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Unit-01-Introduction to Management Structure: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 1.2 Definitions of Management 1.3 Characteristics of Management 1.4 Scope and Levels of Management 1.5 Importance of Management 1.6 Role of Management 1.7 Administration and Management Self Assessment Questions 1.8 Summary 1.9 Terminal Questions 1.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 1.1 Introduction Management is a global need. It is essential to every individual, a family, educational institution, hospital, religious organizations, team of players, a government, military systems, cultural body, urban centers and business enterprises. No individual can satisfy all his needs by himself. Men should join together and accomplish goals through co-operation. Whenever, there is an organized group of people working towards a common goal, some type of management is needed. A business enterprise must be directed and controlled by a group of people to achieve its goals. The resources of money, manpower, material and technology will be waste unless they are out to work in a co-ordinated manner. It is the ‘management’ which uses the available resources in such a manner that a business enterprise is able to earn ‘surplus’ to meet the needs of growth and expansion. Management is required to plan, organize, co-
ordinate and control the affairs of a business concern. It brings together all resources and motivates people to achieve the objectives of a business enterprise. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Define management. · Explain the characteristics of management. · Differentiate between management and administration. · State the principles of management. · Explain the roles of managers. · Explain managerial skills. 1.2 Definitions of Management Management may be defined in many different ways. Many eminent authors on the subject have defined the term “management”. Some of these definitions are reproduced below: According to Lawerence A. Appley – “Management is the development of people and not the direction of things.” In the words of George R. Terry – “Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.” According to James L. Lundy – “Management is principally the task of planning, co-ordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective.” In the words of Henry Fayol – “To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.” According to Peter F. Drucker – “Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages a business and managers and manages worker and work”. In the words of Koontz and O’Donnel – “Management is defined as the creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals working together in groups can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals”.
According to Newman, Summer and Warren – “The job of management is to make co-operative endeavor to function properly. A Manager is one who gets things done by working with people and other resources.” From the definitions quoted above, it is clear that “management” is a technique of extracting work from others in an integrated and co-ordinated manner for realizing the specific objectives through productive use of material resources. Mobilizing the physical, human and financial resources and planning their utilization for business operations in such a manner as to reach the defined goals can be referred to as “management”. If the views of the various authorities are combined, management could be defined as a “distinct ongoing process of allocating inputs of an organization (human and economic resources) by typical managerial functions (planning, organizing, directing and controlling) for the purpose of achieving stated objectives, namelyoutput of goods and services desired by its customers (environment). In the process, work is performed with and through personnel of the organization in an ever-changing business environment.” From the above, it is clear that management refers to the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people. The process represents the functions or primary activities engaged in by managers. These functions are typically labeled planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Efficiency is a vital part of management. It refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs. If you can get more output from the given inputs, you have increased efficiency. Similarly, if you can get the same output from less input, you also have increased efficiency. Since managers deal with input resources that are scarce-mainly people, money and equipment-they are concerned with the efficient use of these resources. Management, therefore, is concerned with minimizing resource costs. Efficiency is often referred to as “doing things right”. However, it is not enough simply to be efficient. Management is also concerned with getting activities completed; i.e. it seeks effectiveness. When managers achieve their organization’s goals, we say they are effective. Effectiveness can be described as “doing the right things”. So efficiency is concerned with means and effectiveness with ends. Efficiency and effectiveness are interrelated. For instance, it is easier to be effective if one ignores efficiency. Timex could produce more accurate and attractive watches if it disregarded labour and material input costs. Some federal government agencies have been criticized regularly on the grounds that they are reasonably effective but extremely inefficient; that is, they get their jobs done but at a very high cost. Management is concerned, then, not only with getting activities completed (effectiveness), but also with doing so as efficiently as possible. Can organization be efficient and yet not effective? Yes, by doing the wrong things well. Many colleges have become highly efficient in processing students. By using computer-assisted learning, large lecture classes, and heavy reliance on part-time faculty, administrators have significantly cut the cost of educating each student. Yet students, alumni, and accrediting agencies have criticized some of these colleges for failing to educate their students properly. Of
staffing. they require the catalyst of management to produce goods and services required by the society. 1. 3. 4.course. organizing. Managers apply knowledge. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others. labour. Managers also seek to harmonize the individuals’ goals with the organizational goals for the smooth working of the organization. And poor management is most often due to both inefficiency and ineffectiveness or to effectiveness achieved through inefficiency. It is imperative that the organizational goals must be well-defined and properly understood by the mangers at various levels. buoyant spirit and adequate work output. directing and controlling. 6. capital and materials. 2. These factors do not by themselves ensure production. although they can’t observe it during operation. Results through Others: The managers cannot do everything themselves.3 Characteristics of Management Management is a distinct activity having the following salient features or characteristics: 1. feeling of management is result-oriented. Intangible Force: Management has been called an unseen force. labour and capital. It is the force which assembles and integrates other resources. high efficiency is associated more typically with high effectiveness. Economic Resource: Management is one of the factors of production together with land. Thus. Its presence is evidenced by the result of its efforts-orderliness. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the organizational goals are achieved. One may not see with the naked eyes the functioning of management but its results are apparently known. 5. informed employees. experience and management principles for getting the results from the workers by the use of non-human resources. These functions are so interwoven that it is not possible to lay down exactly the sequence of various functions or their relative significance. They must motivate the subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them. Thus. management is an essential ingredient of an organization. In essence. Distinct Process: Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning. All these resources are made available to those who manage. It is the most critical input in the success of any organized group activity. . It co-ordinates the efforts of workers to achieve the goals of the organization. Integrative Force: The essence of management is integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives. People often remark of the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of management on the basis of the end results. the process of management involves decision-making and putting of decisions into practice. Goal-oriented: Management is a purposeful activity. namely.
a hierarchy of command and control. · Management as an economic resource Management is one of the factors of production along with land. According to Newman. The application of these concepts. 10. it refers to three distinct ideas.4 Scope of Management The scope of management is very wide. Basically. In other words. Multi-disciplinary Subject: Management has grown as a field of study (i. Universal Application: Management is universal in character. · Management as a system of authority According to Herbison and Myers. Sociology and Psychology. management may be understood as (i) an economic resource. how effectively and economically the five M’s are combined together to produce desired results. the degree of authority gets gradually reduced. productivity orientation drew its inspiration from Industrial Engineering and human relations orientation from Psychology. management is required to covert the disorganized resources of men. Since the skills acquired by a manager are his personal possession. education. military. In modern organizations. The principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the fields of business. Henri Fayol suggested that principles of management would apply more or less in every situation. Much of the management literature is the result of association of these disciplines. as we move down in the managerial hierarchy. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. that is. and (iii) a class or elite. money and machines into a productive. System of Authority: Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority. According to Herbision and Myers. principles and techniques which have wide applications. management is viewed as an art. Anthropology. The principles are working guidelines which are flexible and capable of adaptation to every organization where the efforts of human beings are to be co-ordinated. labour and capital. materials. the effective use of the five M’s of management (money. materials. 8. So it is treated as a science. Similarly. For instance. discipline) taking the help of so many other disciplines such as Engineering. A Science and an Art: Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of welldefined concepts. Generally. Managers at different levels possess varying degrees of authority.e.7. 1. people . on-going concern. Sociology and Operations Research have also contributed to the development of management science. government and hospital. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively. (ii) a system of authority. It is bound together by a web of relationships between superiors and subordinates. management is the rule-making and rule-enforcing body. 9. useful. principles and techniques requires specialized knowledge and skills on the part of the manager. manpower.
and directing the operations to attain the objectives of the enterprise. it is difficult of draw any clear-cut demarcation between thinking function and doing function as the basic/fundamental managerial functions are performed by all managers irrespective of their levels. viz. Instructions and decisions downward and carry the problem and suggestions upward. As a separate group. and the range of production. Middle management (departmental heads like work manage. (i) administrative management (i. wage and salary director of a company may assist in fixing wages and salary structure as a member of the Board of Directors. one can identify three levels of management namely: i) Top management of a company consists of owners/shareholders.. . his job is to see that the decisions are implemented. or. Operative management is concerned with the “doing” function such as implementation of policies. Administrative management is concerned with “thinking” functions such as laying down policy. or the Chief Executive. the upper level of management) and (ii) operating management (i. Considering the hierarchy of authority and responsibility. But in actual practice. They transmit orders.e. For instance. personnel manager etc.e. day-to-day matters. planning and setting up of standards. All the managers form the chief executive to the first line supervisors are collectively addressed as ‘Management’ which refers to the group. or the General Manager or Executive Committee having key officers. its Chairman. We generally come across two broad levels of management. The managerial class has become very important in modern organizations owing to its contribution to business success. Top management determines objectives and provides direction to enterprise activities. Managing Director. the term management refers to the group of individuals occupying managerial positions. Levels of Management An enterprise may have different levels of management. Board of Directors. The levels of management depend upon its size. · Management as a class or elite Sociologists view management as a distinct class in society having its own value system.) interprets and explains the policies framed by the top management. but as head of wages and salary department. Managers working at top levels enjoy more authority than people working at lower levels.. The real significance of levels is that they explain authority relationships in an organization. ranks. Levels of management refer to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an enterprise.are bound by authority relationships. finance manager. the lower level of management). Lower management (first line supervisors) is concerned with routine. technical facilities.
They are responsible to the top management for the functioning of their department. It serves as an essential link between the top management and the lower level or operative management. etc. 1. materials. iii) Lower level or operative management of a company consists of Superintendents. etc. c) To prepare the organizational set up in their own departments for fulfilling the objectives implied in various business policies. b) To make policies and frame plans to attain the objectives laid.ii) Middle management of a company consists of heads of functional departments namely. It is also described as the policy-making group responsible for the overall direction and success of all company activities. f) To provide overall leadership to the enterprise. men. Middle management: The job of middle management is to implement the policies and plans framed by the top management. Purchase Manager. d) To recruit and select suitable operative and supervisory staff. machines and methods to put the plans into action.. 2. The important functions of top management include: a) To establish the objectives or goals of the enterprise. . The following are the main functions of middle management: a) To establish the objective or goals of the enterprise. policies and plans for the enterprise. Supervisors. duties and responsibilities for timely implementation of the plans. b) To interpret the policies chalked out by top management. e) To exercise effective control of the operations. They provide the guidance and the structure for a purposeful enterprise. They devote more time on the organization and motivation functions of management. e) To assign activities. Without them the top management’s plans and ambitious expectations will not be fruitfully realized. It is accountable to the owners of the business of the overall management. Financial Controller. Marketing Manager. Production Manager. It devotes more time on planning and co-ordinating functions. Foremen. Top management: Top management is the ultimate source of authority and it lays down goals. d) To assemble the resources of money. c) To set up an organizational framework to conduct the operations as per plans. and Divisional Sectional Officers working under these Functional Heads.
the working of an enterprise will become random and haphazard in nature. and actual operations are the responsibility of this level of management. It is the activating force that gets things done through people. 1. They are concerned with direction and control functions of management. They interpret and divide the plans of the management into short-range operating plans. Their authority and responsibility is limited. g) To motivate personnel to attain higher productivity and to reward them properly. Management makes group effort more effective. 3. machines. the resources of production remain resources and never become production. Management creates teamwork and . It helps in putting the resources to the best advantage within the limitations set by the organization and its environment. (i) Optimum use of resources: Management ensures optimum utilization of resources by attempting to avoid wastage of all kinds. (ii) Effective leadership and motivation: In the absence of management. management is the dynamic lift-giving element in every organization. i) To collect reports and information on performance in their departments. They are in direct touch with the rank and file or workers.5 Importance of Management According to Drucker. They are also involved in the process of decisions-making. j) To report to top management. Employees feel a sense of security when they find a body of individual’s working day and night for the continued growth of an organization. They pass on the instructions of the middle management to workers. supervisors. They have to get the work done through the workers. It enables employees to move cooperatively and achieve goals in a coordinated manner. evaluate their performance and report to the middle level management. They allot various jobs to the workers. k) To make suitable recommendations to the top management for the better execution of plans and policies. It consists of foreman. Without management. In its absence. The importance of management can be understood from the following points. Lower or operative management: It is placed at the bottom of the hierarchy of management. h) To co-operate with the other departments for ensuring a smooth functioning of the entire organization. money and material. A right climate is created for workers to put in their best and show superior performance. They devote more time in the supervision of the workers. sales officers.f) To compile all the instructions and issue them to supervisors under their control. accounts officers and so on. an organization is merely a collection of men.
a profession possesses the following characteristics: i) A body of principles. forecasting combined with efficient use of resources) and taking appropriate steps. (v) Change and growth: Changes in technology. methods.. Successful managers are the ones who anticipate and adjust to changing circumstances rather than being passively swept along or caught unprepared. procedures and reward systems. They try to put everything on the right tract. Objective can be achieved only when the human and non-human resources are combined in a proper way. Management is goal-oriented. techniques. Overlapping efforts and waste motions are avoided. (b) Ensuring the survival of the firm in the face of continued changes. An enterprise has to take note of these changes and adapt itself quickly. manager tries to strike a happy balance between the demands of employees and organizational requirements. ii) Formalized methods of acquiring training and experience. In the final analysis. iii) The establishment of a representative organization with professiona-lizing as its goal. competition. With a view to realize the predetermined goals-managers plan carefully. hire competent people and provide necessary guidance. To this end. (iii) Establishers sound industrial relations: Management minimizes industrial disputes and contributes to sound industrial relations in an undertaking. all these help in realizing goals with maximum efficiency. Failure to take note of customer’s needs regarding full efficiently has spelt doom for ‘Ideal java’ in the two-wheeler market in India. government policy. Thus unnecessary deviations. Industrial peace is an essential requirement for increasing productivity. often threaten the survival of a firm. skills. (c) Exploiting new ideas for the benefit of society as a whole and (d) developing employee talents and capabilities while at work and prompting them to show peak performance.motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. (vi) Improves standard of living : Management improves the standard of living of people by (a) using scarce resources efficiently and turning out profits. . counseling and effective leadership. we generally mean a manager who undertakes management as a career and is not interested in acquiring ownership share in the enterprise which he manages. Organize the resources properly. Management as a profession By a professional manager. etc. Managers help an organization by anticipating these changes (carefull planning. According to McFarland. and specialized knowledge. (iv) Achievement of goals: Management plays an important role in the achievement of objectives of an organization. They initiate prompt actions whenever workers express dissatisfaction over organizational rules.
iv) The formation of ethical codes for the guidance of conduct. It has also developed a vast number of tools and techniques. and it is not as fully a profession as medicine and law. in contrast to the predominant views at the time that managers were reflective thinkers who carefully and systematically processed information before making decisions. It may be concluded from the above discussion that management is a science. sabotaging trade unions. In fact. etc. But unlike medicine or law. the All India Management Association. Furthermore. What he discovered challenged several long-held notions about the manager’s job. Management is also a profession in the sense that formalized methods of training is available to those who desire to be managers. identifiable discipline.. little regard is paid to the elevation of service over the desire for monetary compensation is evident by switching of jobs by managers.A. As a social science. However. Training facilities are provided in most companies by their training divisions. Some individual business organizations. It is a profession in the sense that there is a systematized body of management. There was little time for reflective thinking because the managers encountered . Henry Mintzberg did a careful study of five chief executives at work. manipulating prices and markets are by no means uncommon management practices. There is no ethical code of conduct for managers as for doctors and lawyers. There are a number of representative organizations of management practitioners almost in all countries such as the All India Management Association in India. and short-duration activities. Mintberz found that his managers engaged in a large number of varied. However. the Indian Institute of Management. Indeed such mobile managers are regarded as more progressive and modern than others. management is not as exact as natural sciences. try to develop a code of conduct for their own managers but there is no general and uniform code of conduct for all managers. do not seem to adhere to the principle of “service above self”. and v) The charging of fees based on the nature of services. unpatterned. and it is distinct.S. 1. Management partially fulfils the third characteristic of profession. managers in general. Management Development Institute. however. an art as well as a profession. We have a number of institutes of management and university departments of management which provide formal education in this field. none of them has the professionalizing of the management as its goal. bribing public officials to gain favours. Management is a profession to the extent it fulfils the above conditions. Management does not fulfill the last two requirements of a profession. the American Management Association in U. a management degree is not a pre-requisite to become a manager. For instance. A number of organizations such as the Administrative Staff College of India.6 Role of Management In the late 1960s. and the university departments of management offer a variety of short-term management training programmes.
Typically. the transfer of information. Mintzberg described this activity as contacting external sources who provide the manager with information. they do so by reading magazines and talking with others to learn of changes in the public’s tastes. Half of these managers’ activities lasted less than nine minutes each. Responsible for the motivation Performing virtually all and activation of subordinates. signing perform a number of routine legal documents. to some degree. and the like. But in addition to these insights.constant interruptions. The third role within the interpersonal grouping is the liaison role. and may be inside or outside the organization. When the president of a college hands out diplomas at commencement or a factory supervisor gives a group of high school students a tour of the plant. The term ‘management roles’ refers to specific categories of managerial behaviour. When that sales manager confers with other sales executives through a marketing trade association. This is the disseminator role. When they represent the organisation to outsiders. Mintzberg called this the monitor role. motivating. Mintzberg provided a categorization scheme for defining what managers do based on actual managers on the job. what competitors may be planning. and disciplining employees. Table 1. . Interpersonal Roles: All managers are required to perform duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature – interpersonal roles. he or she has an outside liaison relationship. Informational Roles: All managers. subordinates. These ten roles can be grouped as those primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships. These sources are individuals or groups outside the manager’s unit. he or she is acting in a figurehead role. fulfill informational roles-receiving and collecting information from organizations and institutions outside their own. Mintzberg concluded that managers perform ten different but highly interrelated roles. training. and associated duties. duties of a legal or social nature. activities that involve responsible for staffing. All managers have a role as a leader. and decision-making. manages also perform a spokesperson role. The sales manager who obtains information from the human resources manager in his or her same company has an internal liaison relationship. This role includes hiring.1: Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles Role Interpersonal Figurehead Description Identifiable Activities Leader Symbolic head. training. Managers also act as a conduit to transmit information to organizational members. obliged to Greeting visitors.
Responsible for corrective Organizing strategy and action when organization faces review sessions that important. activities that involve outsiders.Liaison Maintains self-developed Acknowledging mail. emerges as nerve center of internal and external information about the organization. Seeks and receives wide variety Reading periodicals and of special information (much of reports. actions. Transmits information received Holding informational from outsides or from other meetings. results. maintaining it current) to develop thorough personal contacts. Searches organization and its Organizing strategy and environment for opportunities review sessions to and initiates “improvement develop new programs. requesting of organizational resources of authorization. the making any activity that involves or approval of all significant budgeting and the Informational Monitor Disseminator Spokesperson Decisional Entrepreneur Disturbance handler Resource allocator . some involves interpretation and integration of diverse value positions of organizational influencers. policies. making phone subordinates to members of calls to relay information. serves as expert on organization’s industry. the organization – some information is factual. network of outside contacts doing external board and informers who provide work. performing other favors and information. Transmits information to Holding board meetings. supervises design of certain projects as well. performing all kinds – in effect. outsiders on organization’s giving information of the plans. understanding of organization and environment. projects” to bring about change. etc. unexpected involve disturbances and disturbances crises Responsible for the allocation Scheduling. media..
are heavily involved in technical aspects of the organization’s operations. managers are responsible for allocating human. The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper & Row. Mintzberg identified four decisional roles which revolve around the making of choices. figurehead. physical and monetary resources. The evidence generally supports the idea that managers – regardless of the type of organization or level in the organization-perform similar roles. Conversely. the leader role is more important for lowerlevel managers than it is for either middle-or-top-level managers. managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization’s performance. Responsible for representing Participating in union the organization at major contract negotiations. During the early 1970. As resource allocators. Katz found that managers need three essential skills or competencies: technical. such as engineering. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row. human. However. and conceptual. managers take corrective action in response to previously unforeseen problems. negotiations. Specifically. Managers need certain skills to perform the duties and activities associated with being a manager. and spokesperson are more important at the higher levels of the organization than at the lower ones. negotiator. computers. Inc. as well as many middle managers. Managerial Skills As you can see from the preceding discussion. managers perform as negotiators when they discuss and bargain with other groups to gain advantages for their own units. Last. or manufacturing. liaison. pp 93-94 Copyright Ó 1973 by Hency Mintzberg. He also found that the relative importance of these skills varied according to the manager’s level within the organization. Decisional Roles: Finally. Publishers. Technical skills include knowledge of and proficiency in a certain specialized field. the roles of disseminator. an accounts payable manager must be proficient in accounting rules and standardized . finance. a manager’s job is varied and complex. An Evaluation: A number of follow-up studies have tested the validity of Mintzberg’s role categories across different types of organizations and at different levels within given organizations. research by Robert L. Negotiator programming of subordinates work. For example. 1973). As entrepreneurs. Technical Skills: First-line managers. the emphasis that managers give to the various roles seems to change with hierarchical level.organizational decisions. Source: Henry Mintzberg. As disturbance handlers.
7 Administration and Management The use of two terms ‘management’ and ‘administration’ has been a controversial issue in the management literature. Those who held management and administration distinct include Oliver Sheldon. Some writers do not see any difference between the two terms. Administration is a higher level function: . Conceptual Skills: Managers also must have the ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract situations. motivate. it remains just as important at the top levels of management as it is at the lower levels. These types of conceptual skills are needed by all managers at all levels but become more important as they move up the organizational hierarchy. Spriegal and Lansburg. this skill is crucial. Floerence and Tead. ii) Management is a generic term and includes administration. Thus. According to them. This controversy is discussed as under in three heads: i) Administration is concerned with the determination of policies and management with the implementation of policies. Managers with good human skills can get the best out of their people. even top managers need some proficiency in the organization’s speciality. and all managers are involved in making decisions. Although technical skills become less important as manager moves into higher levels of management. But some English authors like Brech are of the opinion that management is a wider term including administration. administration is a higher level function. while others maintain that administration and management are two different functions. lead. These abilities are essential to effective decision-making. In fact. management is a lower-level function and is concerned primarily with the execution of policies laid down by administration. Since managers deal directly with people. They know how to communicate.forms so that she can resolve problems and answer questions that her accounts payable clerks might encounter. 1. iii) There is no distinction between the terms ‘management’ and ‘administration’ and they are used interchangeably. They must be able to see the organization as a whole and the relationships among its various subunits and to visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment. and inspire enthusiasm and trust. etc. Human Skills: The ability to work well with other people both individually and in a group is a human skill.
environmental forces. 6. whereas management refers to execution of policies laid down by administration. Managers are Administrators are basically concerned mainly with concerned with planning and organisation and direction control. It is a execution of decisions. administration involves broad policy-making and management involves the execution of policies laid down by the administration. is a doing function. Spriegel and Walter. operative workforce for the execution of plans. Table 1. 5.Administration determines Management decides who Making what is to be done and when shall implement the it is to be done. Environment Administration has direct Management is mainly interaction with external concerned with internal environment of business and forces. 4. Direction of It is concerned with leading It is concerned with Human Resources and motivation of middle leading and motivation of level executives. administrative decisions. 3. of the organisation. i. Usage of Term The term ‘administration’ is The term ‘management’ is often associated with widely used in business .e. management as an executive function which is primarily concerned with carrying out of the broad policies laid down by the administration. Decision. 8. It thinking function. making strategic plans to deal plans and policies of the effectively with the organisation. Meaning Administration Management Administration is concerned Management means with the formulation of getting the work done objectives. plans and policies through and with others. Thus. 2. policies. Administration is the phase of business enterprise that concerns itself with the overall determination of institutional objectives and the policies necessary to be followed in achieving those objectives. of human resources.. Nature Administration relates to the Management relates to decision-making. on the other hand. 7.2: Distinction between Administration and Management: Basic 1. This view is held by Tead.Administration refers to policy-making. objectives. Status Administration refers to Management is relevant higher levels of management. Administration is a determinative function. at lower levels of management. Scope It is concerned with It is concerned with the determination of major implementation of objectives and policies.
government offices. _________. Discuss the importance of management. materials. Lower level managers require and use a greater degree of technical skill and managers at higher levels use a greater degree of conceptual skill. Five M’s of management (________. There are three levels of management-top. 3. Human skills are important at all managerial levels. organisations. public organisations sector and non-business private sector.8 Summary Management is concerned with getting things done through other people. Still management is not completely a profession. Management 2. counseling and effective leadership. motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective. 1. 2. manpower 3. Management is largely found at the middle and lower levels and administration is found at the higher levels.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. 3. co-ordinating.9 Terminal Questions 1. Management creates ________ and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. 1. Explain its characteristics. ___________. Self Assessment Questions in the 1. __________is principally the task of planning. 1. Bring out the difference between Administration and Management. Define management. 2. middle and lower. Managers perform different roles to discharge their responsibilities. teamwork . Money. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. It is the management which transforms physical resources of an organization into productive resources.
Answers to TQs: 1.6 Directing 2.1.5 3.9 Terminal Questions 2.1 Introduction Objectives 2.7 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .2. Refer section 1.2 Process of Management 2.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs .7 Motivating Self Assessment Questions 2.3 Planning 2.4 Organizing 2.5 Staffing 2. MU0004-Unit-02-Management Process Unit-02-Management Process Structure: 2. Refer section 1. Refer section 1.8 Summary 2.3 2.
you will be able to: · Define Management process. · Explain different functions of management Process. Organizing.2. 2. Even . Organizing 3. the two are not quite the same. Commanding 4. Policy Formulation We have noted earlier that all organizations have well-defined goals and objectives. Management is about accomplishing a goal efficiently.2 Management Process Peter Drucker said: “Management is doing things right. leadership is doing the right things“. It is difficult to say where objectives end and policies begin. leadership is about setting the desirable goals. in recent time. · Explain Planning. Through leadership and management often overlap. Objectives: After this studying this unit. There is a degree of overlap between the two. 1949): 1. Directing. since the managerial tasks have become highly challenging a fluid in nature making distinctions redundant to certain extent.1 Introduction Follett (1933) defined management as "the art of getting things done through people”. You might well ask what the need for a policy is when objectives are already defined. Management functions are as follows (Fayol. One can also think of management functionally. Staffing. Planning 2. management functions have been regrouped into four categories. Coordinating 5. Motivating. Controlling However. as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan.
and allocating resources. Decision – Making Taking decisions is a process. Objectives are the ends. The mission statement may be accompanied by an overarching . and then set out the method for achieving it. kicking the ball with the left foot or right foot is a reflex action. general strategies. policies are the means to achieve those ends. overall goals. the decision to change the design of a product. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. An explicit mission guides employees to work independently and yet collectively toward the realization of the organization’s potential. it would be correct to assume that an objective is what you want to accomplish. The mission statement is broad. should precede a good deal of research involving market surveys. A mission statement should be short – and should be easily understood and every employee should ideally be able to narrate it from memory. or where you want go to. a process in which one chooses a course which one thinks is the best. what distinguishers policies form objectives is that you first decide the objective. Thus. Planning also enhances the decisionmaking process. Planning in order to be useful must be linked to the strategic intent of an organization. Therefore. Strategic Planning: Top level managers engage chiefly in strategic planning or long range planning Strategic planning is the process of developing and analyzing the organization’s mission.3 Planning It involves the process of defining goals. thus. fuel and machine efficiency. planning begins with clearly defining the mission of the organization. say a passenger car. summarizing what the organization does. studies on passenger comfort. cost structure and so on. It provides the direction for the other functions of management and for effective teamwork. is an enduring decision which holds good on a continuing basis to guide the members of the organization in doing what they are called upon to do. while a policy. 2. All levels of management engage in planning in their own way for achieving their preset goals. it is not a decision in which any process is involved. driving comfort. Effective planning enables an organization adapt to change by identifying opportunities and avoiding problems. planning is often referred to as strategic in nature and also termed as strategic planning. The tasks of the strategic planning process include the following steps: Define the mission: A mission is the purpose of the organization.so. However. In the football field. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities.
and trade). Conduct a situational or SWOT analysis A situation or SWOT (Strengths. Organizations need to examine their business situation in order to map out the opportunities and threats present in their environments. professional. How skilled is our workforce? 4. What financing is available? 6. Threats) analysis is vital for the creation of any strategic plan. For assessing the strengths of the organization the following questions are important: 1. governments (local. What is our market share? 5. In which areas is the competition not meeting customer needs? 2. customers (internal and external). Weaknesses. Analyzing strengths and weaknesses comprises the internal assessment of the organization. state. SWOT analysis provides the assumptions and facts on which a plan will be based. Opportunities. What are the vulnerable areas of the organization that could be exploited? 2. Is research and development adequate? 4. suppliers. The SWOT analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. Sources of information may include stakeholders like. Are the facilities outdated? 3. What makes the organization distinctive? 2. What are the possible new markets? . federal. journals and reports (scientific. How efficient is our manufacturing? 3. professional or trade associations (conventions and exhibitions).statement of philosophy or strategic purpose designed to convey a vision for the future as envisaged by top management. Are the technologies obsolete? For identifying opportunities the following elements need to be looked at: 1. international). Do we have a superior reputation? For assessing the weaknesses of the organization the following questions are important: 1.
In turn. They are aligned with the mission and form the basis for the action plans of an organization. etc. Set goals and objectives Strategic goals and objectives are developed to fill the gap between current capability and the mission. The SWOT analysis is used as a baseline for future improvement. In which areas does the competition meet customer needs more effectively? 2. Is there a shortage of resources? 4. Generally. and operational planning . tactical. organizations have longterm objectives for factors such as. What substitute products exist? In general terms. Are our rivals weak? 5. Benchmarking systematically compares performance measures such as efficiency. return on investment. or outcomes of an organization against similar measures from other internal or external organizations. These are specific plans that are needed for each task or supportive activity comprising the whole. What are the new regulations? 6. operational plans are based on the organization’s tactical plans. Is there a possibility of growth of existing market?) Identifying threats involves the following: 1. Comparing the organization to external benchmarks (the best practices) is used to assess current capabilities. What is the strength of the economy? 4. Are market tastes changing? 5. the best strategy is one that fits the organization’s strengths to opportunities in the environment. Strategic. Objectives are also called performance goals.3. as well as gap analysis. What are the emerging technologies? 6. earnings per share. Are there new competitors? 3. Develop related strategies (tactical and operational) Tactical plans are based on the organization’s strategic plan. effectiveness. It also helps in setting minimum acceptable standards or common-sense minimums.
It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done.4 Organizing It involves designing. Assign work to individuals 6. and coordinated. It is the extent to which the units of the organization are explicitly defined and its policies. The formal organization can be seen and represented in chart form. Review plans 2. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. and relationships between departments. grouped. List all tasks to be accomplished 3.5 Staffing . and where decisions are to be made. Group related jobs together in a logical and efficient manner 5. Organizations are groups of people. The purpose of the organizing function is to make the best use of the organization’s resources to achieve organizational goals. This review is used for the next planning cycle and review. Delegate authority to establish relationships between jobs and groups of jobs. structuring. who is to do. 2. Organizational structure is the formal decision-making framework by which job tasks are divided. and goals are clearly stated. An organization chart displays the organizational structure and shows job titles. The steps in the organizing process include: 1. lines of authority. Formalization is an important aspect of structure. short-term standards for key variables that will tend to validate and support the long-range estimates must be established.must be accompanied by controls to ensure proper implantation of the plans. It is the official organizational structure conceived and built by top management. who reports to whom. Monitor the plan A systematic method of monitoring the environment must be adopted to continuously improve the strategic planning process. with ideas and resources. To develop an environmental monitoring procedure. working toward common goals. 2. necessary to maintain competitive advantage in the said market. Divide tasks into groups one person can accomplish – a job 4. A key issue in accomplishing the goals identified in the planning process is structuring the work of the organization. Feedback is encouraged and incorporated to determine if goals and objectives are feasible. how the tasks are to be grouped. procedures.
transfer and appraisal of personnel to fill the organizational positions. placement. 3. O’Donnell & Weihrich have defined staffing as “filling positions in the organization structure through identifying work force requirements. Therefore it is the responsibility of the management to secure and maintain competent and dedicated workforce including managers and operatives. selection. recruitment. Curther Geelick Cyndall Urwick – “Staffing is the whole personnel function of brining in and training the staff and marinating of favorable conditions of work” Features of Staffing The analysis of the above definitions highlights the following features: 1. inventorying the people available. placement. 2.It is not the machines. It aims at right man at right position: Staffing aims at selection of right person for right place at right time and retaining them in the organization. This task has been referred to as staffing. selection. Koontz. Theo Haimann – “Concerned with the placement. 2. money. Deals with people: Staffing is a separate managerial function which deals with people in the organization. development. compensation and training of needed people”. recruitment. 4. promotion. training. appraisal. growth and development of all those members of the organization whose function is to get things done through the efforts of other individuals”. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. It has many sub-functions: Staffing involves determination of the manpower requirement. Definition: 1. 3. transport system and other physical resources that make the organization to achieve its goals but it is the competency and efficiency of the people who handle resources contributes for the accomplishment of objectives of the enterprise. . It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. materials. Pervasiveness of Staffing: Effective execution of staffing function is the responsibility of all managers in the organization. Managers of the concerned departments are responsible for the selection and development of qualified people for their department and maintain them in their department. performance appraisal etc.
It is a process: it is a process having a logical sequence i. Characteristics of Direction The characteristic features of direction are as follow: 1. Thus staffing deals with the future requirements also. lead them and guide them on a continuous basis. 2. promotion. recruitment. induction. 7. Definition According to Koontz and O’Donnel. . It is a continuing function. It is a continuous function: With the growth and expansion of business additional manpower is needed. training development and maintenance of personnel. A manger needs to give orders to his subordinates. It is instructing people as to what to do.e. management initiates actions in the organization. resignation. 3. It deals with future requirements: Staffing deals with current and future personnel requirements. It is performed in the context of superior-subordinate relationship and every manager in the organization performs his duties both as a superior and subordinate. Personnel policies and programs must be formulated as guides to perform the staffing function effectively.6 Directing Direction is one of the functions of management. motivate them. identifying the manpower requirements. vacancies arise out of retirement. selection. Thus staffing is an ongoing process through – out the life of an organization. Direction is the managerial function of guiding. how to do and telling them to do to the best of their ability. Direction is continuous process and it continues throughout the life-time of the organization.5. 6. 2. It is an important managerial function. Direction is an important managerial function. Direction function is performed at every level of management. etc. Through direction. directing is the “interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals”. Present positions must be filled keeping in mind the future requirements. overseeing and leading people. 8.
Essence of performance: Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. guide. proposed by Maslow (1943). The further they progress up the hierarchy. The five needs are: · Physiological: Includes hunger. teach. On the one hand. sex. “without the issuance of directives. thirst. 2. satisfied needs cannot. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory According to this theory. organizing and staffing on one hand and controlling on the other. to provide superiors opportunities for some more important work which their subordinates cannot do. humanness and psychological health a person will show. and the Two-Factor theory. It is an important function of management: Directing is an important management function which provides a connecting link between planning. from the basic to the complex.4. shelter. nothing or at the best very little would be accomplished”.7 Motivating Motivating In the 1950s three specific theories were formulated and are the best known: Hierarchy of Needs theory. The amount of time and effort an executive spends in directing however. and other bodily needs . Theories X and Y. 3. human beings have wants and desires which influence their behaviour. the more individuality. Pervasive function: Directing is a managerial function performed by all mangers at all levels of the organization. on the other. 2. Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. Nature of Directing The nature of directing can be discussed under the following: 1. will vary depending upon his level. The manager never ceases to direct. It emphasizes that a subordinate is to be directed by his own superior only. 5. Continuous function: Directing is a continuous process. without guiding and overseeing subordinates. the number of subordinate he has and the other duties he is expected to perform. coach and supervise his subordinates. The needs are arranged in order of importance. only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior. As Theo Haimann puts it. Direction imitates at the top level in the organization and follows to bottom through the hierarchy. it aims at getting things done by subordinates and. The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. 4. Direction has dual objectives.
acceptance. and self-actualization are classified as higherorder needs. if they can. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory . Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. Lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied. whereas. Theory Y – In this theory management assumes employees may be ambitious. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. and self-fulfillment Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders. Social. if given the chance employees have the desire to be creative and forward thinking in the workplace. Physiological and safety needs are described as lower-order. autonomy and empowerment. anxious to accept greater responsibility. and external esteem factors. recognition. achieving one’s potential. and friendship · Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors. Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor argued that a manager’s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and he or she tends to mould his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions. Theory X – In this theory management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work. such as. esteem. It is also assumed that workers generally place security above all other factors and will display little ambition. and exercise self-control. Workers need to be closely supervised and a comprehensive system of controls and a hierarchical structure is needed to supervise the workers closely. it is clear that Theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals. and attention · Self-actualization: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming. There is a chance for greater productivity by giving employees the freedom to perform to the best of their abilities without being bogged down by rules. and achievement. From the above. includes growth. self-direction.· Safety: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm · Social: Includes affection. status. It is also believed that. externally. autonomy. Higher-order needs are satisfied internally. self-motivated. belongingness. such as. self-respect.
emphasize factors intrinsically rewarding that are associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. and achievement. Job satisfaction factors are separate and distinct from job dissatisfaction factors. Presence of these factors ensure job satisfaction. Directing is the interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals. When hygiene factors are adequate. The satisfiers relate to what a person does while the dissatisfiers relate to the situation in which the person does what he or she does. 2. Organization involves designing. To motivate people. neither will they be satisfied. The absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction. recruitment. structuring. who is to do. 3. and salary are hygiene factors. In summary. people will not be dissatisfied. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. Planning involves the process of defining goals. performance appraisal etc. Hygiene factors on the other hand. 2. how the tasks are to be grouped. company policy. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. . supervision. and where decisions are to be made. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. have to do with a person’s relationship to the context or environment in which she or he performs the job. but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. responsibility. _______refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise.8 Summary Management is the art of getting things done through people. These two factors are motivators and hygiene factors and this theory is also called motivation-hygiene theory. such as.Herzberg (1959) constructed a two-dimensional paradigm of factors affecting people’s attitudes about work. advancement. The _____analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. many related to the tasks being performed. motivators describe a person’s relationship with what she or he does. interpersonal relations. recognition. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. Self Assessment Questions 1. who reports to whom. Extrinsic factors. such as. working conditions. Motivators are intrinsic factors. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. ____defined management as the art of getting things done through people.
Reference 2.1 Introduction Objectives . 2. Follett 2. Staffing Answers to TQs: 1.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.6 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .2. Write a short not on directing. Reference 2. What is planning? 2. Reference 2.5 3. Explain Staffing in detail 3.9 Terminal Questions 1.3 2. MU0002-Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Structure: 3. SWOT 3.
3.2 Definitions 3.3 Characteristics of OD 3.4 Categories of OD 3.5 Goals of OD 3.6 OD and Management Development 3.7 Role of OD 3.8 Problems in OD Self Assessment Questions 3.9 Summary 3.10 Terminal Questions 3.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 3.1 Introduction Organization development is the applied behavioural science discipline dedicated to improving organizations and the people in them through the use of the theory and practice of planned change. Organizations face multiple challenges and threats today – threats to effectiveness, efficiency, and profitability; challenges from turbulent environments, increased competition, and changing customer demands; and the constant challenge to maintain congruence among organizational dimensions such as technology, strategy, culture, and processes. Keeping organizations healthy and viable in today’s world is a daunting task. Individuals in organizations likewise face multiple challenges – finding satisfaction in and through work, fighting obsolescence of one’s knowledge and skills, maintaining dignity and purpose in pursuit of organizational goals, and achieving human connectedness and community in the workplace. Simple survival – continuing to have an adequate job – is a major challenge today in the light of constant layoffs and cutbacks. Although new jobs are being created at record rates, old jobs are being destroyed at an accelerating pace. “Knowledge” work is replacing “muscle” work. In summary, organizations and the individuals in them face an enormously demanding present and future. Are any strategies available to help people and organizations cope, adapt, survive, and even prosper in these vexing times? Fortunately, the answer is “yes”. A variety of solutions exists. And organization development (OD) is one of them. Basically, organization development is a
process of teaching people how to solve problems, take advantage of opportunities, and learn how to do that better and better over time. OD focuses on issues related to the “human side” of organizations by finding ways to increase the effectiveness of individuals, teams, and the organization’s human and social processes. Organization development is a relatively recent invention. It started in the late 1950s when behavioural scientists steeped in the lore and technology of group dynamics attempted to apply that knowledge to improve team functioning and inter-group relations in organizations. Early returns were encouraging, and attention was soon directed toward other human and social processes in organizations such as the design of work tasks, organization structure, conflict resolution, strategy formulation and implementation, and the like. The field of OD grew rapidly in the 1970s and the 1980s with thousands of organizations in the private and public sectors using the theory and methods of OD with great success. Today, organization development represents one of the best strategies for coping with the rampant changes occurring in the marketplace and society. We predict that organization development will be preferred improvement strategy in future. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Define organization development. · Explain the characteristics of OD. · Discuss the categories of OD programme. · State the goals of OD. · Distinguish between OD and Management Development · Explore the problems in OD. 3.2 Definitions Organization Development (OD) is a response to change, a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs, attitudes, values and structure of organization so that they can better adapt to new technologies, markets, and challenges, and the dizzying rate of change itself. (Bennis, 1969). OD can be defined as a planned and sustained effort to apply behavioural science for system improvement, using reflexive, self-analytic methods. (Schmuck and Miles, 1971)
Organizational development is a process of planned change- change of an organization’s culture from one which avoids an examination of social processes (especially decision making, planning and communication) to one which institutionalizes and legitimizes this examination. (Burke and Hornstein, 1972) The aims of OD are: 1) Enhancing congruence between organizational structure, processes, strategy, people, and culture; 2) Developing new and creative organizational solutions; and 3) Developing the organization’s self-renewing capacity (Beer, 1980). Organization development is an organizational process for understanding and improving any and all substantive processes an organization may develop for performing any task and pursuing any objectives…. A “process for improving processes” – that is what OD has basically sought to be for approximately 25 years (Vaill, 1989) “Organizational development is a set of behavioural science-based theories, values, strategies, and techniques aimed at the planned change of the organizational work setting for the purpose of enhancing individual development and improving organizational performance, through the alteration of organizational members’ on-the-job behaviours.” (Porras and Robertson, 1992) “OD is a systematic application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies, structure, and processes for improving an organization’s effectiveness.” (Cummings and Worley, 1993) “Organization development is a planned process of change in an organization’s culture through the utilization of behavioural science technologies, research, and theory.” (Burke, 1994) As you can see, these definitions overlap a great deal (that’s encouraging), and contain several unique insights (that’s enlightening). All authors agree that OD applies behavioural science to achieve planned change. Likewise, they agree that the target of change is the total organization or system and that the goals are increased organizational effectiveness and individual development. Collectively, these definitions convey a sense of what organization development is and does. They describe in broad outline the nature and methods of OD. There is no set definition of OD and no agreement on the boundaries of the field, that is, what practices should be included and excluded. But these are not serious constraints given that the field is still evolving, and that practitioners share a central core of understanding as shown in the preceding definitions.
developing the strategy for getting there. serious business. led and supported by top management. By learning processes. and making it happen. We do not propose it as the “right” definition. In fact. we mean involving large numbers of people in building the vision of tomorrow. where . Visioning means creating a picture of the desired future that includes salient features of the human side of the organization and then working together to make that picture a reality. we mean those leadership behaviours and human resource practices that enable organization members to develop and use their talents as fully as possible toward individual growth and organizational success. where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured. Top management must initiate the improvement “journey” and be committed to seeing it through.” This definition is lengthy. we mean that organizational change and development takes time. team. For empowerment to become fact of life. it must be built into the very fabric of the organization-its strategy. to improve an organization’s visioning. There is no “quick fix” when it comes to lasting organizational improvement.several years in most cases. through an ongoing. processes. and organizational learning. collaborative management of organization culture-with special emphasis on the culture of intact work teams and other team configurations-using the consultantfacilitator role and the theory and technology of applied behavioural science. lost its commitment. but as one that includes characteristics we think are important for the present and future of the field. We will explain this definition in some detail. One program or initiative moves the organization to a higher plateau. By visioning processes. and problem-solving processes. Most OD programs that fail do so because top management was ambivalent. By empowerment processes. then another moves it to yet a higher plateau of effectiveness. we mean those interacting. and shared picture of the nature of the products and services the organization offers. structure. but it includes a number of components that we consider essential. listening. it is more accurate to describe “improvement” as a never-ending journey of continuous change. including action research. we mean those processes through which organization members develop a viable. Organizational change is hard. empowerment. the ways those goods will be produced and delivered to customers. “Organization development is a long-term effort. it includes pain and setbacks as well as success. By empowerment. coherent. and what the organization and its members can expect from each other. and culture.Now let’s turn to our definition of organization development. The phrase led and supported by top management states an imperative: Top management must lead and actively encourage the change effort. By long-term effort. Peter Senge describes learning organizations as “… organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire. and self-examining processes that facilitate individual. learning. or became distracted with other duties.
activities. values. interactions. assumptions. structure. make decisions.” Problem-solving processes refer to the ways organization members diagnose situations. managing the culture should be a collaborative business. solve problems. so they are the place OD programs often begin – getting people to stop doing things one way and start doing them a different way. empowerment. Our definition also places considerable weight on organizational processes. We believe solutions to problems are enhanced by tapping deeply into the creativity. think. culture is of primary importance. (b) invented. so is managing the culture. and norms of behaviour that are viewed as the correct way to perceive. Collaborative management of the culture means that everyone. (c) as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. learning. and feel in relation to those problems. Michael Beer’s definition called for “developing new and creative organizational solutions”. norms. commitment. vitality. Empowerment means involving people in problems and decisions and letting them be responsible for results. opportunities. we mean. in contrast to having only a select few involved. empowerment. expectations. So culture consists of basic assumptions. We further believe that having compelling. discovered. think. has a stake in making the organization work. beliefs. Edgar Schein clarifies the nature and power of culture in his definition: “Culture can now be defined as (a) a pattern of basic assumptions. widely shared vision of a desired future creates the best climate for effective problem-solving by all the organization’s members. Processes are relatively easy to change. We believe that when the culture promotes collaboration. and challenges in the organization’s environment and its internal functioning. that one of the most important things to manage in organizations is the culture: the prevailing pattern of values. and problem-solving processes are opportunities for collaboration in organization development. therefore (e) is to be taught to new members as the (f) correct way to perceive. Still. and where people are continually learning how to learn together. But change becomes permanent when the culture changes and people accept the new ways as the “right” ways. and problem-solving processes. attitudes. strategy. empowerment. not just a small group. one of wide-spread participation in creating and managing a culture that satisfies that wants and needs of individuals at the same time that it fosters the organization’s purposes. we affirm our belief that culture is the bedrock of behaviour in organizations. first. and feel-that is why culture change is necessary for true organizational improvement. By ongoing collaborative management of the organization’s culture. (d) that has worked well enough to be considered valid and. and continuous learning the organization is bound to succeed. . and take actions on problems. and common purposes of all members of the organization. sentiments. and processes makes each important. and we highlight the importance of visioning. And second. The reciprocal influence among culture. Processes are how things get done. or developed by a given group. and artifacts.collective aspiration is set free. By including culture so prominently in our definition. and each influences the others. learning. Just as visioning.
When teams function well. individuals and the organization function well. OD focuses on culture and processes. He uses the terms ‘multifunctional projectization’ and ‘horizontal systems’ to describe these teams and their work. The old method was to have functional specialists work on the problem sequentially. according to Peters. maintaining quality control. This method resulted in loss of synergy. members are trained in competencies such as planning. firing. we recognize that teams are central to accomplishing work in organizations. team culture can be collaboratively managed to ensure effectiveness. intact work teams do not have a boss in the traditional sense-the teams manage themselves. such as design. and considerable antagonism among the separate functional specialists. We think teams are the basic building blocks of organizations. Specifically.By intact work teams and other configurations. But in many organizations today. OD encourages collaboration between organization leaders and members in managing culture and processes. . The most prevalent form of teams in organizations is intact work teams consisting of superior and subordinates with a specific job to perform. To summarize. Team building and role and goal clarification interventions are standard activities in OD programs directed toward intact work teams. and then disbanded with the people going on to new tasks. Tom Peters predicts that the work of tomorrow (most of which will be “brain work”) will be done by ad hoc teams brought together to accomplish a task. constantly shifting teams will be the dominant configuration for getting work done. Today’s organizations increasingly use ad hoc teams that perform a specific task and disband when the task is completed. the process “threw the results over the wall” to the next functional unit. 2. and training. much rework. engineering. These self-directed teams assume complete responsibility for planning and executing work assignments. hiring. Temporary. and using management information. manufacturing. wasted time. here are the primary distinguishing characteristics of organization development: 1. The thesis of Liberation Management is that contemporary bureaucratic structures with their functional specialties and rigid hierarchies are all wrong for the demands of today’s fast-paced market place. multifunctional. The results are usually highly gratifying both for the team members and for the organization. and procurement. self-directed teams control performance appraisals. Over time. In Liberation Management. The current method for getting complex tasks done in organizations is to assemble a cross-functional team comprised of members from all the functional specialities required to get the job done. In addition to team building and role and goal clarification. Further. When one function finished with its part of the project. The definition we have just analyzed contains the elements we believe are important for OD.
rather. 4. OD relies on an action research model with extensive participation by client system members. OD efforts are not one-shot actions. 7. OD takes a developmental view that seeks the betterment of both individuals and the organization. Thus. collaborators. 3. Dynamic Process: OD is a dynamic process and includes the efforts to guide and direct changes as well as to cope with or adapt changes imposed.3. This ‘planned’ emphasis separates OD efforts from other kinds of more haphazard changes that are frequently undertaken by organizations. 3. OD views organization improvement as an ongoing process in the context of a constantly changing environment. An overarching goal is to make the client system able to solve its problems on its own by teaching the skills and knowledge of continuous learning through self-analytical methods. dynamic and adaptive system. interactive. 2. or isolated problems. 6. temporary. . Planned Change: OD is a strategy of planned change for organizational improvement. and co-learners with the client system. 5. The concept of comprehensive change is based on the systems concept-open. 10. Attempting to create “win-win” solutions is standard practice in OD programs. OD focuses on the elevation of an organization to a higher level of functioning by improving the performance and satisfaction. 8. It recognizes that organizational goals change. Participation and involvement in problem-solving and decision-making by all levels of the organization are hallmarks of OD. and cyclic processes. Comprehensive Change: OD efforts focus on comprehensive change in the organization. they are ongoing. OD efforts take an organization as an interrelated whole and no part of it can be changed meaningfully without making corresponding changes in other parts. 4. Teams of all kinds are particularly important for accomplishing tasks and are targets for OD activities. Rather. OD practitioners are facilitators. so the methods of attaining these goals should also change. OD focuses on total system change and views organizations as complex social systems. rather than focusing attention on individuals. 9.3 Characteristics of OD 1. so that change is easily observed. Long-range Change: OD efforts are not meant for solving short-term. OD focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides.
all types of experience requiring Organization Development efforts may be grouped into three categories: (a) Problems of destiny. He shares a social philosophy about human values. At the individual level.4 Categories of OD Programmes In general. or catalyst. the importance and centrality of goals and objectives and the different role requirements of the consultant change agent vis-à-vis the clients. and (c) Problems of organizational effectiveness. identity. third party change agent. 7. evaluates these data. and adaptability for the organization as a whole. the element which links Organization Development with the scientific method of inquiry and. (b) The interventions are primarily directed towards problems and issues identified by the client group. and mutual influence. and then. There is a close working relationship between the change agent and the target organizational members to be changed. Two important elements of Organization Development are. 6. Organization Development is inextricably linked with action. problem-solving. growth.5. and revitalization. it is a programme with a purpose that is to guide present and future action. further more. yet following features are common to most of the programmes: (a) The client is a total system or major subunit of total system. the collaborative relationships between the scientists. (b) Problems of human satisfaction and development. takes actions for intervention. This is done to arrive at certain desirable outcomes that may be in the form of increased effectiveness. collects relevant data. The change agent is a humanist seeking to get a humanistic philosophy in the organization. second. participation. first. He designs intervention strategies based on these data. and integrate individual and organizational goals. The relationship involves mutual trust. They discourage ‘do it yourself’ approach. . practitioners and the client laymen. Action research is the basis for such intervention. he conducts surveys. OD attempts to provide opportunities to be ‘human’ and to increase awareness. 3. Although Organization Development Programmes vary. Emphasis on Intervention and Action Research: OD approach results in an active intervention in the ongoing activities of the organization. joint goals and means. Normative Educational Process: OD is based on the principle that ‘norms form the basis for behaviour and change is a re-educative process of replacing old norms by new ones’. rather. A change agent in OD process does not just introspect the people and introduce changes. Key areas are the normative type of model. Participation of Change Agent: Most OD experts emphasize the need for an outside.
and (d) The interventions are based on behavioural science theory and technology. with the authority of knowledge and competence. (e) To make competition more relevant to work goals and to maximize collaborative efforts. (j) To improve effectiveness of the organization.5 Goals of Organization Development Following are the generally accepted goals of OD: (a) To create an open. should begin with a clear-cut statement of specific objectives and criteria for determining if these objectives have been met from the stand point of the employee/employees simply as team member or for the total group. (c) To locate decision making and problem-solving responsibilities as close to sources of information as possible.6 OD and Management Development . We need to examine carefully the techniques of Organization Development. This Organization Development progrmmes. 3. its underlying theory and assumptions and some of the pitfall and challenges in attempting to improve organizations through behavioural science. (d) To build trust among persons and groups throughout an organization. (f) To develop a reward system which recognizes both the achievement of the organization’s goals (profit or service) and development of people. (g) To increase the sense of ‘ownership’ or organization’s objectives throughout the work force. problem solving climate throughout an organization. (b) To supplement the authority associated with role or status. 3. (h) To help managers to manage according to relevant objectives rather than according to past practices or according to objectives which do not make sense for one’s area of responsibility. like other normative re-educative programmes. (i) To increase self-control and self-direction for people within the organization.(c) The interventions are directed towards problem-solving and improved functioning for the client system.
and (iv) a sense of responsibility. not on the and managers to perform managers. OD tries to fit the organization to the men. Before making a comparison between the two. less individual competitiveness. there are four attributes of effective managers in large organization. The term ‘development’ refers broadly to the nature and direction of change induced in personnel through the process of training and education. and techniques adopted in both may overlap to some extent. According to him. with their existing objectives and structure. let us define management development as we have seen the definition of OD. organization. Focus . While the latter aims at developing the mangers individually for the accomplishment of better performance in organizational setting. have substantial influence in changing the capacity of the individual to perform his assignment better and in so doing are likely to increase his potential for future management assignment. These are: (i) a positive attitude towards authority. Miner has drawn difference between two processes. MD tries to fit the men to the organization. (ii) competitiveness. more attention to peer-groups. whereas OD efforts within organizations may cause confusion and chaos for incoming human resources if the organization is underplayed and the humanistic dimension alone is emphasized. Difference between Management Development and OD Factors Objectives Management Development Organization Development Increasing manager’s Changing the nature of the contributions to goal organization.” Organization development differs from management development. Based on this. However. (iii) assertiveness. Train and equip employees Focus on design. it is beneficial to make a comparison between OD and Management Development (MD) as both have some common objectives that betterment of an organization. focus on achieving better in existing improvement in design. Burke and Schmidt have made this difference more clear which is presented in the following table. he appears to be biased against OD and the real distinction between OD and MD lies in between these two extremes. accomplishments. according to him. then would the results be functional for managing organization activity in a competitive world? Thus. and greater display of feelings and emotions. He feels that management development reinforces the above four qualities and helps managers cultivate and develop the will to manage. If OD efforts train people towards anti-authority value. management development has been defined as follows: “Management development is all those activities and programmes when recognized and controlled.At this stage. the former goes one step further and purports to change the entire organizational climate where the mangers work.
horizontally. To increase the level of enthusiasms and personal satisfaction at all levels of the organization. etc.8 Problems in Organization Development Organization development.Approach Time Educative and training Short-range. To increase the level of self and group responsibility in planning and its implementation. substantial disenchantment with OD became evident because of many controversial OD techniques like sensitivity training. Specialist No special requirement. Thus. To place emphasis on humanistic values and goals consistent with these vales. By 70s. 7. it is quite suitable for improving organizational performance on long-term basis. In early 60s. however. To create an environment in which authority of assigned role is augmented by authority based on knowledge and skills.7 Role of Organization Development Organization development. Problem-solving approach. 2. Trained specialists required. 5. To increase the level of trust and mutual emotional support among all organization members. as a long-term strategy for organizational change. 6. 3. To increase the openness of communications in all directions-vertically. 3. Much of the enthusiasm created at the beginning of OD programmes vanished over the period of time. Long-range strategy for organizational innovation and renewal. 4. Since OD attempts to bring comprehensive change in the organization. plays key role in organizational improvement. has invited sharp criticism as a strategy to increase organizational viability and effectiveness because many OD programmes have failed. confrontation techniques. OD can be utilized for the following results in the organization: 1. To treat each human being as a complex person with a complex set of needs important in his work and his life. Research studies have also failed to conclude . OD became quite successful with many professional consultants offering high services and programmes to various organizations. The basic problem in a change effort which is not comprehensive is that it does not work properly unless there is a proper change in the internal environment of the organization in which people work. 3. however. and laterally.
and (ii) failure to correctly model appropriate personnel behaviour in the programme. OD makes people unfit for the real organizations world because no organization can fully adopt open system concept. Enough time should be allowed so that the effects of OD programme are realized. 4. Hence. 2. There should be proper use of OD interventions. OD is criticized on the following lines: 1. Organization must formulate the objectives of OD programme very clearly and specifically. 5. Only fully competent OD consultant should be pressed for the service and he should develop understanding with internal change agents. particularly in bottom-line ones. If an organization is laden with these people. . some specific efforts are required. 4. 5. Therefore. In general. 3. These should be based on the specific needs of the organization. People realized its dysfunctional aspects only when many OD efforts failed. Therefore. However. it can be visualized that OD itself may not be dysfunctional but application may be. OD can not be taken as panacea for curing all organizational problems. Some of these efforts are as follows: 1. Evans has identified three factors which have been responsible for the failure of OD programmes: (i) failure of the management consultant group to correctly tailor the programme to actual needs of the organization. 3. 2. and only large organizations can afford this luxury without any guarantee of positive outcome. it may be emphasized that OD programmes are likely to fail when these are not programmes and hence failure. it fails even as a long-term strategy. It can be seen that many of these criticisms are based on reality and experience. For example. OD programmes are often quite costly.significant contributions of OD in all organizations. it is useless to try OD. There is discrepancy between ideal and real situations. and (iii) failure to increase employee motivation through participation and development of personal growth and self-esteem. There should be genuine support of OD programme from top management. OD tries to achieve ideal without taking into account real. Thus. Resistance to change is a natural phenomenon and OD puts undue pressure to change. in order to make best use of OD efforts. OD fails to motivate people with low level of achievement needs.
problem-focused ‘nature of OD’ marshals the experience and expertise of organization members for problem-solving and capitalizes the opportunities in the organization.9 Summary The definitions clarify the distinctive features of OD and suggest why it is such a powerful change strategy. Top management 2. 4. But OD aims at changing the entire organizational climate where the managers work.10 Terminal Questions 1. Explain the various characteristics of OD. Management development aims at developing the managers individually. collaborative. 2. 4. Tom Peters 3. 2. OD is the ultimate remedy for organizational improvements and developments. _____________is a short-term strategy. 5. ––––––––– is a process which includes leadership behaviours and human resource practices. State the various roles of OD. Organization development should be led and supported by –––––––.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Define OD. Who is associated with the “Learning Organizations”? 5. Distinguish between ‘organizational development’ and ‘management development’. ––––––– is associated with “Liberation Management”. 3. OD focuses on culture and processes. It focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. 3. There is no ‘quick fix’ to organizations’ problems. Empowerment . The participative. 3. Explain its salient features. 3. What are the problems involved in the implementation of OD? 3.Self Assessment Questions 1.
Organization Development – Interventions Structure: 4. Peter Senge 5. Refer section 3.3 Process Consultation 4.3 3.2 Survey Feedback 4.6 4.4.1 Introduction Objectives 4.4 Grid Training 4. Refer section 3.7 5. Management development Answers to TQs: 1.6 Team-building . Refer section 3. Refer section 3.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .5 Leadership Development 4.Organization Development – Interventions Unit-04. Refer section 3.2 2. MU0002-Unit-04.
many of them visualize data gathering as an intervention whereas it is treated as only preparatory work for OD by others. process consultation. various consultants and practitioners have different opinions about the activities which can be included in interventions. interventions may be required to change people at all these levels. French and Bell have suggested twelve families of OD interventions: diagnostic. the classification of OD interventions shows variation. group level. Thus. team-building. they make things happen. French and Bell have defined OD intervention as: “Sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage with a task or a sequence of tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvement. mediation and negotiation activities. Nevertheless. Further. interpersonal level. techno-structural activities. survey feedback.8 Change Agents 4. This classification of OD interventions is very comprehensive and many activities do not strictly form the part of OD as process of organizational improvement but other methods of improving the performance of the organization.10 Summary 4. inter-group level. Interventions constitute the action thrust of organization development.7 Inter Group Development 4. work group. such a classification of interventions may not put them into mutually exclusive categories as a particular intervention may be applied at more than one level. People’s behaviour may be relevant to understand at individual level. A meaningful classification of OD interventions may be based on the improvement in the behaviour of people in the organization as OD is basically a behavioural approach. inter-group activities.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 4. However. management grid. and organizational culture.9 Role of Change Agents Self Assessment Questions 4. education and training.11 Terminal Questions 4.4. the classification appears to be more relevant because it may specify the .” There are various OD interventions and they are classified in different ways. Therefore. and organizational level.1 Introduction OD interventions refer to various activities which a consultant and client organization perform for improving organizational performance through enabling organizational members better manage their behaviour. For example.
1. you will be able to: · Describe survey feedback. To assist the group members to improve the relationships through discussion of common problems. the other major thrust in the development of OD has come from survey research and feedback of data. and peer interaction facilitation.2 Survey Feedback Besides laboratory training (sensitivity and grid). Though some type of survey method was prevalent in various organizations earlier. ISR has prepared a questionnaire which includes questions on leadership – managerial support. .range of change that an organization requires. team. grid training. Historically. Our further discussion follows this development. and survey feedback method. peer goal emphasis. Institute for Social Research (ISR) of University of Michigan. 4. have been added. Data Collection: The first step in survey feedback is data collection usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. feedback of information. Objectives: After studying this unit. managerial goal emphasis. OD efforts were attempted through sensitivity training. Process of Survey Feedback Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection. Subsequently. · Role of change agents. · Explain grid training. and follow up. · Realize the importance of team-building. and participative goal-setting which has become more popular as management by objectives. other techniques like process consultation. · Describe process consultation. The basic objectives of survey feedback are as follows: 1. 2. peer support. To assist the organization in diagnosing its problems and developing action plan for problemsolving. The questionnaire may include different aspects of organizational functioning. developing action plans based on feedback. managerial work facilitation. USA developed a comprehensive questionnaire for conducting survey in different aspects of an organization. peer work facilitation.building.
even if valid and reliable information is collected. It is cost-effective means of implementing a comprehensive OD programme making it a highly desirable technique. Second. motivation. In oral system of feedback. data are classified. Decision-making and problem-solving abilities of organization can be improved tremendously because this approach applies the competence and knowledge throughout the organization and the problems faced by it. One such follow-up action may be to advise the participants to develop their own action plans to overcome the problems revealed through a feedback or as is more commonly the case. 3. 3. rather. and analysis is made to arrive at some meaningful conclusions. control within the company. After the questionnaires are completed.organizational climate-communication with the company. However. The questionnaire is administered personally either by the members of consulting firm or by organization’s personnel. follow-up action may be in the form of developing some specific OD interventions particularly process consultation and team-building. decision-making. all attempts to diagnose the problems will be abortive and futile. If it is biased. it is provided through group discussion or problem-solving sessions conducted by the consultant. Alternatively. survey feedback contributes in the following manner: 1. Feedback of Information: After the data are analyzed. 2. satisfaction with the pay. it is of no use unless follow-up action is taken based on the . 2. it should be constructive and suggestive. by the consultant. feedback may be given in the form of a written summary of findings. Whatever the method of giving feedback is adopted. In particular. threatening and emotion-hurting as survey feedback is aimed at identifying weaknesses which must be overcome through follow-up actions and not the fault-finding technique for criticism. co-ordination between departments. satisfaction with the job. It generates great amount of information efficiently and quickly which can be used in solving problems faced by the organization and its members. satisfaction with the supervisor. and satisfaction with the work group. and general management. feedback is given to the persons who have participated in the fulfilling up of questionnaire. Evaluation of Survey Feedback Survey feedback provides a base for many managerial actions which has been confirmed by various research studies. The feedback may be given either orally or in a written form. questionnaire used and method adopted for its administration should be reliable and valid. effectiveness of survey feedback depends on two factors. Follow-up Action: Survey feedback programme is not meaningful unless some follow-up action is taken based on the data collected. and satisfaction-satisfaction with the company. tabulated. First.
the consultant is introduced to the organizational members and basic objectives of the P. 2. At this stage. This data gathering occurs simultaneously with the entire consultative process.C in which the client makes initial contact with the consultant with a view to solve the problems faced by the organization which cannot be solved by existing processes or resources. 1.3 Process Consultation Process Consultation (P. The basic content of P. . A survey feedback is not a technique in itself for change. To understand how various organizational processes can be linked to objective achievement in the organization.” The basic objectives of P. communication. group norms. 2. the leading writer and consultant on P.C has defined it as follows: “The set of activities on the part of the consultant which help the client to perceive.C is that the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. group decision-making and problemsolving. At this stage. the client’s expectations and hoped-for results are also decided. and inter-group co-operation and conflicts. 4. spelled out at the initial stage. roles and functions of group members. it provides base for action for change.C) is a technique for intervening in an ongoing system. 4. Define the Relationship: At this stage. and interview about the problems. observations.C programme of OD.C are communicated to them with a view that they co-operate with the consultant. 3.C are as follows: 1. Edgar Schein. Information collected is processed to diagnose the problems and their underlying causes. Initiate Contact: This is beginning stage of P. and act upon the process events which occur in the client’s environment. understand.information. Gather Data and Make a Diagnosis: Information is collected from various sources thorough the use of questionnaires. and spelling out services. To bring desired change in the various organizational processes like leadership. time. Steps in Process Consultation Schein has suggested following specific steps which the consultant would follow in a P. Select the Setting and the Method: It involves a clear-cut understanding of where and how the consultant will do the job that is required. etc. client and consultant enter into agreement covering various aspects of consultancy services like fees.
P. Though he is involved only in suggesting the various changes in the processes. and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. 3. enabling individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses.C programmes. Intervene: At this stage. he assists the organizational members to incorporate those changes. 6. groups.4 Grid Training Grid training is basically based on grid organization development developed by Blake and Mouton. In the review of various P. knowledge.C is completed. 4. Evaluation of Process Consultation: Process consultation is quite in-depth activity of OD in which the consultant plays a major role. P. To understand the importance and rationale of systematic change. the consultant disengages from the client organization by mutual agreement but leaves the door open for future involvement. both these problems may be overcome by engaging a suitable consultant and developing willingness among the members for change. One basic reason for this phenomenon may be the consultant’s inability to steer the organization out of troubles. However.C is also not free from criticisms. Another problem may emerge at the level of the organization and its members in terms of how they inculcate the new processes and culture as suggested by the consultant. focuses on skills. Its specific objectives are as follows: 1. group.5. and the organization as a whole. the consultant intervenes in the organizational processes by using different interventions like agenda-setting. coaching. and total organizational levels. It utilizes a considerable number of instruments. To evaluate the styles of leadership and techniques of participation to produce desirable results. From this point of view. The whole orientation is to develop managerial style through the application of behavioural science knowledge. and/or structural change. Process of Grid Training The basic content of grid organization development is managerial grid as discussed. . However. It is a comprehensive and systematic OD programme which aims at individuals. like other OD intervention techniques.C is very effective intervention for organizational improvement. The grid organization development consists of six phases. inter-group. To study the organization as an interactive system and apply techniques of analysis in diagnosing its problems. significant correlation between the outcomes has not been found. feedback. 2. Reduce Involvement and Terminate: When the work of P.
4. it discounts reality. Teamwork Development: The focus in this stage is to develop teamwork by analyzing team culture. 3. some of them have not supported the claims made by Blake and Mouton. The thrust is on moving groups from conflict to co-operation. the various efforts from phase 1 to phase 5 are evaluated and critical analysis is made. Each group may be given assignment to evolve strategy for making ideal organization with the help of the consultant. Inter-group Development: At this phase.1. the focus is on inter-group behaviour and relations. problem-solving. in spite of these criticisms. The skills relating to planning. Further. Each group separately analyses the ideal inter-group relations. grid training is a non-rigorous method. 5. 2. They have maintained that “managerial and team effectiveness can be taught to managers with outside assistance. the various programmes may be redesigned. Systematic Critique: In this stage. The members of the organization are trained for achieving this excellence. Grid training programme is criticized on the basis that it lacks contingency approach and. and alike. Managerial grid: It covers various aspects of assessing managerial styles.5 Leadership Development . objective-setting. it appears that this type of educational strategy can help to make significant contributions to organizational effectiveness. therefore. The analysis will bring out the shortcomings that may be there. communication skills. Though research studies on the application of grid training are not many. traditions. In this light. 6. the focus shifts to the total organization and to develop skills necessary for organizational excellence. The strategy is then implemented. Developing Ideal Strategic Corporate Model: At this stage. The individuals try to learn to become managers by practice. Furthermore. Action steps to move towards the ideal are developed and assigned to individuals who may be engaged in building co-operative inter-group relationships.” In a later work. Evaluation of Grid Training Most of the support of grid training has come from its originators-Blake and Mouton. they maintained the same stand. grid training has some positive contributions for organizational effectiveness. 4. The action is designed to identify the characteristics of the ideal organization. and problemsolving are also developed. and teamwork. Implementing the Ideal Strategic Model: The implementation stage includes the building of the organization on the model of ideal organization on the basis of concepts developed under stage 4.
it may be too late. is the ability of leadership to…well. We can call these Preparing For the Journey. clearly the most important determinant of "getting through the swamp". concerned and committed to their welfare. Leadership before. widely accepted. The best way to summarize is that there is a climate of trust between leader and the rest of the team. and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement.” A possible reason for this phenomenon is that people in the organization work in groups (teams) and the effectiveness of these groups ultimately determine organizational effectiveness. employees will perceive leadership as supportive. Unfortunately. The organization must deal with the practical impact of unpleasant change. French and Bell have opined that “probably the most important single group of interventions in the OD are the team-building activities the goals of which are the improvement and increased effectiveness of various teams within the organization. 4. teambuilding is the most important. are closely associated with a very few advocates and practitioners. employees will expect effective and sensible planning. during and after change implementation is THE key to getting through the swamp. but more importantly. complete communication that is timely. and regular.When change is imposed (as in downsizing scenarios). As against these. and After Arrival. brings hope for better times in the future. you need to be aware that there are three distinct times zones where leadership is important. and credibility of senior and middle management. must labor under the weight of employees who have given up. Also during these times of change. If you are to manage change effectively. therefore. confident and effective decision-making. while at the same time recognizing that tough decisions need to be made. employees learn that leaders will act in indecipherable ways and in ways that do not seem to be in anyone’s best interests. how synergy is generated through team-work. problems in . In organizations characterized by poor leadership. let us consider the life cycle of a team. The literature on the subject indicates that the nature of the change is secondary to the perceptions that employees have regarding the ability. We will look more carefully at each of these. competence. Poor leadership means an absence of hope. The existence of this trust.6 Team-building Various OD interventions discussed so far have their specific implications for OD and. employees expect nothing positive. have no faith in the system or in the ability of leaders to turn the organization around. The Role of Leadership In an organization where there is faith in the abilities of formal leaders. which. lead. For example. In a climate of distrust. by the time you have to deal with difficult changes. employees will look towards the leaders for a number of things. and that makes coping with drastic change much easier. if allowed to go on for too long. During drastic change times. if haven’t established a track record of effective leadership. results in an organization becoming completely nonfunctioning. Before going through how team-building exercise can be undertaken to develop effective teams. Slogging Through The Swamp.
These stages are the result of a variety of questions and issues that team members face such as “who will be members of the team?” “Who will perform what functions?” “Who will contribute what?” “What rules will be followed?” “How can conflicts among members be resolved?” and so on. they often pass through several stages as they learn to work together as a team. interaction among team members is often cautious especially when they are new to one another. and adjourning as shown below: Fig. These stages are: forming. 2.1: Life Cycle of a Team Though these are not followed rigidly. 5. different members may experience varying degree of tension and anxiety out of this interaction pattern. Functional roles are performed and exchanged as needed. The . norming. start to accept others. each team has to be adjourned. 4. storming. even the most successful teams as they have completed their mission. Adjourning: Adjourning is the end phase of cycle of a team. and features of effective team so that team-building exercises focus more sharply on developing effective team. performing. and tasks are accompanied efficiently. They share personal information. group norms emerge to guide individual behaviour which form the basis for co-operative feelings and behaviour among members. 4. they learn to handle complex problems that come before the team. jockeying for relative control. Norming: After storming stage. At this stage. they do represent a broad pattern that may be observed and predicted in many settings across team’s time together. and begin to turn their attention to the group tasks. Performing: When team members interact among themselves on the basis of norms that have emerged in the team. because of individual differences. Storming: After the forming stage which is mostly related to perceiving and assessing each other. Forming: At the first stage of the life cycle. These typical stages of life cycle of a team are described below: 1. team members get introduced to each other if they have not interacted earlier. and arguing for appropriate strategies to be adopted for achieving team’s goals. At this stage. Sooner or later. The team begins to move in a co-operative fashion and a tentative balance among competing forces too is struck.team-work. members start interaction among themselves in the form of competing for status. 3. team members start settling. Life Cycle of a Team When a number of individuals begin to work at interdependent jobs.
concept of stages is significant in the context of the nature of problem which team members are likely to face in team-work. the team would be effective. intense social relationship among members comes to an end.” Thus. Other types of team like a department in an organization run on the basis of some permanency though there may be changes in team members. In such an assignment. that is. etc. in one experiment. To the extent. fail to perform their assigned tasks. A simple phenomenon of social loafing may be observed in a group assignment to students during their study. . These students may be called loafers (not attaching the same connotation which is attached with the term loafer in our social phenomenon) who frequently miss the project group’s meetings. For example. However. students find that one or two students do not put their weight for the completion of the project. In fact. This phenomenon may happen in teams in work organizations too. Social Loafing Social loafing is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. and so on. Putting the concept of synergy in teamwork means members of the team are complementary to each other and they contribute positively to one another. This effect can be described as 2+2=5 effect. the complementarity among members is achieved. They rely on the fact the more reliable members will complete the project without their help. committee. other factors remaining the same. Synergy in Team-work Another important feature of a team is the concept of synergy which generates in team-work and the understanding of which helps in developing effective team. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts. After the adjournment of the team. The concept of synergy is quite popular in strategic management and it is defined as follows: “Synergy is the process of putting two or more elements together to achieve a sum total greater than the sum total of individual elements separately. how a particular element affects another and is affected by it. synergistic effect is not automatic but depends on the complementarity of different elements that are put together and the way they interact among themselves. a team is created to undertake a task which requires a variety of skills and single individual cannot perform that task alone. and still expect to share the credit and obtain the same marks from the professor since he will be concerned with determining who worked and who did not.adjournment phase takes place in the case of those teams which are created for some special purposes like task force. It is not necessary that all teams follow the rigid pattern prescribed here and the similar problems they face at each stage because each team is different in some respect based on the type of members and problems and functions assigned.
1. Dropping of average output in group efforts indicates that some members of the group were not contributing as much as they did individually. Even if one member lacks behind. Skills and Role Clarity: For an effective team. They averaged 138. two things are required from its members. Let us see how these factors make a team effective. Effective Team An effective team is one which contributes to the achievement of organizational objectives by performing the task assigned to it and providing satisfaction to its members. When the group is not cohesive with high output norms.6 pound of pressure while tugging on the rope. . From this statement. super-ordinate goals and team rewards. Individuals were asked to pull alone as hard as possible on a rope attached to a strain gauge. supportive environment. the individual average dropped down still lower68. 2. he may tend to affect others because of chain reaction just like a rotten apple injures its companions. If the organizational climate is not in tune with high achievement. team members may not show high degree of enthusiasm and they will use only a part of their skills in performing the jobs. Therefore. it appears that there are many factors in an effective team. understanding of roles helps members to meet the requirement of one another thereby solving the problems which the team faces.2 pounds. 2. goals. managers at higher levels particularly at the top level should set organizational climate and culture which enthuse team members to put their best.it was found that individuals’ total efforts were much higher than the group efforts. team members may tend to contribute positively to the teamwork. When the same individuals pulled on the rope of groups of three. When the division of work cannot be accomplished properly and individual efforts are hard to determine. Supportive Environment: A team loaded with skilled members cannot perform well if the organizational climate is not supportive for that. group efforts tend to slacken. Thus. other factors remaining the same. The possibility of occurring of social loafing in a team-work increases because of the following reasons: 1. The phenomenon of social loafing can be minimized by constituting effective team for group performance. and attitudes. skills which are complementary to the team requirement and understanding of one’s own role as well as roles of other members. These factors are skills and role clarity. While skills are relevant for job performance. group of eight. A group is not merely an assemblage of individuals but there should be a feeling that they are members of the group and share common interests. we have mentioned that team effectiveness depends on the complementarity of team members. individual members do not contribute to the fullest extent. In the above paragraph.
3. Super-ordinate Goals: Super-ordinate goals are those which are above the goals of a single team or a single individual. An individual works better if he is able to link how his goal attainment leads to the attainment of a higher-level goal. These super-ordinate goals, then, serve to focus attention, unify efforts, and stimulate more cohesive team efforts. 4. Team Rewards: Team performance depends on how reward is linked to team performance and how members perceive this linkage. If team members perceive that reward to contingent on team performance, they will put their maximum. Rewards of both types- financial and nonfinancial-should be taken into consideration. Further, organizations need to achieve a careful balance between encouraging and rewarding individual initiative and growth and stimulating full contributions to team success. Innovative non-financial team rewards for responsible behaviour may include the authority to select new members of the group, make recommendations regarding a new supervisor, or propose discipline for team members. The positive aspect of all these factors leads to team effectiveness and team members share common values regarding product quality, customer satisfaction, and share the responsibility for completing a project on schedule. Katzenbatch and Smith, management consultants, have suggested the concept of real team and they feel that this concept is relatively unexploited despite its capacity to outperform other groups and individuals. They define four characteristics of real teams: small size; complementary skills; common purpose, goals, and working approach: and willingness to be held mutually accountable. Real teams can be created and sustained by: 1. Selecting members for their complementary skills and potentials; 2. Developing clear rules of conduct and challenging performance goals; 3. Establishing a sense of urgency right from the first meeting. 4. Providing substantial time together in which new information is constantly shared; and 5. Providing positive feedback, recognition, and rewards. Team-building Process: Team-building attempts to improve effectiveness of the team by having team members to concentrate on: 1. Setting goals and priorities for the team. 2. Analyzing how team’s goals and priorities are linked to those of the organization. 3. Analyzing how the work is performed. 4. Analyzing how the team is working, and
5. Analyzing the relationships among the members who are performing the job. For achieving these, the team-building exercise proceeds in a particular way as shown in figure.
Fig. 4.2: Process of Team-building Various steps of team-building process are not one-shot action, rather, they are repetitive and cyclical as indicated by arrows in the figure. 1. Problem-sensing: There are a number of ways in which problems of a team can be obtained. Often the team itself defines which aspects of team-building it wishes to work on. This problem can better be identified in terms of what is hindering group effectiveness. At this stage, generally most of the members come forward with their arguments as to what the real problems are. The view may be quite different ranging from the organizational problem, group problems to even personal problem. In problem identification, the emphasis should be on consensus. The consensus-seeking part of the process necessitates that each person becomes thoroughly aware and understand clearly the basic concepts of team-development. Much of the problems may be solved through effective communication and training sessions. 2. Examining Differences: The perception of people on an issue differs because of their differing backgrounds, such as, their value systems, personality and attitudes. The perception may be brought to conformity through the process of exercise on perception which involves a number of psychological exercises particularly on perceptual differences. The role of communication is important in this context because it will help in clarifying the actual problems to the members. 3. Giving and Receiving Feedback: The step of perceiving things and listening to each other may be relayed back to the members as there is a possibility that such processes may create tense situation in the group. Often, members report about the painful feelings that they have at the time of evaluation of their feelings. The discussion should continue until all members of the team have commented. The feedback should be given to the members about their feelings, about the issue, the way people talk about the issue, the stying with the topic or going off on tangents, who was talking more or who was talking less, who was trying to resolve the differences, etc. Such feedback generally provides members to evaluate the values but at the same time, also provides opportunity to understand themselves. The concept of Johari Window may also be applied. This suggests that even people are not fully aware of themselves. 4. Developing Interactive Skills: The basic objective of this process is to increase the ability among the people as to how they should interact with others and engage in constructive behaviour. Following are the examples of constructive and negative behaviours:
Constructive Behaviour: (i) Building: developing and expanding the ideas of others. (ii) Bringing in: harmonizing, encouraging others to participate. (iii) Clarifying: resting, ensuring, understanding, seeking relevant information. (iv) Innovative: bringing in new relevant ideas, information, feelings, etc.
(i) Over talk: interrupting, talking together with speaker. (ii) Attacking: deriding, belittling, criticizing person. (iii) Negative: cooling, cynicism, undermining morale. At the time of discussion of feedback, people themselves take assignments to increase specific constructive behaviours and decrease specific negative behaviours. If this process is adopted several times, there is a strong possibility that members may learn constructive behaviours and leave negative behaviours. This is quite helpful in developing teamwork. 5. Follow-up Action: This is the final stage in team-building. At this stage, the total team is convened to review what has been learned and to identify what the next step should be. Follow-up action also helps in overcoming the drawback involved at the initial stages of teambuilding. It involves deciding who will take care of each area of the team’s responsibilities, and who will be responsible for team projects in a group that has not developed a satisfactory division of responsibility; clarifying and setting differences in perception concerning responsibility and authority in the team, with complex division of responsibility and authority among members. These attempts bring co-operative and supportive feelings among people involved in the team functioning. When this exercise is undertaken at the initial stage, it contributes positively towards the feelings of the people. However, to encourage and sustain such feelings, management should take such actions at regular intervals so that members feel reinforced and sustain their positive behaviour. Such actions will go a long way in shaping the organizational climate quite conducive to members for their efficient working. Evaluation of Team-building As mentioned earlier, team-building as an OD intervention has attracted maximum attention. Many research studies have also confirmed the positive contributions of team-building on the
3. In general. The groups then share their lists. Team-building becomes a complicated exercise when there is frequent change in team members. Once the causes of the difficulty have been identified. In spite of these problems.7 Inter-group Development A major area of concern is OD is the dysfunctional conflict that exists between groups. and the groups look for the causes of the disparities.organization’s outcomes. 2. etc. each group meets independently to develop lists of its perception of itself. However. Differences are clearly articulate. Therefore. structure.. New member may find it difficult to adjust with the team because of his confusion over his roles in terms of task performance and building good relationships. 2. communicating. and how it believes the other group perceivers it. One such suggestion is to use a task hierarchy to reinforce the team as it progresses up a behaviour skill hierarchy (for example. team-building contributes to the organizational performance in the following manner: 1. Although there are several approaches for improving intergroup relations. It seeks to change to attitudes. It focuses only on work groups and other major organizational variables such as technology. are not given adequate attention. though. It improves the organization’s problem-solving and decision-making ability. monitoring. As a result. team-building has a positive outlook. there have been calls for combining team-building with organization behaviour modification approaches. However. one of the more Popular methods emphasize problem solving. this has been a subject to which change efforts have been directed. and feedback skills). after which similarities and differences are discussed. the groups can move to the integration phase – working to develop solutions that will improve relations. . It helps in developing effective interpersonal relationships by stimulating the group members for that. in different degrees. the other group. listening. 4. it is not that effective in isolation. team-building has been termed as one-sided effort and it suffers from the following limitations: 1. It helps developing communication within the group and inter-group and overcoming many psychological barriers that block communication flow. and perceptions that groups have of each other. In this method. stereotypes.
8 Change Agents Change agents: Can be managers or nonmanagers. films. The trainer role is most widely and intensively used at all stages of a change project: unfreezing. enabling the client to let off steam: as the ignition to spark action. may be more thoughtful (and possibly cautious) because they to live with the consequences of their actions.9 Role of Change Agents The change agent may play different roles according to the need of organization development . presentations. Because they are from the outside these individuals an offer can offer an objective perspective often unavailable to insiders. 4. 4. as the shock absorber when the going is rough. Outside consultants also may be prone to initiating more drastic changes – which can be benefit or a disadvantage – because they don’t have to live with the repercussions after the change is implemented. According to Curtis Mial: “The Consultant may serve as the exhaust value.These three roles are having been brief described below: Consultant A consultant is a professional (internal or external) who applies behavioral Science knowledge in an ongoing organization (or client system) with clear objectives of managing change and improving effectiveness. internal management often will hire the services or outside consultants to provide advice and assistance. Trainer A change agent needs to be a trainer and educator. are disadvantaged because they usually have an inadequate understanding of the organization’s history. with members from each of the conflicting groups. role-plays and instruments. employees of the organization. and personnel. operating procedures. as the break for too quick action. as the radiator absorbing some of the heat of the controversy. internal staff specialists or managers when acting as change agents. culture. For major change efforts. but one thing he/she is not the driver”. . changing (intervening) and refreezing. can now be created for further diagnosis and to begin to formulate possible alternative actions that will improve relations. however. or outside consultants. In contrast. as the accelerator to build up momentum. group discussions. He has to educate people on the need and importance o change using a variety of methodologies – lectures. cases and experiential learning etc. Outside consultants. or as fog lamp when the future is hazy.Subgroups. The consultant may fulfill a variety of functions.
What is Grid Training? How does it help in improving individual performance in an organization? 2. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts 4. widely accepted and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. evolving best strategies for change by assessing alternatives and the important stages in a change project where the change agent has to be a Researcher. generation of new behavioral science knowledge. Researcher A change agent has to carry out some research activities for the purpose of generating valid information prior to and during the change process. The first step in survey feedback is ______ usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. group. inter-group and total organization levels. 4. It focuses on skills.Training is required for enhancing knowledge. Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection. What is survey feedback as an intervention of OD? How does it provide base for other OD interventions? . developing action plans based on feedback and follow-up. 2. ________is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. Training is used both in ‘content orientation’ and process orientation’. Sensitivity training focuses on small group ranging from ten to twelve. attitudes and beliefs. diagnosis. knowledge and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. In process consultation. Data collection. Grid Training was developed by –––––––––––– 3.10 Summary OD intervention strategies are various activities which a consultant and client organization performs for improving organizational performance. feedback of information. the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. Self Assessment Questions 1. Grid training focuses on individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. Useful hypothesis are to be formulated and tested. Teambuilding is most important.11 Terminal Questions 1. skills and change in behavior.
What is team-building? What are the stages of life cycle of a team? 4. Refer section 4. MU0002-Unit-05-Values.2 Definitions and .4 2. and Beliefs in Organization Development Structure: 5. Explain Change agents and discuss the role of change agents in detail.2 3. Blake and Mouton. 3. Data collection 2.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Assumptions.6 4. 4. Refer section 4.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 5. Beliefs in Organization Development Unit-05-Values. Social loafing Answers to TQs: 1.3. Refer section 4. Refer section 4. Assumptions.
6 Summary Self Assessment Questions 5. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of values.5. assumptions. These values and assumptions have developed from research and theory by behavioural scientists and from the experiences and observations of practicing managers.2 Definitions A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true.7 Terminal Questions 5. beliefs and assumptions. and they continue to evolve as the field itself evolves. · State the implications of OD values and assumptions.5.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought 5. · Give the statement of OD values and assumptions. 5.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations 5. shaping the goals and methods of the field and distinguishing OD from other improvement strategies.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions 5. it is a cognitive fact for the person.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals 5. .5. Most of these beliefs were formulated early in the development of the field.4 Early Statements of OD Values and Assumptions 5.1 Introduction A set of values.5. beliefs and assumptions. Objectives: After studying this unit. · List the chronology of events of values.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 5. and beliefs constitutes an integral part of organization development.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups 5.
strongly held. greater understanding of individual motivation and group dynamics.. they were fashioned into a coherent value foundation for the theory and practice of organization development. and beliefs provide structure and stability for people as they attempt to understand the world around them. 5. Values and assumptions do not spring full grown from individuals or societies they are formed from the collective beliefs of an era-the zeitgeist. optimistic. and the need for justice through the rule of law and due process. and goodwill are the tools for making progress. OD values tend to be humanistic. repetitive tasks in an attempt to find "the one best way" to do each job. the right of people to be free from arbitrary misuse of power. Humanistic values proclaim the importance of the individual: respect the whole person.g. and the like.Values are also beliefs and are defined as: "Beliefs about what is desirable or ‘good’ (e. and beliefs are all cognitive facts or propositions. repetitive tasks minimized the skills required to do the job. free speech) and what is undesirable or ‘bad’ (e. with values being beliefs about good and bad. Democratic values assert the sanctity of the individual. Thus." or slacking off. the importance of fair and equitable treatment for all. Optimistic values posit that people are basically good. Simple. assume that everyone has intrinsic worth. view all people as having the potential for growth and development. . As these ingredients accumulated. that progress is possible and desirable in human affairs. treat people with respect and dignity. Values. Major ingredients of the zeitgeist that influenced OD values and assumptions are presented here in a brief chronology. values.. Evidence for the validity of these values and their supporting assumptions comes from many sources – the Hawthorne studies. and that rationality. Taylor’s methods quickly swept the country and the world as the way to organize work. assumptions. assumptions. Piece-rate pay systems were designed to increase motivation and to prevent "soldiering. the clash between fascism and democracy in World War II. and democratic.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought Frederick Winslow Taylor’s ‘The Principles of Scientific Management’ (1911) launched the scientific management movement with its emphasis on time and motion studies and breaking jobs into small. increasing awareness of the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. research on the effects of different leadership styles. or spirit of the time. the laboratory training movement. and assumptions being. dishonesty).g. Expert engineers and supervisors designed each task and ensured it was done correctly." Assumptions are beliefs that are regarded as so valuable and obviously correct that they are taken for granted and rarely examined or questioned. the human relations movement. relatively unexamined beliefs accepted as the truth. reason.
Barnard viewed organizations as social systems that must be effective (achieve goals) and efficient (satisfy the needs of employees). most efficient way to organize people. authoritarian leadership caused dependency. The Famous Hawthorne Studies (1927 to 1932) were conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company. but also contained serious flaws that led to unintended consequences. impersonal rules. Mary Parker Follett (1926). These approaches possessed many desirable features. extensive division of labor. the work environment. Group Dynamics (1940) – The scientific study of groups using experimental research methods-was launched by Kurt Lewin and his students. and practice since the late 1920s have focused on the shortcomings of these two paradigms and how to overcome the limitations. and White demonstrated that democratic leadership was superior to authoritarian leadership and laissez-faire leadership in affecting group climate and group performance. Much of her career was devoted to finding ways to reduce adversarial relationships between workers and management. The great German sociologist Max Weber (1922) introduced the concept of “bureaucracy” as the best. People came to work as whole people. Democratic leadership seemed to bring out the best in the groups. wrote an article on “The Giving of Orders” advocating participative leadership and joint problem-solving by labour and management. apathy. ‘The Functions of the Executive’ by Chester 1. Their simple. Lippitt (1939). His acceptance theory of authority proposed that authority derives from the willingness of subordinates to comply with directions rather than from position power. A strong hierarchy of authority. and the supervisor determined their performance. theory. Research by Lewin. Scientific management as the way to organize work and bureaucracy as the way to organize people were the prevailing paradigms for organizations in the early 1900s. . and by Homans in 1950 profoundly and irreversibly affected people’s beliefs about organizational behaviour. repetitive jobs left them feeling alienated and dispirited. organizations were not machines. their feelings and attitudes about the work. aggressiveness and poor performance. People were not cogs. In a sense. Barnard (1938) presented insights from his experiences as President of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. Group norms had more powerful effects on productivity than economic incentives. and rigid procedures would create a well-oiled human machine called the organization. The research demonstrated the primacy of social factors on productivity and morale. by Roethlisberger and Dickson in 1939. Reports on these studies by Mayo in 1933 and 1945. much of the research. a management theorist and astute observer of labourmanagement relations. Some early experiments were conducted in the late 1930s.
Chris Argyrif’s Personality and Organization (1957) was the first of several books in which he stated that there is an inherent conflict between the needs of organizations and the needs of mature. This article introduced the concept of organizations as sociotechnical systems. Motivation and Personality by Abraham Maslow (1954) presented a new view of human motivation. increase self-understanding. and understand group dynamics. Eric Trist and Ken Bamforth of the Tavistock Clinic (1951) published the results of their work in British coal mines. Maslow suggested that human motivation is arranged in a hierarchy of needs from lower-level needs such as physiological and survival needs to higher-level needs such as esteem and self-actualization. caring social climate. The human relations movement advocated participative management. P.” reported that resistance to change could be minimized by communicating the need for change and allowing the people affected by the change to participate in planning it. Laboratory training taught people how to improve interpersonal relations. proposed that the leadership functions of a group should be shared between the leader and group members and showed how that could be done. Those who subscribe to Theory X assume that people are lazy. Carl Rogers’ Client-Centered Therapy (1951) demonstrated the efficacy of non-directive psychotherapy. Ken Benne and Paul Sheats (1948). higher-level needs become dominant. and a general “humanizing” of the workplace. Douglas McGregor wrote ‘The Human Side of Enterprise’ (1960) in which he described his famous Theory X and Theory Y assumptions. pioneers in laboratory training. training in interpersonal skills for supervisors. a direct precursor of OD. which holds that individuals have within themselves the capacity to assume responsibility for their behaviour and mental health when provided with a supportive. which postulates that organizations are comprised of a social system and a technological system and that changes in one system will produce changes in the other system. Humanistic and democratic values suffused the movement. healthy adults. lack ambition. greater attention to workers’ social needs. The theory postulated that when lowerlevel needs are satisfied. French’s (1948) article. “Overcoming Resistance to Change. The Hawthorne Studies (1940s to 1960) spawned the human relations movement that was in full flower from the 1930s to the 1960s. Rogers’ focus on effective interpersonal communications was applicable to superior-subordinate relations. . Lester Coch and John R. These years witnessed the beginnings of the laboratory training movement (1946 and 1947). dislike responsibility. are self-centered.
bureaucracy. a mechanistic organization structure may be appropriate. groups. Kahn (1966) presented the first comprehensive exposition of organizations as open systems. and to pursue organizational goals if given the chance and the social environment to do so. We will examine three early statements regarding OD values that had a significant impact on the field. This leadership style was contrasted with an authoritarian. and organizations that is. ‘The Social Psychology of Organizations’ by Daniel Katz and Robert L. and greater individual autonomy. These six books presented the theory. and democratic. and negative consequences. and need to be led. open communications. and observations utilized by OD practitioners. Values have always been an integral part of OD. This chronology captures most of the significant influences from research. The Bennis and Beckhard quotations come from their books in the Addison-Wesley Six-Pack. Out of this zeitgeist. organization development practitioners formulated a set of values and assumptions regarding people. The task of management is to change organizational structures. as we have said. the initial enthusiasm for scientific management. resist change. Organic structures encourage decentralized decision making and authority. practice. humanistic. Tannenbaum and Davis presented their ideas in an article appearing in Industrial Management Review. and shares decision-making with the work group. management practices. and values of the field. Rensis Likert’s ‘New Patterns of Management’ (1961) presented data and theory showing the overwhelming superiority of a democratic leadership style in which the leader is group oriented. . and authoritarian leadership gave way to increasing doubts about these organizational practices as theory and research pointed up their limitations. this book popularized Maslow’s motivation theory. Those who subscribe to Theory Y assume that people have the potential to develop. goal-oriented.” (1969) a set of six little books on OD by prominent practitioners. The Addison-Wesley Publishing Company “OD Six-Pack. In an environment of slow change. summarized the state of organization development a decade or so after its inception. in an environment of high change.indifferent to the organization’s needs. and human resource practices to allow individual potential to be released. to assume responsibility. theory. dysfunctions. and introduced practicing managers to the concepts of need hierarchy and self-actualization. an organic organization form is preferred. In addition to presenting Theory X and Y. one-on-one leadership style. Burns and Stalker (1961) described two very different forms of organization structuremechanistic and organic. To summarize the intellectual climate of this period. optimistic.
Therefore. mechanical systems rely on "authority-obedience relationships" while organic systems rely on "mutual confidence and trust. Rather than the usual bureaucratic methods which rely mainly on suppression. M. not individuals. the basic units of change are groups. more rational and open methods of conflict resolution are sought. The earlier work by Tom Burns and G. 1." like pushing buttons. Bennis clarified some of the salient differences between mechanical systems and organic systems. Another major player in the field was Richard Beckhard. In his 1969 book he described "several assumptions about the nature and functioning of organizations" held by OD practitioners. · A shift in values so that human factors and feelings come to be considered legitimate. · Development of better methods of conflict resolution. Stalker used the term “mechanistic” in contrast to “mechanical.Writing in 1969. compromise.” For example. the capacity for functional groups to work more competently." Mechanical systems insist on "strict division of labour and hierarchical supervision" while organic systems foster "multi-group membership and responsibility. . Here is his list. more choices become available and hence better decisions are made. · Development of increased understanding between and within working groups in order to reduce tensions. · Development of organic rather than mechanical systems. Through focused attention and through the collection and feedback of relevant data to relevant people." that is." He then went on to state what he believed to be the central value underlying organization development theory and practice: The basic value underlying all organization development theory and practice is that of choice." Mechanical systems encourage "centralized decision-making" while organic systems encourage "wide sharing of responsibility and control. Warren Bennis proposed that OD practitioners (change agents) share a set of normative goals based on their humanistic/ democratic philosophy. This is a strong reaction against the idea of organizations as mechanisms which managers "work on. He listed these normative goals as follows: · Improvement in interpersonal competence. The basic building blocks of an organization are groups (teams). and unprincipled power. · Development of more effective "team management.
" People affected by a change must be allowed active participation and a sense of ownership in the planning and conduct of the change. a professor and Sheldon Davis. sub-units of organizations. · Away from walling off the expression of feelings toward making possible both appropriate expression and effective use. One goal of a healthy organization is to develop generally open communication. · Away from resisting and fearing individual differences toward accepting and utilizing them. They listed these “values in transition” as follows: · Away from a view of people as essentially bad toward a view of people as basically good. not the basis of managerial strategy. "People support what they help create.2. and confidence between and across levels. . An always relevant change goal is the reduction of inappropriate competition between parts of the organization and the development of a more collaborative condition. Organizations. mutual trust. · Away from avoiding facing others with relevant data toward making appropriate confrontation. Controls are interim measurements. 3. 4. and individuals continuously manage their affairs against goals. · Away from use of status for maintaining power and personal prestige toward use of status for organizationally relevant purposes. rather than in a particular role or level of hierarchy. toward seeing them as being in process. Robert Tannenbaum. · Away from utilizing an individual primarily with reference to his or her job description toward viewing an individual as a whole person. Decision-making in a healthy organization is located where the information sources are. · Away from avoidance of negative evaluation of individuals toward confirming them as human beings. · Away from maskmanship and game-playing toward authentic behaviour. director of organization development. · Away from a view of individuals as fixed. 6. presented their view of OD values in a 1969 article. · Away from distrusting people toward trusting them. They asserted that an important shift in values was occurring and that this shift signaled a more appropriate and accurate view of people in organizations. 5.
and so forth were seldom espoused and rarely implemented in the vast majority of organizations at that time. and organizations? 5. encourage risk-taking. 5.5. authentic interpersonal relations.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals Two basic assumptions about individuals in organizations pervade organization development. The second assumption is that most people desire to make. remove obstacles and barriers. 5.5. support. Most people want to develop their potential. The people doing the work are generally experts on how to do it and how to do it better. The democratic values prompted a critique of authoritarian. The humanistic values prompted a search for better ways to run organizations and develop the people in them. listen. open communication. autocratic. decentralized decision making. collaboration and co-operation. a greater contribution to attaining organization goals than most organizational environments permit. permit failure.· Away from avoidance of risk-taking toward willingness to risk. and reward success. We answer the question: What are some of the implications of OD assumptions and values for dealing with individuals. appropriate uses of power. give autonomy.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups . Beliefs such as trust and respect for the individual. participation and contribution by all organization members. challenge. A tremendous amount of constructive energy can be tapped if organizations realize and act on these assumptions.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions Let us examine specific assumptions and their implications for organization leaders and members. We think most organization development practitioners held these humanistic and democratic values with their implications for different and "better" ways to run organizations and deal with people. These values and assumptions may not seem profound today. and are capable of making. · Away from a primary emphasis on competition toward a much greater emphasis on collaboration. but in the 1950s and 1960s they represented a radical departure from accepted beliefs and assumptions. and arbitrary management practices as well as the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. The implications of these two assumptions are straightforward: Ask. give responsibility. The first assumption is that most individuals have drives toward personal growth and development if provided an environment that is both supportive and challenging. the legitimacy of feelings. · Away from a view of process work as being unproductive effort toward seeing it as essential to effective task accomplishment. groups. set high standards.
Therefore. and job satisfaction. Such problems have the greatest chance of constructive solution if all parties in the system alter their mutual relationships. traditional hierarchical forms of organization-fairly steep pyramid. By implication. D. This skill is a trainable one. The question becomes not how A can get B to perform better. personal growth. support. and E can support these changes. Implications of these assumptions are several. invest energy and intelligence in creating a positive climate. Another assumption is that the formal leader cannot perform all the leadership and maintenance functions required for a group to optimize its effectiveness. such as a work group. most people are capable of making greater contributions to a group’s effectiveness and development. grouping by specialized function. a growing awareness that “win-lose” organizational situations. To do this. leaders should invest in groups: Invest the time required for group development. It is especially important that leaders adopt a team leadership style. group members should assist the leader with the multiple roles required for group effectiveness. the family. are the best way to satisfy social and emotional needs at work. are dysfunctional . one of the most psychologically relevant reference groups for most people is the work group. the assumption is that many attitudinal and motivational problems in organizations require interactive and transactional solutions. and so on. Second. 5. invest training time and money to increase group members’ skills. formalized cross-functional communication. experimenting with new organization structures and new forms of authority is imperative. Finally. And because suppressed feelings and attitudes adversely affect problem-solving.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations Clearly. a church or club group. conflict management. Frequently the challenge is broader. Dealing appropriately with feelings and attitudes increases the level of interpersonal trust. and so on-are obsolete. at both the formal and informal levels. including peers and boss. including how persons C. In addition. emphasis on topdown directives. Third. Hence.5. this group perspective requires a shift from viewing problems as "within the problem person" to viewing problems and solutions as transactional and as embedded in a system. but how A and B can work together to modify their interactions toward the goal of B becoming more effective and A and B becoming more mutually effective. in addition. One implication is that group members should receive training in group effectiveness skills such as group problem-solving and decision-making. greatly influences feelings of satisfaction and competence. Also. Let teams flourish because they are often the best way to get work done and. and interpersonal communication. facilitation. They cannot meet the demands of the marketplace. leaders need to give important work to teams. What occurs in the work group. in which one side wins and the other side loses. not individuals. First. and co-operation within the group. and usually with more than one group. most people wish to be accepted and to interact co-operatively with at least one small reference group. not a one-on-one leadership style.Several assumptions relate to the importance of work teams and the collaborative management of team culture. group members should be encouraged to learn to deal effectively with positive and negative feelings. adherence to the chain of command.
Such an orientation creates a self-fulfilling prophecy. and ways to optimize human potential. it is possible to create organizations that on the one hand are humane. These beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. By implication. societal. they are the source of productivity and profits and should be treated with care. Chronology of events in management and OD tremendously influenced OD practitioners. assumptions and beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. The belief that people can grow and develop in terms of personal and organizational competency tends to produce that result. Values are also beliefs. 5." as behavioural scientists and managers continue to develop better understanding of authority structures. they change over time. Finally. Values. These OD values were considered revolutionary when they emerged in the 1950s. This notion suggests it is good to have a developmental outlook and seek opportunities in which people can experience personal and professional growth. and organizational changes taking place assure that tomorrow will bring new definitions of what is "true" and new beliefs about what is "good. but are widely accepted today. The belief that people are important tends to result in their being important. A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. The rapid technological. The implication is that people are an organization’s most important resource. OD values tend to be humanistic. organizing structures. beliefs and assumptions are cognitive facts. and empowering. and profitability. developmental set of assumptions about people is likely to reap rewards beneficial to both the organization and its members. values are never static. Still. This discussion was intended to articulate an appreciation of OD values and explain where they came from. Concluding Comment: The field of organization development rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. Evidence for this assumption comes from numerous examples where “putting people first” paid off handsomely in profits and performance. Self Assessment Questions . Creating co-operative rather than competitive organizational dynamics is a primary task of the organization’s leaders. A key assumption in organization development is that the needs and aspirations of human beings are the reasons for organized effort in society. optimistic and democratic. and on the other hand are high performing in terms of productivity. quality of output.6 Summary The field of OD rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. developmental. an optimistic.over the long run and highlight the need for a “win win” attitude. Values.
Hawthorne experiments 5. Values. Write a note about F.3 .3 3. What was the outcome of Hawthorne Experiments? 4. Refer section 5. 3. Douglas McGregor Answers to TQs: 1. State the assumptions of Theory X and Theory Y.7 Terminal Questions 1. 2. Taylor’s principles of scientific management.2 2. 4. values. 5. 5. __________ is associated with scientific management. 5. 2.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.W.1. What are values and assumptions developed by Richard Bechard in the field of organizational development? 5. The outcome of –––––––– was that people were not cogs and organizations were not machines. beliefs and assumptions. _______________ gave theory X and theory Y. beliefs. Bureaucracy 4. 3. and assumptions are all –––––––––– facts. Define concepts. Refer section 5. Taylor 3. F. Refer section 5. Cognitive 2. The concept of –––––––––– was introduced by MaxWeber. W.
Refer section 5.2.2 Congruence among System Elements 6.4 Participation and Empowerment .1 The Nature of Systems 22.214.171.124.3 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer section 5.4.3 Socio-technical Theory and Open Systems Planning 6.3 5.2. MU0002-Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Structure: 6.2 Beyond the Quick Fix 6.3.1 Introduction Objectives 6.3.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends 6.3 Systems Theory 6.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change 6.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change 6.4 Open Systems Thinking 6.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change 6.2.
We will examine the following concepts: .1 Introduction This unit describes the foundations of organization development theory and practice. art and science which form the knowledge base upon which OD is constructed. In this discussion.11 Terminal Questions 6. · Explain normative-re-educative strategy of changing The knowledge base of OD is extensive and is constantly growing. you will learn what OD practitioners think and how they think as they engage in the complicated task of improving organizational functioning. · Realize the importance of teams and teamwork.8 Applied Behavioural Science 6. Here we describe what we believe are the most important underpinnings for the field.9 Action Research Self Assessment Questions 6.6. · Explain the terms ‘participation’ and ‘empowerment’. Leaders and OD practitioners use this knowledge base to plan and implement effective change programs.6 Parallel Learning Structures 6. · Describe the parallel learning structures. Objectives: After studying this unit. you will be able to: · Explain various models and theories of planned change.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 6.10 Summary 6. · Explain systems theory.7 A Normative – Re-educative Strategy of Changing 6.5 Teams and Teamwork 6.
2 Models and Theories of Planned Change Organization development is planned change in an organizational context. Several recent theories show great promise for increasing our understanding of what happens and how it happens in planned change. the important features of some phenomenon. The first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces. in words or pictures. we can think of the production level of a manufacturing plant as a resultant equilibrium point in a field of forces. but pretty good for identifying the important variables involved. some forces pushing toward higher morale and some pushing toward lower morale.2. With a technique called the force-field analysis. Here we provide a framework for thinking about planned change by exploring several models from the literature. The production level tends to remain fairly constant because the field of forces remains fairly constant. and specify the relationships among the variables. Likewise. with some forces pushing toward higher levels of production and some forces pushing toward lower levels of production. 6. The development of models of planned change facilitated the development of OD. This concept is useful for thinking about the dynamics of change situations. we can think of the level of morale in that plant as a resultant equilibrium point. He suggested that change is a three-stage process: .1 Kurt Lewin and Friends Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change that have been influential since the 1940s. we can identify the major forces that make up the field of forces and then develop action plans for moving the equilibrium point in one direction or the other.· Models and theories of planned change · Systems theory · Participation and empowerment · Teams and teamwork · Parallel and learning structures · A normative-re-educative strategy of changing · Action research 6. the status quo-whatever is happening right now-is the result of forces pushing in opposing directions. That is. Planned change theories are rudimentary as far as explaining relationships among variables. Lewin’s second idea was a model of the change process itself. describe those features as variables. Models and theories depict. Although morale may get a little better or a little worse on occasion. For example. it generally hovers around some equilibrium point that is the resultant in a field of forces.
which cause guilt and anxiety. the non-smoking behaviour must become permanent. Significant relationships. But unless the person feels comfortable with dropping the old behaviours and acquiring new ones. the person must develop a sense of psychological safety in order to replace the old behaviours with new behaviours. Scanning the environment for new relevant information Stage 3: Refreezing: Helping the client to integrate the new point of view into a. Change entails moving from one equilibrium point to another. he must move. change will not occur. Lewin’s three-stage model is a powerful tool for understanding change situations. and react to things differently based on a new point of view obtained through a. Refreezing the desired behaviour requires establishing a new field of forces to support the new behaviour. disconfirmation creates pain and discomfort. The total personality and self-concept. believe that cigarette smoking is bad for him and that he should stop smoking. Disconfirmation or lack of confirmation b. That is. Edgar Schein took this excellent idea and improved it by specifying the psychological mechanisms involved in each stage. unfreezing. that is. A Three-Stage Model of the Change Process: Stage 1: Unfreezing: Creating motivation and readiness to change through a. moving to new level of behaviour. Next. Provision of psychological safety Stage 2: Changing through Cognitive Restructuring: Helping the client to see things. Creation of guilt or anxiety c. . feel things. change his behaviour from being a smoker to being a non-smoker. Take the example of a man who smokes cigarettes and wants to quit. that is. b. etc. The three-stage model says he must first unfreeze the old behaviour of smoking.Unfreezing the old behaviour (or situation). Identifying with a new role model. Refreezing the behaviour at the new level. which motivate the person to change. judge things. b. In stage 1. mentor.non-smoking becomes the new equilibrium point. Finally.
This phase corresponds to Lewin’s unfreezing phase. and 5 correspond ro Lewin’s moving phase. That is. Phase 5: Transforming intentions into actual change efforts. This model has five sequential stages: 1) Initiating the program. identifying with ex-smokers and learning about the health risks of smoking. Phase 3: Clarifying or diagnosing the client system’s problem. The primary task in stage 3. for example. 4. establishing goals and intentions of action. is to integrate the new behaviours into the person’s personality.2. terminating the client-consultant relationship. the person undergoes cognitive restructuring. Phases 3. These "road maps" are useful for thinking about change. Phase 4: Examining alternative routes and goals. This phase corresponds to Lewin’s refreezing phase. In this phase a client system in need of help and a change agent from outside the system establish a working relationship. and Bruce Westley. Similar models have been developed by Kolb and Frohman and by Burke. Phase 2: Establishing a change relationship. refreezing. . 6. The phrase significant relationships refer to important people in the person’s social environment-do these significant others approve of the changes? Another modification of Lewin’s model was proposed by Ronald Lippitt.In stage 2. Their seven stages are as follows: Phase 1: Developing a need for change.2 Beyond the “Quick Fix” A comprehensive change model by Ralph Kilmann specifies the critical leverage points for organizational change. They expanded the three-stage model into a seven-stage model representing the consulting process. stabilizing the changes requires testing to see if they fit-fit with the individual. The person acquires information and evidence showing that the change is desirable and possible. This seven-stage model lays out the logical steps involved in OD consulting. moving. Phase 6: Generalizing and stabilizing change. and attitudes. This motivating evidence is gained by. and fit with the individual’s social surroundings. Phase 7: Achieving a terminal relationship. that is. Jeanne Watson.
. The management-skills track provides all management personnel with new ways of coping with complex problems and hidden assumptions. and so forth. information sharing. 2) The management skills track. Interventions include training programs. Scheduling and implementing the "tracks" involve intervening in five critical leverage points. Kilmann’s five tracks are: 1) The culture track. problem-solving sessions. 4) The strategy-structure track. Change programs take from one to five years to complete. 4) Implementing the "tracks" 5) Evaluating the results." that. Diagnosing the problems requires a thorough analysis of the problems and opportunities facing the organization. Kilmann describes the five tracks: What does each track do for the organization? The culture track enhances trust. These problems and opportunities will be the targets of later interventions.2) Diagnosing the problems. when functioning properly. 3) The team-building track. communication. The team-building track infuses the new culture and updated management skills into each work unit – thereby instilling co-operation organization-wide so that complex problems can be addressed with all the expertise and information available. Initiating the program entails securing commitment from top management. and 5) The reward system track. called "tracks. cause the organization to be successful. critique practices and procedures. 3) Scheduling the "tracks". and willingness to change among members the conditions that must exist before any other improvement effort can succeed.
OD programs are directed toward both first. and all resources with the new strategic direction. This model shows how to create first-order and second-order change (which the authors call “transactional change” and “transformational change”). the use of updated management skills. then moving to the team-building track. the nature of the organization is fundamentally and substantially altered – the organization is transformed. Changing culture is much more difficult than changing climate. often unconscious. Eastman Kodak. The premise of the BurkeLitwin model is this: OD interventions directed toward structure. The model distinguishes between organizational climate and organizational culture. values. TRW. In second-order change. Kilmann has tested his model at AT&T. An OD consultant implements the tracks in a phased sequence. These perceptions are relatively easy to change because they are built on employees’ reactions to current managerial and organization practices. some features of the organization change but the fundamental nature of the organization remains the same. Ford General Electric. radical. On the other hand. or discontinuous change. organizational culture is defined as deep-seated assumptions. management practices. hard-working or easy-going. friendly or unfriendly. and difficult to change. The reward-system track establishes a performance-based reward system that sustains all improvements by officially sanctioning the new culture.and second-order change. its identification of the five tracks as critical leverage points. incremental. departments. with an increasing emphasis on second-order transformational change. 6. and so forth.2. revolutionary. and . evolutionary. Westinghouse.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change The next model to be examined is the Burke-Litwin model of individual and organizational performance. jobs. and its holistic view of organization change and development. beginning with the culture track. developed by Warner Burke and George Litwin. then moving to the management skills track. and co-operative team efforts within and among all work groups. and so forth. First-order change goes by many different labels: transactional. In first-order change. Organizational climate is defined as people’s perceptions and attitudes about the organizationwhether it is a good or bad place to work. and Xerox with good results. Second-order change goes by many different labels: transformational. or continuous change.The strategy-structure track develops either a completely new or a revised strategic plan for the firm and then aligns divisions. and beliefs that are enduring. adaptive. General Foods. One likes this model because of its comprehensive nature. work groups.
in turn. interventions directed toward mission and strategy.1: The Transactional Factors Involved in First – Order Change . and organization culture result in second-order change. We will do so in several steps." Transactional leadership embodies a fair exchange between leader and follower that leads to "normal" performance. These two concepts come from leadership research which found that some leaders are capable of obtaining extraordinary performance from followers while other leaders are not. The model also makes a distinction between transactional and transformational leadership styles. Transactional leaders are "leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. Following figure shows the factors involved in first-order (transactional) change. Transactional leadership is required to make this change in organizational climate. 6. individual and organizational performance. leadership. Fig. and systems cause changes in work unit climate. Transformational leadership is required for causing second-order change." Transformational leadership embodies inspiration which leads to new heights of performance. Now let us look at the Burke-Litwin model. management practices. Transformational leaders are "leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interest for the good of the organization and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers. Changing structure.systems (policies and procedures) result in first-order change. which change motivation and. Transactional leadership is sufficient for causing first-order change.
These factors are powerful enough to change the culture fundamentally. The OD practitioner sizes up the change situation. that is. The top half of figure displays the factors involved in transformational change. we must change mission and strategy. One set primarily is associated with the transactional level of human behaviour or the everyday interactions and exchanges that create the climate.” We consider the Burke-Litwin model to be a significant advance in thinking about planned change. Burke and Litwin propose that interventions directed toward leadership. The above two figures together yield the full Burke-Litwin model shown in the following figure. These factors are able to change the climate. and organization culture. mission and strategy. determines the kind of change required (transactional or transformational). To summarize. . sudden "leaps" in behaviour. The second set of dynamics is concerned with processes of human transformation.Fig. 6. structure. which produces changes in individual and organizational performance. and then targets interventions toward factors of the organization that produce the desired change. Interventions directed toward these factors transform the organization and cause a permanent change in organization culture. Research by Burke and his students suggests the model performs as intended. The bottom half of figure displays the factors involved in transactional change. as shown in the above figure. these transformational processes are required for genuine change in the culture of an organization. if we want to cause second-order (transformational) change. and systems produce transactional change or change in organizational climate. Interventions directed toward management practices. and organization culture produce transformational change or fundamental change in the organization’s culture. leadership styles. Burke says: “Thus there are two distinct sets of organizational dynamics.2: The Transformational Factors Involved in Second – Order Change On the other hand.
The basic premise is that OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals’ behaviours. This model shows how OD interventions can be linked to factors in the work setting. and these behaviour changes occur when elements of the work setting have been modified by OD interventions. physical setting. and rewards will affect organizing arrangements. and technology. 6. which determine organizational performance and individual development. and interaction processes will affect social factors. OD interventions that focus on goals. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements. rewarded).4: Organizational Work-Setting Factors This model is extremely useful for OD practitioners and organizational leaders. social factors. Interventions that focus on job design and work flow design will affect technology. management style.3: The Burke Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change 6.2. Keep this framework in mind as you read the units on OD interventions because all interventions target one or more factors shown in figures. required. it is described in a discussion by Porras and Peter Robertson.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change Jerry Porras and his associates developed a model of how organization development works. Interventions that focus on culture. according to Porras and Robertson. For example. The work setting plays a central role in this model and consists of four factors: organizing arrangements. which influence on-the job behaviours. . strategies. 6.Fig. The premise modeled here is that work setting factors influence organizational members’ cognitions (they learn what is expected. It is how OD works. Fig. Following figure shows the work setting in the larger organizational framework. Organizational change occurs only when individuals change their behaviour.
5: A Change-based Organizational Framework 6. Thus.Fig. and delineated by identifiable boundaries from its environmental supra. Ludwig Von Bertalanffy first articulated the principles of general systems theory in 1950. one begins by identifying the individual parts and then seeks to understand the nature of their collective interaction. Fagen defines system as "a set of objects together with relationships between the objects and between their attributes. and Katz and Kahn were the first to apply open systems theory to organizations in 1966." Kast and Rosenzweig define system as "an organized. and interrelatedness among elements in a set that constitutes an identifiable whole or gestalt.3 Systems Theory A second foundation of organization development is systems theory. or subsystems." Von Bertalanffy refers to a system as a set of "elements standing in interaction. This section explains systems theory." To summarize. and shows how systems theory enhances the practice of OD. 6. Systems theory is one of the most powerful conceptual tools available for understanding the dynamics of organizations and organizational change.system. components. when taking a systems approach. The words ‘arrangement’ and ‘interrelated’ describe interdependent elements forming an entity. . describes the characteristics of systems." Hanna says: "A system is an arrangement of interrelated parts. system denotes interdependency. that is the system. which views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. unitary whole composed of two or more interdependent parts. interconnectedness.
Every system is delineated by a boundary. Systems take inputs from the environment in the form of energy.1 The Nature of Systems The nature. Open systems have purposes and goals. dynamics.6. Each of these three system processes must work well if the system is to be effective and survive.3. 6. the organization will cease to exist. Organizations achieve negative entropy when they are able to exchange their outputs for enough inputs to keep the system from running down. and what is outside the boundary is the environment. Organizations are open systems. Here. A good rule of thumb for drawing the boundary is that more energy exchange occurs within the boundary than across the boundary. Therefore. people. raw material and so on. These purposes must align with purposes or needs in the environment. All open systems are input-throughput-output mechanisms. Boundaries of open systems are permeable. and characteristics of open systems are well-known. and energy between system and environment. studying open systems leads to a good understanding of organizations.6: A System in Interaction with its Environment The law of entropy states that all systems “run down” and disintegrate unless they reverse the entropic process by importing more energy than they use. money. the organization’s purposes will be reflected in its outputs. conversion. we examine the characteristics of open systems drawing OD expositions by Katz and Kahn and Hanna. Fig. information. They do something to the inputs via throughput. For example. or transformation processes that change the inputs. the reasons for their existence. What is inside the boundary is the system. and they export products to the environment in the form of outputs. and if the environment does not want these outputs. . resources. in that they permit exchange of information.
3. it receives information to that effect in the form of negative feedback. differentiated. It is sometimes called deviation-amplifying feed back. Positive feedback comes from the environment.2 Congruence among System Elements David Nadler and associates at Delta Consulting Group developed the congruence model for understanding organizational dynamics and change. and the system adjusts to a new goal. Systems require two kinds of feedback." Here is another example of negative and positive feedback. "return to earth. Survival of the system is equally influenced by whether or not the targets themselves are appropriate. they usually ignore information about other industries such as electronics. organizations in the fast-food industry pay a lot of attention to information about their industry-nutrition. and the production plan calls for 100 buggy whips per month. Another characteristic of systems is equifinality. Say your company makes buggy whips. and so on. Subsystems exist within larger systems. The three major input factors are: . but most are not useful. Systems "code" useful information and incorporate it. the principle that there are multiple ways to arrive at a particular outcome or state – systems have multiple paths to goals. competitors. 6. however. Systems achieve a steady state or equilibrium point and seek to maintain this equilibrium against disruptive forces. It is also known as deviation-correcting feedback. eating fads. If the mission (target) changes. For example. it will signal whether the environment needs and/or wants buggy whips.” Also. For example. Feedback is information from the environment about system performance. and complex over time. and the like. either internal or external.Information is important to systems in several ways. Positive feedback measures whether or not the purpose and goals are aligned with environmental needs. this process is called differentiation. By the same token. Systems are bombarded by all kinds of information: some are useful. As Katz and Kahn say: “The basic principle is the preservation of the character of the system. This model depicts the organization as an input-throughput-output system. and makes a course correction. With increased differentiation. The usefulness of the two concepts is that they demonstrate that it is not enough to merely measure our outputs versus the intended targets. specialized. while screening out other information. negative and positive. that information is called positive feedback. say. Negative feedback tells you if you are on track with your scheduled production output. Another characteristic of open systems is steady state or dynamic homeostasis. aerospace. Negative feedback measures whether or not the output is on course with the purpose and goals. systems tend to get more elaborated. increased integration and co-ordination are necessary. These subsystems can be arranged into a hierarchy of systems moving from less important to more important. mining. if a rocket ship traveling to the moon strays off its trajectory.
performance will suffer. and individual level.1) The environment. Outputs are performance at the total organization level." and which elements . if people don’t have the skills and knowledge required to do the work. work. unit/group level. 6. Fig. which includes formal structures. performance will suffer. processes. which includes the organization’s culture informal rules and understandings. . and systems for performing the work. important events. which components are "not functioning correctly. which includes skills. failures.7: The Congruence Model Showing the Organization as a System The congruence model’s value is as an analytical tool for: 1) Assessing the characteristics and functioning of each of the elements. and 2) Evaluating the "goodness of fit" or how well the elements "go together. Elements of the organization per se are labeled strategy. If the organization’s culture (informal organization) praises individual accomplishments and the work requires teamwork and collaboration. the tasks people perform to create products and service markets people. You can use this model to analyze organizations with which you are familiar. what the organization is trying to accomplish and how it plans to do it. which imposes constraints and opportunities about what the organization can and can not do. In a company that is performing poorly. and critical decisions that still influence behaviour today. knowledge. If the strategy calls for entrepreneurial quickness and risk-taking and the formal organization is bureaucratic and highly centralized. and the workforce’s expectations. and 3) History which consists of memories of past successes. knowledge. formal organization. and technology. fit) must be present among the system’s components’ for the organization to produce satisfactory outputs. performance will suffer. people. and how things really work (versus how they are supposed to work as defined by the formal organization). For example. and informal organization. such as capital." The premise is that alignment (harmony. 2) Resources available to the organization. perceptions.
and information to the point of action. Open systems planning entails: 1) Scanning the environment to determine the expectations of external organizations and stake-holders. and that changes in one system affect the other system. both realistic (likely to happen if the organization continues on its current course) and ideal (what the organization would like to see happen). High-performance organizations almost always use principles from socio-technical systems theory. 6. controlling variance at the source. It was the first attempt to help organizations methodically analyze the environmental demands and expectations placed on them and plan to successfully meet these demands and expectations. 2) Developing scenarios of possible futures. and identifying core tasks help STS consultants structure organizations and tasks for maximum effectiveness and efficiency. multi-skilled teams. to the workers doing the job. two active segments of OD today. and . The thesis of STS is that all organizations are comprised of two interdependent systems. Charles Krone. and Will McWhinney developed a technology for addressing the interface between organization and the environment. Socio-technical systems theory was developed by Eric Trist. giving information and feedback to the people doing the work. Another important application of systems theory in organization development is open systems planning. Fred Emery. and others at the Tavistock Institute in the 1950s. especially autonomous work groups (self-regulated teams or self-direct teams). what is it about each element that causes that part of the system to function well and what are the characteristics of each element that cause all of them to fit together smoothly? The congruence model is an excellent diagnostic tool.socio-technical systems theory (STS) and open systems planning (OSP)-play an important role in organization development.are poorly aligned? In companies showing outstanding performance. Hanna writes: In the late 1960s a small team of consultants led by James Clark.3. training group members in multiple skills. a social system and a technical system.KI Jayaram. A number of design principles have been developed to implement socio-technical systems theory. Their technology became known as Open systems Planning (OSP). forming autonomous work groups. Principles such as optimizing the social and technical systems. G. that is. To achieve high productivity and employee satisfaction. organizations must optimize both systems. Systems models are essential for the practice of OD. STS is the principal conceptual foundation for efforts in work redesign and organization restructuring.3 Socio-technical Systems Theory and Open Systems Planning Two major variations of open systems theory.
Viewing organizations from this perspective has several consequences. issues. systems theory pervades the theory and practice of organization development. He says of systems thinking: “It is the discipline that integrates the disciplines.4 Participation of Empowerment One of the most important foundations of organization development is a participation/ empowerment model. This idea moves the practitioner away from analyzing historical events and toward examining contemporary events and forces. there is no motivation to look at how the disciplines interrelate. and systems thinking. according to Peter Senge. to change a system.3. is the most important. team learning. It keeps them from being separate gimmicks or the latest organization change fads. Of all these disciplines. And fifth. forces. according to field theory (Kurt Lewin).4 Open Systems Thinking Open systems thinking is required for creating learning organizations. from their activities. Second.” In conclusion. it is extended broadly throughout the organization. fusing them into a coherent body of theory and practice. First. building shared vision. this combination is often used in designing high-performance organizations. events. Participation in OD programs is not restricted to elites or the top people. events and forces. 6. a systems approach encourages analysis of events in terms of multiple causation rather than single causation.3) Developing action plans to ensure that a desirable future occurs. mental models. Fourth. and incidents are not viewed as isolated phenomena. not single effects. but seen in relation to other issues. For example. not just its component parts. Most OD practitioners engaged in redesign projects use a combination of socio-technical systems theory and open systems planning. one changes the system. Third. By enhancing each of the other disciplines. it continually reminds us that the whole can exceed the sum of its parts. systems thinking. Without a systemic orientation. the fifth discipline. Senge believes that five disciplines must be mastered to create a learning organization: personal mastery. because most phenomena have more than one cause. Increased participation and empowerment . OD practitioners expect multiple effects. therefore. Learning organizations can cope effectively with rapidly changing environmental demands. 6. changing one part of a system influences other parts. the forces in the field at the time of the event are the relevant forces for analysis. from diagnosis to intervention to evaluation.
team building. autonomous work groups. Participation is a powerful elixir-it is good for people and performance. the organic approach unleashes talent and energy in people that are best channeled by providing clear guidelines and boundaries. which is done by giving individuals the authority to make decisions. Robert Quinn and Gretchen Spreitzer found two vastly different views of empowerment. One view. with its emphasis on risk-taking. OD interventions are basically methods for increasing participation. quality of work life programs. Further. Researchers found that group dynamics work to overcome resistance to change. Empowerment meant trusting people and tolerating their imperfections. and the culture audit are all predicated on the belief that increased participation will lead to better solutions. Participation enhances empowerment. search conferences. survey feedback." These authors believe the organic view. involvement and participation energize greater performance. employees must choose to be empowered. The most important contrast between the two views involves the implicit but potentially volatile assumptions people make about trust and contro1." is a top-down delegation of decision-making with clear boundaries and strict accountability that increases managerial control. is not something that management does to employees. and greatly enhance acceptance of decisions. called "organic.have always been central goals and fundamental values of the field. and generally make people feel better about themselves and their worlds. which they call "mechanistic. treat those closest to the problem as the relevant experts. and give more power to more people. Rules of thumb such as "Involve all those who are part of the problem or part of the solution. and change. To empower is to give someone power." and "Have decisions made by those who are closest to the problem. This research demonstrated that most people desire increased involvement and participation. reduce stress levels. For example. and empowerment in turn enhances performance and individual well-being." direct leaders to push decision-making lower in the organization. OD interventions are deliberately designed to increase involvement and participation by organization leaders and members. then. increase commitment to the organization. Participation is an especially effective form of empowerment. While management can create a context that is more empowering. They must see themselves as having freedom and discretion. to contribute their ideas. The other view. These pillars of OD practice are validated by both research and practice. but rather a mind-set that employees have about their roles in the organization. growth. Research on group dynamics began in the 1940s and achieved exponential growth in the 1950s and 1960s. But both views contain valid ideas: for example. is the more useful perspective. quality circles. They describe the organic view: "The other group of executives saw empowerment much differently. Quinn and Spreitzer conclude: “Empowerment. and growth. personal initiative. The entire field of OD is about empowerment. They believed that it was about risk-taking. produce better solutions to problems. to exert influence. and to be responsible. they must if personally connected to ." is bottom-up and less controlling.
crossfunctional "design-build" teams developed the Boeing 777. Teams and teamwork are "in. Teams are important for a number of reasons: First. and respectteams nurture human nature. the effects on individual behaviour are immediate and lasting. processes. In this section.” 6. to name just a few. Teams and teamwork are part of the foundation of organization development. recognition. and explore ways to realize that potential. "The evidence is abundantly clear: Effective teams produce results far beyond the performance of unrelated individuals. HPWSs (high-performance work systems). The message of this section is that putting those empowered individuals into teams creates extraordinary effects on performance and satisfaction. Theory. If the team. the sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of the individual efforts of people working alone. many tasks are so complex they cannot be performed by individuals. STS (socio-technical systems). the noun team has become a verb. systems. . Teams and teamwork are among the "hottest" things happening in organizations today – gurus extol the virtues of teams. Team Taurus developed Ford’s best-selling automobile. Fourth.5 Team and Teamwork A fundamental belief in organization development is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. The previous discussion focused on empowerment and concluded that the act of empowering individuals greatly increased their performance and satisfaction. A number of OD interventions are specifically designed to improve team performance. HPOs (high-performance organizations). and capable of having an impact on the system in which they are embedded. quality circles. changes those norms and values. teams create synergy. and team-related acronyms abound-SDTs (self-directed teams). Third. as a team. inter-group team-building. A second fundamental belief is that teams must manage their culture. Team Saturn produced the Saturn automobile. Examples are team-building. Second. research. Synergy is a principal reason teams are so important. that is. confident about their abilities. we examine the potential of teams and teamwork. and practice attest to the central role teams play in organizational success. teams satisfy people’s needs for social interaction. people must work together to accomplish them.the organization. much individual behaviour is rooted in the socio-cultural norms and values of the work team. Teams at Motorola produced its bestselling cellular phones. teams at 3M generate the hundreds of innovations that keep 3M ahead of its competition. teaming. status. QCs (quality circles). process consultation. and relationships if they are to be effective.
and responsibility charting. socio-technical systems programs. Asea Brown Boveri. Larson and LaFasto also discovered that the most frequent cause of team failure was letting personal or political agendas take precedence over the clear and elevating team goal. help each other. and others. temporary teams. When any one feature is lost. and individuals are trained as group leaders and group facilitators. cross-functional teams. the crew of the USS Kitty Hawk. These interventions apply to formal work teams as well as startup teams. Grid OD and techniques such as role analysis technique. empowered teams are what the best organizations are using right now to outdistance the competition. people are trained in group dynamics and group problem-solving skills. Tom Peters asserts in Liberation Management that cross-functional. and set ever-higher goals. Larson and LaFasto found eight characteristics always present: 1) A clear. Union Pacific Railroad. Team-building activities are now a way of life for many organizations. role negotiation technique. Teams periodically hold team-building meetings. and that teamwork becomes more satisfying for team members. All these characteristics are required for superior team performance. He uses examples from EDS (Electronic Data Systems). including collegiate football national champions. heart transplant surgical teams. Organizations using autonomous work groups or self-directed teams devote considerable time and effort to ensure that team members possess the skills to be effective groups. and the like. . High-performance teams regulate the behaviour of team members. The net effect is that teams perform at increasingly higher levels. that they achieve synergy.parallel learning structures. Larson and LaFasto studied a number of high-performance teams. elevating goal 2) A results-driven structure 3) Competent team members 4) Unified commitment 5) A collaborative climate 6) Standards of excellence 7) External support and recognition Principled leadership. find innovative ways around barriers. to determine the characteristics that make them successful. team performance declines. autonomous. Investigators are discovering why some teams are successful while others are not.
especially when the change involves a fundamental shift in the organization’s methods of work and/or culture. If you don’t implement different norms and procedures.6 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel learning structures. parallel structures are a vehicle for learning how to change the system. What’s important is that people act in a way that promotes learning and adaptation. Most socio-technical systems redesign efforts and open systems planning programs use parallel structures. 6.7 A Normative – Re-educative Strategy of Changing . flexible response. and report to one of your subordinates on another team. High responsibility. Parallel learning structures are often the best way to initiate change in large bureaucratic organizations. engage in genuine inquiry and experimentation. a steering committee and working groups were used to co-ordinate the employee involvement teams. 6. Interestingly. normal hierarchical considerations become obsolete for these project teams-you could be the boss of one team. The most important and difficult task for the people creating the parallel learning structure is to create a different culture within it. deciding. In essence. clear objectives. At Ford Motor Company. Bushe and Shani say: “The key thing about parallel structures is that they create a bounded space and time for thinking. It isn’t the supplemental structure that’s important. constitute another important foundation of organization development. The charge to members of the parallel learning structure is to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. and then leading the process. Considerable experimentation with collateral organizations occurred in the 1970s and 1980s.” Parallel structures help people break free of the normal constraints imposed by the organization. and acting differently than normally takes place at work. Parallel learning structures are a foundation of OD because they are prevalent in so many different OD programs. managers. and continuous learning. and countless other organizations to demonstrate the ability of small project teams to produce high quality. talking. and employees. The quality of work life programs of the 1970s and 1980s used parallel structures composed of union leaders. specially created organizational structures for planning and guiding change programs. you don’t have a parallel structure. projects will be performed by teams.” The purpose of the collateral organization is to deal with "ill-structured" problems the formal organization is unable to resolve.Titeflex. Dale had introduced this concept in 1974 under the label collateral organization and defined it as “a supplemental organization coexisting with the usual formal organization. superior customer service. Projects are the work of the future. and initiate needed changes. and high accountability drive these project teams to outperform traditional organization structures on every measurable dimension. High-performance organizations often use parallel structures to co-ordinate self-directed teams.
relationships and customary ways of doing things. values. The first type is empirical rational strategies. And changes in normative orientations involve changes in attitudes. Chin and Benne indicate the nature of the normative-reductive strategy as follows: A second group of strategies we call normative-re-educative. The second group of strategies is normative-re-educative strategies. strategy has the following implications for the practice of OD. OD clearly falls within the normativere-educative category. Chin and Benne describe three types of strategies for changing. and’ negative feelings are surfaced for "working through. Sociocultural norms are supported by the attitude and value systems of individuals-normative outlooks which undergird their commitments. The rationality and intelligence of men are not denied. and significant relationships. Anything hindering effective problem solving is brought to light and publicly examined. The norms to be changed and the form of re-education are decided by the client system members. anxieties. based on the assumptions that norms form the basis for behaviour. according to this view. and OD is based primarily on a normative-re-educative strategy and secondarily on a rational-empirical strategy. although often OD represents a combination of the normative-reeductive and the empirical-rational strategies. Change in a pattern of practice or action. . or intellectual rationales for action and practice. information. will follow their rational self-interest. the practitioner intervenes in a collaborative way with the clients." Solutions to problems are not a priori assigned to greater technical information but may reside in values. based on the assumptions that people are rational. The third set of strategies is the power-coercive strategies.Organization development involves change. Evaluated against these three change strategies. These strategies build upon assumptions about human motivation different from those underlying the first. and will change if and when they come to realize change is advantageous to them. attitudes. they impel a collaborative effort rather than a "doing something to" effort. Chin and Benne suggest that a normative-re-educative. and it rests on a particular strategy for change that has implications for practitioners and organization members alike. that is. These implications give clients considerable control over the situation. The client system members define what changes and improvements they want to make. rather than the OD practitioner. will occur only as the persons involved are brought to change their normative orientations to old patterns and develop commitments to new ones. and they give more options to both the clients and the practitioner. doubts. and change comes through re-education in which old norms are discarded and supplanted by new ones. not just changes in knowledge. and together they define problems and seek solutions. Patterns of action and practice are supported – by socio-cultural norms and by commitments on the part of the individuals to these norms. based on the assumption that change is compliance of those who have less power with the desires of those who have are power. The point here is that different strategies are available for effecting change. skills.
This process is customarily referred to as diagnosis and treatment. applied science or practice. Although human behaviour in organizations is far from an exact science. Greenwood states: “The diagnostic and treatment typologies are employed together. on the basis of which he or she prescribes a solution that. Each type description of the diagnostic typology contains implications for a certain type of treatment. or practice. On this point. the object of which is knowledge for its own sake. and (2) "technology. hopefully. The diagnostic typology allows the practitioner to know what category of situation he or she has examined. OD practitioners know about these patterns through research and theory. then the individual will be a deviate and either will come under pressure from the group to get back into line or will be rejected entirely. Burke writes: “If one attempts to change an attitude or the behaviour of an individual without attempting to change the same attitude or behaviour in the group to which the individual belongs.Because norms are socially accepted beliefs held by groups about appropriate and inappropriate behaviours. on the basis of selected variables.” . 6. for example.. the treatment typology allows the practitioner to know what remedial efforts to apply to correct the problem. with their elaborations and implications constitute practice theory. A conventional distinction is made between (1) "pure" or basic science. Greenwood discusses the activities of the practitioner as follows: "The problem that confronts a practitioner is customarily a state of disequilibrium that requires rectification. placing it in a classification scheme or typology. not the individual. lawful patterns of events produce effectiveness and ineffectiveness." applied science." Both diagnosis and treatment consist of observing a situation and. re-establishes the equilibrium. by modifying a group norm or standards. Thus. norms can best be changed by focusing on the group. The practitioner examines the problem situation. OD is the application of behavioural science knowledge.e.” Norms help determine individual behaviour and a normative-re-educative strategy of changing pervades the practice of OD. pressing problems. the object of which is knowledge to solve practical. The practitioner uses treatment as the empirical test of his diagnosis. i. success corroborating the diagnosis. thereby solving the problem. The aim of this discussion is to look briefly at how behavioural science knowledge becomes applied behavioural science knowledge. practices. and skills in ongoing systems in collaboration with system members. The principles of diagnosis and of treatment constitute the principles of practice.8 Applied Behavioural Science This foundation of OD relates to the primary knowledge base of the field. OD emphasizes the latter. failure negating it and thus requiring re-diagnosis. the major leverage point for change is at the group level. behavioural science knowledge.
Action research is a method that combines learning and doing – learning about the dynamics of organizational change. form of applied behavioural science. a comparative search on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action. and doing or implementing change efforts. problem-solving method that replicates the steps involved in the scientific method of inquiry underlies most OD activities. Action research involves three processes: data collection. represent contributions from pure or basic science." the OD practitioner works: first diagnosing the situation. it is a program of applying behavioural science to organizations. then selecting and implementing treatments based on the diagnosis. The two bottom inputs. had this to say about it: “The research needed for social practice can best be characterized as research for social management or social engineering. who developed the concept of action research. I am inclined to hold the opposite to be true. the two top in puts. 6. It is a type of action-research.From this "practice theory. Action research is especially well-suited for planned change programs. perhaps more accurately. Fig. and research leading to social action… This by no means implies that the research needed is in any respect less scientific or "lower" than what would be required for pure science in the field of social events.8: Composition of Applied Behavioural Science Organization development is both a result of applied behavioural science and a. behavioural science research and two behavioural science theory. practice research and practice theory. and action planning based on the data. and finally evaluating the effects of the treatments. feedback of the data to the client system members. 6. represent contributions from applied science.” Concluding Comments: .9 Action Research The action research model – a data-based. Kurt Lewin.
Taken separately. A _____________ is defined as “a set of elements standing in interaction. A fundamental belief in OD is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. 3.These foundations of organization development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. Bring out the essence of “managing beyond the quick fix” model of organizational development. . 6. In parallel learning structures members have to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. Self Assessment Questions 1. 6. 2. Explain Kurt Lewin’s models and theories of planned organizational change. –––––––––– gave the model “Beyond the Quick Fix”. Systems theory views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. Action research model combines learning and doing.11 Terminal Questions 1.10 Summary The foundations of organizational development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field.” 5. 3. each is a powerful conceptual tool for thinking out and implementing change. Ralph Kilmann specified the critical leverage points for organizational change. _____________ means sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of individual efforts of members. What are first-order and second order change according to Burke-Litwin Model of organizational change? Explain. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements is the principle of Porras and Robertson model organizational change. Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change the first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces and the second is the model of the change process. 4. they constitute the beginning of a theory of organization development and change that has enormous potential for improving organizational performance and individual development. OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals’ behaviours. 2. Taken collectively. –––––––––– means moving to new level of behaviour. The Burke-Litwin model emphasized on first-order and second-order change. First—order change is also called ___________.
Synergy Answers to TQs: 1.1 2.2 3.2. “Work teams are building blocks of organizational development.3 4. Refer section 6.3 5.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Refer section 6. Unfreezing 2.2. MU0002-Unit-07-Organization Climate Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Structure: 7.” Comment on this statement. Transactional change 4.1 Introduction Objectives 7.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .4. Refer section 6. Ralph Kilmann 3. Refer section 6.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture Culture and . 6.2. System 5. What are the features of systems theory of organizational development? 5.Refer section 6.
or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. For example. Martin and Meyerson. . Objectives: After studying this unit. etc.1 Introduction Basically. – similar to what you can use to get a feeling about someone’s personality.6 Summary 7. what members wear.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness 7. but everyone knows it when they sense it. You can tell the culture of an organization by looking at the arrangement of furniture. Culture is one of those terms that’s difficult to express distinctly. thinking. discovered. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 7. norms and tangible signs (artifacts) of organization members and their behaviors. despite the best-laid plans. you will be able to: · Understand Organization Culture. 7. organizational change must include not only changing structures and processes.7. Members of an organization soon come to sense the particular culture of an organization. but also changing the corporate culture as well. 1986). The concept of culture is particularly important when attempting to manage organization-wide change. organizational culture is the personality of the organization. · Describe different types of Organization Culture · Explain organization culture and effectiveness. what they brag about.3 Types of Organization Culture.5 Developing and changing Organization Culture Self Assessment Questions 7. Culture is comprised of the assumptions.7 Terminal Questions 7. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. the culture of a large. for-profit corporation is quite different than that of a hospital which is quite different than that of a university. values. Practitioners are coming to realize that. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving.
Hierarchical leaders are typically coordinators and organizers who keep a close eye on what is happening. 4. Low absenteeism and high efficiency.· Discuss about developing and changing organization culture. terminology. Which in many organizations come down to “Do not do too much. processes and procedures. Typical examples are high product quality.3 Types of Organization Culture Hierarchy The hierarchy has a traditional approach to structure and control that flows from a strict chain of command as in Max Weber’s original view of bureaucracy.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture Organizational culture has a number of important characteristics. and in particular taking note of transaction cost. do not do too little?” 3. When organizational participants interact with one another. Rules: There are strict guidelines related to getting along in the organization. Observed behavioral regularities. For many years. 7. and the way members of the organization conduct themselves with customers or other outsiders. Market The Market organization also seeks control but does so by looking outward. Philosophy: These are policies that set forth the organization’s beliefs about how employees and/or customers are to be treated. Norms. they use common language. Hierarchies have respect for position and power. Some of the most readily agreed upon are the following: 1. Dominate value: These are major values that the organization advocates and expects the participants to share. 2. including guidelines on how much work to do. 6. Organizational climate: This is an overall “feeling” that is conveyed by the physical layout. internal and external are viewed in market . 7. New-comers must learn those “ropes” in order to be accepted as full-fledged members of the group. this was considered the only effective way of organizing and is still a basic element of the vast majority of organizations. Note that the Market organization is not one which is focused just on marketing. They often have well-defined policies. the way participants interact. Standards of behavior exist. but one where all transactions. 5. and rituals related to deference and demeanor.
people are driven through vision. It may be defined as the ethos of a company (as US firms do) or the shared value and team sprit (as European firms prefer to define it). Rules. Leaders in market cultures are often hard-driving competitors who seek always to deliver the goods. 1995) and how problems are solved in an organization. which is necessary in a rapidly changing business climate. but critical to shaping its behavior. In biological terms.terms. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. Rather than strict rules and procedures. One culture could be distinguished from another in terms of how some commonly shared human problems are addressed and the specific solutions that one sought (Trompenaars. 1993). although not necessarily documented. Clan leaders act in a facilitative. 7. innovative entrepreneurs who take calculated risks to make significant gains. Transactions are exchanges of value. In an efficient market organization. value flows between people and stakeholders with minimal cost and delay. do still exist and are often communicated and inculcated socially. It has an inward focus and a sense of family and people work well together. outputs and outcomes. big-bang projects and development. Leaders in an adhocracy are visionary. Adhocracy The Adhocracy has even greater independence and flexibility than the Clan. shared goals. invisible to the naked eye. It will use prototyping and experimenting rather than long. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. culture is like the DNA of an organization. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of . Market cultures are outward looking. In contrast to Hierarchies.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness It is reflected in how things are done (Flanagan. Clan The Clan organization has less focus on structure and control and a greater concern for flexibility. clans often have flat organizations and people and teams act more autonomousl. affecting the performance of every-one within the culture in positive or negative ways. discovered. Where market success goes to those with greatest speed and adaptability. supportive way and may take on a parental role. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. strongly driven by loyalty to one another and the shared cause. the adhocracy will rapidly form teams to face new challenges.
Identifying. For example. its core value are limited to a few in number. from the basis of its policies and action. Martin and Meyerson. communicating. there is often contradiction in various approaches.the informal rules of the fame telling employees what they are supposed to be saying. the personality of the organization). and no unanimity is found in different approaches. the jargon they use. and shaping organization values is difficult as values relate more to employee emotions and feeling (affective dimension) than to their rational thinking (cognitive dimension) Norms: These are a significant element of the organization’s social environment and evolve of behavior. Artifacts: The visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization such as: · Its structure. and procedures. The various approaches are judgmental and open to question. · The observable behavior of its members (the way they talk. or standards held by members of an organization. reflecting what is important in the organization and determining how the organization ought to be (the ethos. · Its rituals. and what is right and what is wrong. Values evolve out of the basic assumption and form the core (or heart) of the culture. norms. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. plaques. various terms such as efficiency. also called as organizational success or growth. 1986). IBM norms dictate that employees should actively listen and respond to customer demands and complaints. is defined and conceptualized in different ways. productivity. · Public documents it releases and media reports and stories about it. Thus. believing. individually and collectively. rules. symbols. Values: These are the social principles. thinking. Organization Effectiveness Organizational effectiveness. systems and subsystems. Though a large volume of literature is available on the concept and working of organizational effectiveness. and doing. Though an organization espouses a series of values. They are reflected in the core capabilities of a company. and are generally not compromised for short-term benefits or financial gains. The set of basic assumptions evolve into values artifacts and norms in terms of which an organization culture may be examined and understood. the way they dress etc.perceiving. . etc. goals. These are the essential and enduring tenets of an organization.
Likert states that causal variables are independent variables which determine the course of developments within an organization and the results achieved by the organization. This is one part of effectiveness that many managers overlook because it emphasis long-term potential as well as short-term performance.profitability. Causal Variables: Causal variables are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. are often used interchangeably. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and management’s policies. skills.g. Whatever the criteria adopted for organizational effectiveness. Many of these variables are caused by causal variables. Grouping variables into these categories aids greatly in the correct interpretation of the data and their use for diagnostic and other purposes. 3. end-result variables are the dependent variables which reflect the achievements in the organization such as its productivity. the loyalties. performance goals. to denote organizational effectiveness. communication. Intervening variables are concerned with building and developing the organization. Likert states that the intervening variables reflect the internal state and health of the organization. and decision-making. 7. motivational. the organizational analysis is incomplete for a practicing manager unless the factors underlying effectiveness are identifying. 1. the process usually involves some version of the following steps: .5 Developing and Changing Organization Culture How Organizational Cultures Start Although organizational cultures can develop in a number of different ways. Intervening Variables: Intervening variables are those factors which are reflected as the internal state of organization. attitudes.which are useful in discussing organizational effectiveness over time. 2. scrap loss. These variables have been classified by Likert into three groups-causal. These causal variables include only those independent variables which can be altered or changed by the organization and its management. Though each individual’s effectiveness is significant but perhaps the most important aspect of effectiveness is its relationship to the entire organization. and perceptual cluster. and they tend to be long-term goals. e. there are numerous variables. End – result Variables: End-result variable are those factors which are caused by causal and intervening variable and are often in terms of the factors in which managers are interested or measure their effectiveness. and (ii) the intervening behavioral cluster. and perceptions of all members and their collective capacity for effective interaction. and earnings. business and leadership strategies. According to Likert. costs. and behaviour. intervening and end result. decisions. organizational growth. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and its management.. From this point of view. motivations. The intervening variables may be divided into two broad categories: (i) the intervening attitudinal.
building. Structure. management. These factors from the two cultures include the size. or even customers may support the existing culture. The founder brings in one or more other key people and creates a core group that shares a common vision with the founder. is worth running some risks for. At this point. and so on. powerful stakeholders such as unions. Staffs. roles. and a common history begins to be built. locating space. and how this plays out among the partners will be important to cultural compatibility. A single person (founder) has an idea for a new enterprise. In addition. Changing Organizational Culture Sometimes an organization determines that its culture has to be changed. money. age. incorporating. and structures that work together to reinforce traditional cultural patterns. Where does the power and managerial decision making really reside? Corporate cultures range from autocratic extremes to total employee empowerment. . 2. others are brought into the organization. the geographic location. 2. For example.1. obtaining patents. and whether products and/or services are involved. That is. and energy that will be required. if the appropriate organization culture is in place. 3. The case of Mergers and Acquisitions The clash between the two cultures in a merger or acquisition can be focused into three major areas: 1. then such rapid change can be welcomed and accommodated with as little disruption and as few problems as possible. The founding core group beings to act in concert to create an organization by raising funds. However. Predictable obstacles include entrenched skills. and is worth the investment of time. the industry in which the partners come from and now reside. is workable. Even through some firms have had a culture in place to anticipate change. Politics. all in this core group believe that the idea is a good one. the current environmental context has undergone drastic change and either the organization must adapt to these new conditions or it may not survive. New product development and information technology is changing so rapidly that any example would be soon out-of –date. and history of two firms. moving to a new culture or changing old cultures can be quite difficult: a case can even be made that it really can’t be done successfully?. relationships. 4.
Move quickly and decisively to build momentum and to defuse resistance to the new culture. especially when making changes in rules and processes. Take out all trappings that remind the personnel of the previous culture. Recruit outside personnel with industry experience. Stay the course by being persistent. 7. 3. attitudes. Include employees in the culture change process. organizational cultures can be managed and changed over time. Emotions. Assess the current culture. ___________are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment.3. These emotions will be a major input into the clash or compatibility of the two cultures. Expect to have some problems and find people who would rather move than change with the culture and. 6. 3. 9. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. This attempt to change culture can take many different forms. take these losses early. 4. 2.6 Summary . and patterns of daily behavior. 8. The personal feelings. so that they are able to interact well with the organizational personnel. ________cultures are outward looking. 2. commitment. Self Assessment Questions 1. habits. _____are the visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization. 1. Set realistic goals that impact on the bottom line. so that a consistent message is delivered from all management team members. Make changes from the top down. if possible. the “culture contract” that individuals have bought into to guide their day-to-day thoughts. 5. Guidelines for change Despite the significant barriers and resistance to change. Simple guidelines such as the following can be helpful. 7.
Refer section 7. intervening variables and end-result variables and there exists interrelationship among these variables. Organizations to be successful must be efficient and effective. Explain the characteristics of organization culture.2 2.goal approach. Finally. effectiveness through adaptive-coping cycle has been discussed. Artifacts 2. Organizational effectiveness can be measured through various approaches. Factors in organizational effectiveness include casual variables.7 Terminal Questions 1. Refer section 7. and strategic constituencies approach. . Effectiveness of an organization can be increased through economic man approach and administrative man approach. 2. system-resource approach. Market 3. 7.Organizational effectiveness is the degree to which organization is successful in accomplishing its goals.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . 7.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. behavioural approach. Briefly explain different types of organizational culture. Discuss the development and change of organizational development. 3. Causal variables Answers to TQs: 1. Refer section 7.3 3.
9 Summary 8. and for change to occur in an organization.MU0002-Unit-08Power.Power.8 Acquiring and using Power Skills Self Assessment Questions 8. Organization Development Unit-08.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power 8. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics.” Organization development has been criticized for not taking into account power in organizations.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice of OD 8.3 Two Faces of Power 8. we examine power and politics in relation to organization development.1 Introduction Objectives 8.2 Power Defined and Explored 8.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored 8.1 Introduction Politics and Power and politics. power must be exercised. As Warner Burke observes: "Organization development signifies change.7 Operating in a Political Environment 8.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 8.10 Terminal Questions 8. In this unit. That criticism was essentially correct for many years although it is less valid . must be understood if one is to be effective in organizations. Politics and Organization Development Structure: 8. indisputable facts of organizational life.
Objectives: After this studying this unit. but kinetic power is the act of doing so.today.’ To have power is to be able to get desired things done. to effect outcomes." “Power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. humankind would not have the standard of living it does today. · Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD." Analyzing these definitions shows some common elements: effectance-getting one’s way. and outcomes favoring one party over the other. technological. · Explain theories about the sources of power. The phenomenon of power is ubiquitous. Potential power is the capacity to do so. you will be able to: · Define power and politics in organizations. the necessity of social interaction between two or more parties." "Power is defined in this unit simply as the capacity to effect (or affect) organizational outcomes. Recent years have seen a sizable outpouring of theory and research on power and politics from which OD practitioners have derived implications and applications for the field but we are still in the early stages of knowing how power and organization development should be related. 8. confiscation. spiritual. financial.” “A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would otherwise not do. humankind would not have much of the misery it does today. · Acquire skills to handle power and politics in organizations. political. and organizational activities. Without leadership (power) directed toward warfare. and behaviours of people. Without influence (power) people would have no cooperation and no society. One goal of this unit is to advance our understanding of the role of power in OD and the role of OD in a power setting. The French word ‘pouvoir’ stands for both the noun ‘power’ and the verb ‘to be able.actions and the decisions that precede them. and repression. emotions. We therefore define interpersonal power as the ability to get one’s way in a social situation. Power-in-action may . the act or ability of influencing others. Without leadership (power) in medical. One person exerts power over another to the degree that he is able to exact compliance as desired.2 Power Defined and Explored "Power is the intentional influence over the beliefs.
not the possession of power as such." · French and Raven’s "Bases of Social Power. the negative face of power is characterized by a primitive.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power Power exists in virtually all social situations. We think this distinction provides a good insight into the concept of power. coercing-these are examples of negative uses of power. absolute power corrupts absolutely. or acquired? In this unit. The negative face of power seeks to dominate and control others. hurting. bestowed. . The positive face of power is characterized by a socialized need to initiate. it is through the use of power that things get done in the world. 8. power being the predominant mode." · Mintzberg’s Observations on the Genesis of Power in Organizations. with collective." Her research in four organizations showed both kinds of power. an authority or power dimension is required. influence. Roberts came to a similar conclusion in her study of "collective power" and "competitive power. the positive face of power seeks to empower self and others. This positive face of power enables others to reach their goals as well as lets the person exercising power reach his or her goals." A moment’s reflection. Crushing. forcing. Leading. unsocialized need to dominate others. 8. suggests that many problems with power stem from the goals of persons with power and the means they use. both positive and negative. Power per se is probably neither good nor bad although Lord Acton observed that "power tends to corrupt. selling.3 Two Faces of Power David McClelland proposed an important distinction when he identified "two faces of power" – positive and negative. In fact. McClelland observed that while power has a negative connotation for most people. How do some people come to possess power? How is power generated. influencing. for organizations to function. In most organizations the positive face of power is much more prevalent than the negative face of power. persuading-these are examples of positive uses of power. we will examine four different views about who gets power and how: · Emerson’s "Power-Dependence theory. Patchen studied organizational decision making and found that coercive tactics were "noticeable chiefly by their absence" while problem solving and consensus seeking were much more prevalent. however. It is especially salient in coordinated activities such as those found in organizations.take many forms. According to him. or positive. and lead. being exercised." · Salancik and Pfeffer’s "Strategic-Contingency Model of Power.
we will terminate or alter the relationship. or feeling of oneness with) the power holder. influence. Informational power is a form of expert power where the powerholder possesses important facts or information needed by the other. Viewed in this light. When the net balance for us is positive. and so forth. information. or bases. giving someone power over us is the commodity we exchange when we are dependent on that person for something we want. Richard Emerson states that "the dependence of Actor A upon Actor B is (1) directly proportional to A’s motivational investment in the goals mediated by B." In other words. of social power as follows: 1. P. hate. and (2) inversely proportional to the availability of those goals to A outside of the A-B relation. Reward power – power based on the ability of the powerholder to reward another. that is. which posits that what goes on between persons is an exchange of social commodities: love. respect. we will continue the exchange relationship. rewards) that are controlled by one party. 2. The components of this theory are a social relation between two parties and resources (commodities. goals. when the net balance for us is negative. 3. Legitimate power – power based on everyone’s belief that the powerholder has a legitimate right to exert influence and that the power-receiver has a legitimate obligation to accept the influence. rejection. power. We enter into and continue in exchange relationships when what we receive from others is equivalent to or in excess of what we must give to others. In this theory. . attraction. Power-dependence theory is related to a broader framework of social interaction called social exchange theory. 5. blame. and desired by the other. French and Bertram Raven on "the bases of social power. 4. Exchange theory and power-dependence theory are quite compatible with the ideas proposed by French and Raven. that person has power over us. that is. power belongs to those persons who control or mediate desired commodities. to give something valued by the other. Expert power – power based on the powerholder possessing expert knowledge or expertise needed by the other. if a person has something we want badly and we cannot get it any other place." These authors suggested five sources. praise. to give something negatively valued by the other. Referent power – power based on the power-receiver having an identification with (attraction to. Social interaction represents an exchange of social goods and services. The sociologist.Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. Closely related to these ideas is the classic statement by John R. Coercive power – power based on the ability of the powerholder to punish another.
and so forth. or information. these four views of the sources of power are remarkably similar – power stems from possession of or mediation of desired resources. "is built on the premise that organizational behavior is a power game in which various players. indeed. called influencers.The strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power in organizations accrues to the subunits (individuals. the managers. In summary. third. The resources may be ability to reward and punish. being in control of critical skills. control of a technical skill. regulators. like the ones discussed previously. units. According to Mintzberg. Henry Mintzberg has developed a theory of organizational power drawn from the organization theory literature and his own creative synthesis abilities. used by all who have it. knowledge. and. These critical problems are generally "uncertainties" posed by the environment. through the placement of allies in key positions. control of a resource. to enhance their own survival through control of scarce critical resources. An organization has many potential influencers. customers. seek to control the organization’s decisions and actions." The three basic conditions for the exercise of power are 1) Some source or basis of power. This theory. The fourth basis is legal prerogatives-being given exclusive rights to impose choices. All of these must be critical to the organization. and through the definition of organizational problems and policies. or departments) most important for solving the organization’s most critical problems. the five possible bases of power are." These authors view organizational power as a good thing. such as the board of directors. In addition to a base of power. the employees. control of a body of knowledge. the top executives. . The important aspects of Mintzberg’s theory are that the sources of power derive from possession of a commodity desired by others. suppliers. second. that power-in-action requires will and skill. the special expertise needed for the organization’s survival-have power. the ability to solve critical problems or exigencies-anything that creates dependence of one actor or set of actors on another. and that the organization is the context for the exercise of power. coupled with 2) The expenditure of energy in a 3) Politically skillful way. the influencer must have both the "will" and the "skill" to use it. Salancik and Pfeffer further suggest how power is used: "Power is used by subunits. for power in the hands of the critical problem solvers helps the organization cope with the various realities it faces. supports the notion that those who have something highly valued by.others-in this case. A fifth basis of power is access to those who have power based on the first four bases. the unions. first. This theory.
and conflict resolution processes. a tendency to view situations in win-lose terms-what I win. The positive face is characterized by a balanced pursuit of self-interest and the interests of others. when. Analyzing these definitions suggests that the concepts of power and politics are similar. For our purposes. “Organizational politics is the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain ends through non-sanctioned influence means”. conflict resolution. In fact. a relative absence of the tactics of fighting. These key areas are the battlefields where actors win and lose. “Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the selfinterest of individuals or groups”. and a socialized need to lead. Likewise we also treat authority as a subset of power. The first three definitions treat politics as a neutral set of activities. treating it as informal power. has two faces. deceiving. organizational politics is power-in-action in organizations.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored Harold Lasswell defined “politics simply as the study of who gets what. initiate. and how”. like power. we view politics as a subset of power. holding hidden agendas. The negative face of politics is characterized by extreme pursuit of self-interest. engaging in open problem solving followed by action and influencing. illegitimate in nature. it is engaging in activities to get one’s way. and influence others. one gains a quick understanding of the overall "political climate" of an organization by studying its methods of resource allocation. Thus. the last two definitions view politics as illegitimate or unsanctioned activities. “Organizational politics involve those activities taken within organizations to acquire.8. surprise. and predominant use of the tactics of fighting-secrecy. 8. resource allocation. and choosing among alternative means and goals.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice OD . Both relate to getting one’s way-effectance. unsocialized needs to dominate others. the power vested in office. withholding information. One important feature in these definitions should be examined further. you must lose-rather than win-win terms. they are where the "goods" are distributed and the goals decided. formal power. We are inclined to consider politics as neither good nor bad per se but believe that politics. develop and use power and other resources to obtain one’s preferred outcomes in a situation in which there is uncertainty about choices”. the capacity to get things done by virtue of the position held. Organizational politics tend to be associated with decision-making. but in this sense. viewing situations in win-win terms as much as possible. Both relate to pursuit of self-interest and overcoming the resistance of others.
and (3) to promote the client’s internal commitment to the choices made. OD interventions typically generate valid. his or her program. increases the amount of power available to organization members. organization development represents an approach and method to enable organization members to go beyond the negative face of power and politics. Cobb and Margulies caution that OD practitioners can get into trouble if they move from a facilitator role to a political role. and his or her values. collaboration. catalyst. second. In summary. public data are indispensable-for problem solving but anathema for organizational politics. and promoting individual and organizational competence are part of the foundation of organization development. The practitioner works to strengthen skills and knowledge in the organization. rather. This major . processes. For example.We have discussed a number of ideas concerning power and politics. fact-finding. Emphasis on power equalization stems from two beliefs: first. openness. But organization members are free to accept or reject the practitioner. We know of no OD interventions designed to increase coercion or unilateral power. the "interventionist" has three primary tasks: (1) to generate valid useful information. informed choice. thereby making the negative face of power less prevalent and/or necessary. individual dignity. Valid. OD interventions do not deny or attempt to abolish the reality of power in organizations. The role of the OD practitioner is that of a facilitator. being one aspect of the positive face of power. it is instead a rational problem-solving approach that is incompatible with extreme poweroriented situations. (2) to promote free. Virtually. These values are congruent with rational problem solving and incongruent with extremely political modes of operating. Values such as trust. strengths. "Power equalization" has long been described as one of the values of organization development. The OD consultant. Not only is organization development not a power/political intervention strategy. all OD interventions promote problem-solving. collaboration. OD interventions increase problem-solving. like all consultants. but not with the negative face of power. and weaknesses. According to Chris Argyris. OD values are consistent with the positive face of power. In this section we will attempt to integrate those concepts with organization development and offer advice to the OD practitioner for dealing with the political realities found in organizations. they enhance the positive face of power. and expertise. provides a service that the organization is free to "buy" or "not buy. problem solver. problem solving is usually superior to power coercion as a way to find solutions to problematic situations. and educator." The facilitator or educator role is incompatible with a political activist role because cooperation requires one set of behaviors and competition requires a different set of behaviors. as a preferred way to get things accomplished. The practitioner is not a political activist or power broker. co-operation. power equalization. and by so doing adds power to the organization. as we discussed earlier. methods. not politics. public data about the organization’s culture. and effective pursuit of goals while decreasing reliance on the negative faces of power and politics.
Paying attention to these sources of power will enhance the likelihood of success of OD programs. it will gain more power. the values. According to the framework of French and Raven. Group support: If the OD group is strong internally. Competence: Demonstrated competence is the most important source of power. Resource management: Power accrues to those who control resources-in this case. Michael Beer has identified additional means by which an OD group can gain and wield power in organizations: 1. organization development practitioners operate from a potentially strong power base they can use to advantage.strength of OD derives from the strategy of change. 6. 3. 8. Stature and credibility: Beer notes that power accrues to those who have been successful and effective." 4. Early success in the OD program and its usefulness to key managers of the organization helps promote this reputation. the technology. expert power (the consultant possesses expert knowledge). Success leads to credibility and stature. preferably multiple sponsorship. it will be strong externally. . Sponsorship: "Organization development groups will gain power to the extent that they have sponsorship. informational power (the consultant has a wealth of information about the strengths and weaknesses of the organization). acceptability. These sources of influence produce a substantial power base that will enhance the likelihood of success. in powerful places.7 Operating in a Political Environment We will present some general observations on operating in a political environment. and the roles of OD practitioners. 2. If the OD group is cohesive and free of internal dissention. and possibly referent power (others may identify with and be attracted to the consultant). followed by some rules of thumb for the OD practitioner. the resources of OD expertise and ability to help organizational subunits solve their pressing problems. the OD consultant possesses power from the following bases: legitimate power (the OD program and consultant are authorized by the organization’s decision makers)."34 This maxim has been recognized for years under the heading of "get top-level support for the program. and ability to gain organizational support. 5. First. Political access and sensitivity: Cultivating and nurturing multiple relationships with key power figures in the organization will ensure timely information and multiple sources of support.
not the OD consultant. Rule Two: Make the OD program itself a desired commodity. experience. Being of value to multiple powerholders rather than a single one both increases support and reduces the likelihood that the program will become the target of political activities. The preceding rules of thumb describe ways to increase or solidify one’s power base. A valuable by-product of this fact is that if the program runs into political turbulence. Skills such as listening. those issues vital to the organization’s success. the manager will vigorously defend it. Organizations are social systems in which members have both a history and a future of interacting. Sometimes OD practitioners overlook that they are hired by others. counseling. The role of the OD consultant is to help others upon request. OD professionals who are skilled in conflict management techniques and OD programs that encompass conflict resolution activities become valued commodities.What advice is available for OD practitioners who want to operate more effectively in a political environment? Several rules of thumb are implied by the fact that power accrues to persons who control valued resources or commodities. usually managers. coaching. which is to help someone else solve his or her major problems. and effective conflict management techniques are required to enhance stable. Rule One: Become a desired commodity. Rule Five: Mind your own business. Becoming a desired commodity as a person means being interpersonally competent and trustworthy. OD programs should be results-oriented. to help them achieve their goals and solve their problems. The OD program belongs to the manager. constructive social relationships. both as a person and as a professional. and expertise. The nature of organizations and the nature of organization development suggest this rule. problem solving. and showing appreciation for the strengths of others are components of interpersonal competence. Good OD practitioners will have learned and practiced these skills. it gains an aura of respect and protection that sets it above most political entanglements. Another way the OD program becomes a desired commodity is by focusing on important issues. OD practitioners are likely to have high interpersonal competence by virtue of their training. Beer and Walton argue that organization development should move from being practitioner centered to being manager-centered. Many OD interventions promote win-win solutions for conflict situations. The following rules describe ways to avoid becoming involved in one’s own or in others’ political struggles. Rule Four: Create win-win solutions. Each is derived from one general principle: Mind your own business. communicating. OD programs become desired commodities when they are instruments that allow individuals and organizations to reach their goals. . When the OD program serves the needs of top executives. OD consultants have a formal or informal contractual agreement with managers to help them do what they are trying to do-better. Rule Three: Make the OD program a valued commodity for multiple powerful people in the organization.
We could propose more rules of thumb. which is to be an expert on process. Three successful power strategies are "playing it straight. Illegitimate behavior causes others to try to exert greater control over the situation. viable. individual power derives from knowledge. Table 8. As shown in the figure. but these give the flavor of the issues one must consider when operating in a political environment. others’ support. catalyst. The authors propose adding the "using social networks" strategy to their repertoires. while at the same time increasing his or her usefulness to the organization’s powerholders. Earlier we stated that the OD practitioner should learn as much as possible about bargaining.Rule Six: Mind your own business. Illegitimate behavior encroaches on others’ legitimate "turf. the strategy and tactics of influence. and personality characteristics." which arouses defensive actions. The principle is simple but powerful: know your legitimate business and stick to it. dealing directly with powerholders and decision makers. yet legitimate means of acquiring power. not content. and the characteristics and behaviors of powerholders. Abiding by this rule keeps the consultant from becoming entangled in politics.8 Acquiring and Using Power Skills The OD practitioner is neither power activist nor power broker." and "going around the formal system. Rule Seven: Mind your own business because to do otherwise is to invite political trouble. A subtle phenomenon is involved here: when people engage in illegitimate behavior. such behavior is often interpreted as politically motivated. Networking is recognized as a potent. thereby greatly expanding practitioner influence. and educator. problem solver. Attention to these rules can save OD practitioners time and energy that can be more profitably invested in the OD program." OD practitioners have typically pursued a "playing it straight" strategy as their sole means of exerting power. not power activist or power broker. but that does not mean practitioners must be naive or incompetent in the political arena. and using contacts for information.1: Power Base and Power Strategy Connection Individual Power Bases Knowledge Strategies for Success Playing It Straight . 8. not by getting involved in the answers. One carries out such a strategy by participating in alliances and coalitions. Organizational politics revolve around decisions: Should we seek Goal A or Goal B? Should we use Means X or Means Y? Should we promote Mary or John? The proper role of OD consultants is to help decision makers by providing them with good decision-making processes. We believe the legitimate role of the OD practitioner is that of facilitator. negotiations the nature of power and politics." "using social networks.
Whetton and Cameron’s model is shown in following figure. then utilize a facilitative OD process in which the powerholders work on strategic business issues using consensus decision making to develop a corporate strategy. effort. which in turn will protect the interests of all concerned. even those of little power. influence key powerholders to accept the OD program. Personal power. (Legitimacy refers to abiding by and promoting the values of the organization.) Position power derives from five sources: Centrality-access to information in a communication network. how-to book on power and organization development is well worth studying. criticality-how important one’s job is flexibility-the amount of discretion in the job. This practical. The four stages are: Phase I Consolidating Power to Prepare for Change Phase ll Focusing Power on Strategic Consensus Phase Ill Aligning Power with Structure and People Phase IV Realizing Power through leadership and Collaboration These stages are the means the OD consultant uses to "take the high road" mentioned in the previous quotation-build a power base. personal power and position power. and legitimacy.· Expertise · Information · Tradition Others’ Support · Use data to convince · Focus on target group · Be persistent Using Social Networks · Alliances and coalitions · Deal with decision maker · Contacts for information Going Around Formal System · Work around roadblocks · (Don’t) use organization rules Political access Staff support Personality Charisma Reputation Professional credibility Finally. personal attraction. a person’s power comes from two main sources. The power structure will realize that collaborative power is preferable to manipulation and deception. In this model. in turn. visibility-how much one’s work is seen by . the authors propose a four-stage model for using the OD process to help the power elite transform the organization in ways beneficial for all concerned. arises from expertise.
According to these authors. Fig. "Power is converted into influence when the target individual consents to behave according to the desires of the power holder.1: Model of Power and Influence Networking is used to increase both personal power and position power. and retribution. and relevance-how important one’s task is in relation to organizational priorities. one investigation of the determinants of effective management performance concluded that a key factor distinguishing high and low performers was the ability to establish informal relationships via networks”. Reason refers to persuasion by facts. Retribution is not recommended except in unusual cases. 8. no one has the necessary information and resources to accomplish what’s expected of them. and reciprocity can be useful when reason fails. Reciprocity refers to exchange of favors. Retribution refers to coercion and threats. Having power is one thing. Whetton and Cameron suggest . actually using it to get things done is another. power-in-use is called influence. Networks are critical to effective performance for one compelling reason: Except for routine jobs. and (3) empowering others. Three influence strategies can be used to influence others-reason." Three things are involved in converting power into influence: (1) resisting other people’s inappropriate influence attempts." And. Indeed.influential people. They write: "Influence entails actually securing the consent of others to work with you in accomplishing an objective. (2) selecting the proper influence strategy. reciprocity. “One of the most important ways of gaining power in an organization is by establishing a broad network of task and interpersonal relationships. Usually reason is the preferred strategy.
.9 Summary Power and politics are inseparable facts of organizational life. 5. Organizational politics is defined as the study of who gets what. 2. units or departments is most important in solving organizational problems. Our suggestions for using power to operate effectively in organizations may help practitioner avoid the perils and pitfalls of power that "go with the territory" of organizational change. and how. Power based on the power-receiver having identification with the power holder is called ––– ––––––––. when and how. Power can be either positive or negative. Concluding Comments: In this unit. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. Define power in an organizational context and explain types of power. .several means of resisting others’ influence attempts such as confrontation and using countervailing power. arise from known conditions. we have examined power and politics with the goals of understanding the phenomena and deriving implications for OD practitioners. 8. (4) express confidence (5) foster initiative and responsibility. Power and politics are similar in nature.10 Terminal Questions 1. 4. collaborative work environment. when. reputation and professional credibility. arise from known conditions. –––––– is the intentional influence over the beliefs. (3) reward and encourage others in visible and personal ways. Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self-interest of individuals or groups. Methods for empowering others are the following: (1) involve subordinates in assigning work. (2) provide a positive. _____________ has identified two faces of power. 3. Power and politics are similar in nature. emotions or behaviour of people. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. and are amenable to positive control. –––––––– defined politics as the study of who gets what. –––––––––– is made up of Charisma. Self Assessment Questions 1. 8. Strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power that accrues to the individuals. Organizational power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. and (6) build on success. and are amenable to positive control.
Personality Answers to TQs: 1. Harold Lasswell 5. 8. McClelland 3. Refer section 8. Refer section 8.Refer section 8. Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. Identify the bases of individual power and the respective strategies for their success.6 5.2. 3. Referent power 4. Power 2.5 4.1 Introduction .8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . MU0002-Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Structure: 9. Define organization politics. Refer section 8. 5.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Describe briefly various theories of power.2 2.4 3. Refer section 8. 4.
3 Socio Technical Systems 9. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 9. These programs are derived from careful diagnosis. These methods are receiving increasing attention in Organization Development. These interventions vary from standardized program that have been developed and sometimes tailored program. actions.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival. In this dynamic and fluid environment.10 Summary 9.11 Terminal Questions 9.5 Quality Circles 9. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future. An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities.8 Total Quality Management 9.6 Quality of Work Life Projects 9.2 Meaning and Definitions 9. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. how to produce product or service which is related to Employee involvement approaches and how to design work is related to Work design.4 Management By Objectives 9.9 Reengineering Self Assessment Questions 9. One important intervention technique is Technostructural interventions because these are related to technical and structural issues such as how to divide labour and how to coordinate department which is related to Restructuring organization. organizational problems may repeat.Objectives 9. Objectives: .7 Parallel Learning Structures 9.
3. Changes can involve decentralization and centralization. Advantages of Structural Interventions There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. In addition. One problem with behavioral/ group interventions is the tendency for new managers or employees to discount or fail to continue the change program. includes removing or adding layers to hierarchy. Structural changes are consistent with their operating styles and are generally understood by practitioners. · Discuss the parallel Learning Structures. 5. Succession Doesn’t Destroy Change Effort. and OD practice enables the change agent to estimate the probable consequences of the change. Cost is Low. · Discuss the Management By Objectives · Explain the Quality Circles. 9. Greater Predictability. The cost of structural change is generally “front-end” loaded. Downsizing associated with restructuring. you will be able to: · Explain the Socio technical change. 2. Structure changes are normally “institutionalized” and less subject to this problem.After studying this unit. From a benefit cost analysis. · Explain Reengineering. Weeks and months of group effort are saved. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. Once diagnosed and an appropriate correction developed.2 Meaning and Definitions Structural Intervention is related to the changes that relate elements of organization to one another. Organization Acceptance of Change. Basic reinforcement theories. and more . 4. meaning the major costs are associated with analysis and design of change. their attractiveness is also increased by the following advantages: 1. This normally is a reasonable. · Explain Total Quality Management. Rapidity of change. organization theory. change can be introduced relatively rapidly by top management. Managers and administrators are notoriously pragmatic.
3 Socio Technical Systems Socio-technical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. It endeavors to re-design the organization’s structure. Though there are some variations in the practices of MBO and. Cummings. many business and nonbusiness organizations have adopted this in some form or the other. processes and functions to create a balance between the organization and its changing external environment.4 Management by Objectives Management by objectives (MBO). Its basic idea has been derived from the concept of participative goal setting as a technique of OD. 1988): • Determining the environmental demands • Creating a vision statement • Educating organizational members • Creating the change structure • Conducting socio-technical analysis • Formulating re-design proposals · Defining the scope of the system to be re-designed · Implementing recommended changes · Evaluating changes 9. its definitional aspect. is a technique and system which helps in improving organizational performance.” . 1967. 1976. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. though not strictly an OD intervention in the sense in which other interventions have been discussed so far. 9. a predictable cost Implementation of group strategies involves significant long-term man-hour and consultant costs. it has been defined as follows: MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. Pasmore. The term MBO was coined by Drucker in 1964 when he emphasized the concept of managing by results.critically. It could involve the following steps (Foster. Since then. therefore.
On the other hand. It emphasises initiative and active role by the manger who is responsible for achieving objectives. etc.. As an approach to management. Objectives in MBO provide guidelines for appropriate system and procedures. reward and punishment system is attached with the achievement of the objectives. 4. 5. MBO is also concerned with determining what these results and resources should be. The MBO is characterized by the participation of concerned managers in objective setting and performance reviews. This is possible because MBO tries to match objectives and resources. The review is future-oriented because it provides basis for planning and corrective actions. It works as an integrating device. In fact. non-specialist. . The total management process revolves round the objectives set jointly by the superior and the subordinate. It is a particular way of thinking about management. The performance review is held regularly. often MBO provides the stimulus for the introduction of new techniques of management and enhances the relevance and utility of the existing ones. Therefore.The integration of individual and organizational objectives through MBO has been emphasized by Chakravarty when he has defined MBO as follows: “MBO is a result-centered. MBO is the joint application of a number of principles and techniques. MBO is bound to have some relationship with every management technique. and human resources of the organization by integrating the individual with organization and organization with the environment. Objectives provide the means for integrating the organization with its environment. This process clarifies the role very sharply in terms of what one is expected to achieve. with objective orientation as its essence. all the units or departments and individual manager. Objectives are established for all the levels of the organization. each manager takes active part in setting objectives for himself and also in evaluating his performance as to how he is performing. including the corporate level. 2. managers have the opportunities for clarifying their job relationships with peers. Therefore. delegation of authority. Whereas the various techniques of management help in measurement of results in resources. Similarly. MBO is an approach and philosophy to management and not merely a technique.” Based on the definition of MBO. 6. its features can be identified as follows: 1. operational managerial process for the effective utilization of material. A management technique can be applied in selected parts of the organization and will have limited implications for its other parts. physical. Resource allocation. MBO is likely to affect every management practice in the organization. are determined on the basis of objectives. MBO employs several techniques but it is not merely the sum total of all these techniques. normally once a year. 3. Periodic review of performance is an important feature of MBO. The basic emphasis of MBO is on objectives. superiors and subordinates. its subsystems and people. Certain degree of overlapping is there.
Process of MBO MBO is a system for achieving organizational objectives, enhancement of employee commitment and participation. Therefore, its process should facilitate translation of basic concepts into management practice. The MBO process is characterized by the emphasis on the rigorous analysis, the clarity and balance of objectives, and participation of the managers with accountability for results. The MBO process is not as simple as it appears to be. Managers need training and experience for developing the required skills. 1. Setting of Organizational Purpose and Objectives: The first step in MBO is the definition of organizational purpose and objectives. Questions, such as, “why does the organization exist?”. What business are we in?” and what should be our business?” provide guidelines for the statement of purpose. This, in interaction with external factors, then determines the long-range strategic objectives like (i) whether to achieve growth through expansion in the same line of business or diversity: (ii) what should be blending of trading and manufacturing activities; (iii) what should be the degree of vertical integration and so on. Usually the objective setting starts at the top level of the organization and moves downward to the lowest managerial levels. This will go in a sequence like this (i) defining the purpose of the organization, (ii) long-range and strategic objectives, (iii) short-term organizational objectives, (iv) divisional/departmental/sectional objectives, (v) individual manager’s objectives. 2. Key Result Areas: Organizational objective and planning premises together provide the basis for the identification of key result areas (KRAs). It may be emphasized that KRAs are derived from the expectations of various stakeholders and indicate the priorities for organizational performance. KRAs also indicate the present state of an organization’s health and the top management perspective for the future. Examples of KRAs applicable to most of the business organizations are (i) profitability, (ii) market standing, (iii) innovation, (iv) productivity, (v) worker performance, (vi) financial and physical resources, (vii) manager performance, and (viii) public responsibility. Even though KRAs are most durable, the list of KRAs gets considerably changed over the period in response to new needs and opportunities. Sometimes, the achievement in a particular KRA also provides the impetus for a new KRA in future. 3. Setting Subordinates’ Objectives: The organizational objectives are achieved through individuals. Therefore, each individual manager must know in advance what he is expected to achieve. Every manager in the managerial hierarchy is both superior and subordinate except the person at the top level and lowest level. Therefore, there is a series of superior and subordinate relationships. The process of objective setting begins with superior’s proposed recommendations for his subordinate’s objectives. In turn, the subordinate states his own objectives as perceived by him. Thereafter, the final objectives for the subordinate are set by the mutual negotiation between superior and subordinate. In the beginning of MBO process in an organization, there may be wide gap between the recommended objectives by the superior and subordinate’s stated objectives because the latter may like to put lesser burden on him by
setting easily achievable objectives. However, with the experience gained over the period of time, this gap narrows because of narrowing down of perception of superior and subordinate about what can be done at a particular level. 4. Matching Resources with Objectives: When objectives are set carefully, they also indicate the resource requirement. In fact, resource availability becomes an important aspect of objective setting because it is the proper application of resources which ensures objective achievement. Therefore, there should be matching between objectives and resources. By relating these to objectives, a superior manager is better able to set the need and economy of allocating resources. By relating these to objectives, a superior manger is better able to see the need and economy of allocating resources. The allocation and movement of resources should be done in consultation with the subordinate manager. 5. Appraisal: Appraisal aspect of MBO tries to measure whether the subordinate is achieving his objective or not. If not, what are the problems and how these problems can be overcome? Appraisal is undertaken as an ongoing process with a view to find out deficiency in the working and also to remove it promptly. It is not taken merely to punish the non-performer or to reward the performer. It is taken as a matter of system to ensure that everything is going as planned and the organization is able to achieve its objectives. 6. Recycling: Though appraisal is the last aspect of MBO process, it is used as an input for recycling objectives and other actions. Objectives are neither set at the top and communicated to the bottom nor are they set at the bottom and go up. Objective setting is a joint process through interaction between superior and subordinate. Therefore, what happens at each level may affect other levels also. The outcome of appraisal at one level is recycled to see if the objectives have been set properly at the level concerned and also at the next higher level. 9.5 Quality Circles Quality circle is one of the most popular methods in the USA which was originally developed in Japan in 1950s.Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. Quality circle requires a managerial philosophy and culture that promotes sharing power, information, knowledge, and rewards. Quality circle program consists of several circles, each having three to fifteen members. The original idea of quality circles involved small groups of volunteers meeting on a regular basis, but in its contemporary form, quality groups are often compulsory and organized around specific work teams. Some organizations have even gone as far as setting targets for the number of suggestions quality groups are expected to come up with. 9.6 Quality of Work Life Based on the research of Eric Trist et al. at the Tavistcock Institute of Human Relations in London, this approach looked both at technical and human sides of organizations and how they
are interrelated. QWL programs, in general, require joint participation by union and management in the process of work-designing, which consequently result into high level of task variety, appropriate feedback and employee discretion. The most distinguishing feature of QWL program is the development of self-managing work groups which consist of multi-skilled workers. 9.7 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel Learning Structures (also known as Communities of Practice) promote innovation and change in large bureaucratic organizations while retaining the advantages of bureaucratic design. Groups representing various levels and functions work to open new channels of communication outside of and parallel to the normal, hierarchical structure. Parallel Learning Structures may be a form of Knowledge Management. Knowledge Management involves capturing the organization’s collective expertise wherever it resides (in databases, on paper, or in people’s heads) and distributing it to the people who need it in a timely and efficient way. It Consists of a steering committee and a number of working groups that: · Study what changes are needed in the organization, · Make recommendations for improvement, and · Then monitor the resulting change efforts. 9.8 Total Quality Management It is a long term effort that orients all of an organization’s activities around the concept of quality. It is very popular in USA in 1990s.TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization, provides relevant information to all employees, ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. It is also called continuous quality improvement. A combination of a number of organization improvement techniques and approaches, including the use of quality circles, statistical quality control, statistical process control, self-managed teams and task forces, and extensive use of employee participation. Features that characterize TQM: · Primary emphasis on customers. · Daily operational use of the concept of internal customers. · An emphasis on measurement using both statistical quality control and statistical process control techniques.
· Participative management. Self Assessment Questions 1. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. It seeks to make such processes more efficient by combining.· Competitive benchmarking. · A major emphasis on continuous learning. From a benefit cost analysis. actions.10 Summary An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. 9. actions. eliminating. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. · Top management support on an ongoing basis. The term MBO was coined by _________ in 1964. There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. 2. An organization development __________ is a sequence of activities. and speed. MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner.9 Reengineering It is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical. Reengineering is a top-down process. or restructuring activities without regard to present hierarchical or control procedures. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. Sociotechnical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. service. · Continuous search for sources of defects with a goal of eliminating them entirely. · An emphasis on teams and teamwork. Quality . 3. __________ represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. assumes neither an upward flow of involvement nor that consensus decision making. quality. 9. contemporary measures of performance. such as cost. Reengineering focuses on visualizing and streamlining any or all business processes in the organization.
Quality circle Answers to TQs: 1. Refer section 9. Refer section 9. Intervention 2. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems.3 2. 9.11 Terminal Questions 1.circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .Refer section 9.5 4. provides relevant information to all employees. Drucker 3. What are the advantages of structural interventions? 3.12 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. Refer section 9. Write a short note on Total Quality Management. Explain Management By Objectives? 4.2 3. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. 9. . It is also called continuous quality improvement. Discuss Socio Technical Systems? 2.
5 Impact of Change on the Future Manager 10. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing.1 Introduction Objectives 10.1 Introduction Change in Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival.MU0002-Unit-10-Managing Organization Development Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Structure: 10. Hence. the mangers and other employees must be able to practically anticipate the changes (planned and unprecedented).2 Nature of Change 10. Self Assessment Questions 10.7 Summary 10. organizational problems may repeat. Objectives: .9 Answers to SAQs and TQs 10. In this dynamic and fluid environment.3 Resistance to Change 10. cope with the ongoing changes successfully in the first instance. 10. and initiate new change so as to overtake the competitors one the one hand and delight the customers on the other.4 Causes for Resistance to Change.8 Terminal Questions 10.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future.
· State the methods of reducing resistance to change.2 Nature of Change The term ‘change’ refers to an alteration in a system. The type of new equilibrium depends on the degree of change and its impact on the organization. what is important at this point is that a change in any part affects the entire organization and subsequent changes are required in other parts. they have concluded that the whole organization tends to be affected by change in any part of it. which are major ones. · Impact of change on future managers. or social. structural arrangement. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of organization change. Thus. biological.After studying this unit. However. Thus. organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. 10. Any change may effect the whole organization. employees want to maintain a status quo. Thus. some parts may be affected directly. Newstrom and Davis have explained the impact of a change in any part of the organization on the total organization. While managers as change agents want to bring changes in the organization. the change in organization does not occur purely on mechanical relationship. and others. we find that the shape of the entire balloon has changed. and others. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization – technology. They have illustrated it by comparing an organization to an air-filled balloon. less. if we look minutely. some changes which are of minor type may be absorbed by the existing equilibrium. job design and people. it becomes indented at the point of contact. . others. organizational change may have the following features: 1. 3. indirectly. However. the contour of the balloon visibly changes. may require special change efforts. Organizational change is a continuous process. some parts of organization may be affected more. Though this phenomenon will be taken later. When change occurs in any part of the organization. 2. When a finger (which represents external force) is forced against a point on the balloon (which represents the organization). it has stretched slightly.whether physical. it disturbs the old equilibrium necessitating the development of a new equilibrium. · Discuss the nature of change · Explain resistance to change and the factors which resist change. However.
let us discuss whether resistance is always bad as it is generally perceived to be. Resistance to change forces management to find out this reality which helps in managing change more effectively. Resistance as Cost: Since all changes have some cost. Similarly. resistance to change is costly affair. This leads to general proposition that people and their social systems will often resist change in organizations. the company procured land near its old plant site but later shifted the new plant site away from the old plant because of resisting work culture of the old plant which was expected to percolate to the new plant also. fear of change can be as significantly disrupting as change itself. Thus. or they have been forced to adopt alternative strategies. because it produces identical symptoms. adjustment is fairly routine. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. Many companies have been forced to do so in the past. Managing Director of Bajaj Auto. We shall take new workers at the new place. When change is minor and within the scope of correcting programme. In fact. Homeostasis implies self-correcting characteristics of organism to maintain equilibrium as a result of change. In fact. the organizational may not be able to introduce new phenomena in order to adapt environmental requirement. many organizations have been forced to abandon change programmes because of resistance to such programmes. more serious upsets may occur. On this phenomenon. resistance to change provides help in managing change in two ways: .” Resistance as Benefit: On the one hand. people act to establish a steady state of need fulfillment and to secure themselves from disturbance of that balance.as cost and as benefit.3 Resistance to Change In the management of change effectively. While on negative side. social systems tend to resist change because of homeostasis. We wanted a new culture and new layout. and on the other. that is. but when a change is major or unusual. like shifting of the manufacturing plants at new locations. and its basic survival may be jeopardized. In fact. Madhur Bajaj. it provides some benefits to the organization as its change agent. commented. Before we trace out the reasons for résistance to change. the managers face the problem of resistance to change. “The Pune plant is fully saturated. In order to increase its manufacturing capacity of two-wheelers. One example of Bajaj Auto Limited is relevant here. there are two sides of resistance.10. so is the resistance to change. If people resist to change. Resistance by some members of the organization provides an opportunity to the change agents to weigh the pros and cons of introducing change more carefully. We saw resistance to change at the existing plant. the reality lies in between.
Economic Factors People feel attached to the organization for satisfying their needs and economic needsphysiological. These feelings. they will have lower opportunity to earn incentives and bonus as the new system requires additional skills. etc. whenever people sense that new machinery (change) poses a threat of replacing or degrading them. precede over other needs.. they simply resist such a change. When computer was introduced in the business sector in India. the reasons underlying resistance to change may be identified at these two levels: Individual Resistance There are many factors operating at the individual level which are responsible for resistance. people may feel that in the new system. either real or emotional. Skill Obsolescence: A change is generally meant for better methods of working which may involve new techniques. Reduced Opportunities for Incentives: Employees are generally offered incentives linked to their output in the form of incentive schemes. and turn into technological unemployment. Therefore. Degree of force in resistance depends on how people feel about change. These feeling may be based either on reality or there may be emotional feeling towards the change. bonus. Psychological Factors . It may signal the need for more effective communication about the meaning and purpose of a change or need to rethink precisely how a proposed change will affect the organization and its members. 2. 2. 3. it attracted a lot of resistance because of this reason. etc. It also highlights real inadequacies in the proposed change and suggests better ways for developing and introducing changes. reduce job options.1. This feeling is created because people feel that those who can match the new requirements will be better off than those who cannot match. technology. job security etc. Whenever there is change. Fear of Economic Loss: A change may create fear of economic loss in the sense that it may affect economic compensation adversely. psychological and social. Factors in Resistance to Change People tend to evaluate the effect of change individually but they express it through group in collective form. People may perceive that they will be adversely affected by the change in terms of their needs satisfaction in the following ways: 1. All these are well-established in the old system. may be seen in the context of three types of factors: economic.
everyone tries to avoid it. Fear of Unknown: A change may be perceived as entering into unchartered area which is unknown. the change may be perceived as an instrument for exposing the weakness of the people. therefore. their existing social interactions are likely to be changed.e. and fear of unknown. Social Factors People derive need satisfaction. status quo. the person who initiates change. low tolerance for change. these people resist any new idea. i. Therefore. through their mutual compatible interactions. Desire to Maintain Existing Social Interaction: People desire to maintain existing social interaction since it is a satisfying one. 1. This lack of certainty creates anxiety and stress in the minds of people and they want to avoid it. which people do not want. Therefore. Therefore. Ego Defensiveness: A change may affect the ego of the people affected by the change and in order to defend their ego. These are qualitative and. people may differ. 2. lack of trust in change agent. people resist it. may be logical from people’s point of view but may be illogical from the change agent’s point of view. The change will bring results in future. sentiments and attitudes towards change. particularly social needs. they show resistance to change efforts. This is the reason why labour union resists changes initiated by management because of the feeling that labour and management are two different interest groups in the organization. Thus. The major factors causing resistance to change are: desire to retain existing social interaction and feeling of outside interference. 1. people resist change. 3. Some people have very low level of tolerance for change and ambiguity as compared to others.Psychological factors are based on people’s emotions. . The lack of adequate information about the likely impact of change further complicates the problems. they do not want any disturbance in their existing equilibrium of life and work pattern. When there is any change. Major psychological factors responsible for resistance are: ego defensiveness. If people have low degree of confidence in the change agent. Low Tolerance for Change: In the context of maintaining status quo. They form their own social groups at the work place for the satisfaction of their social needs. Status Quo: People want status quo. Lack of Trust in Change Agent: The effect of change is perceived in the context of change agent. To the extent the satisfaction of these needs is affected by a change. A change in itself suggests that everything is not right at a particular level. that is. 5. they resist change. 4. which is always uncertain. The change initiated by the organization disturbs such equilibrium and people have to obtain another equilibrium which is a painful exercise.
For example. It is called ‘The Failure of Success’. It a change is required in these aspects. For example. Digital Equipment Corporation. change initiated by managers affecting workers. they become too rigid to change and they hide their failure to change in the guise of past successes. stability of systems. the organization may not bring it easily because it is accustomed to a particular system. and institutes reward and punishment system. This is the reason why many old industrial houses are languishing far behind and their places are being taken away by newer organizations. The latter my feel that managers try to make workers an instrument for higher productivity but the outcome of this productivity will be retained by them. Strategies. e. an organization has to adapt to its environment but the adaptation has its own cost. these organizations start falling. The major reasons for organizational failure to change are: counting past successes. and inter-organizational agreement. has commented as follows: “Nothing fails like success. Feeling of Outside Interference: A change brought about by the change agent is considered to be interference in the working of people. millstones and routines.” This statement suggests that organizations tend to stabilize at a particular level and if the change efforts are not brought. first two reasons are basic and others are by-products of the first two. Zerox or nearer home-TI cycles. Since these organizations have achieved success by following a particular set of management practices.g. dogmas. Many powerful organizations of the past have failed to change and they have developed into routines. Counting Past Successes: A major problem before the organizations which have past success stories is how to face challenges of the changing environment. Caterpillar. Resource Limitations: No doubt. 2. a professor of strategic leadership who is considered to be a management Guru. This phenomenon is heightened if the change agent belongs to another social class. Organizational Resistance to Change: Not only individuals and groups within an organization resist change. it may not be possible for the organization to bring necessary change. if new . The system is stabilized and any change may be perceived as a threat by the organization itself. Many organizations are designed to be innovation-resisting. Stability of Systems: The organization may design a system through which it may derive many benefits. resources and processes of the most successful companies have in the past ossified into clichés. all these companies have been victims of corporate disease. All these work in some circumstances. 3. For example. nothing fails as spectacularly as spectacular success. If the organization is not fully equipped for meeting such demands.2. values.. even the organization itself resists many changes because of certain reasons. For example. prescribes rigid authority relationships. Sumantra Ghoshal. a bureaucratic organization has certain fixed rules. resource limitations. Some of these reasons are basic while others are by-products of those. 1. Whether it is IBM. sunk cost.
broad environmental scanning.technology is adopted. and reserve some resources unutilized for future use. it is not necessary that his services are done away with. It is necessary too that other organizations also agree to the change proposal. decentralized controls. forward-looking. Analyzers act sometimes as defenders and sometimes as prospectors. 2. In this interaction process. It an individual is not making commensurate contribution. and commensurate expenses on other items also. the organization has to take into consideration the wishes of other organizations too. Once the assets are acquired. Defenders: These are the firms which penetrate in a narrow market product domain and guard it. organization has to pay for his services though these may not be as useful. Sunk cost cannot be only in terms of various physical things. Let us see what someone has said long back: “There are three types of companies: those who make things happen. and put less emphasis on environmental scanning. 4. the organization may enter into agreement with labour union about not bringing any technological change. they have to behave in one of the above three ways. Otherwise. analyzers. 1. these can be used for specific period. they cannot survive. . They emphasize more on cost-effectiveness. 4. the organization will like to make a comparison between the outcomes of changed programme and continuing with old programme in the light of this sunk cost. Prospectors: These firms use broad planning approaches. if the change is required. Thus. innovative. and has zeal for progress. 5. 3. They go on searching new products/markets on regular basis. Therefore. the organization may take change programmes much more frequently. Inter-organizational Agreements: The organization interacts with its environment. centralized control. those who wonder what happened. building and training for its personnel. Reactors: These organizations realize that their specific environment is changing but fail to relate themselves with the changing environment. If it is risk-taking. prospectors. In such a case. Now.” This is the true reflection of difference between change-initiating companies and changeresisting companies. Based on the aggressiveness which various companies show in changing themselves. intensive planning. if any change is to be incorporated. it may enter into agreement with other organizations over certain aspects of working. it will require resources to procure machine. For example. This can be in the form of people also. those who watch things happen.defenders. Miles and Snow have classified them into four categories. what will happen to these assets? Naturally. It depends more on the style of top management. Analyzers: Above two are the extreme cases of choice-making modes in between the analyzers and reactors. Sunk Cost: Most of the organizations have sunk cost involved in various assets. and reactors.
or the like. and so on. implicit. especially when pay is closely tied to productivity. develop a negative attitude towards quality management or behave dysfunctionally if required to use statistical techniques. As human beings. threatening to go on strike. immediate. when you go to work or school. many employees at these firms may fear that their jobs are in jeopardy. adjusting to the new office layout. Changes in job tasks or established work routines also can arouse economic fear if people are concerned they won’t be able to perform the new tasks or routines to their previous standards.10. When we are confronted with change. If for example. When Boeing announces its laying off 10.000 people or Ford introduces new robotic equipment. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints. or deferred. finding a new parking place. some may fear they’ll be unable to do so. Fear of the Unknown: Change substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the known. do you continually use the same route and streets? Probably if you’re like most people. therefore. Organizational resistance Structural Inertia: Organizations have built-in mechanisms to produce stability. or programmed responses. For instance. They may. Let’s look at the sources of resistance. developing a new lunchtime routine. Training . engaging in a work showdown. the selection process systematically selects certain people in and certain people out. it means you’re likely to have to change many habits: waking up 10 minutes earlier. we all rely on habits. the introduction of a quality management program requires that production workers learn statistical process control techniques. And people in general don’t like the unknown. we’re creatures of habit. For analytical purpose. Economic Factors: Another source of individual resistance is concern that changes will lower one’s income.4 Cause for Resistance to Change Resistance to change doesn’t necessarily surface in standardized ways. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. we don’t need to consider the full range of options for the hundreds of decisions we have to make every day. Resistance can be overt. taking a new set of streets to work. we’ve categorized them by individual and organizational sources. Habit Every day. To cope with this complexity. So when your department is moved to a new office building across town. For example. you find a single route and you use it regularly. The same applies to employee. Security: People who have a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feeling of safety. this tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance. Life is complex enough.
10. One area of organizations that continues its metamorphosis is the design itself. Threat to Expertise: Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups. group norms may act as a constraint. accountants work with marketers. for instance. These teams are comprised of people from various areas within the company.5 Impact of Change on Future Manager Organizations are changing nearly daily. the change in technology is not likely to be accepted. But if union norms dictate resisting any unilateral change made by management. human resource people with engineers and finance individuals with operations employees. Thereat to Established Power Relationships: Any redistribution of decision-making authority can threaten long-established power relationship within the organization. For example. They tend to be content with the way things are. For example. . The only constant in organizational life today appears to be the presence of continuous change. rules and procedures for employees to follow. An individual union member. That is. development of pay plans. So limited changes in subsystems tend to get nullified by the larger system. Formalization provides job description. You can’t change one without affecting the others. and benefits administration – has been resisted by many human resource departments. Limited Focus of Change: Organization is made up of interdependent subsystems. Changing Skill Sets More organizations are utilizing cross functional teams. may be willing to accept changes in his job suggested by management. Will the change. Introduction of participative decision making or self-managed work teams are examples of changes that often are seen as threats to the power of supervisors and middle managers. Group Inertia: Even if individuals want to change their behavior. Threat to Established Resource Allocations: the groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. Why? Because this outsourcing is a threat to the specialized skills held by people in HR departments. mean a reduction in their budgets or a cut in their staff size? Those who most benefit from the current allocation of resources are often threatened by change that may affect future allocations. the way in which companies are configured today is changing. if management changes the technological processes without simultaneously modifying the organization’s structure to match. for instance. People from one functional department are placed on terms with people from other functional areas. The recent move by some companies to outsource many of their human resource activities – such as training. he’s likely to resist.and other socialization techniques reinforce specific role requirements and skills.
it can make effectively by managing resistance effectively. It may affect only a few while others may not be affected. More fluid structures require that managers improve their strategic orientation. In addition. both at the formal and informal levels. through group dynamics. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. In many cases. As organizations must be better equipped to respond to change in their external environment. the problems can be solved at the same level.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change One of the basic problems in managing change is to overcome people’s resistance to change successfully. Unless this problem is overcome properly. Stephen Robbins suggests that “…… managers in virtual structures spend most of their time coordinating and controlling external relations. at the level of individual and at the level of group. rather should be looked upon as a dialogue which continues over a period of time.” The newer organizational structures use term problem solving. Therefore. For example.” Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. Decision making is becoming more and more comfortable for those throughout the organization as the need to make decisions is distributed more evenly across all organizational levels. However. Locavini observes that “the secret of real success is effective management of the emotional vulnerability that accompanies organizational change. When the resistance comes from the people at individual levels. Efforts at Individual Level A change is likely to affect some people in some way. This requires that managers think differently and teach employees to think differently. Involvement: Involvement is a process through which those who are affected by the change are brought to understand the change. this is not a one-time action. the following efforts can be taken: 1. typically by way of computer network links.The ultimate goal is to improve organizational performance by cutting production time or time to market. strategic directions for the company must be identified in light of these changes. They need to be adept at reading the trends in the environment and then determining what they mean specifically for their own organization. even the impact of change may be dysfunctional if change is imposed upon the people by the use of formal authority. that is. It implies explanation and . managers must be more skilled at reading the environment and grasping the big picture. the effect of the change may not be as functional as envisaged by the management. 10. the role of formal authority in implementing a change may not be effective all the times. For this purpose. Problem solving now involves the people who are experts in the issue – not necessarily those in high positions in the organization.
Thus. the manager can form strategies for overcoming resistance in the following manner: . Group dynamics offers some basic help in this regard. so that they are looked at and evaluated. sometimes. it is desirable at the group level to get better acceptability of change. Such educational process can be aided by training classes. Based on these characteristics of group as a means of change. People always have some ideas and opinions about what is going on in the world and more specially if touches them personally. and conferences. the leader tries to overcome this resistance by leadership process. Getting opinions out in the open. Obtaining Commitment: Commitment is an agreement to take an active part in the actual mechanics of the change. 4. An effective leader tries to time a change to fit the psychological needs of his followers.then discussion of the proposed changes. This helps in creating receptive environment in the organization. Commitment to take part in the change programme can be obtained in private from each individual. must be understood so that its effective use can be made. he expresses it through a group. Usually. most of the times. but a transformational leader can use personal reasons for change without arousing resistance. its process and working. As this process goes. For using group as a means of overcoming resistance to change. instead of solving the problem at the individual level. meetings. However. is an important trust-building task. Though each person interprets the change individually often. Efforts at Group Level Although agreement to a change can be obtained individually. either the subordinates do not resist or if they resist. The fundamental idea in this process is to encourage the person to say something about any aspect of the change. and indoctrinated in new relationships. getting a man to commit himself in private to change programme may yield fewer results than if he voluntarily and publicly gives his commitment to an idea of change. A manager as weak leader presents change on the basis of the impersonal requirements of the situation. 3. However. Leadership: The role of leadership in getting acceptance for a change is very important as a capable leader reinforces a climate of psychological support for change. to become effective. helped to change attitudes. 2. the level of resistance to change tends to decrease. more than one person is involved in the change. The decision to commit oneself is a dynamic process. education must be a part of the manager’s everyday activity on the job. They must be taught new skills. Thus. People should be educated to become familiar with change. It includes finding out from the members how they interpret the proposed changes and what they think about them. as discussed earlier. understanding of change increases and personal involvement in the change increases. Training and Psychological Counseling: The management can change the basic values of the people by training and psychological counseling. It grows slowly along with relationship. it is more meaningful if it is done through group. its basic nature.
many things about change can be made clear.such aspects as the reasons for change. The laboratory method provides a setting where group processes can be studied intensively. and sensitivity or T-group training. The same is true of problem-solving. _________ helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. 2. For this purpose.1. job design and people. thereby the people can build up the climate based on mutual trust and understanding which are essential for bringing organizational changes successfully. Free flow of information helps people to understand the real picture of the change and many misunderstandings may be avoided. psychodrama. Group Contact: Any effect to change is likely to succeed if the group accepts that change. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization – technology. benefits of change. mere participation may not help. __________ are based on people’s emotions. Such training techniques provide understanding of behaviour. Participation: Participation helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. there may be some person who may communicate to the same group. They must be made a party to the change rather than an agent for resistance to change. sentiments and attitudes towards change. It makes people feel that the organization needs their opinions and ideas and is unwilling to go ahead without taking them into account. 2. Those people who are directly affected by the change should be given opportunity to participate in that change before the final decisions are reached. Such training techniques include role playing. Self Assessment Questions 1. one can communicate with more people per unit of time. It would be prudent for management to take labour representatives into confidence before implementing any change. Through the group contact. Group Dynamics Training for Change: Group dynamics also helps in providing various training programmes for accepting and implementing change. (iii) Group can get at the basic problem very rapidly as compared to a single individual. and how members contribute. 3. This is more important in the case of workers who themselves treat a separate group and do not identify with the management. 3. structural arrangement. Even if only some of the members are affected by the change. . The organization must regard the participation as meaningful and share the results of the change with its members. (ii) In group. The group contact offers some specific advantages: (i) Through groups. Research studies also support this aspect. and how the benefits of the meaningful and continuous dialogue are necessary. taking whole of the group into confidence helps in maintaining a cooperative attitude. the group itself should be the point of contact. _________ is the alteration of work environment in an organization. It purports how the results are. However.
10. 10.7 Summary Change is inevitable. or the like. at the level of individual and at the level of group.4 3. or deferred. Psychological factors 3. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints. Economic factors. Why do organizations resist change? 3. Explain the nature of change? 2. Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. Changes may be influenced by external and internal factors. social factors. Refer section 10.2 2.10.9 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. threatening to go on strike. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. Reference: . Organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. For instance. that is. Resistance can be overt. Discuss the methods of reducing resistance to change. group resistance and vested interests. engaging in a work showdown. both at the formal and informal levels. Refer section 10.8 Terminal Questions 1. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. Refer section 10. through group dynamics. psychological factors. Organizational change 2. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization. implicit. immediate.6. Participation Answers to TQs: 1.
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