organizational life. and for change to occur in an organization.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power 8.
’ To have power is to be able to get desired things done. We therefore define interpersonal power as the ability to get one’s way in a social situation. the act or ability of influencing others.” “A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would otherwise not do. political." “Power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. Without leadership (power) in medical. spiritual." "Power is defined in this unit simply as the capacity to effect (or affect) organizational outcomes. humankind would not have much of the misery it does today. confiscation. and outcomes favoring one party over the other. you will be able to: · Define power and politics in organizations. The phenomenon of power is ubiquitous. · Explain theories about the sources of power. but kinetic power is the act of doing so. Objectives: After this studying this unit. 8." Analyzing these definitions shows some common elements: effectance-getting one’s way. and behaviours of people. Potential power is the capacity to do so.actions and the decisions that precede them. humankind would not have the standard of living it does today. · Acquire skills to handle power and politics in organizations. financial. One person exerts power over another to the degree that he is able to exact compliance as desired. and repression.today. and organizational activities. Without influence (power) people would have no cooperation and no society.2 Power Defined and Explored "Power is the intentional influence over the beliefs. emotions. · Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. Without leadership (power) directed toward warfare. One goal of this unit is to advance our understanding of the role of power in OD and the role of OD in a power setting. Recent years have seen a sizable outpouring of theory and research on power and politics from which OD practitioners have derived implications and applications for the field but we are still in the early stages of knowing how power and organization development should be related. Power-in-action may . The French word ‘pouvoir’ stands for both the noun ‘power’ and the verb ‘to be able. to effect outcomes. the necessity of social interaction between two or more parties. technological.
with collective. In most organizations the positive face of power is much more prevalent than the negative face of power." · French and Raven’s "Bases of Social Power. The negative face of power seeks to dominate and control others. This positive face of power enables others to reach their goals as well as lets the person exercising power reach his or her goals.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power Power exists in virtually all social situations. persuading-these are examples of positive uses of power." · Mintzberg’s Observations on the Genesis of Power in Organizations. the positive face of power seeks to empower self and others.take many forms. for organizations to function. not the possession of power as such. bestowed.3 Two Faces of Power David McClelland proposed an important distinction when he identified "two faces of power" – positive and negative. We think this distinction provides a good insight into the concept of power. unsocialized need to dominate others. Patchen studied organizational decision making and found that coercive tactics were "noticeable chiefly by their absence" while problem solving and consensus seeking were much more prevalent. According to him. absolute power corrupts absolutely. In fact." · Salancik and Pfeffer’s "Strategic-Contingency Model of Power. 8. hurting. the negative face of power is characterized by a primitive. we will examine four different views about who gets power and how: · Emerson’s "Power-Dependence theory. coercing-these are examples of negative uses of power. Roberts came to a similar conclusion in her study of "collective power" and "competitive power. and lead. suggests that many problems with power stem from the goals of persons with power and the means they use. It is especially salient in coordinated activities such as those found in organizations. Power per se is probably neither good nor bad although Lord Acton observed that "power tends to corrupt. an authority or power dimension is required. Crushing." Her research in four organizations showed both kinds of power. being exercised. or positive." A moment’s reflection. . Leading. both positive and negative. influence. The positive face of power is characterized by a socialized need to initiate. How do some people come to possess power? How is power generated. selling. 8. or acquired? In this unit. forcing. influencing. however. it is through the use of power that things get done in the world. power being the predominant mode. McClelland observed that while power has a negative connotation for most people.
Referent power – power based on the power-receiver having an identification with (attraction to. and (2) inversely proportional to the availability of those goals to A outside of the A-B relation. Exchange theory and power-dependence theory are quite compatible with the ideas proposed by French and Raven. Expert power – power based on the powerholder possessing expert knowledge or expertise needed by the other. . Coercive power – power based on the ability of the powerholder to punish another. or bases." These authors suggested five sources.Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. Informational power is a form of expert power where the powerholder possesses important facts or information needed by the other. Legitimate power – power based on everyone’s belief that the powerholder has a legitimate right to exert influence and that the power-receiver has a legitimate obligation to accept the influence. and so forth. praise. Richard Emerson states that "the dependence of Actor A upon Actor B is (1) directly proportional to A’s motivational investment in the goals mediated by B. that is. When the net balance for us is positive. and desired by the other. that person has power over us. attraction. blame. which posits that what goes on between persons is an exchange of social commodities: love. power belongs to those persons who control or mediate desired commodities. if a person has something we want badly and we cannot get it any other place. power. to give something valued by the other. giving someone power over us is the commodity we exchange when we are dependent on that person for something we want. to give something negatively valued by the other. hate. Power-dependence theory is related to a broader framework of social interaction called social exchange theory. Closely related to these ideas is the classic statement by John R. we will terminate or alter the relationship. We enter into and continue in exchange relationships when what we receive from others is equivalent to or in excess of what we must give to others. influence. rewards) that are controlled by one party. Reward power – power based on the ability of the powerholder to reward another. P. we will continue the exchange relationship. information." In other words. goals. respect. 3. that is. The sociologist. when the net balance for us is negative. Viewed in this light. 2. 4. rejection. of social power as follows: 1. 5. Social interaction represents an exchange of social goods and services. The components of this theory are a social relation between two parties and resources (commodities. or feeling of oneness with) the power holder. In this theory. French and Bertram Raven on "the bases of social power.
and through the definition of organizational problems and policies. The important aspects of Mintzberg’s theory are that the sources of power derive from possession of a commodity desired by others. indeed. . second. According to Mintzberg. to enhance their own survival through control of scarce critical resources. and so forth. customers. coupled with 2) The expenditure of energy in a 3) Politically skillful way. used by all who have it. first. and. A fifth basis of power is access to those who have power based on the first four bases. that power-in-action requires will and skill. The resources may be ability to reward and punish. An organization has many potential influencers. third.others-in this case. the top executives. regulators. units. Salancik and Pfeffer further suggest how power is used: "Power is used by subunits. The fourth basis is legal prerogatives-being given exclusive rights to impose choices. called influencers. such as the board of directors." These authors view organizational power as a good thing. like the ones discussed previously. for power in the hands of the critical problem solvers helps the organization cope with the various realities it faces. This theory. and that the organization is the context for the exercise of power. the special expertise needed for the organization’s survival-have power. knowledge. the unions. suppliers. supports the notion that those who have something highly valued by. through the placement of allies in key positions. or departments) most important for solving the organization’s most critical problems. "is built on the premise that organizational behavior is a power game in which various players. being in control of critical skills. the influencer must have both the "will" and the "skill" to use it. Henry Mintzberg has developed a theory of organizational power drawn from the organization theory literature and his own creative synthesis abilities." The three basic conditions for the exercise of power are 1) Some source or basis of power. or information. These critical problems are generally "uncertainties" posed by the environment. the employees. the five possible bases of power are. This theory. All of these must be critical to the organization. control of a body of knowledge.The strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power in organizations accrues to the subunits (individuals. In summary. control of a technical skill. the managers. In addition to a base of power. these four views of the sources of power are remarkably similar – power stems from possession of or mediation of desired resources. seek to control the organization’s decisions and actions. the ability to solve critical problems or exigencies-anything that creates dependence of one actor or set of actors on another. control of a resource.
resource allocation. withholding information. it is engaging in activities to get one’s way.8. conflict resolution. The positive face is characterized by a balanced pursuit of self-interest and the interests of others. and conflict resolution processes. you must lose-rather than win-win terms. they are where the "goods" are distributed and the goals decided. like power. and how”. The first three definitions treat politics as a neutral set of activities. Thus. Analyzing these definitions suggests that the concepts of power and politics are similar. unsocialized needs to dominate others. Likewise we also treat authority as a subset of power. “Organizational politics is the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain ends through non-sanctioned influence means”. and influence others. engaging in open problem solving followed by action and influencing. a tendency to view situations in win-lose terms-what I win. 8. One important feature in these definitions should be examined further. deceiving. Both relate to getting one’s way-effectance. “Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the selfinterest of individuals or groups”. The negative face of politics is characterized by extreme pursuit of self-interest. the last two definitions view politics as illegitimate or unsanctioned activities. but in this sense. Organizational politics tend to be associated with decision-making. and predominant use of the tactics of fighting-secrecy. the power vested in office. one gains a quick understanding of the overall "political climate" of an organization by studying its methods of resource allocation. has two faces. illegitimate in nature. organizational politics is power-in-action in organizations. we view politics as a subset of power. the capacity to get things done by virtue of the position held. viewing situations in win-win terms as much as possible. holding hidden agendas. These key areas are the battlefields where actors win and lose. and choosing among alternative means and goals. develop and use power and other resources to obtain one’s preferred outcomes in a situation in which there is uncertainty about choices”. In fact. treating it as informal power. For our purposes. when. a relative absence of the tactics of fighting. We are inclined to consider politics as neither good nor bad per se but believe that politics. Both relate to pursuit of self-interest and overcoming the resistance of others. initiate.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice OD . “Organizational politics involve those activities taken within organizations to acquire.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored Harold Lasswell defined “politics simply as the study of who gets what. formal power. surprise. and a socialized need to lead.
OD interventions do not deny or attempt to abolish the reality of power in organizations. being one aspect of the positive face of power. The OD consultant. public data about the organization’s culture. In this section we will attempt to integrate those concepts with organization development and offer advice to the OD practitioner for dealing with the political realities found in organizations. they enhance the positive face of power. and expertise. fact-finding. Valid. but not with the negative face of power. and by so doing adds power to the organization. informed choice. problem solver. This major . But organization members are free to accept or reject the practitioner. For example. power equalization. OD interventions typically generate valid. collaboration. public data are indispensable-for problem solving but anathema for organizational politics." The facilitator or educator role is incompatible with a political activist role because cooperation requires one set of behaviors and competition requires a different set of behaviors. The role of the OD practitioner is that of a facilitator. rather. Virtually. strengths. In summary. problem solving is usually superior to power coercion as a way to find solutions to problematic situations. We know of no OD interventions designed to increase coercion or unilateral power. collaboration. individual dignity. like all consultants. openness. According to Chris Argyris. These values are congruent with rational problem solving and incongruent with extremely political modes of operating. and educator. as a preferred way to get things accomplished. and effective pursuit of goals while decreasing reliance on the negative faces of power and politics. Not only is organization development not a power/political intervention strategy. the "interventionist" has three primary tasks: (1) to generate valid useful information. OD values are consistent with the positive face of power.We have discussed a number of ideas concerning power and politics. catalyst. OD interventions increase problem-solving. "Power equalization" has long been described as one of the values of organization development. The practitioner is not a political activist or power broker. (2) to promote free. and weaknesses. organization development represents an approach and method to enable organization members to go beyond the negative face of power and politics. thereby making the negative face of power less prevalent and/or necessary. all OD interventions promote problem-solving. and (3) to promote the client’s internal commitment to the choices made. and his or her values. Cobb and Margulies caution that OD practitioners can get into trouble if they move from a facilitator role to a political role. Emphasis on power equalization stems from two beliefs: first. provides a service that the organization is free to "buy" or "not buy. methods. The practitioner works to strengthen skills and knowledge in the organization. it is instead a rational problem-solving approach that is incompatible with extreme poweroriented situations. not politics. and promoting individual and organizational competence are part of the foundation of organization development. Values such as trust. his or her program. processes. co-operation. second. increases the amount of power available to organization members. as we discussed earlier.
. and possibly referent power (others may identify with and be attracted to the consultant). the OD consultant possesses power from the following bases: legitimate power (the OD program and consultant are authorized by the organization’s decision makers). the resources of OD expertise and ability to help organizational subunits solve their pressing problems. followed by some rules of thumb for the OD practitioner. expert power (the consultant possesses expert knowledge). and the roles of OD practitioners. 8. acceptability. Group support: If the OD group is strong internally. Resource management: Power accrues to those who control resources-in this case. Early success in the OD program and its usefulness to key managers of the organization helps promote this reputation. Stature and credibility: Beer notes that power accrues to those who have been successful and effective. 5.7 Operating in a Political Environment We will present some general observations on operating in a political environment. 6."34 This maxim has been recognized for years under the heading of "get top-level support for the program.strength of OD derives from the strategy of change. First. If the OD group is cohesive and free of internal dissention." 4. These sources of influence produce a substantial power base that will enhance the likelihood of success. organization development practitioners operate from a potentially strong power base they can use to advantage. Success leads to credibility and stature. Political access and sensitivity: Cultivating and nurturing multiple relationships with key power figures in the organization will ensure timely information and multiple sources of support. According to the framework of French and Raven. it will gain more power. and ability to gain organizational support. 3. the values. Sponsorship: "Organization development groups will gain power to the extent that they have sponsorship. Michael Beer has identified additional means by which an OD group can gain and wield power in organizations: 1. in powerful places. the technology. preferably multiple sponsorship. it will be strong externally. 2. Paying attention to these sources of power will enhance the likelihood of success of OD programs. Competence: Demonstrated competence is the most important source of power. informational power (the consultant has a wealth of information about the strengths and weaknesses of the organization).
. those issues vital to the organization’s success. and showing appreciation for the strengths of others are components of interpersonal competence. Many OD interventions promote win-win solutions for conflict situations. communicating. and effective conflict management techniques are required to enhance stable. Rule Two: Make the OD program itself a desired commodity. and expertise. Each is derived from one general principle: Mind your own business. it gains an aura of respect and protection that sets it above most political entanglements. which is to help someone else solve his or her major problems.What advice is available for OD practitioners who want to operate more effectively in a political environment? Several rules of thumb are implied by the fact that power accrues to persons who control valued resources or commodities. OD consultants have a formal or informal contractual agreement with managers to help them do what they are trying to do-better. OD professionals who are skilled in conflict management techniques and OD programs that encompass conflict resolution activities become valued commodities. Beer and Walton argue that organization development should move from being practitioner centered to being manager-centered. A valuable by-product of this fact is that if the program runs into political turbulence. constructive social relationships. both as a person and as a professional. OD programs become desired commodities when they are instruments that allow individuals and organizations to reach their goals. Rule One: Become a desired commodity. to help them achieve their goals and solve their problems. Sometimes OD practitioners overlook that they are hired by others. the manager will vigorously defend it. Being of value to multiple powerholders rather than a single one both increases support and reduces the likelihood that the program will become the target of political activities. not the OD consultant. Another way the OD program becomes a desired commodity is by focusing on important issues. Good OD practitioners will have learned and practiced these skills. Organizations are social systems in which members have both a history and a future of interacting. Skills such as listening. The preceding rules of thumb describe ways to increase or solidify one’s power base. usually managers. The role of the OD consultant is to help others upon request. Rule Four: Create win-win solutions. problem solving. Rule Five: Mind your own business. Becoming a desired commodity as a person means being interpersonally competent and trustworthy. Rule Three: Make the OD program a valued commodity for multiple powerful people in the organization. experience. OD practitioners are likely to have high interpersonal competence by virtue of their training. The following rules describe ways to avoid becoming involved in one’s own or in others’ political struggles. counseling. The OD program belongs to the manager. OD programs should be results-oriented. The nature of organizations and the nature of organization development suggest this rule. coaching. When the OD program serves the needs of top executives.
Rule Seven: Mind your own business because to do otherwise is to invite political trouble. Table 8. and personality characteristics. not content. thereby greatly expanding practitioner influence. others’ support.8 Acquiring and Using Power Skills The OD practitioner is neither power activist nor power broker. yet legitimate means of acquiring power." and "going around the formal system. Organizational politics revolve around decisions: Should we seek Goal A or Goal B? Should we use Means X or Means Y? Should we promote Mary or John? The proper role of OD consultants is to help decision makers by providing them with good decision-making processes. One carries out such a strategy by participating in alliances and coalitions.Rule Six: Mind your own business. negotiations the nature of power and politics. We could propose more rules of thumb. and the characteristics and behaviors of powerholders. which is to be an expert on process. We believe the legitimate role of the OD practitioner is that of facilitator. and educator. Earlier we stated that the OD practitioner should learn as much as possible about bargaining.1: Power Base and Power Strategy Connection Individual Power Bases Knowledge Strategies for Success Playing It Straight . individual power derives from knowledge. but these give the flavor of the issues one must consider when operating in a political environment. not power activist or power broker." "using social networks. the strategy and tactics of influence. Networking is recognized as a potent. Three successful power strategies are "playing it straight. Illegitimate behavior encroaches on others’ legitimate "turf. As shown in the figure." OD practitioners have typically pursued a "playing it straight" strategy as their sole means of exerting power. The principle is simple but powerful: know your legitimate business and stick to it. Attention to these rules can save OD practitioners time and energy that can be more profitably invested in the OD program. The authors propose adding the "using social networks" strategy to their repertoires. viable. not by getting involved in the answers. 8. problem solver. Abiding by this rule keeps the consultant from becoming entangled in politics. A subtle phenomenon is involved here: when people engage in illegitimate behavior." which arouses defensive actions. while at the same time increasing his or her usefulness to the organization’s powerholders. such behavior is often interpreted as politically motivated. dealing directly with powerholders and decision makers. but that does not mean practitioners must be naive or incompetent in the political arena. catalyst. Illegitimate behavior causes others to try to exert greater control over the situation. and using contacts for information.
even those of little power. personal attraction. effort. influence key powerholders to accept the OD program. criticality-how important one’s job is flexibility-the amount of discretion in the job. Whetton and Cameron’s model is shown in following figure. The power structure will realize that collaborative power is preferable to manipulation and deception. then utilize a facilitative OD process in which the powerholders work on strategic business issues using consensus decision making to develop a corporate strategy. This practical. (Legitimacy refers to abiding by and promoting the values of the organization. personal power and position power. arises from expertise. In this model. a person’s power comes from two main sources. how-to book on power and organization development is well worth studying. in turn. The four stages are: Phase I Consolidating Power to Prepare for Change Phase ll Focusing Power on Strategic Consensus Phase Ill Aligning Power with Structure and People Phase IV Realizing Power through leadership and Collaboration These stages are the means the OD consultant uses to "take the high road" mentioned in the previous quotation-build a power base. visibility-how much one’s work is seen by . and legitimacy.) Position power derives from five sources: Centrality-access to information in a communication network.· Expertise · Information · Tradition Others’ Support · Use data to convince · Focus on target group · Be persistent Using Social Networks · Alliances and coalitions · Deal with decision maker · Contacts for information Going Around Formal System · Work around roadblocks · (Don’t) use organization rules Political access Staff support Personality Charisma Reputation Professional credibility Finally. Personal power. the authors propose a four-stage model for using the OD process to help the power elite transform the organization in ways beneficial for all concerned. which in turn will protect the interests of all concerned.
Reciprocity refers to exchange of favors. Having power is one thing. (2) selecting the proper influence strategy. one investigation of the determinants of effective management performance concluded that a key factor distinguishing high and low performers was the ability to establish informal relationships via networks”. "Power is converted into influence when the target individual consents to behave according to the desires of the power holder. Retribution refers to coercion and threats. power-in-use is called influence. 8. and reciprocity can be useful when reason fails. Usually reason is the preferred strategy. Retribution is not recommended except in unusual cases. According to these authors. and (3) empowering others. and retribution. and relevance-how important one’s task is in relation to organizational priorities.influential people. Fig. Networks are critical to effective performance for one compelling reason: Except for routine jobs. Reason refers to persuasion by facts. Indeed. Whetton and Cameron suggest . actually using it to get things done is another." And. They write: "Influence entails actually securing the consent of others to work with you in accomplishing an objective. Three influence strategies can be used to influence others-reason. no one has the necessary information and resources to accomplish what’s expected of them. reciprocity." Three things are involved in converting power into influence: (1) resisting other people’s inappropriate influence attempts. “One of the most important ways of gaining power in an organization is by establishing a broad network of task and interpersonal relationships.1: Model of Power and Influence Networking is used to increase both personal power and position power.
Concluding Comments: In this unit. when. (2) provide a positive. (3) reward and encourage others in visible and personal ways. 2. units or departments is most important in solving organizational problems. and (6) build on success. 8. –––––––––– is made up of Charisma. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. Strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power that accrues to the individuals. Define power in an organizational context and explain types of power..several means of resisting others’ influence attempts such as confrontation and using countervailing power. –––––– is the intentional influence over the beliefs. and are amenable to positive control. when and how. –––––––– defined politics as the study of who gets what. 4. (4) express confidence (5) foster initiative and responsibility.10 Terminal Questions 1. Power based on the power-receiver having identification with the power holder is called ––– ––––––––. 8.9 Summary Power and politics are inseparable facts of organizational life. 5. Self Assessment Questions 1. arise from known conditions. Our suggestions for using power to operate effectively in organizations may help practitioner avoid the perils and pitfalls of power that "go with the territory" of organizational change. Power and politics are similar in nature. 3. we have examined power and politics with the goals of understanding the phenomena and deriving implications for OD practitioners. Power and politics are similar in nature. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. Organizational power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. Power can be either positive or negative. and are amenable to positive control. Organizational politics is defined as the study of who gets what. and how. collaborative work environment. Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self-interest of individuals or groups. . Methods for empowering others are the following: (1) involve subordinates in assigning work. arise from known conditions. _____________ has identified two faces of power. emotions or behaviour of people. reputation and professional credibility.
4.6 5. Referent power 4. Harold Lasswell 5. Refer section 8. Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. MU0002-Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Structure: 9. Define organization politics. Refer section 8.5 4.2. Identify the bases of individual power and the respective strategies for their success. Refer section 8. 5. Power 2. Refer section 8. 8.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .1 Introduction .Refer section 8.2 2. Personality Answers to TQs: 1.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.4 3. Describe briefly various theories of power. McClelland 3. 3.
1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival. These programs are derived from careful diagnosis.9 Reengineering Self Assessment Questions 9. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. These methods are receiving increasing attention in Organization Development.2 Meaning and Definitions 9.10 Summary 9. Objectives: . organizational problems may repeat. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future. In this dynamic and fluid environment.8 Total Quality Management 9. One important intervention technique is Technostructural interventions because these are related to technical and structural issues such as how to divide labour and how to coordinate department which is related to Restructuring organization.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 9.4 Management By Objectives 9.Objectives 9. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing.7 Parallel Learning Structures 9.11 Terminal Questions 9. how to produce product or service which is related to Employee involvement approaches and how to design work is related to Work design. These interventions vary from standardized program that have been developed and sometimes tailored program.6 Quality of Work Life Projects 9. An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities.5 Quality Circles 9. actions.3 Socio Technical Systems 9.
· Explain Total Quality Management. This normally is a reasonable. One problem with behavioral/ group interventions is the tendency for new managers or employees to discount or fail to continue the change program. Succession Doesn’t Destroy Change Effort. The cost of structural change is generally “front-end” loaded. includes removing or adding layers to hierarchy. their attractiveness is also increased by the following advantages: 1.2 Meaning and Definitions Structural Intervention is related to the changes that relate elements of organization to one another. change can be introduced relatively rapidly by top management. and OD practice enables the change agent to estimate the probable consequences of the change. From a benefit cost analysis. · Explain Reengineering. In addition. Once diagnosed and an appropriate correction developed. Cost is Low. 2. Advantages of Structural Interventions There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. Downsizing associated with restructuring. 5. 9. Structural changes are consistent with their operating styles and are generally understood by practitioners. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. Greater Predictability. Organization Acceptance of Change. organization theory. Structure changes are normally “institutionalized” and less subject to this problem. Weeks and months of group effort are saved.After studying this unit. Changes can involve decentralization and centralization. 3. Rapidity of change. and more . meaning the major costs are associated with analysis and design of change. · Discuss the parallel Learning Structures. Managers and administrators are notoriously pragmatic. Basic reinforcement theories. · Discuss the Management By Objectives · Explain the Quality Circles. you will be able to: · Explain the Socio technical change. 4.
1988): • Determining the environmental demands • Creating a vision statement • Educating organizational members • Creating the change structure • Conducting socio-technical analysis • Formulating re-design proposals · Defining the scope of the system to be re-designed · Implementing recommended changes · Evaluating changes 9. 1967. Its basic idea has been derived from the concept of participative goal setting as a technique of OD. is a technique and system which helps in improving organizational performance. it has been defined as follows: MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. 1976. Since then. It could involve the following steps (Foster. though not strictly an OD intervention in the sense in which other interventions have been discussed so far.critically. 9. therefore. Pasmore. It endeavors to re-design the organization’s structure. its definitional aspect. many business and nonbusiness organizations have adopted this in some form or the other. a predictable cost Implementation of group strategies involves significant long-term man-hour and consultant costs.3 Socio Technical Systems Socio-technical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. Though there are some variations in the practices of MBO and. processes and functions to create a balance between the organization and its changing external environment.4 Management by Objectives Management by objectives (MBO). The term MBO was coined by Drucker in 1964 when he emphasized the concept of managing by results. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. Cummings.” .
MBO employs several techniques but it is not merely the sum total of all these techniques. The review is future-oriented because it provides basis for planning and corrective actions. often MBO provides the stimulus for the introduction of new techniques of management and enhances the relevance and utility of the existing ones. 5. superiors and subordinates. Certain degree of overlapping is there. and human resources of the organization by integrating the individual with organization and organization with the environment. The total management process revolves round the objectives set jointly by the superior and the subordinate. Therefore. This is possible because MBO tries to match objectives and resources. . As an approach to management. all the units or departments and individual manager. Therefore. managers have the opportunities for clarifying their job relationships with peers. Objectives are established for all the levels of the organization. its features can be identified as follows: 1. MBO is bound to have some relationship with every management technique. each manager takes active part in setting objectives for himself and also in evaluating his performance as to how he is performing. are determined on the basis of objectives. operational managerial process for the effective utilization of material. MBO is an approach and philosophy to management and not merely a technique. MBO is likely to affect every management practice in the organization. its subsystems and people. The MBO is characterized by the participation of concerned managers in objective setting and performance reviews. reward and punishment system is attached with the achievement of the objectives. with objective orientation as its essence. Whereas the various techniques of management help in measurement of results in resources. normally once a year. A management technique can be applied in selected parts of the organization and will have limited implications for its other parts. MBO is also concerned with determining what these results and resources should be. It emphasises initiative and active role by the manger who is responsible for achieving objectives. Periodic review of performance is an important feature of MBO. MBO is the joint application of a number of principles and techniques. physical. 2. non-specialist. It works as an integrating device. 6. Objectives in MBO provide guidelines for appropriate system and procedures. 4.The integration of individual and organizational objectives through MBO has been emphasized by Chakravarty when he has defined MBO as follows: “MBO is a result-centered. etc. Resource allocation.. delegation of authority. 3. Similarly. The performance review is held regularly. including the corporate level. The basic emphasis of MBO is on objectives. In fact. It is a particular way of thinking about management. Objectives provide the means for integrating the organization with its environment. On the other hand.” Based on the definition of MBO. This process clarifies the role very sharply in terms of what one is expected to achieve.
Process of MBO MBO is a system for achieving organizational objectives, enhancement of employee commitment and participation. Therefore, its process should facilitate translation of basic concepts into management practice. The MBO process is characterized by the emphasis on the rigorous analysis, the clarity and balance of objectives, and participation of the managers with accountability for results. The MBO process is not as simple as it appears to be. Managers need training and experience for developing the required skills. 1. Setting of Organizational Purpose and Objectives: The first step in MBO is the definition of organizational purpose and objectives. Questions, such as, “why does the organization exist?”. What business are we in?” and what should be our business?” provide guidelines for the statement of purpose. This, in interaction with external factors, then determines the long-range strategic objectives like (i) whether to achieve growth through expansion in the same line of business or diversity: (ii) what should be blending of trading and manufacturing activities; (iii) what should be the degree of vertical integration and so on. Usually the objective setting starts at the top level of the organization and moves downward to the lowest managerial levels. This will go in a sequence like this (i) defining the purpose of the organization, (ii) long-range and strategic objectives, (iii) short-term organizational objectives, (iv) divisional/departmental/sectional objectives, (v) individual manager’s objectives. 2. Key Result Areas: Organizational objective and planning premises together provide the basis for the identification of key result areas (KRAs). It may be emphasized that KRAs are derived from the expectations of various stakeholders and indicate the priorities for organizational performance. KRAs also indicate the present state of an organization’s health and the top management perspective for the future. Examples of KRAs applicable to most of the business organizations are (i) profitability, (ii) market standing, (iii) innovation, (iv) productivity, (v) worker performance, (vi) financial and physical resources, (vii) manager performance, and (viii) public responsibility. Even though KRAs are most durable, the list of KRAs gets considerably changed over the period in response to new needs and opportunities. Sometimes, the achievement in a particular KRA also provides the impetus for a new KRA in future. 3. Setting Subordinates’ Objectives: The organizational objectives are achieved through individuals. Therefore, each individual manager must know in advance what he is expected to achieve. Every manager in the managerial hierarchy is both superior and subordinate except the person at the top level and lowest level. Therefore, there is a series of superior and subordinate relationships. The process of objective setting begins with superior’s proposed recommendations for his subordinate’s objectives. In turn, the subordinate states his own objectives as perceived by him. Thereafter, the final objectives for the subordinate are set by the mutual negotiation between superior and subordinate. In the beginning of MBO process in an organization, there may be wide gap between the recommended objectives by the superior and subordinate’s stated objectives because the latter may like to put lesser burden on him by
setting easily achievable objectives. However, with the experience gained over the period of time, this gap narrows because of narrowing down of perception of superior and subordinate about what can be done at a particular level. 4. Matching Resources with Objectives: When objectives are set carefully, they also indicate the resource requirement. In fact, resource availability becomes an important aspect of objective setting because it is the proper application of resources which ensures objective achievement. Therefore, there should be matching between objectives and resources. By relating these to objectives, a superior manager is better able to set the need and economy of allocating resources. By relating these to objectives, a superior manger is better able to see the need and economy of allocating resources. The allocation and movement of resources should be done in consultation with the subordinate manager. 5. Appraisal: Appraisal aspect of MBO tries to measure whether the subordinate is achieving his objective or not. If not, what are the problems and how these problems can be overcome? Appraisal is undertaken as an ongoing process with a view to find out deficiency in the working and also to remove it promptly. It is not taken merely to punish the non-performer or to reward the performer. It is taken as a matter of system to ensure that everything is going as planned and the organization is able to achieve its objectives. 6. Recycling: Though appraisal is the last aspect of MBO process, it is used as an input for recycling objectives and other actions. Objectives are neither set at the top and communicated to the bottom nor are they set at the bottom and go up. Objective setting is a joint process through interaction between superior and subordinate. Therefore, what happens at each level may affect other levels also. The outcome of appraisal at one level is recycled to see if the objectives have been set properly at the level concerned and also at the next higher level. 9.5 Quality Circles Quality circle is one of the most popular methods in the USA which was originally developed in Japan in 1950s.Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. Quality circle requires a managerial philosophy and culture that promotes sharing power, information, knowledge, and rewards. Quality circle program consists of several circles, each having three to fifteen members. The original idea of quality circles involved small groups of volunteers meeting on a regular basis, but in its contemporary form, quality groups are often compulsory and organized around specific work teams. Some organizations have even gone as far as setting targets for the number of suggestions quality groups are expected to come up with. 9.6 Quality of Work Life Based on the research of Eric Trist et al. at the Tavistcock Institute of Human Relations in London, this approach looked both at technical and human sides of organizations and how they
are interrelated. QWL programs, in general, require joint participation by union and management in the process of work-designing, which consequently result into high level of task variety, appropriate feedback and employee discretion. The most distinguishing feature of QWL program is the development of self-managing work groups which consist of multi-skilled workers. 9.7 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel Learning Structures (also known as Communities of Practice) promote innovation and change in large bureaucratic organizations while retaining the advantages of bureaucratic design. Groups representing various levels and functions work to open new channels of communication outside of and parallel to the normal, hierarchical structure. Parallel Learning Structures may be a form of Knowledge Management. Knowledge Management involves capturing the organization’s collective expertise wherever it resides (in databases, on paper, or in people’s heads) and distributing it to the people who need it in a timely and efficient way. It Consists of a steering committee and a number of working groups that: · Study what changes are needed in the organization, · Make recommendations for improvement, and · Then monitor the resulting change efforts. 9.8 Total Quality Management It is a long term effort that orients all of an organization’s activities around the concept of quality. It is very popular in USA in 1990s.TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization, provides relevant information to all employees, ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. It is also called continuous quality improvement. A combination of a number of organization improvement techniques and approaches, including the use of quality circles, statistical quality control, statistical process control, self-managed teams and task forces, and extensive use of employee participation. Features that characterize TQM: · Primary emphasis on customers. · Daily operational use of the concept of internal customers. · An emphasis on measurement using both statistical quality control and statistical process control techniques.
MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner.9 Reengineering It is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical. eliminating. · An emphasis on teams and teamwork. The term MBO was coined by _________ in 1964. · Top management support on an ongoing basis. actions. 3. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. 9. such as cost. · A major emphasis on continuous learning. Quality . · Participative management. From a benefit cost analysis. There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. __________ represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement.10 Summary An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. 2. service.· Competitive benchmarking. It seeks to make such processes more efficient by combining. Reengineering is a top-down process. Reengineering focuses on visualizing and streamlining any or all business processes in the organization. Self Assessment Questions 1. or restructuring activities without regard to present hierarchical or control procedures. contemporary measures of performance. assumes neither an upward flow of involvement nor that consensus decision making. Sociotechnical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. An organization development __________ is a sequence of activities. and speed. quality. actions. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. · Continuous search for sources of defects with a goal of eliminating them entirely. 9. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives.
What are the advantages of structural interventions? 3. .circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. Drucker 3. Write a short note on Total Quality Management.Refer section 9. TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization.2 3. Discuss Socio Technical Systems? 2. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. Quality circle Answers to TQs: 1. 9. It is also called continuous quality improvement. Explain Management By Objectives? 4. provides relevant information to all employees.5 4.12 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. Refer section 9.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer section 9. 9.3 2. Intervention 2. Refer section 9. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems.11 Terminal Questions 1.
cope with the ongoing changes successfully in the first instance.7 Summary 10. In this dynamic and fluid environment.9 Answers to SAQs and TQs 10. 10. and initiate new change so as to overtake the competitors one the one hand and delight the customers on the other.MU0002-Unit-10-Managing Organization Development Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Structure: 10. Hence.5 Impact of Change on the Future Manager 10. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change.1 Introduction Objectives 10. the mangers and other employees must be able to practically anticipate the changes (planned and unprecedented).1 Introduction Change in Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival. Self Assessment Questions 10.2 Nature of Change 10. Objectives: .3 Resistance to Change 10.8 Terminal Questions 10.4 Causes for Resistance to Change. organizational problems may repeat. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future.
After studying this unit. or social. Thus. However. While managers as change agents want to bring changes in the organization. some changes which are of minor type may be absorbed by the existing equilibrium. we find that the shape of the entire balloon has changed. the contour of the balloon visibly changes. may require special change efforts. biological. less. Thus. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization – technology. it has stretched slightly. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of organization change. Though this phenomenon will be taken later. 2. · State the methods of reducing resistance to change. job design and people.whether physical.2 Nature of Change The term ‘change’ refers to an alteration in a system. which are major ones. organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. and others. However. Thus. · Discuss the nature of change · Explain resistance to change and the factors which resist change. some parts of organization may be affected more. it disturbs the old equilibrium necessitating the development of a new equilibrium. organizational change may have the following features: 1. They have illustrated it by comparing an organization to an air-filled balloon. However. and others. employees want to maintain a status quo. 10. it becomes indented at the point of contact. structural arrangement. they have concluded that the whole organization tends to be affected by change in any part of it. some parts may be affected directly. When change occurs in any part of the organization. Newstrom and Davis have explained the impact of a change in any part of the organization on the total organization. The type of new equilibrium depends on the degree of change and its impact on the organization. When a finger (which represents external force) is forced against a point on the balloon (which represents the organization). · Impact of change on future managers. 3. if we look minutely. indirectly. Any change may effect the whole organization. others. . the change in organization does not occur purely on mechanical relationship. what is important at this point is that a change in any part affects the entire organization and subsequent changes are required in other parts. Organizational change is a continuous process.
there are two sides of resistance.10. commented. In fact. that is. Many companies have been forced to do so in the past. resistance to change provides help in managing change in two ways: . let us discuss whether resistance is always bad as it is generally perceived to be. We wanted a new culture and new layout. “The Pune plant is fully saturated. resistance to change is costly affair.3 Resistance to Change In the management of change effectively. If people resist to change. Madhur Bajaj. the company procured land near its old plant site but later shifted the new plant site away from the old plant because of resisting work culture of the old plant which was expected to percolate to the new plant also. We shall take new workers at the new place. Managing Director of Bajaj Auto. In fact. We saw resistance to change at the existing plant. Before we trace out the reasons for résistance to change. many organizations have been forced to abandon change programmes because of resistance to such programmes. more serious upsets may occur.” Resistance as Benefit: On the one hand. people act to establish a steady state of need fulfillment and to secure themselves from disturbance of that balance. While on negative side. Resistance as Cost: Since all changes have some cost. so is the resistance to change. Resistance by some members of the organization provides an opportunity to the change agents to weigh the pros and cons of introducing change more carefully. but when a change is major or unusual. the organizational may not be able to introduce new phenomena in order to adapt environmental requirement. When change is minor and within the scope of correcting programme. the reality lies in between. the managers face the problem of resistance to change. Similarly. social systems tend to resist change because of homeostasis. Thus. On this phenomenon.as cost and as benefit. Homeostasis implies self-correcting characteristics of organism to maintain equilibrium as a result of change. adjustment is fairly routine. One example of Bajaj Auto Limited is relevant here. In order to increase its manufacturing capacity of two-wheelers. fear of change can be as significantly disrupting as change itself. This leads to general proposition that people and their social systems will often resist change in organizations. because it produces identical symptoms. or they have been forced to adopt alternative strategies. In fact. and its basic survival may be jeopardized. like shifting of the manufacturing plants at new locations. it provides some benefits to the organization as its change agent. and on the other. Resistance to change forces management to find out this reality which helps in managing change more effectively. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required.
they will have lower opportunity to earn incentives and bonus as the new system requires additional skills. It may signal the need for more effective communication about the meaning and purpose of a change or need to rethink precisely how a proposed change will affect the organization and its members. Economic Factors People feel attached to the organization for satisfying their needs and economic needsphysiological. whenever people sense that new machinery (change) poses a threat of replacing or degrading them. the reasons underlying resistance to change may be identified at these two levels: Individual Resistance There are many factors operating at the individual level which are responsible for resistance. job security etc. People may perceive that they will be adversely affected by the change in terms of their needs satisfaction in the following ways: 1. 3. Therefore. It also highlights real inadequacies in the proposed change and suggests better ways for developing and introducing changes.. 2. people may feel that in the new system. Fear of Economic Loss: A change may create fear of economic loss in the sense that it may affect economic compensation adversely. and turn into technological unemployment. psychological and social. This feeling is created because people feel that those who can match the new requirements will be better off than those who cannot match. All these are well-established in the old system. Degree of force in resistance depends on how people feel about change. These feeling may be based either on reality or there may be emotional feeling towards the change. Psychological Factors . Skill Obsolescence: A change is generally meant for better methods of working which may involve new techniques. Factors in Resistance to Change People tend to evaluate the effect of change individually but they express it through group in collective form. bonus. it attracted a lot of resistance because of this reason. When computer was introduced in the business sector in India. etc. Whenever there is change. reduce job options. either real or emotional. etc. may be seen in the context of three types of factors: economic. precede over other needs. they simply resist such a change. Reduced Opportunities for Incentives: Employees are generally offered incentives linked to their output in the form of incentive schemes. technology.1. 2. These feelings.
and fear of unknown. particularly social needs. The change initiated by the organization disturbs such equilibrium and people have to obtain another equilibrium which is a painful exercise. may be logical from people’s point of view but may be illogical from the change agent’s point of view. Fear of Unknown: A change may be perceived as entering into unchartered area which is unknown. The major factors causing resistance to change are: desire to retain existing social interaction and feeling of outside interference.Psychological factors are based on people’s emotions. Status Quo: People want status quo.e. status quo. Therefore. they do not want any disturbance in their existing equilibrium of life and work pattern. people resist change. Therefore. Ego Defensiveness: A change may affect the ego of the people affected by the change and in order to defend their ego. these people resist any new idea. lack of trust in change agent. people resist it. 3. Thus. through their mutual compatible interactions. Social Factors People derive need satisfaction. which people do not want. i. The change will bring results in future. Lack of Trust in Change Agent: The effect of change is perceived in the context of change agent. 2. Desire to Maintain Existing Social Interaction: People desire to maintain existing social interaction since it is a satisfying one. These are qualitative and. To the extent the satisfaction of these needs is affected by a change. They form their own social groups at the work place for the satisfaction of their social needs. the person who initiates change. they resist change. The lack of adequate information about the likely impact of change further complicates the problems. This lack of certainty creates anxiety and stress in the minds of people and they want to avoid it. people may differ. A change in itself suggests that everything is not right at a particular level. 4. Major psychological factors responsible for resistance are: ego defensiveness. 1. their existing social interactions are likely to be changed. the change may be perceived as an instrument for exposing the weakness of the people. Therefore. low tolerance for change. they show resistance to change efforts. This is the reason why labour union resists changes initiated by management because of the feeling that labour and management are two different interest groups in the organization. If people have low degree of confidence in the change agent. therefore. Some people have very low level of tolerance for change and ambiguity as compared to others. Low Tolerance for Change: In the context of maintaining status quo. . everyone tries to avoid it. that is. sentiments and attitudes towards change. 5. which is always uncertain. When there is any change. 1.
it may not be possible for the organization to bring necessary change. an organization has to adapt to its environment but the adaptation has its own cost. prescribes rigid authority relationships. For example. Sumantra Ghoshal. Digital Equipment Corporation. Feeling of Outside Interference: A change brought about by the change agent is considered to be interference in the working of people. Stability of Systems: The organization may design a system through which it may derive many benefits. 1. has commented as follows: “Nothing fails like success. All these work in some circumstances. Some of these reasons are basic while others are by-products of those. millstones and routines. If the organization is not fully equipped for meeting such demands. a professor of strategic leadership who is considered to be a management Guru. This phenomenon is heightened if the change agent belongs to another social class. The latter my feel that managers try to make workers an instrument for higher productivity but the outcome of this productivity will be retained by them. a bureaucratic organization has certain fixed rules. resource limitations. Many powerful organizations of the past have failed to change and they have developed into routines. Resource Limitations: No doubt. e. For example. all these companies have been victims of corporate disease. It is called ‘The Failure of Success’. Organizational Resistance to Change: Not only individuals and groups within an organization resist change. Whether it is IBM. the organization may not bring it easily because it is accustomed to a particular system. 2.2. The system is stabilized and any change may be perceived as a threat by the organization itself.. if new . Counting Past Successes: A major problem before the organizations which have past success stories is how to face challenges of the changing environment. resources and processes of the most successful companies have in the past ossified into clichés. It a change is required in these aspects. these organizations start falling.g. nothing fails as spectacularly as spectacular success. Since these organizations have achieved success by following a particular set of management practices. sunk cost. even the organization itself resists many changes because of certain reasons.” This statement suggests that organizations tend to stabilize at a particular level and if the change efforts are not brought. values. stability of systems. first two reasons are basic and others are by-products of the first two. Caterpillar. For example. Many organizations are designed to be innovation-resisting. Strategies. and institutes reward and punishment system. and inter-organizational agreement. 3. Zerox or nearer home-TI cycles. The major reasons for organizational failure to change are: counting past successes. change initiated by managers affecting workers. dogmas. they become too rigid to change and they hide their failure to change in the guise of past successes. For example. This is the reason why many old industrial houses are languishing far behind and their places are being taken away by newer organizations.
Reactors: These organizations realize that their specific environment is changing but fail to relate themselves with the changing environment. and reserve some resources unutilized for future use. It depends more on the style of top management. if any change is to be incorporated. intensive planning.defenders. Based on the aggressiveness which various companies show in changing themselves. and has zeal for progress. 4. Therefore. . they cannot survive. They emphasize more on cost-effectiveness. what will happen to these assets? Naturally. these can be used for specific period. Otherwise. prospectors. It is necessary too that other organizations also agree to the change proposal. 3. and reactors. centralized control. It an individual is not making commensurate contribution. those who wonder what happened. decentralized controls. if the change is required. forward-looking. In this interaction process. the organization has to take into consideration the wishes of other organizations too. building and training for its personnel. In such a case. and commensurate expenses on other items also. the organization will like to make a comparison between the outcomes of changed programme and continuing with old programme in the light of this sunk cost. If it is risk-taking. Analyzers: Above two are the extreme cases of choice-making modes in between the analyzers and reactors. Sunk Cost: Most of the organizations have sunk cost involved in various assets. it may enter into agreement with other organizations over certain aspects of working. Defenders: These are the firms which penetrate in a narrow market product domain and guard it. it will require resources to procure machine. Sunk cost cannot be only in terms of various physical things. broad environmental scanning. the organization may take change programmes much more frequently. and put less emphasis on environmental scanning. organization has to pay for his services though these may not be as useful. they have to behave in one of the above three ways. This can be in the form of people also. it is not necessary that his services are done away with. 1. those who watch things happen. analyzers. 2. Thus. For example. 4. Now. Once the assets are acquired. Let us see what someone has said long back: “There are three types of companies: those who make things happen. They go on searching new products/markets on regular basis. Prospectors: These firms use broad planning approaches. Miles and Snow have classified them into four categories. 5. innovative. Inter-organizational Agreements: The organization interacts with its environment.technology is adopted. the organization may enter into agreement with labour union about not bringing any technological change.” This is the true reflection of difference between change-initiating companies and changeresisting companies. Analyzers act sometimes as defenders and sometimes as prospectors.
When Boeing announces its laying off 10. Training . The same applies to employee. For instance. develop a negative attitude towards quality management or behave dysfunctionally if required to use statistical techniques. you find a single route and you use it regularly. Security: People who have a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feeling of safety. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints. So when your department is moved to a new office building across town. Habit Every day. Fear of the Unknown: Change substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the known. If for example. Resistance can be overt. the introduction of a quality management program requires that production workers learn statistical process control techniques. developing a new lunchtime routine. As human beings. implicit. the selection process systematically selects certain people in and certain people out. They may. adjusting to the new office layout.10. we’re creatures of habit. therefore. Organizational resistance Structural Inertia: Organizations have built-in mechanisms to produce stability. we don’t need to consider the full range of options for the hundreds of decisions we have to make every day.000 people or Ford introduces new robotic equipment. engaging in a work showdown. many employees at these firms may fear that their jobs are in jeopardy. especially when pay is closely tied to productivity. we all rely on habits. To cope with this complexity. do you continually use the same route and streets? Probably if you’re like most people. some may fear they’ll be unable to do so. For example. Life is complex enough. or programmed responses. Economic Factors: Another source of individual resistance is concern that changes will lower one’s income. when you go to work or school. or the like. it means you’re likely to have to change many habits: waking up 10 minutes earlier. this tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance. immediate. And people in general don’t like the unknown. we’ve categorized them by individual and organizational sources. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. finding a new parking place. and so on. threatening to go on strike. Changes in job tasks or established work routines also can arouse economic fear if people are concerned they won’t be able to perform the new tasks or routines to their previous standards. or deferred.4 Cause for Resistance to Change Resistance to change doesn’t necessarily surface in standardized ways. When we are confronted with change. For analytical purpose. Let’s look at the sources of resistance. taking a new set of streets to work.
Changing Skill Sets More organizations are utilizing cross functional teams. rules and procedures for employees to follow. Group Inertia: Even if individuals want to change their behavior. Threat to Established Resource Allocations: the groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat.5 Impact of Change on Future Manager Organizations are changing nearly daily. Threat to Expertise: Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups. But if union norms dictate resisting any unilateral change made by management. the change in technology is not likely to be accepted. Will the change. human resource people with engineers and finance individuals with operations employees. Thereat to Established Power Relationships: Any redistribution of decision-making authority can threaten long-established power relationship within the organization. 10. An individual union member.and other socialization techniques reinforce specific role requirements and skills. Formalization provides job description. for instance. People from one functional department are placed on terms with people from other functional areas. That is. if management changes the technological processes without simultaneously modifying the organization’s structure to match. For example. mean a reduction in their budgets or a cut in their staff size? Those who most benefit from the current allocation of resources are often threatened by change that may affect future allocations. and benefits administration – has been resisted by many human resource departments. For example. . Limited Focus of Change: Organization is made up of interdependent subsystems. Why? Because this outsourcing is a threat to the specialized skills held by people in HR departments. So limited changes in subsystems tend to get nullified by the larger system. accountants work with marketers. The only constant in organizational life today appears to be the presence of continuous change. These teams are comprised of people from various areas within the company. They tend to be content with the way things are. development of pay plans. group norms may act as a constraint. may be willing to accept changes in his job suggested by management. One area of organizations that continues its metamorphosis is the design itself. You can’t change one without affecting the others. the way in which companies are configured today is changing. The recent move by some companies to outsource many of their human resource activities – such as training. for instance. he’s likely to resist. Introduction of participative decision making or self-managed work teams are examples of changes that often are seen as threats to the power of supervisors and middle managers.
at the level of individual and at the level of group. strategic directions for the company must be identified in light of these changes.The ultimate goal is to improve organizational performance by cutting production time or time to market. the effect of the change may not be as functional as envisaged by the management. the role of formal authority in implementing a change may not be effective all the times. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. For this purpose. managers must be more skilled at reading the environment and grasping the big picture. even the impact of change may be dysfunctional if change is imposed upon the people by the use of formal authority. Involvement: Involvement is a process through which those who are affected by the change are brought to understand the change. More fluid structures require that managers improve their strategic orientation. In addition. They need to be adept at reading the trends in the environment and then determining what they mean specifically for their own organization. Problem solving now involves the people who are experts in the issue – not necessarily those in high positions in the organization. Therefore. the problems can be solved at the same level. This requires that managers think differently and teach employees to think differently. As organizations must be better equipped to respond to change in their external environment. However. It may affect only a few while others may not be affected.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change One of the basic problems in managing change is to overcome people’s resistance to change successfully. Unless this problem is overcome properly. through group dynamics. Locavini observes that “the secret of real success is effective management of the emotional vulnerability that accompanies organizational change. rather should be looked upon as a dialogue which continues over a period of time. Efforts at Individual Level A change is likely to affect some people in some way. In many cases. When the resistance comes from the people at individual levels.” The newer organizational structures use term problem solving. typically by way of computer network links. both at the formal and informal levels. this is not a one-time action. Stephen Robbins suggests that “…… managers in virtual structures spend most of their time coordinating and controlling external relations. For example.” Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. It implies explanation and . the following efforts can be taken: 1. 10. it can make effectively by managing resistance effectively. Decision making is becoming more and more comfortable for those throughout the organization as the need to make decisions is distributed more evenly across all organizational levels. that is.
2. either the subordinates do not resist or if they resist. Based on these characteristics of group as a means of change. its basic nature. helped to change attitudes. instead of solving the problem at the individual level. meetings. Commitment to take part in the change programme can be obtained in private from each individual. more than one person is involved in the change. its process and working. The fundamental idea in this process is to encourage the person to say something about any aspect of the change. the leader tries to overcome this resistance by leadership process. the level of resistance to change tends to decrease. For using group as a means of overcoming resistance to change. Thus. An effective leader tries to time a change to fit the psychological needs of his followers. The decision to commit oneself is a dynamic process.then discussion of the proposed changes. getting a man to commit himself in private to change programme may yield fewer results than if he voluntarily and publicly gives his commitment to an idea of change. Training and Psychological Counseling: The management can change the basic values of the people by training and psychological counseling. As this process goes. It includes finding out from the members how they interpret the proposed changes and what they think about them. Such educational process can be aided by training classes. to become effective. it is desirable at the group level to get better acceptability of change. it is more meaningful if it is done through group. However. the manager can form strategies for overcoming resistance in the following manner: . as discussed earlier. This helps in creating receptive environment in the organization. However. education must be a part of the manager’s everyday activity on the job. but a transformational leader can use personal reasons for change without arousing resistance. 3. sometimes. understanding of change increases and personal involvement in the change increases. must be understood so that its effective use can be made. and indoctrinated in new relationships. 4. It grows slowly along with relationship. most of the times. A manager as weak leader presents change on the basis of the impersonal requirements of the situation. he expresses it through a group. Though each person interprets the change individually often. Getting opinions out in the open. Thus. Group dynamics offers some basic help in this regard. Leadership: The role of leadership in getting acceptance for a change is very important as a capable leader reinforces a climate of psychological support for change. They must be taught new skills. People should be educated to become familiar with change. and conferences. is an important trust-building task. so that they are looked at and evaluated. People always have some ideas and opinions about what is going on in the world and more specially if touches them personally. Obtaining Commitment: Commitment is an agreement to take an active part in the actual mechanics of the change. Usually. Efforts at Group Level Although agreement to a change can be obtained individually.
mere participation may not help. Self Assessment Questions 1. Those people who are directly affected by the change should be given opportunity to participate in that change before the final decisions are reached. and how the benefits of the meaningful and continuous dialogue are necessary. Such training techniques include role playing. __________ are based on people’s emotions. They must be made a party to the change rather than an agent for resistance to change. psychodrama.such aspects as the reasons for change. the group itself should be the point of contact. Through the group contact. _________ helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. 3. Group Dynamics Training for Change: Group dynamics also helps in providing various training programmes for accepting and implementing change. (ii) In group. many things about change can be made clear. The organization must regard the participation as meaningful and share the results of the change with its members. one can communicate with more people per unit of time. The same is true of problem-solving. and sensitivity or T-group training. sentiments and attitudes towards change. The laboratory method provides a setting where group processes can be studied intensively. The group contact offers some specific advantages: (i) Through groups. benefits of change. It would be prudent for management to take labour representatives into confidence before implementing any change. 2. taking whole of the group into confidence helps in maintaining a cooperative attitude. Even if only some of the members are affected by the change. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization – technology. (iii) Group can get at the basic problem very rapidly as compared to a single individual.1. 2. Free flow of information helps people to understand the real picture of the change and many misunderstandings may be avoided. there may be some person who may communicate to the same group. Such training techniques provide understanding of behaviour. Participation: Participation helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. and how members contribute. thereby the people can build up the climate based on mutual trust and understanding which are essential for bringing organizational changes successfully. structural arrangement. It makes people feel that the organization needs their opinions and ideas and is unwilling to go ahead without taking them into account. For this purpose. Group Contact: Any effect to change is likely to succeed if the group accepts that change. 3. This is more important in the case of workers who themselves treat a separate group and do not identify with the management. _________ is the alteration of work environment in an organization. . It purports how the results are. Research studies also support this aspect. However. job design and people.
or deferred. Economic factors. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization. Organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization.10. immediate. at the level of individual and at the level of group. that is. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required.7 Summary Change is inevitable. Organizational change 2. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. engaging in a work showdown. threatening to go on strike. Why do organizations resist change? 3. Reference: . Refer section 10. implicit.4 3. Discuss the methods of reducing resistance to change. group resistance and vested interests. Resistance can be overt. Psychological factors 3. 10.2 2.6. Changes may be influenced by external and internal factors. Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. social factors. 10.8 Terminal Questions 1. both at the formal and informal levels.9 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. psychological factors. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. For instance. Refer section 10. through group dynamics. Participation Answers to TQs: 1. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints. Explain the nature of change? 2. or the like. Refer section 10.
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