MU0002-Unit-01-Introduction to Management
Unit-01-Introduction to Management Structure: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 1.2 Definitions of Management 1.3 Characteristics of Management 1.4 Scope and Levels of Management 1.5 Importance of Management 1.6 Role of Management 1.7 Administration and Management Self Assessment Questions 1.8 Summary 1.9 Terminal Questions 1.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 1.1 Introduction Management is a global need. It is essential to every individual, a family, educational institution, hospital, religious organizations, team of players, a government, military systems, cultural body, urban centers and business enterprises. No individual can satisfy all his needs by himself. Men should join together and accomplish goals through co-operation. Whenever, there is an organized group of people working towards a common goal, some type of management is needed. A business enterprise must be directed and controlled by a group of people to achieve its goals. The resources of money, manpower, material and technology will be waste unless they are out to work in a co-ordinated manner. It is the ‘management’ which uses the available resources in such a manner that a business enterprise is able to earn ‘surplus’ to meet the needs of growth and expansion. Management is required to plan, organize, co-
ordinate and control the affairs of a business concern. It brings together all resources and motivates people to achieve the objectives of a business enterprise. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Define management. · Explain the characteristics of management. · Differentiate between management and administration. · State the principles of management. · Explain the roles of managers. · Explain managerial skills. 1.2 Definitions of Management Management may be defined in many different ways. Many eminent authors on the subject have defined the term “management”. Some of these definitions are reproduced below: According to Lawerence A. Appley – “Management is the development of people and not the direction of things.” In the words of George R. Terry – “Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.” According to James L. Lundy – “Management is principally the task of planning, co-ordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective.” In the words of Henry Fayol – “To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.” According to Peter F. Drucker – “Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages a business and managers and manages worker and work”. In the words of Koontz and O’Donnel – “Management is defined as the creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals working together in groups can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals”.
According to Newman, Summer and Warren – “The job of management is to make co-operative endeavor to function properly. A Manager is one who gets things done by working with people and other resources.” From the definitions quoted above, it is clear that “management” is a technique of extracting work from others in an integrated and co-ordinated manner for realizing the specific objectives through productive use of material resources. Mobilizing the physical, human and financial resources and planning their utilization for business operations in such a manner as to reach the defined goals can be referred to as “management”. If the views of the various authorities are combined, management could be defined as a “distinct ongoing process of allocating inputs of an organization (human and economic resources) by typical managerial functions (planning, organizing, directing and controlling) for the purpose of achieving stated objectives, namelyoutput of goods and services desired by its customers (environment). In the process, work is performed with and through personnel of the organization in an ever-changing business environment.” From the above, it is clear that management refers to the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people. The process represents the functions or primary activities engaged in by managers. These functions are typically labeled planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Efficiency is a vital part of management. It refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs. If you can get more output from the given inputs, you have increased efficiency. Similarly, if you can get the same output from less input, you also have increased efficiency. Since managers deal with input resources that are scarce-mainly people, money and equipment-they are concerned with the efficient use of these resources. Management, therefore, is concerned with minimizing resource costs. Efficiency is often referred to as “doing things right”. However, it is not enough simply to be efficient. Management is also concerned with getting activities completed; i.e. it seeks effectiveness. When managers achieve their organization’s goals, we say they are effective. Effectiveness can be described as “doing the right things”. So efficiency is concerned with means and effectiveness with ends. Efficiency and effectiveness are interrelated. For instance, it is easier to be effective if one ignores efficiency. Timex could produce more accurate and attractive watches if it disregarded labour and material input costs. Some federal government agencies have been criticized regularly on the grounds that they are reasonably effective but extremely inefficient; that is, they get their jobs done but at a very high cost. Management is concerned, then, not only with getting activities completed (effectiveness), but also with doing so as efficiently as possible. Can organization be efficient and yet not effective? Yes, by doing the wrong things well. Many colleges have become highly efficient in processing students. By using computer-assisted learning, large lecture classes, and heavy reliance on part-time faculty, administrators have significantly cut the cost of educating each student. Yet students, alumni, and accrediting agencies have criticized some of these colleges for failing to educate their students properly. Of
directing and controlling. high efficiency is associated more typically with high effectiveness. In essence. feeling of management is result-oriented. 2. Thus. Its presence is evidenced by the result of its efforts-orderliness. 4. Managers apply knowledge. All these resources are made available to those who manage. labour and capital. Thus. capital and materials. It is the most critical input in the success of any organized group activity. These functions are so interwoven that it is not possible to lay down exactly the sequence of various functions or their relative significance. organizing. namely. buoyant spirit and adequate work output. although they can’t observe it during operation. Economic Resource: Management is one of the factors of production together with land. It is imperative that the organizational goals must be well-defined and properly understood by the mangers at various levels. It is the force which assembles and integrates other resources. Intangible Force: Management has been called an unseen force. People often remark of the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of management on the basis of the end results. experience and management principles for getting the results from the workers by the use of non-human resources. Distinct Process: Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the organizational goals are achieved. the process of management involves decision-making and putting of decisions into practice. 5. management is an essential ingredient of an organization. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others. And poor management is most often due to both inefficiency and ineffectiveness or to effectiveness achieved through inefficiency. It co-ordinates the efforts of workers to achieve the goals of the organization. Goal-oriented: Management is a purposeful activity. 6. Results through Others: The managers cannot do everything themselves. 1. These factors do not by themselves ensure production. Integrative Force: The essence of management is integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives.
. staffing.course. they require the catalyst of management to produce goods and services required by the society. They must motivate the subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them. labour. Managers also seek to harmonize the individuals’ goals with the organizational goals for the smooth working of the organization. One may not see with the naked eyes the functioning of management but its results are apparently known. 3.3 Characteristics of Management Management is a distinct activity having the following salient features or characteristics: 1. informed employees.
It is bound together by a web of relationships between superiors and subordinates. For instance.e. useful. principles and techniques requires specialized knowledge and skills on the part of the manager.4 Scope of Management The scope of management is very wide. According to Newman. 9. manpower. According to Herbision and Myers. money and machines into a productive. Henri Fayol suggested that principles of management would apply more or less in every situation. on-going concern. that is. 10. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively.7. materials. principles and techniques which have wide applications. Much of the management literature is the result of association of these disciplines. Anthropology. The application of these concepts. System of Authority: Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority. as we move down in the managerial hierarchy. The principles are working guidelines which are flexible and capable of adaptation to every organization where the efforts of human beings are to be co-ordinated. Generally. how effectively and economically the five M’s are combined together to produce desired results. it refers to three distinct ideas. 1. management is viewed as an art. productivity orientation drew its inspiration from Industrial Engineering and human relations orientation from Psychology. government and hospital. Basically. education. discipline) taking the help of so many other disciplines such as Engineering. In modern organizations. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. Since the skills acquired by a manager are his personal possession. the degree of authority gets gradually reduced. management may be understood as (i) an economic resource. (ii) a system of authority. · Management as a system of authority According to Herbison and Myers. management is required to covert the disorganized resources of men. In other words. Similarly. So it is treated as a science. labour and capital. management is the rule-making and rule-enforcing body. a hierarchy of command and control. Managers at different levels possess varying degrees of authority. · Management as an economic resource Management is one of the factors of production along with land. people
. Universal Application: Management is universal in character. military. Sociology and Operations Research have also contributed to the development of management science. The principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the fields of business. 8. the effective use of the five M’s of management (money. materials. A Science and an Art: Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of welldefined concepts. Sociology and Psychology. Multi-disciplinary Subject: Management has grown as a field of study (i. and (iii) a class or elite.
are bound by authority relationships. and the range of production.e. The levels of management depend upon its size. but as head of wages and salary department. Considering the hierarchy of authority and responsibility. (i) administrative management (i. Managing Director. Lower management (first line supervisors) is concerned with routine. Administrative management is concerned with “thinking” functions such as laying down policy. · Management as a class or elite Sociologists view management as a distinct class in society having its own value system. and directing the operations to attain the objectives of the enterprise. its Chairman. Top management determines objectives and provides direction to enterprise activities. For instance. They transmit orders. The managerial class has become very important in modern organizations owing to its contribution to business success. Operative management is concerned with the “doing” function such as implementation of policies. the upper level of management) and (ii) operating management (i. Instructions and decisions downward and carry the problem and suggestions upward. wage and salary director of a company may assist in fixing wages and salary structure as a member of the Board of Directors. Middle management (departmental heads like work manage. Board of Directors. it is difficult of draw any clear-cut demarcation between thinking function and doing function as the basic/fundamental managerial functions are performed by all managers irrespective of their levels.
. or the General Manager or Executive Committee having key officers. the lower level of management). or. ranks. planning and setting up of standards. viz. Managers working at top levels enjoy more authority than people working at lower levels. personnel manager etc. or the Chief Executive. one can identify three levels of management namely: i) Top management of a company consists of owners/shareholders. day-to-day matters.e. All the managers form the chief executive to the first line supervisors are collectively addressed as ‘Management’ which refers to the group. The real significance of levels is that they explain authority relationships in an organization.. finance manager. Levels of management refer to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an enterprise. the term management refers to the group of individuals occupying managerial positions. But in actual practice. his job is to see that the decisions are implemented. We generally come across two broad levels of management.) interprets and explains the policies framed by the top management. As a separate group. technical facilities. Levels of Management An enterprise may have different levels of management..
b) To make policies and frame plans to attain the objectives laid. and Divisional Sectional Officers working under these Functional Heads. Marketing Manager. Without them the top management’s plans and ambitious expectations will not be fruitfully realized. e) To exercise effective control of the operations. men. d) To recruit and select suitable operative and supervisory staff. They devote more time on the organization and motivation functions of management. It serves as an essential link between the top management and the lower level or operative management. Supervisors.
. iii) Lower level or operative management of a company consists of Superintendents. They provide the guidance and the structure for a purposeful enterprise.ii) Middle management of a company consists of heads of functional departments namely. f) To provide overall leadership to the enterprise. e) To assign activities. b) To interpret the policies chalked out by top management. Foremen. c) To prepare the organizational set up in their own departments for fulfilling the objectives implied in various business policies. Middle management: The job of middle management is to implement the policies and plans framed by the top management. etc. d) To assemble the resources of money. duties and responsibilities for timely implementation of the plans. materials. Top management: Top management is the ultimate source of authority and it lays down goals. c) To set up an organizational framework to conduct the operations as per plans. etc. Financial Controller.. 2. 1. The important functions of top management include: a) To establish the objectives or goals of the enterprise. They are responsible to the top management for the functioning of their department. The following are the main functions of middle management: a) To establish the objective or goals of the enterprise. It devotes more time on planning and co-ordinating functions. policies and plans for the enterprise. It is also described as the policy-making group responsible for the overall direction and success of all company activities. machines and methods to put the plans into action. Production Manager. Purchase Manager. It is accountable to the owners of the business of the overall management.
It consists of foreman. Their authority and responsibility is limited. h) To co-operate with the other departments for ensuring a smooth functioning of the entire organization. They are also involved in the process of decisions-making. They devote more time in the supervision of the workers. supervisors. It is the activating force that gets things done through people. management is the dynamic lift-giving element in every organization. 1. A right climate is created for workers to put in their best and show superior performance. 3. the working of an enterprise will become random and haphazard in nature.f) To compile all the instructions and issue them to supervisors under their control. i) To collect reports and information on performance in their departments. g) To motivate personnel to attain higher productivity and to reward them properly. sales officers. and actual operations are the responsibility of this level of management. They allot various jobs to the workers. Management makes group effort more effective. the resources of production remain resources and never become production.5 Importance of Management According to Drucker. Lower or operative management: It is placed at the bottom of the hierarchy of management. Management creates teamwork and
. They have to get the work done through the workers. k) To make suitable recommendations to the top management for the better execution of plans and policies. accounts officers and so on. money and material. Without management. an organization is merely a collection of men. (i) Optimum use of resources: Management ensures optimum utilization of resources by attempting to avoid wastage of all kinds. It enables employees to move cooperatively and achieve goals in a coordinated manner. The importance of management can be understood from the following points. machines. They are in direct touch with the rank and file or workers. Employees feel a sense of security when they find a body of individual’s working day and night for the continued growth of an organization. They interpret and divide the plans of the management into short-range operating plans. They are concerned with direction and control functions of management. (ii) Effective leadership and motivation: In the absence of management. evaluate their performance and report to the middle level management. It helps in putting the resources to the best advantage within the limitations set by the organization and its environment. They pass on the instructions of the middle management to workers. j) To report to top management. In its absence.
iii) The establishment of a representative organization with professiona-lizing as its goal. (c) Exploiting new ideas for the benefit of society as a whole and (d) developing employee talents and capabilities while at work and prompting them to show peak performance. and specialized knowledge.
. hire competent people and provide necessary guidance. counseling and effective leadership. Organize the resources properly. skills. often threaten the survival of a firm. To this end. forecasting combined with efficient use of resources) and taking appropriate steps. Overlapping efforts and waste motions are avoided. In the final analysis. An enterprise has to take note of these changes and adapt itself quickly. Successful managers are the ones who anticipate and adjust to changing circumstances rather than being passively swept along or caught unprepared. government policy. (b) Ensuring the survival of the firm in the face of continued changes.motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. (iii) Establishers sound industrial relations: Management minimizes industrial disputes and contributes to sound industrial relations in an undertaking. procedures and reward systems. techniques. Managers help an organization by anticipating these changes (carefull planning. Management as a profession By a professional manager. With a view to realize the predetermined goals-managers plan carefully. Failure to take note of customer’s needs regarding full efficiently has spelt doom for ‘Ideal java’ in the two-wheeler market in India. Management is goal-oriented. all these help in realizing goals with maximum efficiency. manager tries to strike a happy balance between the demands of employees and organizational requirements. Thus unnecessary deviations.. a profession possesses the following characteristics: i) A body of principles. (v) Change and growth: Changes in technology. we generally mean a manager who undertakes management as a career and is not interested in acquiring ownership share in the enterprise which he manages. Objective can be achieved only when the human and non-human resources are combined in a proper way. competition. According to McFarland. methods. (vi) Improves standard of living : Management improves the standard of living of people by (a) using scarce resources efficiently and turning out profits. Industrial peace is an essential requirement for increasing productivity. ii) Formalized methods of acquiring training and experience. (iv) Achievement of goals: Management plays an important role in the achievement of objectives of an organization. They try to put everything on the right tract. etc. They initiate prompt actions whenever workers express dissatisfaction over organizational rules.
There are a number of representative organizations of management practitioners almost in all countries such as the All India Management Association in India. Indeed such mobile managers are regarded as more progressive and modern than others.S.iv) The formation of ethical codes for the guidance of conduct. do not seem to adhere to the principle of “service above self”. However. and short-duration activities. manipulating prices and markets are by no means uncommon management practices. Furthermore. management is not as exact as natural sciences. the All India Management Association. etc. There is no ethical code of conduct for managers as for doctors and lawyers. It has also developed a vast number of tools and techniques. bribing public officials to gain favours. Management is a profession to the extent it fulfils the above conditions. a management degree is not a pre-requisite to become a manager. in contrast to the predominant views at the time that managers were reflective thinkers who carefully and systematically processed information before making decisions. There was little time for reflective thinking because the managers encountered
. identifiable discipline. Henry Mintzberg did a careful study of five chief executives at work. the Indian Institute of Management. none of them has the professionalizing of the management as its goal. and it is not as fully a profession as medicine and law. and it is distinct. 1. try to develop a code of conduct for their own managers but there is no general and uniform code of conduct for all managers. and v) The charging of fees based on the nature of services. Management Development Institute. however.6 Role of Management In the late 1960s.. Mintberz found that his managers engaged in a large number of varied. managers in general. A number of organizations such as the Administrative Staff College of India. For instance. We have a number of institutes of management and university departments of management which provide formal education in this field. What he discovered challenged several long-held notions about the manager’s job. Management is also a profession in the sense that formalized methods of training is available to those who desire to be managers. Management does not fulfill the last two requirements of a profession. It is a profession in the sense that there is a systematized body of management. Some individual business organizations. However. unpatterned. little regard is paid to the elevation of service over the desire for monetary compensation is evident by switching of jobs by managers. As a social science. But unlike medicine or law. In fact. the American Management Association in U. sabotaging trade unions.A. an art as well as a profession. Management partially fulfils the third characteristic of profession. It may be concluded from the above discussion that management is a science. and the university departments of management offer a variety of short-term management training programmes. Training facilities are provided in most companies by their training divisions.
fulfill informational roles-receiving and collecting information from organizations and institutions outside their own.
. This is the disseminator role. Table 1. Mintzberg concluded that managers perform ten different but highly interrelated roles. what competitors may be planning. and disciplining employees. Informational Roles: All managers. and the like. These ten roles can be grouped as those primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships. motivating. Mintzberg provided a categorization scheme for defining what managers do based on actual managers on the job. Mintzberg described this activity as contacting external sources who provide the manager with information. training. The third role within the interpersonal grouping is the liaison role. But in addition to these insights. When the president of a college hands out diplomas at commencement or a factory supervisor gives a group of high school students a tour of the plant. activities that involve responsible for staffing.1: Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles Role Interpersonal Figurehead Description Identifiable Activities
Symbolic head. When that sales manager confers with other sales executives through a marketing trade association. signing perform a number of routine legal documents. Typically. and may be inside or outside the organization. These sources are individuals or groups outside the manager’s unit. All managers have a role as a leader. Interpersonal Roles: All managers are required to perform duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature – interpersonal roles. manages also perform a spokesperson role. This role includes hiring. to some degree. he or she is acting in a figurehead role. duties of a legal or social nature. he or she has an outside liaison relationship. Half of these managers’ activities lasted less than nine minutes each. they do so by reading magazines and talking with others to learn of changes in the public’s tastes. and associated duties. training. Managers also act as a conduit to transmit information to organizational members. The term ‘management roles’ refers to specific categories of managerial behaviour.constant interruptions. obliged to Greeting visitors. Mintzberg called this the monitor role. the transfer of information. and decision-making. subordinates. Responsible for the motivation Performing virtually all and activation of subordinates. The sales manager who obtains information from the human resources manager in his or her same company has an internal liaison relationship. When they represent the organisation to outsiders.
Transmits information received Holding informational from outsides or from other meetings. making phone subordinates to members of calls to relay information. requesting of organizational resources of authorization. some involves interpretation and integration of diverse value positions of organizational influencers. activities that involve outsiders. actions. network of outside contacts doing external board and informers who provide work.Liaison
Maintains self-developed Acknowledging mail. outsiders on organization’s giving information of the plans. Transmits information to Holding board meetings.. Searches organization and its Organizing strategy and environment for opportunities review sessions to and initiates “improvement develop new programs. performing other favors and information. supervises design of certain projects as well. performing all kinds – in effect. emerges as nerve center of internal and external information about the organization. etc. projects” to bring about change. Seeks and receives wide variety Reading periodicals and of special information (much of reports. understanding of organization and environment. results. policies. serves as expert on organization’s industry. media. the organization – some information is factual. unexpected involve disturbances and disturbances crises Responsible for the allocation Scheduling. maintaining it current) to develop thorough personal contacts. the making any activity that involves or approval of all significant budgeting and the
. Responsible for corrective Organizing strategy and action when organization faces review sessions that important.
Publishers. human. For example. negotiator. Managers need certain skills to perform the duties and activities associated with being a manager. Katz found that managers need three essential skills or competencies: technical. Decisional Roles: Finally. the emphasis that managers give to the various roles seems to change with hierarchical level. the leader role is more important for lowerlevel managers than it is for either middle-or-top-level managers. managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization’s performance. An Evaluation: A number of follow-up studies have tested the validity of Mintzberg’s role categories across different types of organizations and at different levels within given organizations. As entrepreneurs. an accounts payable manager must be proficient in accounting rules and standardized
. computers. Technical skills include knowledge of and proficiency in a certain specialized field. are heavily involved in technical aspects of the organization’s operations. The evidence generally supports the idea that managers – regardless of the type of organization or level in the organization-perform similar roles. negotiations. Specifically. managers perform as negotiators when they discuss and bargain with other groups to gain advantages for their own units. 1973). Technical Skills: First-line managers. managers take corrective action in response to previously unforeseen problems. Inc. and spokesperson are more important at the higher levels of the organization than at the lower ones. as well as many middle managers. pp 93-94 Copyright Ó 1973 by Hency Mintzberg.organizational decisions. liaison. physical and monetary resources. Conversely. research by Robert L. The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper & Row.
Source: Henry Mintzberg. figurehead. finance. During the early 1970. Last. such as engineering. managers are responsible for allocating human. He also found that the relative importance of these skills varied according to the manager’s level within the organization. the roles of disseminator. a manager’s job is varied and complex. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row. or manufacturing. Responsible for representing Participating in union the organization at major contract negotiations. Negotiator
programming of subordinates work. However. Managerial Skills As you can see from the preceding discussion. As resource allocators. As disturbance handlers. and conceptual. Mintzberg identified four decisional roles which revolve around the making of choices.
1. They know how to communicate. ii) Management is a generic term and includes administration. These abilities are essential to effective decision-making.forms so that she can resolve problems and answer questions that her accounts payable clerks might encounter. motivate. management is a lower-level function and is concerned primarily with the execution of policies laid down by administration. In fact. They must be able to see the organization as a whole and the relationships among its various subunits and to visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment. even top managers need some proficiency in the organization’s speciality. Since managers deal directly with people. while others maintain that administration and management are two different functions. Floerence and Tead. Those who held management and administration distinct include Oliver Sheldon. These types of conceptual skills are needed by all managers at all levels but become more important as they move up the organizational hierarchy. Human Skills: The ability to work well with other people both individually and in a group is a human skill. etc. Administration is a higher level function:
. it remains just as important at the top levels of management as it is at the lower levels. Spriegal and Lansburg. and inspire enthusiasm and trust. Conceptual Skills: Managers also must have the ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract situations. Although technical skills become less important as manager moves into higher levels of management. But some English authors like Brech are of the opinion that management is a wider term including administration. This controversy is discussed as under in three heads: i) Administration is concerned with the determination of policies and management with the implementation of policies. According to them. lead.7 Administration and Management The use of two terms ‘management’ and ‘administration’ has been a controversial issue in the management literature. administration is a higher level function. and all managers are involved in making decisions. iii) There is no distinction between the terms ‘management’ and ‘administration’ and they are used interchangeably. Some writers do not see any difference between the two terms. Managers with good human skills can get the best out of their people. this skill is crucial. Thus.
policies. 6. is a doing function. 7. objectives.e. This view is held by Tead. 5. 2. 4. management as an executive function which is primarily concerned with carrying out of the broad policies laid down by the administration. making strategic plans to deal plans and policies of the effectively with the organisation. Administration is the phase of business enterprise that concerns itself with the overall determination of institutional objectives and the policies necessary to be followed in achieving those objectives. It thinking function. administration involves broad policy-making and management involves the execution of policies laid down by the administration. Nature Administration relates to the Management relates to decision-making. Decision. It is a execution of decisions. administrative decisions. 8. environmental forces. Status Administration refers to Management is relevant higher levels of management. Thus. of human resources. Spriegel and Walter. Scope It is concerned with It is concerned with the determination of major implementation of objectives and policies. on the other hand. i. Direction of It is concerned with leading It is concerned with Human Resources and motivation of middle leading and motivation of level executives.Administration refers to policy-making. Managers are Administrators are basically concerned mainly with concerned with planning and organisation and direction control. Environment Administration has direct Management is mainly interaction with external concerned with internal environment of business and forces. Table 1. Administration is a determinative function. whereas management refers to execution of policies laid down by administration. of the organisation. Usage of Term The term ‘administration’ is The term ‘management’ is often associated with widely used in business
.. plans and policies through and with others. 3. operative workforce for the execution of plans.Administration determines Management decides who Making what is to be done and when shall implement the it is to be done.2: Distinction between Administration and Management: Basic 1. Meaning Administration Management Administration is concerned Management means with the formulation of getting the work done objectives. at lower levels of management.
Managers perform different roles to discharge their responsibilities. It is the management which transforms physical resources of an organization into productive resources. Bring out the difference between Administration and Management. Management creates ________ and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. __________is principally the task of planning. 2. 3.9 Terminal Questions 1. Five M’s of management (________. 3. teamwork
. 1. Define management. Still management is not completely a profession. public organisations sector and non-business private sector. materials. motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. Management 2. co-ordinating. Lower level managers require and use a greater degree of technical skill and managers at higher levels use a greater degree of conceptual skill. Discuss the importance of management. middle and lower. 2. Self Assessment Questions
1. 1. There are three levels of management-top. ___________. Management is largely found at the middle and lower levels and administration is found at the higher levels. _________. Money. manpower 3. Human skills are important at all managerial levels.government offices.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. counseling and effective leadership. 1. Explain its characteristics.8 Summary Management is concerned with getting things done through other people. organisations.
Refer section 1.2.1 Introduction Objectives 2.5 3.6 Directing 2. Refer section 1.8 Summary 2.1.7 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .10 Answers to SAQs and TQs
. Refer section 1.2 Process of Management 2.3 Planning 2.3 2.7 Motivating Self Assessment Questions 2.9 Terminal Questions 2.4 Organizing 2.5 Staffing 2.
Unit-02-Management Process Structure: 2.Answers to TQs: 1.
Management is about accomplishing a goal efficiently. There is a degree of overlap between the two. · Explain different functions of management Process. 2. Even
. Objectives: After this studying this unit. Commanding 4. Planning 2. as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan. Management functions are as follows (Fayol. the two are not quite the same.2 Management Process Peter Drucker said: “Management is doing things right. leadership is doing the right things“. Coordinating 5. One can also think of management functionally. Motivating. in recent time.1 Introduction Follett (1933) defined management as "the art of getting things done through people”. Through leadership and management often overlap. Staffing. 1949): 1. It is difficult to say where objectives end and policies begin.2. You might well ask what the need for a policy is when objectives are already defined. · Explain Planning. Directing. since the managerial tasks have become highly challenging a fluid in nature making distinctions redundant to certain extent. Organizing 3. leadership is about setting the desirable goals. you will be able to: · Define Management process. Controlling However. Policy Formulation We have noted earlier that all organizations have well-defined goals and objectives. Organizing. management functions have been regrouped into four categories.
It provides the direction for the other functions of management and for effective teamwork. planning is often referred to as strategic in nature and also termed as strategic planning. driving comfort. Planning also enhances the decisionmaking process. thus. policies are the means to achieve those ends. Planning in order to be useful must be linked to the strategic intent of an organization. the decision to change the design of a product. a process in which one chooses a course which one thinks is the best. say a passenger car. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. it would be correct to assume that an objective is what you want to accomplish. An explicit mission guides employees to work independently and yet collectively toward the realization of the organization’s potential. Strategic Planning: Top level managers engage chiefly in strategic planning or long range planning Strategic planning is the process of developing and analyzing the organization’s mission. general strategies. or where you want go to. The mission statement may be accompanied by an overarching
. In the football field. what distinguishers policies form objectives is that you first decide the objective.3 Planning It involves the process of defining goals. overall goals. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. while a policy. it is not a decision in which any process is involved.so. is an enduring decision which holds good on a continuing basis to guide the members of the organization in doing what they are called upon to do. Thus. and allocating resources. Decision – Making Taking decisions is a process. Therefore. Effective planning enables an organization adapt to change by identifying opportunities and avoiding problems. and then set out the method for achieving it. planning begins with clearly defining the mission of the organization. However. Objectives are the ends. 2. summarizing what the organization does. studies on passenger comfort. fuel and machine efficiency. should precede a good deal of research involving market surveys. A mission statement should be short – and should be easily understood and every employee should ideally be able to narrate it from memory. kicking the ball with the left foot or right foot is a reflex action. cost structure and so on. The mission statement is broad. All levels of management engage in planning in their own way for achieving their preset goals. The tasks of the strategic planning process include the following steps: Define the mission: A mission is the purpose of the organization.
Is research and development adequate? 4. federal. What are the possible new markets?
. For assessing the strengths of the organization the following questions are important: 1. What makes the organization distinctive? 2. professional. international). How efficient is our manufacturing? 3. and trade). Analyzing strengths and weaknesses comprises the internal assessment of the organization. Sources of information may include stakeholders like. journals and reports (scientific. Organizations need to examine their business situation in order to map out the opportunities and threats present in their environments. suppliers. In which areas is the competition not meeting customer needs? 2. What is our market share? 5. SWOT analysis provides the assumptions and facts on which a plan will be based. Do we have a superior reputation? For assessing the weaknesses of the organization the following questions are important: 1. The SWOT analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. Opportunities. Conduct a situational or SWOT analysis A situation or SWOT (Strengths. Threats) analysis is vital for the creation of any strategic plan. Are the facilities outdated? 3. How skilled is our workforce? 4. Are the technologies obsolete? For identifying opportunities the following elements need to be looked at: 1. governments (local. customers (internal and external). Weaknesses.statement of philosophy or strategic purpose designed to convey a vision for the future as envisaged by top management. professional or trade associations (conventions and exhibitions). What are the vulnerable areas of the organization that could be exploited? 2. What financing is available? 6. state.
and operational planning
.3. In which areas does the competition meet customer needs more effectively? 2. Is there a possibility of growth of existing market?) Identifying threats involves the following: 1. Objectives are also called performance goals. Are there new competitors? 3. Are market tastes changing? 5. as well as gap analysis. In turn. Is there a shortage of resources? 4. What are the new regulations? 6. or outcomes of an organization against similar measures from other internal or external organizations. Comparing the organization to external benchmarks (the best practices) is used to assess current capabilities. It also helps in setting minimum acceptable standards or common-sense minimums. effectiveness. tactical. Generally. Are our rivals weak? 5. What are the emerging technologies? 6. etc. The SWOT analysis is used as a baseline for future improvement. What substitute products exist? In general terms. earnings per share. operational plans are based on the organization’s tactical plans. These are specific plans that are needed for each task or supportive activity comprising the whole. Strategic. They are aligned with the mission and form the basis for the action plans of an organization. organizations have longterm objectives for factors such as. Benchmarking systematically compares performance measures such as efficiency. the best strategy is one that fits the organization’s strengths to opportunities in the environment. return on investment. Develop related strategies (tactical and operational) Tactical plans are based on the organization’s strategic plan. Set goals and objectives Strategic goals and objectives are developed to fill the gap between current capability and the mission. What is the strength of the economy? 4.
Assign work to individuals 6. Organizations are groups of people. To develop an environmental monitoring procedure. procedures. and relationships between departments.must be accompanied by controls to ensure proper implantation of the plans. Delegate authority to establish relationships between jobs and groups of jobs. List all tasks to be accomplished 3. necessary to maintain competitive advantage in the said market. how the tasks are to be grouped. This review is used for the next planning cycle and review. It is the extent to which the units of the organization are explicitly defined and its policies. Review plans 2. 2. 2. lines of authority. who reports to whom. structuring. and goals are clearly stated. Divide tasks into groups one person can accomplish – a job 4. Group related jobs together in a logical and efficient manner 5. short-term standards for key variables that will tend to validate and support the long-range estimates must be established. working toward common goals. The formal organization can be seen and represented in chart form. grouped.5 Staffing
. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. and coordinated. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. Organizational structure is the formal decision-making framework by which job tasks are divided. An organization chart displays the organizational structure and shows job titles. Formalization is an important aspect of structure. and where decisions are to be made. Monitor the plan A systematic method of monitoring the environment must be adopted to continuously improve the strategic planning process. A key issue in accomplishing the goals identified in the planning process is structuring the work of the organization.4 Organizing It involves designing. who is to do. The steps in the organizing process include: 1. The purpose of the organizing function is to make the best use of the organization’s resources to achieve organizational goals. with ideas and resources. Feedback is encouraged and incorporated to determine if goals and objectives are feasible. It is the official organizational structure conceived and built by top management.
transport system and other physical resources that make the organization to achieve its goals but it is the competency and efficiency of the people who handle resources contributes for the accomplishment of objectives of the enterprise. Theo Haimann – “Concerned with the placement. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. development.
. selection. 3. recruitment. promotion. selection. Therefore it is the responsibility of the management to secure and maintain competent and dedicated workforce including managers and operatives. It has many sub-functions: Staffing involves determination of the manpower requirement. 3. transfer and appraisal of personnel to fill the organizational positions. 2. Curther Geelick Cyndall Urwick – “Staffing is the whole personnel function of brining in and training the staff and marinating of favorable conditions of work” Features of Staffing The analysis of the above definitions highlights the following features: 1. compensation and training of needed people”. 4. growth and development of all those members of the organization whose function is to get things done through the efforts of other individuals”. O’Donnell & Weihrich have defined staffing as “filling positions in the organization structure through identifying work force requirements. recruitment. Definition: 1. performance appraisal etc. This task has been referred to as staffing. appraisal. Deals with people: Staffing is a separate managerial function which deals with people in the organization. placement. Pervasiveness of Staffing: Effective execution of staffing function is the responsibility of all managers in the organization. It aims at right man at right position: Staffing aims at selection of right person for right place at right time and retaining them in the organization. Managers of the concerned departments are responsible for the selection and development of qualified people for their department and maintain them in their department. Koontz. money.It is not the machines. 2. inventorying the people available. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. training. materials. placement.
promotion. overseeing and leading people. recruitment. etc.e. Definition According to Koontz and O’Donnel. 8. Personnel policies and programs must be formulated as guides to perform the staffing function effectively. resignation. 2. vacancies arise out of retirement. motivate them. It is an important managerial function. Direction is the managerial function of guiding. It is a continuous function: With the growth and expansion of business additional manpower is needed. Present positions must be filled keeping in mind the future requirements. Direction function is performed at every level of management.6 Directing Direction is one of the functions of management. 7. directing is the “interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals”. It is a process: it is a process having a logical sequence i. management initiates actions in the organization. training development and maintenance of personnel. A manger needs to give orders to his subordinates. It deals with future requirements: Staffing deals with current and future personnel requirements. Through direction. selection. It is a continuing function. Direction is an important managerial function. identifying the manpower requirements. lead them and guide them on a continuous basis. how to do and telling them to do to the best of their ability.
. It is performed in the context of superior-subordinate relationship and every manager in the organization performs his duties both as a superior and subordinate. It is instructing people as to what to do. induction. Direction is continuous process and it continues throughout the life-time of the organization. Thus staffing deals with the future requirements also. 2. Characteristics of Direction The characteristic features of direction are as follow: 1.5. 6. 3. Thus staffing is an ongoing process through – out the life of an organization.
will vary depending upon his level. humanness and psychological health a person will show. it aims at getting things done by subordinates and. organizing and staffing on one hand and controlling on the other. teach. Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. on the other. It emphasizes that a subordinate is to be directed by his own superior only. proposed by Maslow (1943). only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior. shelter. satisfied needs cannot. thirst. sex. 4. guide. The needs are arranged in order of importance. Nature of Directing The nature of directing can be discussed under the following: 1. human beings have wants and desires which influence their behaviour. The further they progress up the hierarchy. Direction imitates at the top level in the organization and follows to bottom through the hierarchy. As Theo Haimann puts it. coach and supervise his subordinates. Pervasive function: Directing is a managerial function performed by all mangers at all levels of the organization. and other bodily needs
. The amount of time and effort an executive spends in directing however.7 Motivating Motivating In the 1950s three specific theories were formulated and are the best known: Hierarchy of Needs theory. 5. without guiding and overseeing subordinates. from the basic to the complex. the number of subordinate he has and the other duties he is expected to perform. “without the issuance of directives. Direction has dual objectives.4. The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. The five needs are: · Physiological: Includes hunger. Continuous function: Directing is a continuous process. 2. 2. Essence of performance: Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. On the one hand. the more individuality. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory According to this theory. to provide superiors opportunities for some more important work which their subordinates cannot do. and the Two-Factor theory. The manager never ceases to direct. nothing or at the best very little would be accomplished”. Theories X and Y. 3. It is an important function of management: Directing is an important management function which provides a connecting link between planning.
it is clear that Theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals. and achievement. such as. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory
. externally. Theory X – In this theory management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work. autonomy and empowerment. Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor argued that a manager’s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and he or she tends to mould his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions. Lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied. Social. Physiological and safety needs are described as lower-order. achieving one’s potential.· Safety: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm · Social: Includes affection. It is also assumed that workers generally place security above all other factors and will display little ambition. From the above. belongingness. autonomy. if given the chance employees have the desire to be creative and forward thinking in the workplace. Higher-order needs are satisfied internally. There is a chance for greater productivity by giving employees the freedom to perform to the best of their abilities without being bogged down by rules. such as. status. and self-actualization are classified as higherorder needs. self-direction. and external esteem factors. includes growth. whereas. self-motivated. and friendship · Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors. self-respect. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. recognition. Theory Y – In this theory management assumes employees may be ambitious. acceptance. anxious to accept greater responsibility. Workers need to be closely supervised and a comprehensive system of controls and a hierarchical structure is needed to supervise the workers closely. Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. and self-fulfillment Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders. It is also believed that. esteem. and exercise self-control. if they can. and attention · Self-actualization: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming.
Organization involves designing. company policy. many related to the tasks being performed. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. such as. who is to do. structuring. working conditions. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. 3. advancement. recognition. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. Self Assessment Questions 1. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. ____defined management as the art of getting things done through people. have to do with a person’s relationship to the context or environment in which she or he performs the job. 2. When hygiene factors are adequate. The absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction. neither will they be satisfied. _______refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction. These two factors are motivators and hygiene factors and this theory is also called motivation-hygiene theory. Planning involves the process of defining goals. Job satisfaction factors are separate and distinct from job dissatisfaction factors. To motivate people. 2. motivators describe a person’s relationship with what she or he does. The _____analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. interpersonal relations. In summary.8 Summary Management is the art of getting things done through people. Motivators are intrinsic factors. Presence of these factors ensure job satisfaction. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. how the tasks are to be grouped. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise.
. emphasize factors intrinsically rewarding that are associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it. Hygiene factors on the other hand.Herzberg (1959) constructed a two-dimensional paradigm of factors affecting people’s attitudes about work. Extrinsic factors. who reports to whom. performance appraisal etc. The satisfiers relate to what a person does while the dissatisfiers relate to the situation in which the person does what he or she does. responsibility. and salary are hygiene factors. Directing is the interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals. and achievement. supervision. and where decisions are to be made. people will not be dissatisfied. such as. recruitment.
MU0002-Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need
Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Structure: 3. Staffing Answers to TQs: 1. SWOT 3.6 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Explain Staffing in detail 3. Reference 2. What is planning? 2. 2.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.3 2. Write a short not on directing.5 3. Follett 2.9 Terminal Questions 1. Reference 2. Reference 2.1 Introduction Objectives
3.2 Definitions 3.3 Characteristics of OD 3.4 Categories of OD 3.5 Goals of OD 3.6 OD and Management Development 3.7 Role of OD 3.8 Problems in OD Self Assessment Questions 3.9 Summary 3.10 Terminal Questions 3.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 3.1 Introduction Organization development is the applied behavioural science discipline dedicated to improving organizations and the people in them through the use of the theory and practice of planned change. Organizations face multiple challenges and threats today – threats to effectiveness, efficiency, and profitability; challenges from turbulent environments, increased competition, and changing customer demands; and the constant challenge to maintain congruence among organizational dimensions such as technology, strategy, culture, and processes. Keeping organizations healthy and viable in today’s world is a daunting task. Individuals in organizations likewise face multiple challenges – finding satisfaction in and through work, fighting obsolescence of one’s knowledge and skills, maintaining dignity and purpose in pursuit of organizational goals, and achieving human connectedness and community in the workplace. Simple survival – continuing to have an adequate job – is a major challenge today in the light of constant layoffs and cutbacks. Although new jobs are being created at record rates, old jobs are being destroyed at an accelerating pace. “Knowledge” work is replacing “muscle” work. In summary, organizations and the individuals in them face an enormously demanding present and future. Are any strategies available to help people and organizations cope, adapt, survive, and even prosper in these vexing times? Fortunately, the answer is “yes”. A variety of solutions exists. And organization development (OD) is one of them. Basically, organization development is a
process of teaching people how to solve problems, take advantage of opportunities, and learn how to do that better and better over time. OD focuses on issues related to the “human side” of organizations by finding ways to increase the effectiveness of individuals, teams, and the organization’s human and social processes. Organization development is a relatively recent invention. It started in the late 1950s when behavioural scientists steeped in the lore and technology of group dynamics attempted to apply that knowledge to improve team functioning and inter-group relations in organizations. Early returns were encouraging, and attention was soon directed toward other human and social processes in organizations such as the design of work tasks, organization structure, conflict resolution, strategy formulation and implementation, and the like. The field of OD grew rapidly in the 1970s and the 1980s with thousands of organizations in the private and public sectors using the theory and methods of OD with great success. Today, organization development represents one of the best strategies for coping with the rampant changes occurring in the marketplace and society. We predict that organization development will be preferred improvement strategy in future. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Define organization development. · Explain the characteristics of OD. · Discuss the categories of OD programme. · State the goals of OD. · Distinguish between OD and Management Development · Explore the problems in OD. 3.2 Definitions Organization Development (OD) is a response to change, a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs, attitudes, values and structure of organization so that they can better adapt to new technologies, markets, and challenges, and the dizzying rate of change itself. (Bennis, 1969). OD can be defined as a planned and sustained effort to apply behavioural science for system improvement, using reflexive, self-analytic methods. (Schmuck and Miles, 1971)
Organizational development is a process of planned change- change of an organization’s culture from one which avoids an examination of social processes (especially decision making, planning and communication) to one which institutionalizes and legitimizes this examination. (Burke and Hornstein, 1972) The aims of OD are: 1) Enhancing congruence between organizational structure, processes, strategy, people, and culture; 2) Developing new and creative organizational solutions; and 3) Developing the organization’s self-renewing capacity (Beer, 1980). Organization development is an organizational process for understanding and improving any and all substantive processes an organization may develop for performing any task and pursuing any objectives…. A “process for improving processes” – that is what OD has basically sought to be for approximately 25 years (Vaill, 1989) “Organizational development is a set of behavioural science-based theories, values, strategies, and techniques aimed at the planned change of the organizational work setting for the purpose of enhancing individual development and improving organizational performance, through the alteration of organizational members’ on-the-job behaviours.” (Porras and Robertson, 1992) “OD is a systematic application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies, structure, and processes for improving an organization’s effectiveness.” (Cummings and Worley, 1993) “Organization development is a planned process of change in an organization’s culture through the utilization of behavioural science technologies, research, and theory.” (Burke, 1994) As you can see, these definitions overlap a great deal (that’s encouraging), and contain several unique insights (that’s enlightening). All authors agree that OD applies behavioural science to achieve planned change. Likewise, they agree that the target of change is the total organization or system and that the goals are increased organizational effectiveness and individual development. Collectively, these definitions convey a sense of what organization development is and does. They describe in broad outline the nature and methods of OD. There is no set definition of OD and no agreement on the boundaries of the field, that is, what practices should be included and excluded. But these are not serious constraints given that the field is still evolving, and that practitioners share a central core of understanding as shown in the preceding definitions.
to improve an organization’s visioning. By learning processes. listening. we mean those interacting. it must be built into the very fabric of the organization-its strategy. we mean that organizational change and development takes time. we mean those leadership behaviours and human resource practices that enable organization members to develop and use their talents as fully as possible toward individual growth and organizational success. The phrase led and supported by top management states an imperative: Top management must lead and actively encourage the change effort. and culture. coherent. “Organization development is a long-term effort. and organizational learning. we mean those processes through which organization members develop a viable. we mean involving large numbers of people in building the vision of tomorrow. serious business. led and supported by top management. but it includes a number of components that we consider essential. For empowerment to become fact of life. We do not propose it as the “right” definition. and what the organization and its members can expect from each other. empowerment. In fact. and making it happen. lost its commitment. developing the strategy for getting there. structure.” This definition is lengthy. By long-term effort. Organizational change is hard. the ways those goods will be produced and delivered to customers. including action research. By visioning processes. collaborative management of organization culture-with special emphasis on the culture of intact work teams and other team configurations-using the consultantfacilitator role and the theory and technology of applied behavioural science. By empowerment. Peter Senge describes learning organizations as “… organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire.Now let’s turn to our definition of organization development. it is more accurate to describe “improvement” as a never-ending journey of continuous change. There is no “quick fix” when it comes to lasting organizational improvement. By empowerment processes. and problem-solving processes. or became distracted with other duties. team. where
. then another moves it to yet a higher plateau of effectiveness. We will explain this definition in some detail. processes.several years in most cases. it includes pain and setbacks as well as success. Most OD programs that fail do so because top management was ambivalent. and self-examining processes that facilitate individual. learning. but as one that includes characteristics we think are important for the present and future of the field. and shared picture of the nature of the products and services the organization offers. through an ongoing. One program or initiative moves the organization to a higher plateau. where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured. Top management must initiate the improvement “journey” and be committed to seeing it through. Visioning means creating a picture of the desired future that includes salient features of the human side of the organization and then working together to make that picture a reality.
not just a small group. and problem-solving processes. and common purposes of all members of the organization. Empowerment means involving people in problems and decisions and letting them be responsible for results. activities. and each influences the others. learning. culture is of primary importance. structure. Collaborative management of the culture means that everyone. managing the culture should be a collaborative business. strategy. vitality. solve problems. (c) as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. empowerment. first. we mean.collective aspiration is set free. therefore (e) is to be taught to new members as the (f) correct way to perceive. interactions. Michael Beer’s definition called for “developing new and creative organizational solutions”. we affirm our belief that culture is the bedrock of behaviour in organizations. and problem-solving processes are opportunities for collaboration in organization development. beliefs. attitudes. think. has a stake in making the organization work. Processes are how things get done. widely shared vision of a desired future creates the best climate for effective problem-solving by all the organization’s members. (d) that has worked well enough to be considered valid and. opportunities.” Problem-solving processes refer to the ways organization members diagnose situations. and where people are continually learning how to learn together. By ongoing collaborative management of the organization’s culture. and feel in relation to those problems. discovered. So culture consists of basic assumptions. By including culture so prominently in our definition. We further believe that having compelling. so they are the place OD programs often begin – getting people to stop doing things one way and start doing them a different way. Processes are relatively easy to change. commitment. learning. (b) invented. and processes makes each important.
. that one of the most important things to manage in organizations is the culture: the prevailing pattern of values. We believe solutions to problems are enhanced by tapping deeply into the creativity. Edgar Schein clarifies the nature and power of culture in his definition: “Culture can now be defined as (a) a pattern of basic assumptions. and challenges in the organization’s environment and its internal functioning. values. and artifacts. and take actions on problems. and continuous learning the organization is bound to succeed. And second. expectations. or developed by a given group. sentiments. empowerment. Just as visioning. one of wide-spread participation in creating and managing a culture that satisfies that wants and needs of individuals at the same time that it fosters the organization’s purposes. and we highlight the importance of visioning. assumptions. so is managing the culture. But change becomes permanent when the culture changes and people accept the new ways as the “right” ways. We believe that when the culture promotes collaboration. make decisions. Our definition also places considerable weight on organizational processes. think. norms. and norms of behaviour that are viewed as the correct way to perceive. empowerment. The reciprocal influence among culture. in contrast to having only a select few involved. Still. and feel-that is why culture change is necessary for true organizational improvement.
OD encourages collaboration between organization leaders and members in managing culture and processes. When teams function well. and then disbanded with the people going on to new tasks. engineering. Further. team culture can be collaboratively managed to ensure effectiveness. This method resulted in loss of synergy. the process “threw the results over the wall” to the next functional unit. and procurement. 2. The most prevalent form of teams in organizations is intact work teams consisting of superior and subordinates with a specific job to perform. manufacturing. Specifically. and training.
. In Liberation Management. In addition to team building and role and goal clarification. He uses the terms ‘multifunctional projectization’ and ‘horizontal systems’ to describe these teams and their work. intact work teams do not have a boss in the traditional sense-the teams manage themselves. and using management information. members are trained in competencies such as planning. Today’s organizations increasingly use ad hoc teams that perform a specific task and disband when the task is completed. Over time. self-directed teams control performance appraisals. Tom Peters predicts that the work of tomorrow (most of which will be “brain work”) will be done by ad hoc teams brought together to accomplish a task. These self-directed teams assume complete responsibility for planning and executing work assignments. Team building and role and goal clarification interventions are standard activities in OD programs directed toward intact work teams. The current method for getting complex tasks done in organizations is to assemble a cross-functional team comprised of members from all the functional specialities required to get the job done. OD focuses on culture and processes. we recognize that teams are central to accomplishing work in organizations. Temporary. firing. constantly shifting teams will be the dominant configuration for getting work done. much rework. But in many organizations today. We think teams are the basic building blocks of organizations. here are the primary distinguishing characteristics of organization development: 1. hiring. The old method was to have functional specialists work on the problem sequentially. according to Peters. and considerable antagonism among the separate functional specialists.By intact work teams and other configurations. maintaining quality control. The results are usually highly gratifying both for the team members and for the organization. The thesis of Liberation Management is that contemporary bureaucratic structures with their functional specialties and rigid hierarchies are all wrong for the demands of today’s fast-paced market place. When one function finished with its part of the project. individuals and the organization function well. such as design. To summarize. The definition we have just analyzed contains the elements we believe are important for OD. multifunctional. wasted time.
It recognizes that organizational goals change. Rather. OD takes a developmental view that seeks the betterment of both individuals and the organization. 6.3 Characteristics of OD 1. dynamic and adaptive system. they are ongoing.
. Teams of all kinds are particularly important for accomplishing tasks and are targets for OD activities. Attempting to create “win-win” solutions is standard practice in OD programs. OD relies on an action research model with extensive participation by client system members. and cyclic processes. The concept of comprehensive change is based on the systems concept-open. so that change is easily observed. collaborators. 8. An overarching goal is to make the client system able to solve its problems on its own by teaching the skills and knowledge of continuous learning through self-analytical methods. temporary. 9. 3. OD focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. Planned Change: OD is a strategy of planned change for organizational improvement. OD efforts are not one-shot actions. Thus. 4. Long-range Change: OD efforts are not meant for solving short-term. 5. OD views organization improvement as an ongoing process in the context of a constantly changing environment. Comprehensive Change: OD efforts focus on comprehensive change in the organization. and co-learners with the client system. OD focuses on total system change and views organizations as complex social systems.3. 7. OD practitioners are facilitators. so the methods of attaining these goals should also change. Dynamic Process: OD is a dynamic process and includes the efforts to guide and direct changes as well as to cope with or adapt changes imposed. OD efforts take an organization as an interrelated whole and no part of it can be changed meaningfully without making corresponding changes in other parts. 3. rather. OD focuses on the elevation of an organization to a higher level of functioning by improving the performance and satisfaction. Participation and involvement in problem-solving and decision-making by all levels of the organization are hallmarks of OD. interactive. 2. 4. or isolated problems. This ‘planned’ emphasis separates OD efforts from other kinds of more haphazard changes that are frequently undertaken by organizations. rather than focusing attention on individuals. 10.
yet following features are common to most of the programmes: (a) The client is a total system or major subunit of total system. Emphasis on Intervention and Action Research: OD approach results in an active intervention in the ongoing activities of the organization. the element which links Organization Development with the scientific method of inquiry and. This is done to arrive at certain desirable outcomes that may be in the form of increased effectiveness. it is a programme with a purpose that is to guide present and future action.5. 7.4 Categories of OD Programmes In general. identity.
. At the individual level. and revitalization. There is a close working relationship between the change agent and the target organizational members to be changed. Participation of Change Agent: Most OD experts emphasize the need for an outside. and integrate individual and organizational goals. 6. The change agent is a humanist seeking to get a humanistic philosophy in the organization. rather. Action research is the basis for such intervention. Key areas are the normative type of model. and adaptability for the organization as a whole. (b) Problems of human satisfaction and development. and mutual influence. OD attempts to provide opportunities to be ‘human’ and to increase awareness. growth. He shares a social philosophy about human values. He designs intervention strategies based on these data. second. participation. he conducts surveys. the importance and centrality of goals and objectives and the different role requirements of the consultant change agent vis-à-vis the clients. A change agent in OD process does not just introspect the people and introduce changes. (b) The interventions are primarily directed towards problems and issues identified by the client group. joint goals and means. first. third party change agent. and then. problem-solving. Normative Educational Process: OD is based on the principle that ‘norms form the basis for behaviour and change is a re-educative process of replacing old norms by new ones’. the collaborative relationships between the scientists. all types of experience requiring Organization Development efforts may be grouped into three categories: (a) Problems of destiny. or catalyst. and (c) Problems of organizational effectiveness. takes actions for intervention. Two important elements of Organization Development are. Although Organization Development Programmes vary. collects relevant data. The relationship involves mutual trust. 3. practitioners and the client laymen. They discourage ‘do it yourself’ approach. Organization Development is inextricably linked with action. further more. evaluates these data.
(j) To improve effectiveness of the organization.6 OD and Management Development
. (i) To increase self-control and self-direction for people within the organization. We need to examine carefully the techniques of Organization Development. 3. problem solving climate throughout an organization. This Organization Development progrmmes. its underlying theory and assumptions and some of the pitfall and challenges in attempting to improve organizations through behavioural science. (d) To build trust among persons and groups throughout an organization. (c) To locate decision making and problem-solving responsibilities as close to sources of information as possible.5 Goals of Organization Development Following are the generally accepted goals of OD: (a) To create an open. (b) To supplement the authority associated with role or status. with the authority of knowledge and competence. (e) To make competition more relevant to work goals and to maximize collaborative efforts. should begin with a clear-cut statement of specific objectives and criteria for determining if these objectives have been met from the stand point of the employee/employees simply as team member or for the total group. like other normative re-educative programmes. 3. (g) To increase the sense of ‘ownership’ or organization’s objectives throughout the work force. (h) To help managers to manage according to relevant objectives rather than according to past practices or according to objectives which do not make sense for one’s area of responsibility. and (d) The interventions are based on behavioural science theory and technology. (f) To develop a reward system which recognizes both the achievement of the organization’s goals (profit or service) and development of people.(c) The interventions are directed towards problem-solving and improved functioning for the client system.
less individual competitiveness. Difference between Management Development and OD Factors Objectives Management Development Organization Development Increasing manager’s Changing the nature of the contributions to goal organization. While the latter aims at developing the mangers individually for the accomplishment of better performance in organizational setting. (ii) competitiveness. the former goes one step further and purports to change the entire organizational climate where the mangers work. Burke and Schmidt have made this difference more clear which is presented in the following table. and greater display of feelings and emotions. management development has been defined as follows: “Management development is all those activities and programmes when recognized and controlled. However. Miner has drawn difference between two processes. organization. Based on this. and (iv) a sense of responsibility. with their existing objectives and structure. and techniques adopted in both may overlap to some extent. focus on achieving better in existing improvement in design. then would the results be functional for managing organization activity in a competitive world? Thus. not on the and managers to perform managers. OD tries to fit the organization to the men. he appears to be biased against OD and the real distinction between OD and MD lies in between these two extremes. (iii) assertiveness. accomplishments. according to him. let us define management development as we have seen the definition of OD. there are four attributes of effective managers in large organization. These are: (i) a positive attitude towards authority. it is beneficial to make a comparison between OD and Management Development (MD) as both have some common objectives that betterment of an organization.At this stage. The term ‘development’ refers broadly to the nature and direction of change induced in personnel through the process of training and education.” Organization development differs from management development. more attention to peer-groups. Train and equip employees Focus on design. whereas OD efforts within organizations may cause confusion and chaos for incoming human resources if the organization is underplayed and the humanistic dimension alone is emphasized. If OD efforts train people towards anti-authority value. According to him. He feels that management development reinforces the above four qualities and helps managers cultivate and develop the will to manage. MD tries to fit the men to the organization. have substantial influence in changing the capacity of the individual to perform his assignment better and in so doing are likely to increase his potential for future management assignment.
. Before making a comparison between the two.
7 Role of Organization Development Organization development. 3. and laterally. as a long-term strategy for organizational change. To increase the openness of communications in all directions-vertically. plays key role in organizational improvement. To increase the level of enthusiasms and personal satisfaction at all levels of the organization. confrontation techniques. 7. To treat each human being as a complex person with a complex set of needs important in his work and his life. Much of the enthusiasm created at the beginning of OD programmes vanished over the period of time. 6. To place emphasis on humanistic values and goals consistent with these vales.Approach Time
Educative and training Short-range. By 70s. 3. however. To create an environment in which authority of assigned role is augmented by authority based on knowledge and skills.
Problem-solving approach. 5. etc. To increase the level of self and group responsibility in planning and its implementation. however. To increase the level of trust and mutual emotional support among all organization members. OD can be utilized for the following results in the organization: 1. Trained specialists required. has invited sharp criticism as a strategy to increase organizational viability and effectiveness because many OD programmes have failed. 4. Since OD attempts to bring comprehensive change in the organization.
3. horizontally. OD became quite successful with many professional consultants offering high services and programmes to various organizations. it is quite suitable for improving organizational performance on long-term basis. The basic problem in a change effort which is not comprehensive is that it does not work properly unless there is a proper change in the internal environment of the organization in which people work. 2. substantial disenchantment with OD became evident because of many controversial OD techniques like sensitivity training. Long-range strategy for organizational innovation and renewal. Research studies have also failed to conclude
.8 Problems in Organization Development Organization development.
No special requirement. Thus. In early 60s.
. OD tries to achieve ideal without taking into account real. Only fully competent OD consultant should be pressed for the service and he should develop understanding with internal change agents. in order to make best use of OD efforts. However. 3. it fails even as a long-term strategy. OD programmes are often quite costly. and (iii) failure to increase employee motivation through participation and development of personal growth and self-esteem. it can be visualized that OD itself may not be dysfunctional but application may be.significant contributions of OD in all organizations. Organization must formulate the objectives of OD programme very clearly and specifically. Thus. particularly in bottom-line ones. OD is criticized on the following lines: 1. 4. People realized its dysfunctional aspects only when many OD efforts failed. These should be based on the specific needs of the organization. There should be genuine support of OD programme from top management. it is useless to try OD. Some of these efforts are as follows: 1. some specific efforts are required. it may be emphasized that OD programmes are likely to fail when these are not programmes and hence failure. Hence. In general. 2. 5. 2. Evans has identified three factors which have been responsible for the failure of OD programmes: (i) failure of the management consultant group to correctly tailor the programme to actual needs of the organization. OD makes people unfit for the real organizations world because no organization can fully adopt open system concept. Therefore. 5. There should be proper use of OD interventions. and (ii) failure to correctly model appropriate personnel behaviour in the programme. Enough time should be allowed so that the effects of OD programme are realized. 4. If an organization is laden with these people. For example. Resistance to change is a natural phenomenon and OD puts undue pressure to change. OD fails to motivate people with low level of achievement needs. It can be seen that many of these criticisms are based on reality and experience. 3. There is discrepancy between ideal and real situations. OD can not be taken as panacea for curing all organizational problems. and only large organizations can afford this luxury without any guarantee of positive outcome. Therefore.
_____________is a short-term strategy. Define OD. Distinguish between ‘organizational development’ and ‘management development’. 3. Management development aims at developing the managers individually. Who is associated with the “Learning Organizations”? 5. OD is the ultimate remedy for organizational improvements and developments. Empowerment
. But OD aims at changing the entire organizational climate where the managers work. collaborative. ––––––– is associated with “Liberation Management”. 4. ––––––––– is a process which includes leadership behaviours and human resource practices. Top management 2. 4. Explain the various characteristics of OD. The participative.Self Assessment Questions 1. 3. Tom Peters 3. What are the problems involved in the implementation of OD? 3.10 Terminal Questions 1.9 Summary The definitions clarify the distinctive features of OD and suggest why it is such a powerful change strategy. 5. Explain its salient features. 3. It focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. OD focuses on culture and processes.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. 3. 2. problem-focused ‘nature of OD’ marshals the experience and expertise of organization members for problem-solving and capitalizes the opportunities in the organization. 2. State the various roles of OD. Organization development should be led and supported by –––––––. There is no ‘quick fix’ to organizations’ problems.
3 3. Refer section 3. Peter Senge 5. Refer section 3.7 5. Refer section 3. Refer section 3.1 Introduction Objectives 4.4.2 2.Organization Development – Interventions
Unit-04.4 Grid Training 4.3 Process Consultation 4. Management development Answers to TQs: 1.Organization Development – Interventions Structure: 4.6 4.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer section 3.6 Team-building
.5 Leadership Development 4.2 Survey Feedback 4.
education and training. Nevertheless. mediation and negotiation activities. This classification of OD interventions is very comprehensive and many activities do not strictly form the part of OD as process of organizational improvement but other methods of improving the performance of the organization.9 Role of Change Agents Self Assessment Questions 4. inter-group level.7 Inter Group Development 4. the classification appears to be more relevant because it may specify the
. Therefore.1 Introduction OD interventions refer to various activities which a consultant and client organization perform for improving organizational performance through enabling organizational members better manage their behaviour. interpersonal level. French and Bell have defined OD intervention as: “Sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage with a task or a sequence of tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvement. the classification of OD interventions shows variation. However. inter-group activities. interventions may be required to change people at all these levels. group level.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 4.8 Change Agents 4. such a classification of interventions may not put them into mutually exclusive categories as a particular intervention may be applied at more than one level. various consultants and practitioners have different opinions about the activities which can be included in interventions. A meaningful classification of OD interventions may be based on the improvement in the behaviour of people in the organization as OD is basically a behavioural approach. For example. they make things happen. People’s behaviour may be relevant to understand at individual level. techno-structural activities.11 Terminal Questions 4. French and Bell have suggested twelve families of OD interventions: diagnostic.4. and organizational level. many of them visualize data gathering as an intervention whereas it is treated as only preparatory work for OD by others. management grid. Further. work group. process consultation.” There are various OD interventions and they are classified in different ways. Interventions constitute the action thrust of organization development. and organizational culture. team-building. Thus.10 Summary 4. survey feedback.
ISR has prepared a questionnaire which includes questions on leadership – managerial support. · Explain grid training. the other major thrust in the development of OD has come from survey research and feedback of data. peer goal emphasis. grid training. 4. The basic objectives of survey feedback are as follows: 1. and survey feedback method. · Realize the importance of team-building. team. Objectives: After studying this unit. OD efforts were attempted through sensitivity training. To assist the group members to improve the relationships through discussion of common problems. and peer interaction facilitation.2 Survey Feedback Besides laboratory training (sensitivity and grid). 2. Institute for Social Research (ISR) of University of Michigan. peer support. and follow up. peer work facilitation. other techniques like process consultation. Historically.
. managerial goal emphasis. Though some type of survey method was prevalent in various organizations earlier. developing action plans based on feedback. Process of Survey Feedback Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection. Data Collection: The first step in survey feedback is data collection usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire.building. Our further discussion follows this development. · Role of change agents. managerial work facilitation.range of change that an organization requires. feedback of information. you will be able to: · Describe survey feedback. Subsequently. USA developed a comprehensive questionnaire for conducting survey in different aspects of an organization. The questionnaire may include different aspects of organizational functioning. · Describe process consultation. have been added. To assist the organization in diagnosing its problems and developing action plan for problemsolving. 1. and participative goal-setting which has become more popular as management by objectives.
by the consultant. 2. and general management. In oral system of feedback. it is provided through group discussion or problem-solving sessions conducted by the consultant. even if valid and reliable information is collected. satisfaction with the pay. tabulated. 2. motivation. 3. and analysis is made to arrive at some meaningful conclusions. survey feedback contributes in the following manner: 1. Decision-making and problem-solving abilities of organization can be improved tremendously because this approach applies the competence and knowledge throughout the organization and the problems faced by it. and satisfaction-satisfaction with the company. feedback may be given in the form of a written summary of findings. Second. In particular. It is cost-effective means of implementing a comprehensive OD programme making it a highly desirable technique. it is of no use unless follow-up action is taken based on the
. After the questionnaires are completed. 3. It generates great amount of information efficiently and quickly which can be used in solving problems faced by the organization and its members. control within the company. it should be constructive and suggestive. The feedback may be given either orally or in a written form.organizational climate-communication with the company. questionnaire used and method adopted for its administration should be reliable and valid. effectiveness of survey feedback depends on two factors. data are classified. threatening and emotion-hurting as survey feedback is aimed at identifying weaknesses which must be overcome through follow-up actions and not the fault-finding technique for criticism. The questionnaire is administered personally either by the members of consulting firm or by organization’s personnel. all attempts to diagnose the problems will be abortive and futile. However. satisfaction with the job. Whatever the method of giving feedback is adopted. Alternatively. Follow-up Action: Survey feedback programme is not meaningful unless some follow-up action is taken based on the data collected. decision-making. One such follow-up action may be to advise the participants to develop their own action plans to overcome the problems revealed through a feedback or as is more commonly the case. rather. satisfaction with the supervisor. feedback is given to the persons who have participated in the fulfilling up of questionnaire. If it is biased. and satisfaction with the work group. First. follow-up action may be in the form of developing some specific OD interventions particularly process consultation and team-building. Feedback of Information: After the data are analyzed. co-ordination between departments. Evaluation of Survey Feedback Survey feedback provides a base for many managerial actions which has been confirmed by various research studies.
” The basic objectives of P. To understand how various organizational processes can be linked to objective achievement in the organization. To bring desired change in the various organizational processes like leadership.information. Initiate Contact: This is beginning stage of P. the consultant is introduced to the organizational members and basic objectives of the P. and act upon the process events which occur in the client’s environment. group norms. 4. understand.C is that the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. 1. 4. it provides base for action for change. etc. and interview about the problems. Gather Data and Make a Diagnosis: Information is collected from various sources thorough the use of questionnaires. A survey feedback is not a technique in itself for change. spelled out at the initial stage. At this stage. 2. client and consultant enter into agreement covering various aspects of consultancy services like fees. group decision-making and problemsolving.C are as follows: 1.C are communicated to them with a view that they co-operate with the consultant.C) is a technique for intervening in an ongoing system. the leading writer and consultant on P. The basic content of P. Define the Relationship: At this stage. 2.3 Process Consultation Process Consultation (P. 3. Steps in Process Consultation Schein has suggested following specific steps which the consultant would follow in a P.C in which the client makes initial contact with the consultant with a view to solve the problems faced by the organization which cannot be solved by existing processes or resources. Information collected is processed to diagnose the problems and their underlying causes. At this stage. This data gathering occurs simultaneously with the entire consultative process.C has defined it as follows: “The set of activities on the part of the consultant which help the client to perceive. time. roles and functions of group members. Select the Setting and the Method: It involves a clear-cut understanding of where and how the consultant will do the job that is required. Edgar Schein. the client’s expectations and hoped-for results are also decided. and spelling out services.C programme of OD. and inter-group co-operation and conflicts. observations. communication.
. The grid organization development consists of six phases. coaching. knowledge. and/or structural change. P. In the review of various P. P. One basic reason for this phenomenon may be the consultant’s inability to steer the organization out of troubles. Another problem may emerge at the level of the organization and its members in terms of how they inculcate the new processes and culture as suggested by the consultant.5. feedback. significant correlation between the outcomes has not been found. he assists the organizational members to incorporate those changes. Evaluation of Process Consultation: Process consultation is quite in-depth activity of OD in which the consultant plays a major role. and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. inter-group. 6. It utilizes a considerable number of instruments.C is very effective intervention for organizational improvement.C programmes. It is a comprehensive and systematic OD programme which aims at individuals. Reduce Involvement and Terminate: When the work of P. 3. Intervene: At this stage. like other OD intervention techniques. both these problems may be overcome by engaging a suitable consultant and developing willingness among the members for change. enabling individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. Though he is involved only in suggesting the various changes in the processes.C is completed. group. the consultant intervenes in the organizational processes by using different interventions like agenda-setting. To evaluate the styles of leadership and techniques of participation to produce desirable results. The whole orientation is to develop managerial style through the application of behavioural science knowledge. From this point of view. However. and the organization as a whole. 2. focuses on skills. To understand the importance and rationale of systematic change. the consultant disengages from the client organization by mutual agreement but leaves the door open for future involvement. To study the organization as an interactive system and apply techniques of analysis in diagnosing its problems. and total organizational levels. 4. Its specific objectives are as follows: 1.4 Grid Training Grid training is basically based on grid organization development developed by Blake and Mouton. Process of Grid Training The basic content of grid organization development is managerial grid as discussed. groups.C is also not free from criticisms.
grid training has some positive contributions for organizational effectiveness. Inter-group Development: At this phase. some of them have not supported the claims made by Blake and Mouton. 3. Each group separately analyses the ideal inter-group relations. it discounts reality. grid training is a non-rigorous method. traditions. and alike. 4. the various efforts from phase 1 to phase 5 are evaluated and critical analysis is made. Developing Ideal Strategic Corporate Model: At this stage. 6. communication skills. the focus is on inter-group behaviour and relations. Managerial grid: It covers various aspects of assessing managerial styles. The strategy is then implemented. objective-setting. problem-solving. The individuals try to learn to become managers by practice. Action steps to move towards the ideal are developed and assigned to individuals who may be engaged in building co-operative inter-group relationships. it appears that this type of educational strategy can help to make significant contributions to organizational effectiveness. The analysis will bring out the shortcomings that may be there. Evaluation of Grid Training Most of the support of grid training has come from its originators-Blake and Mouton. 4.” In a later work. They have maintained that “managerial and team effectiveness can be taught to managers with outside assistance. and problemsolving are also developed. The members of the organization are trained for achieving this excellence. In this light. Teamwork Development: The focus in this stage is to develop teamwork by analyzing team culture. and teamwork. The thrust is on moving groups from conflict to co-operation. Implementing the Ideal Strategic Model: The implementation stage includes the building of the organization on the model of ideal organization on the basis of concepts developed under stage 4. the various programmes may be redesigned. therefore. Systematic Critique: In this stage. Each group may be given assignment to evolve strategy for making ideal organization with the help of the consultant. Though research studies on the application of grid training are not many. 5. in spite of these criticisms.1. 2. Further. The skills relating to planning. the focus shifts to the total organization and to develop skills necessary for organizational excellence.5 Leadership Development
. The action is designed to identify the characteristics of the ideal organization. Furthermore. they maintained the same stand. Grid training programme is criticized on the basis that it lacks contingency approach and.
and credibility of senior and middle management. and regular. Also during these times of change. results in an organization becoming completely nonfunctioning. how synergy is generated through team-work. Slogging Through The Swamp.6 Team-building Various OD interventions discussed so far have their specific implications for OD and. if haven’t established a track record of effective leadership. Poor leadership means an absence of hope. complete communication that is timely. In a climate of distrust. French and Bell have opined that “probably the most important single group of interventions in the OD are the team-building activities the goals of which are the improvement and increased effectiveness of various teams within the organization. During drastic change times. employees will perceive leadership as supportive. For example. concerned and committed to their welfare. Leadership before. which. As against these. We will look more carefully at each of these. Before going through how team-building exercise can be undertaken to develop effective teams. but more importantly. while at the same time recognizing that tough decisions need to be made. The best way to summarize is that there is a climate of trust between leader and the rest of the team. The organization must deal with the practical impact of unpleasant change. if allowed to go on for too long. employees will look towards the leaders for a number of things. during and after change implementation is THE key to getting through the swamp. Unfortunately. competence. confident and effective decision-making. and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. have no faith in the system or in the ability of leaders to turn the organization around. lead. employees will expect effective and sensible planning. We can call these Preparing For the Journey. must labor under the weight of employees who have given up. brings hope for better times in the future. In organizations characterized by poor leadership. 4. The literature on the subject indicates that the nature of the change is secondary to the perceptions that employees have regarding the ability.” A possible reason for this phenomenon is that people in the organization work in groups (teams) and the effectiveness of these groups ultimately determine organizational effectiveness. let us consider the life cycle of a team. employees learn that leaders will act in indecipherable ways and in ways that do not seem to be in anyone’s best interests. you need to be aware that there are three distinct times zones where leadership is important. If you are to manage change effectively. problems in
. The Role of Leadership In an organization where there is faith in the abilities of formal leaders. teambuilding is the most important. by the time you have to deal with difficult changes. employees expect nothing positive. clearly the most important determinant of "getting through the swamp". The existence of this trust. is the ability of leadership to…well. therefore. it may be too late. and After Arrival. widely accepted. are closely associated with a very few advocates and practitioners. and that makes coping with drastic change much easier.When change is imposed (as in downsizing scenarios).
Norming: After storming stage. because of individual differences. The
. They share personal information. and features of effective team so that team-building exercises focus more sharply on developing effective team. and begin to turn their attention to the group tasks. and tasks are accompanied efficiently. 4.team-work. they often pass through several stages as they learn to work together as a team. Forming: At the first stage of the life cycle. norming. Performing: When team members interact among themselves on the basis of norms that have emerged in the team. members start interaction among themselves in the form of competing for status. These stages are: forming. The team begins to move in a co-operative fashion and a tentative balance among competing forces too is struck. Sooner or later. Adjourning: Adjourning is the end phase of cycle of a team. 2. team members start settling. start to accept others. At this stage. they learn to handle complex problems that come before the team. even the most successful teams as they have completed their mission. they do represent a broad pattern that may be observed and predicted in many settings across team’s time together. 3. Life Cycle of a Team When a number of individuals begin to work at interdependent jobs. These typical stages of life cycle of a team are described below: 1. team members get introduced to each other if they have not interacted earlier. jockeying for relative control. 4. each team has to be adjourned. At this stage. storming. different members may experience varying degree of tension and anxiety out of this interaction pattern. Functional roles are performed and exchanged as needed. performing.1: Life Cycle of a Team Though these are not followed rigidly. and arguing for appropriate strategies to be adopted for achieving team’s goals. These stages are the result of a variety of questions and issues that team members face such as “who will be members of the team?” “Who will perform what functions?” “Who will contribute what?” “What rules will be followed?” “How can conflicts among members be resolved?” and so on. interaction among team members is often cautious especially when they are new to one another. 5. Storming: After the forming stage which is mostly related to perceiving and assessing each other. group norms emerge to guide individual behaviour which form the basis for co-operative feelings and behaviour among members. and adjourning as shown below:
how a particular element affects another and is affected by it. Other types of team like a department in an organization run on the basis of some permanency though there may be changes in team members. This phenomenon may happen in teams in work organizations too. To the extent. that is. This effect can be described as 2+2=5 effect. Synergy in Team-work Another important feature of a team is the concept of synergy which generates in team-work and the understanding of which helps in developing effective team. other factors remaining the same. It is not necessary that all teams follow the rigid pattern prescribed here and the similar problems they face at each stage because each team is different in some respect based on the type of members and problems and functions assigned.adjournment phase takes place in the case of those teams which are created for some special purposes like task force. In fact. After the adjournment of the team. They rely on the fact the more reliable members will complete the project without their help. However. concept of stages is significant in the context of the nature of problem which team members are likely to face in team-work. In such an assignment. students find that one or two students do not put their weight for the completion of the project. in one experiment. the complementarity among members is achieved. intense social relationship among members comes to an end. a team is created to undertake a task which requires a variety of skills and single individual cannot perform that task alone. A simple phenomenon of social loafing may be observed in a group assignment to students during their study.” Thus. committee.
. Social Loafing Social loafing is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. fail to perform their assigned tasks. the team would be effective. These students may be called loafers (not attaching the same connotation which is attached with the term loafer in our social phenomenon) who frequently miss the project group’s meetings. and so on. The concept of synergy is quite popular in strategic management and it is defined as follows: “Synergy is the process of putting two or more elements together to achieve a sum total greater than the sum total of individual elements separately. and still expect to share the credit and obtain the same marks from the professor since he will be concerned with determining who worked and who did not. synergistic effect is not automatic but depends on the complementarity of different elements that are put together and the way they interact among themselves. etc. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts. For example. Putting the concept of synergy in teamwork means members of the team are complementary to each other and they contribute positively to one another.
Therefore. and attitudes. While skills are relevant for job performance. managers at higher levels particularly at the top level should set organizational climate and culture which enthuse team members to put their best.it was found that individuals’ total efforts were much higher than the group efforts. A group is not merely an assemblage of individuals but there should be a feeling that they are members of the group and share common interests. Supportive Environment: A team loaded with skilled members cannot perform well if the organizational climate is not supportive for that. Thus. In the above paragraph. it appears that there are many factors in an effective team. Let us see how these factors make a team effective. If the organizational climate is not in tune with high achievement.6 pound of pressure while tugging on the rope. two things are required from its members. From this statement. 2.2 pounds. When the division of work cannot be accomplished properly and individual efforts are hard to determine. team members may tend to contribute positively to the teamwork.
. When the group is not cohesive with high output norms. goals. Effective Team An effective team is one which contributes to the achievement of organizational objectives by performing the task assigned to it and providing satisfaction to its members. individual members do not contribute to the fullest extent. skills which are complementary to the team requirement and understanding of one’s own role as well as roles of other members. When the same individuals pulled on the rope of groups of three. group of eight. Dropping of average output in group efforts indicates that some members of the group were not contributing as much as they did individually. 2. he may tend to affect others because of chain reaction just like a rotten apple injures its companions. other factors remaining the same. understanding of roles helps members to meet the requirement of one another thereby solving the problems which the team faces. The possibility of occurring of social loafing in a team-work increases because of the following reasons: 1. supportive environment. The phenomenon of social loafing can be minimized by constituting effective team for group performance. we have mentioned that team effectiveness depends on the complementarity of team members. group efforts tend to slacken. Individuals were asked to pull alone as hard as possible on a rope attached to a strain gauge. Skills and Role Clarity: For an effective team. These factors are skills and role clarity. super-ordinate goals and team rewards. Even if one member lacks behind. team members may not show high degree of enthusiasm and they will use only a part of their skills in performing the jobs. They averaged 138. 1. the individual average dropped down still lower68.
3. Super-ordinate Goals: Super-ordinate goals are those which are above the goals of a single team or a single individual. An individual works better if he is able to link how his goal attainment leads to the attainment of a higher-level goal. These super-ordinate goals, then, serve to focus attention, unify efforts, and stimulate more cohesive team efforts. 4. Team Rewards: Team performance depends on how reward is linked to team performance and how members perceive this linkage. If team members perceive that reward to contingent on team performance, they will put their maximum. Rewards of both types- financial and nonfinancial-should be taken into consideration. Further, organizations need to achieve a careful balance between encouraging and rewarding individual initiative and growth and stimulating full contributions to team success. Innovative non-financial team rewards for responsible behaviour may include the authority to select new members of the group, make recommendations regarding a new supervisor, or propose discipline for team members. The positive aspect of all these factors leads to team effectiveness and team members share common values regarding product quality, customer satisfaction, and share the responsibility for completing a project on schedule. Katzenbatch and Smith, management consultants, have suggested the concept of real team and they feel that this concept is relatively unexploited despite its capacity to outperform other groups and individuals. They define four characteristics of real teams: small size; complementary skills; common purpose, goals, and working approach: and willingness to be held mutually accountable. Real teams can be created and sustained by: 1. Selecting members for their complementary skills and potentials; 2. Developing clear rules of conduct and challenging performance goals; 3. Establishing a sense of urgency right from the first meeting. 4. Providing substantial time together in which new information is constantly shared; and 5. Providing positive feedback, recognition, and rewards. Team-building Process: Team-building attempts to improve effectiveness of the team by having team members to concentrate on: 1. Setting goals and priorities for the team. 2. Analyzing how team’s goals and priorities are linked to those of the organization. 3. Analyzing how the work is performed. 4. Analyzing how the team is working, and
5. Analyzing the relationships among the members who are performing the job. For achieving these, the team-building exercise proceeds in a particular way as shown in figure.
Fig. 4.2: Process of Team-building Various steps of team-building process are not one-shot action, rather, they are repetitive and cyclical as indicated by arrows in the figure. 1. Problem-sensing: There are a number of ways in which problems of a team can be obtained. Often the team itself defines which aspects of team-building it wishes to work on. This problem can better be identified in terms of what is hindering group effectiveness. At this stage, generally most of the members come forward with their arguments as to what the real problems are. The view may be quite different ranging from the organizational problem, group problems to even personal problem. In problem identification, the emphasis should be on consensus. The consensus-seeking part of the process necessitates that each person becomes thoroughly aware and understand clearly the basic concepts of team-development. Much of the problems may be solved through effective communication and training sessions. 2. Examining Differences: The perception of people on an issue differs because of their differing backgrounds, such as, their value systems, personality and attitudes. The perception may be brought to conformity through the process of exercise on perception which involves a number of psychological exercises particularly on perceptual differences. The role of communication is important in this context because it will help in clarifying the actual problems to the members. 3. Giving and Receiving Feedback: The step of perceiving things and listening to each other may be relayed back to the members as there is a possibility that such processes may create tense situation in the group. Often, members report about the painful feelings that they have at the time of evaluation of their feelings. The discussion should continue until all members of the team have commented. The feedback should be given to the members about their feelings, about the issue, the way people talk about the issue, the stying with the topic or going off on tangents, who was talking more or who was talking less, who was trying to resolve the differences, etc. Such feedback generally provides members to evaluate the values but at the same time, also provides opportunity to understand themselves. The concept of Johari Window may also be applied. This suggests that even people are not fully aware of themselves. 4. Developing Interactive Skills: The basic objective of this process is to increase the ability among the people as to how they should interact with others and engage in constructive behaviour. Following are the examples of constructive and negative behaviours:
Constructive Behaviour: (i) Building: developing and expanding the ideas of others. (ii) Bringing in: harmonizing, encouraging others to participate. (iii) Clarifying: resting, ensuring, understanding, seeking relevant information. (iv) Innovative: bringing in new relevant ideas, information, feelings, etc.
(i) Over talk: interrupting, talking together with speaker. (ii) Attacking: deriding, belittling, criticizing person. (iii) Negative: cooling, cynicism, undermining morale. At the time of discussion of feedback, people themselves take assignments to increase specific constructive behaviours and decrease specific negative behaviours. If this process is adopted several times, there is a strong possibility that members may learn constructive behaviours and leave negative behaviours. This is quite helpful in developing teamwork. 5. Follow-up Action: This is the final stage in team-building. At this stage, the total team is convened to review what has been learned and to identify what the next step should be. Follow-up action also helps in overcoming the drawback involved at the initial stages of teambuilding. It involves deciding who will take care of each area of the team’s responsibilities, and who will be responsible for team projects in a group that has not developed a satisfactory division of responsibility; clarifying and setting differences in perception concerning responsibility and authority in the team, with complex division of responsibility and authority among members. These attempts bring co-operative and supportive feelings among people involved in the team functioning. When this exercise is undertaken at the initial stage, it contributes positively towards the feelings of the people. However, to encourage and sustain such feelings, management should take such actions at regular intervals so that members feel reinforced and sustain their positive behaviour. Such actions will go a long way in shaping the organizational climate quite conducive to members for their efficient working. Evaluation of Team-building As mentioned earlier, team-building as an OD intervention has attracted maximum attention. Many research studies have also confirmed the positive contributions of team-building on the
the other group. in different degrees. there have been calls for combining team-building with organization behaviour modification approaches. though. the groups can move to the integration phase – working to develop solutions that will improve relations. one of the more Popular methods emphasize problem solving. stereotypes. team-building contributes to the organizational performance in the following manner: 1. after which similarities and differences are discussed. communicating. It helps in developing effective interpersonal relationships by stimulating the group members for that. structure. it is not that effective in isolation. In spite of these problems. monitoring. Differences are clearly articulate. Once the causes of the difficulty have been identified. However. are not given adequate attention. and feedback skills). 4. each group meets independently to develop lists of its perception of itself.
. The groups then share their lists. It helps developing communication within the group and inter-group and overcoming many psychological barriers that block communication flow. team-building has a positive outlook. 3. 2. Therefore. One such suggestion is to use a task hierarchy to reinforce the team as it progresses up a behaviour skill hierarchy (for example.. New member may find it difficult to adjust with the team because of his confusion over his roles in terms of task performance and building good relationships. team-building has been termed as one-sided effort and it suffers from the following limitations: 1. In general. In this method. this has been a subject to which change efforts have been directed. 2. It focuses only on work groups and other major organizational variables such as technology. and the groups look for the causes of the disparities. listening.organization’s outcomes. However. It improves the organization’s problem-solving and decision-making ability. Team-building becomes a complicated exercise when there is frequent change in team members. It seeks to change to attitudes. and perceptions that groups have of each other. and how it believes the other group perceivers it. Although there are several approaches for improving intergroup relations. etc.7 Inter-group Development A major area of concern is OD is the dysfunctional conflict that exists between groups. As a result.
as the radiator absorbing some of the heat of the controversy. employees of the organization. and personnel. Outside consultants also may be prone to initiating more drastic changes – which can be benefit or a disadvantage – because they don’t have to live with the repercussions after the change is implemented. In contrast. but one thing he/she is not the driver”. cases and experiential learning etc. changing (intervening) and refreezing.These three roles are having been brief described below: Consultant A consultant is a professional (internal or external) who applies behavioral Science knowledge in an ongoing organization (or client system) with clear objectives of managing change and improving effectiveness.Subgroups. The consultant may fulfill a variety of functions. enabling the client to let off steam: as the ignition to spark action. can now be created for further diagnosis and to begin to formulate possible alternative actions that will improve relations.
. may be more thoughtful (and possibly cautious) because they to live with the consequences of their actions. are disadvantaged because they usually have an inadequate understanding of the organization’s history. internal staff specialists or managers when acting as change agents. Trainer A change agent needs to be a trainer and educator. operating procedures. as the shock absorber when the going is rough. According to Curtis Mial: “The Consultant may serve as the exhaust value. with members from each of the conflicting groups. He has to educate people on the need and importance o change using a variety of methodologies – lectures. as the accelerator to build up momentum. or as fog lamp when the future is hazy. The trainer role is most widely and intensively used at all stages of a change project: unfreezing. presentations. 4. as the break for too quick action. Outside consultants. 4. or outside consultants. internal management often will hire the services or outside consultants to provide advice and assistance. group discussions.8 Change Agents Change agents: Can be managers or nonmanagers. films. role-plays and instruments. culture. however. For major change efforts. Because they are from the outside these individuals an offer can offer an objective perspective often unavailable to insiders.9 Role of Change Agents The change agent may play different roles according to the need of organization development .
Self Assessment Questions 1. Grid training focuses on individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. It focuses on skills. knowledge and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. group.10 Summary OD intervention strategies are various activities which a consultant and client organization performs for improving organizational performance. developing action plans based on feedback and follow-up. 2. evolving best strategies for change by assessing alternatives and the important stages in a change project where the change agent has to be a Researcher. Training is used both in ‘content orientation’ and process orientation’. the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events.Training is required for enhancing knowledge. feedback of information. Data collection. inter-group and total organization levels. Researcher A change agent has to carry out some research activities for the purpose of generating valid information prior to and during the change process. What is survey feedback as an intervention of OD? How does it provide base for other OD interventions?
. skills and change in behavior. Grid Training was developed by –––––––––––– 3. widely accepted and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts 4. 4. attitudes and beliefs. In process consultation. Useful hypothesis are to be formulated and tested. Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection. Teambuilding is most important. What is Grid Training? How does it help in improving individual performance in an organization? 2. The first step in survey feedback is ______ usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire.11 Terminal Questions 1. generation of new behavioral science knowledge. Sensitivity training focuses on small group ranging from ten to twelve. ________is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. diagnosis.
Explain Change agents and discuss the role of change agents in detail.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.
MU0002-Unit-05-Values. Refer section 4. Refer section 4. Refer section 4. Beliefs in Organization Development
Unit-05-Values.3.4 2. 4.2 3. Assumptions. and Beliefs in Organization Development Structure: 5. Refer section 4. What is team-building? What are the stages of life cycle of a team? 4. Blake and Mouton. Data collection 2.6 4.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University
. Social loafing Answers to TQs: 1. Assumptions. 3.2 Definitions
.1 Introduction Objectives 5.
Most of these beliefs were formulated early in the development of the field.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals 5.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought 5. · Give the statement of OD values and assumptions. These values and assumptions have developed from research and theory by behavioural scientists and from the experiences and observations of practicing managers.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups 5.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions 5. it is a cognitive fact for the person.5. shaping the goals and methods of the field and distinguishing OD from other improvement strategies.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations 5.2 Definitions A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of values. assumptions.6 Summary Self Assessment Questions 5. beliefs and assumptions. and they continue to evolve as the field itself evolves.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 5.5. beliefs and assumptions. and beliefs constitutes an integral part of organization development.5. 5.4 Early Statements of OD Values and Assumptions 5. Objectives: After studying this unit.5.7 Terminal Questions 5.
. · List the chronology of events of values.1 Introduction A set of values. · State the implications of OD values and assumptions.
and that rationality. assumptions. strongly held. the clash between fascism and democracy in World War II. the right of people to be free from arbitrary misuse of power. and beliefs are all cognitive facts or propositions. Expert engineers and supervisors designed each task and ensured it was done correctly. research on the effects of different leadership styles. and democratic. they were fashioned into a coherent value foundation for the theory and practice of organization development. and the need for justice through the rule of law and due process. optimistic. Simple. Major ingredients of the zeitgeist that influenced OD values and assumptions are presented here in a brief chronology. view all people as having the potential for growth and development. increasing awareness of the dysfunctions of bureaucracies." Assumptions are beliefs that are regarded as so valuable and obviously correct that they are taken for granted and rarely examined or questioned. and assumptions being. As these ingredients accumulated. dishonesty). and the like.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought
Frederick Winslow Taylor’s ‘The Principles of Scientific Management’ (1911) launched the scientific management movement with its emphasis on time and motion studies and breaking jobs into small. reason." or slacking off.Values are also beliefs and are defined as: "Beliefs about what is desirable or ‘good’ (e. Values. Piece-rate pay systems were designed to increase motivation and to prevent "soldiering. assume that everyone has intrinsic worth. treat people with respect and dignity. Democratic values assert the sanctity of the individual. Thus. and beliefs provide structure and stability for people as they attempt to understand the world around them. Evidence for the validity of these values and their supporting assumptions comes from many sources – the Hawthorne studies. OD values tend to be humanistic. Values and assumptions do not spring full grown from individuals or societies they are formed from the collective beliefs of an era-the zeitgeist. with values being beliefs about good and bad. greater understanding of individual motivation and group dynamics. the importance of fair and equitable treatment for all. or spirit of the time. the human relations movement. assumptions. that progress is possible and desirable in human affairs. 5. relatively unexamined beliefs accepted as the truth.g.
. Taylor’s methods quickly swept the country and the world as the way to organize work. Humanistic values proclaim the importance of the individual: respect the whole person. free speech) and what is undesirable or ‘bad’ (e.. Optimistic values posit that people are basically good. and goodwill are the tools for making progress. the laboratory training movement. repetitive tasks in an attempt to find "the one best way" to do each job.. repetitive tasks minimized the skills required to do the job. values.g.
authoritarian leadership caused dependency. the work environment. Some early experiments were conducted in the late 1930s. Democratic leadership seemed to bring out the best in the groups. The research demonstrated the primacy of social factors on productivity and morale. and practice since the late 1920s have focused on the shortcomings of these two paradigms and how to overcome the limitations. Lippitt (1939). much of the research. Their simple. In a sense. Group Dynamics (1940) – The scientific study of groups using experimental research methods-was launched by Kurt Lewin and his students. organizations were not machines. People came to work as whole people. impersonal rules. most efficient way to organize people. His acceptance theory of authority proposed that authority derives from the willingness of subordinates to comply with directions rather than from position power. extensive division of labor. wrote an article on “The Giving of Orders” advocating participative leadership and joint problem-solving by labour and management.
The great German sociologist Max Weber (1922) introduced the concept of “bureaucracy” as the best. Scientific management as the way to organize work and bureaucracy as the way to organize people were the prevailing paradigms for organizations in the early 1900s. Reports on these studies by Mayo in 1933 and 1945. repetitive jobs left them feeling alienated and dispirited. Barnard viewed organizations as social systems that must be effective (achieve goals) and efficient (satisfy the needs of employees). and White demonstrated that democratic leadership was superior to authoritarian leadership and laissez-faire leadership in affecting group climate and group performance. Mary Parker Follett (1926). theory. a management theorist and astute observer of labourmanagement relations. ‘The Functions of the Executive’ by Chester 1. Barnard (1938) presented insights from his experiences as President of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. and by Homans in 1950 profoundly and irreversibly affected people’s beliefs about organizational behaviour. A strong hierarchy of authority.
. by Roethlisberger and Dickson in 1939. and rigid procedures would create a well-oiled human machine called the organization. Group norms had more powerful effects on productivity than economic incentives. their feelings and attitudes about the work. The Famous Hawthorne Studies (1927 to 1932) were conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company. These approaches possessed many desirable features. and the supervisor determined their performance. but also contained serious flaws that led to unintended consequences. Much of her career was devoted to finding ways to reduce adversarial relationships between workers and management. aggressiveness and poor performance. apathy. Research by Lewin. People were not cogs.
healthy adults. The theory postulated that when lowerlevel needs are satisfied. dislike responsibility. These years witnessed the beginnings of the laboratory training movement (1946 and 1947). The human relations movement advocated participative management. greater attention to workers’ social needs. P. Carl Rogers’ Client-Centered Therapy (1951) demonstrated the efficacy of non-directive psychotherapy. Lester Coch and John R. pioneers in laboratory training. Humanistic and democratic values suffused the movement. Rogers’ focus on effective interpersonal communications was applicable to superior-subordinate relations. Eric Trist and Ken Bamforth of the Tavistock Clinic (1951) published the results of their work in British coal mines. Douglas McGregor wrote ‘The Human Side of Enterprise’ (1960) in which he described his famous Theory X and Theory Y assumptions. and a general “humanizing” of the workplace. Laboratory training taught people how to improve interpersonal relations. are self-centered. increase self-understanding. and understand group dynamics. lack ambition.
.” reported that resistance to change could be minimized by communicating the need for change and allowing the people affected by the change to participate in planning it. caring social climate. This article introduced the concept of organizations as sociotechnical systems. which holds that individuals have within themselves the capacity to assume responsibility for their behaviour and mental health when provided with a supportive. a direct precursor of OD. “Overcoming Resistance to Change. Ken Benne and Paul Sheats (1948). Those who subscribe to Theory X assume that people are lazy. proposed that the leadership functions of a group should be shared between the leader and group members and showed how that could be done. Motivation and Personality by Abraham Maslow (1954) presented a new view of human motivation. Chris Argyrif’s Personality and Organization (1957) was the first of several books in which he stated that there is an inherent conflict between the needs of organizations and the needs of mature.
The Hawthorne Studies (1940s to 1960) spawned the human relations movement that was in full flower from the 1930s to the 1960s. higher-level needs become dominant. Maslow suggested that human motivation is arranged in a hierarchy of needs from lower-level needs such as physiological and survival needs to higher-level needs such as esteem and self-actualization. training in interpersonal skills for supervisors. which postulates that organizations are comprised of a social system and a technological system and that changes in one system will produce changes in the other system. French’s (1948) article.
goal-oriented. and organizations that is. Tannenbaum and Davis presented their ideas in an article appearing in Industrial Management Review. bureaucracy. ‘The Social Psychology of Organizations’ by Daniel Katz and Robert L. a mechanistic organization structure may be appropriate. To summarize the intellectual climate of this period. Values have always been an integral part of OD. and introduced practicing managers to the concepts of need hierarchy and self-actualization. groups. this book popularized Maslow’s motivation theory. as we have said. Organic structures encourage decentralized decision making and authority. The Addison-Wesley Publishing Company “OD Six-Pack. management practices. and need to be led. and authoritarian leadership gave way to increasing doubts about these organizational practices as theory and research pointed up their limitations. optimistic. to assume responsibility. In addition to presenting Theory X and Y. Rensis Likert’s ‘New Patterns of Management’ (1961) presented data and theory showing the overwhelming superiority of a democratic leadership style in which the leader is group oriented. and greater individual autonomy. practice. and to pursue organizational goals if given the chance and the social environment to do so. and values of the field. one-on-one leadership style. and observations utilized by OD practitioners. and democratic. summarized the state of organization development a decade or so after its inception. dysfunctions. and shares decision-making with the work group. This leadership style was contrasted with an authoritarian. Out of this zeitgeist.
. the initial enthusiasm for scientific management. in an environment of high change. and negative consequences. resist change.indifferent to the organization’s needs.” (1969) a set of six little books on OD by prominent practitioners. theory. The Bennis and Beckhard quotations come from their books in the Addison-Wesley Six-Pack. Those who subscribe to Theory Y assume that people have the potential to develop.
Burns and Stalker (1961) described two very different forms of organization structuremechanistic and organic. humanistic. These six books presented the theory. open communications. an organic organization form is preferred.
This chronology captures most of the significant influences from research. and human resource practices to allow individual potential to be released. We will examine three early statements regarding OD values that had a significant impact on the field. organization development practitioners formulated a set of values and assumptions regarding people. Kahn (1966) presented the first comprehensive exposition of organizations as open systems. The task of management is to change organizational structures. In an environment of slow change.
Another major player in the field was Richard Beckhard. more rational and open methods of conflict resolution are sought. Bennis clarified some of the salient differences between mechanical systems and organic systems. M." that is. and unprincipled power." He then went on to state what he believed to be the central value underlying organization development theory and practice: The basic value underlying all organization development theory and practice is that of choice. Through focused attention and through the collection and feedback of relevant data to relevant people. · A shift in values so that human factors and feelings come to be considered legitimate. In his 1969 book he described "several assumptions about the nature and functioning of organizations" held by OD practitioners.
. the capacity for functional groups to work more competently. Warren Bennis proposed that OD practitioners (change agents) share a set of normative goals based on their humanistic/ democratic philosophy. The earlier work by Tom Burns and G. more choices become available and hence better decisions are made. Stalker used the term “mechanistic” in contrast to “mechanical." Mechanical systems insist on "strict division of labour and hierarchical supervision" while organic systems foster "multi-group membership and responsibility. The basic building blocks of an organization are groups (teams). · Development of organic rather than mechanical systems. the basic units of change are groups. compromise. He listed these normative goals as follows: · Improvement in interpersonal competence. Therefore." Mechanical systems encourage "centralized decision-making" while organic systems encourage "wide sharing of responsibility and control. 1. Rather than the usual bureaucratic methods which rely mainly on suppression.” For example. This is a strong reaction against the idea of organizations as mechanisms which managers "work on. mechanical systems rely on "authority-obedience relationships" while organic systems rely on "mutual confidence and trust." like pushing buttons. · Development of increased understanding between and within working groups in order to reduce tensions.Writing in 1969. Here is his list. · Development of more effective "team management. not individuals. · Development of better methods of conflict resolution.
· Away from use of status for maintaining power and personal prestige toward use of status for organizationally relevant purposes. · Away from utilizing an individual primarily with reference to his or her job description toward viewing an individual as a whole person. · Away from avoiding facing others with relevant data toward making appropriate confrontation. rather than in a particular role or level of hierarchy. · Away from resisting and fearing individual differences toward accepting and utilizing them. presented their view of OD values in a 1969 article." People affected by a change must be allowed active participation and a sense of ownership in the planning and conduct of the change. 6. and individuals continuously manage their affairs against goals. · Away from walling off the expression of feelings toward making possible both appropriate expression and effective use. Controls are interim measurements. 5. "People support what they help create. They asserted that an important shift in values was occurring and that this shift signaled a more appropriate and accurate view of people in organizations. Organizations. · Away from distrusting people toward trusting them.
. · Away from maskmanship and game-playing toward authentic behaviour. They listed these “values in transition” as follows: · Away from a view of people as essentially bad toward a view of people as basically good. One goal of a healthy organization is to develop generally open communication. not the basis of managerial strategy. and confidence between and across levels. Robert Tannenbaum. mutual trust. · Away from avoidance of negative evaluation of individuals toward confirming them as human beings.2. 4. Decision-making in a healthy organization is located where the information sources are. sub-units of organizations. a professor and Sheldon Davis. · Away from a view of individuals as fixed. An always relevant change goal is the reduction of inappropriate competition between parts of the organization and the development of a more collaborative condition. director of organization development. 3. toward seeing them as being in process.
appropriate uses of power. and are capable of making. give autonomy. support. autocratic. The first assumption is that most individuals have drives toward personal growth and development if provided an environment that is both supportive and challenging. open communication. and arbitrary management practices as well as the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. Beliefs such as trust and respect for the individual. We answer the question: What are some of the implications of OD assumptions and values for dealing with individuals. remove obstacles and barriers. permit failure.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions Let us examine specific assumptions and their implications for organization leaders and members. 5. give responsibility. The second assumption is that most people desire to make. a greater contribution to attaining organization goals than most organizational environments permit. The implications of these two assumptions are straightforward: Ask. We think most organization development practitioners held these humanistic and democratic values with their implications for different and "better" ways to run organizations and deal with people. · Away from a view of process work as being unproductive effort toward seeing it as essential to effective task accomplishment. challenge.· Away from avoidance of risk-taking toward willingness to risk.5.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals Two basic assumptions about individuals in organizations pervade organization development. The democratic values prompted a critique of authoritarian. and reward success. and organizations? 5. and so forth were seldom espoused and rarely implemented in the vast majority of organizations at that time. 5. but in the 1950s and 1960s they represented a radical departure from accepted beliefs and assumptions. authentic interpersonal relations. The humanistic values prompted a search for better ways to run organizations and develop the people in them. collaboration and co-operation.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups
. The people doing the work are generally experts on how to do it and how to do it better. These values and assumptions may not seem profound today. groups. Most people want to develop their potential. A tremendous amount of constructive energy can be tapped if organizations realize and act on these assumptions. the legitimacy of feelings. listen. encourage risk-taking. · Away from a primary emphasis on competition toward a much greater emphasis on collaboration. decentralized decision making. set high standards.5. participation and contribution by all organization members.
conflict management. but how A and B can work together to modify their interactions toward the goal of B becoming more effective and A and B becoming more mutually effective. Dealing appropriately with feelings and attitudes increases the level of interpersonal trust. 5. emphasis on topdown directives. This skill is a trainable one. Let teams flourish because they are often the best way to get work done and. Second.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations Clearly. most people wish to be accepted and to interact co-operatively with at least one small reference group. In addition. First. one of the most psychologically relevant reference groups for most people is the work group. greatly influences feelings of satisfaction and competence. By implication. are dysfunctional
. D. traditional hierarchical forms of organization-fairly steep pyramid. And because suppressed feelings and attitudes adversely affect problem-solving. not individuals. including how persons C. Finally. and co-operation within the group. at both the formal and informal levels. this group perspective requires a shift from viewing problems as "within the problem person" to viewing problems and solutions as transactional and as embedded in a system. and usually with more than one group. The question becomes not how A can get B to perform better. and E can support these changes. are the best way to satisfy social and emotional needs at work. Third. To do this. They cannot meet the demands of the marketplace. One implication is that group members should receive training in group effectiveness skills such as group problem-solving and decision-making. grouping by specialized function. Frequently the challenge is broader. facilitation. not a one-on-one leadership style. invest training time and money to increase group members’ skills. formalized cross-functional communication. Also. support. and interpersonal communication. a church or club group. and so on. group members should assist the leader with the multiple roles required for group effectiveness. adherence to the chain of command. and so on-are obsolete. a growing awareness that “win-lose” organizational situations. the assumption is that many attitudinal and motivational problems in organizations require interactive and transactional solutions. Another assumption is that the formal leader cannot perform all the leadership and maintenance functions required for a group to optimize its effectiveness. Such problems have the greatest chance of constructive solution if all parties in the system alter their mutual relationships. most people are capable of making greater contributions to a group’s effectiveness and development. and job satisfaction. the family. personal growth. It is especially important that leaders adopt a team leadership style. leaders need to give important work to teams. invest energy and intelligence in creating a positive climate. Hence. leaders should invest in groups: Invest the time required for group development.Several assumptions relate to the importance of work teams and the collaborative management of team culture. group members should be encouraged to learn to deal effectively with positive and negative feelings. What occurs in the work group. in addition. including peers and boss.5. Implications of these assumptions are several. experimenting with new organization structures and new forms of authority is imperative. such as a work group. in which one side wins and the other side loses. Therefore.
A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. These beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. Still. it is possible to create organizations that on the one hand are humane. OD values tend to be humanistic. The rapid technological. and on the other hand are high performing in terms of productivity. values are never static. Evidence for this assumption comes from numerous examples where “putting people first” paid off handsomely in profits and performance. developmental set of assumptions about people is likely to reap rewards beneficial to both the organization and its members. assumptions and beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation.6 Summary The field of OD rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. This notion suggests it is good to have a developmental outlook and seek opportunities in which people can experience personal and professional growth. Finally. societal. Creating co-operative rather than competitive organizational dynamics is a primary task of the organization’s leaders. organizing structures. The belief that people are important tends to result in their being important." as behavioural scientists and managers continue to develop better understanding of authority structures. The implication is that people are an organization’s most important resource. optimistic and democratic.over the long run and highlight the need for a “win win” attitude. The belief that people can grow and develop in terms of personal and organizational competency tends to produce that result. This discussion was intended to articulate an appreciation of OD values and explain where they came from. quality of output. developmental. Values. they are the source of productivity and profits and should be treated with care. Self Assessment Questions
. These OD values were considered revolutionary when they emerged in the 1950s. they change over time. and organizational changes taking place assure that tomorrow will bring new definitions of what is "true" and new beliefs about what is "good. Values are also beliefs. By implication. an optimistic. Such an orientation creates a self-fulfilling prophecy. but are widely accepted today. beliefs and assumptions are cognitive facts. Values. Chronology of events in management and OD tremendously influenced OD practitioners. Concluding Comment: The field of organization development rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. 5. A key assumption in organization development is that the needs and aspirations of human beings are the reasons for organized effort in society. and profitability. and ways to optimize human potential. and empowering.
Douglas McGregor Answers to TQs: 1. 3. The outcome of –––––––– was that people were not cogs and organizations were not machines.3 3. Cognitive 2. 5.2 2. __________ is associated with scientific management. Hawthorne experiments 5.W. beliefs and assumptions. State the assumptions of Theory X and Theory Y. Refer section 5. Values. Taylor’s principles of scientific management. Refer section 5.7 Terminal Questions 1. What are values and assumptions developed by Richard Bechard in the field of organizational development? 5. The concept of –––––––––– was introduced by MaxWeber.1. 4. Write a note about F. Taylor 3. F. 3. values. beliefs. Bureaucracy 4. What was the outcome of Hawthorne Experiments? 4. 5. Define concepts.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. 2. and assumptions are all –––––––––– facts. _______________ gave theory X and theory Y. W. 2.3
. Refer section 5. 5.
126.96.36.199 Congruence among System Elements 188.8.131.52 Open Systems Thinking 6.2.4 Participation and Empowerment
.3 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer section 5.2 Beyond the Quick Fix 6.1 Introduction Objectives 6.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change 6.1 The Nature of Systems 6.3 5.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change 6. Refer section 5.2.3 Socio-technical Theory and Open Systems Planning 6.4.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends 6.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change 6.3 Systems Theory 6.3.
MU0002-Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development
Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Structure: 6.
12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 6.10 Summary 6. Objectives: After studying this unit.5 Teams and Teamwork 6.8 Applied Behavioural Science 6. · Realize the importance of teams and teamwork. · Explain normative-re-educative strategy of changing The knowledge base of OD is extensive and is constantly growing. · Explain the terms ‘participation’ and ‘empowerment’. Here we describe what we believe are the most important underpinnings for the field. · Describe the parallel learning structures.7 A Normative – Re-educative Strategy of Changing 6.1 Introduction This unit describes the foundations of organization development theory and practice. In this discussion.6 Parallel Learning Structures 6. Leaders and OD practitioners use this knowledge base to plan and implement effective change programs. you will learn what OD practitioners think and how they think as they engage in the complicated task of improving organizational functioning. We will examine the following concepts:
.11 Terminal Questions 6.9 Action Research Self Assessment Questions 6. · Explain systems theory.6. you will be able to: · Explain various models and theories of planned change. art and science which form the knowledge base upon which OD is constructed.
the status quo-whatever is happening right now-is the result of forces pushing in opposing directions.2. and specify the relationships among the variables. Several recent theories show great promise for increasing our understanding of what happens and how it happens in planned change. we can think of the level of morale in that plant as a resultant equilibrium point. we can think of the production level of a manufacturing plant as a resultant equilibrium point in a field of forces. Models and theories depict. The development of models of planned change facilitated the development of OD. The production level tends to remain fairly constant because the field of forces remains fairly constant. some forces pushing toward higher morale and some pushing toward lower morale. This concept is useful for thinking about the dynamics of change situations. in words or pictures. Planned change theories are rudimentary as far as explaining relationships among variables. That is.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change Organization development is planned change in an organizational context. Here we provide a framework for thinking about planned change by exploring several models from the literature. but pretty good for identifying the important variables involved. With a technique called the force-field analysis. it generally hovers around some equilibrium point that is the resultant in a field of forces.· Models and theories of planned change · Systems theory · Participation and empowerment · Teams and teamwork · Parallel and learning structures · A normative-re-educative strategy of changing · Action research 6. describe those features as variables. The first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change that have been influential since the 1940s. we can identify the major forces that make up the field of forces and then develop action plans for moving the equilibrium point in one direction or the other. the important features of some phenomenon. Although morale may get a little better or a little worse on occasion. Likewise. He suggested that change is a three-stage process:
. 6. Lewin’s second idea was a model of the change process itself. For example. with some forces pushing toward higher levels of production and some forces pushing toward lower levels of production.
change will not occur. Provision of psychological safety Stage 2: Changing through Cognitive Restructuring: Helping the client to see things. Next. b. Change entails moving from one equilibrium point to another. he must move.non-smoking becomes the new equilibrium point. moving to new level of behaviour. unfreezing. and react to things differently based on a new point of view obtained through a. disconfirmation creates pain and discomfort. Finally. A Three-Stage Model of the Change Process: Stage 1: Unfreezing: Creating motivation and readiness to change through a. Take the example of a man who smokes cigarettes and wants to quit. But unless the person feels comfortable with dropping the old behaviours and acquiring new ones. Lewin’s three-stage model is a powerful tool for understanding change situations. The three-stage model says he must first unfreeze the old behaviour of smoking. judge things. The total personality and self-concept. that is.Unfreezing the old behaviour (or situation). believe that cigarette smoking is bad for him and that he should stop smoking. the non-smoking behaviour must become permanent. that is.
. b. Refreezing the desired behaviour requires establishing a new field of forces to support the new behaviour. change his behaviour from being a smoker to being a non-smoker. That is. which cause guilt and anxiety. Refreezing the behaviour at the new level. Creation of guilt or anxiety c. the person must develop a sense of psychological safety in order to replace the old behaviours with new behaviours. mentor. Identifying with a new role model. feel things. In stage 1. Scanning the environment for new relevant information Stage 3: Refreezing: Helping the client to integrate the new point of view into a. Significant relationships. which motivate the person to change. Disconfirmation or lack of confirmation b. etc. Edgar Schein took this excellent idea and improved it by specifying the psychological mechanisms involved in each stage.
2. That is. This model has five sequential stages: 1) Initiating the program. refreezing. Phase 3: Clarifying or diagnosing the client system’s problem. and Bruce Westley. and attitudes.In stage 2. This phase corresponds to Lewin’s refreezing phase. These "road maps" are useful for thinking about change. The phrase significant relationships refer to important people in the person’s social environment-do these significant others approve of the changes? Another modification of Lewin’s model was proposed by Ronald Lippitt. Similar models have been developed by Kolb and Frohman and by Burke. identifying with ex-smokers and learning about the health risks of smoking. terminating the client-consultant relationship. This phase corresponds to Lewin’s unfreezing phase. 6. establishing goals and intentions of action. and 5 correspond ro Lewin’s moving phase. Jeanne Watson. This seven-stage model lays out the logical steps involved in OD consulting. Phase 5: Transforming intentions into actual change efforts. is to integrate the new behaviours into the person’s personality. This motivating evidence is gained by. Phase 2: Establishing a change relationship. Phases 3. and fit with the individual’s social surroundings. Their seven stages are as follows: Phase 1: Developing a need for change. 4. the person undergoes cognitive restructuring.2 Beyond the “Quick Fix” A comprehensive change model by Ralph Kilmann specifies the critical leverage points for organizational change. Phase 6: Generalizing and stabilizing change. Phase 7: Achieving a terminal relationship. Phase 4: Examining alternative routes and goals. They expanded the three-stage model into a seven-stage model representing the consulting process. that is. moving. for example.
. The primary task in stage 3. In this phase a client system in need of help and a change agent from outside the system establish a working relationship. stabilizing the changes requires testing to see if they fit-fit with the individual. The person acquires information and evidence showing that the change is desirable and possible.
Interventions include training programs. communication. 2) The management skills track.
. and willingness to change among members the conditions that must exist before any other improvement effort can succeed. 3) The team-building track. called "tracks. Change programs take from one to five years to complete. The management-skills track provides all management personnel with new ways of coping with complex problems and hidden assumptions. problem-solving sessions. 4) The strategy-structure track. Diagnosing the problems requires a thorough analysis of the problems and opportunities facing the organization. Scheduling and implementing the "tracks" involve intervening in five critical leverage points. These problems and opportunities will be the targets of later interventions. and so forth. information sharing." that. 4) Implementing the "tracks" 5) Evaluating the results. Kilmann describes the five tracks: What does each track do for the organization? The culture track enhances trust. The team-building track infuses the new culture and updated management skills into each work unit – thereby instilling co-operation organization-wide so that complex problems can be addressed with all the expertise and information available. Kilmann’s five tracks are: 1) The culture track. and 5) The reward system track. critique practices and procedures. when functioning properly. Initiating the program entails securing commitment from top management. 3) Scheduling the "tracks". cause the organization to be successful.2) Diagnosing the problems.
and beliefs that are enduring. The reward-system track establishes a performance-based reward system that sustains all improvements by officially sanctioning the new culture. This model shows how to create first-order and second-order change (which the authors call “transactional change” and “transformational change”). General Foods. radical. and so forth. the nature of the organization is fundamentally and substantially altered – the organization is transformed. and so forth. First-order change goes by many different labels: transactional. values. or discontinuous change. jobs. Kilmann has tested his model at AT&T. friendly or unfriendly. often unconscious. and all resources with the new strategic direction. and difficult to change.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change The next model to be examined is the Burke-Litwin model of individual and organizational performance. Westinghouse. and
. In first-order change. The model distinguishes between organizational climate and organizational culture. Second-order change goes by many different labels: transformational. 6. revolutionary. On the other hand. An OD consultant implements the tracks in a phased sequence. developed by Warner Burke and George Litwin. management practices. the use of updated management skills. Changing culture is much more difficult than changing climate. work groups. In second-order change. Eastman Kodak. some features of the organization change but the fundamental nature of the organization remains the same. then moving to the management skills track. Ford General Electric. or continuous change. and Xerox with good results. incremental. departments. then moving to the team-building track. evolutionary.2. its identification of the five tracks as critical leverage points.The strategy-structure track develops either a completely new or a revised strategic plan for the firm and then aligns divisions.and second-order change. The premise of the BurkeLitwin model is this: OD interventions directed toward structure. and co-operative team efforts within and among all work groups. and its holistic view of organization change and development. OD programs are directed toward both first. One likes this model because of its comprehensive nature. organizational culture is defined as deep-seated assumptions. TRW. with an increasing emphasis on second-order transformational change. hard-working or easy-going. beginning with the culture track. Organizational climate is defined as people’s perceptions and attitudes about the organizationwhether it is a good or bad place to work. adaptive. These perceptions are relatively easy to change because they are built on employees’ reactions to current managerial and organization practices.
leadership. Now let us look at the Burke-Litwin model. and systems cause changes in work unit climate.1: The Transactional Factors Involved in First – Order Change
. and organization culture result in second-order change. We will do so in several steps." Transformational leadership embodies inspiration which leads to new heights of performance. Transactional leadership is required to make this change in organizational climate. Transformational leadership is required for causing second-order change. individual and organizational performance. The model also makes a distinction between transactional and transformational leadership styles. Transformational leaders are "leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interest for the good of the organization and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers. Transactional leaders are "leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. which change motivation and.systems (policies and procedures) result in first-order change. Changing structure. in turn.
Fig. Transactional leadership is sufficient for causing first-order change. Following figure shows the factors involved in first-order (transactional) change. These two concepts come from leadership research which found that some leaders are capable of obtaining extraordinary performance from followers while other leaders are not." Transactional leadership embodies a fair exchange between leader and follower that leads to "normal" performance. 6. interventions directed toward mission and strategy. management practices.
and then targets interventions toward factors of the organization that produce the desired change. 6. The OD practitioner sizes up the change situation. and systems produce transactional change or change in organizational climate. mission and strategy.2: The Transformational Factors Involved in Second – Order Change On the other hand. these transformational processes are required for genuine change in the culture of an organization. that is. Research by Burke and his students suggests the model performs as intended. if we want to cause second-order (transformational) change. we must change mission and strategy. which produces changes in individual and organizational performance.Fig. These factors are powerful enough to change the culture fundamentally.” We consider the Burke-Litwin model to be a significant advance in thinking about planned change. The top half of figure displays the factors involved in transformational change. as shown in the above figure. structure. To summarize. and organization culture. These factors are able to change the climate. The second set of dynamics is concerned with processes of human transformation. The above two figures together yield the full Burke-Litwin model shown in the following figure. One set primarily is associated with the transactional level of human behaviour or the everyday interactions and exchanges that create the climate.
. and organization culture produce transformational change or fundamental change in the organization’s culture. Interventions directed toward management practices. The bottom half of figure displays the factors involved in transactional change. Burke and Litwin propose that interventions directed toward leadership. Interventions directed toward these factors transform the organization and cause a permanent change in organization culture. leadership styles. determines the kind of change required (transactional or transformational). sudden "leaps" in behaviour. Burke says: “Thus there are two distinct sets of organizational dynamics.
social factors.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change Jerry Porras and his associates developed a model of how organization development works.
. it is described in a discussion by Porras and Peter Robertson. Keep this framework in mind as you read the units on OD interventions because all interventions target one or more factors shown in figures. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements.
Fig. 6. management style. rewarded). OD interventions that focus on goals. Following figure shows the work setting in the larger organizational framework. The work setting plays a central role in this model and consists of four factors: organizing arrangements.Fig. which determine organizational performance and individual development. physical setting. required. Interventions that focus on job design and work flow design will affect technology. This model shows how OD interventions can be linked to factors in the work setting.3: The Burke Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change 6. Organizational change occurs only when individuals change their behaviour. The basic premise is that OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals’ behaviours. The premise modeled here is that work setting factors influence organizational members’ cognitions (they learn what is expected. and interaction processes will affect social factors. 6. and technology. and rewards will affect organizing arrangements. and these behaviour changes occur when elements of the work setting have been modified by OD interventions. which influence on-the job behaviours. For example.2. strategies. according to Porras and Robertson.4: Organizational Work-Setting Factors This model is extremely useful for OD practitioners and organizational leaders. It is how OD works. Interventions that focus on culture.
" Von Bertalanffy refers to a system as a set of "elements standing in interaction. Thus. 6. Systems theory is one of the most powerful conceptual tools available for understanding the dynamics of organizations and organizational change. that is the system. Fagen defines system as "a set of objects together with relationships between the objects and between their attributes.system. and shows how systems theory enhances the practice of OD. describes the characteristics of systems. when taking a systems approach. system denotes interdependency. and interrelatedness among elements in a set that constitutes an identifiable whole or gestalt.Fig. and Katz and Kahn were the first to apply open systems theory to organizations in 1966. which views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. This section explains systems theory. unitary whole composed of two or more interdependent parts." Hanna says: "A system is an arrangement of interrelated parts. or subsystems.
." Kast and Rosenzweig define system as "an organized.5: A Change-based Organizational Framework 6. components. one begins by identifying the individual parts and then seeks to understand the nature of their collective interaction. and delineated by identifiable boundaries from its environmental supra. Ludwig Von Bertalanffy first articulated the principles of general systems theory in 1950. interconnectedness. The words ‘arrangement’ and ‘interrelated’ describe interdependent elements forming an entity.3 Systems Theory A second foundation of organization development is systems theory." To summarize.
A good rule of thumb for drawing the boundary is that more energy exchange occurs within the boundary than across the boundary. All open systems are input-throughput-output mechanisms. we examine the characteristics of open systems drawing OD expositions by Katz and Kahn and Hanna. money. raw material and so on. Every system is delineated by a boundary.6: A System in Interaction with its Environment The law of entropy states that all systems “run down” and disintegrate unless they reverse the entropic process by importing more energy than they use. Open systems have purposes and goals. Organizations are open systems.3. Systems take inputs from the environment in the form of energy. or transformation processes that change the inputs. 6. resources. and if the environment does not want these outputs. information. They do something to the inputs via throughput. and what is outside the boundary is the environment. Here. the organization’s purposes will be reflected in its outputs. and they export products to the environment in the form of outputs. and characteristics of open systems are well-known. Each of these three system processes must work well if the system is to be effective and survive. dynamics. the reasons for their existence.
. people. conversion.6. Organizations achieve negative entropy when they are able to exchange their outputs for enough inputs to keep the system from running down. These purposes must align with purposes or needs in the environment. in that they permit exchange of information.
Fig. and energy between system and environment. What is inside the boundary is the system. Boundaries of open systems are permeable. Therefore.1 The Nature of Systems The nature. the organization will cease to exist. For example. studying open systems leads to a good understanding of organizations.
3. It is sometimes called deviation-amplifying feed back. Subsystems exist within larger systems. If the mission (target) changes. if a rocket ship traveling to the moon strays off its trajectory. negative and positive. By the same token. increased integration and co-ordination are necessary. but most are not useful. mining. and the system adjusts to a new goal. this process is called differentiation. the principle that there are multiple ways to arrive at a particular outcome or state – systems have multiple paths to goals. it receives information to that effect in the form of negative feedback. The three major input factors are:
. Positive feedback comes from the environment. "return to earth.2 Congruence among System Elements David Nadler and associates at Delta Consulting Group developed the congruence model for understanding organizational dynamics and change. Say your company makes buggy whips. These subsystems can be arranged into a hierarchy of systems moving from less important to more important. aerospace. Negative feedback measures whether or not the output is on course with the purpose and goals. eating fads. competitors. Another characteristic of open systems is steady state or dynamic homeostasis. specialized. differentiated. Systems are bombarded by all kinds of information: some are useful. With increased differentiation. either internal or external. It is also known as deviation-correcting feedback. organizations in the fast-food industry pay a lot of attention to information about their industry-nutrition. 6. Feedback is information from the environment about system performance. and so on. As Katz and Kahn say: “The basic principle is the preservation of the character of the system. The usefulness of the two concepts is that they demonstrate that it is not enough to merely measure our outputs versus the intended targets. and makes a course correction. and the production plan calls for 100 buggy whips per month. Negative feedback tells you if you are on track with your scheduled production output. Systems "code" useful information and incorporate it. that information is called positive feedback. Another characteristic of systems is equifinality. and the like. For example. Survival of the system is equally influenced by whether or not the targets themselves are appropriate. say. Systems require two kinds of feedback. systems tend to get more elaborated.” Also.Information is important to systems in several ways. while screening out other information. it will signal whether the environment needs and/or wants buggy whips. This model depicts the organization as an input-throughput-output system. and complex over time." Here is another example of negative and positive feedback. however. Systems achieve a steady state or equilibrium point and seek to maintain this equilibrium against disruptive forces. Positive feedback measures whether or not the purpose and goals are aligned with environmental needs. they usually ignore information about other industries such as electronics. For example.
which imposes constraints and opportunities about what the organization can and can not do. For example. which includes formal structures. formal organization. Outputs are performance at the total organization level. and how things really work (versus how they are supposed to work as defined by the formal organization). which includes skills. what the organization is trying to accomplish and how it plans to do it. performance will suffer." The premise is that alignment (harmony. unit/group level. .1) The environment. knowledge. Elements of the organization per se are labeled strategy. If the organization’s culture (informal organization) praises individual accomplishments and the work requires teamwork and collaboration. and 2) Evaluating the "goodness of fit" or how well the elements "go together. and the workforce’s expectations. You can use this model to analyze organizations with which you are familiar. performance will suffer. and 3) History which consists of memories of past successes. If the strategy calls for entrepreneurial quickness and risk-taking and the formal organization is bureaucratic and highly centralized. and individual level. people. failures. which components are "not functioning correctly. work. if people don’t have the skills and knowledge required to do the work. important events. performance will suffer. In a company that is performing poorly.7: The Congruence Model Showing the Organization as a System The congruence model’s value is as an analytical tool for: 1) Assessing the characteristics and functioning of each of the elements. 6. which includes the organization’s culture informal rules and understandings. such as capital. processes. 2) Resources available to the organization.
Fig. and technology. fit) must be present among the system’s components’ for the organization to produce satisfactory outputs. and critical decisions that still influence behaviour today. knowledge. perceptions. the tasks people perform to create products and service markets people. and systems for performing the work. and informal organization." and which elements
KI Jayaram. giving information and feedback to the people doing the work. Socio-technical systems theory was developed by Eric Trist. to the workers doing the job. It was the first attempt to help organizations methodically analyze the environmental demands and expectations placed on them and plan to successfully meet these demands and expectations.3 Socio-technical Systems Theory and Open Systems Planning Two major variations of open systems theory. STS is the principal conceptual foundation for efforts in work redesign and organization restructuring. two active segments of OD today. and information to the point of action. both realistic (likely to happen if the organization continues on its current course) and ideal (what the organization would like to see happen). To achieve high productivity and employee satisfaction. a social system and a technical system. 6. The thesis of STS is that all organizations are comprised of two interdependent systems.socio-technical systems theory (STS) and open systems planning (OSP)-play an important role in organization development. forming autonomous work groups. Charles Krone. and that changes in one system affect the other system. High-performance organizations almost always use principles from socio-technical systems theory. Open systems planning entails: 1) Scanning the environment to determine the expectations of external organizations and stake-holders. Another important application of systems theory in organization development is open systems planning. Principles such as optimizing the social and technical systems. G. training group members in multiple skills. and identifying core tasks help STS consultants structure organizations and tasks for maximum effectiveness and efficiency. 2) Developing scenarios of possible futures. and others at the Tavistock Institute in the 1950s. multi-skilled teams. A number of design principles have been developed to implement socio-technical systems theory. Fred Emery. controlling variance at the source. and Will McWhinney developed a technology for addressing the interface between organization and the environment. Their technology became known as Open systems Planning (OSP).are poorly aligned? In companies showing outstanding performance. what is it about each element that causes that part of the system to function well and what are the characteristics of each element that cause all of them to fit together smoothly? The congruence model is an excellent diagnostic tool. Systems models are essential for the practice of OD. organizations must optimize both systems. especially autonomous work groups (self-regulated teams or self-direct teams).3. that is. and
. Hanna writes: In the late 1960s a small team of consultants led by James Clark.
Viewing organizations from this perspective has several consequences. Fourth. according to field theory (Kurt Lewin). and incidents are not viewed as isolated phenomena. changing one part of a system influences other parts. systems thinking. Senge believes that five disciplines must be mastered to create a learning organization: personal mastery. it continually reminds us that the whole can exceed the sum of its parts. there is no motivation to look at how the disciplines interrelate. therefore. fusing them into a coherent body of theory and practice.4 Open Systems Thinking Open systems thinking is required for creating learning organizations. the forces in the field at the time of the event are the relevant forces for analysis. not just its component parts. By enhancing each of the other disciplines. is the most important. Participation in OD programs is not restricted to elites or the top people. team learning.4 Participation of Empowerment One of the most important foundations of organization development is a participation/ empowerment model. Second. Most OD practitioners engaged in redesign projects use a combination of socio-technical systems theory and open systems planning. Learning organizations can cope effectively with rapidly changing environmental demands. mental models. OD practitioners expect multiple effects. First. but seen in relation to other issues. one changes the system. building shared vision. For example. the fifth discipline. events. issues. Of all these disciplines. according to Peter Senge. not single effects. from their activities.3. this combination is often used in designing high-performance organizations. because most phenomena have more than one cause.” In conclusion. And fifth. He says of systems thinking: “It is the discipline that integrates the disciplines. Third. it is extended broadly throughout the organization. It keeps them from being separate gimmicks or the latest organization change fads. to change a system. a systems approach encourages analysis of events in terms of multiple causation rather than single causation. 6. events and forces. Increased participation and empowerment
. forces.3) Developing action plans to ensure that a desirable future occurs. Without a systemic orientation. systems theory pervades the theory and practice of organization development. This idea moves the practitioner away from analyzing historical events and toward examining contemporary events and forces. from diagnosis to intervention to evaluation. 6. and systems thinking.
To empower is to give someone power. the organic approach unleashes talent and energy in people that are best channeled by providing clear guidelines and boundaries. This research demonstrated that most people desire increased involvement and participation. Participation is a powerful elixir-it is good for people and performance. The entire field of OD is about empowerment. They must see themselves as having freedom and discretion. is the more useful perspective." These authors believe the organic view. to exert influence." is a top-down delegation of decision-making with clear boundaries and strict accountability that increases managerial control." direct leaders to push decision-making lower in the organization. and change. Robert Quinn and Gretchen Spreitzer found two vastly different views of empowerment. The most important contrast between the two views involves the implicit but potentially volatile assumptions people make about trust and contro1. then. The other view. and empowerment in turn enhances performance and individual well-being. called "organic. Rules of thumb such as "Involve all those who are part of the problem or part of the solution. team building. But both views contain valid ideas: for example. quality of work life programs. and to be responsible. OD interventions are basically methods for increasing participation. employees must choose to be empowered. and the culture audit are all predicated on the belief that increased participation will lead to better solutions. is not something that management does to employees. Research on group dynamics began in the 1940s and achieved exponential growth in the 1950s and 1960s. but rather a mind-set that employees have about their roles in the organization. and greatly enhance acceptance of decisions." is bottom-up and less controlling." and "Have decisions made by those who are closest to the problem. and growth. reduce stress levels. For example. and give more power to more people. They describe the organic view: "The other group of executives saw empowerment much differently. quality circles. While management can create a context that is more empowering. with its emphasis on risk-taking. personal initiative. they must if personally connected to
. autonomous work groups. produce better solutions to problems. They believed that it was about risk-taking. Further. One view. treat those closest to the problem as the relevant experts. which is done by giving individuals the authority to make decisions. and generally make people feel better about themselves and their worlds. Participation is an especially effective form of empowerment. Empowerment meant trusting people and tolerating their imperfections. increase commitment to the organization. survey feedback. Researchers found that group dynamics work to overcome resistance to change. search conferences. These pillars of OD practice are validated by both research and practice. Participation enhances empowerment. involvement and participation energize greater performance. to contribute their ideas. Quinn and Spreitzer conclude: “Empowerment. OD interventions are deliberately designed to increase involvement and participation by organization leaders and members.have always been central goals and fundamental values of the field. which they call "mechanistic. growth.
the noun team has become a verb. teams at 3M generate the hundreds of innovations that keep 3M ahead of its competition. systems. "The evidence is abundantly clear: Effective teams produce results far beyond the performance of unrelated individuals. HPOs (high-performance organizations). crossfunctional "design-build" teams developed the Boeing 777. Teams and teamwork are "in. people must work together to accomplish them. The message of this section is that putting those empowered individuals into teams creates extraordinary effects on performance and satisfaction. teams create synergy. teaming. STS (socio-technical systems). and capable of having an impact on the system in which they are embedded. status. processes. Team Taurus developed Ford’s best-selling automobile. Teams and teamwork are part of the foundation of organization development. QCs (quality circles). process consultation. Theory. the sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of the individual efforts of people working alone. Examples are team-building.” 6.
. as a team. and relationships if they are to be effective.the organization. Team Saturn produced the Saturn automobile. confident about their abilities. Teams are important for a number of reasons: First. A second fundamental belief is that teams must manage their culture. that is. to name just a few. Third. Fourth. research. recognition. The previous discussion focused on empowerment and concluded that the act of empowering individuals greatly increased their performance and satisfaction. much individual behaviour is rooted in the socio-cultural norms and values of the work team. teams satisfy people’s needs for social interaction. HPWSs (high-performance work systems). Teams at Motorola produced its bestselling cellular phones. changes those norms and values. Synergy is a principal reason teams are so important. quality circles. If the team. and team-related acronyms abound-SDTs (self-directed teams). many tasks are so complex they cannot be performed by individuals. the effects on individual behaviour are immediate and lasting. Teams and teamwork are among the "hottest" things happening in organizations today – gurus extol the virtues of teams. we examine the potential of teams and teamwork. and practice attest to the central role teams play in organizational success. Second. A number of OD interventions are specifically designed to improve team performance. and explore ways to realize that potential. inter-group team-building. In this section. and respectteams nurture human nature.5 Team and Teamwork A fundamental belief in organization development is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations.
elevating goal 2) A results-driven structure 3) Competent team members 4) Unified commitment 5) A collaborative climate 6) Standards of excellence 7) External support and recognition Principled leadership. heart transplant surgical teams. to determine the characteristics that make them successful. Investigators are discovering why some teams are successful while others are not. empowered teams are what the best organizations are using right now to outdistance the competition. Grid OD and techniques such as role analysis technique. Larson and LaFasto studied a number of high-performance teams. Teams periodically hold team-building meetings. that they achieve synergy. find innovative ways around barriers. The net effect is that teams perform at increasingly higher levels. Organizations using autonomous work groups or self-directed teams devote considerable time and effort to ensure that team members possess the skills to be effective groups. Union Pacific Railroad. All these characteristics are required for superior team performance.parallel learning structures. and set ever-higher goals. including collegiate football national champions. temporary teams. help each other. and individuals are trained as group leaders and group facilitators. and that teamwork becomes more satisfying for team members. and others. Larson and LaFasto also discovered that the most frequent cause of team failure was letting personal or political agendas take precedence over the clear and elevating team goal. Tom Peters asserts in Liberation Management that cross-functional. He uses examples from EDS (Electronic Data Systems). Larson and LaFasto found eight characteristics always present: 1) A clear. Asea Brown Boveri. and the like. autonomous. When any one feature is lost. and responsibility charting. These interventions apply to formal work teams as well as startup teams. socio-technical systems programs. High-performance teams regulate the behaviour of team members. Team-building activities are now a way of life for many organizations. cross-functional teams. team performance declines. the crew of the USS Kitty Hawk.
. people are trained in group dynamics and group problem-solving skills. role negotiation technique.
and countless other organizations to demonstrate the ability of small project teams to produce high quality. talking. you don’t have a parallel structure. and high accountability drive these project teams to outperform traditional organization structures on every measurable dimension. Most socio-technical systems redesign efforts and open systems planning programs use parallel structures. Bushe and Shani say: “The key thing about parallel structures is that they create a bounded space and time for thinking. and acting differently than normally takes place at work. It isn’t the supplemental structure that’s important. specially created organizational structures for planning and guiding change programs. clear objectives. Parallel learning structures are a foundation of OD because they are prevalent in so many different OD programs. projects will be performed by teams. constitute another important foundation of organization development. and initiate needed changes. engage in genuine inquiry and experimentation. and then leading the process. If you don’t implement different norms and procedures.” The purpose of the collateral organization is to deal with "ill-structured" problems the formal organization is unable to resolve. High responsibility.” Parallel structures help people break free of the normal constraints imposed by the organization. High-performance organizations often use parallel structures to co-ordinate self-directed teams. 6. and continuous learning.Titeflex. The most important and difficult task for the people creating the parallel learning structure is to create a different culture within it. especially when the change involves a fundamental shift in the organization’s methods of work and/or culture. The quality of work life programs of the 1970s and 1980s used parallel structures composed of union leaders. managers. and employees. superior customer service.7 A Normative – Re-educative Strategy of Changing
. a steering committee and working groups were used to co-ordinate the employee involvement teams. Dale had introduced this concept in 1974 under the label collateral organization and defined it as “a supplemental organization coexisting with the usual formal organization. Interestingly. Parallel learning structures are often the best way to initiate change in large bureaucratic organizations. flexible response. normal hierarchical considerations become obsolete for these project teams-you could be the boss of one team. At Ford Motor Company. Projects are the work of the future. 6. deciding. Considerable experimentation with collateral organizations occurred in the 1970s and 1980s.6 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel learning structures. What’s important is that people act in a way that promotes learning and adaptation. In essence. The charge to members of the parallel learning structure is to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. and report to one of your subordinates on another team. parallel structures are a vehicle for learning how to change the system.
will follow their rational self-interest. and OD is based primarily on a normative-re-educative strategy and secondarily on a rational-empirical strategy. and significant relationships. skills. and change comes through re-education in which old norms are discarded and supplanted by new ones. although often OD represents a combination of the normative-reeductive and the empirical-rational strategies. relationships and customary ways of doing things. These strategies build upon assumptions about human motivation different from those underlying the first. Patterns of action and practice are supported – by socio-cultural norms and by commitments on the part of the individuals to these norms. The rationality and intelligence of men are not denied. The point here is that different strategies are available for effecting change. attitudes. The client system members define what changes and improvements they want to make. Anything hindering effective problem solving is brought to light and publicly examined. that is. based on the assumption that change is compliance of those who have less power with the desires of those who have are power. rather than the OD practitioner. the practitioner intervenes in a collaborative way with the clients. based on the assumptions that norms form the basis for behaviour. Sociocultural norms are supported by the attitude and value systems of individuals-normative outlooks which undergird their commitments. and they give more options to both the clients and the practitioner. and together they define problems and seek solutions. and it rests on a particular strategy for change that has implications for practitioners and organization members alike. information.Organization development involves change. strategy has the following implications for the practice of OD. And changes in normative orientations involve changes in attitudes. The first type is empirical rational strategies. Chin and Benne indicate the nature of the normative-reductive strategy as follows: A second group of strategies we call normative-re-educative. Chin and Benne suggest that a normative-re-educative. anxieties. The third set of strategies is the power-coercive strategies. will occur only as the persons involved are brought to change their normative orientations to old patterns and develop commitments to new ones. according to this view. based on the assumptions that people are rational. and will change if and when they come to realize change is advantageous to them. Change in a pattern of practice or action. not just changes in knowledge. and’ negative feelings are surfaced for "working through. values." Solutions to problems are not a priori assigned to greater technical information but may reside in values.
. Chin and Benne describe three types of strategies for changing. The norms to be changed and the form of re-education are decided by the client system members. These implications give clients considerable control over the situation. or intellectual rationales for action and practice. The second group of strategies is normative-re-educative strategies. Evaluated against these three change strategies. doubts. they impel a collaborative effort rather than a "doing something to" effort. OD clearly falls within the normativere-educative category.
" Both diagnosis and treatment consist of observing a situation and. placing it in a classification scheme or typology. applied science or practice. i. OD is the application of behavioural science knowledge. and (2) "technology." applied science. the treatment typology allows the practitioner to know what remedial efforts to apply to correct the problem. The practitioner uses treatment as the empirical test of his diagnosis. Each type description of the diagnostic typology contains implications for a certain type of treatment. hopefully. OD practitioners know about these patterns through research and theory. success corroborating the diagnosis. with their elaborations and implications constitute practice theory. by modifying a group norm or standards. The principles of diagnosis and of treatment constitute the principles of practice. the object of which is knowledge to solve practical. on the basis of which he or she prescribes a solution that. behavioural science knowledge. This process is customarily referred to as diagnosis and treatment. norms can best be changed by focusing on the group. The aim of this discussion is to look briefly at how behavioural science knowledge becomes applied behavioural science knowledge. and skills in ongoing systems in collaboration with system members. A conventional distinction is made between (1) "pure" or basic science. Burke writes: “If one attempts to change an attitude or the behaviour of an individual without attempting to change the same attitude or behaviour in the group to which the individual belongs. thereby solving the problem.8 Applied Behavioural Science This foundation of OD relates to the primary knowledge base of the field.” Norms help determine individual behaviour and a normative-re-educative strategy of changing pervades the practice of OD. not the individual. On this point. pressing problems. 6..”
. then the individual will be a deviate and either will come under pressure from the group to get back into line or will be rejected entirely. Greenwood discusses the activities of the practitioner as follows: "The problem that confronts a practitioner is customarily a state of disequilibrium that requires rectification. the major leverage point for change is at the group level. re-establishes the equilibrium.Because norms are socially accepted beliefs held by groups about appropriate and inappropriate behaviours. for example. The practitioner examines the problem situation.e. practices. OD emphasizes the latter. the object of which is knowledge for its own sake. on the basis of selected variables. Greenwood states: “The diagnostic and treatment typologies are employed together. The diagnostic typology allows the practitioner to know what category of situation he or she has examined. Although human behaviour in organizations is far from an exact science. or practice. lawful patterns of events produce effectiveness and ineffectiveness. failure negating it and thus requiring re-diagnosis. Thus.
From this "practice theory. Action research is especially well-suited for planned change programs. and doing or implementing change efforts.” Concluding Comments:
.9 Action Research The action research model – a data-based. problem-solving method that replicates the steps involved in the scientific method of inquiry underlies most OD activities. It is a type of action-research. I am inclined to hold the opposite to be true. Kurt Lewin. and finally evaluating the effects of the treatments. and research leading to social action… This by no means implies that the research needed is in any respect less scientific or "lower" than what would be required for pure science in the field of social events. The two bottom inputs. and action planning based on the data. the two top in puts. had this to say about it: “The research needed for social practice can best be characterized as research for social management or social engineering. behavioural science research and two behavioural science theory. perhaps more accurately.8: Composition of Applied Behavioural Science Organization development is both a result of applied behavioural science and a. then selecting and implementing treatments based on the diagnosis. 6.
Fig. 6. a comparative search on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action. form of applied behavioural science. who developed the concept of action research. represent contributions from applied science. represent contributions from pure or basic science. feedback of the data to the client system members. Action research is a method that combines learning and doing – learning about the dynamics of organizational change." the OD practitioner works: first diagnosing the situation. Action research involves three processes: data collection. practice research and practice theory. it is a program of applying behavioural science to organizations.
_____________ means sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of individual efforts of members. –––––––––– means moving to new level of behaviour. Ralph Kilmann specified the critical leverage points for organizational change. 6. –––––––––– gave the model “Beyond the Quick Fix”. Action research model combines learning and doing. they constitute the beginning of a theory of organization development and change that has enormous potential for improving organizational performance and individual development.
. 2. A _____________ is defined as “a set of elements standing in interaction. In parallel learning structures members have to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. each is a powerful conceptual tool for thinking out and implementing change. 3. 2. Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change the first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces and the second is the model of the change process. Explain Kurt Lewin’s models and theories of planned organizational change. Self Assessment Questions 1. 3. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements is the principle of Porras and Robertson model organizational change. First—order change is also called ___________. What are first-order and second order change according to Burke-Litwin Model of organizational change? Explain. 6. OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals’ behaviours. Bring out the essence of “managing beyond the quick fix” model of organizational development.11 Terminal Questions 1.” 5.10 Summary The foundations of organizational development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. Systems theory views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. Taken collectively. A fundamental belief in OD is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. The Burke-Litwin model emphasized on first-order and second-order change.These foundations of organization development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. 4. Taken separately.
2.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture
.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.2.3 4. Synergy Answers to TQs: 1. Ralph Kilmann 3. Refer section 6.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . 6.3 5. Refer section 6. System 5.1 Introduction Objectives 7. What are the features of systems theory of organizational development? 5. Transactional change 4.2 3.2.1 2.Refer section 6.” Comment on this statement. Refer section 6. “Work teams are building blocks of organizational development. Refer section 6. Unfreezing 2.
Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Structure: 7.4.
organizational culture is the personality of the organization. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. Objectives: After studying this unit.1 Introduction Basically. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving. You can tell the culture of an organization by looking at the arrangement of furniture.
.6 Summary 7. what they brag about.5 Developing and changing Organization Culture Self Assessment Questions 7. the culture of a large. · Describe different types of Organization Culture · Explain organization culture and effectiveness.7. 1986). or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. Practitioners are coming to realize that. values. but everyone knows it when they sense it. 7. for-profit corporation is quite different than that of a hospital which is quite different than that of a university. but also changing the corporate culture as well. etc.7 Terminal Questions 7. Martin and Meyerson. what members wear. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. you will be able to: · Understand Organization Culture. For example. Culture is one of those terms that’s difficult to express distinctly. discovered.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness 7. The concept of culture is particularly important when attempting to manage organization-wide change. organizational change must include not only changing structures and processes. despite the best-laid plans. Members of an organization soon come to sense the particular culture of an organization. Culture is comprised of the assumptions.3 Types of Organization Culture. thinking. – similar to what you can use to get a feeling about someone’s personality.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 7. norms and tangible signs (artifacts) of organization members and their behaviors.
4. Some of the most readily agreed upon are the following: 1. They often have well-defined policies. Philosophy: These are policies that set forth the organization’s beliefs about how employees and/or customers are to be treated. Rules: There are strict guidelines related to getting along in the organization. Market The Market organization also seeks control but does so by looking outward. When organizational participants interact with one another. do not do too little?” 3.· Discuss about developing and changing organization culture. New-comers must learn those “ropes” in order to be accepted as full-fledged members of the group. terminology. Observed behavioral regularities. but one where all transactions. 6. 7. they use common language. 2. including guidelines on how much work to do. Organizational climate: This is an overall “feeling” that is conveyed by the physical layout. Note that the Market organization is not one which is focused just on marketing. 7. Which in many organizations come down to “Do not do too much. Norms. processes and procedures. the way participants interact. Hierarchies have respect for position and power. Typical examples are high product quality. For many years. internal and external are viewed in market
. Dominate value: These are major values that the organization advocates and expects the participants to share.3 Types of Organization Culture Hierarchy The hierarchy has a traditional approach to structure and control that flows from a strict chain of command as in Max Weber’s original view of bureaucracy. Hierarchical leaders are typically coordinators and organizers who keep a close eye on what is happening. 5. and in particular taking note of transaction cost.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture Organizational culture has a number of important characteristics. this was considered the only effective way of organizing and is still a basic element of the vast majority of organizations. and the way members of the organization conduct themselves with customers or other outsiders. Standards of behavior exist. and rituals related to deference and demeanor. Low absenteeism and high efficiency.
shared goals. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. supportive way and may take on a parental role. Rather than strict rules and procedures. value flows between people and stakeholders with minimal cost and delay. Market cultures are outward looking. Clan leaders act in a facilitative. culture is like the DNA of an organization. In contrast to Hierarchies. 1993). clans often have flat organizations and people and teams act more autonomousl. Rules. do still exist and are often communicated and inculcated socially. Leaders in market cultures are often hard-driving competitors who seek always to deliver the goods. big-bang projects and development. Adhocracy The Adhocracy has even greater independence and flexibility than the Clan. It will use prototyping and experimenting rather than long. strongly driven by loyalty to one another and the shared cause. 7. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of
. It has an inward focus and a sense of family and people work well together.terms. outputs and outcomes. Leaders in an adhocracy are visionary. It may be defined as the ethos of a company (as US firms do) or the shared value and team sprit (as European firms prefer to define it). the adhocracy will rapidly form teams to face new challenges. One culture could be distinguished from another in terms of how some commonly shared human problems are addressed and the specific solutions that one sought (Trompenaars. 1995) and how problems are solved in an organization. people are driven through vision. which is necessary in a rapidly changing business climate. discovered. Clan The Clan organization has less focus on structure and control and a greater concern for flexibility.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness It is reflected in how things are done (Flanagan. but critical to shaping its behavior. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. invisible to the naked eye. Transactions are exchanges of value. innovative entrepreneurs who take calculated risks to make significant gains. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. Where market success goes to those with greatest speed and adaptability. In an efficient market organization. In biological terms. although not necessarily documented. affecting the performance of every-one within the culture in positive or negative ways.
Martin and Meyerson. Though an organization espouses a series of values. various terms such as efficiency. Values evolve out of the basic assumption and form the core (or heart) of the culture. symbols. rules. · The observable behavior of its members (the way they talk. Values: These are the social principles. or standards held by members of an organization. Identifying. thinking. Thus.the informal rules of the fame telling employees what they are supposed to be saying. individually and collectively. goals. 1986). its core value are limited to a few in number. communicating. · Its rituals. and shaping organization values is difficult as values relate more to employee emotions and feeling (affective dimension) than to their rational thinking (cognitive dimension) Norms: These are a significant element of the organization’s social environment and evolve of behavior. IBM norms dictate that employees should actively listen and respond to customer demands and complaints. plaques. · Public documents it releases and media reports and stories about it. They are reflected in the core capabilities of a company. Though a large volume of literature is available on the concept and working of organizational effectiveness. For example. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. reflecting what is important in the organization and determining how the organization ought to be (the ethos. and what is right and what is wrong. the way they dress etc. systems and subsystems. Organization Effectiveness Organizational effectiveness. norms. there is often contradiction in various approaches. the jargon they use.perceiving. believing. is defined and conceptualized in different ways. and doing. The set of basic assumptions evolve into values artifacts and norms in terms of which an organization culture may be examined and understood. productivity. and no unanimity is found in different approaches. Artifacts: The visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization such as: · Its structure.
. These are the essential and enduring tenets of an organization. etc. also called as organizational success or growth. from the basis of its policies and action. the personality of the organization). and procedures. and are generally not compromised for short-term benefits or financial gains. The various approaches are judgmental and open to question.
This is one part of effectiveness that many managers overlook because it emphasis long-term potential as well as short-term performance. intervening and end result. performance goals.profitability. and behaviour. and earnings. business and leadership strategies. and decision-making. The intervening variables may be divided into two broad categories: (i) the intervening attitudinal. According to Likert.g. Causal Variables: Causal variables are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. Whatever the criteria adopted for organizational effectiveness. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and its management. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and management’s policies. decisions. 1.. communication. These variables have been classified by Likert into three groups-causal. costs. Grouping variables into these categories aids greatly in the correct interpretation of the data and their use for diagnostic and other purposes. the process usually involves some version of the following steps:
. motivational. Likert states that the intervening variables reflect the internal state and health of the organization. Though each individual’s effectiveness is significant but perhaps the most important aspect of effectiveness is its relationship to the entire organization. 3. Many of these variables are caused by causal variables. there are numerous variables. and perceptual cluster. 2. Intervening variables are concerned with building and developing the organization. motivations. the organizational analysis is incomplete for a practicing manager unless the factors underlying effectiveness are identifying. end-result variables are the dependent variables which reflect the achievements in the organization such as its productivity. Likert states that causal variables are independent variables which determine the course of developments within an organization and the results achieved by the organization. scrap loss. to denote organizational effectiveness. attitudes. and (ii) the intervening behavioral cluster. Intervening Variables: Intervening variables are those factors which are reflected as the internal state of organization. End – result Variables: End-result variable are those factors which are caused by causal and intervening variable and are often in terms of the factors in which managers are interested or measure their effectiveness. e.5 Developing and Changing Organization Culture How Organizational Cultures Start Although organizational cultures can develop in a number of different ways. the loyalties. and they tend to be long-term goals.which are useful in discussing organizational effectiveness over time. skills. 7. and perceptions of all members and their collective capacity for effective interaction. are often used interchangeably. These causal variables include only those independent variables which can be altered or changed by the organization and its management. From this point of view. organizational growth.
A single person (founder) has an idea for a new enterprise. and whether products and/or services are involved. These factors from the two cultures include the size. management. For example. the geographic location. Even through some firms have had a culture in place to anticipate change. Where does the power and managerial decision making really reside? Corporate cultures range from autocratic extremes to total employee empowerment. 3. and energy that will be required. The case of Mergers and Acquisitions The clash between the two cultures in a merger or acquisition can be focused into three major areas: 1. obtaining patents. the current environmental context has undergone drastic change and either the organization must adapt to these new conditions or it may not survive. powerful stakeholders such as unions. 2. is worth running some risks for. and a common history begins to be built. if the appropriate organization culture is in place. However. and is worth the investment of time. The founding core group beings to act in concert to create an organization by raising funds. 2. others are brought into the organization. relationships. In addition. At this point. is workable. and so on. Politics. 4.
. Changing Organizational Culture Sometimes an organization determines that its culture has to be changed. That is. New product development and information technology is changing so rapidly that any example would be soon out-of –date. money. age. and how this plays out among the partners will be important to cultural compatibility. all in this core group believe that the idea is a good one. moving to a new culture or changing old cultures can be quite difficult: a case can even be made that it really can’t be done successfully?. the industry in which the partners come from and now reside.1. locating space. building. The founder brings in one or more other key people and creates a core group that shares a common vision with the founder. Staffs. incorporating. roles. Predictable obstacles include entrenched skills. then such rapid change can be welcomed and accommodated with as little disruption and as few problems as possible. Structure. and history of two firms. or even customers may support the existing culture. and structures that work together to reinforce traditional cultural patterns.
Set realistic goals that impact on the bottom line. Self Assessment Questions 1. Emotions. Stay the course by being persistent. Move quickly and decisively to build momentum and to defuse resistance to the new culture. 1. Make changes from the top down. so that a consistent message is delivered from all management team members. 7. The personal feelings. Take out all trappings that remind the personnel of the previous culture. 3. organizational cultures can be managed and changed over time. habits. 2. 7. 4. if possible. and patterns of daily behavior. 6. so that they are able to interact well with the organizational personnel. ___________are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. Simple guidelines such as the following can be helpful.6 Summary
. commitment. ________cultures are outward looking. Assess the current culture. This attempt to change culture can take many different forms. 9. especially when making changes in rules and processes. take these losses early. 2.3. Include employees in the culture change process. _____are the visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization. Recruit outside personnel with industry experience. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. These emotions will be a major input into the clash or compatibility of the two cultures. 3. Expect to have some problems and find people who would rather move than change with the culture and. 5. Guidelines for change Despite the significant barriers and resistance to change. 8. attitudes. the “culture contract” that individuals have bought into to guide their day-to-day thoughts.
Organizations to be successful must be efficient and effective. 7. 3. Refer section 7. 2. Causal variables Answers to TQs: 1. Explain the characteristics of organization culture.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Refer section 7. Factors in organizational effectiveness include casual variables. 7.Organizational effectiveness is the degree to which organization is successful in accomplishing its goals.2 2. Discuss the development and change of organizational development.
. intervening variables and end-result variables and there exists interrelationship among these variables.goal approach. Finally. and strategic constituencies approach. Artifacts 2. behavioural approach. Effectiveness of an organization can be increased through economic man approach and administrative man approach. effectiveness through adaptive-coping cycle has been discussed. Briefly explain different types of organizational culture.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Market 3.7 Terminal Questions 1. Organizational effectiveness can be measured through various approaches.3 3. Refer section 7. system-resource approach.
1 Introduction Objectives 8. That criticism was essentially correct for many years although it is less valid
.8 Acquiring and using Power Skills Self Assessment Questions 8. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 8. As Warner Burke observes: "Organization development signifies change.9 Summary 8.7 Operating in a Political Environment 8. power must be exercised. and for change to occur in an organization.1 Introduction
Power and politics.Power.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored 8.MU0002-Unit-08Power.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice of OD 8. indisputable facts of organizational life.2 Power Defined and Explored 8. In this unit. Politics and Organization Development Structure: 8.3 Two Faces of Power 8.10 Terminal Questions 8.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power 8. we examine power and politics in relation to organization development.” Organization development has been criticized for not taking into account power in organizations. Organization Development
Unit-08. must be understood if one is to be effective in organizations.
” “A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would otherwise not do. humankind would not have the standard of living it does today. Without leadership (power) in medical. you will be able to: · Define power and politics in organizations. confiscation. the necessity of social interaction between two or more parties." Analyzing these definitions shows some common elements: effectance-getting one’s way. Objectives: After this studying this unit. Recent years have seen a sizable outpouring of theory and research on power and politics from which OD practitioners have derived implications and applications for the field but we are still in the early stages of knowing how power and organization development should be related. The phenomenon of power is ubiquitous. but kinetic power is the act of doing so. and repression.actions and the decisions that precede them. One goal of this unit is to advance our understanding of the role of power in OD and the role of OD in a power setting." "Power is defined in this unit simply as the capacity to effect (or affect) organizational outcomes. Without influence (power) people would have no cooperation and no society.today. Potential power is the capacity to do so. The French word ‘pouvoir’ stands for both the noun ‘power’ and the verb ‘to be able.2 Power Defined and Explored "Power is the intentional influence over the beliefs. spiritual. Without leadership (power) directed toward warfare. 8. the act or ability of influencing others." “Power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. One person exerts power over another to the degree that he is able to exact compliance as desired. · Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. and organizational activities. and behaviours of people. political. Power-in-action may
. and outcomes favoring one party over the other. humankind would not have much of the misery it does today. emotions. to effect outcomes. We therefore define interpersonal power as the ability to get one’s way in a social situation. technological. financial. · Explain theories about the sources of power. · Acquire skills to handle power and politics in organizations.’ To have power is to be able to get desired things done.
however. it is through the use of power that things get done in the world. Patchen studied organizational decision making and found that coercive tactics were "noticeable chiefly by their absence" while problem solving and consensus seeking were much more prevalent. How do some people come to possess power? How is power generated. for organizations to function." Her research in four organizations showed both kinds of power. In most organizations the positive face of power is much more prevalent than the negative face of power. being exercised. coercing-these are examples of negative uses of power." · Salancik and Pfeffer’s "Strategic-Contingency Model of Power. with collective. not the possession of power as such. It is especially salient in coordinated activities such as those found in organizations. or acquired? In this unit. The negative face of power seeks to dominate and control others. 8. In fact. This positive face of power enables others to reach their goals as well as lets the person exercising power reach his or her goals. absolute power corrupts absolutely. suggests that many problems with power stem from the goals of persons with power and the means they use. We think this distinction provides a good insight into the concept of power." A moment’s reflection. Crushing. influencing. power being the predominant mode. and lead. Power per se is probably neither good nor bad although Lord Acton observed that "power tends to corrupt. bestowed.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power Power exists in virtually all social situations. we will examine four different views about who gets power and how: · Emerson’s "Power-Dependence theory. Leading. The positive face of power is characterized by a socialized need to initiate." · French and Raven’s "Bases of Social Power.take many forms. unsocialized need to dominate others.3 Two Faces of Power David McClelland proposed an important distinction when he identified "two faces of power" – positive and negative. the negative face of power is characterized by a primitive. McClelland observed that while power has a negative connotation for most people. 8." · Mintzberg’s Observations on the Genesis of Power in Organizations. persuading-these are examples of positive uses of power. selling. influence. Roberts came to a similar conclusion in her study of "collective power" and "competitive power.
. According to him. or positive. both positive and negative. an authority or power dimension is required. forcing. hurting. the positive face of power seeks to empower self and others.
we will continue the exchange relationship. influence. Expert power – power based on the powerholder possessing expert knowledge or expertise needed by the other. In this theory. attraction. Richard Emerson states that "the dependence of Actor A upon Actor B is (1) directly proportional to A’s motivational investment in the goals mediated by B." These authors suggested five sources. giving someone power over us is the commodity we exchange when we are dependent on that person for something we want. Coercive power – power based on the ability of the powerholder to punish another. 2. and so forth. and desired by the other. 4. or feeling of oneness with) the power holder. Viewed in this light. goals. 5.
. of social power as follows: 1. that is. French and Bertram Raven on "the bases of social power. which posits that what goes on between persons is an exchange of social commodities: love. We enter into and continue in exchange relationships when what we receive from others is equivalent to or in excess of what we must give to others. Reward power – power based on the ability of the powerholder to reward another. rejection. power. Legitimate power – power based on everyone’s belief that the powerholder has a legitimate right to exert influence and that the power-receiver has a legitimate obligation to accept the influence. respect. that person has power over us. Power-dependence theory is related to a broader framework of social interaction called social exchange theory. praise. Informational power is a form of expert power where the powerholder possesses important facts or information needed by the other." In other words. we will terminate or alter the relationship. rewards) that are controlled by one party. when the net balance for us is negative. hate.Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. 3. Social interaction represents an exchange of social goods and services. power belongs to those persons who control or mediate desired commodities. P. The components of this theory are a social relation between two parties and resources (commodities. Closely related to these ideas is the classic statement by John R. that is. or bases. When the net balance for us is positive. Referent power – power based on the power-receiver having an identification with (attraction to. to give something valued by the other. information. if a person has something we want badly and we cannot get it any other place. to give something negatively valued by the other. blame. Exchange theory and power-dependence theory are quite compatible with the ideas proposed by French and Raven. and (2) inversely proportional to the availability of those goals to A outside of the A-B relation. The sociologist.
or information. Henry Mintzberg has developed a theory of organizational power drawn from the organization theory literature and his own creative synthesis abilities.others-in this case. In summary." The three basic conditions for the exercise of power are 1) Some source or basis of power. This theory. units. control of a resource." These authors view organizational power as a good thing. called influencers. coupled with 2) The expenditure of energy in a 3) Politically skillful way. and so forth. supports the notion that those who have something highly valued by. All of these must be critical to the organization. According to Mintzberg. or departments) most important for solving the organization’s most critical problems. seek to control the organization’s decisions and actions. such as the board of directors. control of a technical skill. the influencer must have both the "will" and the "skill" to use it.
. to enhance their own survival through control of scarce critical resources. third. An organization has many potential influencers. the five possible bases of power are. The important aspects of Mintzberg’s theory are that the sources of power derive from possession of a commodity desired by others. used by all who have it. suppliers. The resources may be ability to reward and punish. regulators. being in control of critical skills. A fifth basis of power is access to those who have power based on the first four bases. these four views of the sources of power are remarkably similar – power stems from possession of or mediation of desired resources. for power in the hands of the critical problem solvers helps the organization cope with the various realities it faces. first. through the placement of allies in key positions. and. knowledge. indeed. like the ones discussed previously. second. the employees. Salancik and Pfeffer further suggest how power is used: "Power is used by subunits. The fourth basis is legal prerogatives-being given exclusive rights to impose choices. In addition to a base of power. and that the organization is the context for the exercise of power. the special expertise needed for the organization’s survival-have power. and through the definition of organizational problems and policies. the top executives. the managers. the unions. customers. These critical problems are generally "uncertainties" posed by the environment. control of a body of knowledge. the ability to solve critical problems or exigencies-anything that creates dependence of one actor or set of actors on another. that power-in-action requires will and skill.The strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power in organizations accrues to the subunits (individuals. This theory. "is built on the premise that organizational behavior is a power game in which various players.
We are inclined to consider politics as neither good nor bad per se but believe that politics. illegitimate in nature. the capacity to get things done by virtue of the position held. One important feature in these definitions should be examined further. deceiving. holding hidden agendas. the power vested in office. unsocialized needs to dominate others. and influence others. These key areas are the battlefields where actors win and lose. viewing situations in win-win terms as much as possible. engaging in open problem solving followed by action and influencing. The negative face of politics is characterized by extreme pursuit of self-interest. resource allocation. a tendency to view situations in win-lose terms-what I win. Both relate to getting one’s way-effectance. “Organizational politics involve those activities taken within organizations to acquire. Both relate to pursuit of self-interest and overcoming the resistance of others. initiate. treating it as informal power. withholding information. Thus. develop and use power and other resources to obtain one’s preferred outcomes in a situation in which there is uncertainty about choices”.8. The positive face is characterized by a balanced pursuit of self-interest and the interests of others. we view politics as a subset of power. surprise. conflict resolution. they are where the "goods" are distributed and the goals decided. Organizational politics tend to be associated with decision-making. The first three definitions treat politics as a neutral set of activities. has two faces. 8. and conflict resolution processes. like power. and choosing among alternative means and goals. “Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the selfinterest of individuals or groups”. For our purposes. formal power.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice OD
. and how”. it is engaging in activities to get one’s way. the last two definitions view politics as illegitimate or unsanctioned activities. “Organizational politics is the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain ends through non-sanctioned influence means”. In fact.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored Harold Lasswell defined “politics simply as the study of who gets what. and a socialized need to lead. when. organizational politics is power-in-action in organizations. you must lose-rather than win-win terms. Likewise we also treat authority as a subset of power. a relative absence of the tactics of fighting. and predominant use of the tactics of fighting-secrecy. but in this sense. Analyzing these definitions suggests that the concepts of power and politics are similar. one gains a quick understanding of the overall "political climate" of an organization by studying its methods of resource allocation.
they enhance the positive face of power. problem solving is usually superior to power coercion as a way to find solutions to problematic situations.We have discussed a number of ideas concerning power and politics. In this section we will attempt to integrate those concepts with organization development and offer advice to the OD practitioner for dealing with the political realities found in organizations. methods. This major
. problem solver. According to Chris Argyris. increases the amount of power available to organization members." The facilitator or educator role is incompatible with a political activist role because cooperation requires one set of behaviors and competition requires a different set of behaviors. Virtually. and his or her values. Cobb and Margulies caution that OD practitioners can get into trouble if they move from a facilitator role to a political role. OD values are consistent with the positive face of power. Values such as trust. For example. being one aspect of the positive face of power. public data about the organization’s culture. rather. thereby making the negative face of power less prevalent and/or necessary. second. openness. public data are indispensable-for problem solving but anathema for organizational politics. Emphasis on power equalization stems from two beliefs: first. Not only is organization development not a power/political intervention strategy. not politics. his or her program. OD interventions increase problem-solving. power equalization. and weaknesses. organization development represents an approach and method to enable organization members to go beyond the negative face of power and politics. and by so doing adds power to the organization. We know of no OD interventions designed to increase coercion or unilateral power. like all consultants. informed choice. The role of the OD practitioner is that of a facilitator. collaboration. In summary. co-operation. The practitioner is not a political activist or power broker. Valid. The practitioner works to strengthen skills and knowledge in the organization. and expertise. The OD consultant. (2) to promote free. and (3) to promote the client’s internal commitment to the choices made. as we discussed earlier. catalyst. But organization members are free to accept or reject the practitioner. the "interventionist" has three primary tasks: (1) to generate valid useful information. individual dignity. all OD interventions promote problem-solving. collaboration. and effective pursuit of goals while decreasing reliance on the negative faces of power and politics. processes. fact-finding. OD interventions typically generate valid. strengths. as a preferred way to get things accomplished. it is instead a rational problem-solving approach that is incompatible with extreme poweroriented situations. and promoting individual and organizational competence are part of the foundation of organization development. These values are congruent with rational problem solving and incongruent with extremely political modes of operating. "Power equalization" has long been described as one of the values of organization development. provides a service that the organization is free to "buy" or "not buy. OD interventions do not deny or attempt to abolish the reality of power in organizations. but not with the negative face of power. and educator.
. First. Success leads to credibility and stature. it will gain more power. organization development practitioners operate from a potentially strong power base they can use to advantage. Political access and sensitivity: Cultivating and nurturing multiple relationships with key power figures in the organization will ensure timely information and multiple sources of support. 3. 8. Sponsorship: "Organization development groups will gain power to the extent that they have sponsorship. in powerful places. If the OD group is cohesive and free of internal dissention. and ability to gain organizational support. Paying attention to these sources of power will enhance the likelihood of success of OD programs." 4.7 Operating in a Political Environment We will present some general observations on operating in a political environment. Group support: If the OD group is strong internally. Early success in the OD program and its usefulness to key managers of the organization helps promote this reputation. expert power (the consultant possesses expert knowledge). it will be strong externally. and the roles of OD practitioners. 5. informational power (the consultant has a wealth of information about the strengths and weaknesses of the organization). Michael Beer has identified additional means by which an OD group can gain and wield power in organizations: 1. 2. acceptability. and possibly referent power (others may identify with and be attracted to the consultant).strength of OD derives from the strategy of change. the values. Competence: Demonstrated competence is the most important source of power. the OD consultant possesses power from the following bases: legitimate power (the OD program and consultant are authorized by the organization’s decision makers)."34 This maxim has been recognized for years under the heading of "get top-level support for the program. According to the framework of French and Raven. followed by some rules of thumb for the OD practitioner. 6. the resources of OD expertise and ability to help organizational subunits solve their pressing problems. These sources of influence produce a substantial power base that will enhance the likelihood of success. Resource management: Power accrues to those who control resources-in this case. preferably multiple sponsorship. Stature and credibility: Beer notes that power accrues to those who have been successful and effective.
Skills such as listening. The following rules describe ways to avoid becoming involved in one’s own or in others’ political struggles. counseling. Many OD interventions promote win-win solutions for conflict situations. both as a person and as a professional. OD practitioners are likely to have high interpersonal competence by virtue of their training. Being of value to multiple powerholders rather than a single one both increases support and reduces the likelihood that the program will become the target of political activities. Each is derived from one general principle: Mind your own business. coaching. usually managers. The preceding rules of thumb describe ways to increase or solidify one’s power base. communicating. the manager will vigorously defend it. constructive social relationships. Rule Four: Create win-win solutions. The OD program belongs to the manager. to help them achieve their goals and solve their problems. Beer and Walton argue that organization development should move from being practitioner centered to being manager-centered. When the OD program serves the needs of top executives. Rule Three: Make the OD program a valued commodity for multiple powerful people in the organization. Good OD practitioners will have learned and practiced these skills. which is to help someone else solve his or her major problems. Rule Five: Mind your own business.What advice is available for OD practitioners who want to operate more effectively in a political environment? Several rules of thumb are implied by the fact that power accrues to persons who control valued resources or commodities. OD programs become desired commodities when they are instruments that allow individuals and organizations to reach their goals. OD professionals who are skilled in conflict management techniques and OD programs that encompass conflict resolution activities become valued commodities. not the OD consultant. experience. A valuable by-product of this fact is that if the program runs into political turbulence. problem solving. The role of the OD consultant is to help others upon request. Organizations are social systems in which members have both a history and a future of interacting. and expertise.
. OD programs should be results-oriented. Rule Two: Make the OD program itself a desired commodity. and showing appreciation for the strengths of others are components of interpersonal competence. and effective conflict management techniques are required to enhance stable. those issues vital to the organization’s success. Becoming a desired commodity as a person means being interpersonally competent and trustworthy. Sometimes OD practitioners overlook that they are hired by others. it gains an aura of respect and protection that sets it above most political entanglements. The nature of organizations and the nature of organization development suggest this rule. Rule One: Become a desired commodity. OD consultants have a formal or informal contractual agreement with managers to help them do what they are trying to do-better. Another way the OD program becomes a desired commodity is by focusing on important issues.
negotiations the nature of power and politics. A subtle phenomenon is involved here: when people engage in illegitimate behavior. not by getting involved in the answers. yet legitimate means of acquiring power. Illegitimate behavior causes others to try to exert greater control over the situation. As shown in the figure. Abiding by this rule keeps the consultant from becoming entangled in politics. Earlier we stated that the OD practitioner should learn as much as possible about bargaining. others’ support. Illegitimate behavior encroaches on others’ legitimate "turf. thereby greatly expanding practitioner influence. 8. Rule Seven: Mind your own business because to do otherwise is to invite political trouble.1: Power Base and Power Strategy Connection Individual Power Bases Knowledge Strategies for Success Playing It Straight
. while at the same time increasing his or her usefulness to the organization’s powerholders. but these give the flavor of the issues one must consider when operating in a political environment. the strategy and tactics of influence." "using social networks. individual power derives from knowledge.Rule Six: Mind your own business. The principle is simple but powerful: know your legitimate business and stick to it. which is to be an expert on process. not content. Table 8." and "going around the formal system. catalyst." OD practitioners have typically pursued a "playing it straight" strategy as their sole means of exerting power. Attention to these rules can save OD practitioners time and energy that can be more profitably invested in the OD program. and educator. and using contacts for information. dealing directly with powerholders and decision makers. We believe the legitimate role of the OD practitioner is that of facilitator. problem solver. The authors propose adding the "using social networks" strategy to their repertoires. and personality characteristics. but that does not mean practitioners must be naive or incompetent in the political arena.8 Acquiring and Using Power Skills The OD practitioner is neither power activist nor power broker. Three successful power strategies are "playing it straight. Networking is recognized as a potent. We could propose more rules of thumb. Organizational politics revolve around decisions: Should we seek Goal A or Goal B? Should we use Means X or Means Y? Should we promote Mary or John? The proper role of OD consultants is to help decision makers by providing them with good decision-making processes. not power activist or power broker. viable." which arouses defensive actions. One carries out such a strategy by participating in alliances and coalitions. and the characteristics and behaviors of powerholders. such behavior is often interpreted as politically motivated.
effort. (Legitimacy refers to abiding by and promoting the values of the organization.· Expertise · Information · Tradition Others’ Support
· Use data to convince · Focus on target group · Be persistent Using Social Networks · Alliances and coalitions · Deal with decision maker · Contacts for information Going Around Formal System · Work around roadblocks · (Don’t) use organization rules
Political access Staff support
Charisma Reputation Professional credibility
Finally. and legitimacy. This practical. then utilize a facilitative OD process in which the powerholders work on strategic business issues using consensus decision making to develop a corporate strategy. Personal power. the authors propose a four-stage model for using the OD process to help the power elite transform the organization in ways beneficial for all concerned. visibility-how much one’s work is seen by
. In this model. which in turn will protect the interests of all concerned. arises from expertise. Whetton and Cameron’s model is shown in following figure. influence key powerholders to accept the OD program. The four stages are: Phase I Consolidating Power to Prepare for Change Phase ll Focusing Power on Strategic Consensus Phase Ill Aligning Power with Structure and People Phase IV Realizing Power through leadership and Collaboration These stages are the means the OD consultant uses to "take the high road" mentioned in the previous quotation-build a power base. a person’s power comes from two main sources. in turn.) Position power derives from five sources: Centrality-access to information in a communication network. personal power and position power. The power structure will realize that collaborative power is preferable to manipulation and deception. personal attraction. even those of little power. how-to book on power and organization development is well worth studying. criticality-how important one’s job is flexibility-the amount of discretion in the job.
Fig. Having power is one thing." Three things are involved in converting power into influence: (1) resisting other people’s inappropriate influence attempts. and (3) empowering others. According to these authors. one investigation of the determinants of effective management performance concluded that a key factor distinguishing high and low performers was the ability to establish informal relationships via networks”." And. Reason refers to persuasion by facts. Retribution is not recommended except in unusual cases. Retribution refers to coercion and threats. reciprocity. power-in-use is called influence.influential people. actually using it to get things done is another. (2) selecting the proper influence strategy. Indeed. 8. and reciprocity can be useful when reason fails. Three influence strategies can be used to influence others-reason. no one has the necessary information and resources to accomplish what’s expected of them. "Power is converted into influence when the target individual consents to behave according to the desires of the power holder. Reciprocity refers to exchange of favors. Usually reason is the preferred strategy. Networks are critical to effective performance for one compelling reason: Except for routine jobs.1: Model of Power and Influence Networking is used to increase both personal power and position power. and retribution. Whetton and Cameron suggest
. “One of the most important ways of gaining power in an organization is by establishing a broad network of task and interpersonal relationships. They write: "Influence entails actually securing the consent of others to work with you in accomplishing an objective. and relevance-how important one’s task is in relation to organizational priorities.
Concluding Comments: In this unit. –––––––––– is made up of Charisma. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self-interest of individuals or groups. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. 2.. Power and politics are similar in nature. emotions or behaviour of people. reputation and professional credibility. Strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power that accrues to the individuals.several means of resisting others’ influence attempts such as confrontation and using countervailing power. and are amenable to positive control.10 Terminal Questions 1. Self Assessment Questions 1. 8. arise from known conditions.9 Summary Power and politics are inseparable facts of organizational life. units or departments is most important in solving organizational problems. (3) reward and encourage others in visible and personal ways. collaborative work environment. Methods for empowering others are the following: (1) involve subordinates in assigning work. 8. when and how. _____________ has identified two faces of power. Organizational politics is defined as the study of who gets what. 3. Our suggestions for using power to operate effectively in organizations may help practitioner avoid the perils and pitfalls of power that "go with the territory" of organizational change. 4. arise from known conditions.
. and (6) build on success. and how. Define power in an organizational context and explain types of power. Organizational power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. and are amenable to positive control. we have examined power and politics with the goals of understanding the phenomena and deriving implications for OD practitioners. (4) express confidence (5) foster initiative and responsibility. (2) provide a positive. Power based on the power-receiver having identification with the power holder is called ––– ––––––––. –––––– is the intentional influence over the beliefs. 5. Power can be either positive or negative. Power and politics are similar in nature. –––––––– defined politics as the study of who gets what. when.
Describe briefly various theories of power. Define organization politics.6 5.4 3. Refer section 8. Referent power 4.
MU0002-Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development
Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Structure: 9. Refer section 8.2 2. Refer section 8. Personality Answers to TQs: 1. Power 2. Identify the bases of individual power and the respective strategies for their success.1 Introduction
. 8. 3. Harold Lasswell 5. 5. Refer section 8.Refer section 8.2. 4.5 4. Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . McClelland 3.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.
An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. These interventions vary from standardized program that have been developed and sometimes tailored program. organizational problems may repeat. In this dynamic and fluid environment. how to produce product or service which is related to Employee involvement approaches and how to design work is related to Work design.9 Reengineering Self Assessment Questions 9.8 Total Quality Management 9.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 9.2 Meaning and Definitions 9.7 Parallel Learning Structures 9.10 Summary 9.6 Quality of Work Life Projects 9. Objectives:
. These methods are receiving increasing attention in Organization Development.Objectives 9.5 Quality Circles 9.3 Socio Technical Systems 9. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing. One important intervention technique is Technostructural interventions because these are related to technical and structural issues such as how to divide labour and how to coordinate department which is related to Restructuring organization. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival.4 Management By Objectives 9. actions. These programs are derived from careful diagnosis.11 Terminal Questions 9. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness.
This normally is a reasonable. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. you will be able to: · Explain the Socio technical change. Succession Doesn’t Destroy Change Effort. meaning the major costs are associated with analysis and design of change. Cost is Low. 4.After studying this unit. Advantages of Structural Interventions There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. From a benefit cost analysis. Structural changes are consistent with their operating styles and are generally understood by practitioners. 9. change can be introduced relatively rapidly by top management. and more
. Downsizing associated with restructuring. Rapidity of change. 5. Once diagnosed and an appropriate correction developed. Changes can involve decentralization and centralization. 3. Structure changes are normally “institutionalized” and less subject to this problem. The cost of structural change is generally “front-end” loaded. includes removing or adding layers to hierarchy. organization theory. One problem with behavioral/ group interventions is the tendency for new managers or employees to discount or fail to continue the change program. Managers and administrators are notoriously pragmatic. 2. and OD practice enables the change agent to estimate the probable consequences of the change. In addition. · Discuss the parallel Learning Structures. · Explain Reengineering. Basic reinforcement theories. their attractiveness is also increased by the following advantages: 1. Weeks and months of group effort are saved. · Discuss the Management By Objectives · Explain the Quality Circles. · Explain Total Quality Management. Organization Acceptance of Change.2 Meaning and Definitions Structural Intervention is related to the changes that relate elements of organization to one another. Greater Predictability.
Cummings. Pasmore. therefore.critically. a predictable cost Implementation of group strategies involves significant long-term man-hour and consultant costs. Though there are some variations in the practices of MBO and. its definitional aspect. It could involve the following steps (Foster. it has been defined as follows: MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. is a technique and system which helps in improving organizational performance. Since then. Its basic idea has been derived from the concept of participative goal setting as a technique of OD. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives.3 Socio Technical Systems Socio-technical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. 1988): • Determining the environmental demands • Creating a vision statement • Educating organizational members • Creating the change structure • Conducting socio-technical analysis • Formulating re-design proposals · Defining the scope of the system to be re-designed · Implementing recommended changes · Evaluating changes 9.4 Management by Objectives Management by objectives (MBO). It endeavors to re-design the organization’s structure. 9. though not strictly an OD intervention in the sense in which other interventions have been discussed so far. The term MBO was coined by Drucker in 1964 when he emphasized the concept of managing by results. processes and functions to create a balance between the organization and its changing external environment. many business and nonbusiness organizations have adopted this in some form or the other. 1976. 1967.”
with objective orientation as its essence. Objectives in MBO provide guidelines for appropriate system and procedures. The MBO is characterized by the participation of concerned managers in objective setting and performance reviews. are determined on the basis of objectives. Periodic review of performance is an important feature of MBO. operational managerial process for the effective utilization of material. physical. In fact.. It emphasises initiative and active role by the manger who is responsible for achieving objectives. This is possible because MBO tries to match objectives and resources. superiors and subordinates. etc. This process clarifies the role very sharply in terms of what one is expected to achieve. its features can be identified as follows: 1. 2. Therefore.” Based on the definition of MBO. managers have the opportunities for clarifying their job relationships with peers. The performance review is held regularly. The total management process revolves round the objectives set jointly by the superior and the subordinate. MBO is bound to have some relationship with every management technique. It works as an integrating device. and human resources of the organization by integrating the individual with organization and organization with the environment. each manager takes active part in setting objectives for himself and also in evaluating his performance as to how he is performing. Whereas the various techniques of management help in measurement of results in resources. 6. Certain degree of overlapping is there. 3. On the other hand. MBO is an approach and philosophy to management and not merely a technique. its subsystems and people. including the corporate level. Objectives provide the means for integrating the organization with its environment. normally once a year. delegation of authority.The integration of individual and organizational objectives through MBO has been emphasized by Chakravarty when he has defined MBO as follows: “MBO is a result-centered. The review is future-oriented because it provides basis for planning and corrective actions. Resource allocation. MBO employs several techniques but it is not merely the sum total of all these techniques.
. 5. Similarly. 4. Therefore. reward and punishment system is attached with the achievement of the objectives. Objectives are established for all the levels of the organization. MBO is the joint application of a number of principles and techniques. often MBO provides the stimulus for the introduction of new techniques of management and enhances the relevance and utility of the existing ones. MBO is also concerned with determining what these results and resources should be. MBO is likely to affect every management practice in the organization. A management technique can be applied in selected parts of the organization and will have limited implications for its other parts. The basic emphasis of MBO is on objectives. As an approach to management. all the units or departments and individual manager. non-specialist. It is a particular way of thinking about management.
Process of MBO MBO is a system for achieving organizational objectives, enhancement of employee commitment and participation. Therefore, its process should facilitate translation of basic concepts into management practice. The MBO process is characterized by the emphasis on the rigorous analysis, the clarity and balance of objectives, and participation of the managers with accountability for results. The MBO process is not as simple as it appears to be. Managers need training and experience for developing the required skills. 1. Setting of Organizational Purpose and Objectives: The first step in MBO is the definition of organizational purpose and objectives. Questions, such as, “why does the organization exist?”. What business are we in?” and what should be our business?” provide guidelines for the statement of purpose. This, in interaction with external factors, then determines the long-range strategic objectives like (i) whether to achieve growth through expansion in the same line of business or diversity: (ii) what should be blending of trading and manufacturing activities; (iii) what should be the degree of vertical integration and so on. Usually the objective setting starts at the top level of the organization and moves downward to the lowest managerial levels. This will go in a sequence like this (i) defining the purpose of the organization, (ii) long-range and strategic objectives, (iii) short-term organizational objectives, (iv) divisional/departmental/sectional objectives, (v) individual manager’s objectives. 2. Key Result Areas: Organizational objective and planning premises together provide the basis for the identification of key result areas (KRAs). It may be emphasized that KRAs are derived from the expectations of various stakeholders and indicate the priorities for organizational performance. KRAs also indicate the present state of an organization’s health and the top management perspective for the future. Examples of KRAs applicable to most of the business organizations are (i) profitability, (ii) market standing, (iii) innovation, (iv) productivity, (v) worker performance, (vi) financial and physical resources, (vii) manager performance, and (viii) public responsibility. Even though KRAs are most durable, the list of KRAs gets considerably changed over the period in response to new needs and opportunities. Sometimes, the achievement in a particular KRA also provides the impetus for a new KRA in future. 3. Setting Subordinates’ Objectives: The organizational objectives are achieved through individuals. Therefore, each individual manager must know in advance what he is expected to achieve. Every manager in the managerial hierarchy is both superior and subordinate except the person at the top level and lowest level. Therefore, there is a series of superior and subordinate relationships. The process of objective setting begins with superior’s proposed recommendations for his subordinate’s objectives. In turn, the subordinate states his own objectives as perceived by him. Thereafter, the final objectives for the subordinate are set by the mutual negotiation between superior and subordinate. In the beginning of MBO process in an organization, there may be wide gap between the recommended objectives by the superior and subordinate’s stated objectives because the latter may like to put lesser burden on him by
setting easily achievable objectives. However, with the experience gained over the period of time, this gap narrows because of narrowing down of perception of superior and subordinate about what can be done at a particular level. 4. Matching Resources with Objectives: When objectives are set carefully, they also indicate the resource requirement. In fact, resource availability becomes an important aspect of objective setting because it is the proper application of resources which ensures objective achievement. Therefore, there should be matching between objectives and resources. By relating these to objectives, a superior manager is better able to set the need and economy of allocating resources. By relating these to objectives, a superior manger is better able to see the need and economy of allocating resources. The allocation and movement of resources should be done in consultation with the subordinate manager. 5. Appraisal: Appraisal aspect of MBO tries to measure whether the subordinate is achieving his objective or not. If not, what are the problems and how these problems can be overcome? Appraisal is undertaken as an ongoing process with a view to find out deficiency in the working and also to remove it promptly. It is not taken merely to punish the non-performer or to reward the performer. It is taken as a matter of system to ensure that everything is going as planned and the organization is able to achieve its objectives. 6. Recycling: Though appraisal is the last aspect of MBO process, it is used as an input for recycling objectives and other actions. Objectives are neither set at the top and communicated to the bottom nor are they set at the bottom and go up. Objective setting is a joint process through interaction between superior and subordinate. Therefore, what happens at each level may affect other levels also. The outcome of appraisal at one level is recycled to see if the objectives have been set properly at the level concerned and also at the next higher level. 9.5 Quality Circles Quality circle is one of the most popular methods in the USA which was originally developed in Japan in 1950s.Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. Quality circle requires a managerial philosophy and culture that promotes sharing power, information, knowledge, and rewards. Quality circle program consists of several circles, each having three to fifteen members. The original idea of quality circles involved small groups of volunteers meeting on a regular basis, but in its contemporary form, quality groups are often compulsory and organized around specific work teams. Some organizations have even gone as far as setting targets for the number of suggestions quality groups are expected to come up with. 9.6 Quality of Work Life Based on the research of Eric Trist et al. at the Tavistcock Institute of Human Relations in London, this approach looked both at technical and human sides of organizations and how they
are interrelated. QWL programs, in general, require joint participation by union and management in the process of work-designing, which consequently result into high level of task variety, appropriate feedback and employee discretion. The most distinguishing feature of QWL program is the development of self-managing work groups which consist of multi-skilled workers. 9.7 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel Learning Structures (also known as Communities of Practice) promote innovation and change in large bureaucratic organizations while retaining the advantages of bureaucratic design. Groups representing various levels and functions work to open new channels of communication outside of and parallel to the normal, hierarchical structure. Parallel Learning Structures may be a form of Knowledge Management. Knowledge Management involves capturing the organization’s collective expertise wherever it resides (in databases, on paper, or in people’s heads) and distributing it to the people who need it in a timely and efficient way. It Consists of a steering committee and a number of working groups that: · Study what changes are needed in the organization, · Make recommendations for improvement, and · Then monitor the resulting change efforts. 9.8 Total Quality Management It is a long term effort that orients all of an organization’s activities around the concept of quality. It is very popular in USA in 1990s.TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization, provides relevant information to all employees, ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. It is also called continuous quality improvement. A combination of a number of organization improvement techniques and approaches, including the use of quality circles, statistical quality control, statistical process control, self-managed teams and task forces, and extensive use of employee participation. Features that characterize TQM: · Primary emphasis on customers. · Daily operational use of the concept of internal customers. · An emphasis on measurement using both statistical quality control and statistical process control techniques.
9 Reengineering It is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. __________ represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. eliminating. and speed. MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. service. It seeks to make such processes more efficient by combining. 9. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. or restructuring activities without regard to present hierarchical or control procedures. · Continuous search for sources of defects with a goal of eliminating them entirely. · A major emphasis on continuous learning. Reengineering focuses on visualizing and streamlining any or all business processes in the organization. actions. The term MBO was coined by _________ in 1964. · Participative management. 9. Quality
.· Competitive benchmarking. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. such as cost. There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. An organization development __________ is a sequence of activities. 3. 2. Reengineering is a top-down process. contemporary measures of performance. Sociotechnical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. · An emphasis on teams and teamwork. Self Assessment Questions 1. quality. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness.10 Summary An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. · Top management support on an ongoing basis. actions. assumes neither an upward flow of involvement nor that consensus decision making. From a benefit cost analysis.
What are the advantages of structural interventions? 3. 9. provides relevant information to all employees.12 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. Explain Management By Objectives? 4. 9. Refer section 9. TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization.11 Terminal Questions 1.
. Refer section 9. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. Discuss Socio Technical Systems? 2.circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement.Refer section 9. Intervention 2.2 3. Drucker 3.3 2. Refer section 9. Write a short note on Total Quality Management. Quality circle Answers to TQs: 1.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .5 4. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. It is also called continuous quality improvement.
6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change. cope with the ongoing changes successfully in the first instance. Self Assessment Questions 10.8 Terminal Questions 10. organizational problems may repeat. and initiate new change so as to overtake the competitors one the one hand and delight the customers on the other. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing. 10.1 Introduction
Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival.7 Summary 10.MU0002-Unit-10-Managing Organization Development
Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Structure: 10.4 Causes for Resistance to Change. the mangers and other employees must be able to practically anticipate the changes (planned and unprecedented). In this dynamic and fluid environment.5 Impact of Change on the Future Manager 10.3 Resistance to Change 10. Hence.2 Nature of Change 10.9 Answers to SAQs and TQs 10. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future.1 Introduction Objectives 10. Objectives:
some parts of organization may be affected more. Thus. some parts may be affected directly. 10. Organizational change is a continuous process. employees want to maintain a status quo. if we look minutely. · State the methods of reducing resistance to change. 2. which are major ones. organizational change may have the following features: 1. Any change may effect the whole organization. organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. it disturbs the old equilibrium necessitating the development of a new equilibrium. When change occurs in any part of the organization.After studying this unit. they have concluded that the whole organization tends to be affected by change in any part of it. less.2 Nature of Change The term ‘change’ refers to an alteration in a system. When a finger (which represents external force) is forced against a point on the balloon (which represents the organization). However. may require special change efforts. While managers as change agents want to bring changes in the organization. However. and others. others. Thus. Newstrom and Davis have explained the impact of a change in any part of the organization on the total organization. some changes which are of minor type may be absorbed by the existing equilibrium. The type of new equilibrium depends on the degree of change and its impact on the organization. the contour of the balloon visibly changes. or social. job design and people. what is important at this point is that a change in any part affects the entire organization and subsequent changes are required in other parts. 3. and others. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization – technology. indirectly. · Impact of change on future managers.
. it has stretched slightly. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of organization change. Though this phenomenon will be taken later. it becomes indented at the point of contact. biological. the change in organization does not occur purely on mechanical relationship. However. · Discuss the nature of change · Explain resistance to change and the factors which resist change. They have illustrated it by comparing an organization to an air-filled balloon. structural arrangement.whether physical. we find that the shape of the entire balloon has changed. Thus.
let us discuss whether resistance is always bad as it is generally perceived to be. so is the resistance to change. the organizational may not be able to introduce new phenomena in order to adapt environmental requirement. One example of Bajaj Auto Limited is relevant here. many organizations have been forced to abandon change programmes because of resistance to such programmes.as cost and as benefit. We saw resistance to change at the existing plant. In order to increase its manufacturing capacity of two-wheelers. If people resist to change. or they have been forced to adopt alternative strategies.” Resistance as Benefit: On the one hand. resistance to change is costly affair. While on negative side. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. but when a change is major or unusual. Similarly. like shifting of the manufacturing plants at new locations.3 Resistance to Change In the management of change effectively.10. and on the other. Madhur Bajaj. Thus. Resistance as Cost: Since all changes have some cost. When change is minor and within the scope of correcting programme. We wanted a new culture and new layout. In fact. Resistance by some members of the organization provides an opportunity to the change agents to weigh the pros and cons of introducing change more carefully. the reality lies in between. there are two sides of resistance. Before we trace out the reasons for résistance to change. In fact. In fact. adjustment is fairly routine. more serious upsets may occur. because it produces identical symptoms. Managing Director of Bajaj Auto. Many companies have been forced to do so in the past. “The Pune plant is fully saturated. social systems tend to resist change because of homeostasis. fear of change can be as significantly disrupting as change itself. that is. Resistance to change forces management to find out this reality which helps in managing change more effectively. This leads to general proposition that people and their social systems will often resist change in organizations. On this phenomenon. the company procured land near its old plant site but later shifted the new plant site away from the old plant because of resisting work culture of the old plant which was expected to percolate to the new plant also. Homeostasis implies self-correcting characteristics of organism to maintain equilibrium as a result of change. it provides some benefits to the organization as its change agent. the managers face the problem of resistance to change. resistance to change provides help in managing change in two ways:
. and its basic survival may be jeopardized. commented. We shall take new workers at the new place. people act to establish a steady state of need fulfillment and to secure themselves from disturbance of that balance.
Economic Factors People feel attached to the organization for satisfying their needs and economic needsphysiological. This feeling is created because people feel that those who can match the new requirements will be better off than those who cannot match. 2. it attracted a lot of resistance because of this reason. etc. precede over other needs. It may signal the need for more effective communication about the meaning and purpose of a change or need to rethink precisely how a proposed change will affect the organization and its members. and turn into technological unemployment.. bonus. People may perceive that they will be adversely affected by the change in terms of their needs satisfaction in the following ways: 1. Therefore.1. Whenever there is change. Fear of Economic Loss: A change may create fear of economic loss in the sense that it may affect economic compensation adversely. It also highlights real inadequacies in the proposed change and suggests better ways for developing and introducing changes. reduce job options. the reasons underlying resistance to change may be identified at these two levels: Individual Resistance There are many factors operating at the individual level which are responsible for resistance. they will have lower opportunity to earn incentives and bonus as the new system requires additional skills. job security etc. may be seen in the context of three types of factors: economic. whenever people sense that new machinery (change) poses a threat of replacing or degrading them. These feelings. 3. people may feel that in the new system. either real or emotional. Skill Obsolescence: A change is generally meant for better methods of working which may involve new techniques. Factors in Resistance to Change People tend to evaluate the effect of change individually but they express it through group in collective form. etc. Psychological Factors
. All these are well-established in the old system. they simply resist such a change. psychological and social. These feeling may be based either on reality or there may be emotional feeling towards the change. When computer was introduced in the business sector in India. Reduced Opportunities for Incentives: Employees are generally offered incentives linked to their output in the form of incentive schemes. Degree of force in resistance depends on how people feel about change. 2. technology.
. The change initiated by the organization disturbs such equilibrium and people have to obtain another equilibrium which is a painful exercise. lack of trust in change agent. i. these people resist any new idea. their existing social interactions are likely to be changed. This lack of certainty creates anxiety and stress in the minds of people and they want to avoid it. Therefore. the change may be perceived as an instrument for exposing the weakness of the people. that is. The change will bring results in future. Thus. 2. therefore. may be logical from people’s point of view but may be illogical from the change agent’s point of view. status quo. through their mutual compatible interactions. Therefore. Status Quo: People want status quo. Ego Defensiveness: A change may affect the ego of the people affected by the change and in order to defend their ego. 1. 3. Major psychological factors responsible for resistance are: ego defensiveness. 5. They form their own social groups at the work place for the satisfaction of their social needs. people may differ. they show resistance to change efforts. This is the reason why labour union resists changes initiated by management because of the feeling that labour and management are two different interest groups in the organization. These are qualitative and. Social Factors People derive need satisfaction. 4. The major factors causing resistance to change are: desire to retain existing social interaction and feeling of outside interference. the person who initiates change.e. The lack of adequate information about the likely impact of change further complicates the problems. particularly social needs. Lack of Trust in Change Agent: The effect of change is perceived in the context of change agent. Therefore. people resist it. If people have low degree of confidence in the change agent. 1. people resist change. everyone tries to avoid it. When there is any change. Some people have very low level of tolerance for change and ambiguity as compared to others. they resist change. they do not want any disturbance in their existing equilibrium of life and work pattern. Low Tolerance for Change: In the context of maintaining status quo. sentiments and attitudes towards change.Psychological factors are based on people’s emotions. low tolerance for change. Fear of Unknown: A change may be perceived as entering into unchartered area which is unknown. which is always uncertain. which people do not want. A change in itself suggests that everything is not right at a particular level. Desire to Maintain Existing Social Interaction: People desire to maintain existing social interaction since it is a satisfying one. and fear of unknown. To the extent the satisfaction of these needs is affected by a change.
and inter-organizational agreement. sunk cost. Strategies. all these companies have been victims of corporate disease. even the organization itself resists many changes because of certain reasons. 3.” This statement suggests that organizations tend to stabilize at a particular level and if the change efforts are not brought. e. For example. Organizational Resistance to Change: Not only individuals and groups within an organization resist change. Some of these reasons are basic while others are by-products of those. 1. It a change is required in these aspects. values. Whether it is IBM. Feeling of Outside Interference: A change brought about by the change agent is considered to be interference in the working of people. If the organization is not fully equipped for meeting such demands. For example. The latter my feel that managers try to make workers an instrument for higher productivity but the outcome of this productivity will be retained by them. resource limitations. Caterpillar. resources and processes of the most successful companies have in the past ossified into clichés. first two reasons are basic and others are by-products of the first two. if new
. The system is stabilized and any change may be perceived as a threat by the organization itself. This phenomenon is heightened if the change agent belongs to another social class. Many powerful organizations of the past have failed to change and they have developed into routines. prescribes rigid authority relationships. they become too rigid to change and they hide their failure to change in the guise of past successes. millstones and routines.g. Zerox or nearer home-TI cycles. dogmas. an organization has to adapt to its environment but the adaptation has its own cost. 2. Resource Limitations: No doubt. these organizations start falling. The major reasons for organizational failure to change are: counting past successes. For example.2. has commented as follows: “Nothing fails like success. It is called ‘The Failure of Success’. Many organizations are designed to be innovation-resisting. Counting Past Successes: A major problem before the organizations which have past success stories is how to face challenges of the changing environment. the organization may not bring it easily because it is accustomed to a particular system. Stability of Systems: The organization may design a system through which it may derive many benefits. it may not be possible for the organization to bring necessary change. Digital Equipment Corporation. a professor of strategic leadership who is considered to be a management Guru. and institutes reward and punishment system. stability of systems. a bureaucratic organization has certain fixed rules. nothing fails as spectacularly as spectacular success. This is the reason why many old industrial houses are languishing far behind and their places are being taken away by newer organizations.. Since these organizations have achieved success by following a particular set of management practices. Sumantra Ghoshal. All these work in some circumstances. change initiated by managers affecting workers. For example.
Based on the aggressiveness which various companies show in changing themselves. Let us see what someone has said long back: “There are three types of companies: those who make things happen. In this interaction process. the organization may enter into agreement with labour union about not bringing any technological change. 1. Analyzers: Above two are the extreme cases of choice-making modes in between the analyzers and reactors. the organization will like to make a comparison between the outcomes of changed programme and continuing with old programme in the light of this sunk cost. it may enter into agreement with other organizations over certain aspects of working. forward-looking. If it is risk-taking. Otherwise. 5. and has zeal for progress. Reactors: These organizations realize that their specific environment is changing but fail to relate themselves with the changing environment. if any change is to be incorporated. innovative. They emphasize more on cost-effectiveness. 4. 2. those who wonder what happened. For example. Inter-organizational Agreements: The organization interacts with its environment. the organization has to take into consideration the wishes of other organizations too. They go on searching new products/markets on regular basis. they have to behave in one of the above three ways. it will require resources to procure machine. Defenders: These are the firms which penetrate in a narrow market product domain and guard it. Now. This can be in the form of people also. Sunk Cost: Most of the organizations have sunk cost involved in various assets. building and training for its personnel. if the change is required. and reactors. and put less emphasis on environmental scanning. It an individual is not making commensurate contribution.technology is adopted. Analyzers act sometimes as defenders and sometimes as prospectors. those who watch things happen. Prospectors: These firms use broad planning approaches. and reserve some resources unutilized for future use.defenders. intensive planning. these can be used for specific period. prospectors. and commensurate expenses on other items also. organization has to pay for his services though these may not be as useful. what will happen to these assets? Naturally. 3. centralized control. broad environmental scanning. analyzers. Therefore.” This is the true reflection of difference between change-initiating companies and changeresisting companies. Thus. 4. the organization may take change programmes much more frequently.
. Once the assets are acquired. In such a case. It depends more on the style of top management. Miles and Snow have classified them into four categories. it is not necessary that his services are done away with. It is necessary too that other organizations also agree to the change proposal. decentralized controls. they cannot survive. Sunk cost cannot be only in terms of various physical things.
developing a new lunchtime routine. When Boeing announces its laying off 10. As human beings. especially when pay is closely tied to productivity. some may fear they’ll be unable to do so. it means you’re likely to have to change many habits: waking up 10 minutes earlier. or the like. Fear of the Unknown: Change substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the known. For analytical purpose.000 people or Ford introduces new robotic equipment. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints. Training
. we’ve categorized them by individual and organizational sources. or deferred. To cope with this complexity. threatening to go on strike. Organizational resistance Structural Inertia: Organizations have built-in mechanisms to produce stability. adjusting to the new office layout. Resistance can be overt. many employees at these firms may fear that their jobs are in jeopardy. implicit. we all rely on habits. They may. If for example. taking a new set of streets to work. this tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance. we’re creatures of habit.4 Cause for Resistance to Change Resistance to change doesn’t necessarily surface in standardized ways. finding a new parking place. the introduction of a quality management program requires that production workers learn statistical process control techniques. and so on. And people in general don’t like the unknown. engaging in a work showdown. do you continually use the same route and streets? Probably if you’re like most people. therefore. or programmed responses. Security: People who have a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feeling of safety. Changes in job tasks or established work routines also can arouse economic fear if people are concerned they won’t be able to perform the new tasks or routines to their previous standards. Life is complex enough. develop a negative attitude towards quality management or behave dysfunctionally if required to use statistical techniques. Habit Every day. when you go to work or school. When we are confronted with change. the selection process systematically selects certain people in and certain people out. The same applies to employee.10. For instance. we don’t need to consider the full range of options for the hundreds of decisions we have to make every day. Economic Factors: Another source of individual resistance is concern that changes will lower one’s income. So when your department is moved to a new office building across town. you find a single route and you use it regularly. immediate. Let’s look at the sources of resistance. For example.
5 Impact of Change on Future Manager Organizations are changing nearly daily. he’s likely to resist. Will the change. rules and procedures for employees to follow. Why? Because this outsourcing is a threat to the specialized skills held by people in HR departments. They tend to be content with the way things are. and benefits administration – has been resisted by many human resource departments. Thereat to Established Power Relationships: Any redistribution of decision-making authority can threaten long-established power relationship within the organization. The only constant in organizational life today appears to be the presence of continuous change. You can’t change one without affecting the others.
.and other socialization techniques reinforce specific role requirements and skills. if management changes the technological processes without simultaneously modifying the organization’s structure to match. group norms may act as a constraint. People from one functional department are placed on terms with people from other functional areas. But if union norms dictate resisting any unilateral change made by management. Changing Skill Sets More organizations are utilizing cross functional teams. For example. 10. Threat to Expertise: Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups. may be willing to accept changes in his job suggested by management. the change in technology is not likely to be accepted. Threat to Established Resource Allocations: the groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. for instance. accountants work with marketers. Group Inertia: Even if individuals want to change their behavior. Formalization provides job description. That is. development of pay plans. So limited changes in subsystems tend to get nullified by the larger system. For example. These teams are comprised of people from various areas within the company. for instance. An individual union member. One area of organizations that continues its metamorphosis is the design itself. The recent move by some companies to outsource many of their human resource activities – such as training. the way in which companies are configured today is changing. Limited Focus of Change: Organization is made up of interdependent subsystems. human resource people with engineers and finance individuals with operations employees. mean a reduction in their budgets or a cut in their staff size? Those who most benefit from the current allocation of resources are often threatened by change that may affect future allocations. Introduction of participative decision making or self-managed work teams are examples of changes that often are seen as threats to the power of supervisors and middle managers.
this is not a one-time action. the effect of the change may not be as functional as envisaged by the management. In many cases. For example. rather should be looked upon as a dialogue which continues over a period of time. However. Involvement: Involvement is a process through which those who are affected by the change are brought to understand the change. at the level of individual and at the level of group. managers must be more skilled at reading the environment and grasping the big picture. it can make effectively by managing resistance effectively. It implies explanation and
. Locavini observes that “the secret of real success is effective management of the emotional vulnerability that accompanies organizational change. through group dynamics. the role of formal authority in implementing a change may not be effective all the times.” The newer organizational structures use term problem solving. They need to be adept at reading the trends in the environment and then determining what they mean specifically for their own organization. This requires that managers think differently and teach employees to think differently. Therefore. 10. When the resistance comes from the people at individual levels. Unless this problem is overcome properly. Problem solving now involves the people who are experts in the issue – not necessarily those in high positions in the organization. Efforts at Individual Level A change is likely to affect some people in some way. Stephen Robbins suggests that “…… managers in virtual structures spend most of their time coordinating and controlling external relations.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change One of the basic problems in managing change is to overcome people’s resistance to change successfully. both at the formal and informal levels. the problems can be solved at the same level. For this purpose. Decision making is becoming more and more comfortable for those throughout the organization as the need to make decisions is distributed more evenly across all organizational levels.” Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. In addition.The ultimate goal is to improve organizational performance by cutting production time or time to market. typically by way of computer network links. As organizations must be better equipped to respond to change in their external environment. It may affect only a few while others may not be affected. that is. even the impact of change may be dysfunctional if change is imposed upon the people by the use of formal authority. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. More fluid structures require that managers improve their strategic orientation. strategic directions for the company must be identified in light of these changes. the following efforts can be taken: 1.
sometimes. However. An effective leader tries to time a change to fit the psychological needs of his followers. Getting opinions out in the open. People should be educated to become familiar with change. but a transformational leader can use personal reasons for change without arousing resistance. instead of solving the problem at the individual level. its basic nature. Efforts at Group Level Although agreement to a change can be obtained individually. Based on these characteristics of group as a means of change. People always have some ideas and opinions about what is going on in the world and more specially if touches them personally.then discussion of the proposed changes. Such educational process can be aided by training classes. it is more meaningful if it is done through group. he expresses it through a group. and indoctrinated in new relationships. getting a man to commit himself in private to change programme may yield fewer results than if he voluntarily and publicly gives his commitment to an idea of change. must be understood so that its effective use can be made. the level of resistance to change tends to decrease. As this process goes. helped to change attitudes. Thus. understanding of change increases and personal involvement in the change increases. 4. meetings. A manager as weak leader presents change on the basis of the impersonal requirements of the situation. Obtaining Commitment: Commitment is an agreement to take an active part in the actual mechanics of the change. They must be taught new skills. Usually. most of the times. as discussed earlier. Though each person interprets the change individually often. It grows slowly along with relationship. This helps in creating receptive environment in the organization. more than one person is involved in the change. 3. so that they are looked at and evaluated. its process and working. It includes finding out from the members how they interpret the proposed changes and what they think about them. Commitment to take part in the change programme can be obtained in private from each individual. to become effective. the manager can form strategies for overcoming resistance in the following manner:
. education must be a part of the manager’s everyday activity on the job. either the subordinates do not resist or if they resist. and conferences. Group dynamics offers some basic help in this regard. 2. is an important trust-building task. However. the leader tries to overcome this resistance by leadership process. The fundamental idea in this process is to encourage the person to say something about any aspect of the change. Leadership: The role of leadership in getting acceptance for a change is very important as a capable leader reinforces a climate of psychological support for change. Thus. For using group as a means of overcoming resistance to change. Training and Psychological Counseling: The management can change the basic values of the people by training and psychological counseling. The decision to commit oneself is a dynamic process. it is desirable at the group level to get better acceptability of change.
. there may be some person who may communicate to the same group. 3. This is more important in the case of workers who themselves treat a separate group and do not identify with the management. It makes people feel that the organization needs their opinions and ideas and is unwilling to go ahead without taking them into account. _________ helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. structural arrangement. 3. Research studies also support this aspect. The laboratory method provides a setting where group processes can be studied intensively. Participation: Participation helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. Group Dynamics Training for Change: Group dynamics also helps in providing various training programmes for accepting and implementing change. The organization must regard the participation as meaningful and share the results of the change with its members. (iii) Group can get at the basic problem very rapidly as compared to a single individual. It would be prudent for management to take labour representatives into confidence before implementing any change. taking whole of the group into confidence helps in maintaining a cooperative attitude. sentiments and attitudes towards change. Group Contact: Any effect to change is likely to succeed if the group accepts that change. one can communicate with more people per unit of time. However. 2. (ii) In group. Those people who are directly affected by the change should be given opportunity to participate in that change before the final decisions are reached. __________ are based on people’s emotions. Free flow of information helps people to understand the real picture of the change and many misunderstandings may be avoided. the group itself should be the point of contact. many things about change can be made clear. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization – technology. Through the group contact. and how the benefits of the meaningful and continuous dialogue are necessary. mere participation may not help. The group contact offers some specific advantages: (i) Through groups. job design and people. Such training techniques provide understanding of behaviour. Self Assessment Questions 1. thereby the people can build up the climate based on mutual trust and understanding which are essential for bringing organizational changes successfully. psychodrama. Even if only some of the members are affected by the change. _________ is the alteration of work environment in an organization. For this purpose.1. Such training techniques include role playing. The same is true of problem-solving. benefits of change.such aspects as the reasons for change. They must be made a party to the change rather than an agent for resistance to change. and sensitivity or T-group training. 2. and how members contribute. It purports how the results are.
Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels.8 Terminal Questions 1. 10. through group dynamics. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints. Psychological factors 3. Reference:
. immediate. Refer section 10.9 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. Participation Answers to TQs: 1. Why do organizations resist change? 3. Refer section 10. both at the formal and informal levels.2 2. psychological factors. or deferred.4 3. or the like.10. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. 10. implicit. Refer section 10. group resistance and vested interests. Organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. threatening to go on strike. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups.7 Summary Change is inevitable. Changes may be influenced by external and internal factors. For instance. Economic factors. social factors. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. that is.6. Organizational change 2. at the level of individual and at the level of group. Resistance can be overt. Discuss the methods of reducing resistance to change. Explain the nature of change? 2. engaging in a work showdown.
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