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Unit-01-Introduction to Management Structure: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 1.2 Definitions of Management 1.3 Characteristics of Management 1.4 Scope and Levels of Management 1.5 Importance of Management 1.6 Role of Management 1.7 Administration and Management Self Assessment Questions 1.8 Summary 1.9 Terminal Questions 1.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 1.1 Introduction Management is a global need. It is essential to every individual, a family, educational institution, hospital, religious organizations, team of players, a government, military systems, cultural body, urban centers and business enterprises. No individual can satisfy all his needs by himself. Men should join together and accomplish goals through co-operation. Whenever, there is an organized group of people working towards a common goal, some type of management is needed. A business enterprise must be directed and controlled by a group of people to achieve its goals. The resources of money, manpower, material and technology will be waste unless they are out to work in a co-ordinated manner. It is the ‘management’ which uses the available resources in such a manner that a business enterprise is able to earn ‘surplus’ to meet the needs of growth and expansion. Management is required to plan, organize, co-
ordinate and control the affairs of a business concern. It brings together all resources and motivates people to achieve the objectives of a business enterprise. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Define management. · Explain the characteristics of management. · Differentiate between management and administration. · State the principles of management. · Explain the roles of managers. · Explain managerial skills. 1.2 Definitions of Management Management may be defined in many different ways. Many eminent authors on the subject have defined the term “management”. Some of these definitions are reproduced below: According to Lawerence A. Appley – “Management is the development of people and not the direction of things.” In the words of George R. Terry – “Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.” According to James L. Lundy – “Management is principally the task of planning, co-ordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective.” In the words of Henry Fayol – “To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.” According to Peter F. Drucker – “Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages a business and managers and manages worker and work”. In the words of Koontz and O’Donnel – “Management is defined as the creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals working together in groups can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals”.
According to Newman, Summer and Warren – “The job of management is to make co-operative endeavor to function properly. A Manager is one who gets things done by working with people and other resources.” From the definitions quoted above, it is clear that “management” is a technique of extracting work from others in an integrated and co-ordinated manner for realizing the specific objectives through productive use of material resources. Mobilizing the physical, human and financial resources and planning their utilization for business operations in such a manner as to reach the defined goals can be referred to as “management”. If the views of the various authorities are combined, management could be defined as a “distinct ongoing process of allocating inputs of an organization (human and economic resources) by typical managerial functions (planning, organizing, directing and controlling) for the purpose of achieving stated objectives, namelyoutput of goods and services desired by its customers (environment). In the process, work is performed with and through personnel of the organization in an ever-changing business environment.” From the above, it is clear that management refers to the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people. The process represents the functions or primary activities engaged in by managers. These functions are typically labeled planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Efficiency is a vital part of management. It refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs. If you can get more output from the given inputs, you have increased efficiency. Similarly, if you can get the same output from less input, you also have increased efficiency. Since managers deal with input resources that are scarce-mainly people, money and equipment-they are concerned with the efficient use of these resources. Management, therefore, is concerned with minimizing resource costs. Efficiency is often referred to as “doing things right”. However, it is not enough simply to be efficient. Management is also concerned with getting activities completed; i.e. it seeks effectiveness. When managers achieve their organization’s goals, we say they are effective. Effectiveness can be described as “doing the right things”. So efficiency is concerned with means and effectiveness with ends. Efficiency and effectiveness are interrelated. For instance, it is easier to be effective if one ignores efficiency. Timex could produce more accurate and attractive watches if it disregarded labour and material input costs. Some federal government agencies have been criticized regularly on the grounds that they are reasonably effective but extremely inefficient; that is, they get their jobs done but at a very high cost. Management is concerned, then, not only with getting activities completed (effectiveness), but also with doing so as efficiently as possible. Can organization be efficient and yet not effective? Yes, by doing the wrong things well. Many colleges have become highly efficient in processing students. By using computer-assisted learning, large lecture classes, and heavy reliance on part-time faculty, administrators have significantly cut the cost of educating each student. Yet students, alumni, and accrediting agencies have criticized some of these colleges for failing to educate their students properly. Of
Integrative Force: The essence of management is integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives. the process of management involves decision-making and putting of decisions into practice. It is imperative that the organizational goals must be well-defined and properly understood by the mangers at various levels. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the organizational goals are achieved. management is an essential ingredient of an organization. although they can’t observe it during operation. These functions are so interwoven that it is not possible to lay down exactly the sequence of various functions or their relative significance. buoyant spirit and adequate work output. Thus. experience and management principles for getting the results from the workers by the use of non-human resources. high efficiency is associated more typically with high effectiveness. 4. Distinct Process: Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning. informed employees. capital and materials. Goal-oriented: Management is a purposeful activity. It co-ordinates the efforts of workers to achieve the goals of the organization. they require the catalyst of management to produce goods and services required by the society. 5. Its presence is evidenced by the result of its efforts-orderliness. And poor management is most often due to both inefficiency and ineffectiveness or to effectiveness achieved through inefficiency. 1. It is the most critical input in the success of any organized group activity. 6. All these resources are made available to those who manage.course. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others. Thus. namely. One may not see with the naked eyes the functioning of management but its results are apparently known. Intangible Force: Management has been called an unseen force. It is the force which assembles and integrates other resources. In essence. Managers also seek to harmonize the individuals’ goals with the organizational goals for the smooth working of the organization. directing and controlling. Managers apply knowledge. People often remark of the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of management on the basis of the end results. 3. Results through Others: The managers cannot do everything themselves. Economic Resource: Management is one of the factors of production together with land. labour. organizing. labour and capital. They must motivate the subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them. These factors do not by themselves ensure production. 2. staffing. feeling of management is result-oriented. .3 Characteristics of Management Management is a distinct activity having the following salient features or characteristics: 1.
that is. The principles are working guidelines which are flexible and capable of adaptation to every organization where the efforts of human beings are to be co-ordinated. people . management is viewed as an art. labour and capital. education. Managers at different levels possess varying degrees of authority. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. So it is treated as a science. manpower. Multi-disciplinary Subject: Management has grown as a field of study (i. Sociology and Operations Research have also contributed to the development of management science. For instance. In modern organizations.4 Scope of Management The scope of management is very wide. Since the skills acquired by a manager are his personal possession. it refers to three distinct ideas. · Management as an economic resource Management is one of the factors of production along with land. and (iii) a class or elite. A Science and an Art: Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of welldefined concepts. 10. productivity orientation drew its inspiration from Industrial Engineering and human relations orientation from Psychology. The application of these concepts. (ii) a system of authority. military. principles and techniques which have wide applications. management is the rule-making and rule-enforcing body. Generally. useful. In other words. 9. Universal Application: Management is universal in character.e. Sociology and Psychology. how effectively and economically the five M’s are combined together to produce desired results. principles and techniques requires specialized knowledge and skills on the part of the manager.7. Basically. as we move down in the managerial hierarchy. Anthropology. management is required to covert the disorganized resources of men. According to Newman. It is bound together by a web of relationships between superiors and subordinates. System of Authority: Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority. materials. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively. According to Herbision and Myers. government and hospital. Similarly. a hierarchy of command and control. materials. the effective use of the five M’s of management (money. Much of the management literature is the result of association of these disciplines. · Management as a system of authority According to Herbison and Myers. management may be understood as (i) an economic resource. money and machines into a productive. on-going concern. 8. the degree of authority gets gradually reduced. discipline) taking the help of so many other disciplines such as Engineering. Henri Fayol suggested that principles of management would apply more or less in every situation. 1. The principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the fields of business.
Administrative management is concerned with “thinking” functions such as laying down policy. (i) administrative management (i. the term management refers to the group of individuals occupying managerial positions.. The managerial class has become very important in modern organizations owing to its contribution to business success. but as head of wages and salary department. Managing Director. Middle management (departmental heads like work manage. For instance. Operative management is concerned with the “doing” function such as implementation of policies. Lower management (first line supervisors) is concerned with routine. Considering the hierarchy of authority and responsibility. its Chairman.e. As a separate group. planning and setting up of standards. or the General Manager or Executive Committee having key officers. Board of Directors. We generally come across two broad levels of management. one can identify three levels of management namely: i) Top management of a company consists of owners/shareholders. ranks. Top management determines objectives and provides direction to enterprise activities.e. his job is to see that the decisions are implemented. Instructions and decisions downward and carry the problem and suggestions upward. Managers working at top levels enjoy more authority than people working at lower levels. or the Chief Executive. All the managers form the chief executive to the first line supervisors are collectively addressed as ‘Management’ which refers to the group. . day-to-day matters. Levels of management refer to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an enterprise. They transmit orders..) interprets and explains the policies framed by the top management. and directing the operations to attain the objectives of the enterprise. the lower level of management). finance manager. · Management as a class or elite Sociologists view management as a distinct class in society having its own value system. wage and salary director of a company may assist in fixing wages and salary structure as a member of the Board of Directors. or. viz. personnel manager etc. But in actual practice. technical facilities. it is difficult of draw any clear-cut demarcation between thinking function and doing function as the basic/fundamental managerial functions are performed by all managers irrespective of their levels.are bound by authority relationships. the upper level of management) and (ii) operating management (i. The real significance of levels is that they explain authority relationships in an organization. Levels of Management An enterprise may have different levels of management. The levels of management depend upon its size. and the range of production.
Marketing Manager. Purchase Manager. b) To make policies and frame plans to attain the objectives laid. e) To exercise effective control of the operations. Production Manager. Supervisors. Middle management: The job of middle management is to implement the policies and plans framed by the top management. b) To interpret the policies chalked out by top management. It serves as an essential link between the top management and the lower level or operative management. c) To set up an organizational framework to conduct the operations as per plans.. It is also described as the policy-making group responsible for the overall direction and success of all company activities.ii) Middle management of a company consists of heads of functional departments namely. iii) Lower level or operative management of a company consists of Superintendents. Financial Controller. c) To prepare the organizational set up in their own departments for fulfilling the objectives implied in various business policies. Top management: Top management is the ultimate source of authority and it lays down goals. and Divisional Sectional Officers working under these Functional Heads. d) To recruit and select suitable operative and supervisory staff. etc. f) To provide overall leadership to the enterprise. The following are the main functions of middle management: a) To establish the objective or goals of the enterprise. They are responsible to the top management for the functioning of their department. duties and responsibilities for timely implementation of the plans. They devote more time on the organization and motivation functions of management. d) To assemble the resources of money. 1. etc. Foremen. machines and methods to put the plans into action. . The important functions of top management include: a) To establish the objectives or goals of the enterprise. men. 2. It devotes more time on planning and co-ordinating functions. It is accountable to the owners of the business of the overall management. policies and plans for the enterprise. materials. e) To assign activities. They provide the guidance and the structure for a purposeful enterprise. Without them the top management’s plans and ambitious expectations will not be fruitfully realized.
money and material. supervisors. an organization is merely a collection of men. They are concerned with direction and control functions of management. It helps in putting the resources to the best advantage within the limitations set by the organization and its environment. They pass on the instructions of the middle management to workers.5 Importance of Management According to Drucker. It enables employees to move cooperatively and achieve goals in a coordinated manner. It consists of foreman. evaluate their performance and report to the middle level management. (ii) Effective leadership and motivation: In the absence of management. the working of an enterprise will become random and haphazard in nature. i) To collect reports and information on performance in their departments. A right climate is created for workers to put in their best and show superior performance. They devote more time in the supervision of the workers. The importance of management can be understood from the following points. Employees feel a sense of security when they find a body of individual’s working day and night for the continued growth of an organization. and actual operations are the responsibility of this level of management. the resources of production remain resources and never become production. They are also involved in the process of decisions-making. They interpret and divide the plans of the management into short-range operating plans. k) To make suitable recommendations to the top management for the better execution of plans and policies. sales officers. machines. h) To co-operate with the other departments for ensuring a smooth functioning of the entire organization. Lower or operative management: It is placed at the bottom of the hierarchy of management. It is the activating force that gets things done through people. Management creates teamwork and . 1. They are in direct touch with the rank and file or workers. Their authority and responsibility is limited. Management makes group effort more effective. accounts officers and so on. (i) Optimum use of resources: Management ensures optimum utilization of resources by attempting to avoid wastage of all kinds. They have to get the work done through the workers. g) To motivate personnel to attain higher productivity and to reward them properly. In its absence. j) To report to top management. They allot various jobs to the workers.f) To compile all the instructions and issue them to supervisors under their control. 3. Without management. management is the dynamic lift-giving element in every organization.
(c) Exploiting new ideas for the benefit of society as a whole and (d) developing employee talents and capabilities while at work and prompting them to show peak performance. counseling and effective leadership. Objective can be achieved only when the human and non-human resources are combined in a proper way. forecasting combined with efficient use of resources) and taking appropriate steps.motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. techniques. (iv) Achievement of goals: Management plays an important role in the achievement of objectives of an organization. They try to put everything on the right tract. They initiate prompt actions whenever workers express dissatisfaction over organizational rules. Industrial peace is an essential requirement for increasing productivity. iii) The establishment of a representative organization with professiona-lizing as its goal. hire competent people and provide necessary guidance. methods. An enterprise has to take note of these changes and adapt itself quickly. manager tries to strike a happy balance between the demands of employees and organizational requirements. . (iii) Establishers sound industrial relations: Management minimizes industrial disputes and contributes to sound industrial relations in an undertaking. government policy. and specialized knowledge. Failure to take note of customer’s needs regarding full efficiently has spelt doom for ‘Ideal java’ in the two-wheeler market in India. Management is goal-oriented. a profession possesses the following characteristics: i) A body of principles. (vi) Improves standard of living : Management improves the standard of living of people by (a) using scarce resources efficiently and turning out profits. According to McFarland. Successful managers are the ones who anticipate and adjust to changing circumstances rather than being passively swept along or caught unprepared. etc. all these help in realizing goals with maximum efficiency. (v) Change and growth: Changes in technology. To this end. Organize the resources properly. we generally mean a manager who undertakes management as a career and is not interested in acquiring ownership share in the enterprise which he manages. With a view to realize the predetermined goals-managers plan carefully. competition. (b) Ensuring the survival of the firm in the face of continued changes. Management as a profession By a professional manager. Overlapping efforts and waste motions are avoided. often threaten the survival of a firm. skills. ii) Formalized methods of acquiring training and experience.. Managers help an organization by anticipating these changes (carefull planning. In the final analysis. Thus unnecessary deviations. procedures and reward systems.
But unlike medicine or law. an art as well as a profession. Management is also a profession in the sense that formalized methods of training is available to those who desire to be managers. however. a management degree is not a pre-requisite to become a manager. sabotaging trade unions. and the university departments of management offer a variety of short-term management training programmes. What he discovered challenged several long-held notions about the manager’s job. and it is not as fully a profession as medicine and law. A number of organizations such as the Administrative Staff College of India. manipulating prices and markets are by no means uncommon management practices. Furthermore. bribing public officials to gain favours. Training facilities are provided in most companies by their training divisions. 1. We have a number of institutes of management and university departments of management which provide formal education in this field. Management Development Institute. none of them has the professionalizing of the management as its goal. etc. It is a profession in the sense that there is a systematized body of management. Henry Mintzberg did a careful study of five chief executives at work. management is not as exact as natural sciences. It may be concluded from the above discussion that management is a science. There are a number of representative organizations of management practitioners almost in all countries such as the All India Management Association in India. Indeed such mobile managers are regarded as more progressive and modern than others.S. the All India Management Association. However. the Indian Institute of Management. There was little time for reflective thinking because the managers encountered . do not seem to adhere to the principle of “service above self”. in contrast to the predominant views at the time that managers were reflective thinkers who carefully and systematically processed information before making decisions. and v) The charging of fees based on the nature of services. As a social science. try to develop a code of conduct for their own managers but there is no general and uniform code of conduct for all managers. Mintberz found that his managers engaged in a large number of varied.A. the American Management Association in U. For instance.. managers in general. It has also developed a vast number of tools and techniques. and it is distinct. and short-duration activities. identifiable discipline. Management does not fulfill the last two requirements of a profession. little regard is paid to the elevation of service over the desire for monetary compensation is evident by switching of jobs by managers. Management partially fulfils the third characteristic of profession. Some individual business organizations. In fact.6 Role of Management In the late 1960s. However. Management is a profession to the extent it fulfils the above conditions.iv) The formation of ethical codes for the guidance of conduct. There is no ethical code of conduct for managers as for doctors and lawyers. unpatterned.
to some degree.1: Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles Role Interpersonal Figurehead Description Identifiable Activities Leader Symbolic head. Table 1. The term ‘management roles’ refers to specific categories of managerial behaviour. training. Mintzberg concluded that managers perform ten different but highly interrelated roles. what competitors may be planning. Mintzberg called this the monitor role. duties of a legal or social nature. These sources are individuals or groups outside the manager’s unit. obliged to Greeting visitors. But in addition to these insights. The third role within the interpersonal grouping is the liaison role. they do so by reading magazines and talking with others to learn of changes in the public’s tastes. signing perform a number of routine legal documents. he or she has an outside liaison relationship. Managers also act as a conduit to transmit information to organizational members. and the like. When that sales manager confers with other sales executives through a marketing trade association. Responsible for the motivation Performing virtually all and activation of subordinates. Mintzberg provided a categorization scheme for defining what managers do based on actual managers on the job. Half of these managers’ activities lasted less than nine minutes each. manages also perform a spokesperson role. and may be inside or outside the organization. When the president of a college hands out diplomas at commencement or a factory supervisor gives a group of high school students a tour of the plant. The sales manager who obtains information from the human resources manager in his or her same company has an internal liaison relationship. Mintzberg described this activity as contacting external sources who provide the manager with information. the transfer of information. Informational Roles: All managers. activities that involve responsible for staffing. motivating. training. All managers have a role as a leader. . This role includes hiring. fulfill informational roles-receiving and collecting information from organizations and institutions outside their own. he or she is acting in a figurehead role. and disciplining employees. subordinates. Interpersonal Roles: All managers are required to perform duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature – interpersonal roles. When they represent the organisation to outsiders. These ten roles can be grouped as those primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships. and decision-making.constant interruptions. This is the disseminator role. Typically. and associated duties.
requesting of organizational resources of authorization. maintaining it current) to develop thorough personal contacts. Transmits information to Holding board meetings. emerges as nerve center of internal and external information about the organization.Liaison Maintains self-developed Acknowledging mail. performing all kinds – in effect. etc. policies. supervises design of certain projects as well. projects” to bring about change. Transmits information received Holding informational from outsides or from other meetings. the organization – some information is factual. performing other favors and information. the making any activity that involves or approval of all significant budgeting and the Informational Monitor Disseminator Spokesperson Decisional Entrepreneur Disturbance handler Resource allocator . Searches organization and its Organizing strategy and environment for opportunities review sessions to and initiates “improvement develop new programs. some involves interpretation and integration of diverse value positions of organizational influencers. unexpected involve disturbances and disturbances crises Responsible for the allocation Scheduling. making phone subordinates to members of calls to relay information. Seeks and receives wide variety Reading periodicals and of special information (much of reports. network of outside contacts doing external board and informers who provide work. actions.. results. activities that involve outsiders. outsiders on organization’s giving information of the plans. understanding of organization and environment. Responsible for corrective Organizing strategy and action when organization faces review sessions that important. serves as expert on organization’s industry. media.
or manufacturing. managers take corrective action in response to previously unforeseen problems. managers are responsible for allocating human. For example. an accounts payable manager must be proficient in accounting rules and standardized . figurehead. computers. managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization’s performance. the leader role is more important for lowerlevel managers than it is for either middle-or-top-level managers. During the early 1970. As entrepreneurs. 1973). liaison. He also found that the relative importance of these skills varied according to the manager’s level within the organization. Managerial Skills As you can see from the preceding discussion. However. are heavily involved in technical aspects of the organization’s operations. Technical Skills: First-line managers. managers perform as negotiators when they discuss and bargain with other groups to gain advantages for their own units. Katz found that managers need three essential skills or competencies: technical. Conversely. research by Robert L. As disturbance handlers. Last. Negotiator programming of subordinates work. Technical skills include knowledge of and proficiency in a certain specialized field. pp 93-94 Copyright Ó 1973 by Hency Mintzberg. Managers need certain skills to perform the duties and activities associated with being a manager. An Evaluation: A number of follow-up studies have tested the validity of Mintzberg’s role categories across different types of organizations and at different levels within given organizations. and conceptual. the roles of disseminator. The evidence generally supports the idea that managers – regardless of the type of organization or level in the organization-perform similar roles. Publishers. finance. Mintzberg identified four decisional roles which revolve around the making of choices. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row. the emphasis that managers give to the various roles seems to change with hierarchical level. such as engineering. The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper & Row. human. As resource allocators. a manager’s job is varied and complex.organizational decisions. Inc. negotiator. Responsible for representing Participating in union the organization at major contract negotiations. Specifically. physical and monetary resources. negotiations. and spokesperson are more important at the higher levels of the organization than at the lower ones. as well as many middle managers. Decisional Roles: Finally. Source: Henry Mintzberg.
These abilities are essential to effective decision-making. and all managers are involved in making decisions. These types of conceptual skills are needed by all managers at all levels but become more important as they move up the organizational hierarchy. Those who held management and administration distinct include Oliver Sheldon. According to them.forms so that she can resolve problems and answer questions that her accounts payable clerks might encounter. But some English authors like Brech are of the opinion that management is a wider term including administration. Spriegal and Lansburg. Since managers deal directly with people. management is a lower-level function and is concerned primarily with the execution of policies laid down by administration. Human Skills: The ability to work well with other people both individually and in a group is a human skill. Conceptual Skills: Managers also must have the ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract situations.7 Administration and Management The use of two terms ‘management’ and ‘administration’ has been a controversial issue in the management literature. ii) Management is a generic term and includes administration. Some writers do not see any difference between the two terms. Administration is a higher level function: . this skill is crucial. In fact. Floerence and Tead. motivate. 1. lead. This controversy is discussed as under in three heads: i) Administration is concerned with the determination of policies and management with the implementation of policies. Thus. it remains just as important at the top levels of management as it is at the lower levels. etc. while others maintain that administration and management are two different functions. and inspire enthusiasm and trust. administration is a higher level function. iii) There is no distinction between the terms ‘management’ and ‘administration’ and they are used interchangeably. Managers with good human skills can get the best out of their people. They know how to communicate. They must be able to see the organization as a whole and the relationships among its various subunits and to visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment. even top managers need some proficiency in the organization’s speciality. Although technical skills become less important as manager moves into higher levels of management.
e.2: Distinction between Administration and Management: Basic 1.. Administration is a determinative function. It thinking function. of the organisation. Table 1. Managers are Administrators are basically concerned mainly with concerned with planning and organisation and direction control. 3. 5. Decision. Scope It is concerned with It is concerned with the determination of major implementation of objectives and policies. 2. 8. plans and policies through and with others. administration involves broad policy-making and management involves the execution of policies laid down by the administration. making strategic plans to deal plans and policies of the effectively with the organisation. It is a execution of decisions. environmental forces. administrative decisions. whereas management refers to execution of policies laid down by administration. is a doing function.Administration refers to policy-making. Environment Administration has direct Management is mainly interaction with external concerned with internal environment of business and forces. 7. at lower levels of management. This view is held by Tead. 4. Usage of Term The term ‘administration’ is The term ‘management’ is often associated with widely used in business . 6. Thus. of human resources. operative workforce for the execution of plans. Status Administration refers to Management is relevant higher levels of management. Administration is the phase of business enterprise that concerns itself with the overall determination of institutional objectives and the policies necessary to be followed in achieving those objectives. Direction of It is concerned with leading It is concerned with Human Resources and motivation of middle leading and motivation of level executives.Administration determines Management decides who Making what is to be done and when shall implement the it is to be done. Nature Administration relates to the Management relates to decision-making. Meaning Administration Management Administration is concerned Management means with the formulation of getting the work done objectives. i. policies. management as an executive function which is primarily concerned with carrying out of the broad policies laid down by the administration. objectives. Spriegel and Walter. on the other hand.
Self Assessment Questions in the 1. There are three levels of management-top. Five M’s of management (________. Bring out the difference between Administration and Management. Managers perform different roles to discharge their responsibilities. Explain its characteristics. It is the management which transforms physical resources of an organization into productive resources. Management creates ________ and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. _________. Lower level managers require and use a greater degree of technical skill and managers at higher levels use a greater degree of conceptual skill. co-ordinating. Still management is not completely a profession. 3. Discuss the importance of management. 1. 2. Define management. organisations. Management is largely found at the middle and lower levels and administration is found at the higher levels. Human skills are important at all managerial levels.8 Summary Management is concerned with getting things done through other people.9 Terminal Questions 1.government offices. __________is principally the task of planning. middle and lower. 3. 1. 2. Money. ___________. Management 2.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. materials. counseling and effective leadership. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. teamwork . 1. public organisations sector and non-business private sector. manpower 3. motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective.
3 Planning 2.9 Terminal Questions 2. Refer section 1.2. Refer section 1.2 Process of Management 2.7 Motivating Self Assessment Questions 2.1.7 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . MU0004-Unit-02-Management Process Unit-02-Management Process Structure: 2.6 Directing 2.4 Organizing 2.5 3.1 Introduction Objectives 2.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs . Refer section 1.8 Summary 2.3 2.5 Staffing 2.Answers to TQs: 1.
Controlling However. Planning 2. Coordinating 5. · Explain different functions of management Process.1 Introduction Follett (1933) defined management as "the art of getting things done through people”. Organizing. management functions have been regrouped into four categories. as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan. You might well ask what the need for a policy is when objectives are already defined.2. you will be able to: · Define Management process. Management functions are as follows (Fayol. Objectives: After this studying this unit. Directing. the two are not quite the same. Motivating. in recent time. since the managerial tasks have become highly challenging a fluid in nature making distinctions redundant to certain extent. · Explain Planning.2 Management Process Peter Drucker said: “Management is doing things right. 1949): 1. 2. Management is about accomplishing a goal efficiently. Through leadership and management often overlap. It is difficult to say where objectives end and policies begin. Even . There is a degree of overlap between the two. Commanding 4. Staffing. Policy Formulation We have noted earlier that all organizations have well-defined goals and objectives. Organizing 3. leadership is about setting the desirable goals. One can also think of management functionally. leadership is doing the right things“.
say a passenger car. In the football field. Thus. thus. Strategic Planning: Top level managers engage chiefly in strategic planning or long range planning Strategic planning is the process of developing and analyzing the organization’s mission. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. studies on passenger comfort.so. or where you want go to. overall goals. should precede a good deal of research involving market surveys. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. cost structure and so on. and then set out the method for achieving it. driving comfort. policies are the means to achieve those ends. summarizing what the organization does. Therefore. it would be correct to assume that an objective is what you want to accomplish. All levels of management engage in planning in their own way for achieving their preset goals. it is not a decision in which any process is involved. planning begins with clearly defining the mission of the organization. planning is often referred to as strategic in nature and also termed as strategic planning. Planning also enhances the decisionmaking process. kicking the ball with the left foot or right foot is a reflex action. is an enduring decision which holds good on a continuing basis to guide the members of the organization in doing what they are called upon to do. The tasks of the strategic planning process include the following steps: Define the mission: A mission is the purpose of the organization. the decision to change the design of a product. 2. The mission statement may be accompanied by an overarching . A mission statement should be short – and should be easily understood and every employee should ideally be able to narrate it from memory. Planning in order to be useful must be linked to the strategic intent of an organization. Effective planning enables an organization adapt to change by identifying opportunities and avoiding problems. general strategies. a process in which one chooses a course which one thinks is the best. Decision – Making Taking decisions is a process. It provides the direction for the other functions of management and for effective teamwork. Objectives are the ends. fuel and machine efficiency. An explicit mission guides employees to work independently and yet collectively toward the realization of the organization’s potential.3 Planning It involves the process of defining goals. and allocating resources. while a policy. what distinguishers policies form objectives is that you first decide the objective. However. The mission statement is broad.
In which areas is the competition not meeting customer needs? 2. Are the facilities outdated? 3. customers (internal and external). Threats) analysis is vital for the creation of any strategic plan. Are the technologies obsolete? For identifying opportunities the following elements need to be looked at: 1. How efficient is our manufacturing? 3. How skilled is our workforce? 4. For assessing the strengths of the organization the following questions are important: 1. suppliers. state. Conduct a situational or SWOT analysis A situation or SWOT (Strengths. What financing is available? 6. professional or trade associations (conventions and exhibitions). Weaknesses. governments (local. Is research and development adequate? 4. Analyzing strengths and weaknesses comprises the internal assessment of the organization. The SWOT analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. and trade).statement of philosophy or strategic purpose designed to convey a vision for the future as envisaged by top management. What is our market share? 5. Sources of information may include stakeholders like. Organizations need to examine their business situation in order to map out the opportunities and threats present in their environments. professional. Opportunities. federal. What makes the organization distinctive? 2. international). SWOT analysis provides the assumptions and facts on which a plan will be based. Do we have a superior reputation? For assessing the weaknesses of the organization the following questions are important: 1. What are the vulnerable areas of the organization that could be exploited? 2. journals and reports (scientific. What are the possible new markets? .
or outcomes of an organization against similar measures from other internal or external organizations. operational plans are based on the organization’s tactical plans. return on investment. as well as gap analysis. etc. Objectives are also called performance goals. What is the strength of the economy? 4. Benchmarking systematically compares performance measures such as efficiency. Develop related strategies (tactical and operational) Tactical plans are based on the organization’s strategic plan. Is there a possibility of growth of existing market?) Identifying threats involves the following: 1. In turn. Comparing the organization to external benchmarks (the best practices) is used to assess current capabilities. Generally. tactical. In which areas does the competition meet customer needs more effectively? 2. It also helps in setting minimum acceptable standards or common-sense minimums. organizations have longterm objectives for factors such as. effectiveness. The SWOT analysis is used as a baseline for future improvement. Are there new competitors? 3. What are the emerging technologies? 6. What are the new regulations? 6. These are specific plans that are needed for each task or supportive activity comprising the whole. the best strategy is one that fits the organization’s strengths to opportunities in the environment. They are aligned with the mission and form the basis for the action plans of an organization. and operational planning . Strategic. earnings per share. Are our rivals weak? 5.3. Are market tastes changing? 5. What substitute products exist? In general terms. Is there a shortage of resources? 4. Set goals and objectives Strategic goals and objectives are developed to fill the gap between current capability and the mission.
To develop an environmental monitoring procedure. who is to do. Feedback is encouraged and incorporated to determine if goals and objectives are feasible. Delegate authority to establish relationships between jobs and groups of jobs.must be accompanied by controls to ensure proper implantation of the plans. who reports to whom. Formalization is an important aspect of structure. and goals are clearly stated. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. Organizational structure is the formal decision-making framework by which job tasks are divided. Review plans 2. grouped. lines of authority.5 Staffing . The purpose of the organizing function is to make the best use of the organization’s resources to achieve organizational goals. structuring. working toward common goals. Group related jobs together in a logical and efficient manner 5. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. The formal organization can be seen and represented in chart form. with ideas and resources. procedures. A key issue in accomplishing the goals identified in the planning process is structuring the work of the organization. Assign work to individuals 6. List all tasks to be accomplished 3. and coordinated. It is the official organizational structure conceived and built by top management. necessary to maintain competitive advantage in the said market. It is the extent to which the units of the organization are explicitly defined and its policies. An organization chart displays the organizational structure and shows job titles. 2. Monitor the plan A systematic method of monitoring the environment must be adopted to continuously improve the strategic planning process. short-term standards for key variables that will tend to validate and support the long-range estimates must be established. Divide tasks into groups one person can accomplish – a job 4. Organizations are groups of people. This review is used for the next planning cycle and review. 2. The steps in the organizing process include: 1. and relationships between departments. how the tasks are to be grouped.4 Organizing It involves designing. and where decisions are to be made.
4. transfer and appraisal of personnel to fill the organizational positions. Koontz. selection. promotion. materials. 2.It is not the machines. recruitment. compensation and training of needed people”. placement. O’Donnell & Weihrich have defined staffing as “filling positions in the organization structure through identifying work force requirements. appraisal. Therefore it is the responsibility of the management to secure and maintain competent and dedicated workforce including managers and operatives. Theo Haimann – “Concerned with the placement. Curther Geelick Cyndall Urwick – “Staffing is the whole personnel function of brining in and training the staff and marinating of favorable conditions of work” Features of Staffing The analysis of the above definitions highlights the following features: 1. inventorying the people available. 2. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. training. Pervasiveness of Staffing: Effective execution of staffing function is the responsibility of all managers in the organization. 3. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. Deals with people: Staffing is a separate managerial function which deals with people in the organization. transport system and other physical resources that make the organization to achieve its goals but it is the competency and efficiency of the people who handle resources contributes for the accomplishment of objectives of the enterprise. 3. performance appraisal etc. This task has been referred to as staffing. . It has many sub-functions: Staffing involves determination of the manpower requirement. It aims at right man at right position: Staffing aims at selection of right person for right place at right time and retaining them in the organization. Definition: 1. selection. money. development. Managers of the concerned departments are responsible for the selection and development of qualified people for their department and maintain them in their department. placement. growth and development of all those members of the organization whose function is to get things done through the efforts of other individuals”. recruitment.
2. Definition According to Koontz and O’Donnel. 7. It deals with future requirements: Staffing deals with current and future personnel requirements. etc.6 Directing Direction is one of the functions of management. A manger needs to give orders to his subordinates. motivate them. Direction function is performed at every level of management. Direction is an important managerial function.e. It is a continuing function. 3. Through direction. It is an important managerial function. Thus staffing is an ongoing process through – out the life of an organization. how to do and telling them to do to the best of their ability. Direction is the managerial function of guiding. Thus staffing deals with the future requirements also. directing is the “interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals”. training development and maintenance of personnel. Direction is continuous process and it continues throughout the life-time of the organization. It is instructing people as to what to do. management initiates actions in the organization. It is performed in the context of superior-subordinate relationship and every manager in the organization performs his duties both as a superior and subordinate. resignation. Personnel policies and programs must be formulated as guides to perform the staffing function effectively.5. recruitment. identifying the manpower requirements. Characteristics of Direction The characteristic features of direction are as follow: 1. vacancies arise out of retirement. 2. It is a continuous function: With the growth and expansion of business additional manpower is needed. Present positions must be filled keeping in mind the future requirements. 8. promotion. . It is a process: it is a process having a logical sequence i. overseeing and leading people. 6. induction. lead them and guide them on a continuous basis. selection.
2. The five needs are: · Physiological: Includes hunger. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory According to this theory. Direction has dual objectives. humanness and psychological health a person will show. coach and supervise his subordinates. Nature of Directing The nature of directing can be discussed under the following: 1. As Theo Haimann puts it. from the basic to the complex. thirst.4. sex. Direction imitates at the top level in the organization and follows to bottom through the hierarchy. to provide superiors opportunities for some more important work which their subordinates cannot do. The further they progress up the hierarchy. on the other. nothing or at the best very little would be accomplished”. satisfied needs cannot. Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. the more individuality. 3. The manager never ceases to direct. 5. Theories X and Y. only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior. organizing and staffing on one hand and controlling on the other. without guiding and overseeing subordinates. it aims at getting things done by subordinates and. proposed by Maslow (1943). It is an important function of management: Directing is an important management function which provides a connecting link between planning. 4. teach. Essence of performance: Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. Continuous function: Directing is a continuous process. Pervasive function: Directing is a managerial function performed by all mangers at all levels of the organization. and other bodily needs . The needs are arranged in order of importance. “without the issuance of directives. On the one hand. human beings have wants and desires which influence their behaviour. will vary depending upon his level. The amount of time and effort an executive spends in directing however.7 Motivating Motivating In the 1950s three specific theories were formulated and are the best known: Hierarchy of Needs theory. guide. and the Two-Factor theory. the number of subordinate he has and the other duties he is expected to perform. shelter. It emphasizes that a subordinate is to be directed by his own superior only. 2.
Physiological and safety needs are described as lower-order. From the above. achieving one’s potential. Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor argued that a manager’s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and he or she tends to mould his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions. includes growth. and self-fulfillment Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders.· Safety: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm · Social: Includes affection. Higher-order needs are satisfied internally. if given the chance employees have the desire to be creative and forward thinking in the workplace. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory . Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. Workers need to be closely supervised and a comprehensive system of controls and a hierarchical structure is needed to supervise the workers closely. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. autonomy. such as. self-direction. autonomy and empowerment. and achievement. It is also believed that. self-respect. externally. esteem. status. self-motivated. and self-actualization are classified as higherorder needs. and friendship · Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors. such as. There is a chance for greater productivity by giving employees the freedom to perform to the best of their abilities without being bogged down by rules. it is clear that Theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals. belongingness. and external esteem factors. acceptance. Theory X – In this theory management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work. if they can. It is also assumed that workers generally place security above all other factors and will display little ambition. anxious to accept greater responsibility. Lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied. recognition. and exercise self-control. whereas. and attention · Self-actualization: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming. Theory Y – In this theory management assumes employees may be ambitious. Social.
Organization involves designing. advancement. company policy. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. When hygiene factors are adequate. 2. 3. neither will they be satisfied. recognition. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. interpersonal relations. The absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction. . but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. These two factors are motivators and hygiene factors and this theory is also called motivation-hygiene theory. Directing is the interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals. such as. Motivators are intrinsic factors. supervision. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. Planning involves the process of defining goals. people will not be dissatisfied. motivators describe a person’s relationship with what she or he does. working conditions. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. many related to the tasks being performed. _______refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. emphasize factors intrinsically rewarding that are associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it. 2. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. In summary. and where decisions are to be made. recruitment. and salary are hygiene factors. and achievement. Presence of these factors ensure job satisfaction. Self Assessment Questions 1. how the tasks are to be grouped. The satisfiers relate to what a person does while the dissatisfiers relate to the situation in which the person does what he or she does. such as.Herzberg (1959) constructed a two-dimensional paradigm of factors affecting people’s attitudes about work. who is to do. The _____analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. structuring.8 Summary Management is the art of getting things done through people. who reports to whom. Job satisfaction factors are separate and distinct from job dissatisfaction factors. To motivate people. have to do with a person’s relationship to the context or environment in which she or he performs the job. Extrinsic factors. ____defined management as the art of getting things done through people. Hygiene factors on the other hand. responsibility. performance appraisal etc.
SWOT 3. Follett 2. MU0002-Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Structure: 3.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.5 3. Explain Staffing in detail 3. Write a short not on directing. Reference 2.2. What is planning? 2. 2.1 Introduction Objectives .6 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Reference 2.9 Terminal Questions 1.3 2. Staffing Answers to TQs: 1. Reference 2.
3.2 Definitions 3.3 Characteristics of OD 3.4 Categories of OD 3.5 Goals of OD 3.6 OD and Management Development 3.7 Role of OD 3.8 Problems in OD Self Assessment Questions 3.9 Summary 3.10 Terminal Questions 3.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 3.1 Introduction Organization development is the applied behavioural science discipline dedicated to improving organizations and the people in them through the use of the theory and practice of planned change. Organizations face multiple challenges and threats today – threats to effectiveness, efficiency, and profitability; challenges from turbulent environments, increased competition, and changing customer demands; and the constant challenge to maintain congruence among organizational dimensions such as technology, strategy, culture, and processes. Keeping organizations healthy and viable in today’s world is a daunting task. Individuals in organizations likewise face multiple challenges – finding satisfaction in and through work, fighting obsolescence of one’s knowledge and skills, maintaining dignity and purpose in pursuit of organizational goals, and achieving human connectedness and community in the workplace. Simple survival – continuing to have an adequate job – is a major challenge today in the light of constant layoffs and cutbacks. Although new jobs are being created at record rates, old jobs are being destroyed at an accelerating pace. “Knowledge” work is replacing “muscle” work. In summary, organizations and the individuals in them face an enormously demanding present and future. Are any strategies available to help people and organizations cope, adapt, survive, and even prosper in these vexing times? Fortunately, the answer is “yes”. A variety of solutions exists. And organization development (OD) is one of them. Basically, organization development is a
process of teaching people how to solve problems, take advantage of opportunities, and learn how to do that better and better over time. OD focuses on issues related to the “human side” of organizations by finding ways to increase the effectiveness of individuals, teams, and the organization’s human and social processes. Organization development is a relatively recent invention. It started in the late 1950s when behavioural scientists steeped in the lore and technology of group dynamics attempted to apply that knowledge to improve team functioning and inter-group relations in organizations. Early returns were encouraging, and attention was soon directed toward other human and social processes in organizations such as the design of work tasks, organization structure, conflict resolution, strategy formulation and implementation, and the like. The field of OD grew rapidly in the 1970s and the 1980s with thousands of organizations in the private and public sectors using the theory and methods of OD with great success. Today, organization development represents one of the best strategies for coping with the rampant changes occurring in the marketplace and society. We predict that organization development will be preferred improvement strategy in future. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Define organization development. · Explain the characteristics of OD. · Discuss the categories of OD programme. · State the goals of OD. · Distinguish between OD and Management Development · Explore the problems in OD. 3.2 Definitions Organization Development (OD) is a response to change, a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs, attitudes, values and structure of organization so that they can better adapt to new technologies, markets, and challenges, and the dizzying rate of change itself. (Bennis, 1969). OD can be defined as a planned and sustained effort to apply behavioural science for system improvement, using reflexive, self-analytic methods. (Schmuck and Miles, 1971)
Organizational development is a process of planned change- change of an organization’s culture from one which avoids an examination of social processes (especially decision making, planning and communication) to one which institutionalizes and legitimizes this examination. (Burke and Hornstein, 1972) The aims of OD are: 1) Enhancing congruence between organizational structure, processes, strategy, people, and culture; 2) Developing new and creative organizational solutions; and 3) Developing the organization’s self-renewing capacity (Beer, 1980). Organization development is an organizational process for understanding and improving any and all substantive processes an organization may develop for performing any task and pursuing any objectives…. A “process for improving processes” – that is what OD has basically sought to be for approximately 25 years (Vaill, 1989) “Organizational development is a set of behavioural science-based theories, values, strategies, and techniques aimed at the planned change of the organizational work setting for the purpose of enhancing individual development and improving organizational performance, through the alteration of organizational members’ on-the-job behaviours.” (Porras and Robertson, 1992) “OD is a systematic application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies, structure, and processes for improving an organization’s effectiveness.” (Cummings and Worley, 1993) “Organization development is a planned process of change in an organization’s culture through the utilization of behavioural science technologies, research, and theory.” (Burke, 1994) As you can see, these definitions overlap a great deal (that’s encouraging), and contain several unique insights (that’s enlightening). All authors agree that OD applies behavioural science to achieve planned change. Likewise, they agree that the target of change is the total organization or system and that the goals are increased organizational effectiveness and individual development. Collectively, these definitions convey a sense of what organization development is and does. They describe in broad outline the nature and methods of OD. There is no set definition of OD and no agreement on the boundaries of the field, that is, what practices should be included and excluded. But these are not serious constraints given that the field is still evolving, and that practitioners share a central core of understanding as shown in the preceding definitions.
then another moves it to yet a higher plateau of effectiveness. the ways those goods will be produced and delivered to customers. The phrase led and supported by top management states an imperative: Top management must lead and actively encourage the change effort. but it includes a number of components that we consider essential. Most OD programs that fail do so because top management was ambivalent. and self-examining processes that facilitate individual. “Organization development is a long-term effort. we mean those leadership behaviours and human resource practices that enable organization members to develop and use their talents as fully as possible toward individual growth and organizational success. By empowerment processes. including action research. and shared picture of the nature of the products and services the organization offers. In fact. and organizational learning. By empowerment. learning. For empowerment to become fact of life.” This definition is lengthy. processes. and making it happen. collaborative management of organization culture-with special emphasis on the culture of intact work teams and other team configurations-using the consultantfacilitator role and the theory and technology of applied behavioural science. serious business. it is more accurate to describe “improvement” as a never-ending journey of continuous change. it must be built into the very fabric of the organization-its strategy.several years in most cases. but as one that includes characteristics we think are important for the present and future of the field. Peter Senge describes learning organizations as “… organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire. it includes pain and setbacks as well as success. By long-term effort. and what the organization and its members can expect from each other. coherent. There is no “quick fix” when it comes to lasting organizational improvement.Now let’s turn to our definition of organization development. we mean those interacting. By visioning processes. we mean those processes through which organization members develop a viable. Top management must initiate the improvement “journey” and be committed to seeing it through. By learning processes. through an ongoing. team. where . One program or initiative moves the organization to a higher plateau. listening. empowerment. where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured. and culture. We do not propose it as the “right” definition. led and supported by top management. to improve an organization’s visioning. structure. Visioning means creating a picture of the desired future that includes salient features of the human side of the organization and then working together to make that picture a reality. Organizational change is hard. or became distracted with other duties. and problem-solving processes. developing the strategy for getting there. we mean involving large numbers of people in building the vision of tomorrow. lost its commitment. We will explain this definition in some detail. we mean that organizational change and development takes time.
and take actions on problems. But change becomes permanent when the culture changes and people accept the new ways as the “right” ways. managing the culture should be a collaborative business. Processes are how things get done. think. The reciprocal influence among culture. By ongoing collaborative management of the organization’s culture. Still. and feel-that is why culture change is necessary for true organizational improvement. culture is of primary importance. and norms of behaviour that are viewed as the correct way to perceive. and continuous learning the organization is bound to succeed. and feel in relation to those problems. and we highlight the importance of visioning. (d) that has worked well enough to be considered valid and. not just a small group. . solve problems. (b) invented. norms. opportunities. make decisions. We believe solutions to problems are enhanced by tapping deeply into the creativity. So culture consists of basic assumptions. that one of the most important things to manage in organizations is the culture: the prevailing pattern of values. Collaborative management of the culture means that everyone. we mean. Michael Beer’s definition called for “developing new and creative organizational solutions”. Our definition also places considerable weight on organizational processes. has a stake in making the organization work. strategy. one of wide-spread participation in creating and managing a culture that satisfies that wants and needs of individuals at the same time that it fosters the organization’s purposes. interactions. in contrast to having only a select few involved. structure. attitudes. learning. and artifacts. empowerment. Processes are relatively easy to change. By including culture so prominently in our definition. Empowerment means involving people in problems and decisions and letting them be responsible for results. and where people are continually learning how to learn together. widely shared vision of a desired future creates the best climate for effective problem-solving by all the organization’s members. sentiments. therefore (e) is to be taught to new members as the (f) correct way to perceive. Just as visioning. (c) as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. and challenges in the organization’s environment and its internal functioning. empowerment. first. assumptions. beliefs. empowerment. and each influences the others. vitality. or developed by a given group. activities. commitment. and problem-solving processes are opportunities for collaboration in organization development. Edgar Schein clarifies the nature and power of culture in his definition: “Culture can now be defined as (a) a pattern of basic assumptions. so they are the place OD programs often begin – getting people to stop doing things one way and start doing them a different way. we affirm our belief that culture is the bedrock of behaviour in organizations. values. And second. We further believe that having compelling. We believe that when the culture promotes collaboration. learning.collective aspiration is set free. think.” Problem-solving processes refer to the ways organization members diagnose situations. and processes makes each important. and problem-solving processes. expectations. discovered. and common purposes of all members of the organization. so is managing the culture.
multifunctional. engineering. We think teams are the basic building blocks of organizations. The definition we have just analyzed contains the elements we believe are important for OD. But in many organizations today. and then disbanded with the people going on to new tasks. Today’s organizations increasingly use ad hoc teams that perform a specific task and disband when the task is completed. much rework. In addition to team building and role and goal clarification. such as design. and considerable antagonism among the separate functional specialists. and using management information. intact work teams do not have a boss in the traditional sense-the teams manage themselves. constantly shifting teams will be the dominant configuration for getting work done. maintaining quality control. Temporary. and procurement.By intact work teams and other configurations. Tom Peters predicts that the work of tomorrow (most of which will be “brain work”) will be done by ad hoc teams brought together to accomplish a task. The current method for getting complex tasks done in organizations is to assemble a cross-functional team comprised of members from all the functional specialities required to get the job done. 2. These self-directed teams assume complete responsibility for planning and executing work assignments. we recognize that teams are central to accomplishing work in organizations. firing. To summarize. . self-directed teams control performance appraisals. manufacturing. according to Peters. members are trained in competencies such as planning. team culture can be collaboratively managed to ensure effectiveness. This method resulted in loss of synergy. Over time. Further. The old method was to have functional specialists work on the problem sequentially. He uses the terms ‘multifunctional projectization’ and ‘horizontal systems’ to describe these teams and their work. In Liberation Management. The thesis of Liberation Management is that contemporary bureaucratic structures with their functional specialties and rigid hierarchies are all wrong for the demands of today’s fast-paced market place. The results are usually highly gratifying both for the team members and for the organization. Team building and role and goal clarification interventions are standard activities in OD programs directed toward intact work teams. OD focuses on culture and processes. OD encourages collaboration between organization leaders and members in managing culture and processes. wasted time. When teams function well. here are the primary distinguishing characteristics of organization development: 1. individuals and the organization function well. Specifically. The most prevalent form of teams in organizations is intact work teams consisting of superior and subordinates with a specific job to perform. the process “threw the results over the wall” to the next functional unit. When one function finished with its part of the project. and training. hiring.
OD efforts take an organization as an interrelated whole and no part of it can be changed meaningfully without making corresponding changes in other parts. 3. rather than focusing attention on individuals. Long-range Change: OD efforts are not meant for solving short-term. An overarching goal is to make the client system able to solve its problems on its own by teaching the skills and knowledge of continuous learning through self-analytical methods. 3. 5. OD views organization improvement as an ongoing process in the context of a constantly changing environment. 10. collaborators. The concept of comprehensive change is based on the systems concept-open. or isolated problems. This ‘planned’ emphasis separates OD efforts from other kinds of more haphazard changes that are frequently undertaken by organizations. Attempting to create “win-win” solutions is standard practice in OD programs. 8. OD focuses on total system change and views organizations as complex social systems. . Teams of all kinds are particularly important for accomplishing tasks and are targets for OD activities. interactive. Participation and involvement in problem-solving and decision-making by all levels of the organization are hallmarks of OD. temporary. 2. OD takes a developmental view that seeks the betterment of both individuals and the organization. OD practitioners are facilitators. 6. Dynamic Process: OD is a dynamic process and includes the efforts to guide and direct changes as well as to cope with or adapt changes imposed. OD relies on an action research model with extensive participation by client system members. they are ongoing. It recognizes that organizational goals change. 4. so the methods of attaining these goals should also change. 4. Comprehensive Change: OD efforts focus on comprehensive change in the organization. and cyclic processes. Thus. 7. rather. OD efforts are not one-shot actions. Rather.3 Characteristics of OD 1. 9.3. OD focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. Planned Change: OD is a strategy of planned change for organizational improvement. and co-learners with the client system. dynamic and adaptive system. so that change is easily observed. OD focuses on the elevation of an organization to a higher level of functioning by improving the performance and satisfaction.
Organization Development is inextricably linked with action. and integrate individual and organizational goals. He shares a social philosophy about human values. Although Organization Development Programmes vary. 6. rather. (b) Problems of human satisfaction and development. and adaptability for the organization as a whole. This is done to arrive at certain desirable outcomes that may be in the form of increased effectiveness. and then. Emphasis on Intervention and Action Research: OD approach results in an active intervention in the ongoing activities of the organization. Key areas are the normative type of model.4 Categories of OD Programmes In general. he conducts surveys. second. identity. evaluates these data. third party change agent. further more. (b) The interventions are primarily directed towards problems and issues identified by the client group. At the individual level. Action research is the basis for such intervention. problem-solving. Two important elements of Organization Development are. practitioners and the client laymen. 7. The change agent is a humanist seeking to get a humanistic philosophy in the organization. joint goals and means. . the element which links Organization Development with the scientific method of inquiry and. There is a close working relationship between the change agent and the target organizational members to be changed. collects relevant data. participation. OD attempts to provide opportunities to be ‘human’ and to increase awareness. and (c) Problems of organizational effectiveness. He designs intervention strategies based on these data. They discourage ‘do it yourself’ approach. or catalyst. the importance and centrality of goals and objectives and the different role requirements of the consultant change agent vis-à-vis the clients.5. it is a programme with a purpose that is to guide present and future action. growth. yet following features are common to most of the programmes: (a) The client is a total system or major subunit of total system. takes actions for intervention. the collaborative relationships between the scientists. first. Normative Educational Process: OD is based on the principle that ‘norms form the basis for behaviour and change is a re-educative process of replacing old norms by new ones’. and mutual influence. and revitalization. The relationship involves mutual trust. A change agent in OD process does not just introspect the people and introduce changes. Participation of Change Agent: Most OD experts emphasize the need for an outside. 3. all types of experience requiring Organization Development efforts may be grouped into three categories: (a) Problems of destiny.
5 Goals of Organization Development Following are the generally accepted goals of OD: (a) To create an open. and (d) The interventions are based on behavioural science theory and technology. We need to examine carefully the techniques of Organization Development. (h) To help managers to manage according to relevant objectives rather than according to past practices or according to objectives which do not make sense for one’s area of responsibility. like other normative re-educative programmes. This Organization Development progrmmes. its underlying theory and assumptions and some of the pitfall and challenges in attempting to improve organizations through behavioural science. (c) To locate decision making and problem-solving responsibilities as close to sources of information as possible. (g) To increase the sense of ‘ownership’ or organization’s objectives throughout the work force. with the authority of knowledge and competence.(c) The interventions are directed towards problem-solving and improved functioning for the client system. (b) To supplement the authority associated with role or status. (i) To increase self-control and self-direction for people within the organization. (j) To improve effectiveness of the organization. (f) To develop a reward system which recognizes both the achievement of the organization’s goals (profit or service) and development of people. (e) To make competition more relevant to work goals and to maximize collaborative efforts.6 OD and Management Development . (d) To build trust among persons and groups throughout an organization. should begin with a clear-cut statement of specific objectives and criteria for determining if these objectives have been met from the stand point of the employee/employees simply as team member or for the total group. problem solving climate throughout an organization. 3. 3.
Burke and Schmidt have made this difference more clear which is presented in the following table. with their existing objectives and structure. more attention to peer-groups. Before making a comparison between the two. Focus . there are four attributes of effective managers in large organization. If OD efforts train people towards anti-authority value. However. The term ‘development’ refers broadly to the nature and direction of change induced in personnel through the process of training and education. then would the results be functional for managing organization activity in a competitive world? Thus. less individual competitiveness. accomplishments. Train and equip employees Focus on design. (ii) competitiveness. He feels that management development reinforces the above four qualities and helps managers cultivate and develop the will to manage. organization. according to him. While the latter aims at developing the mangers individually for the accomplishment of better performance in organizational setting. have substantial influence in changing the capacity of the individual to perform his assignment better and in so doing are likely to increase his potential for future management assignment. whereas OD efforts within organizations may cause confusion and chaos for incoming human resources if the organization is underplayed and the humanistic dimension alone is emphasized. OD tries to fit the organization to the men. Miner has drawn difference between two processes. it is beneficial to make a comparison between OD and Management Development (MD) as both have some common objectives that betterment of an organization. management development has been defined as follows: “Management development is all those activities and programmes when recognized and controlled. MD tries to fit the men to the organization. not on the and managers to perform managers. and greater display of feelings and emotions. According to him. and (iv) a sense of responsibility.At this stage. the former goes one step further and purports to change the entire organizational climate where the mangers work. and techniques adopted in both may overlap to some extent.” Organization development differs from management development. These are: (i) a positive attitude towards authority. he appears to be biased against OD and the real distinction between OD and MD lies in between these two extremes. let us define management development as we have seen the definition of OD. Difference between Management Development and OD Factors Objectives Management Development Organization Development Increasing manager’s Changing the nature of the contributions to goal organization. Based on this. focus on achieving better in existing improvement in design. (iii) assertiveness.
6. however. OD became quite successful with many professional consultants offering high services and programmes to various organizations. In early 60s. Specialist No special requirement. OD can be utilized for the following results in the organization: 1. and laterally. Since OD attempts to bring comprehensive change in the organization.8 Problems in Organization Development Organization development. To place emphasis on humanistic values and goals consistent with these vales. confrontation techniques. Research studies have also failed to conclude . To increase the openness of communications in all directions-vertically.7 Role of Organization Development Organization development. substantial disenchantment with OD became evident because of many controversial OD techniques like sensitivity training. plays key role in organizational improvement. it is quite suitable for improving organizational performance on long-term basis. Much of the enthusiasm created at the beginning of OD programmes vanished over the period of time. To create an environment in which authority of assigned role is augmented by authority based on knowledge and skills. Problem-solving approach. Trained specialists required. 2. To increase the level of enthusiasms and personal satisfaction at all levels of the organization. as a long-term strategy for organizational change. To increase the level of self and group responsibility in planning and its implementation. The basic problem in a change effort which is not comprehensive is that it does not work properly unless there is a proper change in the internal environment of the organization in which people work. 3. Thus. 5. 7. Long-range strategy for organizational innovation and renewal. 3.Approach Time Educative and training Short-range. 3. To treat each human being as a complex person with a complex set of needs important in his work and his life. however. 4. By 70s. horizontally. To increase the level of trust and mutual emotional support among all organization members. has invited sharp criticism as a strategy to increase organizational viability and effectiveness because many OD programmes have failed. etc.
3. There should be genuine support of OD programme from top management. particularly in bottom-line ones. in order to make best use of OD efforts. and (iii) failure to increase employee motivation through participation and development of personal growth and self-esteem. In general. 2. and (ii) failure to correctly model appropriate personnel behaviour in the programme. OD can not be taken as panacea for curing all organizational problems. it may be emphasized that OD programmes are likely to fail when these are not programmes and hence failure. Only fully competent OD consultant should be pressed for the service and he should develop understanding with internal change agents. Therefore. 4. 2. People realized its dysfunctional aspects only when many OD efforts failed. 5. 3. OD fails to motivate people with low level of achievement needs. Thus. Enough time should be allowed so that the effects of OD programme are realized. OD tries to achieve ideal without taking into account real. 5. These should be based on the specific needs of the organization. it is useless to try OD. it can be visualized that OD itself may not be dysfunctional but application may be. it fails even as a long-term strategy. It can be seen that many of these criticisms are based on reality and experience. If an organization is laden with these people. Therefore. 4. OD programmes are often quite costly. Resistance to change is a natural phenomenon and OD puts undue pressure to change. There is discrepancy between ideal and real situations. OD makes people unfit for the real organizations world because no organization can fully adopt open system concept. . OD is criticized on the following lines: 1. Organization must formulate the objectives of OD programme very clearly and specifically. For example. However. Hence. and only large organizations can afford this luxury without any guarantee of positive outcome.significant contributions of OD in all organizations. There should be proper use of OD interventions. some specific efforts are required. Evans has identified three factors which have been responsible for the failure of OD programmes: (i) failure of the management consultant group to correctly tailor the programme to actual needs of the organization. Some of these efforts are as follows: 1.
––––––– is associated with “Liberation Management”.9 Summary The definitions clarify the distinctive features of OD and suggest why it is such a powerful change strategy. State the various roles of OD. 2. _____________is a short-term strategy. OD focuses on culture and processes.Self Assessment Questions 1. 3.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. The participative. But OD aims at changing the entire organizational climate where the managers work. 3. 5. Empowerment . 4. Explain its salient features. collaborative. Top management 2. It focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. Explain the various characteristics of OD. 3. Organization development should be led and supported by –––––––. OD is the ultimate remedy for organizational improvements and developments. Management development aims at developing the managers individually. There is no ‘quick fix’ to organizations’ problems. problem-focused ‘nature of OD’ marshals the experience and expertise of organization members for problem-solving and capitalizes the opportunities in the organization. Tom Peters 3. 2. What are the problems involved in the implementation of OD? 3. Who is associated with the “Learning Organizations”? 5. 3. 4. ––––––––– is a process which includes leadership behaviours and human resource practices. Distinguish between ‘organizational development’ and ‘management development’. Define OD.10 Terminal Questions 1.
1 Introduction Objectives 4.6 4. Refer section 3.6 Team-building .2 Survey Feedback 4.7 5. Management development Answers to TQs: 1. Refer section 3.4 Grid Training 4.2 2.Organization Development – Interventions Structure: 4. Refer section 3.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer section 3.3 3.3 Process Consultation 4.Organization Development – Interventions Unit-04. Refer section 3. Peter Senge 5.5 Leadership Development 4.4. MU0002-Unit-04.
techno-structural activities. various consultants and practitioners have different opinions about the activities which can be included in interventions. Nevertheless. Interventions constitute the action thrust of organization development. management grid. process consultation. Therefore. French and Bell have suggested twelve families of OD interventions: diagnostic. Thus. inter-group activities.” There are various OD interventions and they are classified in different ways.4. such a classification of interventions may not put them into mutually exclusive categories as a particular intervention may be applied at more than one level.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 4. interpersonal level. the classification of OD interventions shows variation. This classification of OD interventions is very comprehensive and many activities do not strictly form the part of OD as process of organizational improvement but other methods of improving the performance of the organization. mediation and negotiation activities. group level. French and Bell have defined OD intervention as: “Sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage with a task or a sequence of tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvement.8 Change Agents 4. team-building. the classification appears to be more relevant because it may specify the . However.11 Terminal Questions 4. education and training. work group.9 Role of Change Agents Self Assessment Questions 4. many of them visualize data gathering as an intervention whereas it is treated as only preparatory work for OD by others.7 Inter Group Development 4. A meaningful classification of OD interventions may be based on the improvement in the behaviour of people in the organization as OD is basically a behavioural approach. For example. interventions may be required to change people at all these levels.1 Introduction OD interventions refer to various activities which a consultant and client organization perform for improving organizational performance through enabling organizational members better manage their behaviour. survey feedback. inter-group level. and organizational culture. and organizational level.10 Summary 4. they make things happen. Further. People’s behaviour may be relevant to understand at individual level.
Institute for Social Research (ISR) of University of Michigan.building. feedback of information. The questionnaire may include different aspects of organizational functioning. and follow up. USA developed a comprehensive questionnaire for conducting survey in different aspects of an organization. Though some type of survey method was prevalent in various organizations earlier. To assist the organization in diagnosing its problems and developing action plan for problemsolving. and participative goal-setting which has become more popular as management by objectives. ISR has prepared a questionnaire which includes questions on leadership – managerial support. and peer interaction facilitation. 2. managerial goal emphasis. grid training. peer support. To assist the group members to improve the relationships through discussion of common problems. you will be able to: · Describe survey feedback. 1. Our further discussion follows this development. managerial work facilitation.range of change that an organization requires. · Describe process consultation. team. peer work facilitation. developing action plans based on feedback. and survey feedback method. peer goal emphasis. · Realize the importance of team-building. the other major thrust in the development of OD has come from survey research and feedback of data. other techniques like process consultation. Historically. Data Collection: The first step in survey feedback is data collection usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. have been added. · Role of change agents. OD efforts were attempted through sensitivity training. . The basic objectives of survey feedback are as follows: 1. Objectives: After studying this unit. Subsequently. Process of Survey Feedback Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection.2 Survey Feedback Besides laboratory training (sensitivity and grid). 4. · Explain grid training.
It is cost-effective means of implementing a comprehensive OD programme making it a highly desirable technique. satisfaction with the job. Second. First.organizational climate-communication with the company. tabulated. data are classified. control within the company. all attempts to diagnose the problems will be abortive and futile. and satisfaction with the work group. Alternatively. it is provided through group discussion or problem-solving sessions conducted by the consultant. In particular. co-ordination between departments. and satisfaction-satisfaction with the company. Feedback of Information: After the data are analyzed. questionnaire used and method adopted for its administration should be reliable and valid. and general management. However. feedback is given to the persons who have participated in the fulfilling up of questionnaire. The questionnaire is administered personally either by the members of consulting firm or by organization’s personnel. survey feedback contributes in the following manner: 1. After the questionnaires are completed. feedback may be given in the form of a written summary of findings. One such follow-up action may be to advise the participants to develop their own action plans to overcome the problems revealed through a feedback or as is more commonly the case. rather. decision-making. it should be constructive and suggestive. effectiveness of survey feedback depends on two factors. follow-up action may be in the form of developing some specific OD interventions particularly process consultation and team-building. satisfaction with the supervisor. 2. Evaluation of Survey Feedback Survey feedback provides a base for many managerial actions which has been confirmed by various research studies. motivation. satisfaction with the pay. it is of no use unless follow-up action is taken based on the . by the consultant. even if valid and reliable information is collected. Follow-up Action: Survey feedback programme is not meaningful unless some follow-up action is taken based on the data collected. It generates great amount of information efficiently and quickly which can be used in solving problems faced by the organization and its members. The feedback may be given either orally or in a written form. threatening and emotion-hurting as survey feedback is aimed at identifying weaknesses which must be overcome through follow-up actions and not the fault-finding technique for criticism. 2. In oral system of feedback. Decision-making and problem-solving abilities of organization can be improved tremendously because this approach applies the competence and knowledge throughout the organization and the problems faced by it. If it is biased. and analysis is made to arrive at some meaningful conclusions. 3. 3. Whatever the method of giving feedback is adopted.
2. To understand how various organizational processes can be linked to objective achievement in the organization.information. 4. the consultant is introduced to the organizational members and basic objectives of the P. group norms. Information collected is processed to diagnose the problems and their underlying causes. and act upon the process events which occur in the client’s environment. and inter-group co-operation and conflicts. time. understand. the leading writer and consultant on P. At this stage. Edgar Schein. client and consultant enter into agreement covering various aspects of consultancy services like fees. communication. Gather Data and Make a Diagnosis: Information is collected from various sources thorough the use of questionnaires. Initiate Contact: This is beginning stage of P. and spelling out services. This data gathering occurs simultaneously with the entire consultative process. The basic content of P. 1.C are as follows: 1. Define the Relationship: At this stage. Select the Setting and the Method: It involves a clear-cut understanding of where and how the consultant will do the job that is required. . it provides base for action for change. 4. the client’s expectations and hoped-for results are also decided. observations.” The basic objectives of P.C in which the client makes initial contact with the consultant with a view to solve the problems faced by the organization which cannot be solved by existing processes or resources.3 Process Consultation Process Consultation (P.C programme of OD. etc. At this stage. 2.C has defined it as follows: “The set of activities on the part of the consultant which help the client to perceive. To bring desired change in the various organizational processes like leadership. group decision-making and problemsolving. Steps in Process Consultation Schein has suggested following specific steps which the consultant would follow in a P.C is that the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. roles and functions of group members. 3.C) is a technique for intervening in an ongoing system. A survey feedback is not a technique in itself for change. spelled out at the initial stage. and interview about the problems.C are communicated to them with a view that they co-operate with the consultant.
focuses on skills. the consultant disengages from the client organization by mutual agreement but leaves the door open for future involvement. both these problems may be overcome by engaging a suitable consultant and developing willingness among the members for change. P. To evaluate the styles of leadership and techniques of participation to produce desirable results. .C is also not free from criticisms. knowledge. group. Reduce Involvement and Terminate: When the work of P. Process of Grid Training The basic content of grid organization development is managerial grid as discussed. significant correlation between the outcomes has not been found. coaching. 6. 4. Its specific objectives are as follows: 1. and total organizational levels. The whole orientation is to develop managerial style through the application of behavioural science knowledge. P. like other OD intervention techniques. and the organization as a whole. From this point of view. Another problem may emerge at the level of the organization and its members in terms of how they inculcate the new processes and culture as suggested by the consultant. enabling individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. and/or structural change. he assists the organizational members to incorporate those changes. However. feedback. 2. inter-group. Though he is involved only in suggesting the various changes in the processes.C is very effective intervention for organizational improvement. To study the organization as an interactive system and apply techniques of analysis in diagnosing its problems. It is a comprehensive and systematic OD programme which aims at individuals. The grid organization development consists of six phases.C programmes. One basic reason for this phenomenon may be the consultant’s inability to steer the organization out of troubles. groups. It utilizes a considerable number of instruments.4 Grid Training Grid training is basically based on grid organization development developed by Blake and Mouton.C is completed. To understand the importance and rationale of systematic change. 3. the consultant intervenes in the organizational processes by using different interventions like agenda-setting. Evaluation of Process Consultation: Process consultation is quite in-depth activity of OD in which the consultant plays a major role.5. and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. However. In the review of various P. Intervene: At this stage.
the various programmes may be redesigned. Developing Ideal Strategic Corporate Model: At this stage. 5. Each group separately analyses the ideal inter-group relations. some of them have not supported the claims made by Blake and Mouton. communication skills. and teamwork. Further. they maintained the same stand. and alike. the various efforts from phase 1 to phase 5 are evaluated and critical analysis is made. problem-solving. 6. Systematic Critique: In this stage.5 Leadership Development . The action is designed to identify the characteristics of the ideal organization. Furthermore. it appears that this type of educational strategy can help to make significant contributions to organizational effectiveness. The members of the organization are trained for achieving this excellence. The thrust is on moving groups from conflict to co-operation. The individuals try to learn to become managers by practice. 2. Though research studies on the application of grid training are not many. it discounts reality. 3. Grid training programme is criticized on the basis that it lacks contingency approach and. 4. and problemsolving are also developed. They have maintained that “managerial and team effectiveness can be taught to managers with outside assistance. Action steps to move towards the ideal are developed and assigned to individuals who may be engaged in building co-operative inter-group relationships. Implementing the Ideal Strategic Model: The implementation stage includes the building of the organization on the model of ideal organization on the basis of concepts developed under stage 4. In this light. The analysis will bring out the shortcomings that may be there. The skills relating to planning.1. 4. the focus shifts to the total organization and to develop skills necessary for organizational excellence. The strategy is then implemented. Each group may be given assignment to evolve strategy for making ideal organization with the help of the consultant. objective-setting.” In a later work. Evaluation of Grid Training Most of the support of grid training has come from its originators-Blake and Mouton. Inter-group Development: At this phase. Teamwork Development: The focus in this stage is to develop teamwork by analyzing team culture. Managerial grid: It covers various aspects of assessing managerial styles. therefore. traditions. grid training is a non-rigorous method. the focus is on inter-group behaviour and relations. in spite of these criticisms. grid training has some positive contributions for organizational effectiveness.
employees will perceive leadership as supportive. We will look more carefully at each of these. and that makes coping with drastic change much easier. In a climate of distrust.When change is imposed (as in downsizing scenarios). The literature on the subject indicates that the nature of the change is secondary to the perceptions that employees have regarding the ability. must labor under the weight of employees who have given up. and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. confident and effective decision-making. let us consider the life cycle of a team. employees expect nothing positive. are closely associated with a very few advocates and practitioners. Poor leadership means an absence of hope. you need to be aware that there are three distinct times zones where leadership is important. clearly the most important determinant of "getting through the swamp". employees will look towards the leaders for a number of things. therefore. Also during these times of change. if haven’t established a track record of effective leadership.” A possible reason for this phenomenon is that people in the organization work in groups (teams) and the effectiveness of these groups ultimately determine organizational effectiveness. how synergy is generated through team-work. Unfortunately. Slogging Through The Swamp. but more importantly. 4. As against these. concerned and committed to their welfare. The organization must deal with the practical impact of unpleasant change. If you are to manage change effectively. Before going through how team-building exercise can be undertaken to develop effective teams. have no faith in the system or in the ability of leaders to turn the organization around. lead. For example. which. employees will expect effective and sensible planning. by the time you have to deal with difficult changes. widely accepted. competence. French and Bell have opined that “probably the most important single group of interventions in the OD are the team-building activities the goals of which are the improvement and increased effectiveness of various teams within the organization. The existence of this trust. The best way to summarize is that there is a climate of trust between leader and the rest of the team. while at the same time recognizing that tough decisions need to be made. brings hope for better times in the future. In organizations characterized by poor leadership. teambuilding is the most important. during and after change implementation is THE key to getting through the swamp. and credibility of senior and middle management. and regular. results in an organization becoming completely nonfunctioning. During drastic change times. complete communication that is timely. employees learn that leaders will act in indecipherable ways and in ways that do not seem to be in anyone’s best interests. problems in . and After Arrival. We can call these Preparing For the Journey. The Role of Leadership In an organization where there is faith in the abilities of formal leaders. if allowed to go on for too long. Leadership before.6 Team-building Various OD interventions discussed so far have their specific implications for OD and. it may be too late. is the ability of leadership to…well.
and tasks are accompanied efficiently. jockeying for relative control. team members start settling. 4. they learn to handle complex problems that come before the team. they do represent a broad pattern that may be observed and predicted in many settings across team’s time together. start to accept others. team members get introduced to each other if they have not interacted earlier. norming.team-work. and arguing for appropriate strategies to be adopted for achieving team’s goals. performing. The team begins to move in a co-operative fashion and a tentative balance among competing forces too is struck. even the most successful teams as they have completed their mission. These typical stages of life cycle of a team are described below: 1. they often pass through several stages as they learn to work together as a team. The . Functional roles are performed and exchanged as needed. Norming: After storming stage. Forming: At the first stage of the life cycle. 3. members start interaction among themselves in the form of competing for status. 5. and features of effective team so that team-building exercises focus more sharply on developing effective team. 2. At this stage. They share personal information. and begin to turn their attention to the group tasks.1: Life Cycle of a Team Though these are not followed rigidly. These stages are the result of a variety of questions and issues that team members face such as “who will be members of the team?” “Who will perform what functions?” “Who will contribute what?” “What rules will be followed?” “How can conflicts among members be resolved?” and so on. each team has to be adjourned. These stages are: forming. Life Cycle of a Team When a number of individuals begin to work at interdependent jobs. 4. and adjourning as shown below: Fig. Adjourning: Adjourning is the end phase of cycle of a team. Storming: After the forming stage which is mostly related to perceiving and assessing each other. Sooner or later. At this stage. different members may experience varying degree of tension and anxiety out of this interaction pattern. storming. interaction among team members is often cautious especially when they are new to one another. Performing: When team members interact among themselves on the basis of norms that have emerged in the team. because of individual differences. group norms emerge to guide individual behaviour which form the basis for co-operative feelings and behaviour among members.
Synergy in Team-work Another important feature of a team is the concept of synergy which generates in team-work and the understanding of which helps in developing effective team. The concept of synergy is quite popular in strategic management and it is defined as follows: “Synergy is the process of putting two or more elements together to achieve a sum total greater than the sum total of individual elements separately. that is. In fact. Social Loafing Social loafing is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. This effect can be described as 2+2=5 effect. students find that one or two students do not put their weight for the completion of the project. fail to perform their assigned tasks. synergistic effect is not automatic but depends on the complementarity of different elements that are put together and the way they interact among themselves. etc. Putting the concept of synergy in teamwork means members of the team are complementary to each other and they contribute positively to one another. a team is created to undertake a task which requires a variety of skills and single individual cannot perform that task alone. This phenomenon may happen in teams in work organizations too. In such an assignment. committee. the team would be effective. intense social relationship among members comes to an end. the complementarity among members is achieved. and so on. To the extent. It is not necessary that all teams follow the rigid pattern prescribed here and the similar problems they face at each stage because each team is different in some respect based on the type of members and problems and functions assigned. Other types of team like a department in an organization run on the basis of some permanency though there may be changes in team members. A simple phenomenon of social loafing may be observed in a group assignment to students during their study. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts.adjournment phase takes place in the case of those teams which are created for some special purposes like task force. in one experiment. . These students may be called loafers (not attaching the same connotation which is attached with the term loafer in our social phenomenon) who frequently miss the project group’s meetings. However. and still expect to share the credit and obtain the same marks from the professor since he will be concerned with determining who worked and who did not. For example. how a particular element affects another and is affected by it.” Thus. other factors remaining the same. After the adjournment of the team. They rely on the fact the more reliable members will complete the project without their help. concept of stages is significant in the context of the nature of problem which team members are likely to face in team-work.
Skills and Role Clarity: For an effective team. supportive environment. When the division of work cannot be accomplished properly and individual efforts are hard to determine. Even if one member lacks behind. Thus. The phenomenon of social loafing can be minimized by constituting effective team for group performance. From this statement. the individual average dropped down still lower68. 2. 1. he may tend to affect others because of chain reaction just like a rotten apple injures its companions. individual members do not contribute to the fullest extent. If the organizational climate is not in tune with high achievement. While skills are relevant for job performance.2 pounds. These factors are skills and role clarity.it was found that individuals’ total efforts were much higher than the group efforts. 2. Effective Team An effective team is one which contributes to the achievement of organizational objectives by performing the task assigned to it and providing satisfaction to its members. In the above paragraph.6 pound of pressure while tugging on the rope. . skills which are complementary to the team requirement and understanding of one’s own role as well as roles of other members. understanding of roles helps members to meet the requirement of one another thereby solving the problems which the team faces. it appears that there are many factors in an effective team. group of eight. and attitudes. When the group is not cohesive with high output norms. A group is not merely an assemblage of individuals but there should be a feeling that they are members of the group and share common interests. other factors remaining the same. managers at higher levels particularly at the top level should set organizational climate and culture which enthuse team members to put their best. super-ordinate goals and team rewards. team members may tend to contribute positively to the teamwork. team members may not show high degree of enthusiasm and they will use only a part of their skills in performing the jobs. Dropping of average output in group efforts indicates that some members of the group were not contributing as much as they did individually. Individuals were asked to pull alone as hard as possible on a rope attached to a strain gauge. When the same individuals pulled on the rope of groups of three. They averaged 138. two things are required from its members. group efforts tend to slacken. The possibility of occurring of social loafing in a team-work increases because of the following reasons: 1. Supportive Environment: A team loaded with skilled members cannot perform well if the organizational climate is not supportive for that. Therefore. Let us see how these factors make a team effective. we have mentioned that team effectiveness depends on the complementarity of team members. goals.
3. Super-ordinate Goals: Super-ordinate goals are those which are above the goals of a single team or a single individual. An individual works better if he is able to link how his goal attainment leads to the attainment of a higher-level goal. These super-ordinate goals, then, serve to focus attention, unify efforts, and stimulate more cohesive team efforts. 4. Team Rewards: Team performance depends on how reward is linked to team performance and how members perceive this linkage. If team members perceive that reward to contingent on team performance, they will put their maximum. Rewards of both types- financial and nonfinancial-should be taken into consideration. Further, organizations need to achieve a careful balance between encouraging and rewarding individual initiative and growth and stimulating full contributions to team success. Innovative non-financial team rewards for responsible behaviour may include the authority to select new members of the group, make recommendations regarding a new supervisor, or propose discipline for team members. The positive aspect of all these factors leads to team effectiveness and team members share common values regarding product quality, customer satisfaction, and share the responsibility for completing a project on schedule. Katzenbatch and Smith, management consultants, have suggested the concept of real team and they feel that this concept is relatively unexploited despite its capacity to outperform other groups and individuals. They define four characteristics of real teams: small size; complementary skills; common purpose, goals, and working approach: and willingness to be held mutually accountable. Real teams can be created and sustained by: 1. Selecting members for their complementary skills and potentials; 2. Developing clear rules of conduct and challenging performance goals; 3. Establishing a sense of urgency right from the first meeting. 4. Providing substantial time together in which new information is constantly shared; and 5. Providing positive feedback, recognition, and rewards. Team-building Process: Team-building attempts to improve effectiveness of the team by having team members to concentrate on: 1. Setting goals and priorities for the team. 2. Analyzing how team’s goals and priorities are linked to those of the organization. 3. Analyzing how the work is performed. 4. Analyzing how the team is working, and
5. Analyzing the relationships among the members who are performing the job. For achieving these, the team-building exercise proceeds in a particular way as shown in figure.
Fig. 4.2: Process of Team-building Various steps of team-building process are not one-shot action, rather, they are repetitive and cyclical as indicated by arrows in the figure. 1. Problem-sensing: There are a number of ways in which problems of a team can be obtained. Often the team itself defines which aspects of team-building it wishes to work on. This problem can better be identified in terms of what is hindering group effectiveness. At this stage, generally most of the members come forward with their arguments as to what the real problems are. The view may be quite different ranging from the organizational problem, group problems to even personal problem. In problem identification, the emphasis should be on consensus. The consensus-seeking part of the process necessitates that each person becomes thoroughly aware and understand clearly the basic concepts of team-development. Much of the problems may be solved through effective communication and training sessions. 2. Examining Differences: The perception of people on an issue differs because of their differing backgrounds, such as, their value systems, personality and attitudes. The perception may be brought to conformity through the process of exercise on perception which involves a number of psychological exercises particularly on perceptual differences. The role of communication is important in this context because it will help in clarifying the actual problems to the members. 3. Giving and Receiving Feedback: The step of perceiving things and listening to each other may be relayed back to the members as there is a possibility that such processes may create tense situation in the group. Often, members report about the painful feelings that they have at the time of evaluation of their feelings. The discussion should continue until all members of the team have commented. The feedback should be given to the members about their feelings, about the issue, the way people talk about the issue, the stying with the topic or going off on tangents, who was talking more or who was talking less, who was trying to resolve the differences, etc. Such feedback generally provides members to evaluate the values but at the same time, also provides opportunity to understand themselves. The concept of Johari Window may also be applied. This suggests that even people are not fully aware of themselves. 4. Developing Interactive Skills: The basic objective of this process is to increase the ability among the people as to how they should interact with others and engage in constructive behaviour. Following are the examples of constructive and negative behaviours:
Constructive Behaviour: (i) Building: developing and expanding the ideas of others. (ii) Bringing in: harmonizing, encouraging others to participate. (iii) Clarifying: resting, ensuring, understanding, seeking relevant information. (iv) Innovative: bringing in new relevant ideas, information, feelings, etc.
(i) Over talk: interrupting, talking together with speaker. (ii) Attacking: deriding, belittling, criticizing person. (iii) Negative: cooling, cynicism, undermining morale. At the time of discussion of feedback, people themselves take assignments to increase specific constructive behaviours and decrease specific negative behaviours. If this process is adopted several times, there is a strong possibility that members may learn constructive behaviours and leave negative behaviours. This is quite helpful in developing teamwork. 5. Follow-up Action: This is the final stage in team-building. At this stage, the total team is convened to review what has been learned and to identify what the next step should be. Follow-up action also helps in overcoming the drawback involved at the initial stages of teambuilding. It involves deciding who will take care of each area of the team’s responsibilities, and who will be responsible for team projects in a group that has not developed a satisfactory division of responsibility; clarifying and setting differences in perception concerning responsibility and authority in the team, with complex division of responsibility and authority among members. These attempts bring co-operative and supportive feelings among people involved in the team functioning. When this exercise is undertaken at the initial stage, it contributes positively towards the feelings of the people. However, to encourage and sustain such feelings, management should take such actions at regular intervals so that members feel reinforced and sustain their positive behaviour. Such actions will go a long way in shaping the organizational climate quite conducive to members for their efficient working. Evaluation of Team-building As mentioned earlier, team-building as an OD intervention has attracted maximum attention. Many research studies have also confirmed the positive contributions of team-building on the
In spite of these problems. It helps developing communication within the group and inter-group and overcoming many psychological barriers that block communication flow. communicating. monitoring. . However. 3. 2. structure. In this method. stereotypes. it is not that effective in isolation. this has been a subject to which change efforts have been directed. The groups then share their lists. one of the more Popular methods emphasize problem solving. etc. team-building has been termed as one-sided effort and it suffers from the following limitations: 1. In general. in different degrees. and how it believes the other group perceivers it. One such suggestion is to use a task hierarchy to reinforce the team as it progresses up a behaviour skill hierarchy (for example. the other group.7 Inter-group Development A major area of concern is OD is the dysfunctional conflict that exists between groups. It seeks to change to attitudes. It focuses only on work groups and other major organizational variables such as technology. team-building has a positive outlook. the groups can move to the integration phase – working to develop solutions that will improve relations. Therefore. It improves the organization’s problem-solving and decision-making ability. However. and perceptions that groups have of each other. Team-building becomes a complicated exercise when there is frequent change in team members. 2. Differences are clearly articulate. New member may find it difficult to adjust with the team because of his confusion over his roles in terms of task performance and building good relationships.. listening. there have been calls for combining team-building with organization behaviour modification approaches.organization’s outcomes. 4. team-building contributes to the organizational performance in the following manner: 1. each group meets independently to develop lists of its perception of itself. and feedback skills). It helps in developing effective interpersonal relationships by stimulating the group members for that. Once the causes of the difficulty have been identified. though. after which similarities and differences are discussed. and the groups look for the causes of the disparities. Although there are several approaches for improving intergroup relations. As a result. are not given adequate attention.
Outside consultants also may be prone to initiating more drastic changes – which can be benefit or a disadvantage – because they don’t have to live with the repercussions after the change is implemented. are disadvantaged because they usually have an inadequate understanding of the organization’s history. role-plays and instruments. may be more thoughtful (and possibly cautious) because they to live with the consequences of their actions. presentations. or outside consultants.Subgroups. According to Curtis Mial: “The Consultant may serve as the exhaust value. however. as the radiator absorbing some of the heat of the controversy. 4. Trainer A change agent needs to be a trainer and educator. In contrast. cases and experiential learning etc. 4. culture. group discussions. The consultant may fulfill a variety of functions. as the accelerator to build up momentum. Because they are from the outside these individuals an offer can offer an objective perspective often unavailable to insiders. . employees of the organization. with members from each of the conflicting groups. as the shock absorber when the going is rough.9 Role of Change Agents The change agent may play different roles according to the need of organization development . The trainer role is most widely and intensively used at all stages of a change project: unfreezing.8 Change Agents Change agents: Can be managers or nonmanagers. can now be created for further diagnosis and to begin to formulate possible alternative actions that will improve relations. He has to educate people on the need and importance o change using a variety of methodologies – lectures. internal management often will hire the services or outside consultants to provide advice and assistance. as the break for too quick action. Outside consultants. or as fog lamp when the future is hazy. and personnel. films. changing (intervening) and refreezing. enabling the client to let off steam: as the ignition to spark action. but one thing he/she is not the driver”. internal staff specialists or managers when acting as change agents. For major change efforts. operating procedures.These three roles are having been brief described below: Consultant A consultant is a professional (internal or external) who applies behavioral Science knowledge in an ongoing organization (or client system) with clear objectives of managing change and improving effectiveness.
group. feedback of information. Sensitivity training focuses on small group ranging from ten to twelve. Teambuilding is most important. Self Assessment Questions 1. Grid training focuses on individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection. Useful hypothesis are to be formulated and tested. generation of new behavioral science knowledge. diagnosis. Data collection.11 Terminal Questions 1. evolving best strategies for change by assessing alternatives and the important stages in a change project where the change agent has to be a Researcher. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts 4. knowledge and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. In process consultation. Researcher A change agent has to carry out some research activities for the purpose of generating valid information prior to and during the change process. 4. Training is used both in ‘content orientation’ and process orientation’. attitudes and beliefs. Grid Training was developed by –––––––––––– 3. skills and change in behavior. 2. What is survey feedback as an intervention of OD? How does it provide base for other OD interventions? . The first step in survey feedback is ______ usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. inter-group and total organization levels. widely accepted and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. ________is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. developing action plans based on feedback and follow-up. What is Grid Training? How does it help in improving individual performance in an organization? 2.10 Summary OD intervention strategies are various activities which a consultant and client organization performs for improving organizational performance. It focuses on skills.Training is required for enhancing knowledge.
Assumptions. Blake and Mouton. Refer section 4.3.2 Definitions and .12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. and Beliefs in Organization Development Structure: 5.1 Introduction Objectives 5. What is team-building? What are the stages of life cycle of a team? 4. 4. 3.4 2.2 3. MU0002-Unit-05-Values. Assumptions.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Social loafing Answers to TQs: 1. Explain Change agents and discuss the role of change agents in detail. Refer section 4. Beliefs in Organization Development Unit-05-Values. Refer section 4. Refer section 4.6 4. Data collection 2.
4 Early Statements of OD Values and Assumptions 5.5.2 Definitions A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true.7 Terminal Questions 5.5.5. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of values. These values and assumptions have developed from research and theory by behavioural scientists and from the experiences and observations of practicing managers.5.6 Summary Self Assessment Questions 5. it is a cognitive fact for the person. Objectives: After studying this unit. · Give the statement of OD values and assumptions. assumptions. and they continue to evolve as the field itself evolves. · State the implications of OD values and assumptions.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups 5.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 5. beliefs and assumptions.1 Introduction A set of values.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals 5.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations 5. 5. Most of these beliefs were formulated early in the development of the field. beliefs and assumptions.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions 5. · List the chronology of events of values. and beliefs constitutes an integral part of organization development. shaping the goals and methods of the field and distinguishing OD from other improvement strategies.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought 5. .
g.g. and that rationality. Humanistic values proclaim the importance of the individual: respect the whole person. Democratic values assert the sanctity of the individual. and assumptions being. 5. and beliefs are all cognitive facts or propositions. repetitive tasks minimized the skills required to do the job. Simple. Taylor’s methods quickly swept the country and the world as the way to organize work. Optimistic values posit that people are basically good. Evidence for the validity of these values and their supporting assumptions comes from many sources – the Hawthorne studies. As these ingredients accumulated. and goodwill are the tools for making progress. Values and assumptions do not spring full grown from individuals or societies they are formed from the collective beliefs of an era-the zeitgeist. and democratic. Expert engineers and supervisors designed each task and ensured it was done correctly. the importance of fair and equitable treatment for all. assumptions. values." or slacking off. strongly held. repetitive tasks in an attempt to find "the one best way" to do each job. relatively unexamined beliefs accepted as the truth. greater understanding of individual motivation and group dynamics. free speech) and what is undesirable or ‘bad’ (e. Thus. Values. treat people with respect and dignity. and beliefs provide structure and stability for people as they attempt to understand the world around them.. with values being beliefs about good and bad. assumptions. Major ingredients of the zeitgeist that influenced OD values and assumptions are presented here in a brief chronology. OD values tend to be humanistic. they were fashioned into a coherent value foundation for the theory and practice of organization development.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought Frederick Winslow Taylor’s ‘The Principles of Scientific Management’ (1911) launched the scientific management movement with its emphasis on time and motion studies and breaking jobs into small. optimistic. dishonesty).. .Values are also beliefs and are defined as: "Beliefs about what is desirable or ‘good’ (e. research on the effects of different leadership styles. and the like." Assumptions are beliefs that are regarded as so valuable and obviously correct that they are taken for granted and rarely examined or questioned. increasing awareness of the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. or spirit of the time. the human relations movement. assume that everyone has intrinsic worth. the clash between fascism and democracy in World War II. view all people as having the potential for growth and development. that progress is possible and desirable in human affairs. the laboratory training movement. and the need for justice through the rule of law and due process. the right of people to be free from arbitrary misuse of power. reason. Piece-rate pay systems were designed to increase motivation and to prevent "soldiering.
extensive division of labor. and rigid procedures would create a well-oiled human machine called the organization. ‘The Functions of the Executive’ by Chester 1. Barnard viewed organizations as social systems that must be effective (achieve goals) and efficient (satisfy the needs of employees). apathy. theory. aggressiveness and poor performance. Much of her career was devoted to finding ways to reduce adversarial relationships between workers and management. People came to work as whole people. Lippitt (1939). repetitive jobs left them feeling alienated and dispirited. Mary Parker Follett (1926). Their simple. by Roethlisberger and Dickson in 1939. His acceptance theory of authority proposed that authority derives from the willingness of subordinates to comply with directions rather than from position power. their feelings and attitudes about the work. the work environment. much of the research. The research demonstrated the primacy of social factors on productivity and morale. The Famous Hawthorne Studies (1927 to 1932) were conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company. but also contained serious flaws that led to unintended consequences. and White demonstrated that democratic leadership was superior to authoritarian leadership and laissez-faire leadership in affecting group climate and group performance. . In a sense. organizations were not machines. wrote an article on “The Giving of Orders” advocating participative leadership and joint problem-solving by labour and management. Reports on these studies by Mayo in 1933 and 1945. most efficient way to organize people. A strong hierarchy of authority. Democratic leadership seemed to bring out the best in the groups. and the supervisor determined their performance. Research by Lewin. Barnard (1938) presented insights from his experiences as President of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. Scientific management as the way to organize work and bureaucracy as the way to organize people were the prevailing paradigms for organizations in the early 1900s. The great German sociologist Max Weber (1922) introduced the concept of “bureaucracy” as the best. and practice since the late 1920s have focused on the shortcomings of these two paradigms and how to overcome the limitations. impersonal rules. and by Homans in 1950 profoundly and irreversibly affected people’s beliefs about organizational behaviour. Group Dynamics (1940) – The scientific study of groups using experimental research methods-was launched by Kurt Lewin and his students. Group norms had more powerful effects on productivity than economic incentives. authoritarian leadership caused dependency. People were not cogs. a management theorist and astute observer of labourmanagement relations. Some early experiments were conducted in the late 1930s. These approaches possessed many desirable features.
proposed that the leadership functions of a group should be shared between the leader and group members and showed how that could be done. French’s (1948) article. and understand group dynamics. Eric Trist and Ken Bamforth of the Tavistock Clinic (1951) published the results of their work in British coal mines. pioneers in laboratory training. training in interpersonal skills for supervisors. The Hawthorne Studies (1940s to 1960) spawned the human relations movement that was in full flower from the 1930s to the 1960s. and a general “humanizing” of the workplace. This article introduced the concept of organizations as sociotechnical systems. are self-centered. Carl Rogers’ Client-Centered Therapy (1951) demonstrated the efficacy of non-directive psychotherapy. Maslow suggested that human motivation is arranged in a hierarchy of needs from lower-level needs such as physiological and survival needs to higher-level needs such as esteem and self-actualization. The theory postulated that when lowerlevel needs are satisfied. Chris Argyrif’s Personality and Organization (1957) was the first of several books in which he stated that there is an inherent conflict between the needs of organizations and the needs of mature. which holds that individuals have within themselves the capacity to assume responsibility for their behaviour and mental health when provided with a supportive. higher-level needs become dominant. a direct precursor of OD. Humanistic and democratic values suffused the movement. healthy adults. P.” reported that resistance to change could be minimized by communicating the need for change and allowing the people affected by the change to participate in planning it. Rogers’ focus on effective interpersonal communications was applicable to superior-subordinate relations. Lester Coch and John R. Motivation and Personality by Abraham Maslow (1954) presented a new view of human motivation. lack ambition. . increase self-understanding. which postulates that organizations are comprised of a social system and a technological system and that changes in one system will produce changes in the other system. caring social climate. Douglas McGregor wrote ‘The Human Side of Enterprise’ (1960) in which he described his famous Theory X and Theory Y assumptions. Laboratory training taught people how to improve interpersonal relations. “Overcoming Resistance to Change. Ken Benne and Paul Sheats (1948). greater attention to workers’ social needs. The human relations movement advocated participative management. These years witnessed the beginnings of the laboratory training movement (1946 and 1947). Those who subscribe to Theory X assume that people are lazy. dislike responsibility.
The task of management is to change organizational structures. and organizations that is. humanistic. This leadership style was contrasted with an authoritarian. Tannenbaum and Davis presented their ideas in an article appearing in Industrial Management Review. Those who subscribe to Theory Y assume that people have the potential to develop. open communications. Values have always been an integral part of OD. the initial enthusiasm for scientific management. and to pursue organizational goals if given the chance and the social environment to do so. and greater individual autonomy. a mechanistic organization structure may be appropriate.indifferent to the organization’s needs. Rensis Likert’s ‘New Patterns of Management’ (1961) presented data and theory showing the overwhelming superiority of a democratic leadership style in which the leader is group oriented. theory. and values of the field. In addition to presenting Theory X and Y. organization development practitioners formulated a set of values and assumptions regarding people. goal-oriented. groups. one-on-one leadership style. as we have said. summarized the state of organization development a decade or so after its inception. and shares decision-making with the work group. this book popularized Maslow’s motivation theory. and negative consequences. and observations utilized by OD practitioners. This chronology captures most of the significant influences from research. The Addison-Wesley Publishing Company “OD Six-Pack. to assume responsibility. and human resource practices to allow individual potential to be released. In an environment of slow change. optimistic. Organic structures encourage decentralized decision making and authority. Out of this zeitgeist. and introduced practicing managers to the concepts of need hierarchy and self-actualization. and authoritarian leadership gave way to increasing doubts about these organizational practices as theory and research pointed up their limitations. dysfunctions. in an environment of high change. We will examine three early statements regarding OD values that had a significant impact on the field. practice. The Bennis and Beckhard quotations come from their books in the Addison-Wesley Six-Pack. Kahn (1966) presented the first comprehensive exposition of organizations as open systems. ‘The Social Psychology of Organizations’ by Daniel Katz and Robert L. an organic organization form is preferred. . resist change. Burns and Stalker (1961) described two very different forms of organization structuremechanistic and organic. and democratic.” (1969) a set of six little books on OD by prominent practitioners. To summarize the intellectual climate of this period. bureaucracy. and need to be led. These six books presented the theory. management practices.
the basic units of change are groups. more choices become available and hence better decisions are made. mechanical systems rely on "authority-obedience relationships" while organic systems rely on "mutual confidence and trust. The earlier work by Tom Burns and G. · Development of increased understanding between and within working groups in order to reduce tensions. Through focused attention and through the collection and feedback of relevant data to relevant people. the capacity for functional groups to work more competently. · Development of better methods of conflict resolution. Therefore.” For example. · A shift in values so that human factors and feelings come to be considered legitimate. Bennis clarified some of the salient differences between mechanical systems and organic systems. He listed these normative goals as follows: · Improvement in interpersonal competence. M. and unprincipled power. · Development of more effective "team management. not individuals. The basic building blocks of an organization are groups (teams)." He then went on to state what he believed to be the central value underlying organization development theory and practice: The basic value underlying all organization development theory and practice is that of choice. Warren Bennis proposed that OD practitioners (change agents) share a set of normative goals based on their humanistic/ democratic philosophy. In his 1969 book he described "several assumptions about the nature and functioning of organizations" held by OD practitioners. more rational and open methods of conflict resolution are sought. Rather than the usual bureaucratic methods which rely mainly on suppression. Stalker used the term “mechanistic” in contrast to “mechanical." like pushing buttons. 1. compromise." that is. Here is his list." Mechanical systems insist on "strict division of labour and hierarchical supervision" while organic systems foster "multi-group membership and responsibility. ." Mechanical systems encourage "centralized decision-making" while organic systems encourage "wide sharing of responsibility and control.Writing in 1969. This is a strong reaction against the idea of organizations as mechanisms which managers "work on. · Development of organic rather than mechanical systems. Another major player in the field was Richard Beckhard.
4. and individuals continuously manage their affairs against goals. 5. · Away from walling off the expression of feelings toward making possible both appropriate expression and effective use." People affected by a change must be allowed active participation and a sense of ownership in the planning and conduct of the change. mutual trust. · Away from avoidance of negative evaluation of individuals toward confirming them as human beings. · Away from a view of individuals as fixed. rather than in a particular role or level of hierarchy. They listed these “values in transition” as follows: · Away from a view of people as essentially bad toward a view of people as basically good. presented their view of OD values in a 1969 article. · Away from avoiding facing others with relevant data toward making appropriate confrontation. Decision-making in a healthy organization is located where the information sources are.2. director of organization development. sub-units of organizations. a professor and Sheldon Davis. toward seeing them as being in process. 6. They asserted that an important shift in values was occurring and that this shift signaled a more appropriate and accurate view of people in organizations. Robert Tannenbaum. Controls are interim measurements. · Away from use of status for maintaining power and personal prestige toward use of status for organizationally relevant purposes. An always relevant change goal is the reduction of inappropriate competition between parts of the organization and the development of a more collaborative condition. "People support what they help create. not the basis of managerial strategy. Organizations. · Away from maskmanship and game-playing toward authentic behaviour. · Away from distrusting people toward trusting them. 3. . · Away from resisting and fearing individual differences toward accepting and utilizing them. · Away from utilizing an individual primarily with reference to his or her job description toward viewing an individual as a whole person. One goal of a healthy organization is to develop generally open communication. and confidence between and across levels.
The implications of these two assumptions are straightforward: Ask. Most people want to develop their potential. and arbitrary management practices as well as the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. set high standards.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups . · Away from a primary emphasis on competition toward a much greater emphasis on collaboration. the legitimacy of feelings. and organizations? 5. give responsibility. autocratic. The democratic values prompted a critique of authoritarian. and reward success. listen. challenge. Beliefs such as trust and respect for the individual. authentic interpersonal relations.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions Let us examine specific assumptions and their implications for organization leaders and members. support. and are capable of making. encourage risk-taking. and so forth were seldom espoused and rarely implemented in the vast majority of organizations at that time. a greater contribution to attaining organization goals than most organizational environments permit.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals Two basic assumptions about individuals in organizations pervade organization development. appropriate uses of power. The second assumption is that most people desire to make. · Away from a view of process work as being unproductive effort toward seeing it as essential to effective task accomplishment. These values and assumptions may not seem profound today. collaboration and co-operation. permit failure. participation and contribution by all organization members. decentralized decision making.5. remove obstacles and barriers. groups. A tremendous amount of constructive energy can be tapped if organizations realize and act on these assumptions. 5. give autonomy. but in the 1950s and 1960s they represented a radical departure from accepted beliefs and assumptions. We answer the question: What are some of the implications of OD assumptions and values for dealing with individuals. We think most organization development practitioners held these humanistic and democratic values with their implications for different and "better" ways to run organizations and deal with people.5. open communication. The humanistic values prompted a search for better ways to run organizations and develop the people in them. The first assumption is that most individuals have drives toward personal growth and development if provided an environment that is both supportive and challenging. The people doing the work are generally experts on how to do it and how to do it better. 5.· Away from avoidance of risk-taking toward willingness to risk.
most people are capable of making greater contributions to a group’s effectiveness and development. Therefore. First. 5. support. experimenting with new organization structures and new forms of authority is imperative. adherence to the chain of command. are the best way to satisfy social and emotional needs at work. and interpersonal communication.Several assumptions relate to the importance of work teams and the collaborative management of team culture. facilitation. one of the most psychologically relevant reference groups for most people is the work group. Also. This skill is a trainable one. are dysfunctional . and usually with more than one group. Second. in addition. invest training time and money to increase group members’ skills. Hence. It is especially important that leaders adopt a team leadership style. They cannot meet the demands of the marketplace. greatly influences feelings of satisfaction and competence.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations Clearly. but how A and B can work together to modify their interactions toward the goal of B becoming more effective and A and B becoming more mutually effective. What occurs in the work group. and so on-are obsolete. a growing awareness that “win-lose” organizational situations. leaders need to give important work to teams. Another assumption is that the formal leader cannot perform all the leadership and maintenance functions required for a group to optimize its effectiveness. To do this. D. at both the formal and informal levels. and job satisfaction. leaders should invest in groups: Invest the time required for group development. Finally. such as a work group. personal growth. Implications of these assumptions are several. traditional hierarchical forms of organization-fairly steep pyramid. The question becomes not how A can get B to perform better. Frequently the challenge is broader. Such problems have the greatest chance of constructive solution if all parties in the system alter their mutual relationships. Let teams flourish because they are often the best way to get work done and. invest energy and intelligence in creating a positive climate.5. conflict management. a church or club group. grouping by specialized function. and E can support these changes. including how persons C. emphasis on topdown directives. most people wish to be accepted and to interact co-operatively with at least one small reference group. the family. and co-operation within the group. group members should assist the leader with the multiple roles required for group effectiveness. group members should be encouraged to learn to deal effectively with positive and negative feelings. this group perspective requires a shift from viewing problems as "within the problem person" to viewing problems and solutions as transactional and as embedded in a system. in which one side wins and the other side loses. In addition. formalized cross-functional communication. And because suppressed feelings and attitudes adversely affect problem-solving. One implication is that group members should receive training in group effectiveness skills such as group problem-solving and decision-making. Third. and so on. By implication. not a one-on-one leadership style. Dealing appropriately with feelings and attitudes increases the level of interpersonal trust. including peers and boss. the assumption is that many attitudinal and motivational problems in organizations require interactive and transactional solutions. not individuals.
it is possible to create organizations that on the one hand are humane. Self Assessment Questions . and empowering. they change over time. OD values tend to be humanistic. A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. but are widely accepted today. developmental. The implication is that people are an organization’s most important resource. quality of output. These OD values were considered revolutionary when they emerged in the 1950s. assumptions and beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. societal. Values. Concluding Comment: The field of organization development rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. they are the source of productivity and profits and should be treated with care. values are never static. The rapid technological. and on the other hand are high performing in terms of productivity. and profitability. This discussion was intended to articulate an appreciation of OD values and explain where they came from. The belief that people can grow and develop in terms of personal and organizational competency tends to produce that result. A key assumption in organization development is that the needs and aspirations of human beings are the reasons for organized effort in society. an optimistic. Values. Evidence for this assumption comes from numerous examples where “putting people first” paid off handsomely in profits and performance. Values are also beliefs. These beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. developmental set of assumptions about people is likely to reap rewards beneficial to both the organization and its members. and ways to optimize human potential. Finally. Still. The belief that people are important tends to result in their being important. This notion suggests it is good to have a developmental outlook and seek opportunities in which people can experience personal and professional growth.over the long run and highlight the need for a “win win” attitude. and organizational changes taking place assure that tomorrow will bring new definitions of what is "true" and new beliefs about what is "good. By implication." as behavioural scientists and managers continue to develop better understanding of authority structures. Creating co-operative rather than competitive organizational dynamics is a primary task of the organization’s leaders. Chronology of events in management and OD tremendously influenced OD practitioners. organizing structures. 5. optimistic and democratic. Such an orientation creates a self-fulfilling prophecy.6 Summary The field of OD rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. beliefs and assumptions are cognitive facts.
Refer section 5.3 . Taylor’s principles of scientific management. The outcome of –––––––– was that people were not cogs and organizations were not machines. Refer section 5. 3. beliefs. Define concepts. The concept of –––––––––– was introduced by MaxWeber.W. 4.7 Terminal Questions 1. 2.3 3. Refer section 5. Cognitive 2. Bureaucracy 4. W. What are values and assumptions developed by Richard Bechard in the field of organizational development? 5. beliefs and assumptions. 5. Douglas McGregor Answers to TQs: 1.2 2. Hawthorne experiments 5. __________ is associated with scientific management. F. values. and assumptions are all –––––––––– facts. Values. 2. 5.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.1. 5. What was the outcome of Hawthorne Experiments? 4. Write a note about F. 3. State the assumptions of Theory X and Theory Y. Taylor 3. _______________ gave theory X and theory Y.
3 Socio-technical Theory and Open Systems Planning 18.104.22.168 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change 6.1 Introduction Objectives 6.3 5.1 The Nature of Systems 6. Refer section 5.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change 6.3.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change 6.4 Participation and Empowerment .2 Congruence among System Elements 6.2. Refer section 22.214.171.124.3.3 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .3 Systems Theory 6. MU0002-Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Structure: 6.4.2 Beyond the Quick Fix 6.4 Open Systems Thinking 6.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends 6.
10 Summary 6. Here we describe what we believe are the most important underpinnings for the field.11 Terminal Questions 6. you will learn what OD practitioners think and how they think as they engage in the complicated task of improving organizational functioning.5 Teams and Teamwork 6. you will be able to: · Explain various models and theories of planned change.6.6 Parallel Learning Structures 6.8 Applied Behavioural Science 6.9 Action Research Self Assessment Questions 6.7 A Normative – Re-educative Strategy of Changing 6. · Realize the importance of teams and teamwork. Leaders and OD practitioners use this knowledge base to plan and implement effective change programs. We will examine the following concepts: . art and science which form the knowledge base upon which OD is constructed. · Describe the parallel learning structures. · Explain the terms ‘participation’ and ‘empowerment’. · Explain systems theory. In this discussion. · Explain normative-re-educative strategy of changing The knowledge base of OD is extensive and is constantly growing. Objectives: After studying this unit.1 Introduction This unit describes the foundations of organization development theory and practice.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 6.
1 Kurt Lewin and Friends Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change that have been influential since the 1940s. Planned change theories are rudimentary as far as explaining relationships among variables.2. the important features of some phenomenon. and specify the relationships among the variables. For example. but pretty good for identifying the important variables involved. Here we provide a framework for thinking about planned change by exploring several models from the literature. we can identify the major forces that make up the field of forces and then develop action plans for moving the equilibrium point in one direction or the other. Although morale may get a little better or a little worse on occasion. with some forces pushing toward higher levels of production and some forces pushing toward lower levels of production. Several recent theories show great promise for increasing our understanding of what happens and how it happens in planned change. With a technique called the force-field analysis. some forces pushing toward higher morale and some pushing toward lower morale. we can think of the production level of a manufacturing plant as a resultant equilibrium point in a field of forces. That is. we can think of the level of morale in that plant as a resultant equilibrium point. in words or pictures. Likewise. The production level tends to remain fairly constant because the field of forces remains fairly constant. He suggested that change is a three-stage process: . it generally hovers around some equilibrium point that is the resultant in a field of forces.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change Organization development is planned change in an organizational context. the status quo-whatever is happening right now-is the result of forces pushing in opposing directions. 6. describe those features as variables. This concept is useful for thinking about the dynamics of change situations. Models and theories depict. The first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces. Lewin’s second idea was a model of the change process itself. The development of models of planned change facilitated the development of OD.· Models and theories of planned change · Systems theory · Participation and empowerment · Teams and teamwork · Parallel and learning structures · A normative-re-educative strategy of changing · Action research 6.
Change entails moving from one equilibrium point to another. Lewin’s three-stage model is a powerful tool for understanding change situations. judge things. A Three-Stage Model of the Change Process: Stage 1: Unfreezing: Creating motivation and readiness to change through a. that is. Scanning the environment for new relevant information Stage 3: Refreezing: Helping the client to integrate the new point of view into a. which cause guilt and anxiety. Refreezing the behaviour at the new level.non-smoking becomes the new equilibrium point. the person must develop a sense of psychological safety in order to replace the old behaviours with new behaviours. Provision of psychological safety Stage 2: Changing through Cognitive Restructuring: Helping the client to see things. . moving to new level of behaviour. the non-smoking behaviour must become permanent. Significant relationships. mentor. and react to things differently based on a new point of view obtained through a. which motivate the person to change. b. feel things. etc. But unless the person feels comfortable with dropping the old behaviours and acquiring new ones. change his behaviour from being a smoker to being a non-smoker.Unfreezing the old behaviour (or situation). Next. b. The three-stage model says he must first unfreeze the old behaviour of smoking. The total personality and self-concept. Finally. believe that cigarette smoking is bad for him and that he should stop smoking. Identifying with a new role model. Take the example of a man who smokes cigarettes and wants to quit. disconfirmation creates pain and discomfort. Edgar Schein took this excellent idea and improved it by specifying the psychological mechanisms involved in each stage. that is. he must move. change will not occur. unfreezing. Creation of guilt or anxiety c. Disconfirmation or lack of confirmation b. That is. Refreezing the desired behaviour requires establishing a new field of forces to support the new behaviour. In stage 1.
the person undergoes cognitive restructuring. refreezing. Phase 2: Establishing a change relationship. The primary task in stage 3. Phases 3. is to integrate the new behaviours into the person’s personality. This motivating evidence is gained by. and Bruce Westley. Phase 7: Achieving a terminal relationship. and fit with the individual’s social surroundings. This model has five sequential stages: 1) Initiating the program. and attitudes. The person acquires information and evidence showing that the change is desirable and possible. Similar models have been developed by Kolb and Frohman and by Burke. In this phase a client system in need of help and a change agent from outside the system establish a working relationship. This phase corresponds to Lewin’s refreezing phase.In stage 2. They expanded the three-stage model into a seven-stage model representing the consulting process. that is. identifying with ex-smokers and learning about the health risks of smoking. That is. establishing goals and intentions of action. Jeanne Watson. Phase 6: Generalizing and stabilizing change. Their seven stages are as follows: Phase 1: Developing a need for change. Phase 4: Examining alternative routes and goals. terminating the client-consultant relationship. stabilizing the changes requires testing to see if they fit-fit with the individual. Phase 5: Transforming intentions into actual change efforts. 6.2.2 Beyond the “Quick Fix” A comprehensive change model by Ralph Kilmann specifies the critical leverage points for organizational change. This phase corresponds to Lewin’s unfreezing phase. for example. . and 5 correspond ro Lewin’s moving phase. This seven-stage model lays out the logical steps involved in OD consulting. The phrase significant relationships refer to important people in the person’s social environment-do these significant others approve of the changes? Another modification of Lewin’s model was proposed by Ronald Lippitt. Phase 3: Clarifying or diagnosing the client system’s problem. These "road maps" are useful for thinking about change. 4. moving.
when functioning properly. and 5) The reward system track. These problems and opportunities will be the targets of later interventions. and willingness to change among members the conditions that must exist before any other improvement effort can succeed. Diagnosing the problems requires a thorough analysis of the problems and opportunities facing the organization. problem-solving sessions. 3) Scheduling the "tracks". called "tracks. Change programs take from one to five years to complete. The management-skills track provides all management personnel with new ways of coping with complex problems and hidden assumptions. communication. Interventions include training programs. The team-building track infuses the new culture and updated management skills into each work unit – thereby instilling co-operation organization-wide so that complex problems can be addressed with all the expertise and information available. 2) The management skills track. Initiating the program entails securing commitment from top management.2) Diagnosing the problems. 3) The team-building track. Scheduling and implementing the "tracks" involve intervening in five critical leverage points. critique practices and procedures. information sharing. cause the organization to be successful. 4) The strategy-structure track. Kilmann describes the five tracks: What does each track do for the organization? The culture track enhances trust. ." that. and so forth. 4) Implementing the "tracks" 5) Evaluating the results. Kilmann’s five tracks are: 1) The culture track.
radical. and . The reward-system track establishes a performance-based reward system that sustains all improvements by officially sanctioning the new culture. hard-working or easy-going.2. revolutionary. then moving to the team-building track. departments. adaptive. or discontinuous change.The strategy-structure track develops either a completely new or a revised strategic plan for the firm and then aligns divisions. Organizational climate is defined as people’s perceptions and attitudes about the organizationwhether it is a good or bad place to work.and second-order change. On the other hand. Eastman Kodak. Westinghouse. and all resources with the new strategic direction. or continuous change. and so forth. some features of the organization change but the fundamental nature of the organization remains the same. and Xerox with good results. friendly or unfriendly. and so forth. In first-order change. and beliefs that are enduring. the use of updated management skills. incremental. TRW. The model distinguishes between organizational climate and organizational culture. and difficult to change. often unconscious. with an increasing emphasis on second-order transformational change. In second-order change. 6. evolutionary.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change The next model to be examined is the Burke-Litwin model of individual and organizational performance. then moving to the management skills track. The premise of the BurkeLitwin model is this: OD interventions directed toward structure. Ford General Electric. This model shows how to create first-order and second-order change (which the authors call “transactional change” and “transformational change”). and co-operative team efforts within and among all work groups. OD programs are directed toward both first. the nature of the organization is fundamentally and substantially altered – the organization is transformed. values. developed by Warner Burke and George Litwin. organizational culture is defined as deep-seated assumptions. First-order change goes by many different labels: transactional. management practices. beginning with the culture track. General Foods. jobs. Second-order change goes by many different labels: transformational. These perceptions are relatively easy to change because they are built on employees’ reactions to current managerial and organization practices. and its holistic view of organization change and development. One likes this model because of its comprehensive nature. its identification of the five tracks as critical leverage points. work groups. An OD consultant implements the tracks in a phased sequence. Changing culture is much more difficult than changing climate. Kilmann has tested his model at AT&T.
Transactional leaders are "leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. Changing structure.1: The Transactional Factors Involved in First – Order Change . Following figure shows the factors involved in first-order (transactional) change. 6." Transactional leadership embodies a fair exchange between leader and follower that leads to "normal" performance." Transformational leadership embodies inspiration which leads to new heights of performance. interventions directed toward mission and strategy. and organization culture result in second-order change. Transformational leaders are "leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interest for the good of the organization and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers. Transactional leadership is sufficient for causing first-order change. Transactional leadership is required to make this change in organizational climate. management practices. These two concepts come from leadership research which found that some leaders are capable of obtaining extraordinary performance from followers while other leaders are not. which change motivation and. individual and organizational performance. Now let us look at the Burke-Litwin model. in turn. Transformational leadership is required for causing second-order change. and systems cause changes in work unit climate.systems (policies and procedures) result in first-order change. Fig. leadership. We will do so in several steps. The model also makes a distinction between transactional and transformational leadership styles.
structure. Interventions directed toward these factors transform the organization and cause a permanent change in organization culture.Fig. Burke and Litwin propose that interventions directed toward leadership. and systems produce transactional change or change in organizational climate. One set primarily is associated with the transactional level of human behaviour or the everyday interactions and exchanges that create the climate. as shown in the above figure. leadership styles. these transformational processes are required for genuine change in the culture of an organization. and then targets interventions toward factors of the organization that produce the desired change. and organization culture produce transformational change or fundamental change in the organization’s culture. To summarize. 6.” We consider the Burke-Litwin model to be a significant advance in thinking about planned change. The bottom half of figure displays the factors involved in transactional change. if we want to cause second-order (transformational) change. The top half of figure displays the factors involved in transformational change. The above two figures together yield the full Burke-Litwin model shown in the following figure. we must change mission and strategy. The second set of dynamics is concerned with processes of human transformation. mission and strategy. that is. . Burke says: “Thus there are two distinct sets of organizational dynamics. sudden "leaps" in behaviour. These factors are able to change the climate. Research by Burke and his students suggests the model performs as intended. These factors are powerful enough to change the culture fundamentally.2: The Transformational Factors Involved in Second – Order Change On the other hand. which produces changes in individual and organizational performance. Interventions directed toward management practices. determines the kind of change required (transactional or transformational). The OD practitioner sizes up the change situation. and organization culture.
and these behaviour changes occur when elements of the work setting have been modified by OD interventions. social factors. . The basic premise is that OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals’ behaviours. 6. It is how OD works. and interaction processes will affect social factors. Interventions that focus on culture. and rewards will affect organizing arrangements. required. rewarded). and technology.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change Jerry Porras and his associates developed a model of how organization development works.4: Organizational Work-Setting Factors This model is extremely useful for OD practitioners and organizational leaders. Keep this framework in mind as you read the units on OD interventions because all interventions target one or more factors shown in figures. which determine organizational performance and individual development. it is described in a discussion by Porras and Peter Robertson. which influence on-the job behaviours. OD interventions that focus on goals.3: The Burke Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change 6. The work setting plays a central role in this model and consists of four factors: organizing arrangements. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements. Organizational change occurs only when individuals change their behaviour. strategies. For example. management style. This model shows how OD interventions can be linked to factors in the work setting. Fig. 6. physical setting.2.Fig. Interventions that focus on job design and work flow design will affect technology. The premise modeled here is that work setting factors influence organizational members’ cognitions (they learn what is expected. Following figure shows the work setting in the larger organizational framework. according to Porras and Robertson.
system." To summarize.3 Systems Theory A second foundation of organization development is systems theory." Kast and Rosenzweig define system as "an organized. when taking a systems approach. 6. one begins by identifying the individual parts and then seeks to understand the nature of their collective interaction." Hanna says: "A system is an arrangement of interrelated parts. and delineated by identifiable boundaries from its environmental supra. Fagen defines system as "a set of objects together with relationships between the objects and between their attributes. and shows how systems theory enhances the practice of OD. interconnectedness. system denotes interdependency. and interrelatedness among elements in a set that constitutes an identifiable whole or gestalt. Systems theory is one of the most powerful conceptual tools available for understanding the dynamics of organizations and organizational change. and Katz and Kahn were the first to apply open systems theory to organizations in 1966. which views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. Thus. The words ‘arrangement’ and ‘interrelated’ describe interdependent elements forming an entity. unitary whole composed of two or more interdependent parts." Von Bertalanffy refers to a system as a set of "elements standing in interaction. components. that is the system. Ludwig Von Bertalanffy first articulated the principles of general systems theory in 1950. . describes the characteristics of systems.Fig. This section explains systems theory. or subsystems.5: A Change-based Organizational Framework 6.
the organization’s purposes will be reflected in its outputs. Every system is delineated by a boundary. What is inside the boundary is the system.6: A System in Interaction with its Environment The law of entropy states that all systems “run down” and disintegrate unless they reverse the entropic process by importing more energy than they use. or transformation processes that change the inputs.3. Organizations are open systems. and they export products to the environment in the form of outputs. They do something to the inputs via throughput. resources. Fig. Organizations achieve negative entropy when they are able to exchange their outputs for enough inputs to keep the system from running down. Boundaries of open systems are permeable.1 The Nature of Systems The nature. and energy between system and environment. Each of these three system processes must work well if the system is to be effective and survive. conversion. and what is outside the boundary is the environment. and characteristics of open systems are well-known. money. For example. people.6. and if the environment does not want these outputs. the reasons for their existence. All open systems are input-throughput-output mechanisms. studying open systems leads to a good understanding of organizations. we examine the characteristics of open systems drawing OD expositions by Katz and Kahn and Hanna. Therefore. These purposes must align with purposes or needs in the environment. raw material and so on. A good rule of thumb for drawing the boundary is that more energy exchange occurs within the boundary than across the boundary. in that they permit exchange of information. Open systems have purposes and goals. information. dynamics. the organization will cease to exist. Systems take inputs from the environment in the form of energy. . Here. 6.
Feedback is information from the environment about system performance. and makes a course correction. "return to earth. These subsystems can be arranged into a hierarchy of systems moving from less important to more important.” Also. but most are not useful. Another characteristic of open systems is steady state or dynamic homeostasis.3. that information is called positive feedback. and the production plan calls for 100 buggy whips per month. say. The three major input factors are: . By the same token. It is sometimes called deviation-amplifying feed back. Systems are bombarded by all kinds of information: some are useful. while screening out other information. Negative feedback tells you if you are on track with your scheduled production output. and complex over time. eating fads. It is also known as deviation-correcting feedback. the principle that there are multiple ways to arrive at a particular outcome or state – systems have multiple paths to goals. Systems achieve a steady state or equilibrium point and seek to maintain this equilibrium against disruptive forces. and the system adjusts to a new goal.2 Congruence among System Elements David Nadler and associates at Delta Consulting Group developed the congruence model for understanding organizational dynamics and change. Another characteristic of systems is equifinality. differentiated. however. competitors. either internal or external. it receives information to that effect in the form of negative feedback. aerospace. Say your company makes buggy whips. this process is called differentiation. negative and positive. Survival of the system is equally influenced by whether or not the targets themselves are appropriate." Here is another example of negative and positive feedback. This model depicts the organization as an input-throughput-output system. organizations in the fast-food industry pay a lot of attention to information about their industry-nutrition. Positive feedback measures whether or not the purpose and goals are aligned with environmental needs. Negative feedback measures whether or not the output is on course with the purpose and goals. The usefulness of the two concepts is that they demonstrate that it is not enough to merely measure our outputs versus the intended targets.Information is important to systems in several ways. if a rocket ship traveling to the moon strays off its trajectory. For example. Subsystems exist within larger systems. and so on. specialized. systems tend to get more elaborated. 6. increased integration and co-ordination are necessary. With increased differentiation. If the mission (target) changes. they usually ignore information about other industries such as electronics. Positive feedback comes from the environment. As Katz and Kahn say: “The basic principle is the preservation of the character of the system. For example. and the like. it will signal whether the environment needs and/or wants buggy whips. Systems require two kinds of feedback. Systems "code" useful information and incorporate it. mining.
perceptions. knowledge." The premise is that alignment (harmony. knowledge. In a company that is performing poorly. important events. and how things really work (versus how they are supposed to work as defined by the formal organization). Outputs are performance at the total organization level. and critical decisions that still influence behaviour today.1) The environment." and which elements . performance will suffer. For example. the tasks people perform to create products and service markets people. such as capital. failures. Fig. 6. which components are "not functioning correctly. which includes the organization’s culture informal rules and understandings. and technology. which imposes constraints and opportunities about what the organization can and can not do. and 2) Evaluating the "goodness of fit" or how well the elements "go together. what the organization is trying to accomplish and how it plans to do it. if people don’t have the skills and knowledge required to do the work. unit/group level. Elements of the organization per se are labeled strategy. work. You can use this model to analyze organizations with which you are familiar. performance will suffer. and systems for performing the work. which includes skills. which includes formal structures. formal organization. If the strategy calls for entrepreneurial quickness and risk-taking and the formal organization is bureaucratic and highly centralized. processes. and individual level. . and informal organization. fit) must be present among the system’s components’ for the organization to produce satisfactory outputs. performance will suffer. people. 2) Resources available to the organization.7: The Congruence Model Showing the Organization as a System The congruence model’s value is as an analytical tool for: 1) Assessing the characteristics and functioning of each of the elements. and 3) History which consists of memories of past successes. and the workforce’s expectations. If the organization’s culture (informal organization) praises individual accomplishments and the work requires teamwork and collaboration.
training group members in multiple skills. It was the first attempt to help organizations methodically analyze the environmental demands and expectations placed on them and plan to successfully meet these demands and expectations. what is it about each element that causes that part of the system to function well and what are the characteristics of each element that cause all of them to fit together smoothly? The congruence model is an excellent diagnostic tool. and . both realistic (likely to happen if the organization continues on its current course) and ideal (what the organization would like to see happen). forming autonomous work groups.socio-technical systems theory (STS) and open systems planning (OSP)-play an important role in organization development.are poorly aligned? In companies showing outstanding performance.3. A number of design principles have been developed to implement socio-technical systems theory. Hanna writes: In the late 1960s a small team of consultants led by James Clark. organizations must optimize both systems. and Will McWhinney developed a technology for addressing the interface between organization and the environment. Their technology became known as Open systems Planning (OSP). multi-skilled teams. STS is the principal conceptual foundation for efforts in work redesign and organization restructuring. Fred Emery. and that changes in one system affect the other system. 2) Developing scenarios of possible futures. Another important application of systems theory in organization development is open systems planning. a social system and a technical system. that is. and identifying core tasks help STS consultants structure organizations and tasks for maximum effectiveness and efficiency. To achieve high productivity and employee satisfaction. two active segments of OD today. to the workers doing the job. Charles Krone. Principles such as optimizing the social and technical systems. Systems models are essential for the practice of OD. giving information and feedback to the people doing the work. especially autonomous work groups (self-regulated teams or self-direct teams). Socio-technical systems theory was developed by Eric Trist. G.KI Jayaram.3 Socio-technical Systems Theory and Open Systems Planning Two major variations of open systems theory. Open systems planning entails: 1) Scanning the environment to determine the expectations of external organizations and stake-holders. 6. High-performance organizations almost always use principles from socio-technical systems theory. The thesis of STS is that all organizations are comprised of two interdependent systems. and others at the Tavistock Institute in the 1950s. controlling variance at the source. and information to the point of action.
4 Participation of Empowerment One of the most important foundations of organization development is a participation/ empowerment model. Participation in OD programs is not restricted to elites or the top people. Fourth. systems thinking. because most phenomena have more than one cause. a systems approach encourages analysis of events in terms of multiple causation rather than single causation. OD practitioners expect multiple effects. not just its component parts. Without a systemic orientation. according to Peter Senge. Learning organizations can cope effectively with rapidly changing environmental demands. 6. It keeps them from being separate gimmicks or the latest organization change fads. Third. First. from their activities. to change a system.” In conclusion. changing one part of a system influences other parts. therefore. And fifth. By enhancing each of the other disciplines. Viewing organizations from this perspective has several consequences.3) Developing action plans to ensure that a desirable future occurs. Second. not single effects. there is no motivation to look at how the disciplines interrelate. and systems thinking. events. it continually reminds us that the whole can exceed the sum of its parts. it is extended broadly throughout the organization.4 Open Systems Thinking Open systems thinking is required for creating learning organizations. Of all these disciplines. the forces in the field at the time of the event are the relevant forces for analysis. and incidents are not viewed as isolated phenomena. from diagnosis to intervention to evaluation. issues. systems theory pervades the theory and practice of organization development. is the most important. This idea moves the practitioner away from analyzing historical events and toward examining contemporary events and forces. For example. forces. He says of systems thinking: “It is the discipline that integrates the disciplines.3. building shared vision. Most OD practitioners engaged in redesign projects use a combination of socio-technical systems theory and open systems planning. one changes the system. 6. fusing them into a coherent body of theory and practice. according to field theory (Kurt Lewin). Increased participation and empowerment . mental models. this combination is often used in designing high-performance organizations. the fifth discipline. Senge believes that five disciplines must be mastered to create a learning organization: personal mastery. events and forces. team learning. but seen in relation to other issues.
and the culture audit are all predicated on the belief that increased participation will lead to better solutions. To empower is to give someone power. which they call "mechanistic." and "Have decisions made by those who are closest to the problem. called "organic. OD interventions are deliberately designed to increase involvement and participation by organization leaders and members." These authors believe the organic view. The entire field of OD is about empowerment. and give more power to more people. reduce stress levels. then. to exert influence. OD interventions are basically methods for increasing participation. the organic approach unleashes talent and energy in people that are best channeled by providing clear guidelines and boundaries. For example. The most important contrast between the two views involves the implicit but potentially volatile assumptions people make about trust and contro1. quality of work life programs. team building. survey feedback. Further. personal initiative. produce better solutions to problems. and empowerment in turn enhances performance and individual well-being. to contribute their ideas. The other view. employees must choose to be empowered." direct leaders to push decision-making lower in the organization. Rules of thumb such as "Involve all those who are part of the problem or part of the solution. This research demonstrated that most people desire increased involvement and participation. and change. Participation is a powerful elixir-it is good for people and performance. Researchers found that group dynamics work to overcome resistance to change. They describe the organic view: "The other group of executives saw empowerment much differently. which is done by giving individuals the authority to make decisions. and to be responsible.have always been central goals and fundamental values of the field. growth. increase commitment to the organization." is a top-down delegation of decision-making with clear boundaries and strict accountability that increases managerial control. autonomous work groups. While management can create a context that is more empowering." is bottom-up and less controlling. and greatly enhance acceptance of decisions. Quinn and Spreitzer conclude: “Empowerment. But both views contain valid ideas: for example. Participation is an especially effective form of empowerment. They must see themselves as having freedom and discretion. involvement and participation energize greater performance. is not something that management does to employees. They believed that it was about risk-taking. Empowerment meant trusting people and tolerating their imperfections. One view. Robert Quinn and Gretchen Spreitzer found two vastly different views of empowerment. Participation enhances empowerment. These pillars of OD practice are validated by both research and practice. quality circles. search conferences. is the more useful perspective. with its emphasis on risk-taking. Research on group dynamics began in the 1940s and achieved exponential growth in the 1950s and 1960s. and generally make people feel better about themselves and their worlds. but rather a mind-set that employees have about their roles in the organization. treat those closest to the problem as the relevant experts. they must if personally connected to . and growth.
and team-related acronyms abound-SDTs (self-directed teams). teaming. . Team Saturn produced the Saturn automobile. A number of OD interventions are specifically designed to improve team performance. Second.5 Team and Teamwork A fundamental belief in organization development is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. the noun team has become a verb. teams create synergy. "The evidence is abundantly clear: Effective teams produce results far beyond the performance of unrelated individuals. Fourth. the sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of the individual efforts of people working alone. changes those norms and values. Teams and teamwork are "in. and explore ways to realize that potential. that is. QCs (quality circles). In this section. and capable of having an impact on the system in which they are embedded. people must work together to accomplish them. HPOs (high-performance organizations). quality circles. and relationships if they are to be effective. as a team. Synergy is a principal reason teams are so important. the effects on individual behaviour are immediate and lasting. Teams at Motorola produced its bestselling cellular phones. to name just a few. The previous discussion focused on empowerment and concluded that the act of empowering individuals greatly increased their performance and satisfaction. and respectteams nurture human nature. much individual behaviour is rooted in the socio-cultural norms and values of the work team. Teams and teamwork are part of the foundation of organization development. systems. STS (socio-technical systems). processes. Team Taurus developed Ford’s best-selling automobile. Examples are team-building. confident about their abilities. research. Theory. A second fundamental belief is that teams must manage their culture. we examine the potential of teams and teamwork. crossfunctional "design-build" teams developed the Boeing 777.the organization. Teams and teamwork are among the "hottest" things happening in organizations today – gurus extol the virtues of teams. recognition. process consultation. many tasks are so complex they cannot be performed by individuals. Third. and practice attest to the central role teams play in organizational success. teams satisfy people’s needs for social interaction. status. teams at 3M generate the hundreds of innovations that keep 3M ahead of its competition. inter-group team-building. Teams are important for a number of reasons: First. If the team. The message of this section is that putting those empowered individuals into teams creates extraordinary effects on performance and satisfaction. HPWSs (high-performance work systems).” 6.
and that teamwork becomes more satisfying for team members. and the like. Grid OD and techniques such as role analysis technique. The net effect is that teams perform at increasingly higher levels. socio-technical systems programs. to determine the characteristics that make them successful. . Larson and LaFasto studied a number of high-performance teams. the crew of the USS Kitty Hawk. and responsibility charting. All these characteristics are required for superior team performance. These interventions apply to formal work teams as well as startup teams. cross-functional teams.parallel learning structures. help each other. Larson and LaFasto also discovered that the most frequent cause of team failure was letting personal or political agendas take precedence over the clear and elevating team goal. including collegiate football national champions. people are trained in group dynamics and group problem-solving skills. Union Pacific Railroad. Larson and LaFasto found eight characteristics always present: 1) A clear. Organizations using autonomous work groups or self-directed teams devote considerable time and effort to ensure that team members possess the skills to be effective groups. elevating goal 2) A results-driven structure 3) Competent team members 4) Unified commitment 5) A collaborative climate 6) Standards of excellence 7) External support and recognition Principled leadership. role negotiation technique. Tom Peters asserts in Liberation Management that cross-functional. empowered teams are what the best organizations are using right now to outdistance the competition. Investigators are discovering why some teams are successful while others are not. Asea Brown Boveri. find innovative ways around barriers. and set ever-higher goals. Teams periodically hold team-building meetings. temporary teams. that they achieve synergy. and individuals are trained as group leaders and group facilitators. When any one feature is lost. heart transplant surgical teams. High-performance teams regulate the behaviour of team members. and others. He uses examples from EDS (Electronic Data Systems). Team-building activities are now a way of life for many organizations. autonomous. team performance declines.
6 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel learning structures. especially when the change involves a fundamental shift in the organization’s methods of work and/or culture. Projects are the work of the future. managers. The charge to members of the parallel learning structure is to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. normal hierarchical considerations become obsolete for these project teams-you could be the boss of one team. High-performance organizations often use parallel structures to co-ordinate self-directed teams. Considerable experimentation with collateral organizations occurred in the 1970s and 1980s. engage in genuine inquiry and experimentation. clear objectives. Interestingly. Parallel learning structures are a foundation of OD because they are prevalent in so many different OD programs. and then leading the process. and report to one of your subordinates on another team. In essence. you don’t have a parallel structure. and high accountability drive these project teams to outperform traditional organization structures on every measurable dimension. Dale had introduced this concept in 1974 under the label collateral organization and defined it as “a supplemental organization coexisting with the usual formal organization.” The purpose of the collateral organization is to deal with "ill-structured" problems the formal organization is unable to resolve. and employees. flexible response.Titeflex.” Parallel structures help people break free of the normal constraints imposed by the organization. Parallel learning structures are often the best way to initiate change in large bureaucratic organizations. specially created organizational structures for planning and guiding change programs. The quality of work life programs of the 1970s and 1980s used parallel structures composed of union leaders. talking.7 A Normative – Re-educative Strategy of Changing . If you don’t implement different norms and procedures. parallel structures are a vehicle for learning how to change the system. What’s important is that people act in a way that promotes learning and adaptation. 6. High responsibility. and countless other organizations to demonstrate the ability of small project teams to produce high quality. Most socio-technical systems redesign efforts and open systems planning programs use parallel structures. The most important and difficult task for the people creating the parallel learning structure is to create a different culture within it. projects will be performed by teams. Bushe and Shani say: “The key thing about parallel structures is that they create a bounded space and time for thinking. 6. a steering committee and working groups were used to co-ordinate the employee involvement teams. deciding. It isn’t the supplemental structure that’s important. At Ford Motor Company. and initiate needed changes. and continuous learning. superior customer service. constitute another important foundation of organization development. and acting differently than normally takes place at work.
or intellectual rationales for action and practice. and together they define problems and seek solutions. and OD is based primarily on a normative-re-educative strategy and secondarily on a rational-empirical strategy. The client system members define what changes and improvements they want to make. that is." Solutions to problems are not a priori assigned to greater technical information but may reside in values. the practitioner intervenes in a collaborative way with the clients. Anything hindering effective problem solving is brought to light and publicly examined. The third set of strategies is the power-coercive strategies. and it rests on a particular strategy for change that has implications for practitioners and organization members alike. The rationality and intelligence of men are not denied. These strategies build upon assumptions about human motivation different from those underlying the first. relationships and customary ways of doing things. they impel a collaborative effort rather than a "doing something to" effort. And changes in normative orientations involve changes in attitudes. The second group of strategies is normative-re-educative strategies. The norms to be changed and the form of re-education are decided by the client system members. skills. doubts. Evaluated against these three change strategies. attitudes. Chin and Benne indicate the nature of the normative-reductive strategy as follows: A second group of strategies we call normative-re-educative. and they give more options to both the clients and the practitioner.Organization development involves change. rather than the OD practitioner. The point here is that different strategies are available for effecting change. based on the assumption that change is compliance of those who have less power with the desires of those who have are power. based on the assumptions that norms form the basis for behaviour. and change comes through re-education in which old norms are discarded and supplanted by new ones. and’ negative feelings are surfaced for "working through. although often OD represents a combination of the normative-reeductive and the empirical-rational strategies. will occur only as the persons involved are brought to change their normative orientations to old patterns and develop commitments to new ones. Chin and Benne suggest that a normative-re-educative. and significant relationships. according to this view. Sociocultural norms are supported by the attitude and value systems of individuals-normative outlooks which undergird their commitments. These implications give clients considerable control over the situation. based on the assumptions that people are rational. will follow their rational self-interest. . not just changes in knowledge. and will change if and when they come to realize change is advantageous to them. OD clearly falls within the normativere-educative category. values. strategy has the following implications for the practice of OD. Change in a pattern of practice or action. anxieties. information. Patterns of action and practice are supported – by socio-cultural norms and by commitments on the part of the individuals to these norms. Chin and Benne describe three types of strategies for changing. The first type is empirical rational strategies.
pressing problems. Greenwood discusses the activities of the practitioner as follows: "The problem that confronts a practitioner is customarily a state of disequilibrium that requires rectification. The principles of diagnosis and of treatment constitute the principles of practice. and (2) "technology. Each type description of the diagnostic typology contains implications for a certain type of treatment. the major leverage point for change is at the group level. The aim of this discussion is to look briefly at how behavioural science knowledge becomes applied behavioural science knowledge. thereby solving the problem.” . lawful patterns of events produce effectiveness and ineffectiveness. placing it in a classification scheme or typology. by modifying a group norm or standards. OD is the application of behavioural science knowledge.. not the individual. A conventional distinction is made between (1) "pure" or basic science. 6. failure negating it and thus requiring re-diagnosis.” Norms help determine individual behaviour and a normative-re-educative strategy of changing pervades the practice of OD. The diagnostic typology allows the practitioner to know what category of situation he or she has examined. Greenwood states: “The diagnostic and treatment typologies are employed together. i. on the basis of selected variables. OD practitioners know about these patterns through research and theory.e." applied science. then the individual will be a deviate and either will come under pressure from the group to get back into line or will be rejected entirely. or practice. OD emphasizes the latter. Burke writes: “If one attempts to change an attitude or the behaviour of an individual without attempting to change the same attitude or behaviour in the group to which the individual belongs. with their elaborations and implications constitute practice theory. on the basis of which he or she prescribes a solution that. the object of which is knowledge for its own sake. behavioural science knowledge. applied science or practice. for example. re-establishes the equilibrium. The practitioner examines the problem situation. norms can best be changed by focusing on the group. the object of which is knowledge to solve practical. On this point. success corroborating the diagnosis. This process is customarily referred to as diagnosis and treatment. The practitioner uses treatment as the empirical test of his diagnosis. Although human behaviour in organizations is far from an exact science.8 Applied Behavioural Science This foundation of OD relates to the primary knowledge base of the field. hopefully. Thus. and skills in ongoing systems in collaboration with system members. practices.Because norms are socially accepted beliefs held by groups about appropriate and inappropriate behaviours. the treatment typology allows the practitioner to know what remedial efforts to apply to correct the problem." Both diagnosis and treatment consist of observing a situation and.
and doing or implementing change efforts.8: Composition of Applied Behavioural Science Organization development is both a result of applied behavioural science and a. and research leading to social action… This by no means implies that the research needed is in any respect less scientific or "lower" than what would be required for pure science in the field of social events. Fig. practice research and practice theory." the OD practitioner works: first diagnosing the situation.” Concluding Comments: . Action research involves three processes: data collection. problem-solving method that replicates the steps involved in the scientific method of inquiry underlies most OD activities. Action research is a method that combines learning and doing – learning about the dynamics of organizational change. had this to say about it: “The research needed for social practice can best be characterized as research for social management or social engineering. 6. a comparative search on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action.9 Action Research The action research model – a data-based. perhaps more accurately. feedback of the data to the client system members. behavioural science research and two behavioural science theory. then selecting and implementing treatments based on the diagnosis. It is a type of action-research. and finally evaluating the effects of the treatments. who developed the concept of action research. I am inclined to hold the opposite to be true. represent contributions from pure or basic science. 6. Action research is especially well-suited for planned change programs.From this "practice theory. and action planning based on the data. The two bottom inputs. the two top in puts. represent contributions from applied science. form of applied behavioural science. Kurt Lewin. it is a program of applying behavioural science to organizations.
Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change the first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces and the second is the model of the change process. _____________ means sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of individual efforts of members. Bring out the essence of “managing beyond the quick fix” model of organizational development. Systems theory views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. Taken separately. –––––––––– means moving to new level of behaviour. What are first-order and second order change according to Burke-Litwin Model of organizational change? Explain. Explain Kurt Lewin’s models and theories of planned organizational change. A fundamental belief in OD is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. –––––––––– gave the model “Beyond the Quick Fix”. Taken collectively. . 3. 2. 3. In parallel learning structures members have to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. Self Assessment Questions 1. they constitute the beginning of a theory of organization development and change that has enormous potential for improving organizational performance and individual development.” 5. A _____________ is defined as “a set of elements standing in interaction.These foundations of organization development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. 6. 6. First—order change is also called ___________. OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals’ behaviours. Ralph Kilmann specified the critical leverage points for organizational change. Action research model combines learning and doing.11 Terminal Questions 1. The Burke-Litwin model emphasized on first-order and second-order change.10 Summary The foundations of organizational development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. 4. each is a powerful conceptual tool for thinking out and implementing change. 2. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements is the principle of Porras and Robertson model organizational change.
Transactional change 4.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.2.2.” Comment on this statement. Synergy Answers to TQs: 1.2.1 2. 6.Refer section 6. “Work teams are building blocks of organizational development. Refer section 6.4. Refer section 6.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture Culture and . System 5.3 4.2 3. Ralph Kilmann 3.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . MU0002-Unit-07-Organization Climate Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Structure: 7. Refer section 6. Unfreezing 2. What are the features of systems theory of organizational development? 5.3 5. Refer section 6.1 Introduction Objectives 7.
For example. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration.6 Summary 7.1 Introduction Basically. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving. 1986). but everyone knows it when they sense it. what members wear. . discovered. Members of an organization soon come to sense the particular culture of an organization. The concept of culture is particularly important when attempting to manage organization-wide change. etc. Practitioners are coming to realize that. organizational change must include not only changing structures and processes. 7. values. Culture is one of those terms that’s difficult to express distinctly.3 Types of Organization Culture. You can tell the culture of an organization by looking at the arrangement of furniture. Culture is comprised of the assumptions.7. Martin and Meyerson.5 Developing and changing Organization Culture Self Assessment Questions 7. you will be able to: · Understand Organization Culture.7 Terminal Questions 7. what they brag about. norms and tangible signs (artifacts) of organization members and their behaviors. but also changing the corporate culture as well. · Describe different types of Organization Culture · Explain organization culture and effectiveness. Objectives: After studying this unit. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 7. thinking. for-profit corporation is quite different than that of a hospital which is quite different than that of a university. the culture of a large. organizational culture is the personality of the organization.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness 7. – similar to what you can use to get a feeling about someone’s personality. despite the best-laid plans. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein.
Observed behavioral regularities. they use common language. but one where all transactions. this was considered the only effective way of organizing and is still a basic element of the vast majority of organizations. Standards of behavior exist. Market The Market organization also seeks control but does so by looking outward. They often have well-defined policies. Low absenteeism and high efficiency. 5. For many years. and in particular taking note of transaction cost. 7. terminology. Which in many organizations come down to “Do not do too much. Dominate value: These are major values that the organization advocates and expects the participants to share.· Discuss about developing and changing organization culture. Rules: There are strict guidelines related to getting along in the organization. do not do too little?” 3. New-comers must learn those “ropes” in order to be accepted as full-fledged members of the group. 7. Norms.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture Organizational culture has a number of important characteristics. processes and procedures. Philosophy: These are policies that set forth the organization’s beliefs about how employees and/or customers are to be treated. and rituals related to deference and demeanor.3 Types of Organization Culture Hierarchy The hierarchy has a traditional approach to structure and control that flows from a strict chain of command as in Max Weber’s original view of bureaucracy. Hierarchies have respect for position and power. Some of the most readily agreed upon are the following: 1. Hierarchical leaders are typically coordinators and organizers who keep a close eye on what is happening. When organizational participants interact with one another. 6. 2. Typical examples are high product quality. Note that the Market organization is not one which is focused just on marketing. internal and external are viewed in market . including guidelines on how much work to do. and the way members of the organization conduct themselves with customers or other outsiders. Organizational climate: This is an overall “feeling” that is conveyed by the physical layout. 4. the way participants interact.
In contrast to Hierarchies. Clan The Clan organization has less focus on structure and control and a greater concern for flexibility. shared goals. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of . In an efficient market organization. Rules. which is necessary in a rapidly changing business climate. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. innovative entrepreneurs who take calculated risks to make significant gains. but critical to shaping its behavior. do still exist and are often communicated and inculcated socially. outputs and outcomes. strongly driven by loyalty to one another and the shared cause. value flows between people and stakeholders with minimal cost and delay. discovered. Market cultures are outward looking. It may be defined as the ethos of a company (as US firms do) or the shared value and team sprit (as European firms prefer to define it). Leaders in market cultures are often hard-driving competitors who seek always to deliver the goods. It has an inward focus and a sense of family and people work well together. Clan leaders act in a facilitative. supportive way and may take on a parental role. although not necessarily documented. affecting the performance of every-one within the culture in positive or negative ways. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness It is reflected in how things are done (Flanagan. 1993). Leaders in an adhocracy are visionary. 7. Transactions are exchanges of value. 1995) and how problems are solved in an organization. One culture could be distinguished from another in terms of how some commonly shared human problems are addressed and the specific solutions that one sought (Trompenaars. the adhocracy will rapidly form teams to face new challenges. invisible to the naked eye. people are driven through vision.terms. Adhocracy The Adhocracy has even greater independence and flexibility than the Clan. Where market success goes to those with greatest speed and adaptability. culture is like the DNA of an organization. clans often have flat organizations and people and teams act more autonomousl. In biological terms. It will use prototyping and experimenting rather than long. Rather than strict rules and procedures. big-bang projects and development.
the informal rules of the fame telling employees what they are supposed to be saying. rules. Thus. symbols. reflecting what is important in the organization and determining how the organization ought to be (the ethos. and procedures.perceiving. productivity. the way they dress etc. Though an organization espouses a series of values. Organization Effectiveness Organizational effectiveness. and what is right and what is wrong. Values evolve out of the basic assumption and form the core (or heart) of the culture. thinking. the personality of the organization). its core value are limited to a few in number. systems and subsystems. and no unanimity is found in different approaches. is defined and conceptualized in different ways. The set of basic assumptions evolve into values artifacts and norms in terms of which an organization culture may be examined and understood. goals. Though a large volume of literature is available on the concept and working of organizational effectiveness. or standards held by members of an organization. etc. and are generally not compromised for short-term benefits or financial gains. various terms such as efficiency. 1986). · Public documents it releases and media reports and stories about it. and shaping organization values is difficult as values relate more to employee emotions and feeling (affective dimension) than to their rational thinking (cognitive dimension) Norms: These are a significant element of the organization’s social environment and evolve of behavior. and doing. there is often contradiction in various approaches. Martin and Meyerson. the jargon they use. These are the essential and enduring tenets of an organization. The various approaches are judgmental and open to question. Artifacts: The visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization such as: · Its structure. also called as organizational success or growth. For example. They are reflected in the core capabilities of a company. communicating. individually and collectively. · The observable behavior of its members (the way they talk. . Identifying. Values: These are the social principles. from the basis of its policies and action. believing. · Its rituals. norms. IBM norms dictate that employees should actively listen and respond to customer demands and complaints. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. plaques.
the process usually involves some version of the following steps: .g. Whatever the criteria adopted for organizational effectiveness. The intervening variables may be divided into two broad categories: (i) the intervening attitudinal. and behaviour. From this point of view. and they tend to be long-term goals.. intervening and end result. This is one part of effectiveness that many managers overlook because it emphasis long-term potential as well as short-term performance. motivations. skills. and perceptions of all members and their collective capacity for effective interaction. to denote organizational effectiveness. and perceptual cluster. Many of these variables are caused by causal variables. costs. communication.which are useful in discussing organizational effectiveness over time. These causal variables include only those independent variables which can be altered or changed by the organization and its management. and decision-making. the organizational analysis is incomplete for a practicing manager unless the factors underlying effectiveness are identifying. 7. Causal Variables: Causal variables are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. 2. According to Likert. motivational.profitability. and (ii) the intervening behavioral cluster.5 Developing and Changing Organization Culture How Organizational Cultures Start Although organizational cultures can develop in a number of different ways. End – result Variables: End-result variable are those factors which are caused by causal and intervening variable and are often in terms of the factors in which managers are interested or measure their effectiveness. Likert states that the intervening variables reflect the internal state and health of the organization. Intervening variables are concerned with building and developing the organization. scrap loss. and earnings. end-result variables are the dependent variables which reflect the achievements in the organization such as its productivity. business and leadership strategies. organizational growth. These variables have been classified by Likert into three groups-causal. 3. 1. Likert states that causal variables are independent variables which determine the course of developments within an organization and the results achieved by the organization. Though each individual’s effectiveness is significant but perhaps the most important aspect of effectiveness is its relationship to the entire organization. attitudes. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and its management. the loyalties. Intervening Variables: Intervening variables are those factors which are reflected as the internal state of organization. decisions. there are numerous variables. performance goals. e. Grouping variables into these categories aids greatly in the correct interpretation of the data and their use for diagnostic and other purposes. are often used interchangeably. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and management’s policies.
all in this core group believe that the idea is a good one. Staffs. locating space. management. However. is worth running some risks for.1. The founder brings in one or more other key people and creates a core group that shares a common vision with the founder. the current environmental context has undergone drastic change and either the organization must adapt to these new conditions or it may not survive. and history of two firms. incorporating. Where does the power and managerial decision making really reside? Corporate cultures range from autocratic extremes to total employee empowerment. Predictable obstacles include entrenched skills. 4. 2. money. 3. Structure. and is worth the investment of time. others are brought into the organization. That is. obtaining patents. The founding core group beings to act in concert to create an organization by raising funds. and whether products and/or services are involved. and so on. roles. or even customers may support the existing culture. the industry in which the partners come from and now reside. In addition. Even through some firms have had a culture in place to anticipate change. and how this plays out among the partners will be important to cultural compatibility. Changing Organizational Culture Sometimes an organization determines that its culture has to be changed. These factors from the two cultures include the size. moving to a new culture or changing old cultures can be quite difficult: a case can even be made that it really can’t be done successfully?. New product development and information technology is changing so rapidly that any example would be soon out-of –date. At this point. relationships. powerful stakeholders such as unions. and structures that work together to reinforce traditional cultural patterns. A single person (founder) has an idea for a new enterprise. The case of Mergers and Acquisitions The clash between the two cultures in a merger or acquisition can be focused into three major areas: 1. the geographic location. then such rapid change can be welcomed and accommodated with as little disruption and as few problems as possible. and energy that will be required. building. For example. if the appropriate organization culture is in place. . Politics. and a common history begins to be built. is workable. 2. age.
organizational cultures can be managed and changed over time. 2. commitment. take these losses early. especially when making changes in rules and processes. attitudes. Expect to have some problems and find people who would rather move than change with the culture and. Self Assessment Questions 1. 9. habits. ___________are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. 3. so that they are able to interact well with the organizational personnel. This attempt to change culture can take many different forms. 7. Stay the course by being persistent. Set realistic goals that impact on the bottom line. 1. _____are the visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization. if possible. Move quickly and decisively to build momentum and to defuse resistance to the new culture. Emotions. ________cultures are outward looking. 8. Guidelines for change Despite the significant barriers and resistance to change. These emotions will be a major input into the clash or compatibility of the two cultures. 7. The personal feelings. 2. 3. so that a consistent message is delivered from all management team members. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. 4. Simple guidelines such as the following can be helpful. Include employees in the culture change process. and patterns of daily behavior. Recruit outside personnel with industry experience. Take out all trappings that remind the personnel of the previous culture. Assess the current culture.3.6 Summary . Make changes from the top down. 5. the “culture contract” that individuals have bought into to guide their day-to-day thoughts. 6.
8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Discuss the development and change of organizational development. intervening variables and end-result variables and there exists interrelationship among these variables. Artifacts 2.Organizational effectiveness is the degree to which organization is successful in accomplishing its goals. Explain the characteristics of organization culture. effectiveness through adaptive-coping cycle has been discussed. behavioural approach.2 2. . Causal variables Answers to TQs: 1.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer section 7. Organizations to be successful must be efficient and effective. and strategic constituencies approach.3 3. system-resource approach. Organizational effectiveness can be measured through various approaches.7 Terminal Questions 1.goal approach. Refer section 7. Briefly explain different types of organizational culture. 7. Factors in organizational effectiveness include casual variables. Finally. 7. 3. Refer section 7. 2. Effectiveness of an organization can be increased through economic man approach and administrative man approach. Market 3.
8 Acquiring and using Power Skills Self Assessment Questions 8. Politics and Organization Development Structure: 8.” Organization development has been criticized for not taking into account power in organizations.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored 8.Power.9 Summary 8. Organization Development Unit-08. and for change to occur in an organization.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power 8.1 Introduction Objectives 8. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. That criticism was essentially correct for many years although it is less valid .6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice of OD 8.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 8. must be understood if one is to be effective in organizations.3 Two Faces of Power 8.2 Power Defined and Explored 8.MU0002-Unit-08Power. As Warner Burke observes: "Organization development signifies change. we examine power and politics in relation to organization development. indisputable facts of organizational life.10 Terminal Questions 8.1 Introduction Politics and Power and politics. power must be exercised. In this unit.7 Operating in a Political Environment 8.
· Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. you will be able to: · Define power and politics in organizations. spiritual. We therefore define interpersonal power as the ability to get one’s way in a social situation. · Explain theories about the sources of power. the necessity of social interaction between two or more parties. One goal of this unit is to advance our understanding of the role of power in OD and the role of OD in a power setting. Power-in-action may . Without leadership (power) in medical. One person exerts power over another to the degree that he is able to exact compliance as desired." “Power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. The phenomenon of power is ubiquitous. and behaviours of people. Potential power is the capacity to do so. financial. the act or ability of influencing others.’ To have power is to be able to get desired things done. 8. technological.2 Power Defined and Explored "Power is the intentional influence over the beliefs. but kinetic power is the act of doing so." Analyzing these definitions shows some common elements: effectance-getting one’s way. and repression. · Acquire skills to handle power and politics in organizations. political. humankind would not have much of the misery it does today.actions and the decisions that precede them. humankind would not have the standard of living it does today. The French word ‘pouvoir’ stands for both the noun ‘power’ and the verb ‘to be able. Objectives: After this studying this unit. Without influence (power) people would have no cooperation and no society. and organizational activities.” “A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would otherwise not do. Recent years have seen a sizable outpouring of theory and research on power and politics from which OD practitioners have derived implications and applications for the field but we are still in the early stages of knowing how power and organization development should be related. emotions. to effect outcomes. Without leadership (power) directed toward warfare. confiscation.today." "Power is defined in this unit simply as the capacity to effect (or affect) organizational outcomes. and outcomes favoring one party over the other.
with collective. According to him." · Salancik and Pfeffer’s "Strategic-Contingency Model of Power. Leading. power being the predominant mode. influencing. or positive. hurting." A moment’s reflection. forcing. 8. Roberts came to a similar conclusion in her study of "collective power" and "competitive power. How do some people come to possess power? How is power generated. Patchen studied organizational decision making and found that coercive tactics were "noticeable chiefly by their absence" while problem solving and consensus seeking were much more prevalent. being exercised. unsocialized need to dominate others." · Mintzberg’s Observations on the Genesis of Power in Organizations. selling. we will examine four different views about who gets power and how: · Emerson’s "Power-Dependence theory. influence. McClelland observed that while power has a negative connotation for most people. it is through the use of power that things get done in the world. both positive and negative. or acquired? In this unit. an authority or power dimension is required. The negative face of power seeks to dominate and control others. absolute power corrupts absolutely. persuading-these are examples of positive uses of power. suggests that many problems with power stem from the goals of persons with power and the means they use.take many forms." · French and Raven’s "Bases of Social Power. coercing-these are examples of negative uses of power. It is especially salient in coordinated activities such as those found in organizations. Power per se is probably neither good nor bad although Lord Acton observed that "power tends to corrupt. 8.3 Two Faces of Power David McClelland proposed an important distinction when he identified "two faces of power" – positive and negative. for organizations to function. the positive face of power seeks to empower self and others. however. We think this distinction provides a good insight into the concept of power." Her research in four organizations showed both kinds of power. Crushing. The positive face of power is characterized by a socialized need to initiate. In fact. the negative face of power is characterized by a primitive.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power Power exists in virtually all social situations. not the possession of power as such. This positive face of power enables others to reach their goals as well as lets the person exercising power reach his or her goals. and lead. In most organizations the positive face of power is much more prevalent than the negative face of power. . bestowed.
P. 5. Expert power – power based on the powerholder possessing expert knowledge or expertise needed by the other. Closely related to these ideas is the classic statement by John R. Coercive power – power based on the ability of the powerholder to punish another. . Exchange theory and power-dependence theory are quite compatible with the ideas proposed by French and Raven. attraction. rejection. of social power as follows: 1. Legitimate power – power based on everyone’s belief that the powerholder has a legitimate right to exert influence and that the power-receiver has a legitimate obligation to accept the influence. and desired by the other. respect. We enter into and continue in exchange relationships when what we receive from others is equivalent to or in excess of what we must give to others. 4. power. we will continue the exchange relationship. Viewed in this light. giving someone power over us is the commodity we exchange when we are dependent on that person for something we want. French and Bertram Raven on "the bases of social power. 3." These authors suggested five sources. goals.Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. when the net balance for us is negative. Reward power – power based on the ability of the powerholder to reward another. information. to give something valued by the other. and so forth. Referent power – power based on the power-receiver having an identification with (attraction to. that is. and (2) inversely proportional to the availability of those goals to A outside of the A-B relation. Informational power is a form of expert power where the powerholder possesses important facts or information needed by the other. that is. 2. we will terminate or alter the relationship. power belongs to those persons who control or mediate desired commodities. blame. The sociologist. which posits that what goes on between persons is an exchange of social commodities: love. influence. if a person has something we want badly and we cannot get it any other place. rewards) that are controlled by one party. hate. or bases. When the net balance for us is positive. The components of this theory are a social relation between two parties and resources (commodities. praise. that person has power over us. or feeling of oneness with) the power holder. In this theory. Richard Emerson states that "the dependence of Actor A upon Actor B is (1) directly proportional to A’s motivational investment in the goals mediated by B. Social interaction represents an exchange of social goods and services. to give something negatively valued by the other." In other words. Power-dependence theory is related to a broader framework of social interaction called social exchange theory.
and. like the ones discussed previously. control of a resource. first. that power-in-action requires will and skill. suppliers. Salancik and Pfeffer further suggest how power is used: "Power is used by subunits. control of a technical skill. or information. such as the board of directors. the unions. the top executives. called influencers. An organization has many potential influencers. seek to control the organization’s decisions and actions. and so forth. These critical problems are generally "uncertainties" posed by the environment. these four views of the sources of power are remarkably similar – power stems from possession of or mediation of desired resources. In summary. indeed. and that the organization is the context for the exercise of power. In addition to a base of power. the special expertise needed for the organization’s survival-have power. This theory. A fifth basis of power is access to those who have power based on the first four bases. to enhance their own survival through control of scarce critical resources. customers." These authors view organizational power as a good thing. used by all who have it. regulators. third. All of these must be critical to the organization.The strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power in organizations accrues to the subunits (individuals. Henry Mintzberg has developed a theory of organizational power drawn from the organization theory literature and his own creative synthesis abilities. control of a body of knowledge. the employees. The fourth basis is legal prerogatives-being given exclusive rights to impose choices. "is built on the premise that organizational behavior is a power game in which various players. The important aspects of Mintzberg’s theory are that the sources of power derive from possession of a commodity desired by others. the ability to solve critical problems or exigencies-anything that creates dependence of one actor or set of actors on another. units. through the placement of allies in key positions. According to Mintzberg. coupled with 2) The expenditure of energy in a 3) Politically skillful way." The three basic conditions for the exercise of power are 1) Some source or basis of power. The resources may be ability to reward and punish. . being in control of critical skills. knowledge. for power in the hands of the critical problem solvers helps the organization cope with the various realities it faces. the influencer must have both the "will" and the "skill" to use it.others-in this case. supports the notion that those who have something highly valued by. and through the definition of organizational problems and policies. the five possible bases of power are. This theory. second. the managers. or departments) most important for solving the organization’s most critical problems.
unsocialized needs to dominate others. We are inclined to consider politics as neither good nor bad per se but believe that politics. when.8. Likewise we also treat authority as a subset of power. The negative face of politics is characterized by extreme pursuit of self-interest. For our purposes. illegitimate in nature. and predominant use of the tactics of fighting-secrecy. Thus. treating it as informal power. initiate. In fact. “Organizational politics involve those activities taken within organizations to acquire. resource allocation. and choosing among alternative means and goals. conflict resolution. has two faces. One important feature in these definitions should be examined further. Analyzing these definitions suggests that the concepts of power and politics are similar. holding hidden agendas. it is engaging in activities to get one’s way. deceiving. These key areas are the battlefields where actors win and lose. and conflict resolution processes. and influence others. the capacity to get things done by virtue of the position held. we view politics as a subset of power. formal power. withholding information. organizational politics is power-in-action in organizations.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored Harold Lasswell defined “politics simply as the study of who gets what. but in this sense. The first three definitions treat politics as a neutral set of activities. viewing situations in win-win terms as much as possible. the power vested in office. a relative absence of the tactics of fighting. the last two definitions view politics as illegitimate or unsanctioned activities. The positive face is characterized by a balanced pursuit of self-interest and the interests of others. develop and use power and other resources to obtain one’s preferred outcomes in a situation in which there is uncertainty about choices”.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice OD . a tendency to view situations in win-lose terms-what I win. Both relate to getting one’s way-effectance. you must lose-rather than win-win terms. Both relate to pursuit of self-interest and overcoming the resistance of others. “Organizational politics is the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain ends through non-sanctioned influence means”. “Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the selfinterest of individuals or groups”. engaging in open problem solving followed by action and influencing. 8. they are where the "goods" are distributed and the goals decided. and a socialized need to lead. like power. surprise. and how”. Organizational politics tend to be associated with decision-making. one gains a quick understanding of the overall "political climate" of an organization by studying its methods of resource allocation.
co-operation. organization development represents an approach and method to enable organization members to go beyond the negative face of power and politics. strengths. OD values are consistent with the positive face of power. (2) to promote free. Valid. The OD consultant. individual dignity. the "interventionist" has three primary tasks: (1) to generate valid useful information. and (3) to promote the client’s internal commitment to the choices made. processes. and educator. fact-finding. and promoting individual and organizational competence are part of the foundation of organization development. like all consultants. The role of the OD practitioner is that of a facilitator. collaboration. problem solving is usually superior to power coercion as a way to find solutions to problematic situations. "Power equalization" has long been described as one of the values of organization development. In summary. but not with the negative face of power. rather. being one aspect of the positive face of power. public data about the organization’s culture. second. This major . power equalization. Not only is organization development not a power/political intervention strategy. and his or her values. According to Chris Argyris. public data are indispensable-for problem solving but anathema for organizational politics. The practitioner is not a political activist or power broker. informed choice. and expertise. they enhance the positive face of power. it is instead a rational problem-solving approach that is incompatible with extreme poweroriented situations. Cobb and Margulies caution that OD practitioners can get into trouble if they move from a facilitator role to a political role. But organization members are free to accept or reject the practitioner. methods. In this section we will attempt to integrate those concepts with organization development and offer advice to the OD practitioner for dealing with the political realities found in organizations. catalyst.We have discussed a number of ideas concerning power and politics. openness. OD interventions increase problem-solving. These values are congruent with rational problem solving and incongruent with extremely political modes of operating. Values such as trust. OD interventions do not deny or attempt to abolish the reality of power in organizations. as we discussed earlier. not politics. Emphasis on power equalization stems from two beliefs: first. and by so doing adds power to the organization. as a preferred way to get things accomplished. The practitioner works to strengthen skills and knowledge in the organization. provides a service that the organization is free to "buy" or "not buy. and weaknesses. Virtually." The facilitator or educator role is incompatible with a political activist role because cooperation requires one set of behaviors and competition requires a different set of behaviors. We know of no OD interventions designed to increase coercion or unilateral power. thereby making the negative face of power less prevalent and/or necessary. and effective pursuit of goals while decreasing reliance on the negative faces of power and politics. For example. increases the amount of power available to organization members. all OD interventions promote problem-solving. OD interventions typically generate valid. his or her program. collaboration. problem solver.
and the roles of OD practitioners. organization development practitioners operate from a potentially strong power base they can use to advantage." 4. These sources of influence produce a substantial power base that will enhance the likelihood of success. preferably multiple sponsorship. the resources of OD expertise and ability to help organizational subunits solve their pressing problems. the values.7 Operating in a Political Environment We will present some general observations on operating in a political environment. 5. informational power (the consultant has a wealth of information about the strengths and weaknesses of the organization). 8."34 This maxim has been recognized for years under the heading of "get top-level support for the program. and possibly referent power (others may identify with and be attracted to the consultant). the technology. Competence: Demonstrated competence is the most important source of power. 2.strength of OD derives from the strategy of change. expert power (the consultant possesses expert knowledge). it will gain more power. . Resource management: Power accrues to those who control resources-in this case. 6. According to the framework of French and Raven. Political access and sensitivity: Cultivating and nurturing multiple relationships with key power figures in the organization will ensure timely information and multiple sources of support. the OD consultant possesses power from the following bases: legitimate power (the OD program and consultant are authorized by the organization’s decision makers). Michael Beer has identified additional means by which an OD group can gain and wield power in organizations: 1. Group support: If the OD group is strong internally. First. Early success in the OD program and its usefulness to key managers of the organization helps promote this reputation. 3. Sponsorship: "Organization development groups will gain power to the extent that they have sponsorship. acceptability. If the OD group is cohesive and free of internal dissention. Paying attention to these sources of power will enhance the likelihood of success of OD programs. and ability to gain organizational support. Success leads to credibility and stature. in powerful places. it will be strong externally. followed by some rules of thumb for the OD practitioner. Stature and credibility: Beer notes that power accrues to those who have been successful and effective.
The preceding rules of thumb describe ways to increase or solidify one’s power base. both as a person and as a professional. Rule One: Become a desired commodity. The OD program belongs to the manager. the manager will vigorously defend it. Good OD practitioners will have learned and practiced these skills.What advice is available for OD practitioners who want to operate more effectively in a political environment? Several rules of thumb are implied by the fact that power accrues to persons who control valued resources or commodities. and expertise. constructive social relationships. communicating. The nature of organizations and the nature of organization development suggest this rule. usually managers. to help them achieve their goals and solve their problems. Another way the OD program becomes a desired commodity is by focusing on important issues. experience. Rule Two: Make the OD program itself a desired commodity. The following rules describe ways to avoid becoming involved in one’s own or in others’ political struggles. Beer and Walton argue that organization development should move from being practitioner centered to being manager-centered. When the OD program serves the needs of top executives. OD programs become desired commodities when they are instruments that allow individuals and organizations to reach their goals. Organizations are social systems in which members have both a history and a future of interacting. which is to help someone else solve his or her major problems. OD practitioners are likely to have high interpersonal competence by virtue of their training. Being of value to multiple powerholders rather than a single one both increases support and reduces the likelihood that the program will become the target of political activities. OD professionals who are skilled in conflict management techniques and OD programs that encompass conflict resolution activities become valued commodities. coaching. not the OD consultant. those issues vital to the organization’s success. Many OD interventions promote win-win solutions for conflict situations. OD programs should be results-oriented. it gains an aura of respect and protection that sets it above most political entanglements. Sometimes OD practitioners overlook that they are hired by others. Each is derived from one general principle: Mind your own business. and showing appreciation for the strengths of others are components of interpersonal competence. Skills such as listening. problem solving. OD consultants have a formal or informal contractual agreement with managers to help them do what they are trying to do-better. Becoming a desired commodity as a person means being interpersonally competent and trustworthy. Rule Four: Create win-win solutions. Rule Three: Make the OD program a valued commodity for multiple powerful people in the organization. counseling. The role of the OD consultant is to help others upon request. . and effective conflict management techniques are required to enhance stable. A valuable by-product of this fact is that if the program runs into political turbulence. Rule Five: Mind your own business.
and using contacts for information. not power activist or power broker. Abiding by this rule keeps the consultant from becoming entangled in politics. individual power derives from knowledge. catalyst. which is to be an expert on process. but that does not mean practitioners must be naive or incompetent in the political arena. and personality characteristics. Attention to these rules can save OD practitioners time and energy that can be more profitably invested in the OD program. negotiations the nature of power and politics. A subtle phenomenon is involved here: when people engage in illegitimate behavior. the strategy and tactics of influence. not by getting involved in the answers. yet legitimate means of acquiring power.8 Acquiring and Using Power Skills The OD practitioner is neither power activist nor power broker. while at the same time increasing his or her usefulness to the organization’s powerholders. problem solver. Earlier we stated that the OD practitioner should learn as much as possible about bargaining. but these give the flavor of the issues one must consider when operating in a political environment. Rule Seven: Mind your own business because to do otherwise is to invite political trouble.1: Power Base and Power Strategy Connection Individual Power Bases Knowledge Strategies for Success Playing It Straight . Table 8. viable. such behavior is often interpreted as politically motivated. not content." and "going around the formal system. and educator. Illegitimate behavior causes others to try to exert greater control over the situation. The principle is simple but powerful: know your legitimate business and stick to it. 8. We believe the legitimate role of the OD practitioner is that of facilitator. Organizational politics revolve around decisions: Should we seek Goal A or Goal B? Should we use Means X or Means Y? Should we promote Mary or John? The proper role of OD consultants is to help decision makers by providing them with good decision-making processes. and the characteristics and behaviors of powerholders. dealing directly with powerholders and decision makers. Illegitimate behavior encroaches on others’ legitimate "turf." "using social networks." which arouses defensive actions. As shown in the figure. Networking is recognized as a potent. others’ support. thereby greatly expanding practitioner influence. Three successful power strategies are "playing it straight.Rule Six: Mind your own business. The authors propose adding the "using social networks" strategy to their repertoires. We could propose more rules of thumb. One carries out such a strategy by participating in alliances and coalitions." OD practitioners have typically pursued a "playing it straight" strategy as their sole means of exerting power.
Personal power. influence key powerholders to accept the OD program.) Position power derives from five sources: Centrality-access to information in a communication network. the authors propose a four-stage model for using the OD process to help the power elite transform the organization in ways beneficial for all concerned. The four stages are: Phase I Consolidating Power to Prepare for Change Phase ll Focusing Power on Strategic Consensus Phase Ill Aligning Power with Structure and People Phase IV Realizing Power through leadership and Collaboration These stages are the means the OD consultant uses to "take the high road" mentioned in the previous quotation-build a power base. (Legitimacy refers to abiding by and promoting the values of the organization. which in turn will protect the interests of all concerned.· Expertise · Information · Tradition Others’ Support · Use data to convince · Focus on target group · Be persistent Using Social Networks · Alliances and coalitions · Deal with decision maker · Contacts for information Going Around Formal System · Work around roadblocks · (Don’t) use organization rules Political access Staff support Personality Charisma Reputation Professional credibility Finally. Whetton and Cameron’s model is shown in following figure. visibility-how much one’s work is seen by . The power structure will realize that collaborative power is preferable to manipulation and deception. arises from expertise. a person’s power comes from two main sources. effort. In this model. in turn. criticality-how important one’s job is flexibility-the amount of discretion in the job. personal attraction. then utilize a facilitative OD process in which the powerholders work on strategic business issues using consensus decision making to develop a corporate strategy. how-to book on power and organization development is well worth studying. and legitimacy. personal power and position power. even those of little power. This practical.
Having power is one thing. power-in-use is called influence. one investigation of the determinants of effective management performance concluded that a key factor distinguishing high and low performers was the ability to establish informal relationships via networks”.1: Model of Power and Influence Networking is used to increase both personal power and position power." Three things are involved in converting power into influence: (1) resisting other people’s inappropriate influence attempts. Fig. and reciprocity can be useful when reason fails. Reason refers to persuasion by facts. and retribution. They write: "Influence entails actually securing the consent of others to work with you in accomplishing an objective. Three influence strategies can be used to influence others-reason. “One of the most important ways of gaining power in an organization is by establishing a broad network of task and interpersonal relationships." And. According to these authors. 8. Networks are critical to effective performance for one compelling reason: Except for routine jobs. and (3) empowering others. actually using it to get things done is another. Reciprocity refers to exchange of favors. Retribution refers to coercion and threats. no one has the necessary information and resources to accomplish what’s expected of them. reciprocity. (2) selecting the proper influence strategy. Usually reason is the preferred strategy. and relevance-how important one’s task is in relation to organizational priorities.influential people. Retribution is not recommended except in unusual cases. Indeed. Whetton and Cameron suggest . "Power is converted into influence when the target individual consents to behave according to the desires of the power holder.
Organizational power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. collaborative work environment. Our suggestions for using power to operate effectively in organizations may help practitioner avoid the perils and pitfalls of power that "go with the territory" of organizational change.several means of resisting others’ influence attempts such as confrontation and using countervailing power. _____________ has identified two faces of power. Power based on the power-receiver having identification with the power holder is called ––– ––––––––.. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. 2. Power can be either positive or negative. Power and politics are similar in nature. Organizational politics is defined as the study of who gets what. 4. –––––––– defined politics as the study of who gets what. units or departments is most important in solving organizational problems. Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self-interest of individuals or groups. and are amenable to positive control. Strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power that accrues to the individuals. Power and politics are similar in nature. and are amenable to positive control. emotions or behaviour of people. when and how. 5. (4) express confidence (5) foster initiative and responsibility. Methods for empowering others are the following: (1) involve subordinates in assigning work. reputation and professional credibility. 8. 8. when. (3) reward and encourage others in visible and personal ways. and (6) build on success. –––––– is the intentional influence over the beliefs. Self Assessment Questions 1.9 Summary Power and politics are inseparable facts of organizational life. . Concluding Comments: In this unit. we have examined power and politics with the goals of understanding the phenomena and deriving implications for OD practitioners. (2) provide a positive. Define power in an organizational context and explain types of power. and how.10 Terminal Questions 1. arise from known conditions. 3. –––––––––– is made up of Charisma. arise from known conditions.
6 5. Referent power 4. Describe briefly various theories of power.2 2. Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD.2. 4. Personality Answers to TQs: 1. Refer section 8. 3.1 Introduction .11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Harold Lasswell 5. 5.Refer section 8. Refer section 8. 8. MU0002-Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Structure: 9. Refer section 8. Power 2. Define organization politics.5 4. Refer section 8. Identify the bases of individual power and the respective strategies for their success.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . McClelland 3.4 3.
5 Quality Circles 9. These programs are derived from careful diagnosis. These interventions vary from standardized program that have been developed and sometimes tailored program.Objectives 9.2 Meaning and Definitions 9.3 Socio Technical Systems 9. An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities.6 Quality of Work Life Projects 9.10 Summary 9. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future. Objectives: .9 Reengineering Self Assessment Questions 9.11 Terminal Questions 9. actions. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing.8 Total Quality Management 9. One important intervention technique is Technostructural interventions because these are related to technical and structural issues such as how to divide labour and how to coordinate department which is related to Restructuring organization. how to produce product or service which is related to Employee involvement approaches and how to design work is related to Work design. In this dynamic and fluid environment.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 9.7 Parallel Learning Structures 9. These methods are receiving increasing attention in Organization Development.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival.4 Management By Objectives 9. organizational problems may repeat. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness.
Rapidity of change. and more . · Discuss the parallel Learning Structures. In addition. Structure changes are normally “institutionalized” and less subject to this problem. meaning the major costs are associated with analysis and design of change. · Explain Reengineering. 2. Changes can involve decentralization and centralization. change can be introduced relatively rapidly by top management. Weeks and months of group effort are saved.2 Meaning and Definitions Structural Intervention is related to the changes that relate elements of organization to one another. The cost of structural change is generally “front-end” loaded. Greater Predictability. includes removing or adding layers to hierarchy. Basic reinforcement theories. Succession Doesn’t Destroy Change Effort. · Discuss the Management By Objectives · Explain the Quality Circles. their attractiveness is also increased by the following advantages: 1. Advantages of Structural Interventions There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. 9. One problem with behavioral/ group interventions is the tendency for new managers or employees to discount or fail to continue the change program. organization theory. Downsizing associated with restructuring. you will be able to: · Explain the Socio technical change. Structural changes are consistent with their operating styles and are generally understood by practitioners. 4. 5. Managers and administrators are notoriously pragmatic.After studying this unit. Organization Acceptance of Change. From a benefit cost analysis. · Explain Total Quality Management. 3. Once diagnosed and an appropriate correction developed. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. This normally is a reasonable. Cost is Low. and OD practice enables the change agent to estimate the probable consequences of the change.
Since then. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. 1988): • Determining the environmental demands • Creating a vision statement • Educating organizational members • Creating the change structure • Conducting socio-technical analysis • Formulating re-design proposals · Defining the scope of the system to be re-designed · Implementing recommended changes · Evaluating changes 9. 1976.” . Cummings. It could involve the following steps (Foster.4 Management by Objectives Management by objectives (MBO). though not strictly an OD intervention in the sense in which other interventions have been discussed so far.3 Socio Technical Systems Socio-technical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. its definitional aspect. processes and functions to create a balance between the organization and its changing external environment. it has been defined as follows: MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. 9. many business and nonbusiness organizations have adopted this in some form or the other. is a technique and system which helps in improving organizational performance. Pasmore. therefore. a predictable cost Implementation of group strategies involves significant long-term man-hour and consultant costs. It endeavors to re-design the organization’s structure. Though there are some variations in the practices of MBO and. 1967. Its basic idea has been derived from the concept of participative goal setting as a technique of OD. The term MBO was coined by Drucker in 1964 when he emphasized the concept of managing by results.critically.
This process clarifies the role very sharply in terms of what one is expected to achieve. are determined on the basis of objectives. The total management process revolves round the objectives set jointly by the superior and the subordinate. MBO is likely to affect every management practice in the organization. Therefore. with objective orientation as its essence. its subsystems and people. managers have the opportunities for clarifying their job relationships with peers. As an approach to management. Periodic review of performance is an important feature of MBO. Objectives in MBO provide guidelines for appropriate system and procedures. A management technique can be applied in selected parts of the organization and will have limited implications for its other parts. superiors and subordinates. MBO is bound to have some relationship with every management technique. Therefore. etc. 2. and human resources of the organization by integrating the individual with organization and organization with the environment. its features can be identified as follows: 1. Certain degree of overlapping is there. MBO is an approach and philosophy to management and not merely a technique. each manager takes active part in setting objectives for himself and also in evaluating his performance as to how he is performing. In fact. operational managerial process for the effective utilization of material.. Resource allocation. The performance review is held regularly. 6. Objectives provide the means for integrating the organization with its environment. The MBO is characterized by the participation of concerned managers in objective setting and performance reviews. including the corporate level. It emphasises initiative and active role by the manger who is responsible for achieving objectives. reward and punishment system is attached with the achievement of the objectives. 4. It works as an integrating device. all the units or departments and individual manager. Objectives are established for all the levels of the organization. This is possible because MBO tries to match objectives and resources. On the other hand. delegation of authority. 5. normally once a year. Whereas the various techniques of management help in measurement of results in resources. Similarly. MBO is also concerned with determining what these results and resources should be. . It is a particular way of thinking about management. The basic emphasis of MBO is on objectives. often MBO provides the stimulus for the introduction of new techniques of management and enhances the relevance and utility of the existing ones. non-specialist.” Based on the definition of MBO. 3. physical.The integration of individual and organizational objectives through MBO has been emphasized by Chakravarty when he has defined MBO as follows: “MBO is a result-centered. MBO employs several techniques but it is not merely the sum total of all these techniques. MBO is the joint application of a number of principles and techniques. The review is future-oriented because it provides basis for planning and corrective actions.
Process of MBO MBO is a system for achieving organizational objectives, enhancement of employee commitment and participation. Therefore, its process should facilitate translation of basic concepts into management practice. The MBO process is characterized by the emphasis on the rigorous analysis, the clarity and balance of objectives, and participation of the managers with accountability for results. The MBO process is not as simple as it appears to be. Managers need training and experience for developing the required skills. 1. Setting of Organizational Purpose and Objectives: The first step in MBO is the definition of organizational purpose and objectives. Questions, such as, “why does the organization exist?”. What business are we in?” and what should be our business?” provide guidelines for the statement of purpose. This, in interaction with external factors, then determines the long-range strategic objectives like (i) whether to achieve growth through expansion in the same line of business or diversity: (ii) what should be blending of trading and manufacturing activities; (iii) what should be the degree of vertical integration and so on. Usually the objective setting starts at the top level of the organization and moves downward to the lowest managerial levels. This will go in a sequence like this (i) defining the purpose of the organization, (ii) long-range and strategic objectives, (iii) short-term organizational objectives, (iv) divisional/departmental/sectional objectives, (v) individual manager’s objectives. 2. Key Result Areas: Organizational objective and planning premises together provide the basis for the identification of key result areas (KRAs). It may be emphasized that KRAs are derived from the expectations of various stakeholders and indicate the priorities for organizational performance. KRAs also indicate the present state of an organization’s health and the top management perspective for the future. Examples of KRAs applicable to most of the business organizations are (i) profitability, (ii) market standing, (iii) innovation, (iv) productivity, (v) worker performance, (vi) financial and physical resources, (vii) manager performance, and (viii) public responsibility. Even though KRAs are most durable, the list of KRAs gets considerably changed over the period in response to new needs and opportunities. Sometimes, the achievement in a particular KRA also provides the impetus for a new KRA in future. 3. Setting Subordinates’ Objectives: The organizational objectives are achieved through individuals. Therefore, each individual manager must know in advance what he is expected to achieve. Every manager in the managerial hierarchy is both superior and subordinate except the person at the top level and lowest level. Therefore, there is a series of superior and subordinate relationships. The process of objective setting begins with superior’s proposed recommendations for his subordinate’s objectives. In turn, the subordinate states his own objectives as perceived by him. Thereafter, the final objectives for the subordinate are set by the mutual negotiation between superior and subordinate. In the beginning of MBO process in an organization, there may be wide gap between the recommended objectives by the superior and subordinate’s stated objectives because the latter may like to put lesser burden on him by
setting easily achievable objectives. However, with the experience gained over the period of time, this gap narrows because of narrowing down of perception of superior and subordinate about what can be done at a particular level. 4. Matching Resources with Objectives: When objectives are set carefully, they also indicate the resource requirement. In fact, resource availability becomes an important aspect of objective setting because it is the proper application of resources which ensures objective achievement. Therefore, there should be matching between objectives and resources. By relating these to objectives, a superior manager is better able to set the need and economy of allocating resources. By relating these to objectives, a superior manger is better able to see the need and economy of allocating resources. The allocation and movement of resources should be done in consultation with the subordinate manager. 5. Appraisal: Appraisal aspect of MBO tries to measure whether the subordinate is achieving his objective or not. If not, what are the problems and how these problems can be overcome? Appraisal is undertaken as an ongoing process with a view to find out deficiency in the working and also to remove it promptly. It is not taken merely to punish the non-performer or to reward the performer. It is taken as a matter of system to ensure that everything is going as planned and the organization is able to achieve its objectives. 6. Recycling: Though appraisal is the last aspect of MBO process, it is used as an input for recycling objectives and other actions. Objectives are neither set at the top and communicated to the bottom nor are they set at the bottom and go up. Objective setting is a joint process through interaction between superior and subordinate. Therefore, what happens at each level may affect other levels also. The outcome of appraisal at one level is recycled to see if the objectives have been set properly at the level concerned and also at the next higher level. 9.5 Quality Circles Quality circle is one of the most popular methods in the USA which was originally developed in Japan in 1950s.Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. Quality circle requires a managerial philosophy and culture that promotes sharing power, information, knowledge, and rewards. Quality circle program consists of several circles, each having three to fifteen members. The original idea of quality circles involved small groups of volunteers meeting on a regular basis, but in its contemporary form, quality groups are often compulsory and organized around specific work teams. Some organizations have even gone as far as setting targets for the number of suggestions quality groups are expected to come up with. 9.6 Quality of Work Life Based on the research of Eric Trist et al. at the Tavistcock Institute of Human Relations in London, this approach looked both at technical and human sides of organizations and how they
are interrelated. QWL programs, in general, require joint participation by union and management in the process of work-designing, which consequently result into high level of task variety, appropriate feedback and employee discretion. The most distinguishing feature of QWL program is the development of self-managing work groups which consist of multi-skilled workers. 9.7 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel Learning Structures (also known as Communities of Practice) promote innovation and change in large bureaucratic organizations while retaining the advantages of bureaucratic design. Groups representing various levels and functions work to open new channels of communication outside of and parallel to the normal, hierarchical structure. Parallel Learning Structures may be a form of Knowledge Management. Knowledge Management involves capturing the organization’s collective expertise wherever it resides (in databases, on paper, or in people’s heads) and distributing it to the people who need it in a timely and efficient way. It Consists of a steering committee and a number of working groups that: · Study what changes are needed in the organization, · Make recommendations for improvement, and · Then monitor the resulting change efforts. 9.8 Total Quality Management It is a long term effort that orients all of an organization’s activities around the concept of quality. It is very popular in USA in 1990s.TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization, provides relevant information to all employees, ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. It is also called continuous quality improvement. A combination of a number of organization improvement techniques and approaches, including the use of quality circles, statistical quality control, statistical process control, self-managed teams and task forces, and extensive use of employee participation. Features that characterize TQM: · Primary emphasis on customers. · Daily operational use of the concept of internal customers. · An emphasis on measurement using both statistical quality control and statistical process control techniques.
· Competitive benchmarking. service. or restructuring activities without regard to present hierarchical or control procedures. Reengineering is a top-down process. Quality . There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. eliminating. 2.9 Reengineering It is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical. __________ represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement.10 Summary An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. Self Assessment Questions 1. actions. such as cost. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. actions. 3. · Top management support on an ongoing basis. 9. assumes neither an upward flow of involvement nor that consensus decision making. Reengineering focuses on visualizing and streamlining any or all business processes in the organization. The term MBO was coined by _________ in 1964. From a benefit cost analysis. contemporary measures of performance. MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. · Continuous search for sources of defects with a goal of eliminating them entirely. 9. quality. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. · Participative management. · A major emphasis on continuous learning. and speed. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. It seeks to make such processes more efficient by combining. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. Sociotechnical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. · An emphasis on teams and teamwork. An organization development __________ is a sequence of activities.
It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems.5 4. TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization. Drucker 3. 9. Quality circle Answers to TQs: 1. Intervention 2. It is also called continuous quality improvement.12 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. Refer section 9. Refer section 9. .circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. Refer section 9. Write a short note on Total Quality Management.2 3.3 2. Discuss Socio Technical Systems? 2. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. What are the advantages of structural interventions? 3. provides relevant information to all employees. Explain Management By Objectives? 4. 9.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .11 Terminal Questions 1.Refer section 9.
8 Terminal Questions 10. organizational problems may repeat. In this dynamic and fluid environment. Objectives: . cope with the ongoing changes successfully in the first instance.3 Resistance to Change 10. 10. and initiate new change so as to overtake the competitors one the one hand and delight the customers on the other.9 Answers to SAQs and TQs 10. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future. Hence. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing.5 Impact of Change on the Future Manager 10.4 Causes for Resistance to Change.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change. the mangers and other employees must be able to practically anticipate the changes (planned and unprecedented).MU0002-Unit-10-Managing Organization Development Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Structure: 10.1 Introduction Objectives 10.7 Summary 10. Self Assessment Questions 10.1 Introduction Change in Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival.2 Nature of Change 10.
Thus. what is important at this point is that a change in any part affects the entire organization and subsequent changes are required in other parts. if we look minutely. some parts of organization may be affected more. employees want to maintain a status quo. it becomes indented at the point of contact. biological. Though this phenomenon will be taken later. Any change may effect the whole organization. job design and people. some changes which are of minor type may be absorbed by the existing equilibrium. While managers as change agents want to bring changes in the organization. When change occurs in any part of the organization. · Discuss the nature of change · Explain resistance to change and the factors which resist change. Newstrom and Davis have explained the impact of a change in any part of the organization on the total organization. organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization.whether physical. less. Thus. indirectly. · Impact of change on future managers. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of organization change. However. and others. They have illustrated it by comparing an organization to an air-filled balloon. others. Organizational change is a continuous process. the change in organization does not occur purely on mechanical relationship. we find that the shape of the entire balloon has changed. The type of new equilibrium depends on the degree of change and its impact on the organization.2 Nature of Change The term ‘change’ refers to an alteration in a system. However. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization – technology. 2. it has stretched slightly. and others. some parts may be affected directly. 10.After studying this unit. the contour of the balloon visibly changes. which are major ones. may require special change efforts. or social. When a finger (which represents external force) is forced against a point on the balloon (which represents the organization). . · State the methods of reducing resistance to change. structural arrangement. 3. organizational change may have the following features: 1. they have concluded that the whole organization tends to be affected by change in any part of it. Thus. However. it disturbs the old equilibrium necessitating the development of a new equilibrium.
3 Resistance to Change In the management of change effectively. the company procured land near its old plant site but later shifted the new plant site away from the old plant because of resisting work culture of the old plant which was expected to percolate to the new plant also. the reality lies in between. In fact. like shifting of the manufacturing plants at new locations. Resistance to change forces management to find out this reality which helps in managing change more effectively. Many companies have been forced to do so in the past. adjustment is fairly routine. there are two sides of resistance. fear of change can be as significantly disrupting as change itself. many organizations have been forced to abandon change programmes because of resistance to such programmes. We wanted a new culture and new layout. Madhur Bajaj. but when a change is major or unusual. more serious upsets may occur. One example of Bajaj Auto Limited is relevant here. resistance to change is costly affair. In fact. “The Pune plant is fully saturated. Before we trace out the reasons for résistance to change. resistance to change provides help in managing change in two ways: . We shall take new workers at the new place.as cost and as benefit. Resistance as Cost: Since all changes have some cost. While on negative side. or they have been forced to adopt alternative strategies. that is. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. In order to increase its manufacturing capacity of two-wheelers. Resistance by some members of the organization provides an opportunity to the change agents to weigh the pros and cons of introducing change more carefully. When change is minor and within the scope of correcting programme. Homeostasis implies self-correcting characteristics of organism to maintain equilibrium as a result of change. let us discuss whether resistance is always bad as it is generally perceived to be. In fact. Thus.” Resistance as Benefit: On the one hand. so is the resistance to change. people act to establish a steady state of need fulfillment and to secure themselves from disturbance of that balance. If people resist to change. because it produces identical symptoms. We saw resistance to change at the existing plant. This leads to general proposition that people and their social systems will often resist change in organizations. the managers face the problem of resistance to change. Managing Director of Bajaj Auto. and on the other. and its basic survival may be jeopardized. commented.10. On this phenomenon. Similarly. the organizational may not be able to introduce new phenomena in order to adapt environmental requirement. social systems tend to resist change because of homeostasis. it provides some benefits to the organization as its change agent.
psychological and social. 2. precede over other needs. people may feel that in the new system. technology. These feeling may be based either on reality or there may be emotional feeling towards the change. People may perceive that they will be adversely affected by the change in terms of their needs satisfaction in the following ways: 1. When computer was introduced in the business sector in India. Skill Obsolescence: A change is generally meant for better methods of working which may involve new techniques. it attracted a lot of resistance because of this reason. either real or emotional. the reasons underlying resistance to change may be identified at these two levels: Individual Resistance There are many factors operating at the individual level which are responsible for resistance. whenever people sense that new machinery (change) poses a threat of replacing or degrading them. Whenever there is change. Factors in Resistance to Change People tend to evaluate the effect of change individually but they express it through group in collective form. It also highlights real inadequacies in the proposed change and suggests better ways for developing and introducing changes. All these are well-established in the old system. bonus. may be seen in the context of three types of factors: economic. they simply resist such a change. Psychological Factors .1.. Degree of force in resistance depends on how people feel about change. It may signal the need for more effective communication about the meaning and purpose of a change or need to rethink precisely how a proposed change will affect the organization and its members. 3. Economic Factors People feel attached to the organization for satisfying their needs and economic needsphysiological. This feeling is created because people feel that those who can match the new requirements will be better off than those who cannot match. they will have lower opportunity to earn incentives and bonus as the new system requires additional skills. Therefore. Reduced Opportunities for Incentives: Employees are generally offered incentives linked to their output in the form of incentive schemes. job security etc. reduce job options. and turn into technological unemployment. etc. etc. These feelings. 2. Fear of Economic Loss: A change may create fear of economic loss in the sense that it may affect economic compensation adversely.
Major psychological factors responsible for resistance are: ego defensiveness. sentiments and attitudes towards change. The major factors causing resistance to change are: desire to retain existing social interaction and feeling of outside interference. they do not want any disturbance in their existing equilibrium of life and work pattern. which people do not want. If people have low degree of confidence in the change agent. . 1. 2. their existing social interactions are likely to be changed. people may differ.Psychological factors are based on people’s emotions. 4. 5. Low Tolerance for Change: In the context of maintaining status quo. The change initiated by the organization disturbs such equilibrium and people have to obtain another equilibrium which is a painful exercise. A change in itself suggests that everything is not right at a particular level. These are qualitative and. Fear of Unknown: A change may be perceived as entering into unchartered area which is unknown. Status Quo: People want status quo. This is the reason why labour union resists changes initiated by management because of the feeling that labour and management are two different interest groups in the organization. 1. Lack of Trust in Change Agent: The effect of change is perceived in the context of change agent. The change will bring results in future. and fear of unknown. they resist change. lack of trust in change agent. people resist it. The lack of adequate information about the likely impact of change further complicates the problems. Therefore. the change may be perceived as an instrument for exposing the weakness of the people. which is always uncertain. Ego Defensiveness: A change may affect the ego of the people affected by the change and in order to defend their ego. everyone tries to avoid it. through their mutual compatible interactions. Therefore. This lack of certainty creates anxiety and stress in the minds of people and they want to avoid it. Some people have very low level of tolerance for change and ambiguity as compared to others. that is. these people resist any new idea. Therefore. i. the person who initiates change. therefore.e. When there is any change. status quo. people resist change. low tolerance for change. they show resistance to change efforts. particularly social needs. To the extent the satisfaction of these needs is affected by a change. They form their own social groups at the work place for the satisfaction of their social needs. Social Factors People derive need satisfaction. Thus. may be logical from people’s point of view but may be illogical from the change agent’s point of view. Desire to Maintain Existing Social Interaction: People desire to maintain existing social interaction since it is a satisfying one. 3.
Since these organizations have achieved success by following a particular set of management practices. values. Organizational Resistance to Change: Not only individuals and groups within an organization resist change. For example. Some of these reasons are basic while others are by-products of those. If the organization is not fully equipped for meeting such demands. dogmas. resource limitations. a professor of strategic leadership who is considered to be a management Guru. all these companies have been victims of corporate disease. resources and processes of the most successful companies have in the past ossified into clichés. sunk cost. they become too rigid to change and they hide their failure to change in the guise of past successes. For example. first two reasons are basic and others are by-products of the first two. a bureaucratic organization has certain fixed rules. Caterpillar. Zerox or nearer home-TI cycles. Many powerful organizations of the past have failed to change and they have developed into routines.g. change initiated by managers affecting workers. Resource Limitations: No doubt. The system is stabilized and any change may be perceived as a threat by the organization itself. it may not be possible for the organization to bring necessary change. e. an organization has to adapt to its environment but the adaptation has its own cost. Many organizations are designed to be innovation-resisting. the organization may not bring it easily because it is accustomed to a particular system. Feeling of Outside Interference: A change brought about by the change agent is considered to be interference in the working of people. stability of systems. This phenomenon is heightened if the change agent belongs to another social class. Strategies. It is called ‘The Failure of Success’. if new . All these work in some circumstances.” This statement suggests that organizations tend to stabilize at a particular level and if the change efforts are not brought. prescribes rigid authority relationships. Counting Past Successes: A major problem before the organizations which have past success stories is how to face challenges of the changing environment. Sumantra Ghoshal. Digital Equipment Corporation. 3. has commented as follows: “Nothing fails like success. these organizations start falling. and inter-organizational agreement. Stability of Systems: The organization may design a system through which it may derive many benefits. and institutes reward and punishment system. The latter my feel that managers try to make workers an instrument for higher productivity but the outcome of this productivity will be retained by them. For example. It a change is required in these aspects. Whether it is IBM. 2.2. even the organization itself resists many changes because of certain reasons. 1. This is the reason why many old industrial houses are languishing far behind and their places are being taken away by newer organizations.. For example. nothing fails as spectacularly as spectacular success. The major reasons for organizational failure to change are: counting past successes. millstones and routines.
forward-looking. Analyzers: Above two are the extreme cases of choice-making modes in between the analyzers and reactors. decentralized controls. Reactors: These organizations realize that their specific environment is changing but fail to relate themselves with the changing environment. the organization may enter into agreement with labour union about not bringing any technological change. They emphasize more on cost-effectiveness. if any change is to be incorporated. In such a case. these can be used for specific period. Let us see what someone has said long back: “There are three types of companies: those who make things happen. and has zeal for progress. 2. 1. what will happen to these assets? Naturally. the organization may take change programmes much more frequently. Once the assets are acquired. In this interaction process. . if the change is required. innovative. 4.defenders. Prospectors: These firms use broad planning approaches. Sunk cost cannot be only in terms of various physical things.” This is the true reflection of difference between change-initiating companies and changeresisting companies. and reserve some resources unutilized for future use. the organization has to take into consideration the wishes of other organizations too. those who wonder what happened. they cannot survive. For example. intensive planning. 3. Inter-organizational Agreements: The organization interacts with its environment. it will require resources to procure machine. it is not necessary that his services are done away with. Based on the aggressiveness which various companies show in changing themselves. This can be in the form of people also. the organization will like to make a comparison between the outcomes of changed programme and continuing with old programme in the light of this sunk cost. and reactors. prospectors. If it is risk-taking. analyzers. building and training for its personnel. organization has to pay for his services though these may not be as useful. and put less emphasis on environmental scanning. It depends more on the style of top management. it may enter into agreement with other organizations over certain aspects of working. those who watch things happen. Sunk Cost: Most of the organizations have sunk cost involved in various assets. Analyzers act sometimes as defenders and sometimes as prospectors. 5. Miles and Snow have classified them into four categories. Otherwise. they have to behave in one of the above three ways. centralized control. Now. broad environmental scanning. They go on searching new products/markets on regular basis. Therefore. It an individual is not making commensurate contribution. Thus. 4. It is necessary too that other organizations also agree to the change proposal. and commensurate expenses on other items also. Defenders: These are the firms which penetrate in a narrow market product domain and guard it.technology is adopted.
When Boeing announces its laying off 10. taking a new set of streets to work. the selection process systematically selects certain people in and certain people out. Resistance can be overt. As human beings. So when your department is moved to a new office building across town. Habit Every day. or deferred. immediate. Security: People who have a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feeling of safety. developing a new lunchtime routine. Let’s look at the sources of resistance. threatening to go on strike. Economic Factors: Another source of individual resistance is concern that changes will lower one’s income. or the like. If for example. many employees at these firms may fear that their jobs are in jeopardy. finding a new parking place. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints. To cope with this complexity. we all rely on habits.4 Cause for Resistance to Change Resistance to change doesn’t necessarily surface in standardized ways. The same applies to employee. Fear of the Unknown: Change substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the known. For example. when you go to work or school. this tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance.10. we don’t need to consider the full range of options for the hundreds of decisions we have to make every day. or programmed responses. some may fear they’ll be unable to do so.000 people or Ford introduces new robotic equipment. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. For instance. especially when pay is closely tied to productivity. and so on. When we are confronted with change. Organizational resistance Structural Inertia: Organizations have built-in mechanisms to produce stability. develop a negative attitude towards quality management or behave dysfunctionally if required to use statistical techniques. engaging in a work showdown. implicit. it means you’re likely to have to change many habits: waking up 10 minutes earlier. For analytical purpose. adjusting to the new office layout. Changes in job tasks or established work routines also can arouse economic fear if people are concerned they won’t be able to perform the new tasks or routines to their previous standards. They may. do you continually use the same route and streets? Probably if you’re like most people. you find a single route and you use it regularly. Training . the introduction of a quality management program requires that production workers learn statistical process control techniques. therefore. Life is complex enough. And people in general don’t like the unknown. we’ve categorized them by individual and organizational sources. we’re creatures of habit.
the change in technology is not likely to be accepted. if management changes the technological processes without simultaneously modifying the organization’s structure to match. accountants work with marketers. Changing Skill Sets More organizations are utilizing cross functional teams. . For example. But if union norms dictate resisting any unilateral change made by management. Formalization provides job description. You can’t change one without affecting the others. The only constant in organizational life today appears to be the presence of continuous change. mean a reduction in their budgets or a cut in their staff size? Those who most benefit from the current allocation of resources are often threatened by change that may affect future allocations. They tend to be content with the way things are. Threat to Expertise: Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups. for instance.and other socialization techniques reinforce specific role requirements and skills. for instance. group norms may act as a constraint.5 Impact of Change on Future Manager Organizations are changing nearly daily. rules and procedures for employees to follow. An individual union member. Will the change. That is. People from one functional department are placed on terms with people from other functional areas. Group Inertia: Even if individuals want to change their behavior. Threat to Established Resource Allocations: the groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. These teams are comprised of people from various areas within the company. development of pay plans. One area of organizations that continues its metamorphosis is the design itself. So limited changes in subsystems tend to get nullified by the larger system. and benefits administration – has been resisted by many human resource departments. human resource people with engineers and finance individuals with operations employees. may be willing to accept changes in his job suggested by management. Why? Because this outsourcing is a threat to the specialized skills held by people in HR departments. For example. he’s likely to resist. The recent move by some companies to outsource many of their human resource activities – such as training. Limited Focus of Change: Organization is made up of interdependent subsystems. Introduction of participative decision making or self-managed work teams are examples of changes that often are seen as threats to the power of supervisors and middle managers. Thereat to Established Power Relationships: Any redistribution of decision-making authority can threaten long-established power relationship within the organization. the way in which companies are configured today is changing. 10.
In many cases. For example. Decision making is becoming more and more comfortable for those throughout the organization as the need to make decisions is distributed more evenly across all organizational levels. Problem solving now involves the people who are experts in the issue – not necessarily those in high positions in the organization.” Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. More fluid structures require that managers improve their strategic orientation. Therefore. When the resistance comes from the people at individual levels. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. strategic directions for the company must be identified in light of these changes. rather should be looked upon as a dialogue which continues over a period of time. typically by way of computer network links. the effect of the change may not be as functional as envisaged by the management. Unless this problem is overcome properly. through group dynamics. They need to be adept at reading the trends in the environment and then determining what they mean specifically for their own organization. the following efforts can be taken: 1. the role of formal authority in implementing a change may not be effective all the times. at the level of individual and at the level of group. that is. the problems can be solved at the same level. Efforts at Individual Level A change is likely to affect some people in some way. It implies explanation and . 10.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change One of the basic problems in managing change is to overcome people’s resistance to change successfully. As organizations must be better equipped to respond to change in their external environment. it can make effectively by managing resistance effectively. even the impact of change may be dysfunctional if change is imposed upon the people by the use of formal authority. In addition. However. Stephen Robbins suggests that “…… managers in virtual structures spend most of their time coordinating and controlling external relations. Locavini observes that “the secret of real success is effective management of the emotional vulnerability that accompanies organizational change. this is not a one-time action. Involvement: Involvement is a process through which those who are affected by the change are brought to understand the change. For this purpose.” The newer organizational structures use term problem solving. This requires that managers think differently and teach employees to think differently. managers must be more skilled at reading the environment and grasping the big picture.The ultimate goal is to improve organizational performance by cutting production time or time to market. both at the formal and informal levels. It may affect only a few while others may not be affected.
Leadership: The role of leadership in getting acceptance for a change is very important as a capable leader reinforces a climate of psychological support for change. more than one person is involved in the change. and indoctrinated in new relationships. 2. either the subordinates do not resist or if they resist. Getting opinions out in the open. is an important trust-building task. It grows slowly along with relationship. the manager can form strategies for overcoming resistance in the following manner: . The fundamental idea in this process is to encourage the person to say something about any aspect of the change. it is more meaningful if it is done through group. understanding of change increases and personal involvement in the change increases. helped to change attitudes. sometimes. getting a man to commit himself in private to change programme may yield fewer results than if he voluntarily and publicly gives his commitment to an idea of change. For using group as a means of overcoming resistance to change. most of the times. as discussed earlier. Though each person interprets the change individually often. Based on these characteristics of group as a means of change. instead of solving the problem at the individual level. but a transformational leader can use personal reasons for change without arousing resistance. it is desirable at the group level to get better acceptability of change. education must be a part of the manager’s everyday activity on the job. The decision to commit oneself is a dynamic process. must be understood so that its effective use can be made. Thus. to become effective. People should be educated to become familiar with change. Obtaining Commitment: Commitment is an agreement to take an active part in the actual mechanics of the change. he expresses it through a group. Usually. 4. its process and working. 3. Thus. It includes finding out from the members how they interpret the proposed changes and what they think about them.then discussion of the proposed changes. its basic nature. Group dynamics offers some basic help in this regard. However. so that they are looked at and evaluated. People always have some ideas and opinions about what is going on in the world and more specially if touches them personally. Efforts at Group Level Although agreement to a change can be obtained individually. meetings. Such educational process can be aided by training classes. As this process goes. and conferences. Training and Psychological Counseling: The management can change the basic values of the people by training and psychological counseling. An effective leader tries to time a change to fit the psychological needs of his followers. However. A manager as weak leader presents change on the basis of the impersonal requirements of the situation. This helps in creating receptive environment in the organization. They must be taught new skills. the leader tries to overcome this resistance by leadership process. the level of resistance to change tends to decrease. Commitment to take part in the change programme can be obtained in private from each individual.
Group Dynamics Training for Change: Group dynamics also helps in providing various training programmes for accepting and implementing change. sentiments and attitudes towards change. 3. It would be prudent for management to take labour representatives into confidence before implementing any change. many things about change can be made clear. Even if only some of the members are affected by the change. one can communicate with more people per unit of time. mere participation may not help. _________ is the alteration of work environment in an organization. 3. Such training techniques include role playing. The same is true of problem-solving. The organization must regard the participation as meaningful and share the results of the change with its members. __________ are based on people’s emotions. Those people who are directly affected by the change should be given opportunity to participate in that change before the final decisions are reached. Group Contact: Any effect to change is likely to succeed if the group accepts that change. . Research studies also support this aspect. psychodrama. benefits of change. Such training techniques provide understanding of behaviour. Self Assessment Questions 1. and sensitivity or T-group training. the group itself should be the point of contact. 2. thereby the people can build up the climate based on mutual trust and understanding which are essential for bringing organizational changes successfully. taking whole of the group into confidence helps in maintaining a cooperative attitude.such aspects as the reasons for change. For this purpose. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization – technology. structural arrangement. Through the group contact. It makes people feel that the organization needs their opinions and ideas and is unwilling to go ahead without taking them into account. 2. and how the benefits of the meaningful and continuous dialogue are necessary. They must be made a party to the change rather than an agent for resistance to change. The laboratory method provides a setting where group processes can be studied intensively. and how members contribute. (ii) In group. there may be some person who may communicate to the same group. job design and people. However.1. (iii) Group can get at the basic problem very rapidly as compared to a single individual. Free flow of information helps people to understand the real picture of the change and many misunderstandings may be avoided. The group contact offers some specific advantages: (i) Through groups. This is more important in the case of workers who themselves treat a separate group and do not identify with the management. Participation: Participation helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. It purports how the results are. _________ helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance.
10. or deferred. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization. Reference: . that is. 10.7 Summary Change is inevitable. For instance.6. Discuss the methods of reducing resistance to change. Psychological factors 3. at the level of individual and at the level of group. Economic factors. Organizational change 2. Explain the nature of change? 2. Resistance can be overt. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. Refer section 10. engaging in a work showdown. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. Participation Answers to TQs: 1. or the like. implicit.10.8 Terminal Questions 1. immediate. group resistance and vested interests.9 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. both at the formal and informal levels.2 2. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. psychological factors. Organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. through group dynamics. Refer section 10. social factors. Why do organizations resist change? 3. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints. Refer section 10. threatening to go on strike. Changes may be influenced by external and internal factors.4 3.
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