MU0002-Unit-01-Introduction to Management
Unit-01-Introduction to Management Structure: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 1.2 Definitions of Management 1.3 Characteristics of Management 1.4 Scope and Levels of Management 1.5 Importance of Management 1.6 Role of Management 1.7 Administration and Management Self Assessment Questions 1.8 Summary 1.9 Terminal Questions 1.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 1.1 Introduction Management is a global need. It is essential to every individual, a family, educational institution, hospital, religious organizations, team of players, a government, military systems, cultural body, urban centers and business enterprises. No individual can satisfy all his needs by himself. Men should join together and accomplish goals through co-operation. Whenever, there is an organized group of people working towards a common goal, some type of management is needed. A business enterprise must be directed and controlled by a group of people to achieve its goals. The resources of money, manpower, material and technology will be waste unless they are out to work in a co-ordinated manner. It is the ‘management’ which uses the available resources in such a manner that a business enterprise is able to earn ‘surplus’ to meet the needs of growth and expansion. Management is required to plan, organize, co-
ordinate and control the affairs of a business concern. It brings together all resources and motivates people to achieve the objectives of a business enterprise. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Define management. · Explain the characteristics of management. · Differentiate between management and administration. · State the principles of management. · Explain the roles of managers. · Explain managerial skills. 1.2 Definitions of Management Management may be defined in many different ways. Many eminent authors on the subject have defined the term “management”. Some of these definitions are reproduced below: According to Lawerence A. Appley – “Management is the development of people and not the direction of things.” In the words of George R. Terry – “Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.” According to James L. Lundy – “Management is principally the task of planning, co-ordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective.” In the words of Henry Fayol – “To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.” According to Peter F. Drucker – “Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages a business and managers and manages worker and work”. In the words of Koontz and O’Donnel – “Management is defined as the creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals working together in groups can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals”.
According to Newman, Summer and Warren – “The job of management is to make co-operative endeavor to function properly. A Manager is one who gets things done by working with people and other resources.” From the definitions quoted above, it is clear that “management” is a technique of extracting work from others in an integrated and co-ordinated manner for realizing the specific objectives through productive use of material resources. Mobilizing the physical, human and financial resources and planning their utilization for business operations in such a manner as to reach the defined goals can be referred to as “management”. If the views of the various authorities are combined, management could be defined as a “distinct ongoing process of allocating inputs of an organization (human and economic resources) by typical managerial functions (planning, organizing, directing and controlling) for the purpose of achieving stated objectives, namelyoutput of goods and services desired by its customers (environment). In the process, work is performed with and through personnel of the organization in an ever-changing business environment.” From the above, it is clear that management refers to the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people. The process represents the functions or primary activities engaged in by managers. These functions are typically labeled planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Efficiency is a vital part of management. It refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs. If you can get more output from the given inputs, you have increased efficiency. Similarly, if you can get the same output from less input, you also have increased efficiency. Since managers deal with input resources that are scarce-mainly people, money and equipment-they are concerned with the efficient use of these resources. Management, therefore, is concerned with minimizing resource costs. Efficiency is often referred to as “doing things right”. However, it is not enough simply to be efficient. Management is also concerned with getting activities completed; i.e. it seeks effectiveness. When managers achieve their organization’s goals, we say they are effective. Effectiveness can be described as “doing the right things”. So efficiency is concerned with means and effectiveness with ends. Efficiency and effectiveness are interrelated. For instance, it is easier to be effective if one ignores efficiency. Timex could produce more accurate and attractive watches if it disregarded labour and material input costs. Some federal government agencies have been criticized regularly on the grounds that they are reasonably effective but extremely inefficient; that is, they get their jobs done but at a very high cost. Management is concerned, then, not only with getting activities completed (effectiveness), but also with doing so as efficiently as possible. Can organization be efficient and yet not effective? Yes, by doing the wrong things well. Many colleges have become highly efficient in processing students. By using computer-assisted learning, large lecture classes, and heavy reliance on part-time faculty, administrators have significantly cut the cost of educating each student. Yet students, alumni, and accrediting agencies have criticized some of these colleges for failing to educate their students properly. Of
Intangible Force: Management has been called an unseen force. Managers apply knowledge. labour and capital. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the organizational goals are achieved. Thus. It is imperative that the organizational goals must be well-defined and properly understood by the mangers at various levels. high efficiency is associated more typically with high effectiveness. They must motivate the subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them. capital and materials.
. Results through Others: The managers cannot do everything themselves. Economic Resource: Management is one of the factors of production together with land. management is an essential ingredient of an organization. 2. Integrative Force: The essence of management is integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives. It is the force which assembles and integrates other resources. organizing. 6. People often remark of the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of management on the basis of the end results. informed employees. 3. Its presence is evidenced by the result of its efforts-orderliness. 5. namely. Distinct Process: Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning. 1. It co-ordinates the efforts of workers to achieve the goals of the organization. All these resources are made available to those who manage. directing and controlling. Goal-oriented: Management is a purposeful activity. they require the catalyst of management to produce goods and services required by the society. feeling of management is result-oriented. experience and management principles for getting the results from the workers by the use of non-human resources. It is the most critical input in the success of any organized group activity. In essence. labour. 4. These functions are so interwoven that it is not possible to lay down exactly the sequence of various functions or their relative significance. These factors do not by themselves ensure production. And poor management is most often due to both inefficiency and ineffectiveness or to effectiveness achieved through inefficiency. although they can’t observe it during operation. Managers also seek to harmonize the individuals’ goals with the organizational goals for the smooth working of the organization. One may not see with the naked eyes the functioning of management but its results are apparently known. staffing.course. Thus.3 Characteristics of Management Management is a distinct activity having the following salient features or characteristics: 1. the process of management involves decision-making and putting of decisions into practice. buoyant spirit and adequate work output.
management is viewed as an art. For instance. management is the rule-making and rule-enforcing body. Sociology and Psychology. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively. education. the degree of authority gets gradually reduced. materials. money and machines into a productive. on-going concern. 9. the effective use of the five M’s of management (money. and (iii) a class or elite.e. productivity orientation drew its inspiration from Industrial Engineering and human relations orientation from Psychology. that is. 10. Since the skills acquired by a manager are his personal possession. Managers at different levels possess varying degrees of authority. In modern organizations.4 Scope of Management The scope of management is very wide. Much of the management literature is the result of association of these disciplines. It is bound together by a web of relationships between superiors and subordinates. Basically. The principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the fields of business. So it is treated as a science. labour and capital. materials. useful. System of Authority: Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority. Similarly. Multi-disciplinary Subject: Management has grown as a field of study (i. military. management is required to covert the disorganized resources of men. Henri Fayol suggested that principles of management would apply more or less in every situation. A Science and an Art: Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of welldefined concepts. it refers to three distinct ideas. a hierarchy of command and control. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. (ii) a system of authority. Generally. In other words. principles and techniques requires specialized knowledge and skills on the part of the manager. principles and techniques which have wide applications. According to Herbision and Myers. Universal Application: Management is universal in character. people
. · Management as an economic resource Management is one of the factors of production along with land. manpower. The principles are working guidelines which are flexible and capable of adaptation to every organization where the efforts of human beings are to be co-ordinated. 1. 8.7. · Management as a system of authority According to Herbison and Myers. management may be understood as (i) an economic resource. Sociology and Operations Research have also contributed to the development of management science. According to Newman. how effectively and economically the five M’s are combined together to produce desired results. The application of these concepts. Anthropology. government and hospital. as we move down in the managerial hierarchy. discipline) taking the help of so many other disciplines such as Engineering.
The managerial class has become very important in modern organizations owing to its contribution to business success. Managing Director. They transmit orders. (i) administrative management (i. Managers working at top levels enjoy more authority than people working at lower levels. Top management determines objectives and provides direction to enterprise activities. planning and setting up of standards. Considering the hierarchy of authority and responsibility. or. or the General Manager or Executive Committee having key officers. Administrative management is concerned with “thinking” functions such as laying down policy. Operative management is concerned with the “doing” function such as implementation of policies. the upper level of management) and (ii) operating management (i. But in actual practice.e. it is difficult of draw any clear-cut demarcation between thinking function and doing function as the basic/fundamental managerial functions are performed by all managers irrespective of their levels. finance manager. For instance. Lower management (first line supervisors) is concerned with routine. The real significance of levels is that they explain authority relationships in an organization. The levels of management depend upon its size. and the range of production. Levels of Management An enterprise may have different levels of management.
.) interprets and explains the policies framed by the top management. one can identify three levels of management namely: i) Top management of a company consists of owners/shareholders. Instructions and decisions downward and carry the problem and suggestions upward. and directing the operations to attain the objectives of the enterprise. wage and salary director of a company may assist in fixing wages and salary structure as a member of the Board of Directors. Middle management (departmental heads like work manage. ranks. day-to-day matters.e. All the managers form the chief executive to the first line supervisors are collectively addressed as ‘Management’ which refers to the group. viz. the term management refers to the group of individuals occupying managerial positions. · Management as a class or elite Sociologists view management as a distinct class in society having its own value system. his job is to see that the decisions are implemented.are bound by authority relationships. We generally come across two broad levels of management. personnel manager etc. or the Chief Executive. its Chairman. Board of Directors. but as head of wages and salary department. technical facilities.. Levels of management refer to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an enterprise.. As a separate group. the lower level of management).
etc.. It is also described as the policy-making group responsible for the overall direction and success of all company activities. Purchase Manager. b) To interpret the policies chalked out by top management. It serves as an essential link between the top management and the lower level or operative management.
. They provide the guidance and the structure for a purposeful enterprise. They are responsible to the top management for the functioning of their department. Foremen. Without them the top management’s plans and ambitious expectations will not be fruitfully realized. The following are the main functions of middle management: a) To establish the objective or goals of the enterprise. duties and responsibilities for timely implementation of the plans. It devotes more time on planning and co-ordinating functions. materials. Financial Controller. e) To exercise effective control of the operations. policies and plans for the enterprise. and Divisional Sectional Officers working under these Functional Heads. Marketing Manager. The important functions of top management include: a) To establish the objectives or goals of the enterprise. c) To set up an organizational framework to conduct the operations as per plans. e) To assign activities. c) To prepare the organizational set up in their own departments for fulfilling the objectives implied in various business policies.ii) Middle management of a company consists of heads of functional departments namely. Production Manager. etc. men. Middle management: The job of middle management is to implement the policies and plans framed by the top management. 1. d) To assemble the resources of money. f) To provide overall leadership to the enterprise. They devote more time on the organization and motivation functions of management. Top management: Top management is the ultimate source of authority and it lays down goals. iii) Lower level or operative management of a company consists of Superintendents. machines and methods to put the plans into action. It is accountable to the owners of the business of the overall management. Supervisors. d) To recruit and select suitable operative and supervisory staff. 2. b) To make policies and frame plans to attain the objectives laid.
i) To collect reports and information on performance in their departments. management is the dynamic lift-giving element in every organization. Management creates teamwork and
. A right climate is created for workers to put in their best and show superior performance. Management makes group effort more effective. In its absence. Lower or operative management: It is placed at the bottom of the hierarchy of management. Employees feel a sense of security when they find a body of individual’s working day and night for the continued growth of an organization. 3. It enables employees to move cooperatively and achieve goals in a coordinated manner. k) To make suitable recommendations to the top management for the better execution of plans and policies. The importance of management can be understood from the following points. They are concerned with direction and control functions of management. They pass on the instructions of the middle management to workers. and actual operations are the responsibility of this level of management. They interpret and divide the plans of the management into short-range operating plans. j) To report to top management. h) To co-operate with the other departments for ensuring a smooth functioning of the entire organization.5 Importance of Management According to Drucker. They are also involved in the process of decisions-making. (i) Optimum use of resources: Management ensures optimum utilization of resources by attempting to avoid wastage of all kinds. (ii) Effective leadership and motivation: In the absence of management. It helps in putting the resources to the best advantage within the limitations set by the organization and its environment. Without management. the working of an enterprise will become random and haphazard in nature. Their authority and responsibility is limited. evaluate their performance and report to the middle level management. It consists of foreman. accounts officers and so on. money and material. an organization is merely a collection of men. the resources of production remain resources and never become production. sales officers. They are in direct touch with the rank and file or workers. They allot various jobs to the workers. machines. 1. They devote more time in the supervision of the workers. supervisors. It is the activating force that gets things done through people. g) To motivate personnel to attain higher productivity and to reward them properly. They have to get the work done through the workers.f) To compile all the instructions and issue them to supervisors under their control.
we generally mean a manager who undertakes management as a career and is not interested in acquiring ownership share in the enterprise which he manages.motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. (iv) Achievement of goals: Management plays an important role in the achievement of objectives of an organization. Thus unnecessary deviations. (c) Exploiting new ideas for the benefit of society as a whole and (d) developing employee talents and capabilities while at work and prompting them to show peak performance. According to McFarland. government policy. They initiate prompt actions whenever workers express dissatisfaction over organizational rules. Organize the resources properly.. manager tries to strike a happy balance between the demands of employees and organizational requirements. often threaten the survival of a firm. ii) Formalized methods of acquiring training and experience.
. In the final analysis. techniques. (vi) Improves standard of living : Management improves the standard of living of people by (a) using scarce resources efficiently and turning out profits. a profession possesses the following characteristics: i) A body of principles. They try to put everything on the right tract. Management as a profession By a professional manager. hire competent people and provide necessary guidance. (v) Change and growth: Changes in technology. methods. Industrial peace is an essential requirement for increasing productivity. counseling and effective leadership. Successful managers are the ones who anticipate and adjust to changing circumstances rather than being passively swept along or caught unprepared. skills. An enterprise has to take note of these changes and adapt itself quickly. all these help in realizing goals with maximum efficiency. Management is goal-oriented. competition. (iii) Establishers sound industrial relations: Management minimizes industrial disputes and contributes to sound industrial relations in an undertaking. With a view to realize the predetermined goals-managers plan carefully. Objective can be achieved only when the human and non-human resources are combined in a proper way. Overlapping efforts and waste motions are avoided. Failure to take note of customer’s needs regarding full efficiently has spelt doom for ‘Ideal java’ in the two-wheeler market in India. procedures and reward systems. forecasting combined with efficient use of resources) and taking appropriate steps. (b) Ensuring the survival of the firm in the face of continued changes. etc. and specialized knowledge. Managers help an organization by anticipating these changes (carefull planning. iii) The establishment of a representative organization with professiona-lizing as its goal. To this end.
There was little time for reflective thinking because the managers encountered
. in contrast to the predominant views at the time that managers were reflective thinkers who carefully and systematically processed information before making decisions.. little regard is paid to the elevation of service over the desire for monetary compensation is evident by switching of jobs by managers. bribing public officials to gain favours.S. Management partially fulfils the third characteristic of profession. It is a profession in the sense that there is a systematized body of management. manipulating prices and markets are by no means uncommon management practices. and it is not as fully a profession as medicine and law. etc.6 Role of Management In the late 1960s. and v) The charging of fees based on the nature of services. unpatterned. Furthermore. and it is distinct. Management does not fulfill the last two requirements of a profession. There are a number of representative organizations of management practitioners almost in all countries such as the All India Management Association in India. a management degree is not a pre-requisite to become a manager. none of them has the professionalizing of the management as its goal. Henry Mintzberg did a careful study of five chief executives at work. However. We have a number of institutes of management and university departments of management which provide formal education in this field. However. the American Management Association in U. and short-duration activities. and the university departments of management offer a variety of short-term management training programmes. Training facilities are provided in most companies by their training divisions.iv) The formation of ethical codes for the guidance of conduct. try to develop a code of conduct for their own managers but there is no general and uniform code of conduct for all managers. As a social science. the All India Management Association. however.A. Management is also a profession in the sense that formalized methods of training is available to those who desire to be managers. 1. the Indian Institute of Management. It has also developed a vast number of tools and techniques. Some individual business organizations. do not seem to adhere to the principle of “service above self”. Indeed such mobile managers are regarded as more progressive and modern than others. It may be concluded from the above discussion that management is a science. sabotaging trade unions. Management is a profession to the extent it fulfils the above conditions. management is not as exact as natural sciences. But unlike medicine or law. For instance. Management Development Institute. identifiable discipline. A number of organizations such as the Administrative Staff College of India. There is no ethical code of conduct for managers as for doctors and lawyers. Mintberz found that his managers engaged in a large number of varied. an art as well as a profession. managers in general. In fact. What he discovered challenged several long-held notions about the manager’s job.
duties of a legal or social nature. When they represent the organisation to outsiders.
. But in addition to these insights. These sources are individuals or groups outside the manager’s unit.constant interruptions. and may be inside or outside the organization. he or she is acting in a figurehead role. The third role within the interpersonal grouping is the liaison role. The term ‘management roles’ refers to specific categories of managerial behaviour. Table 1. motivating. These ten roles can be grouped as those primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships. Responsible for the motivation Performing virtually all and activation of subordinates. activities that involve responsible for staffing. and disciplining employees. All managers have a role as a leader. manages also perform a spokesperson role.1: Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles Role Interpersonal Figurehead Description Identifiable Activities
Symbolic head. Managers also act as a conduit to transmit information to organizational members. and associated duties. Mintzberg provided a categorization scheme for defining what managers do based on actual managers on the job. Interpersonal Roles: All managers are required to perform duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature – interpersonal roles. and the like. Half of these managers’ activities lasted less than nine minutes each. obliged to Greeting visitors. The sales manager who obtains information from the human resources manager in his or her same company has an internal liaison relationship. When that sales manager confers with other sales executives through a marketing trade association. Mintzberg described this activity as contacting external sources who provide the manager with information. Mintzberg called this the monitor role. and decision-making. Typically. subordinates. Informational Roles: All managers. Mintzberg concluded that managers perform ten different but highly interrelated roles. fulfill informational roles-receiving and collecting information from organizations and institutions outside their own. training. he or she has an outside liaison relationship. the transfer of information. This is the disseminator role. what competitors may be planning. training. signing perform a number of routine legal documents. When the president of a college hands out diplomas at commencement or a factory supervisor gives a group of high school students a tour of the plant. they do so by reading magazines and talking with others to learn of changes in the public’s tastes. This role includes hiring. to some degree.
maintaining it current) to develop thorough personal contacts. Transmits information to Holding board meetings. the making any activity that involves or approval of all significant budgeting and the
. performing other favors and information.Liaison
Maintains self-developed Acknowledging mail. Responsible for corrective Organizing strategy and action when organization faces review sessions that important. supervises design of certain projects as well. etc. understanding of organization and environment. emerges as nerve center of internal and external information about the organization. network of outside contacts doing external board and informers who provide work. projects” to bring about change. actions. performing all kinds – in effect. unexpected involve disturbances and disturbances crises Responsible for the allocation Scheduling. serves as expert on organization’s industry. activities that involve outsiders. making phone subordinates to members of calls to relay information. media.. outsiders on organization’s giving information of the plans. Searches organization and its Organizing strategy and environment for opportunities review sessions to and initiates “improvement develop new programs. requesting of organizational resources of authorization. Seeks and receives wide variety Reading periodicals and of special information (much of reports. the organization – some information is factual. policies. some involves interpretation and integration of diverse value positions of organizational influencers. Transmits information received Holding informational from outsides or from other meetings. results.
the leader role is more important for lowerlevel managers than it is for either middle-or-top-level managers. liaison. However. and conceptual. human. the roles of disseminator. Managers need certain skills to perform the duties and activities associated with being a manager. Responsible for representing Participating in union the organization at major contract negotiations. negotiator. managers are responsible for allocating human. Mintzberg identified four decisional roles which revolve around the making of choices. physical and monetary resources. a manager’s job is varied and complex. The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper & Row. Inc.organizational decisions. Negotiator
programming of subordinates work.
Source: Henry Mintzberg. an accounts payable manager must be proficient in accounting rules and standardized
. or manufacturing. Specifically. Technical Skills: First-line managers. 1973). Conversely. managers perform as negotiators when they discuss and bargain with other groups to gain advantages for their own units. An Evaluation: A number of follow-up studies have tested the validity of Mintzberg’s role categories across different types of organizations and at different levels within given organizations. The evidence generally supports the idea that managers – regardless of the type of organization or level in the organization-perform similar roles. are heavily involved in technical aspects of the organization’s operations. finance. as well as many middle managers. and spokesperson are more important at the higher levels of the organization than at the lower ones. pp 93-94 Copyright Ó 1973 by Hency Mintzberg. Technical skills include knowledge of and proficiency in a certain specialized field. managers take corrective action in response to previously unforeseen problems. computers. During the early 1970. Managerial Skills As you can see from the preceding discussion. For example. research by Robert L. Decisional Roles: Finally. Katz found that managers need three essential skills or competencies: technical. Publishers. figurehead. such as engineering. the emphasis that managers give to the various roles seems to change with hierarchical level. managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization’s performance. Last. He also found that the relative importance of these skills varied according to the manager’s level within the organization. As disturbance handlers. negotiations. As entrepreneurs. As resource allocators. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row.
Since managers deal directly with people. Floerence and Tead. Spriegal and Lansburg. etc. Some writers do not see any difference between the two terms. Administration is a higher level function:
. and all managers are involved in making decisions. Managers with good human skills can get the best out of their people. this skill is crucial. management is a lower-level function and is concerned primarily with the execution of policies laid down by administration. They must be able to see the organization as a whole and the relationships among its various subunits and to visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment. Thus. lead. administration is a higher level function. Those who held management and administration distinct include Oliver Sheldon. But some English authors like Brech are of the opinion that management is a wider term including administration.forms so that she can resolve problems and answer questions that her accounts payable clerks might encounter. In fact. it remains just as important at the top levels of management as it is at the lower levels. Although technical skills become less important as manager moves into higher levels of management. These types of conceptual skills are needed by all managers at all levels but become more important as they move up the organizational hierarchy. This controversy is discussed as under in three heads: i) Administration is concerned with the determination of policies and management with the implementation of policies. 1. while others maintain that administration and management are two different functions. Conceptual Skills: Managers also must have the ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract situations. ii) Management is a generic term and includes administration. and inspire enthusiasm and trust. even top managers need some proficiency in the organization’s speciality. According to them. These abilities are essential to effective decision-making. iii) There is no distinction between the terms ‘management’ and ‘administration’ and they are used interchangeably. They know how to communicate. motivate.7 Administration and Management The use of two terms ‘management’ and ‘administration’ has been a controversial issue in the management literature. Human Skills: The ability to work well with other people both individually and in a group is a human skill.
3. objectives. 8. 6. Direction of It is concerned with leading It is concerned with Human Resources and motivation of middle leading and motivation of level executives. Table 1. policies. environmental forces. Meaning Administration Management Administration is concerned Management means with the formulation of getting the work done objectives. Decision.2: Distinction between Administration and Management: Basic 1. 2. Thus. 5. plans and policies through and with others. Scope It is concerned with It is concerned with the determination of major implementation of objectives and policies. of the organisation. It thinking function. operative workforce for the execution of plans. whereas management refers to execution of policies laid down by administration. 7. on the other hand. management as an executive function which is primarily concerned with carrying out of the broad policies laid down by the administration. at lower levels of management. It is a execution of decisions.Administration determines Management decides who Making what is to be done and when shall implement the it is to be done.e. Usage of Term The term ‘administration’ is The term ‘management’ is often associated with widely used in business
. 4. making strategic plans to deal plans and policies of the effectively with the organisation. Managers are Administrators are basically concerned mainly with concerned with planning and organisation and direction control. This view is held by Tead. Status Administration refers to Management is relevant higher levels of management. Environment Administration has direct Management is mainly interaction with external concerned with internal environment of business and forces. Spriegel and Walter. administration involves broad policy-making and management involves the execution of policies laid down by the administration. Administration is the phase of business enterprise that concerns itself with the overall determination of institutional objectives and the policies necessary to be followed in achieving those objectives. i. is a doing function.Administration refers to policy-making. Nature Administration relates to the Management relates to decision-making. administrative decisions. Administration is a determinative function.. of human resources.
9 Terminal Questions 1.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. 3. middle and lower. materials. It is the management which transforms physical resources of an organization into productive resources. manpower 3. __________is principally the task of planning. Discuss the importance of management. Bring out the difference between Administration and Management. 1.government offices. 2. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. co-ordinating. motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective.8 Summary Management is concerned with getting things done through other people. Define management. teamwork
. 3. _________. Explain its characteristics. Money. There are three levels of management-top. ___________. Management 2. Self Assessment Questions
1. public organisations sector and non-business private sector. Management creates ________ and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. counseling and effective leadership. organisations. Human skills are important at all managerial levels. Five M’s of management (________. 2. 1. Still management is not completely a profession. 1. Management is largely found at the middle and lower levels and administration is found at the higher levels. Lower level managers require and use a greater degree of technical skill and managers at higher levels use a greater degree of conceptual skill. Managers perform different roles to discharge their responsibilities.
3 Planning 2.4 Organizing 2. Refer section 1.7 Motivating Self Assessment Questions 2.
Unit-02-Management Process Structure: 2. Refer section 1.5 Staffing 2.2.9 Terminal Questions 2.Answers to TQs: 1.6 Directing 2.3 2.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs
.8 Summary 2.2 Process of Management 2.1. Refer section 1.1 Introduction Objectives 2.5 3.7 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .
Controlling However. Through leadership and management often overlap. Organizing 3. Motivating. Management is about accomplishing a goal efficiently. One can also think of management functionally. Staffing. Management functions are as follows (Fayol.2 Management Process Peter Drucker said: “Management is doing things right. Directing. management functions have been regrouped into four categories. It is difficult to say where objectives end and policies begin. since the managerial tasks have become highly challenging a fluid in nature making distinctions redundant to certain extent. you will be able to: · Define Management process. Policy Formulation We have noted earlier that all organizations have well-defined goals and objectives. in recent time. Planning 2. There is a degree of overlap between the two. 1949): 1. the two are not quite the same. Commanding 4. leadership is doing the right things“. Objectives: After this studying this unit. as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan.1 Introduction Follett (1933) defined management as "the art of getting things done through people”. · Explain Planning. Even
. Organizing. · Explain different functions of management Process. 2. You might well ask what the need for a policy is when objectives are already defined. Coordinating 5. leadership is about setting the desirable goals.2.
Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. while a policy. planning is often referred to as strategic in nature and also termed as strategic planning. is an enduring decision which holds good on a continuing basis to guide the members of the organization in doing what they are called upon to do. driving comfort. Objectives are the ends. and allocating resources. Planning in order to be useful must be linked to the strategic intent of an organization. it is not a decision in which any process is involved. In the football field. Strategic Planning: Top level managers engage chiefly in strategic planning or long range planning Strategic planning is the process of developing and analyzing the organization’s mission. summarizing what the organization does. The tasks of the strategic planning process include the following steps: Define the mission: A mission is the purpose of the organization. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. Therefore. should precede a good deal of research involving market surveys. Effective planning enables an organization adapt to change by identifying opportunities and avoiding problems. It provides the direction for the other functions of management and for effective teamwork. planning begins with clearly defining the mission of the organization. All levels of management engage in planning in their own way for achieving their preset goals. The mission statement may be accompanied by an overarching
. and then set out the method for achieving it. general strategies. policies are the means to achieve those ends. An explicit mission guides employees to work independently and yet collectively toward the realization of the organization’s potential. thus. a process in which one chooses a course which one thinks is the best. fuel and machine efficiency. Planning also enhances the decisionmaking process.3 Planning It involves the process of defining goals. 2. The mission statement is broad. cost structure and so on. the decision to change the design of a product. A mission statement should be short – and should be easily understood and every employee should ideally be able to narrate it from memory. it would be correct to assume that an objective is what you want to accomplish. Thus. Decision – Making Taking decisions is a process. say a passenger car. or where you want go to. overall goals. what distinguishers policies form objectives is that you first decide the objective. studies on passenger comfort. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. kicking the ball with the left foot or right foot is a reflex action.so. However.
Organizations need to examine their business situation in order to map out the opportunities and threats present in their environments. Weaknesses. customers (internal and external). What are the vulnerable areas of the organization that could be exploited? 2. state. The SWOT analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. How efficient is our manufacturing? 3. In which areas is the competition not meeting customer needs? 2. and trade). Do we have a superior reputation? For assessing the weaknesses of the organization the following questions are important: 1. Analyzing strengths and weaknesses comprises the internal assessment of the organization. professional. Conduct a situational or SWOT analysis A situation or SWOT (Strengths. What is our market share? 5. Are the technologies obsolete? For identifying opportunities the following elements need to be looked at: 1. Is research and development adequate? 4. suppliers. How skilled is our workforce? 4. journals and reports (scientific. federal. What makes the organization distinctive? 2. Are the facilities outdated? 3. international). Sources of information may include stakeholders like. governments (local. For assessing the strengths of the organization the following questions are important: 1. SWOT analysis provides the assumptions and facts on which a plan will be based. What are the possible new markets?
.statement of philosophy or strategic purpose designed to convey a vision for the future as envisaged by top management. professional or trade associations (conventions and exhibitions). Threats) analysis is vital for the creation of any strategic plan. What financing is available? 6. Opportunities.
What are the new regulations? 6. It also helps in setting minimum acceptable standards or common-sense minimums.3. What substitute products exist? In general terms. the best strategy is one that fits the organization’s strengths to opportunities in the environment. tactical. Develop related strategies (tactical and operational) Tactical plans are based on the organization’s strategic plan. etc. Is there a possibility of growth of existing market?) Identifying threats involves the following: 1. The SWOT analysis is used as a baseline for future improvement. Is there a shortage of resources? 4. Comparing the organization to external benchmarks (the best practices) is used to assess current capabilities. operational plans are based on the organization’s tactical plans. or outcomes of an organization against similar measures from other internal or external organizations. These are specific plans that are needed for each task or supportive activity comprising the whole. In turn. as well as gap analysis. earnings per share. They are aligned with the mission and form the basis for the action plans of an organization. What is the strength of the economy? 4. Set goals and objectives Strategic goals and objectives are developed to fill the gap between current capability and the mission. Are market tastes changing? 5. organizations have longterm objectives for factors such as. In which areas does the competition meet customer needs more effectively? 2. return on investment. effectiveness. and operational planning
. Benchmarking systematically compares performance measures such as efficiency. What are the emerging technologies? 6. Are our rivals weak? 5. Generally. Are there new competitors? 3. Objectives are also called performance goals. Strategic.
and goals are clearly stated. structuring. with ideas and resources. and relationships between departments. working toward common goals. Delegate authority to establish relationships between jobs and groups of jobs. Organizational structure is the formal decision-making framework by which job tasks are divided. Group related jobs together in a logical and efficient manner 5. An organization chart displays the organizational structure and shows job titles. grouped. lines of authority. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. who reports to whom. how the tasks are to be grouped. and coordinated. The steps in the organizing process include: 1. 2. This review is used for the next planning cycle and review. 2. To develop an environmental monitoring procedure. Divide tasks into groups one person can accomplish – a job 4. The purpose of the organizing function is to make the best use of the organization’s resources to achieve organizational goals. short-term standards for key variables that will tend to validate and support the long-range estimates must be established. It is the extent to which the units of the organization are explicitly defined and its policies.4 Organizing It involves designing. Assign work to individuals 6. procedures. The formal organization can be seen and represented in chart form. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. It is the official organizational structure conceived and built by top management. Review plans 2.must be accompanied by controls to ensure proper implantation of the plans. and where decisions are to be made. Organizations are groups of people. who is to do. necessary to maintain competitive advantage in the said market. Monitor the plan A systematic method of monitoring the environment must be adopted to continuously improve the strategic planning process. Formalization is an important aspect of structure. A key issue in accomplishing the goals identified in the planning process is structuring the work of the organization.5 Staffing
. List all tasks to be accomplished 3. Feedback is encouraged and incorporated to determine if goals and objectives are feasible.
growth and development of all those members of the organization whose function is to get things done through the efforts of other individuals”. money. transport system and other physical resources that make the organization to achieve its goals but it is the competency and efficiency of the people who handle resources contributes for the accomplishment of objectives of the enterprise. placement. It aims at right man at right position: Staffing aims at selection of right person for right place at right time and retaining them in the organization. Definition: 1. Deals with people: Staffing is a separate managerial function which deals with people in the organization. placement. inventorying the people available. Curther Geelick Cyndall Urwick – “Staffing is the whole personnel function of brining in and training the staff and marinating of favorable conditions of work” Features of Staffing The analysis of the above definitions highlights the following features: 1. recruitment. selection.
. O’Donnell & Weihrich have defined staffing as “filling positions in the organization structure through identifying work force requirements. appraisal. It has many sub-functions: Staffing involves determination of the manpower requirement. Managers of the concerned departments are responsible for the selection and development of qualified people for their department and maintain them in their department. performance appraisal etc. Koontz. transfer and appraisal of personnel to fill the organizational positions. recruitment. 2. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. Pervasiveness of Staffing: Effective execution of staffing function is the responsibility of all managers in the organization. selection. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. promotion. 3. Therefore it is the responsibility of the management to secure and maintain competent and dedicated workforce including managers and operatives. materials. compensation and training of needed people”. Theo Haimann – “Concerned with the placement.It is not the machines. 3. development. 4. 2. training. This task has been referred to as staffing.
Direction is an important managerial function. A manger needs to give orders to his subordinates. vacancies arise out of retirement. identifying the manpower requirements.6 Directing Direction is one of the functions of management. 8. induction. Direction is continuous process and it continues throughout the life-time of the organization. It deals with future requirements: Staffing deals with current and future personnel requirements. Thus staffing deals with the future requirements also. Thus staffing is an ongoing process through – out the life of an organization. 6.5. overseeing and leading people. It is a process: it is a process having a logical sequence i. Direction function is performed at every level of management. Present positions must be filled keeping in mind the future requirements. It is instructing people as to what to do. 2. management initiates actions in the organization. 3. Personnel policies and programs must be formulated as guides to perform the staffing function effectively. etc. It is a continuous function: With the growth and expansion of business additional manpower is needed. 7. directing is the “interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals”.e. selection. Through direction. resignation. lead them and guide them on a continuous basis. motivate them. Characteristics of Direction The characteristic features of direction are as follow: 1. It is performed in the context of superior-subordinate relationship and every manager in the organization performs his duties both as a superior and subordinate. promotion. Direction is the managerial function of guiding. how to do and telling them to do to the best of their ability. 2. It is a continuing function. Definition According to Koontz and O’Donnel. recruitment. It is an important managerial function. training development and maintenance of personnel.
The needs are arranged in order of importance. 5. shelter. only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior. Direction has dual objectives. nothing or at the best very little would be accomplished”. guide. and other bodily needs
. It is an important function of management: Directing is an important management function which provides a connecting link between planning. The manager never ceases to direct. teach. it aims at getting things done by subordinates and. The further they progress up the hierarchy. satisfied needs cannot. As Theo Haimann puts it. Continuous function: Directing is a continuous process. 4. the number of subordinate he has and the other duties he is expected to perform. The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied.7 Motivating Motivating In the 1950s three specific theories were formulated and are the best known: Hierarchy of Needs theory. on the other. the more individuality. It emphasizes that a subordinate is to be directed by his own superior only. 2. proposed by Maslow (1943). Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. The amount of time and effort an executive spends in directing however.4. sex. to provide superiors opportunities for some more important work which their subordinates cannot do. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory According to this theory. human beings have wants and desires which influence their behaviour. The five needs are: · Physiological: Includes hunger. thirst. humanness and psychological health a person will show. will vary depending upon his level. and the Two-Factor theory. Pervasive function: Directing is a managerial function performed by all mangers at all levels of the organization. “without the issuance of directives. Theories X and Y. 2. without guiding and overseeing subordinates. Nature of Directing The nature of directing can be discussed under the following: 1. 3. Direction imitates at the top level in the organization and follows to bottom through the hierarchy. coach and supervise his subordinates. from the basic to the complex. organizing and staffing on one hand and controlling on the other. Essence of performance: Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. On the one hand.
recognition. and achievement. achieving one’s potential. anxious to accept greater responsibility. Physiological and safety needs are described as lower-order. self-motivated. if they can. autonomy and empowerment. Higher-order needs are satisfied internally. belongingness. Lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied. externally. self-respect. and external esteem factors. autonomy. and exercise self-control. self-direction. status. Social. It is also believed that. includes growth. and attention · Self-actualization: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming. Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. Theory X – In this theory management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work. such as. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory
. Workers need to be closely supervised and a comprehensive system of controls and a hierarchical structure is needed to supervise the workers closely. It is also assumed that workers generally place security above all other factors and will display little ambition. esteem. Theory Y – In this theory management assumes employees may be ambitious. From the above. and friendship · Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors. Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor argued that a manager’s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and he or she tends to mould his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions. acceptance. such as.· Safety: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm · Social: Includes affection. if given the chance employees have the desire to be creative and forward thinking in the workplace. and self-fulfillment Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders. it is clear that Theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals. whereas. and self-actualization are classified as higherorder needs. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. There is a chance for greater productivity by giving employees the freedom to perform to the best of their abilities without being bogged down by rules.
The _____analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. motivators describe a person’s relationship with what she or he does. many related to the tasks being performed. When hygiene factors are adequate. working conditions. Extrinsic factors. The satisfiers relate to what a person does while the dissatisfiers relate to the situation in which the person does what he or she does. In summary. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. 2.Herzberg (1959) constructed a two-dimensional paradigm of factors affecting people’s attitudes about work. 2. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. These two factors are motivators and hygiene factors and this theory is also called motivation-hygiene theory. how the tasks are to be grouped. Job satisfaction factors are separate and distinct from job dissatisfaction factors. advancement. interpersonal relations. emphasize factors intrinsically rewarding that are associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it. and achievement. performance appraisal etc. Self Assessment Questions 1. neither will they be satisfied. company policy. responsibility. _______refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. ____defined management as the art of getting things done through people. Organization involves designing. people will not be dissatisfied. have to do with a person’s relationship to the context or environment in which she or he performs the job. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. Directing is the interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals. recognition. structuring. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. such as. and salary are hygiene factors.8 Summary Management is the art of getting things done through people. Motivators are intrinsic factors.
. To motivate people. such as. but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. The absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction. who reports to whom. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. supervision. who is to do. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. recruitment. Planning involves the process of defining goals. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. and where decisions are to be made. Presence of these factors ensure job satisfaction. Hygiene factors on the other hand. 3.
Reference 2. Reference 2.5 3. What is planning? 2. Follett 2.9 Terminal Questions 1. Write a short not on directing. Reference 2. Staffing Answers to TQs: 1.6 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .2. Explain Staffing in detail 3.
MU0002-Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need
Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Structure: 3.3 2. SWOT 3.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.1 Introduction Objectives
3.2 Definitions 3.3 Characteristics of OD 3.4 Categories of OD 3.5 Goals of OD 3.6 OD and Management Development 3.7 Role of OD 3.8 Problems in OD Self Assessment Questions 3.9 Summary 3.10 Terminal Questions 3.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 3.1 Introduction Organization development is the applied behavioural science discipline dedicated to improving organizations and the people in them through the use of the theory and practice of planned change. Organizations face multiple challenges and threats today – threats to effectiveness, efficiency, and profitability; challenges from turbulent environments, increased competition, and changing customer demands; and the constant challenge to maintain congruence among organizational dimensions such as technology, strategy, culture, and processes. Keeping organizations healthy and viable in today’s world is a daunting task. Individuals in organizations likewise face multiple challenges – finding satisfaction in and through work, fighting obsolescence of one’s knowledge and skills, maintaining dignity and purpose in pursuit of organizational goals, and achieving human connectedness and community in the workplace. Simple survival – continuing to have an adequate job – is a major challenge today in the light of constant layoffs and cutbacks. Although new jobs are being created at record rates, old jobs are being destroyed at an accelerating pace. “Knowledge” work is replacing “muscle” work. In summary, organizations and the individuals in them face an enormously demanding present and future. Are any strategies available to help people and organizations cope, adapt, survive, and even prosper in these vexing times? Fortunately, the answer is “yes”. A variety of solutions exists. And organization development (OD) is one of them. Basically, organization development is a
process of teaching people how to solve problems, take advantage of opportunities, and learn how to do that better and better over time. OD focuses on issues related to the “human side” of organizations by finding ways to increase the effectiveness of individuals, teams, and the organization’s human and social processes. Organization development is a relatively recent invention. It started in the late 1950s when behavioural scientists steeped in the lore and technology of group dynamics attempted to apply that knowledge to improve team functioning and inter-group relations in organizations. Early returns were encouraging, and attention was soon directed toward other human and social processes in organizations such as the design of work tasks, organization structure, conflict resolution, strategy formulation and implementation, and the like. The field of OD grew rapidly in the 1970s and the 1980s with thousands of organizations in the private and public sectors using the theory and methods of OD with great success. Today, organization development represents one of the best strategies for coping with the rampant changes occurring in the marketplace and society. We predict that organization development will be preferred improvement strategy in future. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Define organization development. · Explain the characteristics of OD. · Discuss the categories of OD programme. · State the goals of OD. · Distinguish between OD and Management Development · Explore the problems in OD. 3.2 Definitions Organization Development (OD) is a response to change, a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs, attitudes, values and structure of organization so that they can better adapt to new technologies, markets, and challenges, and the dizzying rate of change itself. (Bennis, 1969). OD can be defined as a planned and sustained effort to apply behavioural science for system improvement, using reflexive, self-analytic methods. (Schmuck and Miles, 1971)
Organizational development is a process of planned change- change of an organization’s culture from one which avoids an examination of social processes (especially decision making, planning and communication) to one which institutionalizes and legitimizes this examination. (Burke and Hornstein, 1972) The aims of OD are: 1) Enhancing congruence between organizational structure, processes, strategy, people, and culture; 2) Developing new and creative organizational solutions; and 3) Developing the organization’s self-renewing capacity (Beer, 1980). Organization development is an organizational process for understanding and improving any and all substantive processes an organization may develop for performing any task and pursuing any objectives…. A “process for improving processes” – that is what OD has basically sought to be for approximately 25 years (Vaill, 1989) “Organizational development is a set of behavioural science-based theories, values, strategies, and techniques aimed at the planned change of the organizational work setting for the purpose of enhancing individual development and improving organizational performance, through the alteration of organizational members’ on-the-job behaviours.” (Porras and Robertson, 1992) “OD is a systematic application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies, structure, and processes for improving an organization’s effectiveness.” (Cummings and Worley, 1993) “Organization development is a planned process of change in an organization’s culture through the utilization of behavioural science technologies, research, and theory.” (Burke, 1994) As you can see, these definitions overlap a great deal (that’s encouraging), and contain several unique insights (that’s enlightening). All authors agree that OD applies behavioural science to achieve planned change. Likewise, they agree that the target of change is the total organization or system and that the goals are increased organizational effectiveness and individual development. Collectively, these definitions convey a sense of what organization development is and does. They describe in broad outline the nature and methods of OD. There is no set definition of OD and no agreement on the boundaries of the field, that is, what practices should be included and excluded. But these are not serious constraints given that the field is still evolving, and that practitioners share a central core of understanding as shown in the preceding definitions.
structure. In fact. and self-examining processes that facilitate individual. and what the organization and its members can expect from each other. we mean those leadership behaviours and human resource practices that enable organization members to develop and use their talents as fully as possible toward individual growth and organizational success. through an ongoing. and problem-solving processes. By visioning processes. where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured. learning. we mean that organizational change and development takes time. it is more accurate to describe “improvement” as a never-ending journey of continuous change. Peter Senge describes learning organizations as “… organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire. Visioning means creating a picture of the desired future that includes salient features of the human side of the organization and then working together to make that picture a reality. and shared picture of the nature of the products and services the organization offers. Top management must initiate the improvement “journey” and be committed to seeing it through. We do not propose it as the “right” definition. where
. we mean involving large numbers of people in building the vision of tomorrow.several years in most cases. and culture. but as one that includes characteristics we think are important for the present and future of the field. For empowerment to become fact of life. or became distracted with other duties. but it includes a number of components that we consider essential. “Organization development is a long-term effort. and making it happen. One program or initiative moves the organization to a higher plateau. serious business. the ways those goods will be produced and delivered to customers. it includes pain and setbacks as well as success. then another moves it to yet a higher plateau of effectiveness. led and supported by top management. team. Organizational change is hard. we mean those processes through which organization members develop a viable. including action research. we mean those interacting. Most OD programs that fail do so because top management was ambivalent.” This definition is lengthy. There is no “quick fix” when it comes to lasting organizational improvement. The phrase led and supported by top management states an imperative: Top management must lead and actively encourage the change effort. processes. to improve an organization’s visioning. coherent. By empowerment. lost its commitment.Now let’s turn to our definition of organization development. We will explain this definition in some detail. developing the strategy for getting there. it must be built into the very fabric of the organization-its strategy. and organizational learning. By long-term effort. empowerment. listening. By empowerment processes. collaborative management of organization culture-with special emphasis on the culture of intact work teams and other team configurations-using the consultantfacilitator role and the theory and technology of applied behavioural science. By learning processes.
Processes are relatively easy to change.
. learning. think. think. make decisions. Collaborative management of the culture means that everyone. and problem-solving processes. not just a small group. (d) that has worked well enough to be considered valid and. strategy. sentiments. and feel-that is why culture change is necessary for true organizational improvement. or developed by a given group. and problem-solving processes are opportunities for collaboration in organization development. and each influences the others. empowerment. Processes are how things get done. interactions. and take actions on problems. one of wide-spread participation in creating and managing a culture that satisfies that wants and needs of individuals at the same time that it fosters the organization’s purposes. and continuous learning the organization is bound to succeed. We believe that when the culture promotes collaboration. empowerment. Edgar Schein clarifies the nature and power of culture in his definition: “Culture can now be defined as (a) a pattern of basic assumptions. structure. first. activities. And second. By including culture so prominently in our definition. beliefs.collective aspiration is set free. Just as visioning. discovered. norms. assumptions. So culture consists of basic assumptions. we mean. solve problems. so they are the place OD programs often begin – getting people to stop doing things one way and start doing them a different way. By ongoing collaborative management of the organization’s culture.” Problem-solving processes refer to the ways organization members diagnose situations. We believe solutions to problems are enhanced by tapping deeply into the creativity. expectations. we affirm our belief that culture is the bedrock of behaviour in organizations. managing the culture should be a collaborative business. and where people are continually learning how to learn together. empowerment. commitment. attitudes. Michael Beer’s definition called for “developing new and creative organizational solutions”. therefore (e) is to be taught to new members as the (f) correct way to perceive. and artifacts. (b) invented. and feel in relation to those problems. values. vitality. and we highlight the importance of visioning. We further believe that having compelling. But change becomes permanent when the culture changes and people accept the new ways as the “right” ways. in contrast to having only a select few involved. The reciprocal influence among culture. Our definition also places considerable weight on organizational processes. and challenges in the organization’s environment and its internal functioning. learning. so is managing the culture. Empowerment means involving people in problems and decisions and letting them be responsible for results. widely shared vision of a desired future creates the best climate for effective problem-solving by all the organization’s members. Still. culture is of primary importance. opportunities. and norms of behaviour that are viewed as the correct way to perceive. and common purposes of all members of the organization. (c) as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. has a stake in making the organization work. and processes makes each important. that one of the most important things to manage in organizations is the culture: the prevailing pattern of values.
These self-directed teams assume complete responsibility for planning and executing work assignments. intact work teams do not have a boss in the traditional sense-the teams manage themselves. 2. engineering. Today’s organizations increasingly use ad hoc teams that perform a specific task and disband when the task is completed. members are trained in competencies such as planning. according to Peters. To summarize. The thesis of Liberation Management is that contemporary bureaucratic structures with their functional specialties and rigid hierarchies are all wrong for the demands of today’s fast-paced market place. When teams function well. The results are usually highly gratifying both for the team members and for the organization. individuals and the organization function well. and then disbanded with the people going on to new tasks. OD encourages collaboration between organization leaders and members in managing culture and processes. and training. But in many organizations today. He uses the terms ‘multifunctional projectization’ and ‘horizontal systems’ to describe these teams and their work. team culture can be collaboratively managed to ensure effectiveness. the process “threw the results over the wall” to the next functional unit. and procurement. In Liberation Management. hiring. OD focuses on culture and processes. Further.By intact work teams and other configurations. we recognize that teams are central to accomplishing work in organizations. The most prevalent form of teams in organizations is intact work teams consisting of superior and subordinates with a specific job to perform. We think teams are the basic building blocks of organizations. multifunctional. constantly shifting teams will be the dominant configuration for getting work done. Team building and role and goal clarification interventions are standard activities in OD programs directed toward intact work teams. The old method was to have functional specialists work on the problem sequentially. much rework. This method resulted in loss of synergy. The definition we have just analyzed contains the elements we believe are important for OD. manufacturing. firing. Specifically. wasted time. and considerable antagonism among the separate functional specialists. In addition to team building and role and goal clarification. The current method for getting complex tasks done in organizations is to assemble a cross-functional team comprised of members from all the functional specialities required to get the job done. here are the primary distinguishing characteristics of organization development: 1. maintaining quality control. Over time. and using management information. When one function finished with its part of the project. such as design. Tom Peters predicts that the work of tomorrow (most of which will be “brain work”) will be done by ad hoc teams brought together to accomplish a task. self-directed teams control performance appraisals. Temporary.
Planned Change: OD is a strategy of planned change for organizational improvement. Thus. OD practitioners are facilitators. 3. 3. It recognizes that organizational goals change. dynamic and adaptive system. Teams of all kinds are particularly important for accomplishing tasks and are targets for OD activities. or isolated problems. OD takes a developmental view that seeks the betterment of both individuals and the organization. 9. so that change is easily observed. An overarching goal is to make the client system able to solve its problems on its own by teaching the skills and knowledge of continuous learning through self-analytical methods. OD efforts are not one-shot actions. Long-range Change: OD efforts are not meant for solving short-term. Participation and involvement in problem-solving and decision-making by all levels of the organization are hallmarks of OD. OD relies on an action research model with extensive participation by client system members. 4. OD efforts take an organization as an interrelated whole and no part of it can be changed meaningfully without making corresponding changes in other parts. interactive. Rather. temporary.3 Characteristics of OD 1. rather. they are ongoing. Comprehensive Change: OD efforts focus on comprehensive change in the organization. OD focuses on the elevation of an organization to a higher level of functioning by improving the performance and satisfaction. This ‘planned’ emphasis separates OD efforts from other kinds of more haphazard changes that are frequently undertaken by organizations. The concept of comprehensive change is based on the systems concept-open. rather than focusing attention on individuals. OD focuses on total system change and views organizations as complex social systems. 4. 2. 5. and cyclic processes. OD focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. 6. and co-learners with the client system.
. so the methods of attaining these goals should also change. 10. Dynamic Process: OD is a dynamic process and includes the efforts to guide and direct changes as well as to cope with or adapt changes imposed. Attempting to create “win-win” solutions is standard practice in OD programs. 8. collaborators.3. 7. OD views organization improvement as an ongoing process in the context of a constantly changing environment.
takes actions for intervention. problem-solving. growth. He shares a social philosophy about human values. third party change agent. it is a programme with a purpose that is to guide present and future action. evaluates these data. (b) The interventions are primarily directed towards problems and issues identified by the client group. identity. (b) Problems of human satisfaction and development. and integrate individual and organizational goals. Organization Development is inextricably linked with action. further more. he conducts surveys. joint goals and means. and (c) Problems of organizational effectiveness. Two important elements of Organization Development are. At the individual level. and revitalization. collects relevant data. Participation of Change Agent: Most OD experts emphasize the need for an outside. The change agent is a humanist seeking to get a humanistic philosophy in the organization. rather. or catalyst. practitioners and the client laymen. the collaborative relationships between the scientists. the importance and centrality of goals and objectives and the different role requirements of the consultant change agent vis-à-vis the clients. participation. Normative Educational Process: OD is based on the principle that ‘norms form the basis for behaviour and change is a re-educative process of replacing old norms by new ones’.
.5. OD attempts to provide opportunities to be ‘human’ and to increase awareness. Emphasis on Intervention and Action Research: OD approach results in an active intervention in the ongoing activities of the organization. Although Organization Development Programmes vary. 3. A change agent in OD process does not just introspect the people and introduce changes. Key areas are the normative type of model. He designs intervention strategies based on these data. This is done to arrive at certain desirable outcomes that may be in the form of increased effectiveness. The relationship involves mutual trust. first. and then. 7. yet following features are common to most of the programmes: (a) The client is a total system or major subunit of total system. all types of experience requiring Organization Development efforts may be grouped into three categories: (a) Problems of destiny. second. and mutual influence. and adaptability for the organization as a whole. 6. Action research is the basis for such intervention. They discourage ‘do it yourself’ approach. the element which links Organization Development with the scientific method of inquiry and. There is a close working relationship between the change agent and the target organizational members to be changed.4 Categories of OD Programmes In general.
(f) To develop a reward system which recognizes both the achievement of the organization’s goals (profit or service) and development of people. (b) To supplement the authority associated with role or status. (h) To help managers to manage according to relevant objectives rather than according to past practices or according to objectives which do not make sense for one’s area of responsibility.(c) The interventions are directed towards problem-solving and improved functioning for the client system. 3. its underlying theory and assumptions and some of the pitfall and challenges in attempting to improve organizations through behavioural science. (g) To increase the sense of ‘ownership’ or organization’s objectives throughout the work force. problem solving climate throughout an organization. This Organization Development progrmmes. (i) To increase self-control and self-direction for people within the organization. (d) To build trust among persons and groups throughout an organization.6 OD and Management Development
. We need to examine carefully the techniques of Organization Development. should begin with a clear-cut statement of specific objectives and criteria for determining if these objectives have been met from the stand point of the employee/employees simply as team member or for the total group. (e) To make competition more relevant to work goals and to maximize collaborative efforts. with the authority of knowledge and competence. 3. (j) To improve effectiveness of the organization. like other normative re-educative programmes. (c) To locate decision making and problem-solving responsibilities as close to sources of information as possible. and (d) The interventions are based on behavioural science theory and technology.5 Goals of Organization Development Following are the generally accepted goals of OD: (a) To create an open.
focus on achieving better in existing improvement in design. according to him. with their existing objectives and structure.
. These are: (i) a positive attitude towards authority. (ii) competitiveness. more attention to peer-groups.” Organization development differs from management development. MD tries to fit the men to the organization. then would the results be functional for managing organization activity in a competitive world? Thus. According to him. OD tries to fit the organization to the men. and techniques adopted in both may overlap to some extent. management development has been defined as follows: “Management development is all those activities and programmes when recognized and controlled. less individual competitiveness. Based on this. he appears to be biased against OD and the real distinction between OD and MD lies in between these two extremes. and greater display of feelings and emotions. organization. whereas OD efforts within organizations may cause confusion and chaos for incoming human resources if the organization is underplayed and the humanistic dimension alone is emphasized. Burke and Schmidt have made this difference more clear which is presented in the following table. However. (iii) assertiveness. Before making a comparison between the two. If OD efforts train people towards anti-authority value. and (iv) a sense of responsibility. let us define management development as we have seen the definition of OD. there are four attributes of effective managers in large organization.At this stage. it is beneficial to make a comparison between OD and Management Development (MD) as both have some common objectives that betterment of an organization. have substantial influence in changing the capacity of the individual to perform his assignment better and in so doing are likely to increase his potential for future management assignment. not on the and managers to perform managers. He feels that management development reinforces the above four qualities and helps managers cultivate and develop the will to manage. While the latter aims at developing the mangers individually for the accomplishment of better performance in organizational setting. Difference between Management Development and OD Factors Objectives Management Development Organization Development Increasing manager’s Changing the nature of the contributions to goal organization. the former goes one step further and purports to change the entire organizational climate where the mangers work. Train and equip employees Focus on design. The term ‘development’ refers broadly to the nature and direction of change induced in personnel through the process of training and education. accomplishments. Miner has drawn difference between two processes.
OD became quite successful with many professional consultants offering high services and programmes to various organizations. To increase the openness of communications in all directions-vertically. The basic problem in a change effort which is not comprehensive is that it does not work properly unless there is a proper change in the internal environment of the organization in which people work.
Problem-solving approach. 2. By 70s. To treat each human being as a complex person with a complex set of needs important in his work and his life. however. Long-range strategy for organizational innovation and renewal. Trained specialists required. 6. 7. To increase the level of enthusiasms and personal satisfaction at all levels of the organization. horizontally. Since OD attempts to bring comprehensive change in the organization. confrontation techniques. it is quite suitable for improving organizational performance on long-term basis. In early 60s. and laterally. 3.8 Problems in Organization Development Organization development.
3. To increase the level of self and group responsibility in planning and its implementation. To increase the level of trust and mutual emotional support among all organization members.7 Role of Organization Development Organization development.Approach Time
Educative and training Short-range. plays key role in organizational improvement. however. OD can be utilized for the following results in the organization: 1. etc. To place emphasis on humanistic values and goals consistent with these vales. Much of the enthusiasm created at the beginning of OD programmes vanished over the period of time. 5.
No special requirement. Research studies have also failed to conclude
. as a long-term strategy for organizational change. 3. Thus. has invited sharp criticism as a strategy to increase organizational viability and effectiveness because many OD programmes have failed. 4. substantial disenchantment with OD became evident because of many controversial OD techniques like sensitivity training. To create an environment in which authority of assigned role is augmented by authority based on knowledge and skills.
it can be visualized that OD itself may not be dysfunctional but application may be. 5. 5. it may be emphasized that OD programmes are likely to fail when these are not programmes and hence failure. Thus. In general.
. OD makes people unfit for the real organizations world because no organization can fully adopt open system concept. and (ii) failure to correctly model appropriate personnel behaviour in the programme. 3. People realized its dysfunctional aspects only when many OD efforts failed. These should be based on the specific needs of the organization. Therefore. it fails even as a long-term strategy. OD fails to motivate people with low level of achievement needs. some specific efforts are required. There should be genuine support of OD programme from top management. 2. OD can not be taken as panacea for curing all organizational problems. It can be seen that many of these criticisms are based on reality and experience.significant contributions of OD in all organizations. particularly in bottom-line ones. Therefore. Organization must formulate the objectives of OD programme very clearly and specifically. Evans has identified three factors which have been responsible for the failure of OD programmes: (i) failure of the management consultant group to correctly tailor the programme to actual needs of the organization. There is discrepancy between ideal and real situations. Enough time should be allowed so that the effects of OD programme are realized. Hence. and only large organizations can afford this luxury without any guarantee of positive outcome. 4. Only fully competent OD consultant should be pressed for the service and he should develop understanding with internal change agents. However. There should be proper use of OD interventions. 2. Resistance to change is a natural phenomenon and OD puts undue pressure to change. and (iii) failure to increase employee motivation through participation and development of personal growth and self-esteem. it is useless to try OD. For example. 4. Some of these efforts are as follows: 1. 3. If an organization is laden with these people. OD is criticized on the following lines: 1. in order to make best use of OD efforts. OD tries to achieve ideal without taking into account real. OD programmes are often quite costly.
3. 2. 3. Organization development should be led and supported by –––––––.10 Terminal Questions 1. 3. The participative. It focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. Define OD. 5. Explain the various characteristics of OD. problem-focused ‘nature of OD’ marshals the experience and expertise of organization members for problem-solving and capitalizes the opportunities in the organization. 2.Self Assessment Questions 1. ––––––––– is a process which includes leadership behaviours and human resource practices. 3. Management development aims at developing the managers individually. But OD aims at changing the entire organizational climate where the managers work. OD is the ultimate remedy for organizational improvements and developments. Tom Peters 3. Distinguish between ‘organizational development’ and ‘management development’. ––––––– is associated with “Liberation Management”. Explain its salient features. collaborative. 4. There is no ‘quick fix’ to organizations’ problems. Who is associated with the “Learning Organizations”? 5.9 Summary The definitions clarify the distinctive features of OD and suggest why it is such a powerful change strategy. Top management 2. What are the problems involved in the implementation of OD? 3. _____________is a short-term strategy. Empowerment
. State the various roles of OD. OD focuses on culture and processes.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. 4.
Management development Answers to TQs: 1.3 Process Consultation 4.4 Grid Training 4. Refer section 3. Refer section 3.Organization Development – Interventions
Unit-04.3 3. Refer section 3.
MU0002-Unit-04.Organization Development – Interventions Structure: 4.5 Leadership Development 4.2 Survey Feedback 4.6 Team-building
.6 4.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .2 2. Refer section 3. Peter Senge 5. Refer section 3.4.1 Introduction Objectives 4.7 5.
interventions may be required to change people at all these levels. People’s behaviour may be relevant to understand at individual level. This classification of OD interventions is very comprehensive and many activities do not strictly form the part of OD as process of organizational improvement but other methods of improving the performance of the organization. inter-group level. French and Bell have suggested twelve families of OD interventions: diagnostic. For example. and organizational level. work group. management grid. French and Bell have defined OD intervention as: “Sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage with a task or a sequence of tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvement.10 Summary 4.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 4.8 Change Agents 4.1 Introduction OD interventions refer to various activities which a consultant and client organization perform for improving organizational performance through enabling organizational members better manage their behaviour. However. Further. mediation and negotiation activities. Thus. survey feedback. the classification appears to be more relevant because it may specify the
. the classification of OD interventions shows variation.7 Inter Group Development 4. Interventions constitute the action thrust of organization development. and organizational culture. group level. team-building. process consultation. various consultants and practitioners have different opinions about the activities which can be included in interventions. such a classification of interventions may not put them into mutually exclusive categories as a particular intervention may be applied at more than one level.9 Role of Change Agents Self Assessment Questions 4.4. interpersonal level.” There are various OD interventions and they are classified in different ways. Therefore. Nevertheless. inter-group activities. many of them visualize data gathering as an intervention whereas it is treated as only preparatory work for OD by others. A meaningful classification of OD interventions may be based on the improvement in the behaviour of people in the organization as OD is basically a behavioural approach. they make things happen.11 Terminal Questions 4. techno-structural activities. education and training.
1. 2. Though some type of survey method was prevalent in various organizations earlier.2 Survey Feedback Besides laboratory training (sensitivity and grid). feedback of information. and participative goal-setting which has become more popular as management by objectives. peer support. peer work facilitation. other techniques like process consultation. USA developed a comprehensive questionnaire for conducting survey in different aspects of an organization. 4. the other major thrust in the development of OD has come from survey research and feedback of data. Process of Survey Feedback Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection. developing action plans based on feedback. OD efforts were attempted through sensitivity training. and survey feedback method. peer goal emphasis. Our further discussion follows this development.range of change that an organization requires.
. team. · Realize the importance of team-building. · Explain grid training. have been added. · Describe process consultation. Data Collection: The first step in survey feedback is data collection usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. To assist the group members to improve the relationships through discussion of common problems. Institute for Social Research (ISR) of University of Michigan. Subsequently.building. The questionnaire may include different aspects of organizational functioning. you will be able to: · Describe survey feedback. managerial goal emphasis. managerial work facilitation. Historically. grid training. · Role of change agents. The basic objectives of survey feedback are as follows: 1. ISR has prepared a questionnaire which includes questions on leadership – managerial support. Objectives: After studying this unit. and peer interaction facilitation. To assist the organization in diagnosing its problems and developing action plan for problemsolving. and follow up.
tabulated. satisfaction with the supervisor. survey feedback contributes in the following manner: 1. After the questionnaires are completed. One such follow-up action may be to advise the participants to develop their own action plans to overcome the problems revealed through a feedback or as is more commonly the case. 2. The feedback may be given either orally or in a written form. it is of no use unless follow-up action is taken based on the
. If it is biased. In particular. it is provided through group discussion or problem-solving sessions conducted by the consultant. Whatever the method of giving feedback is adopted. it should be constructive and suggestive. questionnaire used and method adopted for its administration should be reliable and valid. In oral system of feedback.organizational climate-communication with the company. by the consultant. threatening and emotion-hurting as survey feedback is aimed at identifying weaknesses which must be overcome through follow-up actions and not the fault-finding technique for criticism. 3. and satisfaction with the work group. even if valid and reliable information is collected. and analysis is made to arrive at some meaningful conclusions. feedback may be given in the form of a written summary of findings. satisfaction with the job. follow-up action may be in the form of developing some specific OD interventions particularly process consultation and team-building. Evaluation of Survey Feedback Survey feedback provides a base for many managerial actions which has been confirmed by various research studies. motivation. The questionnaire is administered personally either by the members of consulting firm or by organization’s personnel. Decision-making and problem-solving abilities of organization can be improved tremendously because this approach applies the competence and knowledge throughout the organization and the problems faced by it. and general management. control within the company. rather. Alternatively. Second. data are classified. Feedback of Information: After the data are analyzed. It generates great amount of information efficiently and quickly which can be used in solving problems faced by the organization and its members. 2. 3. feedback is given to the persons who have participated in the fulfilling up of questionnaire. Follow-up Action: Survey feedback programme is not meaningful unless some follow-up action is taken based on the data collected. co-ordination between departments. decision-making. effectiveness of survey feedback depends on two factors. However. and satisfaction-satisfaction with the company. It is cost-effective means of implementing a comprehensive OD programme making it a highly desirable technique. satisfaction with the pay. First. all attempts to diagnose the problems will be abortive and futile.
communication. 3. group norms. 4. and inter-group co-operation and conflicts. 2. Select the Setting and the Method: It involves a clear-cut understanding of where and how the consultant will do the job that is required.C is that the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. the client’s expectations and hoped-for results are also decided. Define the Relationship: At this stage. At this stage. and spelling out services.C are as follows: 1. understand.3 Process Consultation Process Consultation (P. Steps in Process Consultation Schein has suggested following specific steps which the consultant would follow in a P. the consultant is introduced to the organizational members and basic objectives of the P. the leading writer and consultant on P. and interview about the problems. time. and act upon the process events which occur in the client’s environment. observations. The basic content of P. To bring desired change in the various organizational processes like leadership. Edgar Schein.C in which the client makes initial contact with the consultant with a view to solve the problems faced by the organization which cannot be solved by existing processes or resources. group decision-making and problemsolving.C programme of OD. Information collected is processed to diagnose the problems and their underlying causes.
.information. A survey feedback is not a technique in itself for change.C) is a technique for intervening in an ongoing system. Initiate Contact: This is beginning stage of P. spelled out at the initial stage.” The basic objectives of P. Gather Data and Make a Diagnosis: Information is collected from various sources thorough the use of questionnaires. roles and functions of group members. 2. This data gathering occurs simultaneously with the entire consultative process. To understand how various organizational processes can be linked to objective achievement in the organization. At this stage. 1. it provides base for action for change. 4.C are communicated to them with a view that they co-operate with the consultant. client and consultant enter into agreement covering various aspects of consultancy services like fees. etc.C has defined it as follows: “The set of activities on the part of the consultant which help the client to perceive.
C is completed. However. Intervene: At this stage. To study the organization as an interactive system and apply techniques of analysis in diagnosing its problems. To understand the importance and rationale of systematic change. like other OD intervention techniques. To evaluate the styles of leadership and techniques of participation to produce desirable results. and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. enabling individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. the consultant disengages from the client organization by mutual agreement but leaves the door open for future involvement. Its specific objectives are as follows: 1.C programmes.5. In the review of various P. significant correlation between the outcomes has not been found. and total organizational levels. focuses on skills.C is also not free from criticisms.C is very effective intervention for organizational improvement. Process of Grid Training The basic content of grid organization development is managerial grid as discussed. knowledge. Another problem may emerge at the level of the organization and its members in terms of how they inculcate the new processes and culture as suggested by the consultant. 2. coaching. 6. The whole orientation is to develop managerial style through the application of behavioural science knowledge. both these problems may be overcome by engaging a suitable consultant and developing willingness among the members for change. Evaluation of Process Consultation: Process consultation is quite in-depth activity of OD in which the consultant plays a major role. inter-group. Though he is involved only in suggesting the various changes in the processes. he assists the organizational members to incorporate those changes. 4. P. feedback. and/or structural change. and the organization as a whole.4 Grid Training Grid training is basically based on grid organization development developed by Blake and Mouton. It utilizes a considerable number of instruments.
. However. group. The grid organization development consists of six phases. the consultant intervenes in the organizational processes by using different interventions like agenda-setting. P. From this point of view. One basic reason for this phenomenon may be the consultant’s inability to steer the organization out of troubles. 3. It is a comprehensive and systematic OD programme which aims at individuals. groups. Reduce Involvement and Terminate: When the work of P.
and teamwork. Grid training programme is criticized on the basis that it lacks contingency approach and. The members of the organization are trained for achieving this excellence. 6. Implementing the Ideal Strategic Model: The implementation stage includes the building of the organization on the model of ideal organization on the basis of concepts developed under stage 4. 4. the focus shifts to the total organization and to develop skills necessary for organizational excellence. The skills relating to planning. the various programmes may be redesigned. Managerial grid: It covers various aspects of assessing managerial styles. Developing Ideal Strategic Corporate Model: At this stage. Action steps to move towards the ideal are developed and assigned to individuals who may be engaged in building co-operative inter-group relationships. The action is designed to identify the characteristics of the ideal organization.1. it discounts reality. 2. 5. objective-setting. problem-solving. communication skills. The thrust is on moving groups from conflict to co-operation. The strategy is then implemented. Systematic Critique: In this stage. Evaluation of Grid Training Most of the support of grid training has come from its originators-Blake and Mouton. They have maintained that “managerial and team effectiveness can be taught to managers with outside assistance. Inter-group Development: At this phase. it appears that this type of educational strategy can help to make significant contributions to organizational effectiveness. Furthermore. the focus is on inter-group behaviour and relations.5 Leadership Development
.” In a later work. some of them have not supported the claims made by Blake and Mouton. they maintained the same stand. Each group separately analyses the ideal inter-group relations. The analysis will bring out the shortcomings that may be there. grid training is a non-rigorous method. 3. in spite of these criticisms. 4. traditions. In this light. Further. Teamwork Development: The focus in this stage is to develop teamwork by analyzing team culture. and alike. grid training has some positive contributions for organizational effectiveness. and problemsolving are also developed. the various efforts from phase 1 to phase 5 are evaluated and critical analysis is made. The individuals try to learn to become managers by practice. therefore. Though research studies on the application of grid training are not many. Each group may be given assignment to evolve strategy for making ideal organization with the help of the consultant.
by the time you have to deal with difficult changes. how synergy is generated through team-work. but more importantly. let us consider the life cycle of a team. which. We can call these Preparing For the Journey. During drastic change times. and that makes coping with drastic change much easier. confident and effective decision-making. brings hope for better times in the future. Before going through how team-building exercise can be undertaken to develop effective teams.6 Team-building Various OD interventions discussed so far have their specific implications for OD and. In organizations characterized by poor leadership. French and Bell have opined that “probably the most important single group of interventions in the OD are the team-building activities the goals of which are the improvement and increased effectiveness of various teams within the organization. For example. employees will perceive leadership as supportive. The literature on the subject indicates that the nature of the change is secondary to the perceptions that employees have regarding the ability. must labor under the weight of employees who have given up. is the ability of leadership to…well. have no faith in the system or in the ability of leaders to turn the organization around. 4.When change is imposed (as in downsizing scenarios). and credibility of senior and middle management. and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. and After Arrival. during and after change implementation is THE key to getting through the swamp. The Role of Leadership In an organization where there is faith in the abilities of formal leaders. Unfortunately. and regular. you need to be aware that there are three distinct times zones where leadership is important. Slogging Through The Swamp. complete communication that is timely. it may be too late. employees expect nothing positive. are closely associated with a very few advocates and practitioners. Poor leadership means an absence of hope. lead. concerned and committed to their welfare. widely accepted. employees will look towards the leaders for a number of things. As against these. employees learn that leaders will act in indecipherable ways and in ways that do not seem to be in anyone’s best interests. results in an organization becoming completely nonfunctioning. therefore. employees will expect effective and sensible planning. Leadership before. problems in
. The organization must deal with the practical impact of unpleasant change. while at the same time recognizing that tough decisions need to be made. clearly the most important determinant of "getting through the swamp". if allowed to go on for too long. Also during these times of change. if haven’t established a track record of effective leadership. In a climate of distrust. We will look more carefully at each of these.” A possible reason for this phenomenon is that people in the organization work in groups (teams) and the effectiveness of these groups ultimately determine organizational effectiveness. competence. teambuilding is the most important. The best way to summarize is that there is a climate of trust between leader and the rest of the team. The existence of this trust. If you are to manage change effectively.
they learn to handle complex problems that come before the team. 4. team members start settling. Sooner or later. These typical stages of life cycle of a team are described below: 1. start to accept others. they do represent a broad pattern that may be observed and predicted in many settings across team’s time together. 3. and tasks are accompanied efficiently. and adjourning as shown below:
Fig. At this stage. each team has to be adjourned. members start interaction among themselves in the form of competing for status. jockeying for relative control. because of individual differences. Functional roles are performed and exchanged as needed. norming. different members may experience varying degree of tension and anxiety out of this interaction pattern. and arguing for appropriate strategies to be adopted for achieving team’s goals. and begin to turn their attention to the group tasks. Adjourning: Adjourning is the end phase of cycle of a team. Norming: After storming stage. The team begins to move in a co-operative fashion and a tentative balance among competing forces too is struck. performing. These stages are: forming.1: Life Cycle of a Team Though these are not followed rigidly. group norms emerge to guide individual behaviour which form the basis for co-operative feelings and behaviour among members. storming. team members get introduced to each other if they have not interacted earlier. 2. These stages are the result of a variety of questions and issues that team members face such as “who will be members of the team?” “Who will perform what functions?” “Who will contribute what?” “What rules will be followed?” “How can conflicts among members be resolved?” and so on. Performing: When team members interact among themselves on the basis of norms that have emerged in the team. 5.team-work. and features of effective team so that team-building exercises focus more sharply on developing effective team. They share personal information. Storming: After the forming stage which is mostly related to perceiving and assessing each other. they often pass through several stages as they learn to work together as a team. interaction among team members is often cautious especially when they are new to one another. The
. Life Cycle of a Team When a number of individuals begin to work at interdependent jobs. At this stage. Forming: At the first stage of the life cycle. 4. even the most successful teams as they have completed their mission.
Other types of team like a department in an organization run on the basis of some permanency though there may be changes in team members. For example. In fact.
. students find that one or two students do not put their weight for the completion of the project. However. Synergy in Team-work Another important feature of a team is the concept of synergy which generates in team-work and the understanding of which helps in developing effective team. A simple phenomenon of social loafing may be observed in a group assignment to students during their study. Social Loafing Social loafing is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. the complementarity among members is achieved. It is not necessary that all teams follow the rigid pattern prescribed here and the similar problems they face at each stage because each team is different in some respect based on the type of members and problems and functions assigned.” Thus. other factors remaining the same. synergistic effect is not automatic but depends on the complementarity of different elements that are put together and the way they interact among themselves. intense social relationship among members comes to an end. a team is created to undertake a task which requires a variety of skills and single individual cannot perform that task alone. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts.adjournment phase takes place in the case of those teams which are created for some special purposes like task force. how a particular element affects another and is affected by it. They rely on the fact the more reliable members will complete the project without their help. In such an assignment. concept of stages is significant in the context of the nature of problem which team members are likely to face in team-work. Putting the concept of synergy in teamwork means members of the team are complementary to each other and they contribute positively to one another. the team would be effective. committee. After the adjournment of the team. To the extent. that is. This effect can be described as 2+2=5 effect. etc. These students may be called loafers (not attaching the same connotation which is attached with the term loafer in our social phenomenon) who frequently miss the project group’s meetings. This phenomenon may happen in teams in work organizations too. and still expect to share the credit and obtain the same marks from the professor since he will be concerned with determining who worked and who did not. in one experiment. and so on. fail to perform their assigned tasks. The concept of synergy is quite popular in strategic management and it is defined as follows: “Synergy is the process of putting two or more elements together to achieve a sum total greater than the sum total of individual elements separately.
Individuals were asked to pull alone as hard as possible on a rope attached to a strain gauge. When the same individuals pulled on the rope of groups of three. These factors are skills and role clarity. group efforts tend to slacken. individual members do not contribute to the fullest extent. When the division of work cannot be accomplished properly and individual efforts are hard to determine. Dropping of average output in group efforts indicates that some members of the group were not contributing as much as they did individually. Therefore. Even if one member lacks behind. goals. he may tend to affect others because of chain reaction just like a rotten apple injures its companions. and attitudes. Skills and Role Clarity: For an effective team. Thus. team members may not show high degree of enthusiasm and they will use only a part of their skills in performing the jobs. 1. 2. The phenomenon of social loafing can be minimized by constituting effective team for group performance.2 pounds. managers at higher levels particularly at the top level should set organizational climate and culture which enthuse team members to put their best. While skills are relevant for job performance. understanding of roles helps members to meet the requirement of one another thereby solving the problems which the team faces. When the group is not cohesive with high output norms. it appears that there are many factors in an effective team. From this statement. Let us see how these factors make a team effective. Supportive Environment: A team loaded with skilled members cannot perform well if the organizational climate is not supportive for that. team members may tend to contribute positively to the teamwork. The possibility of occurring of social loafing in a team-work increases because of the following reasons: 1.6 pound of pressure while tugging on the rope.it was found that individuals’ total efforts were much higher than the group efforts. 2. A group is not merely an assemblage of individuals but there should be a feeling that they are members of the group and share common interests.
. super-ordinate goals and team rewards. group of eight. skills which are complementary to the team requirement and understanding of one’s own role as well as roles of other members. supportive environment. Effective Team An effective team is one which contributes to the achievement of organizational objectives by performing the task assigned to it and providing satisfaction to its members. two things are required from its members. If the organizational climate is not in tune with high achievement. They averaged 138. the individual average dropped down still lower68. we have mentioned that team effectiveness depends on the complementarity of team members. other factors remaining the same. In the above paragraph.
3. Super-ordinate Goals: Super-ordinate goals are those which are above the goals of a single team or a single individual. An individual works better if he is able to link how his goal attainment leads to the attainment of a higher-level goal. These super-ordinate goals, then, serve to focus attention, unify efforts, and stimulate more cohesive team efforts. 4. Team Rewards: Team performance depends on how reward is linked to team performance and how members perceive this linkage. If team members perceive that reward to contingent on team performance, they will put their maximum. Rewards of both types- financial and nonfinancial-should be taken into consideration. Further, organizations need to achieve a careful balance between encouraging and rewarding individual initiative and growth and stimulating full contributions to team success. Innovative non-financial team rewards for responsible behaviour may include the authority to select new members of the group, make recommendations regarding a new supervisor, or propose discipline for team members. The positive aspect of all these factors leads to team effectiveness and team members share common values regarding product quality, customer satisfaction, and share the responsibility for completing a project on schedule. Katzenbatch and Smith, management consultants, have suggested the concept of real team and they feel that this concept is relatively unexploited despite its capacity to outperform other groups and individuals. They define four characteristics of real teams: small size; complementary skills; common purpose, goals, and working approach: and willingness to be held mutually accountable. Real teams can be created and sustained by: 1. Selecting members for their complementary skills and potentials; 2. Developing clear rules of conduct and challenging performance goals; 3. Establishing a sense of urgency right from the first meeting. 4. Providing substantial time together in which new information is constantly shared; and 5. Providing positive feedback, recognition, and rewards. Team-building Process: Team-building attempts to improve effectiveness of the team by having team members to concentrate on: 1. Setting goals and priorities for the team. 2. Analyzing how team’s goals and priorities are linked to those of the organization. 3. Analyzing how the work is performed. 4. Analyzing how the team is working, and
5. Analyzing the relationships among the members who are performing the job. For achieving these, the team-building exercise proceeds in a particular way as shown in figure.
Fig. 4.2: Process of Team-building Various steps of team-building process are not one-shot action, rather, they are repetitive and cyclical as indicated by arrows in the figure. 1. Problem-sensing: There are a number of ways in which problems of a team can be obtained. Often the team itself defines which aspects of team-building it wishes to work on. This problem can better be identified in terms of what is hindering group effectiveness. At this stage, generally most of the members come forward with their arguments as to what the real problems are. The view may be quite different ranging from the organizational problem, group problems to even personal problem. In problem identification, the emphasis should be on consensus. The consensus-seeking part of the process necessitates that each person becomes thoroughly aware and understand clearly the basic concepts of team-development. Much of the problems may be solved through effective communication and training sessions. 2. Examining Differences: The perception of people on an issue differs because of their differing backgrounds, such as, their value systems, personality and attitudes. The perception may be brought to conformity through the process of exercise on perception which involves a number of psychological exercises particularly on perceptual differences. The role of communication is important in this context because it will help in clarifying the actual problems to the members. 3. Giving and Receiving Feedback: The step of perceiving things and listening to each other may be relayed back to the members as there is a possibility that such processes may create tense situation in the group. Often, members report about the painful feelings that they have at the time of evaluation of their feelings. The discussion should continue until all members of the team have commented. The feedback should be given to the members about their feelings, about the issue, the way people talk about the issue, the stying with the topic or going off on tangents, who was talking more or who was talking less, who was trying to resolve the differences, etc. Such feedback generally provides members to evaluate the values but at the same time, also provides opportunity to understand themselves. The concept of Johari Window may also be applied. This suggests that even people are not fully aware of themselves. 4. Developing Interactive Skills: The basic objective of this process is to increase the ability among the people as to how they should interact with others and engage in constructive behaviour. Following are the examples of constructive and negative behaviours:
Constructive Behaviour: (i) Building: developing and expanding the ideas of others. (ii) Bringing in: harmonizing, encouraging others to participate. (iii) Clarifying: resting, ensuring, understanding, seeking relevant information. (iv) Innovative: bringing in new relevant ideas, information, feelings, etc.
(i) Over talk: interrupting, talking together with speaker. (ii) Attacking: deriding, belittling, criticizing person. (iii) Negative: cooling, cynicism, undermining morale. At the time of discussion of feedback, people themselves take assignments to increase specific constructive behaviours and decrease specific negative behaviours. If this process is adopted several times, there is a strong possibility that members may learn constructive behaviours and leave negative behaviours. This is quite helpful in developing teamwork. 5. Follow-up Action: This is the final stage in team-building. At this stage, the total team is convened to review what has been learned and to identify what the next step should be. Follow-up action also helps in overcoming the drawback involved at the initial stages of teambuilding. It involves deciding who will take care of each area of the team’s responsibilities, and who will be responsible for team projects in a group that has not developed a satisfactory division of responsibility; clarifying and setting differences in perception concerning responsibility and authority in the team, with complex division of responsibility and authority among members. These attempts bring co-operative and supportive feelings among people involved in the team functioning. When this exercise is undertaken at the initial stage, it contributes positively towards the feelings of the people. However, to encourage and sustain such feelings, management should take such actions at regular intervals so that members feel reinforced and sustain their positive behaviour. Such actions will go a long way in shaping the organizational climate quite conducive to members for their efficient working. Evaluation of Team-building As mentioned earlier, team-building as an OD intervention has attracted maximum attention. Many research studies have also confirmed the positive contributions of team-building on the
In general. in different degrees. and how it believes the other group perceivers it. and the groups look for the causes of the disparities. team-building contributes to the organizational performance in the following manner: 1. As a result. the other group. Therefore. team-building has a positive outlook. stereotypes. there have been calls for combining team-building with organization behaviour modification approaches. New member may find it difficult to adjust with the team because of his confusion over his roles in terms of task performance and building good relationships. this has been a subject to which change efforts have been directed. However. the groups can move to the integration phase – working to develop solutions that will improve relations. monitoring. It improves the organization’s problem-solving and decision-making ability. etc.
. In this method. team-building has been termed as one-sided effort and it suffers from the following limitations: 1. It helps developing communication within the group and inter-group and overcoming many psychological barriers that block communication flow.. listening. communicating.7 Inter-group Development A major area of concern is OD is the dysfunctional conflict that exists between groups. One such suggestion is to use a task hierarchy to reinforce the team as it progresses up a behaviour skill hierarchy (for example. structure. Team-building becomes a complicated exercise when there is frequent change in team members. Differences are clearly articulate. It helps in developing effective interpersonal relationships by stimulating the group members for that. it is not that effective in isolation. one of the more Popular methods emphasize problem solving. and feedback skills). Once the causes of the difficulty have been identified. after which similarities and differences are discussed. 2. It seeks to change to attitudes. However. The groups then share their lists. 2. Although there are several approaches for improving intergroup relations.organization’s outcomes. each group meets independently to develop lists of its perception of itself. 3. In spite of these problems. and perceptions that groups have of each other. though. It focuses only on work groups and other major organizational variables such as technology. 4. are not given adequate attention.
These three roles are having been brief described below: Consultant A consultant is a professional (internal or external) who applies behavioral Science knowledge in an ongoing organization (or client system) with clear objectives of managing change and improving effectiveness. may be more thoughtful (and possibly cautious) because they to live with the consequences of their actions. with members from each of the conflicting groups. can now be created for further diagnosis and to begin to formulate possible alternative actions that will improve relations. but one thing he/she is not the driver”. The trainer role is most widely and intensively used at all stages of a change project: unfreezing. or as fog lamp when the future is hazy. as the radiator absorbing some of the heat of the controversy. enabling the client to let off steam: as the ignition to spark action. role-plays and instruments. are disadvantaged because they usually have an inadequate understanding of the organization’s history. as the shock absorber when the going is rough.Subgroups. Outside consultants. He has to educate people on the need and importance o change using a variety of methodologies – lectures. presentations. operating procedures. group discussions. cases and experiential learning etc. In contrast. internal staff specialists or managers when acting as change agents.
. Trainer A change agent needs to be a trainer and educator. For major change efforts. however. Because they are from the outside these individuals an offer can offer an objective perspective often unavailable to insiders. as the break for too quick action. changing (intervening) and refreezing. The consultant may fulfill a variety of functions. or outside consultants. internal management often will hire the services or outside consultants to provide advice and assistance. and personnel. films. Outside consultants also may be prone to initiating more drastic changes – which can be benefit or a disadvantage – because they don’t have to live with the repercussions after the change is implemented. According to Curtis Mial: “The Consultant may serve as the exhaust value. 4. 4.8 Change Agents Change agents: Can be managers or nonmanagers.9 Role of Change Agents The change agent may play different roles according to the need of organization development . culture. employees of the organization. as the accelerator to build up momentum.
What is Grid Training? How does it help in improving individual performance in an organization? 2. Useful hypothesis are to be formulated and tested. ________is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. widely accepted and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. Teambuilding is most important. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts 4. 2. Data collection. 4. It focuses on skills. Sensitivity training focuses on small group ranging from ten to twelve. developing action plans based on feedback and follow-up. inter-group and total organization levels. Self Assessment Questions 1. attitudes and beliefs. feedback of information.Training is required for enhancing knowledge. the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. evolving best strategies for change by assessing alternatives and the important stages in a change project where the change agent has to be a Researcher.11 Terminal Questions 1. knowledge and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. What is survey feedback as an intervention of OD? How does it provide base for other OD interventions?
. Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection. Researcher A change agent has to carry out some research activities for the purpose of generating valid information prior to and during the change process. diagnosis. generation of new behavioral science knowledge. The first step in survey feedback is ______ usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. skills and change in behavior.10 Summary OD intervention strategies are various activities which a consultant and client organization performs for improving organizational performance. group. Grid training focuses on individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. Training is used both in ‘content orientation’ and process orientation’. In process consultation. Grid Training was developed by –––––––––––– 3.
Data collection 2. Social loafing Answers to TQs: 1.2 Definitions
. Beliefs in Organization Development
Unit-05-Values. Refer section 4. Blake and Mouton.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University
.3. Refer section 4. Assumptions. Explain Change agents and discuss the role of change agents in detail.6 4.
MU0002-Unit-05-Values. Assumptions. Refer section 4. What is team-building? What are the stages of life cycle of a team? 4.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Refer section 4.1 Introduction Objectives 5. and Beliefs in Organization Development Structure: 5. 3. 4.4 2.2 3.
· List the chronology of events of values.6 Summary Self Assessment Questions 5.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought 5. · Give the statement of OD values and assumptions.2 Definitions A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of values. Most of these beliefs were formulated early in the development of the field.1 Introduction A set of values.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations 5.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups 5. · State the implications of OD values and assumptions. Objectives: After studying this unit.5. assumptions. These values and assumptions have developed from research and theory by behavioural scientists and from the experiences and observations of practicing managers. it is a cognitive fact for the person. 5.
.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 188.8.131.52 Implications for Dealing with Individuals 5. beliefs and assumptions. and beliefs constitutes an integral part of organization development. and they continue to evolve as the field itself evolves.7 Terminal Questions 5. beliefs and assumptions.4 Early Statements of OD Values and Assumptions 5.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions 5. shaping the goals and methods of the field and distinguishing OD from other improvement strategies.5.
values. Democratic values assert the sanctity of the individual. Thus. reason. Expert engineers and supervisors designed each task and ensured it was done correctly.. strongly held. OD values tend to be humanistic. Piece-rate pay systems were designed to increase motivation and to prevent "soldiering.
." Assumptions are beliefs that are regarded as so valuable and obviously correct that they are taken for granted and rarely examined or questioned. treat people with respect and dignity. the right of people to be free from arbitrary misuse of power. As these ingredients accumulated. the laboratory training movement. repetitive tasks minimized the skills required to do the job. greater understanding of individual motivation and group dynamics. research on the effects of different leadership styles. and the like." or slacking off. Simple. dishonesty). and beliefs provide structure and stability for people as they attempt to understand the world around them. increasing awareness of the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. and beliefs are all cognitive facts or propositions. Major ingredients of the zeitgeist that influenced OD values and assumptions are presented here in a brief chronology. Taylor’s methods quickly swept the country and the world as the way to organize work. Values. that progress is possible and desirable in human affairs..3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought
Frederick Winslow Taylor’s ‘The Principles of Scientific Management’ (1911) launched the scientific management movement with its emphasis on time and motion studies and breaking jobs into small.g. and assumptions being. repetitive tasks in an attempt to find "the one best way" to do each job. Evidence for the validity of these values and their supporting assumptions comes from many sources – the Hawthorne studies. Humanistic values proclaim the importance of the individual: respect the whole person. and the need for justice through the rule of law and due process. assumptions. or spirit of the time. Optimistic values posit that people are basically good. relatively unexamined beliefs accepted as the truth.Values are also beliefs and are defined as: "Beliefs about what is desirable or ‘good’ (e. free speech) and what is undesirable or ‘bad’ (e. 5. with values being beliefs about good and bad. the clash between fascism and democracy in World War II. assumptions. the importance of fair and equitable treatment for all. view all people as having the potential for growth and development. optimistic. the human relations movement.g. and that rationality. they were fashioned into a coherent value foundation for the theory and practice of organization development. and goodwill are the tools for making progress. and democratic. assume that everyone has intrinsic worth. Values and assumptions do not spring full grown from individuals or societies they are formed from the collective beliefs of an era-the zeitgeist.
Group norms had more powerful effects on productivity than economic incentives. Barnard viewed organizations as social systems that must be effective (achieve goals) and efficient (satisfy the needs of employees). People were not cogs. apathy. Reports on these studies by Mayo in 1933 and 1945. most efficient way to organize people. a management theorist and astute observer of labourmanagement relations. impersonal rules. wrote an article on “The Giving of Orders” advocating participative leadership and joint problem-solving by labour and management. extensive division of labor. The research demonstrated the primacy of social factors on productivity and morale. much of the research. These approaches possessed many desirable features. Some early experiments were conducted in the late 1930s. In a sense. and practice since the late 1920s have focused on the shortcomings of these two paradigms and how to overcome the limitations. their feelings and attitudes about the work. authoritarian leadership caused dependency. by Roethlisberger and Dickson in 1939.
. Lippitt (1939). and the supervisor determined their performance. The Famous Hawthorne Studies (1927 to 1932) were conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company. repetitive jobs left them feeling alienated and dispirited. Much of her career was devoted to finding ways to reduce adversarial relationships between workers and management. and rigid procedures would create a well-oiled human machine called the organization. the work environment. theory. and by Homans in 1950 profoundly and irreversibly affected people’s beliefs about organizational behaviour. Barnard (1938) presented insights from his experiences as President of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. Their simple. Democratic leadership seemed to bring out the best in the groups. organizations were not machines. A strong hierarchy of authority. but also contained serious flaws that led to unintended consequences. aggressiveness and poor performance.
The great German sociologist Max Weber (1922) introduced the concept of “bureaucracy” as the best. Scientific management as the way to organize work and bureaucracy as the way to organize people were the prevailing paradigms for organizations in the early 1900s. Mary Parker Follett (1926). His acceptance theory of authority proposed that authority derives from the willingness of subordinates to comply with directions rather than from position power. and White demonstrated that democratic leadership was superior to authoritarian leadership and laissez-faire leadership in affecting group climate and group performance. Group Dynamics (1940) – The scientific study of groups using experimental research methods-was launched by Kurt Lewin and his students. ‘The Functions of the Executive’ by Chester 1. Research by Lewin. People came to work as whole people.
. These years witnessed the beginnings of the laboratory training movement (1946 and 1947). greater attention to workers’ social needs. Maslow suggested that human motivation is arranged in a hierarchy of needs from lower-level needs such as physiological and survival needs to higher-level needs such as esteem and self-actualization. Laboratory training taught people how to improve interpersonal relations. The theory postulated that when lowerlevel needs are satisfied. Carl Rogers’ Client-Centered Therapy (1951) demonstrated the efficacy of non-directive psychotherapy. increase self-understanding. lack ambition. dislike responsibility. pioneers in laboratory training. which holds that individuals have within themselves the capacity to assume responsibility for their behaviour and mental health when provided with a supportive. P. are self-centered. Lester Coch and John R.
The Hawthorne Studies (1940s to 1960) spawned the human relations movement that was in full flower from the 1930s to the 1960s. Humanistic and democratic values suffused the movement. higher-level needs become dominant. training in interpersonal skills for supervisors. This article introduced the concept of organizations as sociotechnical systems. which postulates that organizations are comprised of a social system and a technological system and that changes in one system will produce changes in the other system. Those who subscribe to Theory X assume that people are lazy. and a general “humanizing” of the workplace. Eric Trist and Ken Bamforth of the Tavistock Clinic (1951) published the results of their work in British coal mines. caring social climate. Douglas McGregor wrote ‘The Human Side of Enterprise’ (1960) in which he described his famous Theory X and Theory Y assumptions. Chris Argyrif’s Personality and Organization (1957) was the first of several books in which he stated that there is an inherent conflict between the needs of organizations and the needs of mature. a direct precursor of OD. and understand group dynamics. proposed that the leadership functions of a group should be shared between the leader and group members and showed how that could be done. Motivation and Personality by Abraham Maslow (1954) presented a new view of human motivation.” reported that resistance to change could be minimized by communicating the need for change and allowing the people affected by the change to participate in planning it. healthy adults. “Overcoming Resistance to Change. French’s (1948) article. Rogers’ focus on effective interpersonal communications was applicable to superior-subordinate relations. The human relations movement advocated participative management. Ken Benne and Paul Sheats (1948).
open communications. theory. and democratic. and observations utilized by OD practitioners. Rensis Likert’s ‘New Patterns of Management’ (1961) presented data and theory showing the overwhelming superiority of a democratic leadership style in which the leader is group oriented. and introduced practicing managers to the concepts of need hierarchy and self-actualization. in an environment of high change. to assume responsibility.” (1969) a set of six little books on OD by prominent practitioners. and negative consequences. We will examine three early statements regarding OD values that had a significant impact on the field. the initial enthusiasm for scientific management. bureaucracy. Kahn (1966) presented the first comprehensive exposition of organizations as open systems. humanistic. summarized the state of organization development a decade or so after its inception. ‘The Social Psychology of Organizations’ by Daniel Katz and Robert L. Out of this zeitgeist. Values have always been an integral part of OD. dysfunctions. Organic structures encourage decentralized decision making and authority. an organic organization form is preferred. organization development practitioners formulated a set of values and assumptions regarding people. and to pursue organizational goals if given the chance and the social environment to do so. and human resource practices to allow individual potential to be released. management practices. This leadership style was contrasted with an authoritarian.
. a mechanistic organization structure may be appropriate. and organizations that is. The task of management is to change organizational structures. groups. optimistic. The Bennis and Beckhard quotations come from their books in the Addison-Wesley Six-Pack. resist change. as we have said.
This chronology captures most of the significant influences from research. and need to be led. In an environment of slow change. and shares decision-making with the work group.indifferent to the organization’s needs. one-on-one leadership style. and authoritarian leadership gave way to increasing doubts about these organizational practices as theory and research pointed up their limitations. Tannenbaum and Davis presented their ideas in an article appearing in Industrial Management Review. These six books presented the theory. this book popularized Maslow’s motivation theory. practice. In addition to presenting Theory X and Y. To summarize the intellectual climate of this period.
Burns and Stalker (1961) described two very different forms of organization structuremechanistic and organic. Those who subscribe to Theory Y assume that people have the potential to develop. and greater individual autonomy. goal-oriented. The Addison-Wesley Publishing Company “OD Six-Pack. and values of the field.
" Mechanical systems insist on "strict division of labour and hierarchical supervision" while organic systems foster "multi-group membership and responsibility. · Development of more effective "team management. 1. · A shift in values so that human factors and feelings come to be considered legitimate. Therefore. Here is his list." He then went on to state what he believed to be the central value underlying organization development theory and practice: The basic value underlying all organization development theory and practice is that of choice. Rather than the usual bureaucratic methods which rely mainly on suppression. the basic units of change are groups. Bennis clarified some of the salient differences between mechanical systems and organic systems. Stalker used the term “mechanistic” in contrast to “mechanical. The earlier work by Tom Burns and G. This is a strong reaction against the idea of organizations as mechanisms which managers "work on. Warren Bennis proposed that OD practitioners (change agents) share a set of normative goals based on their humanistic/ democratic philosophy." like pushing buttons." that is. and unprincipled power. · Development of better methods of conflict resolution.” For example. In his 1969 book he described "several assumptions about the nature and functioning of organizations" held by OD practitioners. M. compromise. more choices become available and hence better decisions are made." Mechanical systems encourage "centralized decision-making" while organic systems encourage "wide sharing of responsibility and control. The basic building blocks of an organization are groups (teams).Writing in 1969. mechanical systems rely on "authority-obedience relationships" while organic systems rely on "mutual confidence and trust. · Development of organic rather than mechanical systems. the capacity for functional groups to work more competently. Another major player in the field was Richard Beckhard. Through focused attention and through the collection and feedback of relevant data to relevant people. not individuals. more rational and open methods of conflict resolution are sought.
. He listed these normative goals as follows: · Improvement in interpersonal competence. · Development of increased understanding between and within working groups in order to reduce tensions.
5. · Away from avoiding facing others with relevant data toward making appropriate confrontation. · Away from use of status for maintaining power and personal prestige toward use of status for organizationally relevant purposes. · Away from walling off the expression of feelings toward making possible both appropriate expression and effective use. not the basis of managerial strategy. 6. mutual trust. · Away from resisting and fearing individual differences toward accepting and utilizing them. Controls are interim measurements. Organizations." People affected by a change must be allowed active participation and a sense of ownership in the planning and conduct of the change. 3. · Away from maskmanship and game-playing toward authentic behaviour. An always relevant change goal is the reduction of inappropriate competition between parts of the organization and the development of a more collaborative condition. toward seeing them as being in process. · Away from utilizing an individual primarily with reference to his or her job description toward viewing an individual as a whole person. Robert Tannenbaum. and individuals continuously manage their affairs against goals. presented their view of OD values in a 1969 article. director of organization development. They asserted that an important shift in values was occurring and that this shift signaled a more appropriate and accurate view of people in organizations. Decision-making in a healthy organization is located where the information sources are. · Away from distrusting people toward trusting them. sub-units of organizations.
. · Away from avoidance of negative evaluation of individuals toward confirming them as human beings. They listed these “values in transition” as follows: · Away from a view of people as essentially bad toward a view of people as basically good. · Away from a view of individuals as fixed. a professor and Sheldon Davis. 4. One goal of a healthy organization is to develop generally open communication. and confidence between and across levels. "People support what they help create. rather than in a particular role or level of hierarchy.2.
collaboration and co-operation. and are capable of making. but in the 1950s and 1960s they represented a radical departure from accepted beliefs and assumptions. and so forth were seldom espoused and rarely implemented in the vast majority of organizations at that time. · Away from a primary emphasis on competition toward a much greater emphasis on collaboration. The implications of these two assumptions are straightforward: Ask.5.5. appropriate uses of power. The people doing the work are generally experts on how to do it and how to do it better. groups. listen. give autonomy. participation and contribution by all organization members. the legitimacy of feelings. We answer the question: What are some of the implications of OD assumptions and values for dealing with individuals. support. 5. challenge. permit failure. These values and assumptions may not seem profound today. encourage risk-taking.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals Two basic assumptions about individuals in organizations pervade organization development. The first assumption is that most individuals have drives toward personal growth and development if provided an environment that is both supportive and challenging. The democratic values prompted a critique of authoritarian. give responsibility.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions Let us examine specific assumptions and their implications for organization leaders and members. autocratic. · Away from a view of process work as being unproductive effort toward seeing it as essential to effective task accomplishment.· Away from avoidance of risk-taking toward willingness to risk. remove obstacles and barriers. set high standards. decentralized decision making. We think most organization development practitioners held these humanistic and democratic values with their implications for different and "better" ways to run organizations and deal with people. A tremendous amount of constructive energy can be tapped if organizations realize and act on these assumptions. 5. authentic interpersonal relations.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups
. The humanistic values prompted a search for better ways to run organizations and develop the people in them. and arbitrary management practices as well as the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. and reward success. The second assumption is that most people desire to make. a greater contribution to attaining organization goals than most organizational environments permit. open communication. and organizations? 5. Beliefs such as trust and respect for the individual. Most people want to develop their potential.
5. and interpersonal communication. To do this. greatly influences feelings of satisfaction and competence. In addition. facilitation. experimenting with new organization structures and new forms of authority is imperative. most people wish to be accepted and to interact co-operatively with at least one small reference group. personal growth. and so on-are obsolete. First. this group perspective requires a shift from viewing problems as "within the problem person" to viewing problems and solutions as transactional and as embedded in a system. It is especially important that leaders adopt a team leadership style. and job satisfaction. Also. a church or club group. invest training time and money to increase group members’ skills.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations Clearly. are the best way to satisfy social and emotional needs at work. Second. Hence. emphasis on topdown directives. They cannot meet the demands of the marketplace. support. and so on. leaders need to give important work to teams. Implications of these assumptions are several. D. adherence to the chain of command. group members should be encouraged to learn to deal effectively with positive and negative feelings. The question becomes not how A can get B to perform better. Such problems have the greatest chance of constructive solution if all parties in the system alter their mutual relationships. not a one-on-one leadership style. a growing awareness that “win-lose” organizational situations. in which one side wins and the other side loses. are dysfunctional
. and co-operation within the group. Third. in addition. What occurs in the work group. the assumption is that many attitudinal and motivational problems in organizations require interactive and transactional solutions. Frequently the challenge is broader. Therefore. the family. at both the formal and informal levels. This skill is a trainable one. leaders should invest in groups: Invest the time required for group development. such as a work group. Dealing appropriately with feelings and attitudes increases the level of interpersonal trust. grouping by specialized function. Let teams flourish because they are often the best way to get work done and. Finally. One implication is that group members should receive training in group effectiveness skills such as group problem-solving and decision-making. one of the most psychologically relevant reference groups for most people is the work group. formalized cross-functional communication. group members should assist the leader with the multiple roles required for group effectiveness. Another assumption is that the formal leader cannot perform all the leadership and maintenance functions required for a group to optimize its effectiveness. By implication. invest energy and intelligence in creating a positive climate. but how A and B can work together to modify their interactions toward the goal of B becoming more effective and A and B becoming more mutually effective. not individuals. and usually with more than one group. traditional hierarchical forms of organization-fairly steep pyramid. And because suppressed feelings and attitudes adversely affect problem-solving. including peers and boss. including how persons C. conflict management. 5.Several assumptions relate to the importance of work teams and the collaborative management of team culture. most people are capable of making greater contributions to a group’s effectiveness and development. and E can support these changes.
assumptions and beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. an optimistic.over the long run and highlight the need for a “win win” attitude. Values are also beliefs. developmental set of assumptions about people is likely to reap rewards beneficial to both the organization and its members. 5. Values. The rapid technological. By implication. optimistic and democratic. The belief that people can grow and develop in terms of personal and organizational competency tends to produce that result. A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. developmental. and ways to optimize human potential. The implication is that people are an organization’s most important resource. The belief that people are important tends to result in their being important. and on the other hand are high performing in terms of productivity. Chronology of events in management and OD tremendously influenced OD practitioners." as behavioural scientists and managers continue to develop better understanding of authority structures. values are never static. Creating co-operative rather than competitive organizational dynamics is a primary task of the organization’s leaders. beliefs and assumptions are cognitive facts. These beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. Concluding Comment: The field of organization development rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. Self Assessment Questions
. Such an orientation creates a self-fulfilling prophecy. and profitability. Finally. These OD values were considered revolutionary when they emerged in the 1950s. Still. they change over time. they are the source of productivity and profits and should be treated with care. This notion suggests it is good to have a developmental outlook and seek opportunities in which people can experience personal and professional growth.6 Summary The field of OD rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. Values. This discussion was intended to articulate an appreciation of OD values and explain where they came from. and empowering. it is possible to create organizations that on the one hand are humane. but are widely accepted today. Evidence for this assumption comes from numerous examples where “putting people first” paid off handsomely in profits and performance. OD values tend to be humanistic. A key assumption in organization development is that the needs and aspirations of human beings are the reasons for organized effort in society. societal. organizing structures. quality of output. and organizational changes taking place assure that tomorrow will bring new definitions of what is "true" and new beliefs about what is "good.
F. The outcome of –––––––– was that people were not cogs and organizations were not machines. beliefs and assumptions. W. __________ is associated with scientific management. State the assumptions of Theory X and Theory Y.2 2. What are values and assumptions developed by Richard Bechard in the field of organizational development? 5. The concept of –––––––––– was introduced by MaxWeber.7 Terminal Questions 1. Define concepts. Write a note about F. Douglas McGregor Answers to TQs: 1. Refer section 5. and assumptions are all –––––––––– facts. Hawthorne experiments 5.W. 4.1. What was the outcome of Hawthorne Experiments? 4.3
. 5. Refer section 5. _______________ gave theory X and theory Y. 3.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. 2. values. 5.3 3. 3. Refer section 5. beliefs. Cognitive 2. Values. 5. Bureaucracy 4. Taylor 3. 2. Taylor’s principles of scientific management.
184.108.40.206 Socio-technical Theory and Open Systems Planning 6.4 Open Systems Thinking 6.1 The Nature of Systems 6.3.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change 6.2 Beyond the Quick Fix 6.3 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .3 5.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends 6.2.4 Participation and Empowerment
. Refer section 5.2. Refer section 220.127.116.11 Introduction Objectives 6.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change 6.2 Congruence among System Elements 6.3 Systems Theory 6.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change 6.
MU0002-Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development
Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Structure: 6.2.
6. · Describe the parallel learning structures. art and science which form the knowledge base upon which OD is constructed. · Explain normative-re-educative strategy of changing The knowledge base of OD is extensive and is constantly growing.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 6. In this discussion.1 Introduction This unit describes the foundations of organization development theory and practice.8 Applied Behavioural Science 6.9 Action Research Self Assessment Questions 6. · Explain the terms ‘participation’ and ‘empowerment’.11 Terminal Questions 6. Here we describe what we believe are the most important underpinnings for the field.7 A Normative – Re-educative Strategy of Changing 6. you will learn what OD practitioners think and how they think as they engage in the complicated task of improving organizational functioning.6 Parallel Learning Structures 6.5 Teams and Teamwork 6.10 Summary 6. Objectives: After studying this unit. · Explain systems theory. you will be able to: · Explain various models and theories of planned change. · Realize the importance of teams and teamwork. We will examine the following concepts:
. Leaders and OD practitioners use this knowledge base to plan and implement effective change programs.
with some forces pushing toward higher levels of production and some forces pushing toward lower levels of production. Models and theories depict. we can think of the level of morale in that plant as a resultant equilibrium point. some forces pushing toward higher morale and some pushing toward lower morale. The production level tends to remain fairly constant because the field of forces remains fairly constant. He suggested that change is a three-stage process:
.2. The development of models of planned change facilitated the development of OD. The first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces. Several recent theories show great promise for increasing our understanding of what happens and how it happens in planned change. the important features of some phenomenon. This concept is useful for thinking about the dynamics of change situations.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change Organization development is planned change in an organizational context. With a technique called the force-field analysis. Although morale may get a little better or a little worse on occasion. it generally hovers around some equilibrium point that is the resultant in a field of forces. and specify the relationships among the variables. Here we provide a framework for thinking about planned change by exploring several models from the literature. That is. 6. For example. Planned change theories are rudimentary as far as explaining relationships among variables. in words or pictures. but pretty good for identifying the important variables involved. we can think of the production level of a manufacturing plant as a resultant equilibrium point in a field of forces. we can identify the major forces that make up the field of forces and then develop action plans for moving the equilibrium point in one direction or the other. describe those features as variables. Lewin’s second idea was a model of the change process itself. the status quo-whatever is happening right now-is the result of forces pushing in opposing directions.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change that have been influential since the 1940s.· Models and theories of planned change · Systems theory · Participation and empowerment · Teams and teamwork · Parallel and learning structures · A normative-re-educative strategy of changing · Action research 6. Likewise.
Refreezing the desired behaviour requires establishing a new field of forces to support the new behaviour. Creation of guilt or anxiety c. unfreezing.Unfreezing the old behaviour (or situation). Finally. That is. The total personality and self-concept. Next. he must move. Disconfirmation or lack of confirmation b. Scanning the environment for new relevant information Stage 3: Refreezing: Helping the client to integrate the new point of view into a. Identifying with a new role model.
. change will not occur. Lewin’s three-stage model is a powerful tool for understanding change situations. feel things. and react to things differently based on a new point of view obtained through a. believe that cigarette smoking is bad for him and that he should stop smoking. Refreezing the behaviour at the new level. which motivate the person to change. b. the person must develop a sense of psychological safety in order to replace the old behaviours with new behaviours.non-smoking becomes the new equilibrium point. disconfirmation creates pain and discomfort. judge things. A Three-Stage Model of the Change Process: Stage 1: Unfreezing: Creating motivation and readiness to change through a. which cause guilt and anxiety. etc. that is. Change entails moving from one equilibrium point to another. the non-smoking behaviour must become permanent. that is. change his behaviour from being a smoker to being a non-smoker. In stage 1. moving to new level of behaviour. Provision of psychological safety Stage 2: Changing through Cognitive Restructuring: Helping the client to see things. mentor. But unless the person feels comfortable with dropping the old behaviours and acquiring new ones. b. Edgar Schein took this excellent idea and improved it by specifying the psychological mechanisms involved in each stage. Take the example of a man who smokes cigarettes and wants to quit. The three-stage model says he must first unfreeze the old behaviour of smoking. Significant relationships.
These "road maps" are useful for thinking about change.2. 6. is to integrate the new behaviours into the person’s personality. That is. Jeanne Watson. moving. The primary task in stage 3. for example. and 5 correspond ro Lewin’s moving phase. The phrase significant relationships refer to important people in the person’s social environment-do these significant others approve of the changes? Another modification of Lewin’s model was proposed by Ronald Lippitt. stabilizing the changes requires testing to see if they fit-fit with the individual. In this phase a client system in need of help and a change agent from outside the system establish a working relationship. and attitudes. This seven-stage model lays out the logical steps involved in OD consulting. and Bruce Westley. Phase 5: Transforming intentions into actual change efforts. that is. identifying with ex-smokers and learning about the health risks of smoking. Phase 7: Achieving a terminal relationship. Phase 6: Generalizing and stabilizing change. This motivating evidence is gained by.In stage 2. The person acquires information and evidence showing that the change is desirable and possible. Phase 2: Establishing a change relationship. This phase corresponds to Lewin’s unfreezing phase. Their seven stages are as follows: Phase 1: Developing a need for change. refreezing. This model has five sequential stages: 1) Initiating the program. and fit with the individual’s social surroundings. the person undergoes cognitive restructuring. Phase 3: Clarifying or diagnosing the client system’s problem. Phases 3. Phase 4: Examining alternative routes and goals.2 Beyond the “Quick Fix” A comprehensive change model by Ralph Kilmann specifies the critical leverage points for organizational change. establishing goals and intentions of action.
. They expanded the three-stage model into a seven-stage model representing the consulting process. terminating the client-consultant relationship. This phase corresponds to Lewin’s refreezing phase. Similar models have been developed by Kolb and Frohman and by Burke. 4.
and willingness to change among members the conditions that must exist before any other improvement effort can succeed. Diagnosing the problems requires a thorough analysis of the problems and opportunities facing the organization. Scheduling and implementing the "tracks" involve intervening in five critical leverage points. 3) Scheduling the "tracks". information sharing. cause the organization to be successful. and 5) The reward system track. 2) The management skills track. Kilmann describes the five tracks: What does each track do for the organization? The culture track enhances trust. and so forth. 4) Implementing the "tracks" 5) Evaluating the results. Interventions include training programs." that. Initiating the program entails securing commitment from top management. when functioning properly. Change programs take from one to five years to complete. problem-solving sessions. 3) The team-building track. communication. 4) The strategy-structure track.
.2) Diagnosing the problems. Kilmann’s five tracks are: 1) The culture track. The management-skills track provides all management personnel with new ways of coping with complex problems and hidden assumptions. These problems and opportunities will be the targets of later interventions. critique practices and procedures. called "tracks. The team-building track infuses the new culture and updated management skills into each work unit – thereby instilling co-operation organization-wide so that complex problems can be addressed with all the expertise and information available.
General Foods. Westinghouse. 6. Kilmann has tested his model at AT&T. Organizational climate is defined as people’s perceptions and attitudes about the organizationwhether it is a good or bad place to work. and co-operative team efforts within and among all work groups. and difficult to change. Ford General Electric. then moving to the management skills track. its identification of the five tracks as critical leverage points.and second-order change. Second-order change goes by many different labels: transformational.The strategy-structure track develops either a completely new or a revised strategic plan for the firm and then aligns divisions. The model distinguishes between organizational climate and organizational culture. or continuous change. the nature of the organization is fundamentally and substantially altered – the organization is transformed. hard-working or easy-going. radical. organizational culture is defined as deep-seated assumptions. and so forth. values. These perceptions are relatively easy to change because they are built on employees’ reactions to current managerial and organization practices. some features of the organization change but the fundamental nature of the organization remains the same. adaptive. revolutionary. often unconscious. evolutionary. and beliefs that are enduring. Eastman Kodak. work groups.2. then moving to the team-building track. OD programs are directed toward both first. management practices. jobs. and all resources with the new strategic direction. and its holistic view of organization change and development. beginning with the culture track. and Xerox with good results. with an increasing emphasis on second-order transformational change. On the other hand. This model shows how to create first-order and second-order change (which the authors call “transactional change” and “transformational change”). The premise of the BurkeLitwin model is this: OD interventions directed toward structure. First-order change goes by many different labels: transactional.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change The next model to be examined is the Burke-Litwin model of individual and organizational performance. The reward-system track establishes a performance-based reward system that sustains all improvements by officially sanctioning the new culture. Changing culture is much more difficult than changing climate. departments. incremental. or discontinuous change. developed by Warner Burke and George Litwin. One likes this model because of its comprehensive nature. and
. An OD consultant implements the tracks in a phased sequence. the use of updated management skills. In first-order change. friendly or unfriendly. In second-order change. TRW. and so forth.
" Transactional leadership embodies a fair exchange between leader and follower that leads to "normal" performance. Now let us look at the Burke-Litwin model. Following figure shows the factors involved in first-order (transactional) change. The model also makes a distinction between transactional and transformational leadership styles. interventions directed toward mission and strategy. and organization culture result in second-order change." Transformational leadership embodies inspiration which leads to new heights of performance. Transactional leadership is required to make this change in organizational climate. 6. individual and organizational performance.systems (policies and procedures) result in first-order change. management practices. These two concepts come from leadership research which found that some leaders are capable of obtaining extraordinary performance from followers while other leaders are not. which change motivation and.
Fig. Transactional leadership is sufficient for causing first-order change. Transformational leadership is required for causing second-order change. Changing structure. Transformational leaders are "leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interest for the good of the organization and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers. and systems cause changes in work unit climate. leadership. We will do so in several steps. Transactional leaders are "leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. in turn.1: The Transactional Factors Involved in First – Order Change
Burke and Litwin propose that interventions directed toward leadership. as shown in the above figure. these transformational processes are required for genuine change in the culture of an organization. that is. The OD practitioner sizes up the change situation. The top half of figure displays the factors involved in transformational change. and organization culture produce transformational change or fundamental change in the organization’s culture. Interventions directed toward management practices. sudden "leaps" in behaviour. leadership styles. if we want to cause second-order (transformational) change. The above two figures together yield the full Burke-Litwin model shown in the following figure. The second set of dynamics is concerned with processes of human transformation. These factors are able to change the climate. determines the kind of change required (transactional or transformational).
. The bottom half of figure displays the factors involved in transactional change. and then targets interventions toward factors of the organization that produce the desired change. Burke says: “Thus there are two distinct sets of organizational dynamics. we must change mission and strategy.” We consider the Burke-Litwin model to be a significant advance in thinking about planned change.Fig. mission and strategy. and organization culture.2: The Transformational Factors Involved in Second – Order Change On the other hand. 6. structure. Research by Burke and his students suggests the model performs as intended. To summarize. One set primarily is associated with the transactional level of human behaviour or the everyday interactions and exchanges that create the climate. These factors are powerful enough to change the culture fundamentally. and systems produce transactional change or change in organizational climate. which produces changes in individual and organizational performance. Interventions directed toward these factors transform the organization and cause a permanent change in organization culture.
. it is described in a discussion by Porras and Peter Robertson. The work setting plays a central role in this model and consists of four factors: organizing arrangements. which influence on-the job behaviours. 6. strategies. It is how OD works.4: Organizational Work-Setting Factors This model is extremely useful for OD practitioners and organizational leaders. Interventions that focus on culture. required. and technology.Fig. rewarded). This model shows how OD interventions can be linked to factors in the work setting. 6. physical setting. The basic premise is that OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals’ behaviours.2. Organizational change occurs only when individuals change their behaviour.
Fig. management style.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change Jerry Porras and his associates developed a model of how organization development works.3: The Burke Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change 6. which determine organizational performance and individual development. and rewards will affect organizing arrangements. OD interventions that focus on goals. Interventions that focus on job design and work flow design will affect technology. according to Porras and Robertson. and interaction processes will affect social factors. The premise modeled here is that work setting factors influence organizational members’ cognitions (they learn what is expected. For example. Keep this framework in mind as you read the units on OD interventions because all interventions target one or more factors shown in figures. social factors. Following figure shows the work setting in the larger organizational framework. and these behaviour changes occur when elements of the work setting have been modified by OD interventions. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements.
or subsystems. components. unitary whole composed of two or more interdependent parts.Fig. The words ‘arrangement’ and ‘interrelated’ describe interdependent elements forming an entity.system. and delineated by identifiable boundaries from its environmental supra. describes the characteristics of systems. that is the system. Fagen defines system as "a set of objects together with relationships between the objects and between their attributes. 6. one begins by identifying the individual parts and then seeks to understand the nature of their collective interaction. Systems theory is one of the most powerful conceptual tools available for understanding the dynamics of organizations and organizational change. Ludwig Von Bertalanffy first articulated the principles of general systems theory in 1950. Thus. This section explains systems theory." Hanna says: "A system is an arrangement of interrelated parts." To summarize. and Katz and Kahn were the first to apply open systems theory to organizations in 1966. which views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment.3 Systems Theory A second foundation of organization development is systems theory." Kast and Rosenzweig define system as "an organized.
." Von Bertalanffy refers to a system as a set of "elements standing in interaction. and shows how systems theory enhances the practice of OD. when taking a systems approach. system denotes interdependency.5: A Change-based Organizational Framework 6. and interrelatedness among elements in a set that constitutes an identifiable whole or gestalt. interconnectedness.
and what is outside the boundary is the environment. Organizations are open systems. A good rule of thumb for drawing the boundary is that more energy exchange occurs within the boundary than across the boundary. in that they permit exchange of information.
Fig. Each of these three system processes must work well if the system is to be effective and survive. Systems take inputs from the environment in the form of energy. resources. 6. Open systems have purposes and goals. studying open systems leads to a good understanding of organizations.6: A System in Interaction with its Environment The law of entropy states that all systems “run down” and disintegrate unless they reverse the entropic process by importing more energy than they use. and if the environment does not want these outputs. Organizations achieve negative entropy when they are able to exchange their outputs for enough inputs to keep the system from running down. These purposes must align with purposes or needs in the environment. and energy between system and environment. What is inside the boundary is the system. Therefore. Boundaries of open systems are permeable. All open systems are input-throughput-output mechanisms. raw material and so on.6.1 The Nature of Systems The nature. the organization’s purposes will be reflected in its outputs. or transformation processes that change the inputs. people. Every system is delineated by a boundary. Here. the reasons for their existence. For example. dynamics. the organization will cease to exist. we examine the characteristics of open systems drawing OD expositions by Katz and Kahn and Hanna. They do something to the inputs via throughput. information.3. conversion. and they export products to the environment in the form of outputs. money. and characteristics of open systems are well-known.
With increased differentiation. they usually ignore information about other industries such as electronics. Positive feedback comes from the environment. Survival of the system is equally influenced by whether or not the targets themselves are appropriate. Say your company makes buggy whips. that information is called positive feedback. and makes a course correction. aerospace. Systems are bombarded by all kinds of information: some are useful. if a rocket ship traveling to the moon strays off its trajectory. These subsystems can be arranged into a hierarchy of systems moving from less important to more important. Negative feedback measures whether or not the output is on course with the purpose and goals. specialized. it will signal whether the environment needs and/or wants buggy whips. Negative feedback tells you if you are on track with your scheduled production output. If the mission (target) changes. For example. it receives information to that effect in the form of negative feedback. either internal or external." Here is another example of negative and positive feedback. Systems "code" useful information and incorporate it. Positive feedback measures whether or not the purpose and goals are aligned with environmental needs. It is also known as deviation-correcting feedback. say.3. eating fads.Information is important to systems in several ways. Another characteristic of open systems is steady state or dynamic homeostasis. By the same token. differentiated. It is sometimes called deviation-amplifying feed back. systems tend to get more elaborated. while screening out other information. 6. Systems require two kinds of feedback. mining. "return to earth. The three major input factors are:
. the principle that there are multiple ways to arrive at a particular outcome or state – systems have multiple paths to goals. increased integration and co-ordination are necessary. competitors. This model depicts the organization as an input-throughput-output system. and so on. Another characteristic of systems is equifinality. and complex over time.2 Congruence among System Elements David Nadler and associates at Delta Consulting Group developed the congruence model for understanding organizational dynamics and change. organizations in the fast-food industry pay a lot of attention to information about their industry-nutrition. and the production plan calls for 100 buggy whips per month. however. Feedback is information from the environment about system performance. Subsystems exist within larger systems. and the system adjusts to a new goal. As Katz and Kahn say: “The basic principle is the preservation of the character of the system.” Also. this process is called differentiation. and the like. Systems achieve a steady state or equilibrium point and seek to maintain this equilibrium against disruptive forces. For example. but most are not useful. The usefulness of the two concepts is that they demonstrate that it is not enough to merely measure our outputs versus the intended targets. negative and positive.
which includes skills.7: The Congruence Model Showing the Organization as a System The congruence model’s value is as an analytical tool for: 1) Assessing the characteristics and functioning of each of the elements. performance will suffer. and the workforce’s expectations. which components are "not functioning correctly. fit) must be present among the system’s components’ for the organization to produce satisfactory outputs. work. If the organization’s culture (informal organization) praises individual accomplishments and the work requires teamwork and collaboration. unit/group level. Outputs are performance at the total organization level. and systems for performing the work. failures. knowledge. 6. people. knowledge. if people don’t have the skills and knowledge required to do the work. the tasks people perform to create products and service markets people. which includes formal structures. Elements of the organization per se are labeled strategy." and which elements
Fig. and 3) History which consists of memories of past successes. In a company that is performing poorly. important events." The premise is that alignment (harmony. and critical decisions that still influence behaviour today. You can use this model to analyze organizations with which you are familiar. and informal organization. perceptions. 2) Resources available to the organization. . what the organization is trying to accomplish and how it plans to do it. performance will suffer. For example. and technology. performance will suffer. which includes the organization’s culture informal rules and understandings.1) The environment. and how things really work (versus how they are supposed to work as defined by the formal organization). If the strategy calls for entrepreneurial quickness and risk-taking and the formal organization is bureaucratic and highly centralized. and individual level. which imposes constraints and opportunities about what the organization can and can not do. such as capital. processes. and 2) Evaluating the "goodness of fit" or how well the elements "go together. formal organization.
Open systems planning entails: 1) Scanning the environment to determine the expectations of external organizations and stake-holders.are poorly aligned? In companies showing outstanding performance. and
.KI Jayaram. two active segments of OD today. Their technology became known as Open systems Planning (OSP). giving information and feedback to the people doing the work. Another important application of systems theory in organization development is open systems planning. Principles such as optimizing the social and technical systems. that is. multi-skilled teams. The thesis of STS is that all organizations are comprised of two interdependent systems. Hanna writes: In the late 1960s a small team of consultants led by James Clark. what is it about each element that causes that part of the system to function well and what are the characteristics of each element that cause all of them to fit together smoothly? The congruence model is an excellent diagnostic tool. Systems models are essential for the practice of OD. both realistic (likely to happen if the organization continues on its current course) and ideal (what the organization would like to see happen). High-performance organizations almost always use principles from socio-technical systems theory.socio-technical systems theory (STS) and open systems planning (OSP)-play an important role in organization development. training group members in multiple skills. and Will McWhinney developed a technology for addressing the interface between organization and the environment. forming autonomous work groups. It was the first attempt to help organizations methodically analyze the environmental demands and expectations placed on them and plan to successfully meet these demands and expectations. a social system and a technical system.3 Socio-technical Systems Theory and Open Systems Planning Two major variations of open systems theory. organizations must optimize both systems. controlling variance at the source. Socio-technical systems theory was developed by Eric Trist. and information to the point of action. and that changes in one system affect the other system. A number of design principles have been developed to implement socio-technical systems theory. 2) Developing scenarios of possible futures. especially autonomous work groups (self-regulated teams or self-direct teams). STS is the principal conceptual foundation for efforts in work redesign and organization restructuring. G. To achieve high productivity and employee satisfaction. to the workers doing the job. Charles Krone. and identifying core tasks help STS consultants structure organizations and tasks for maximum effectiveness and efficiency. 6.3. and others at the Tavistock Institute in the 1950s. Fred Emery.
3) Developing action plans to ensure that a desirable future occurs. He says of systems thinking: “It is the discipline that integrates the disciplines. Senge believes that five disciplines must be mastered to create a learning organization: personal mastery. First. systems thinking. This idea moves the practitioner away from analyzing historical events and toward examining contemporary events and forces. Increased participation and empowerment
. mental models. from their activities. Of all these disciplines. forces. the forces in the field at the time of the event are the relevant forces for analysis. according to field theory (Kurt Lewin). changing one part of a system influences other parts. Third. building shared vision. OD practitioners expect multiple effects. issues. therefore. 6. it is extended broadly throughout the organization.4 Open Systems Thinking Open systems thinking is required for creating learning organizations. events and forces. to change a system. fusing them into a coherent body of theory and practice. one changes the system.3. is the most important. And fifth. according to Peter Senge. a systems approach encourages analysis of events in terms of multiple causation rather than single causation. Viewing organizations from this perspective has several consequences. 6. Fourth. team learning. events. not single effects. Without a systemic orientation. It keeps them from being separate gimmicks or the latest organization change fads. but seen in relation to other issues. because most phenomena have more than one cause. and incidents are not viewed as isolated phenomena. there is no motivation to look at how the disciplines interrelate. systems theory pervades the theory and practice of organization development. By enhancing each of the other disciplines. the fifth discipline.4 Participation of Empowerment One of the most important foundations of organization development is a participation/ empowerment model. from diagnosis to intervention to evaluation. not just its component parts. Most OD practitioners engaged in redesign projects use a combination of socio-technical systems theory and open systems planning.” In conclusion. Participation in OD programs is not restricted to elites or the top people. this combination is often used in designing high-performance organizations. Second. Learning organizations can cope effectively with rapidly changing environmental demands. For example. it continually reminds us that the whole can exceed the sum of its parts. and systems thinking.
Robert Quinn and Gretchen Spreitzer found two vastly different views of empowerment. quality circles. survey feedback. then. This research demonstrated that most people desire increased involvement and participation. OD interventions are deliberately designed to increase involvement and participation by organization leaders and members. which is done by giving individuals the authority to make decisions. Participation is an especially effective form of empowerment. employees must choose to be empowered. These pillars of OD practice are validated by both research and practice. involvement and participation energize greater performance." direct leaders to push decision-making lower in the organization. Empowerment meant trusting people and tolerating their imperfections. While management can create a context that is more empowering. and growth. For example. is the more useful perspective. and change. and generally make people feel better about themselves and their worlds. Researchers found that group dynamics work to overcome resistance to change. treat those closest to the problem as the relevant experts. One view. and the culture audit are all predicated on the belief that increased participation will lead to better solutions. autonomous work groups. team building. Participation is a powerful elixir-it is good for people and performance. and give more power to more people. quality of work life programs. and to be responsible. But both views contain valid ideas: for example. Quinn and Spreitzer conclude: “Empowerment. but rather a mind-set that employees have about their roles in the organization. to contribute their ideas. The most important contrast between the two views involves the implicit but potentially volatile assumptions people make about trust and contro1. is not something that management does to employees. OD interventions are basically methods for increasing participation. and greatly enhance acceptance of decisions." is bottom-up and less controlling." and "Have decisions made by those who are closest to the problem. They describe the organic view: "The other group of executives saw empowerment much differently. search conferences. The entire field of OD is about empowerment. Participation enhances empowerment. They must see themselves as having freedom and discretion.have always been central goals and fundamental values of the field. personal initiative. They believed that it was about risk-taking. and empowerment in turn enhances performance and individual well-being." These authors believe the organic view. Research on group dynamics began in the 1940s and achieved exponential growth in the 1950s and 1960s. Further. To empower is to give someone power. Rules of thumb such as "Involve all those who are part of the problem or part of the solution. which they call "mechanistic. with its emphasis on risk-taking." is a top-down delegation of decision-making with clear boundaries and strict accountability that increases managerial control. called "organic. the organic approach unleashes talent and energy in people that are best channeled by providing clear guidelines and boundaries. reduce stress levels. they must if personally connected to
. The other view. increase commitment to the organization. growth. produce better solutions to problems. to exert influence.
as a team.” 6. STS (socio-technical systems). Teams and teamwork are part of the foundation of organization development. Second. A second fundamental belief is that teams must manage their culture. Teams are important for a number of reasons: First. and capable of having an impact on the system in which they are embedded. systems. Team Saturn produced the Saturn automobile. the effects on individual behaviour are immediate and lasting. much individual behaviour is rooted in the socio-cultural norms and values of the work team. Synergy is a principal reason teams are so important. and practice attest to the central role teams play in organizational success. A number of OD interventions are specifically designed to improve team performance.
. and team-related acronyms abound-SDTs (self-directed teams). recognition. and respectteams nurture human nature. Team Taurus developed Ford’s best-selling automobile.5 Team and Teamwork A fundamental belief in organization development is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. In this section. Teams at Motorola produced its bestselling cellular phones. confident about their abilities. Teams and teamwork are among the "hottest" things happening in organizations today – gurus extol the virtues of teams. we examine the potential of teams and teamwork. to name just a few. The message of this section is that putting those empowered individuals into teams creates extraordinary effects on performance and satisfaction. HPOs (high-performance organizations).the organization. teams create synergy. "The evidence is abundantly clear: Effective teams produce results far beyond the performance of unrelated individuals. many tasks are so complex they cannot be performed by individuals. QCs (quality circles). teaming. Fourth. crossfunctional "design-build" teams developed the Boeing 777. Examples are team-building. research. people must work together to accomplish them. teams at 3M generate the hundreds of innovations that keep 3M ahead of its competition. quality circles. Third. that is. and explore ways to realize that potential. and relationships if they are to be effective. teams satisfy people’s needs for social interaction. The previous discussion focused on empowerment and concluded that the act of empowering individuals greatly increased their performance and satisfaction. inter-group team-building. the sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of the individual efforts of people working alone. process consultation. Teams and teamwork are "in. the noun team has become a verb. status. HPWSs (high-performance work systems). changes those norms and values. Theory. processes. If the team.
All these characteristics are required for superior team performance. autonomous. socio-technical systems programs. High-performance teams regulate the behaviour of team members.parallel learning structures. Teams periodically hold team-building meetings.
. including collegiate football national champions. Grid OD and techniques such as role analysis technique. to determine the characteristics that make them successful. He uses examples from EDS (Electronic Data Systems). and set ever-higher goals. and others. Tom Peters asserts in Liberation Management that cross-functional. and responsibility charting. Larson and LaFasto also discovered that the most frequent cause of team failure was letting personal or political agendas take precedence over the clear and elevating team goal. Union Pacific Railroad. Team-building activities are now a way of life for many organizations. cross-functional teams. and that teamwork becomes more satisfying for team members. and the like. role negotiation technique. heart transplant surgical teams. Investigators are discovering why some teams are successful while others are not. Larson and LaFasto studied a number of high-performance teams. temporary teams. people are trained in group dynamics and group problem-solving skills. Organizations using autonomous work groups or self-directed teams devote considerable time and effort to ensure that team members possess the skills to be effective groups. The net effect is that teams perform at increasingly higher levels. that they achieve synergy. help each other. These interventions apply to formal work teams as well as startup teams. empowered teams are what the best organizations are using right now to outdistance the competition. elevating goal 2) A results-driven structure 3) Competent team members 4) Unified commitment 5) A collaborative climate 6) Standards of excellence 7) External support and recognition Principled leadership. team performance declines. When any one feature is lost. the crew of the USS Kitty Hawk. Asea Brown Boveri. and individuals are trained as group leaders and group facilitators. Larson and LaFasto found eight characteristics always present: 1) A clear. find innovative ways around barriers.
Considerable experimentation with collateral organizations occurred in the 1970s and 1980s. Projects are the work of the future. It isn’t the supplemental structure that’s important. 6. superior customer service. parallel structures are a vehicle for learning how to change the system.7 A Normative – Re-educative Strategy of Changing
. Dale had introduced this concept in 1974 under the label collateral organization and defined it as “a supplemental organization coexisting with the usual formal organization. managers. The quality of work life programs of the 1970s and 1980s used parallel structures composed of union leaders. you don’t have a parallel structure. a steering committee and working groups were used to co-ordinate the employee involvement teams. High-performance organizations often use parallel structures to co-ordinate self-directed teams. and initiate needed changes. At Ford Motor Company. clear objectives. and continuous learning. projects will be performed by teams. normal hierarchical considerations become obsolete for these project teams-you could be the boss of one team. and high accountability drive these project teams to outperform traditional organization structures on every measurable dimension. engage in genuine inquiry and experimentation. and employees. especially when the change involves a fundamental shift in the organization’s methods of work and/or culture. In essence. Interestingly. What’s important is that people act in a way that promotes learning and adaptation. constitute another important foundation of organization development. specially created organizational structures for planning and guiding change programs. Most socio-technical systems redesign efforts and open systems planning programs use parallel structures. The charge to members of the parallel learning structure is to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. High responsibility. The most important and difficult task for the people creating the parallel learning structure is to create a different culture within it. deciding. and then leading the process. If you don’t implement different norms and procedures. and report to one of your subordinates on another team. and acting differently than normally takes place at work. Bushe and Shani say: “The key thing about parallel structures is that they create a bounded space and time for thinking.” Parallel structures help people break free of the normal constraints imposed by the organization. and countless other organizations to demonstrate the ability of small project teams to produce high quality. flexible response. Parallel learning structures are a foundation of OD because they are prevalent in so many different OD programs.Titeflex.6 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel learning structures. 6. Parallel learning structures are often the best way to initiate change in large bureaucratic organizations.” The purpose of the collateral organization is to deal with "ill-structured" problems the formal organization is unable to resolve. talking.
and they give more options to both the clients and the practitioner. they impel a collaborative effort rather than a "doing something to" effort. Sociocultural norms are supported by the attitude and value systems of individuals-normative outlooks which undergird their commitments. Evaluated against these three change strategies. doubts. or intellectual rationales for action and practice. These implications give clients considerable control over the situation.
." Solutions to problems are not a priori assigned to greater technical information but may reside in values. The second group of strategies is normative-re-educative strategies. strategy has the following implications for the practice of OD. and’ negative feelings are surfaced for "working through. according to this view. relationships and customary ways of doing things. Change in a pattern of practice or action. Patterns of action and practice are supported – by socio-cultural norms and by commitments on the part of the individuals to these norms. and significant relationships. The third set of strategies is the power-coercive strategies. Chin and Benne describe three types of strategies for changing. based on the assumptions that norms form the basis for behaviour. These strategies build upon assumptions about human motivation different from those underlying the first. the practitioner intervenes in a collaborative way with the clients. rather than the OD practitioner. The first type is empirical rational strategies. OD clearly falls within the normativere-educative category. Anything hindering effective problem solving is brought to light and publicly examined. and change comes through re-education in which old norms are discarded and supplanted by new ones. based on the assumption that change is compliance of those who have less power with the desires of those who have are power. that is. will follow their rational self-interest. The point here is that different strategies are available for effecting change. although often OD represents a combination of the normative-reeductive and the empirical-rational strategies. The norms to be changed and the form of re-education are decided by the client system members. and together they define problems and seek solutions. The rationality and intelligence of men are not denied.Organization development involves change. The client system members define what changes and improvements they want to make. not just changes in knowledge. Chin and Benne suggest that a normative-re-educative. based on the assumptions that people are rational. And changes in normative orientations involve changes in attitudes. Chin and Benne indicate the nature of the normative-reductive strategy as follows: A second group of strategies we call normative-re-educative. anxieties. and OD is based primarily on a normative-re-educative strategy and secondarily on a rational-empirical strategy. and it rests on a particular strategy for change that has implications for practitioners and organization members alike. values. and will change if and when they come to realize change is advantageous to them. information. attitudes. will occur only as the persons involved are brought to change their normative orientations to old patterns and develop commitments to new ones. skills.
Greenwood discusses the activities of the practitioner as follows: "The problem that confronts a practitioner is customarily a state of disequilibrium that requires rectification." applied science. lawful patterns of events produce effectiveness and ineffectiveness. on the basis of which he or she prescribes a solution that. practices.8 Applied Behavioural Science This foundation of OD relates to the primary knowledge base of the field. norms can best be changed by focusing on the group. placing it in a classification scheme or typology. OD practitioners know about these patterns through research and theory. the treatment typology allows the practitioner to know what remedial efforts to apply to correct the problem. Burke writes: “If one attempts to change an attitude or the behaviour of an individual without attempting to change the same attitude or behaviour in the group to which the individual belongs. The practitioner examines the problem situation. Each type description of the diagnostic typology contains implications for a certain type of treatment. not the individual. the major leverage point for change is at the group level. re-establishes the equilibrium.. OD is the application of behavioural science knowledge. On this point. OD emphasizes the latter. on the basis of selected variables. A conventional distinction is made between (1) "pure" or basic science. or practice. with their elaborations and implications constitute practice theory. applied science or practice. thereby solving the problem. and skills in ongoing systems in collaboration with system members. The diagnostic typology allows the practitioner to know what category of situation he or she has examined. Greenwood states: “The diagnostic and treatment typologies are employed together.Because norms are socially accepted beliefs held by groups about appropriate and inappropriate behaviours. by modifying a group norm or standards. the object of which is knowledge to solve practical. Thus.”
. success corroborating the diagnosis. for example. the object of which is knowledge for its own sake. The principles of diagnosis and of treatment constitute the principles of practice." Both diagnosis and treatment consist of observing a situation and. This process is customarily referred to as diagnosis and treatment. then the individual will be a deviate and either will come under pressure from the group to get back into line or will be rejected entirely. 6. failure negating it and thus requiring re-diagnosis. The aim of this discussion is to look briefly at how behavioural science knowledge becomes applied behavioural science knowledge.” Norms help determine individual behaviour and a normative-re-educative strategy of changing pervades the practice of OD. i. pressing problems. behavioural science knowledge. Although human behaviour in organizations is far from an exact science. hopefully. The practitioner uses treatment as the empirical test of his diagnosis.e. and (2) "technology.
The two bottom inputs. 6. and finally evaluating the effects of the treatments. who developed the concept of action research.8: Composition of Applied Behavioural Science Organization development is both a result of applied behavioural science and a. and doing or implementing change efforts. behavioural science research and two behavioural science theory. and action planning based on the data.
Fig.9 Action Research The action research model – a data-based. Action research involves three processes: data collection.” Concluding Comments:
. Kurt Lewin." the OD practitioner works: first diagnosing the situation.From this "practice theory. and research leading to social action… This by no means implies that the research needed is in any respect less scientific or "lower" than what would be required for pure science in the field of social events. represent contributions from applied science. the two top in puts. a comparative search on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action. 6. represent contributions from pure or basic science. form of applied behavioural science. Action research is especially well-suited for planned change programs. feedback of the data to the client system members. I am inclined to hold the opposite to be true. had this to say about it: “The research needed for social practice can best be characterized as research for social management or social engineering. it is a program of applying behavioural science to organizations. then selecting and implementing treatments based on the diagnosis. problem-solving method that replicates the steps involved in the scientific method of inquiry underlies most OD activities. Action research is a method that combines learning and doing – learning about the dynamics of organizational change. It is a type of action-research. perhaps more accurately. practice research and practice theory.
3. Taken separately. In parallel learning structures members have to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. What are first-order and second order change according to Burke-Litwin Model of organizational change? Explain. First—order change is also called ___________. 3. 2. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements is the principle of Porras and Robertson model organizational change.11 Terminal Questions 1.
. Bring out the essence of “managing beyond the quick fix” model of organizational development. Ralph Kilmann specified the critical leverage points for organizational change. each is a powerful conceptual tool for thinking out and implementing change.These foundations of organization development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. Self Assessment Questions 1. Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change the first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces and the second is the model of the change process. Explain Kurt Lewin’s models and theories of planned organizational change. 2. Taken collectively. –––––––––– means moving to new level of behaviour. 6. A fundamental belief in OD is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals’ behaviours. Systems theory views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. 6.” 5. they constitute the beginning of a theory of organization development and change that has enormous potential for improving organizational performance and individual development. 4. Action research model combines learning and doing. _____________ means sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of individual efforts of members. A _____________ is defined as “a set of elements standing in interaction. The Burke-Litwin model emphasized on first-order and second-order change. –––––––––– gave the model “Beyond the Quick Fix”.10 Summary The foundations of organizational development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field.
1 Introduction Objectives 7.2. System 5. Refer section 6.2. Refer section 6. What are the features of systems theory of organizational development? 5. Ralph Kilmann 3.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .1 2. Refer section 6.” Comment on this statement.4. “Work teams are building blocks of organizational development. 6.3 5. Synergy Answers to TQs: 1. Transactional change 4.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Unfreezing 2.
Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Structure: 7. Refer section 6.3 4.2 3.2.Refer section 6.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture
and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein.3 Types of Organization Culture. norms and tangible signs (artifacts) of organization members and their behaviors. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. etc. Objectives: After studying this unit. values. you will be able to: · Understand Organization Culture.6 Summary 7. You can tell the culture of an organization by looking at the arrangement of furniture.7. what members wear. For example. Practitioners are coming to realize that. organizational culture is the personality of the organization. despite the best-laid plans.
. 1986). 7.5 Developing and changing Organization Culture Self Assessment Questions 7. The concept of culture is particularly important when attempting to manage organization-wide change.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness 7.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 7.1 Introduction Basically. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. Members of an organization soon come to sense the particular culture of an organization. thinking. discovered. the culture of a large. but everyone knows it when they sense it.7 Terminal Questions 7. Culture is comprised of the assumptions. – similar to what you can use to get a feeling about someone’s personality. what they brag about. · Describe different types of Organization Culture · Explain organization culture and effectiveness. for-profit corporation is quite different than that of a hospital which is quite different than that of a university. Culture is one of those terms that’s difficult to express distinctly. organizational change must include not only changing structures and processes. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving. Martin and Meyerson. but also changing the corporate culture as well.
Some of the most readily agreed upon are the following: 1. and rituals related to deference and demeanor. Dominate value: These are major values that the organization advocates and expects the participants to share. processes and procedures. Norms. Rules: There are strict guidelines related to getting along in the organization. internal and external are viewed in market
. Hierarchical leaders are typically coordinators and organizers who keep a close eye on what is happening. Organizational climate: This is an overall “feeling” that is conveyed by the physical layout. For many years. They often have well-defined policies. Typical examples are high product quality. but one where all transactions. Philosophy: These are policies that set forth the organization’s beliefs about how employees and/or customers are to be treated. Standards of behavior exist. 7. Market The Market organization also seeks control but does so by looking outward. 6. the way participants interact.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture Organizational culture has a number of important characteristics. 2.3 Types of Organization Culture Hierarchy The hierarchy has a traditional approach to structure and control that flows from a strict chain of command as in Max Weber’s original view of bureaucracy.· Discuss about developing and changing organization culture. When organizational participants interact with one another. do not do too little?” 3. 5. terminology. Low absenteeism and high efficiency. they use common language. New-comers must learn those “ropes” in order to be accepted as full-fledged members of the group. including guidelines on how much work to do. Which in many organizations come down to “Do not do too much. this was considered the only effective way of organizing and is still a basic element of the vast majority of organizations. and the way members of the organization conduct themselves with customers or other outsiders. Observed behavioral regularities. Hierarchies have respect for position and power. 7. 4. Note that the Market organization is not one which is focused just on marketing. and in particular taking note of transaction cost.
strongly driven by loyalty to one another and the shared cause. It will use prototyping and experimenting rather than long. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of
.terms. It may be defined as the ethos of a company (as US firms do) or the shared value and team sprit (as European firms prefer to define it). One culture could be distinguished from another in terms of how some commonly shared human problems are addressed and the specific solutions that one sought (Trompenaars. In an efficient market organization. outputs and outcomes. Adhocracy The Adhocracy has even greater independence and flexibility than the Clan. the adhocracy will rapidly form teams to face new challenges. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. affecting the performance of every-one within the culture in positive or negative ways. discovered. Market cultures are outward looking. Where market success goes to those with greatest speed and adaptability. Rather than strict rules and procedures. It has an inward focus and a sense of family and people work well together. Rules. culture is like the DNA of an organization. In biological terms. people are driven through vision. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. shared goals. 1995) and how problems are solved in an organization. although not necessarily documented. Clan The Clan organization has less focus on structure and control and a greater concern for flexibility. 7. Leaders in an adhocracy are visionary. innovative entrepreneurs who take calculated risks to make significant gains. 1993). In contrast to Hierarchies. value flows between people and stakeholders with minimal cost and delay. Transactions are exchanges of value.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness It is reflected in how things are done (Flanagan. do still exist and are often communicated and inculcated socially. but critical to shaping its behavior. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. which is necessary in a rapidly changing business climate. Leaders in market cultures are often hard-driving competitors who seek always to deliver the goods. Clan leaders act in a facilitative. clans often have flat organizations and people and teams act more autonomousl. invisible to the naked eye. big-bang projects and development. supportive way and may take on a parental role.
believing. the way they dress etc. thinking. the jargon they use. Though an organization espouses a series of values. communicating. Artifacts: The visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization such as: · Its structure. its core value are limited to a few in number. and are generally not compromised for short-term benefits or financial gains. and no unanimity is found in different approaches. They are reflected in the core capabilities of a company. and what is right and what is wrong. Though a large volume of literature is available on the concept and working of organizational effectiveness. rules. · Its rituals. goals. and shaping organization values is difficult as values relate more to employee emotions and feeling (affective dimension) than to their rational thinking (cognitive dimension) Norms: These are a significant element of the organization’s social environment and evolve of behavior. IBM norms dictate that employees should actively listen and respond to customer demands and complaints. systems and subsystems. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. Identifying. reflecting what is important in the organization and determining how the organization ought to be (the ethos. from the basis of its policies and action. there is often contradiction in various approaches. various terms such as efficiency. The set of basic assumptions evolve into values artifacts and norms in terms of which an organization culture may be examined and understood. Values evolve out of the basic assumption and form the core (or heart) of the culture.
. 1986). The various approaches are judgmental and open to question.perceiving. plaques. etc. individually and collectively. · Public documents it releases and media reports and stories about it. productivity. For example. symbols. and procedures. Organization Effectiveness Organizational effectiveness. norms. also called as organizational success or growth.the informal rules of the fame telling employees what they are supposed to be saying. or standards held by members of an organization. and doing. These are the essential and enduring tenets of an organization. · The observable behavior of its members (the way they talk. is defined and conceptualized in different ways. the personality of the organization). Thus. Values: These are the social principles. Martin and Meyerson.
and behaviour.which are useful in discussing organizational effectiveness over time. skills. business and leadership strategies. decisions. Intervening variables are concerned with building and developing the organization. are often used interchangeably. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and management’s policies. e. These variables have been classified by Likert into three groups-causal. 7.5 Developing and Changing Organization Culture How Organizational Cultures Start Although organizational cultures can develop in a number of different ways. According to Likert. and earnings. the organizational analysis is incomplete for a practicing manager unless the factors underlying effectiveness are identifying. motivations. and decision-making. From this point of view.. organizational growth. communication. intervening and end result. Causal Variables: Causal variables are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. and (ii) the intervening behavioral cluster. attitudes. scrap loss. motivational. Though each individual’s effectiveness is significant but perhaps the most important aspect of effectiveness is its relationship to the entire organization. and they tend to be long-term goals. end-result variables are the dependent variables which reflect the achievements in the organization such as its productivity. there are numerous variables. 2. 3. These causal variables include only those independent variables which can be altered or changed by the organization and its management. to denote organizational effectiveness. performance goals. the process usually involves some version of the following steps:
. End – result Variables: End-result variable are those factors which are caused by causal and intervening variable and are often in terms of the factors in which managers are interested or measure their effectiveness. The intervening variables may be divided into two broad categories: (i) the intervening attitudinal. Likert states that causal variables are independent variables which determine the course of developments within an organization and the results achieved by the organization. Many of these variables are caused by causal variables.profitability. costs. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and its management. Grouping variables into these categories aids greatly in the correct interpretation of the data and their use for diagnostic and other purposes. 1. and perceptual cluster. Intervening Variables: Intervening variables are those factors which are reflected as the internal state of organization. This is one part of effectiveness that many managers overlook because it emphasis long-term potential as well as short-term performance. Whatever the criteria adopted for organizational effectiveness.g. and perceptions of all members and their collective capacity for effective interaction. the loyalties. Likert states that the intervening variables reflect the internal state and health of the organization.
and whether products and/or services are involved. and history of two firms. locating space. For example. is workable. and energy that will be required. the industry in which the partners come from and now reside. and a common history begins to be built. then such rapid change can be welcomed and accommodated with as little disruption and as few problems as possible. Predictable obstacles include entrenched skills. is worth running some risks for. relationships. and how this plays out among the partners will be important to cultural compatibility. These factors from the two cultures include the size. or even customers may support the existing culture. Staffs. others are brought into the organization. if the appropriate organization culture is in place. 2. That is. Where does the power and managerial decision making really reside? Corporate cultures range from autocratic extremes to total employee empowerment. At this point. obtaining patents. incorporating. the geographic location. and structures that work together to reinforce traditional cultural patterns. New product development and information technology is changing so rapidly that any example would be soon out-of –date. 3. and is worth the investment of time. all in this core group believe that the idea is a good one. The case of Mergers and Acquisitions The clash between the two cultures in a merger or acquisition can be focused into three major areas: 1.1. Changing Organizational Culture Sometimes an organization determines that its culture has to be changed. and so on.
. building. 2. money. Structure. management. In addition. Even through some firms have had a culture in place to anticipate change. The founder brings in one or more other key people and creates a core group that shares a common vision with the founder. age. However. The founding core group beings to act in concert to create an organization by raising funds. the current environmental context has undergone drastic change and either the organization must adapt to these new conditions or it may not survive. powerful stakeholders such as unions. Politics. A single person (founder) has an idea for a new enterprise. roles. 4. moving to a new culture or changing old cultures can be quite difficult: a case can even be made that it really can’t be done successfully?.
________cultures are outward looking.3. organizational cultures can be managed and changed over time. Take out all trappings that remind the personnel of the previous culture. Stay the course by being persistent. Assess the current culture. 3. ___________are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. These emotions will be a major input into the clash or compatibility of the two cultures. Move quickly and decisively to build momentum and to defuse resistance to the new culture. This attempt to change culture can take many different forms.6 Summary
. the “culture contract” that individuals have bought into to guide their day-to-day thoughts. 5. Self Assessment Questions 1. so that they are able to interact well with the organizational personnel. 6. if possible. 1. 2. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. Make changes from the top down. so that a consistent message is delivered from all management team members. take these losses early. attitudes. especially when making changes in rules and processes. The personal feelings. 7. 8. commitment. habits. Expect to have some problems and find people who would rather move than change with the culture and. Emotions. 9. Simple guidelines such as the following can be helpful. Recruit outside personnel with industry experience. Guidelines for change Despite the significant barriers and resistance to change. 3. 4. 2. and patterns of daily behavior. Include employees in the culture change process. _____are the visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization. 7. Set realistic goals that impact on the bottom line.
2 2. effectiveness through adaptive-coping cycle has been discussed. Effectiveness of an organization can be increased through economic man approach and administrative man approach. Organizational effectiveness can be measured through various approaches. Discuss the development and change of organizational development. Factors in organizational effectiveness include casual variables. Market 3. Explain the characteristics of organization culture. 7. Finally.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .3 3.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Briefly explain different types of organizational culture. Refer section 7. 7. system-resource approach.
. intervening variables and end-result variables and there exists interrelationship among these variables. 2. 3. Refer section 7. Refer section 7. and strategic constituencies approach.7 Terminal Questions 1. Causal variables Answers to TQs: 1.goal approach. behavioural approach.Organizational effectiveness is the degree to which organization is successful in accomplishing its goals. Organizations to be successful must be efficient and effective. Artifacts 2.
8 Acquiring and using Power Skills Self Assessment Questions 8.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored 8. Organization Development
Unit-08. must be understood if one is to be effective in organizations. As Warner Burke observes: "Organization development signifies change.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 8.1 Introduction
Power and politics. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics.1 Introduction Objectives 8.7 Operating in a Political Environment 8. we examine power and politics in relation to organization development.2 Power Defined and Explored 8.MU0002-Unit-08Power.9 Summary 8. and for change to occur in an organization.3 Two Faces of Power 8.10 Terminal Questions 8.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice of OD 8. power must be exercised.Power. Politics and Organization Development Structure: 8. indisputable facts of organizational life. In this unit. That criticism was essentially correct for many years although it is less valid
.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power 8.” Organization development has been criticized for not taking into account power in organizations.
financial. spiritual. One person exerts power over another to the degree that he is able to exact compliance as desired. Without influence (power) people would have no cooperation and no society. · Acquire skills to handle power and politics in organizations. Power-in-action may
. and repression. and organizational activities. and behaviours of people.2 Power Defined and Explored "Power is the intentional influence over the beliefs." "Power is defined in this unit simply as the capacity to effect (or affect) organizational outcomes. One goal of this unit is to advance our understanding of the role of power in OD and the role of OD in a power setting." Analyzing these definitions shows some common elements: effectance-getting one’s way. · Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. to effect outcomes. Without leadership (power) directed toward warfare. 8. The French word ‘pouvoir’ stands for both the noun ‘power’ and the verb ‘to be able. Recent years have seen a sizable outpouring of theory and research on power and politics from which OD practitioners have derived implications and applications for the field but we are still in the early stages of knowing how power and organization development should be related. but kinetic power is the act of doing so. the necessity of social interaction between two or more parties. Potential power is the capacity to do so. the act or ability of influencing others. Objectives: After this studying this unit. political. you will be able to: · Define power and politics in organizations. humankind would not have much of the misery it does today.today. · Explain theories about the sources of power.’ To have power is to be able to get desired things done. Without leadership (power) in medical.actions and the decisions that precede them. and outcomes favoring one party over the other.” “A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would otherwise not do. emotions. humankind would not have the standard of living it does today. We therefore define interpersonal power as the ability to get one’s way in a social situation. confiscation." “Power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. technological. The phenomenon of power is ubiquitous.
" · Mintzberg’s Observations on the Genesis of Power in Organizations.take many forms. unsocialized need to dominate others. being exercised. absolute power corrupts absolutely.
. or positive. Patchen studied organizational decision making and found that coercive tactics were "noticeable chiefly by their absence" while problem solving and consensus seeking were much more prevalent." Her research in four organizations showed both kinds of power. Roberts came to a similar conclusion in her study of "collective power" and "competitive power. suggests that many problems with power stem from the goals of persons with power and the means they use. It is especially salient in coordinated activities such as those found in organizations. however. persuading-these are examples of positive uses of power. How do some people come to possess power? How is power generated. influence. According to him. influencing. or acquired? In this unit. forcing. bestowed.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power Power exists in virtually all social situations. power being the predominant mode. Leading. We think this distinction provides a good insight into the concept of power. The negative face of power seeks to dominate and control others." A moment’s reflection. 8. we will examine four different views about who gets power and how: · Emerson’s "Power-Dependence theory. selling.3 Two Faces of Power David McClelland proposed an important distinction when he identified "two faces of power" – positive and negative. McClelland observed that while power has a negative connotation for most people. coercing-these are examples of negative uses of power. the positive face of power seeks to empower self and others. Power per se is probably neither good nor bad although Lord Acton observed that "power tends to corrupt. The positive face of power is characterized by a socialized need to initiate. 8. This positive face of power enables others to reach their goals as well as lets the person exercising power reach his or her goals. the negative face of power is characterized by a primitive. an authority or power dimension is required. with collective. In fact. hurting. it is through the use of power that things get done in the world." · Salancik and Pfeffer’s "Strategic-Contingency Model of Power. Crushing. not the possession of power as such. for organizations to function. both positive and negative." · French and Raven’s "Bases of Social Power. In most organizations the positive face of power is much more prevalent than the negative face of power. and lead.
giving someone power over us is the commodity we exchange when we are dependent on that person for something we want. rejection.Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. Richard Emerson states that "the dependence of Actor A upon Actor B is (1) directly proportional to A’s motivational investment in the goals mediated by B. Expert power – power based on the powerholder possessing expert knowledge or expertise needed by the other. that is. or feeling of oneness with) the power holder. We enter into and continue in exchange relationships when what we receive from others is equivalent to or in excess of what we must give to others. French and Bertram Raven on "the bases of social power. when the net balance for us is negative. Referent power – power based on the power-receiver having an identification with (attraction to. 4. of social power as follows: 1." These authors suggested five sources. In this theory. 2. blame. rewards) that are controlled by one party. Power-dependence theory is related to a broader framework of social interaction called social exchange theory. Legitimate power – power based on everyone’s belief that the powerholder has a legitimate right to exert influence and that the power-receiver has a legitimate obligation to accept the influence. Exchange theory and power-dependence theory are quite compatible with the ideas proposed by French and Raven." In other words. attraction. or bases. to give something negatively valued by the other. hate. Social interaction represents an exchange of social goods and services. When the net balance for us is positive. respect. P. we will terminate or alter the relationship. that person has power over us. The components of this theory are a social relation between two parties and resources (commodities. and (2) inversely proportional to the availability of those goals to A outside of the A-B relation. Viewed in this light. 5. information. we will continue the exchange relationship. power belongs to those persons who control or mediate desired commodities.
. if a person has something we want badly and we cannot get it any other place. that is. Informational power is a form of expert power where the powerholder possesses important facts or information needed by the other. praise. goals. The sociologist. power. Reward power – power based on the ability of the powerholder to reward another. and so forth. and desired by the other. Coercive power – power based on the ability of the powerholder to punish another. Closely related to these ideas is the classic statement by John R. 3. which posits that what goes on between persons is an exchange of social commodities: love. to give something valued by the other. influence.
knowledge. called influencers. the managers. the influencer must have both the "will" and the "skill" to use it. or information. these four views of the sources of power are remarkably similar – power stems from possession of or mediation of desired resources. In addition to a base of power." These authors view organizational power as a good thing. An organization has many potential influencers. These critical problems are generally "uncertainties" posed by the environment. coupled with 2) The expenditure of energy in a 3) Politically skillful way. and that the organization is the context for the exercise of power. and. According to Mintzberg. regulators. Henry Mintzberg has developed a theory of organizational power drawn from the organization theory literature and his own creative synthesis abilities. the top executives. control of a resource. the unions. such as the board of directors. The fourth basis is legal prerogatives-being given exclusive rights to impose choices.The strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power in organizations accrues to the subunits (individuals. The important aspects of Mintzberg’s theory are that the sources of power derive from possession of a commodity desired by others. All of these must be critical to the organization. supports the notion that those who have something highly valued by. customers. the employees.
. In summary. The resources may be ability to reward and punish. A fifth basis of power is access to those who have power based on the first four bases. This theory. the ability to solve critical problems or exigencies-anything that creates dependence of one actor or set of actors on another. suppliers. This theory. first. for power in the hands of the critical problem solvers helps the organization cope with the various realities it faces. being in control of critical skills. "is built on the premise that organizational behavior is a power game in which various players. or departments) most important for solving the organization’s most critical problems. second. control of a technical skill. Salancik and Pfeffer further suggest how power is used: "Power is used by subunits. used by all who have it." The three basic conditions for the exercise of power are 1) Some source or basis of power. that power-in-action requires will and skill. like the ones discussed previously. units. indeed. third. and so forth. through the placement of allies in key positions.others-in this case. to enhance their own survival through control of scarce critical resources. and through the definition of organizational problems and policies. control of a body of knowledge. the special expertise needed for the organization’s survival-have power. the five possible bases of power are. seek to control the organization’s decisions and actions.
“Organizational politics is the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain ends through non-sanctioned influence means”. surprise. resource allocation. a tendency to view situations in win-lose terms-what I win. holding hidden agendas. formal power. you must lose-rather than win-win terms. like power. conflict resolution. has two faces. and influence others. treating it as informal power. The negative face of politics is characterized by extreme pursuit of self-interest. Analyzing these definitions suggests that the concepts of power and politics are similar. illegitimate in nature. unsocialized needs to dominate others. they are where the "goods" are distributed and the goals decided. and a socialized need to lead. Organizational politics tend to be associated with decision-making. the power vested in office. the capacity to get things done by virtue of the position held. Both relate to getting one’s way-effectance.8. we view politics as a subset of power. In fact. organizational politics is power-in-action in organizations. viewing situations in win-win terms as much as possible. one gains a quick understanding of the overall "political climate" of an organization by studying its methods of resource allocation. and conflict resolution processes. We are inclined to consider politics as neither good nor bad per se but believe that politics. and predominant use of the tactics of fighting-secrecy. “Organizational politics involve those activities taken within organizations to acquire. The first three definitions treat politics as a neutral set of activities. 8. Both relate to pursuit of self-interest and overcoming the resistance of others. initiate. “Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the selfinterest of individuals or groups”. withholding information. Thus. One important feature in these definitions should be examined further. a relative absence of the tactics of fighting. engaging in open problem solving followed by action and influencing.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored Harold Lasswell defined “politics simply as the study of who gets what.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice OD
. the last two definitions view politics as illegitimate or unsanctioned activities. deceiving. when. The positive face is characterized by a balanced pursuit of self-interest and the interests of others. develop and use power and other resources to obtain one’s preferred outcomes in a situation in which there is uncertainty about choices”. Likewise we also treat authority as a subset of power. For our purposes. These key areas are the battlefields where actors win and lose. it is engaging in activities to get one’s way. but in this sense. and how”. and choosing among alternative means and goals.
the "interventionist" has three primary tasks: (1) to generate valid useful information. provides a service that the organization is free to "buy" or "not buy. strengths." The facilitator or educator role is incompatible with a political activist role because cooperation requires one set of behaviors and competition requires a different set of behaviors. and his or her values. and expertise. The role of the OD practitioner is that of a facilitator. Cobb and Margulies caution that OD practitioners can get into trouble if they move from a facilitator role to a political role. collaboration. but not with the negative face of power. public data about the organization’s culture. second. According to Chris Argyris. For example. public data are indispensable-for problem solving but anathema for organizational politics. But organization members are free to accept or reject the practitioner. thereby making the negative face of power less prevalent and/or necessary. being one aspect of the positive face of power. (2) to promote free. individual dignity. co-operation. Values such as trust. like all consultants. they enhance the positive face of power. These values are congruent with rational problem solving and incongruent with extremely political modes of operating. We know of no OD interventions designed to increase coercion or unilateral power. fact-finding. and effective pursuit of goals while decreasing reliance on the negative faces of power and politics. In this section we will attempt to integrate those concepts with organization development and offer advice to the OD practitioner for dealing with the political realities found in organizations. as we discussed earlier. The practitioner works to strengthen skills and knowledge in the organization. processes. The OD consultant. not politics. and weaknesses. and promoting individual and organizational competence are part of the foundation of organization development. Not only is organization development not a power/political intervention strategy. Virtually. openness. OD values are consistent with the positive face of power. OD interventions typically generate valid. it is instead a rational problem-solving approach that is incompatible with extreme poweroriented situations. increases the amount of power available to organization members. Valid. informed choice. power equalization. problem solver. and educator. and by so doing adds power to the organization. This major
.We have discussed a number of ideas concerning power and politics. OD interventions do not deny or attempt to abolish the reality of power in organizations. and (3) to promote the client’s internal commitment to the choices made. all OD interventions promote problem-solving. OD interventions increase problem-solving. organization development represents an approach and method to enable organization members to go beyond the negative face of power and politics. rather. his or her program. The practitioner is not a political activist or power broker. as a preferred way to get things accomplished. catalyst. methods. "Power equalization" has long been described as one of the values of organization development. problem solving is usually superior to power coercion as a way to find solutions to problematic situations. Emphasis on power equalization stems from two beliefs: first. collaboration. In summary.
expert power (the consultant possesses expert knowledge). the resources of OD expertise and ability to help organizational subunits solve their pressing problems. 3. If the OD group is cohesive and free of internal dissention. Sponsorship: "Organization development groups will gain power to the extent that they have sponsorship. 5. and the roles of OD practitioners. the values. and ability to gain organizational support. the OD consultant possesses power from the following bases: legitimate power (the OD program and consultant are authorized by the organization’s decision makers). it will gain more power. in powerful places." 4. First. and possibly referent power (others may identify with and be attracted to the consultant). 6. the technology. Paying attention to these sources of power will enhance the likelihood of success of OD programs. Competence: Demonstrated competence is the most important source of power. organization development practitioners operate from a potentially strong power base they can use to advantage. informational power (the consultant has a wealth of information about the strengths and weaknesses of the organization).
. Early success in the OD program and its usefulness to key managers of the organization helps promote this reputation.strength of OD derives from the strategy of change. acceptability. preferably multiple sponsorship. 8. According to the framework of French and Raven. followed by some rules of thumb for the OD practitioner. Success leads to credibility and stature.7 Operating in a Political Environment We will present some general observations on operating in a political environment. Political access and sensitivity: Cultivating and nurturing multiple relationships with key power figures in the organization will ensure timely information and multiple sources of support. Resource management: Power accrues to those who control resources-in this case. These sources of influence produce a substantial power base that will enhance the likelihood of success. Michael Beer has identified additional means by which an OD group can gain and wield power in organizations: 1."34 This maxim has been recognized for years under the heading of "get top-level support for the program. it will be strong externally. Stature and credibility: Beer notes that power accrues to those who have been successful and effective. 2. Group support: If the OD group is strong internally.
The preceding rules of thumb describe ways to increase or solidify one’s power base. both as a person and as a professional. to help them achieve their goals and solve their problems. The role of the OD consultant is to help others upon request. it gains an aura of respect and protection that sets it above most political entanglements. counseling. and showing appreciation for the strengths of others are components of interpersonal competence. The nature of organizations and the nature of organization development suggest this rule. and expertise. and effective conflict management techniques are required to enhance stable. constructive social relationships.What advice is available for OD practitioners who want to operate more effectively in a political environment? Several rules of thumb are implied by the fact that power accrues to persons who control valued resources or commodities. OD programs become desired commodities when they are instruments that allow individuals and organizations to reach their goals. OD programs should be results-oriented. problem solving. Rule Three: Make the OD program a valued commodity for multiple powerful people in the organization. Beer and Walton argue that organization development should move from being practitioner centered to being manager-centered. experience. coaching. OD practitioners are likely to have high interpersonal competence by virtue of their training. Each is derived from one general principle: Mind your own business. Another way the OD program becomes a desired commodity is by focusing on important issues. Sometimes OD practitioners overlook that they are hired by others. Skills such as listening. which is to help someone else solve his or her major problems. communicating. Becoming a desired commodity as a person means being interpersonally competent and trustworthy. Many OD interventions promote win-win solutions for conflict situations. not the OD consultant. The following rules describe ways to avoid becoming involved in one’s own or in others’ political struggles. Being of value to multiple powerholders rather than a single one both increases support and reduces the likelihood that the program will become the target of political activities. Rule Two: Make the OD program itself a desired commodity. OD consultants have a formal or informal contractual agreement with managers to help them do what they are trying to do-better. Rule Five: Mind your own business. the manager will vigorously defend it. Rule Four: Create win-win solutions. usually managers. A valuable by-product of this fact is that if the program runs into political turbulence. The OD program belongs to the manager. Organizations are social systems in which members have both a history and a future of interacting. OD professionals who are skilled in conflict management techniques and OD programs that encompass conflict resolution activities become valued commodities. Rule One: Become a desired commodity.
. Good OD practitioners will have learned and practiced these skills. When the OD program serves the needs of top executives. those issues vital to the organization’s success.
A subtle phenomenon is involved here: when people engage in illegitimate behavior. others’ support. dealing directly with powerholders and decision makers. Table 8." "using social networks. We could propose more rules of thumb." OD practitioners have typically pursued a "playing it straight" strategy as their sole means of exerting power. and the characteristics and behaviors of powerholders. yet legitimate means of acquiring power.Rule Six: Mind your own business." which arouses defensive actions.1: Power Base and Power Strategy Connection Individual Power Bases Knowledge Strategies for Success Playing It Straight
. while at the same time increasing his or her usefulness to the organization’s powerholders. which is to be an expert on process. Three successful power strategies are "playing it straight. 8. The principle is simple but powerful: know your legitimate business and stick to it." and "going around the formal system. Rule Seven: Mind your own business because to do otherwise is to invite political trouble. but these give the flavor of the issues one must consider when operating in a political environment. and using contacts for information. the strategy and tactics of influence. Illegitimate behavior encroaches on others’ legitimate "turf. Organizational politics revolve around decisions: Should we seek Goal A or Goal B? Should we use Means X or Means Y? Should we promote Mary or John? The proper role of OD consultants is to help decision makers by providing them with good decision-making processes.8 Acquiring and Using Power Skills The OD practitioner is neither power activist nor power broker. Abiding by this rule keeps the consultant from becoming entangled in politics. not power activist or power broker. catalyst. such behavior is often interpreted as politically motivated. but that does not mean practitioners must be naive or incompetent in the political arena. We believe the legitimate role of the OD practitioner is that of facilitator. and personality characteristics. not content. One carries out such a strategy by participating in alliances and coalitions. individual power derives from knowledge. negotiations the nature of power and politics. Illegitimate behavior causes others to try to exert greater control over the situation. thereby greatly expanding practitioner influence. Networking is recognized as a potent. The authors propose adding the "using social networks" strategy to their repertoires. and educator. problem solver. As shown in the figure. Earlier we stated that the OD practitioner should learn as much as possible about bargaining. Attention to these rules can save OD practitioners time and energy that can be more profitably invested in the OD program. viable. not by getting involved in the answers.
even those of little power. criticality-how important one’s job is flexibility-the amount of discretion in the job. in turn. The four stages are: Phase I Consolidating Power to Prepare for Change Phase ll Focusing Power on Strategic Consensus Phase Ill Aligning Power with Structure and People Phase IV Realizing Power through leadership and Collaboration These stages are the means the OD consultant uses to "take the high road" mentioned in the previous quotation-build a power base. The power structure will realize that collaborative power is preferable to manipulation and deception. the authors propose a four-stage model for using the OD process to help the power elite transform the organization in ways beneficial for all concerned. In this model.· Expertise · Information · Tradition Others’ Support
· Use data to convince · Focus on target group · Be persistent Using Social Networks · Alliances and coalitions · Deal with decision maker · Contacts for information Going Around Formal System · Work around roadblocks · (Don’t) use organization rules
Political access Staff support
Charisma Reputation Professional credibility
Finally. arises from expertise. Personal power.) Position power derives from five sources: Centrality-access to information in a communication network. Whetton and Cameron’s model is shown in following figure. visibility-how much one’s work is seen by
. and legitimacy. then utilize a facilitative OD process in which the powerholders work on strategic business issues using consensus decision making to develop a corporate strategy. how-to book on power and organization development is well worth studying. (Legitimacy refers to abiding by and promoting the values of the organization. which in turn will protect the interests of all concerned. This practical. influence key powerholders to accept the OD program. personal attraction. personal power and position power. a person’s power comes from two main sources. effort.
Fig. no one has the necessary information and resources to accomplish what’s expected of them. Usually reason is the preferred strategy. Indeed. Networks are critical to effective performance for one compelling reason: Except for routine jobs. actually using it to get things done is another. and retribution. and reciprocity can be useful when reason fails. Having power is one thing. Whetton and Cameron suggest
. Retribution refers to coercion and threats.influential people. Retribution is not recommended except in unusual cases. power-in-use is called influence." And. and (3) empowering others. Reciprocity refers to exchange of favors. one investigation of the determinants of effective management performance concluded that a key factor distinguishing high and low performers was the ability to establish informal relationships via networks”. They write: "Influence entails actually securing the consent of others to work with you in accomplishing an objective. "Power is converted into influence when the target individual consents to behave according to the desires of the power holder. (2) selecting the proper influence strategy. Reason refers to persuasion by facts. According to these authors." Three things are involved in converting power into influence: (1) resisting other people’s inappropriate influence attempts. 8. and relevance-how important one’s task is in relation to organizational priorities. “One of the most important ways of gaining power in an organization is by establishing a broad network of task and interpersonal relationships. Three influence strategies can be used to influence others-reason. reciprocity.1: Model of Power and Influence Networking is used to increase both personal power and position power.
Organizational politics is defined as the study of who gets what. –––––––– defined politics as the study of who gets what.
. (3) reward and encourage others in visible and personal ways. Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self-interest of individuals or groups. 5. when. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. emotions or behaviour of people. units or departments is most important in solving organizational problems. (2) provide a positive. Power based on the power-receiver having identification with the power holder is called ––– ––––––––.several means of resisting others’ influence attempts such as confrontation and using countervailing power. (4) express confidence (5) foster initiative and responsibility. Power can be either positive or negative.. 8. arise from known conditions. Power and politics are similar in nature. reputation and professional credibility. Organizational power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. and are amenable to positive control. we have examined power and politics with the goals of understanding the phenomena and deriving implications for OD practitioners. _____________ has identified two faces of power. 4. Power and politics are similar in nature.9 Summary Power and politics are inseparable facts of organizational life. Our suggestions for using power to operate effectively in organizations may help practitioner avoid the perils and pitfalls of power that "go with the territory" of organizational change. and how. Self Assessment Questions 1. Concluding Comments: In this unit. and (6) build on success. Define power in an organizational context and explain types of power. –––––– is the intentional influence over the beliefs. Strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power that accrues to the individuals. 2. –––––––––– is made up of Charisma. arise from known conditions.10 Terminal Questions 1. and are amenable to positive control. 3. 8. collaborative work environment. when and how. Methods for empowering others are the following: (1) involve subordinates in assigning work. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another.
8. Power 2. 5.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.4 3. Describe briefly various theories of power. Referent power 4.
MU0002-Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development
Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Structure: 9.1 Introduction
. Refer section 8. 3. Define organization politics. 4.6 5.Refer section 8.2 2. Personality Answers to TQs: 1. Refer section 8. McClelland 3. Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. Refer section 8.5 4.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .2. Refer section 8. Harold Lasswell 5. Identify the bases of individual power and the respective strategies for their success.
These methods are receiving increasing attention in Organization Development.6 Quality of Work Life Projects 9.9 Reengineering Self Assessment Questions 9.11 Terminal Questions 9. One important intervention technique is Technostructural interventions because these are related to technical and structural issues such as how to divide labour and how to coordinate department which is related to Restructuring organization.Objectives 9. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 9. Objectives:
.7 Parallel Learning Structures 9. organizational problems may repeat.4 Management By Objectives 9.10 Summary 9. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing. These interventions vary from standardized program that have been developed and sometimes tailored program.8 Total Quality Management 9.5 Quality Circles 9. actions. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future. how to produce product or service which is related to Employee involvement approaches and how to design work is related to Work design.2 Meaning and Definitions 9. An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. These programs are derived from careful diagnosis.3 Socio Technical Systems 9. In this dynamic and fluid environment.
structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. 4. includes removing or adding layers to hierarchy. · Explain Total Quality Management. 2. One problem with behavioral/ group interventions is the tendency for new managers or employees to discount or fail to continue the change program. 5. you will be able to: · Explain the Socio technical change. From a benefit cost analysis. · Explain Reengineering. their attractiveness is also increased by the following advantages: 1. Changes can involve decentralization and centralization. change can be introduced relatively rapidly by top management. Weeks and months of group effort are saved. Greater Predictability. Managers and administrators are notoriously pragmatic. and more
.2 Meaning and Definitions Structural Intervention is related to the changes that relate elements of organization to one another. Rapidity of change. meaning the major costs are associated with analysis and design of change. Basic reinforcement theories. Succession Doesn’t Destroy Change Effort. This normally is a reasonable. Cost is Low. The cost of structural change is generally “front-end” loaded. 9. Organization Acceptance of Change. · Discuss the Management By Objectives · Explain the Quality Circles. organization theory. Once diagnosed and an appropriate correction developed. · Discuss the parallel Learning Structures. Advantages of Structural Interventions There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. In addition. and OD practice enables the change agent to estimate the probable consequences of the change. Structural changes are consistent with their operating styles and are generally understood by practitioners. Downsizing associated with restructuring. Structure changes are normally “institutionalized” and less subject to this problem. 3.After studying this unit.
though not strictly an OD intervention in the sense in which other interventions have been discussed so far. is a technique and system which helps in improving organizational performance. 9. 1988): • Determining the environmental demands • Creating a vision statement • Educating organizational members • Creating the change structure • Conducting socio-technical analysis • Formulating re-design proposals · Defining the scope of the system to be re-designed · Implementing recommended changes · Evaluating changes 9. Pasmore. 1976. Since then.”
. many business and nonbusiness organizations have adopted this in some form or the other. Cummings. It could involve the following steps (Foster. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. It endeavors to re-design the organization’s structure. therefore. 1967. processes and functions to create a balance between the organization and its changing external environment. Its basic idea has been derived from the concept of participative goal setting as a technique of OD. a predictable cost Implementation of group strategies involves significant long-term man-hour and consultant costs. its definitional aspect.critically. The term MBO was coined by Drucker in 1964 when he emphasized the concept of managing by results.4 Management by Objectives Management by objectives (MBO).3 Socio Technical Systems Socio-technical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. Though there are some variations in the practices of MBO and. it has been defined as follows: MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner.
including the corporate level. MBO employs several techniques but it is not merely the sum total of all these techniques. normally once a year. superiors and subordinates. Similarly. In fact. Objectives are established for all the levels of the organization. MBO is an approach and philosophy to management and not merely a technique. Periodic review of performance is an important feature of MBO. 4. The MBO is characterized by the participation of concerned managers in objective setting and performance reviews. Whereas the various techniques of management help in measurement of results in resources. MBO is bound to have some relationship with every management technique. with objective orientation as its essence. On the other hand. physical. 3.” Based on the definition of MBO. its subsystems and people. all the units or departments and individual manager.
. MBO is likely to affect every management practice in the organization. its features can be identified as follows: 1. The basic emphasis of MBO is on objectives. etc. each manager takes active part in setting objectives for himself and also in evaluating his performance as to how he is performing. The total management process revolves round the objectives set jointly by the superior and the subordinate. Therefore. Objectives provide the means for integrating the organization with its environment. reward and punishment system is attached with the achievement of the objectives.The integration of individual and organizational objectives through MBO has been emphasized by Chakravarty when he has defined MBO as follows: “MBO is a result-centered. This is possible because MBO tries to match objectives and resources. The review is future-oriented because it provides basis for planning and corrective actions. Resource allocation. and human resources of the organization by integrating the individual with organization and organization with the environment. delegation of authority. 5. Certain degree of overlapping is there. It works as an integrating device. MBO is also concerned with determining what these results and resources should be. 2. The performance review is held regularly. It emphasises initiative and active role by the manger who is responsible for achieving objectives. are determined on the basis of objectives. operational managerial process for the effective utilization of material. managers have the opportunities for clarifying their job relationships with peers. It is a particular way of thinking about management. Therefore. non-specialist. MBO is the joint application of a number of principles and techniques. As an approach to management.. This process clarifies the role very sharply in terms of what one is expected to achieve. A management technique can be applied in selected parts of the organization and will have limited implications for its other parts. 6. often MBO provides the stimulus for the introduction of new techniques of management and enhances the relevance and utility of the existing ones. Objectives in MBO provide guidelines for appropriate system and procedures.
Process of MBO MBO is a system for achieving organizational objectives, enhancement of employee commitment and participation. Therefore, its process should facilitate translation of basic concepts into management practice. The MBO process is characterized by the emphasis on the rigorous analysis, the clarity and balance of objectives, and participation of the managers with accountability for results. The MBO process is not as simple as it appears to be. Managers need training and experience for developing the required skills. 1. Setting of Organizational Purpose and Objectives: The first step in MBO is the definition of organizational purpose and objectives. Questions, such as, “why does the organization exist?”. What business are we in?” and what should be our business?” provide guidelines for the statement of purpose. This, in interaction with external factors, then determines the long-range strategic objectives like (i) whether to achieve growth through expansion in the same line of business or diversity: (ii) what should be blending of trading and manufacturing activities; (iii) what should be the degree of vertical integration and so on. Usually the objective setting starts at the top level of the organization and moves downward to the lowest managerial levels. This will go in a sequence like this (i) defining the purpose of the organization, (ii) long-range and strategic objectives, (iii) short-term organizational objectives, (iv) divisional/departmental/sectional objectives, (v) individual manager’s objectives. 2. Key Result Areas: Organizational objective and planning premises together provide the basis for the identification of key result areas (KRAs). It may be emphasized that KRAs are derived from the expectations of various stakeholders and indicate the priorities for organizational performance. KRAs also indicate the present state of an organization’s health and the top management perspective for the future. Examples of KRAs applicable to most of the business organizations are (i) profitability, (ii) market standing, (iii) innovation, (iv) productivity, (v) worker performance, (vi) financial and physical resources, (vii) manager performance, and (viii) public responsibility. Even though KRAs are most durable, the list of KRAs gets considerably changed over the period in response to new needs and opportunities. Sometimes, the achievement in a particular KRA also provides the impetus for a new KRA in future. 3. Setting Subordinates’ Objectives: The organizational objectives are achieved through individuals. Therefore, each individual manager must know in advance what he is expected to achieve. Every manager in the managerial hierarchy is both superior and subordinate except the person at the top level and lowest level. Therefore, there is a series of superior and subordinate relationships. The process of objective setting begins with superior’s proposed recommendations for his subordinate’s objectives. In turn, the subordinate states his own objectives as perceived by him. Thereafter, the final objectives for the subordinate are set by the mutual negotiation between superior and subordinate. In the beginning of MBO process in an organization, there may be wide gap between the recommended objectives by the superior and subordinate’s stated objectives because the latter may like to put lesser burden on him by
setting easily achievable objectives. However, with the experience gained over the period of time, this gap narrows because of narrowing down of perception of superior and subordinate about what can be done at a particular level. 4. Matching Resources with Objectives: When objectives are set carefully, they also indicate the resource requirement. In fact, resource availability becomes an important aspect of objective setting because it is the proper application of resources which ensures objective achievement. Therefore, there should be matching between objectives and resources. By relating these to objectives, a superior manager is better able to set the need and economy of allocating resources. By relating these to objectives, a superior manger is better able to see the need and economy of allocating resources. The allocation and movement of resources should be done in consultation with the subordinate manager. 5. Appraisal: Appraisal aspect of MBO tries to measure whether the subordinate is achieving his objective or not. If not, what are the problems and how these problems can be overcome? Appraisal is undertaken as an ongoing process with a view to find out deficiency in the working and also to remove it promptly. It is not taken merely to punish the non-performer or to reward the performer. It is taken as a matter of system to ensure that everything is going as planned and the organization is able to achieve its objectives. 6. Recycling: Though appraisal is the last aspect of MBO process, it is used as an input for recycling objectives and other actions. Objectives are neither set at the top and communicated to the bottom nor are they set at the bottom and go up. Objective setting is a joint process through interaction between superior and subordinate. Therefore, what happens at each level may affect other levels also. The outcome of appraisal at one level is recycled to see if the objectives have been set properly at the level concerned and also at the next higher level. 9.5 Quality Circles Quality circle is one of the most popular methods in the USA which was originally developed in Japan in 1950s.Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. Quality circle requires a managerial philosophy and culture that promotes sharing power, information, knowledge, and rewards. Quality circle program consists of several circles, each having three to fifteen members. The original idea of quality circles involved small groups of volunteers meeting on a regular basis, but in its contemporary form, quality groups are often compulsory and organized around specific work teams. Some organizations have even gone as far as setting targets for the number of suggestions quality groups are expected to come up with. 9.6 Quality of Work Life Based on the research of Eric Trist et al. at the Tavistcock Institute of Human Relations in London, this approach looked both at technical and human sides of organizations and how they
are interrelated. QWL programs, in general, require joint participation by union and management in the process of work-designing, which consequently result into high level of task variety, appropriate feedback and employee discretion. The most distinguishing feature of QWL program is the development of self-managing work groups which consist of multi-skilled workers. 9.7 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel Learning Structures (also known as Communities of Practice) promote innovation and change in large bureaucratic organizations while retaining the advantages of bureaucratic design. Groups representing various levels and functions work to open new channels of communication outside of and parallel to the normal, hierarchical structure. Parallel Learning Structures may be a form of Knowledge Management. Knowledge Management involves capturing the organization’s collective expertise wherever it resides (in databases, on paper, or in people’s heads) and distributing it to the people who need it in a timely and efficient way. It Consists of a steering committee and a number of working groups that: · Study what changes are needed in the organization, · Make recommendations for improvement, and · Then monitor the resulting change efforts. 9.8 Total Quality Management It is a long term effort that orients all of an organization’s activities around the concept of quality. It is very popular in USA in 1990s.TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization, provides relevant information to all employees, ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. It is also called continuous quality improvement. A combination of a number of organization improvement techniques and approaches, including the use of quality circles, statistical quality control, statistical process control, self-managed teams and task forces, and extensive use of employee participation. Features that characterize TQM: · Primary emphasis on customers. · Daily operational use of the concept of internal customers. · An emphasis on measurement using both statistical quality control and statistical process control techniques.
__________ represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. The term MBO was coined by _________ in 1964. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. · A major emphasis on continuous learning. 9. 2.10 Summary An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. It seeks to make such processes more efficient by combining. actions. service. Quality
. From a benefit cost analysis. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. · Top management support on an ongoing basis. actions. eliminating. · An emphasis on teams and teamwork. An organization development __________ is a sequence of activities. quality.· Competitive benchmarking. and speed. Reengineering focuses on visualizing and streamlining any or all business processes in the organization. · Continuous search for sources of defects with a goal of eliminating them entirely. MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. assumes neither an upward flow of involvement nor that consensus decision making. Self Assessment Questions 1. 9. 3. such as cost. Reengineering is a top-down process.9 Reengineering It is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical. · Participative management. contemporary measures of performance. Sociotechnical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. or restructuring activities without regard to present hierarchical or control procedures.
12 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. Refer section 9. Intervention 2. Explain Management By Objectives? 4. 9. Refer section 9. Discuss Socio Technical Systems? 2. Drucker 3. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems.3 2. provides relevant information to all employees. Write a short note on Total Quality Management.5 4. Refer section 9.Refer section 9. What are the advantages of structural interventions? 3.circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. 9. Quality circle Answers to TQs: 1. TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .
.11 Terminal Questions 1.2 3. It is also called continuous quality improvement.
.7 Summary 10. the mangers and other employees must be able to practically anticipate the changes (planned and unprecedented). In this dynamic and fluid environment.9 Answers to SAQs and TQs 10.8 Terminal Questions 10.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change. organizational problems may repeat.5 Impact of Change on the Future Manager 10. 10.4 Causes for Resistance to Change.3 Resistance to Change 10. Hence. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future.1 Introduction
Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival.2 Nature of Change 10. Self Assessment Questions 10.MU0002-Unit-10-Managing Organization Development
Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Structure: 10.1 Introduction Objectives 10. cope with the ongoing changes successfully in the first instance. and initiate new change so as to overtake the competitors one the one hand and delight the customers on the other.
The type of new equilibrium depends on the degree of change and its impact on the organization. less. it becomes indented at the point of contact. Any change may effect the whole organization. or social. Organizational change is a continuous process. However. some changes which are of minor type may be absorbed by the existing equilibrium. When a finger (which represents external force) is forced against a point on the balloon (which represents the organization). They have illustrated it by comparing an organization to an air-filled balloon. 2. structural arrangement. and others. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization – technology.whether physical. · Impact of change on future managers. While managers as change agents want to bring changes in the organization.
.2 Nature of Change The term ‘change’ refers to an alteration in a system. what is important at this point is that a change in any part affects the entire organization and subsequent changes are required in other parts. and others. may require special change efforts.After studying this unit. job design and people. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of organization change. some parts may be affected directly. they have concluded that the whole organization tends to be affected by change in any part of it. it disturbs the old equilibrium necessitating the development of a new equilibrium. Thus. if we look minutely. biological. organizational change may have the following features: 1. we find that the shape of the entire balloon has changed. Though this phenomenon will be taken later. · Discuss the nature of change · Explain resistance to change and the factors which resist change. employees want to maintain a status quo. When change occurs in any part of the organization. the contour of the balloon visibly changes. · State the methods of reducing resistance to change. which are major ones. Thus. the change in organization does not occur purely on mechanical relationship. Thus. Newstrom and Davis have explained the impact of a change in any part of the organization on the total organization. organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. However. indirectly. others. it has stretched slightly. some parts of organization may be affected more. 3. However. 10.
One example of Bajaj Auto Limited is relevant here. many organizations have been forced to abandon change programmes because of resistance to such programmes. Resistance as Cost: Since all changes have some cost. because it produces identical symptoms. In fact. Many companies have been forced to do so in the past.” Resistance as Benefit: On the one hand. In order to increase its manufacturing capacity of two-wheelers. Homeostasis implies self-correcting characteristics of organism to maintain equilibrium as a result of change. there are two sides of resistance. people act to establish a steady state of need fulfillment and to secure themselves from disturbance of that balance. Similarly. the managers face the problem of resistance to change. let us discuss whether resistance is always bad as it is generally perceived to be. social systems tend to resist change because of homeostasis. Thus. On this phenomenon. Managing Director of Bajaj Auto.3 Resistance to Change In the management of change effectively. In fact. “The Pune plant is fully saturated. that is. In fact.as cost and as benefit. Resistance by some members of the organization provides an opportunity to the change agents to weigh the pros and cons of introducing change more carefully.10. We wanted a new culture and new layout. When change is minor and within the scope of correcting programme. or they have been forced to adopt alternative strategies. Madhur Bajaj. Before we trace out the reasons for résistance to change. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. Resistance to change forces management to find out this reality which helps in managing change more effectively. resistance to change is costly affair. and its basic survival may be jeopardized. commented. adjustment is fairly routine. like shifting of the manufacturing plants at new locations. resistance to change provides help in managing change in two ways:
. but when a change is major or unusual. it provides some benefits to the organization as its change agent. the company procured land near its old plant site but later shifted the new plant site away from the old plant because of resisting work culture of the old plant which was expected to percolate to the new plant also. We shall take new workers at the new place. so is the resistance to change. While on negative side. fear of change can be as significantly disrupting as change itself. We saw resistance to change at the existing plant. This leads to general proposition that people and their social systems will often resist change in organizations. more serious upsets may occur. the organizational may not be able to introduce new phenomena in order to adapt environmental requirement. the reality lies in between. and on the other. If people resist to change.
Reduced Opportunities for Incentives: Employees are generally offered incentives linked to their output in the form of incentive schemes. It may signal the need for more effective communication about the meaning and purpose of a change or need to rethink precisely how a proposed change will affect the organization and its members. they will have lower opportunity to earn incentives and bonus as the new system requires additional skills. and turn into technological unemployment. It also highlights real inadequacies in the proposed change and suggests better ways for developing and introducing changes. These feeling may be based either on reality or there may be emotional feeling towards the change. Psychological Factors
. Skill Obsolescence: A change is generally meant for better methods of working which may involve new techniques. Factors in Resistance to Change People tend to evaluate the effect of change individually but they express it through group in collective form. people may feel that in the new system.1. they simply resist such a change. either real or emotional. Therefore. People may perceive that they will be adversely affected by the change in terms of their needs satisfaction in the following ways: 1. 3. Whenever there is change. When computer was introduced in the business sector in India. etc. reduce job options. bonus. job security etc. it attracted a lot of resistance because of this reason. Fear of Economic Loss: A change may create fear of economic loss in the sense that it may affect economic compensation adversely. may be seen in the context of three types of factors: economic. 2. Degree of force in resistance depends on how people feel about change. whenever people sense that new machinery (change) poses a threat of replacing or degrading them.. Economic Factors People feel attached to the organization for satisfying their needs and economic needsphysiological. etc. technology. psychological and social. All these are well-established in the old system. precede over other needs. This feeling is created because people feel that those who can match the new requirements will be better off than those who cannot match. the reasons underlying resistance to change may be identified at these two levels: Individual Resistance There are many factors operating at the individual level which are responsible for resistance. 2. These feelings.
which is always uncertain. that is. may be logical from people’s point of view but may be illogical from the change agent’s point of view. To the extent the satisfaction of these needs is affected by a change. These are qualitative and.e. Lack of Trust in Change Agent: The effect of change is perceived in the context of change agent. through their mutual compatible interactions. their existing social interactions are likely to be changed. everyone tries to avoid it. Ego Defensiveness: A change may affect the ego of the people affected by the change and in order to defend their ego. people resist it. When there is any change. lack of trust in change agent. therefore. If people have low degree of confidence in the change agent. Thus. Fear of Unknown: A change may be perceived as entering into unchartered area which is unknown. 1. i. Desire to Maintain Existing Social Interaction: People desire to maintain existing social interaction since it is a satisfying one. people may differ. Therefore. status quo. these people resist any new idea. they do not want any disturbance in their existing equilibrium of life and work pattern. The change initiated by the organization disturbs such equilibrium and people have to obtain another equilibrium which is a painful exercise.
. The change will bring results in future. Low Tolerance for Change: In the context of maintaining status quo. they resist change. the change may be perceived as an instrument for exposing the weakness of the people. they show resistance to change efforts. Social Factors People derive need satisfaction. Some people have very low level of tolerance for change and ambiguity as compared to others. 3. 2. low tolerance for change. people resist change. particularly social needs. sentiments and attitudes towards change. They form their own social groups at the work place for the satisfaction of their social needs. 1. This lack of certainty creates anxiety and stress in the minds of people and they want to avoid it. The lack of adequate information about the likely impact of change further complicates the problems. Status Quo: People want status quo. Therefore. A change in itself suggests that everything is not right at a particular level. This is the reason why labour union resists changes initiated by management because of the feeling that labour and management are two different interest groups in the organization. 4. The major factors causing resistance to change are: desire to retain existing social interaction and feeling of outside interference. Therefore. Major psychological factors responsible for resistance are: ego defensiveness. the person who initiates change. and fear of unknown. 5.Psychological factors are based on people’s emotions. which people do not want.
Since these organizations have achieved success by following a particular set of management practices. 2. Counting Past Successes: A major problem before the organizations which have past success stories is how to face challenges of the changing environment. 1. values. and inter-organizational agreement. For example. Feeling of Outside Interference: A change brought about by the change agent is considered to be interference in the working of people. if new
. prescribes rigid authority relationships. stability of systems. the organization may not bring it easily because it is accustomed to a particular system. Zerox or nearer home-TI cycles. The major reasons for organizational failure to change are: counting past successes. If the organization is not fully equipped for meeting such demands.” This statement suggests that organizations tend to stabilize at a particular level and if the change efforts are not brought. It is called ‘The Failure of Success’. these organizations start falling. a bureaucratic organization has certain fixed rules. e. For example. and institutes reward and punishment system. The system is stabilized and any change may be perceived as a threat by the organization itself. sunk cost. This phenomenon is heightened if the change agent belongs to another social class. For example. This is the reason why many old industrial houses are languishing far behind and their places are being taken away by newer organizations.. it may not be possible for the organization to bring necessary change. Resource Limitations: No doubt. Strategies. dogmas. resource limitations. Some of these reasons are basic while others are by-products of those. a professor of strategic leadership who is considered to be a management Guru. nothing fails as spectacularly as spectacular success. Whether it is IBM. Many organizations are designed to be innovation-resisting. even the organization itself resists many changes because of certain reasons. Sumantra Ghoshal. all these companies have been victims of corporate disease. Caterpillar. resources and processes of the most successful companies have in the past ossified into clichés. Digital Equipment Corporation. Organizational Resistance to Change: Not only individuals and groups within an organization resist change. The latter my feel that managers try to make workers an instrument for higher productivity but the outcome of this productivity will be retained by them. has commented as follows: “Nothing fails like success. 3. It a change is required in these aspects. All these work in some circumstances. Many powerful organizations of the past have failed to change and they have developed into routines.2. an organization has to adapt to its environment but the adaptation has its own cost. change initiated by managers affecting workers. Stability of Systems: The organization may design a system through which it may derive many benefits. first two reasons are basic and others are by-products of the first two. millstones and routines. they become too rigid to change and they hide their failure to change in the guise of past successes. For example.g.
For example. 3. it is not necessary that his services are done away with. 5. Defenders: These are the firms which penetrate in a narrow market product domain and guard it. centralized control. 4. they cannot survive. forward-looking. This can be in the form of people also. 4. If it is risk-taking. the organization may enter into agreement with labour union about not bringing any technological change. 2. decentralized controls. those who watch things happen.
. and reactors. It is necessary too that other organizations also agree to the change proposal. Otherwise. and commensurate expenses on other items also. broad environmental scanning. innovative. the organization has to take into consideration the wishes of other organizations too. these can be used for specific period. they have to behave in one of the above three ways. analyzers. Based on the aggressiveness which various companies show in changing themselves. Analyzers: Above two are the extreme cases of choice-making modes in between the analyzers and reactors. In this interaction process. They go on searching new products/markets on regular basis. Prospectors: These firms use broad planning approaches. They emphasize more on cost-effectiveness. Once the assets are acquired.technology is adopted. if any change is to be incorporated. it may enter into agreement with other organizations over certain aspects of working. if the change is required. it will require resources to procure machine. those who wonder what happened. and reserve some resources unutilized for future use. building and training for its personnel. prospectors. It depends more on the style of top management. 1. Sunk cost cannot be only in terms of various physical things.” This is the true reflection of difference between change-initiating companies and changeresisting companies. what will happen to these assets? Naturally. Miles and Snow have classified them into four categories. Sunk Cost: Most of the organizations have sunk cost involved in various assets. It an individual is not making commensurate contribution.defenders. Analyzers act sometimes as defenders and sometimes as prospectors. Reactors: These organizations realize that their specific environment is changing but fail to relate themselves with the changing environment. and has zeal for progress. the organization will like to make a comparison between the outcomes of changed programme and continuing with old programme in the light of this sunk cost. Therefore. intensive planning. organization has to pay for his services though these may not be as useful. In such a case. the organization may take change programmes much more frequently. Thus. Inter-organizational Agreements: The organization interacts with its environment. and put less emphasis on environmental scanning. Now. Let us see what someone has said long back: “There are three types of companies: those who make things happen.
Habit Every day. So when your department is moved to a new office building across town. we’ve categorized them by individual and organizational sources. implicit. They may. Life is complex enough. adjusting to the new office layout. do you continually use the same route and streets? Probably if you’re like most people. As human beings. finding a new parking place. Changes in job tasks or established work routines also can arouse economic fear if people are concerned they won’t be able to perform the new tasks or routines to their previous standards. If for example. For analytical purpose. this tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance. the introduction of a quality management program requires that production workers learn statistical process control techniques. immediate. For example. and so on. develop a negative attitude towards quality management or behave dysfunctionally if required to use statistical techniques. some may fear they’ll be unable to do so. threatening to go on strike. When we are confronted with change. or programmed responses. you find a single route and you use it regularly. many employees at these firms may fear that their jobs are in jeopardy. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints.4 Cause for Resistance to Change Resistance to change doesn’t necessarily surface in standardized ways. engaging in a work showdown. or deferred. Organizational resistance Structural Inertia: Organizations have built-in mechanisms to produce stability. Fear of the Unknown: Change substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the known. Security: People who have a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feeling of safety. Economic Factors: Another source of individual resistance is concern that changes will lower one’s income. Resistance can be overt. When Boeing announces its laying off 10. Training
. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. when you go to work or school. To cope with this complexity. developing a new lunchtime routine.10. therefore. For instance. we all rely on habits. it means you’re likely to have to change many habits: waking up 10 minutes earlier. And people in general don’t like the unknown. Let’s look at the sources of resistance. we’re creatures of habit. The same applies to employee. taking a new set of streets to work. or the like. we don’t need to consider the full range of options for the hundreds of decisions we have to make every day. especially when pay is closely tied to productivity. the selection process systematically selects certain people in and certain people out.000 people or Ford introduces new robotic equipment.
he’s likely to resist. for instance. Changing Skill Sets More organizations are utilizing cross functional teams. rules and procedures for employees to follow. Group Inertia: Even if individuals want to change their behavior. But if union norms dictate resisting any unilateral change made by management. development of pay plans. Introduction of participative decision making or self-managed work teams are examples of changes that often are seen as threats to the power of supervisors and middle managers. Threat to Established Resource Allocations: the groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. People from one functional department are placed on terms with people from other functional areas. One area of organizations that continues its metamorphosis is the design itself. Thereat to Established Power Relationships: Any redistribution of decision-making authority can threaten long-established power relationship within the organization. These teams are comprised of people from various areas within the company. 10. For example. accountants work with marketers. may be willing to accept changes in his job suggested by management. For example.and other socialization techniques reinforce specific role requirements and skills. Threat to Expertise: Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups. Why? Because this outsourcing is a threat to the specialized skills held by people in HR departments. Limited Focus of Change: Organization is made up of interdependent subsystems. the change in technology is not likely to be accepted. for instance. the way in which companies are configured today is changing. group norms may act as a constraint. They tend to be content with the way things are. human resource people with engineers and finance individuals with operations employees. if management changes the technological processes without simultaneously modifying the organization’s structure to match. That is. Formalization provides job description. and benefits administration – has been resisted by many human resource departments. So limited changes in subsystems tend to get nullified by the larger system.5 Impact of Change on Future Manager Organizations are changing nearly daily. The recent move by some companies to outsource many of their human resource activities – such as training. The only constant in organizational life today appears to be the presence of continuous change.
. mean a reduction in their budgets or a cut in their staff size? Those who most benefit from the current allocation of resources are often threatened by change that may affect future allocations. An individual union member. You can’t change one without affecting the others. Will the change.
However. strategic directions for the company must be identified in light of these changes. Unless this problem is overcome properly. the effect of the change may not be as functional as envisaged by the management. it can make effectively by managing resistance effectively.The ultimate goal is to improve organizational performance by cutting production time or time to market. For this purpose. managers must be more skilled at reading the environment and grasping the big picture. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. They need to be adept at reading the trends in the environment and then determining what they mean specifically for their own organization.” Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. the problems can be solved at the same level. Stephen Robbins suggests that “…… managers in virtual structures spend most of their time coordinating and controlling external relations.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change One of the basic problems in managing change is to overcome people’s resistance to change successfully. For example. Decision making is becoming more and more comfortable for those throughout the organization as the need to make decisions is distributed more evenly across all organizational levels. the following efforts can be taken: 1. Locavini observes that “the secret of real success is effective management of the emotional vulnerability that accompanies organizational change. at the level of individual and at the level of group. through group dynamics. As organizations must be better equipped to respond to change in their external environment. In addition. Problem solving now involves the people who are experts in the issue – not necessarily those in high positions in the organization. rather should be looked upon as a dialogue which continues over a period of time. It implies explanation and
. It may affect only a few while others may not be affected. 10. Efforts at Individual Level A change is likely to affect some people in some way. This requires that managers think differently and teach employees to think differently. both at the formal and informal levels. that is.” The newer organizational structures use term problem solving. When the resistance comes from the people at individual levels. Involvement: Involvement is a process through which those who are affected by the change are brought to understand the change. In many cases. this is not a one-time action. Therefore. typically by way of computer network links. even the impact of change may be dysfunctional if change is imposed upon the people by the use of formal authority. the role of formal authority in implementing a change may not be effective all the times. More fluid structures require that managers improve their strategic orientation.
Based on these characteristics of group as a means of change. Though each person interprets the change individually often. it is more meaningful if it is done through group. sometimes. However. and conferences. and indoctrinated in new relationships. most of the times. he expresses it through a group. As this process goes. helped to change attitudes. An effective leader tries to time a change to fit the psychological needs of his followers. the leader tries to overcome this resistance by leadership process. Efforts at Group Level Although agreement to a change can be obtained individually. education must be a part of the manager’s everyday activity on the job. meetings. as discussed earlier. This helps in creating receptive environment in the organization. Group dynamics offers some basic help in this regard. its process and working. Thus. is an important trust-building task. 3. understanding of change increases and personal involvement in the change increases. 2. getting a man to commit himself in private to change programme may yield fewer results than if he voluntarily and publicly gives his commitment to an idea of change. 4. It includes finding out from the members how they interpret the proposed changes and what they think about them. it is desirable at the group level to get better acceptability of change. Leadership: The role of leadership in getting acceptance for a change is very important as a capable leader reinforces a climate of psychological support for change. so that they are looked at and evaluated. It grows slowly along with relationship. A manager as weak leader presents change on the basis of the impersonal requirements of the situation. They must be taught new skills. Getting opinions out in the open.then discussion of the proposed changes. People should be educated to become familiar with change. must be understood so that its effective use can be made. Thus. Commitment to take part in the change programme can be obtained in private from each individual. but a transformational leader can use personal reasons for change without arousing resistance. Such educational process can be aided by training classes. However. Usually. For using group as a means of overcoming resistance to change. its basic nature. instead of solving the problem at the individual level. Training and Psychological Counseling: The management can change the basic values of the people by training and psychological counseling. to become effective. The fundamental idea in this process is to encourage the person to say something about any aspect of the change. the level of resistance to change tends to decrease. The decision to commit oneself is a dynamic process. People always have some ideas and opinions about what is going on in the world and more specially if touches them personally. either the subordinates do not resist or if they resist. Obtaining Commitment: Commitment is an agreement to take an active part in the actual mechanics of the change. the manager can form strategies for overcoming resistance in the following manner:
. more than one person is involved in the change.
and how members contribute. This is more important in the case of workers who themselves treat a separate group and do not identify with the management. 3. Research studies also support this aspect. The laboratory method provides a setting where group processes can be studied intensively. _________ helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. 3. 2. and how the benefits of the meaningful and continuous dialogue are necessary. Through the group contact. Self Assessment Questions 1. The organization must regard the participation as meaningful and share the results of the change with its members. They must be made a party to the change rather than an agent for resistance to change. taking whole of the group into confidence helps in maintaining a cooperative attitude. Group Contact: Any effect to change is likely to succeed if the group accepts that change. benefits of change. sentiments and attitudes towards change. __________ are based on people’s emotions. It purports how the results are. Group Dynamics Training for Change: Group dynamics also helps in providing various training programmes for accepting and implementing change. thereby the people can build up the climate based on mutual trust and understanding which are essential for bringing organizational changes successfully. mere participation may not help. job design and people. _________ is the alteration of work environment in an organization. Participation: Participation helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. there may be some person who may communicate to the same group. structural arrangement. (iii) Group can get at the basic problem very rapidly as compared to a single individual. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization – technology. The same is true of problem-solving. one can communicate with more people per unit of time.such aspects as the reasons for change. and sensitivity or T-group training. Such training techniques include role playing. Such training techniques provide understanding of behaviour. For this purpose. The group contact offers some specific advantages: (i) Through groups. It makes people feel that the organization needs their opinions and ideas and is unwilling to go ahead without taking them into account. Free flow of information helps people to understand the real picture of the change and many misunderstandings may be avoided.1. psychodrama. Even if only some of the members are affected by the change. However. (ii) In group. It would be prudent for management to take labour representatives into confidence before implementing any change. 2. Those people who are directly affected by the change should be given opportunity to participate in that change before the final decisions are reached.
. the group itself should be the point of contact. many things about change can be made clear.
7 Summary Change is inevitable. 10. through group dynamics. both at the formal and informal levels. social factors. at the level of individual and at the level of group. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization. engaging in a work showdown. psychological factors. threatening to go on strike.6. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. implicit. Participation Answers to TQs: 1.2 2. group resistance and vested interests. Discuss the methods of reducing resistance to change. Refer section 10. Psychological factors 3. Explain the nature of change? 2. Organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. Economic factors.4 3. Resistance can be overt. immediate. Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. or the like.9 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. For instance.8 Terminal Questions 1. Reference:
. that is.10. Changes may be influenced by external and internal factors. 10. Organizational change 2. Refer section 10. Refer section 10. or deferred. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. Why do organizations resist change? 3.
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