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Unit-01-Introduction to Management Structure: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 1.2 Definitions of Management 1.3 Characteristics of Management 1.4 Scope and Levels of Management 1.5 Importance of Management 1.6 Role of Management 1.7 Administration and Management Self Assessment Questions 1.8 Summary 1.9 Terminal Questions 1.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 1.1 Introduction Management is a global need. It is essential to every individual, a family, educational institution, hospital, religious organizations, team of players, a government, military systems, cultural body, urban centers and business enterprises. No individual can satisfy all his needs by himself. Men should join together and accomplish goals through co-operation. Whenever, there is an organized group of people working towards a common goal, some type of management is needed. A business enterprise must be directed and controlled by a group of people to achieve its goals. The resources of money, manpower, material and technology will be waste unless they are out to work in a co-ordinated manner. It is the ‘management’ which uses the available resources in such a manner that a business enterprise is able to earn ‘surplus’ to meet the needs of growth and expansion. Management is required to plan, organize, co-
ordinate and control the affairs of a business concern. It brings together all resources and motivates people to achieve the objectives of a business enterprise. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Define management. · Explain the characteristics of management. · Differentiate between management and administration. · State the principles of management. · Explain the roles of managers. · Explain managerial skills. 1.2 Definitions of Management Management may be defined in many different ways. Many eminent authors on the subject have defined the term “management”. Some of these definitions are reproduced below: According to Lawerence A. Appley – “Management is the development of people and not the direction of things.” In the words of George R. Terry – “Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.” According to James L. Lundy – “Management is principally the task of planning, co-ordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective.” In the words of Henry Fayol – “To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.” According to Peter F. Drucker – “Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages a business and managers and manages worker and work”. In the words of Koontz and O’Donnel – “Management is defined as the creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals working together in groups can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals”.
According to Newman, Summer and Warren – “The job of management is to make co-operative endeavor to function properly. A Manager is one who gets things done by working with people and other resources.” From the definitions quoted above, it is clear that “management” is a technique of extracting work from others in an integrated and co-ordinated manner for realizing the specific objectives through productive use of material resources. Mobilizing the physical, human and financial resources and planning their utilization for business operations in such a manner as to reach the defined goals can be referred to as “management”. If the views of the various authorities are combined, management could be defined as a “distinct ongoing process of allocating inputs of an organization (human and economic resources) by typical managerial functions (planning, organizing, directing and controlling) for the purpose of achieving stated objectives, namelyoutput of goods and services desired by its customers (environment). In the process, work is performed with and through personnel of the organization in an ever-changing business environment.” From the above, it is clear that management refers to the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people. The process represents the functions or primary activities engaged in by managers. These functions are typically labeled planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Efficiency is a vital part of management. It refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs. If you can get more output from the given inputs, you have increased efficiency. Similarly, if you can get the same output from less input, you also have increased efficiency. Since managers deal with input resources that are scarce-mainly people, money and equipment-they are concerned with the efficient use of these resources. Management, therefore, is concerned with minimizing resource costs. Efficiency is often referred to as “doing things right”. However, it is not enough simply to be efficient. Management is also concerned with getting activities completed; i.e. it seeks effectiveness. When managers achieve their organization’s goals, we say they are effective. Effectiveness can be described as “doing the right things”. So efficiency is concerned with means and effectiveness with ends. Efficiency and effectiveness are interrelated. For instance, it is easier to be effective if one ignores efficiency. Timex could produce more accurate and attractive watches if it disregarded labour and material input costs. Some federal government agencies have been criticized regularly on the grounds that they are reasonably effective but extremely inefficient; that is, they get their jobs done but at a very high cost. Management is concerned, then, not only with getting activities completed (effectiveness), but also with doing so as efficiently as possible. Can organization be efficient and yet not effective? Yes, by doing the wrong things well. Many colleges have become highly efficient in processing students. By using computer-assisted learning, large lecture classes, and heavy reliance on part-time faculty, administrators have significantly cut the cost of educating each student. Yet students, alumni, and accrediting agencies have criticized some of these colleges for failing to educate their students properly. Of
Thus. 3. namely. 4. buoyant spirit and adequate work output. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others. It is imperative that the organizational goals must be well-defined and properly understood by the mangers at various levels. experience and management principles for getting the results from the workers by the use of non-human resources. They must motivate the subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them. These factors do not by themselves ensure production. These functions are so interwoven that it is not possible to lay down exactly the sequence of various functions or their relative significance. 6. although they can’t observe it during operation. 5. organizing. Intangible Force: Management has been called an unseen force. capital and materials. feeling of management is result-oriented. the process of management involves decision-making and putting of decisions into practice.course. It co-ordinates the efforts of workers to achieve the goals of the organization. It is the force which assembles and integrates other resources. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the organizational goals are achieved. Results through Others: The managers cannot do everything themselves. Goal-oriented: Management is a purposeful activity. Its presence is evidenced by the result of its efforts-orderliness. One may not see with the naked eyes the functioning of management but its results are apparently known. informed employees. In essence. labour. 2. staffing. It is the most critical input in the success of any organized group activity. labour and capital. Managers apply knowledge. directing and controlling. Economic Resource: Management is one of the factors of production together with land.3 Characteristics of Management Management is a distinct activity having the following salient features or characteristics: 1. they require the catalyst of management to produce goods and services required by the society. Thus. management is an essential ingredient of an organization. Distinct Process: Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning. People often remark of the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of management on the basis of the end results. And poor management is most often due to both inefficiency and ineffectiveness or to effectiveness achieved through inefficiency. All these resources are made available to those who manage. Integrative Force: The essence of management is integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives. Managers also seek to harmonize the individuals’ goals with the organizational goals for the smooth working of the organization. . 1. high efficiency is associated more typically with high effectiveness.
management may be understood as (i) an economic resource. a hierarchy of command and control. materials. people . machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. military. Similarly. A Science and an Art: Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of welldefined concepts. The principles are working guidelines which are flexible and capable of adaptation to every organization where the efforts of human beings are to be co-ordinated. materials. For instance. (ii) a system of authority. It is bound together by a web of relationships between superiors and subordinates. 9. Multi-disciplinary Subject: Management has grown as a field of study (i.7. that is. productivity orientation drew its inspiration from Industrial Engineering and human relations orientation from Psychology. So it is treated as a science. how effectively and economically the five M’s are combined together to produce desired results. manpower. In other words. Henri Fayol suggested that principles of management would apply more or less in every situation. useful. discipline) taking the help of so many other disciplines such as Engineering. Sociology and Psychology. the degree of authority gets gradually reduced. money and machines into a productive. and (iii) a class or elite. principles and techniques requires specialized knowledge and skills on the part of the manager. According to Newman. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively. 8. Managers at different levels possess varying degrees of authority. Universal Application: Management is universal in character. Much of the management literature is the result of association of these disciplines. Basically. principles and techniques which have wide applications. System of Authority: Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority. According to Herbision and Myers. government and hospital. it refers to three distinct ideas.e. management is viewed as an art. Since the skills acquired by a manager are his personal possession. the effective use of the five M’s of management (money.4 Scope of Management The scope of management is very wide. management is required to covert the disorganized resources of men. The application of these concepts. · Management as an economic resource Management is one of the factors of production along with land. · Management as a system of authority According to Herbison and Myers. Generally. education. management is the rule-making and rule-enforcing body. as we move down in the managerial hierarchy. 10. on-going concern. In modern organizations. 1. Anthropology. The principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the fields of business. Sociology and Operations Research have also contributed to the development of management science. labour and capital.
Administrative management is concerned with “thinking” functions such as laying down policy. Levels of Management An enterprise may have different levels of management.. it is difficult of draw any clear-cut demarcation between thinking function and doing function as the basic/fundamental managerial functions are performed by all managers irrespective of their levels. As a separate group. or the Chief Executive. Managers working at top levels enjoy more authority than people working at lower levels. All the managers form the chief executive to the first line supervisors are collectively addressed as ‘Management’ which refers to the group. The real significance of levels is that they explain authority relationships in an organization. technical facilities.e.) interprets and explains the policies framed by the top management. and the range of production. personnel manager etc. wage and salary director of a company may assist in fixing wages and salary structure as a member of the Board of Directors. day-to-day matters. Board of Directors. the upper level of management) and (ii) operating management (i. finance manager. the term management refers to the group of individuals occupying managerial positions. its Chairman. Top management determines objectives and provides direction to enterprise activities. The managerial class has become very important in modern organizations owing to its contribution to business success. one can identify three levels of management namely: i) Top management of a company consists of owners/shareholders. viz. For instance.are bound by authority relationships. and directing the operations to attain the objectives of the enterprise. the lower level of management). The levels of management depend upon its size. (i) administrative management (i. ranks.. · Management as a class or elite Sociologists view management as a distinct class in society having its own value system. We generally come across two broad levels of management. Considering the hierarchy of authority and responsibility. But in actual practice. planning and setting up of standards. or.e. but as head of wages and salary department. his job is to see that the decisions are implemented. Middle management (departmental heads like work manage. Managing Director. or the General Manager or Executive Committee having key officers. Levels of management refer to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an enterprise. They transmit orders. Operative management is concerned with the “doing” function such as implementation of policies. . Lower management (first line supervisors) is concerned with routine. Instructions and decisions downward and carry the problem and suggestions upward.
They devote more time on the organization and motivation functions of management. The important functions of top management include: a) To establish the objectives or goals of the enterprise. It is accountable to the owners of the business of the overall management. machines and methods to put the plans into action.ii) Middle management of a company consists of heads of functional departments namely. 2. d) To assemble the resources of money. . Production Manager. b) To make policies and frame plans to attain the objectives laid. The following are the main functions of middle management: a) To establish the objective or goals of the enterprise. e) To exercise effective control of the operations. iii) Lower level or operative management of a company consists of Superintendents.. d) To recruit and select suitable operative and supervisory staff. c) To prepare the organizational set up in their own departments for fulfilling the objectives implied in various business policies. Purchase Manager. 1. They provide the guidance and the structure for a purposeful enterprise. Financial Controller. Without them the top management’s plans and ambitious expectations will not be fruitfully realized. Marketing Manager. etc. men. e) To assign activities. policies and plans for the enterprise. duties and responsibilities for timely implementation of the plans. It devotes more time on planning and co-ordinating functions. They are responsible to the top management for the functioning of their department. b) To interpret the policies chalked out by top management. Middle management: The job of middle management is to implement the policies and plans framed by the top management. Top management: Top management is the ultimate source of authority and it lays down goals. and Divisional Sectional Officers working under these Functional Heads. It is also described as the policy-making group responsible for the overall direction and success of all company activities. f) To provide overall leadership to the enterprise. c) To set up an organizational framework to conduct the operations as per plans. etc. materials. Supervisors. It serves as an essential link between the top management and the lower level or operative management. Foremen.
They have to get the work done through the workers. It helps in putting the resources to the best advantage within the limitations set by the organization and its environment. Employees feel a sense of security when they find a body of individual’s working day and night for the continued growth of an organization. Management makes group effort more effective. It is the activating force that gets things done through people. (ii) Effective leadership and motivation: In the absence of management. Management creates teamwork and . management is the dynamic lift-giving element in every organization. i) To collect reports and information on performance in their departments. They are in direct touch with the rank and file or workers.5 Importance of Management According to Drucker. k) To make suitable recommendations to the top management for the better execution of plans and policies. sales officers. Their authority and responsibility is limited. the working of an enterprise will become random and haphazard in nature. and actual operations are the responsibility of this level of management. evaluate their performance and report to the middle level management. the resources of production remain resources and never become production. It enables employees to move cooperatively and achieve goals in a coordinated manner. It consists of foreman. They allot various jobs to the workers.f) To compile all the instructions and issue them to supervisors under their control. h) To co-operate with the other departments for ensuring a smooth functioning of the entire organization. The importance of management can be understood from the following points. (i) Optimum use of resources: Management ensures optimum utilization of resources by attempting to avoid wastage of all kinds. In its absence. They are also involved in the process of decisions-making. j) To report to top management. They devote more time in the supervision of the workers. 3. They pass on the instructions of the middle management to workers. g) To motivate personnel to attain higher productivity and to reward them properly. A right climate is created for workers to put in their best and show superior performance. They are concerned with direction and control functions of management. supervisors. machines. money and material. 1. They interpret and divide the plans of the management into short-range operating plans. accounts officers and so on. Lower or operative management: It is placed at the bottom of the hierarchy of management. an organization is merely a collection of men. Without management.
They try to put everything on the right tract. forecasting combined with efficient use of resources) and taking appropriate steps. (iv) Achievement of goals: Management plays an important role in the achievement of objectives of an organization. government policy. all these help in realizing goals with maximum efficiency. procedures and reward systems. iii) The establishment of a representative organization with professiona-lizing as its goal. and specialized knowledge. Organize the resources properly. a profession possesses the following characteristics: i) A body of principles. (iii) Establishers sound industrial relations: Management minimizes industrial disputes and contributes to sound industrial relations in an undertaking. Overlapping efforts and waste motions are avoided. In the final analysis. methods. Industrial peace is an essential requirement for increasing productivity. hire competent people and provide necessary guidance. techniques. we generally mean a manager who undertakes management as a career and is not interested in acquiring ownership share in the enterprise which he manages. etc. Failure to take note of customer’s needs regarding full efficiently has spelt doom for ‘Ideal java’ in the two-wheeler market in India. According to McFarland. often threaten the survival of a firm. (b) Ensuring the survival of the firm in the face of continued changes. With a view to realize the predetermined goals-managers plan carefully. (c) Exploiting new ideas for the benefit of society as a whole and (d) developing employee talents and capabilities while at work and prompting them to show peak performance. Thus unnecessary deviations. Objective can be achieved only when the human and non-human resources are combined in a proper way. skills. To this end. They initiate prompt actions whenever workers express dissatisfaction over organizational rules. (vi) Improves standard of living : Management improves the standard of living of people by (a) using scarce resources efficiently and turning out profits. manager tries to strike a happy balance between the demands of employees and organizational requirements. counseling and effective leadership. Management as a profession By a professional manager. Management is goal-oriented. (v) Change and growth: Changes in technology. ii) Formalized methods of acquiring training and experience.motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. Managers help an organization by anticipating these changes (carefull planning. . An enterprise has to take note of these changes and adapt itself quickly.. competition. Successful managers are the ones who anticipate and adjust to changing circumstances rather than being passively swept along or caught unprepared.
What he discovered challenged several long-held notions about the manager’s job. none of them has the professionalizing of the management as its goal. in contrast to the predominant views at the time that managers were reflective thinkers who carefully and systematically processed information before making decisions. For instance.S. 1. the All India Management Association. It may be concluded from the above discussion that management is a science. Indeed such mobile managers are regarded as more progressive and modern than others. and short-duration activities. and it is distinct. Management is a profession to the extent it fulfils the above conditions. A number of organizations such as the Administrative Staff College of India. and v) The charging of fees based on the nature of services. bribing public officials to gain favours. an art as well as a profession. Management Development Institute. manipulating prices and markets are by no means uncommon management practices. a management degree is not a pre-requisite to become a manager. There is no ethical code of conduct for managers as for doctors and lawyers. little regard is paid to the elevation of service over the desire for monetary compensation is evident by switching of jobs by managers. In fact. But unlike medicine or law. however. There are a number of representative organizations of management practitioners almost in all countries such as the All India Management Association in India. identifiable discipline.6 Role of Management In the late 1960s.A. However. Management is also a profession in the sense that formalized methods of training is available to those who desire to be managers.. Management partially fulfils the third characteristic of profession. sabotaging trade unions. It has also developed a vast number of tools and techniques. unpatterned. Furthermore. the American Management Association in U. management is not as exact as natural sciences. We have a number of institutes of management and university departments of management which provide formal education in this field. There was little time for reflective thinking because the managers encountered . Henry Mintzberg did a careful study of five chief executives at work. the Indian Institute of Management. Management does not fulfill the last two requirements of a profession. do not seem to adhere to the principle of “service above self”. However. Mintberz found that his managers engaged in a large number of varied. Training facilities are provided in most companies by their training divisions.iv) The formation of ethical codes for the guidance of conduct. As a social science. try to develop a code of conduct for their own managers but there is no general and uniform code of conduct for all managers. It is a profession in the sense that there is a systematized body of management. etc. and it is not as fully a profession as medicine and law. and the university departments of management offer a variety of short-term management training programmes. managers in general. Some individual business organizations.
he or she has an outside liaison relationship. and associated duties. signing perform a number of routine legal documents. When they represent the organisation to outsiders. . and the like. Mintzberg called this the monitor role. manages also perform a spokesperson role. All managers have a role as a leader. Responsible for the motivation Performing virtually all and activation of subordinates. he or she is acting in a figurehead role. training. Half of these managers’ activities lasted less than nine minutes each. fulfill informational roles-receiving and collecting information from organizations and institutions outside their own. training. subordinates. When the president of a college hands out diplomas at commencement or a factory supervisor gives a group of high school students a tour of the plant. Table 1. obliged to Greeting visitors. Mintzberg concluded that managers perform ten different but highly interrelated roles. When that sales manager confers with other sales executives through a marketing trade association. and may be inside or outside the organization. Mintzberg provided a categorization scheme for defining what managers do based on actual managers on the job. the transfer of information. Mintzberg described this activity as contacting external sources who provide the manager with information. Managers also act as a conduit to transmit information to organizational members. These ten roles can be grouped as those primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships. what competitors may be planning. These sources are individuals or groups outside the manager’s unit. and decision-making. Informational Roles: All managers. Interpersonal Roles: All managers are required to perform duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature – interpersonal roles. Typically.1: Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles Role Interpersonal Figurehead Description Identifiable Activities Leader Symbolic head. This role includes hiring. activities that involve responsible for staffing. The third role within the interpersonal grouping is the liaison role. and disciplining employees. This is the disseminator role. The term ‘management roles’ refers to specific categories of managerial behaviour.constant interruptions. The sales manager who obtains information from the human resources manager in his or her same company has an internal liaison relationship. motivating. to some degree. But in addition to these insights. they do so by reading magazines and talking with others to learn of changes in the public’s tastes. duties of a legal or social nature.
performing other favors and information. making phone subordinates to members of calls to relay information. requesting of organizational resources of authorization. some involves interpretation and integration of diverse value positions of organizational influencers.. Transmits information to Holding board meetings. Searches organization and its Organizing strategy and environment for opportunities review sessions to and initiates “improvement develop new programs. media. the making any activity that involves or approval of all significant budgeting and the Informational Monitor Disseminator Spokesperson Decisional Entrepreneur Disturbance handler Resource allocator . emerges as nerve center of internal and external information about the organization.Liaison Maintains self-developed Acknowledging mail. outsiders on organization’s giving information of the plans. supervises design of certain projects as well. projects” to bring about change. actions. maintaining it current) to develop thorough personal contacts. etc. policies. Seeks and receives wide variety Reading periodicals and of special information (much of reports. unexpected involve disturbances and disturbances crises Responsible for the allocation Scheduling. Responsible for corrective Organizing strategy and action when organization faces review sessions that important. serves as expert on organization’s industry. the organization – some information is factual. network of outside contacts doing external board and informers who provide work. results. performing all kinds – in effect. Transmits information received Holding informational from outsides or from other meetings. understanding of organization and environment. activities that involve outsiders.
An Evaluation: A number of follow-up studies have tested the validity of Mintzberg’s role categories across different types of organizations and at different levels within given organizations. Managers need certain skills to perform the duties and activities associated with being a manager. and spokesperson are more important at the higher levels of the organization than at the lower ones. Negotiator programming of subordinates work. liaison. computers. the emphasis that managers give to the various roles seems to change with hierarchical level. Technical Skills: First-line managers. Last. human. as well as many middle managers. Publishers. For example.organizational decisions. negotiator. the roles of disseminator. Technical skills include knowledge of and proficiency in a certain specialized field. negotiations. However. Katz found that managers need three essential skills or competencies: technical. managers perform as negotiators when they discuss and bargain with other groups to gain advantages for their own units. As entrepreneurs. Managerial Skills As you can see from the preceding discussion. such as engineering. He also found that the relative importance of these skills varied according to the manager’s level within the organization. Inc. physical and monetary resources. an accounts payable manager must be proficient in accounting rules and standardized . Responsible for representing Participating in union the organization at major contract negotiations. research by Robert L. Conversely. are heavily involved in technical aspects of the organization’s operations. During the early 1970. managers are responsible for allocating human. managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization’s performance. As resource allocators. The evidence generally supports the idea that managers – regardless of the type of organization or level in the organization-perform similar roles. As disturbance handlers. 1973). Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row. The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper & Row. figurehead. Source: Henry Mintzberg. pp 93-94 Copyright Ó 1973 by Hency Mintzberg. Mintzberg identified four decisional roles which revolve around the making of choices. a manager’s job is varied and complex. the leader role is more important for lowerlevel managers than it is for either middle-or-top-level managers. managers take corrective action in response to previously unforeseen problems. Decisional Roles: Finally. Specifically. finance. and conceptual. or manufacturing.
7 Administration and Management The use of two terms ‘management’ and ‘administration’ has been a controversial issue in the management literature. iii) There is no distinction between the terms ‘management’ and ‘administration’ and they are used interchangeably. Some writers do not see any difference between the two terms. and all managers are involved in making decisions. They know how to communicate. motivate. 1. These abilities are essential to effective decision-making. But some English authors like Brech are of the opinion that management is a wider term including administration. Conceptual Skills: Managers also must have the ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract situations. while others maintain that administration and management are two different functions. Managers with good human skills can get the best out of their people. According to them. management is a lower-level function and is concerned primarily with the execution of policies laid down by administration. it remains just as important at the top levels of management as it is at the lower levels. They must be able to see the organization as a whole and the relationships among its various subunits and to visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment. Human Skills: The ability to work well with other people both individually and in a group is a human skill. this skill is crucial. Although technical skills become less important as manager moves into higher levels of management. Spriegal and Lansburg. ii) Management is a generic term and includes administration. lead. administration is a higher level function. Floerence and Tead. etc. Administration is a higher level function: . Those who held management and administration distinct include Oliver Sheldon. Since managers deal directly with people. and inspire enthusiasm and trust. Thus. even top managers need some proficiency in the organization’s speciality. In fact.forms so that she can resolve problems and answer questions that her accounts payable clerks might encounter. This controversy is discussed as under in three heads: i) Administration is concerned with the determination of policies and management with the implementation of policies. These types of conceptual skills are needed by all managers at all levels but become more important as they move up the organizational hierarchy.
7. 4. making strategic plans to deal plans and policies of the effectively with the organisation.. Status Administration refers to Management is relevant higher levels of management. Environment Administration has direct Management is mainly interaction with external concerned with internal environment of business and forces. of the organisation. i. objectives. This view is held by Tead. policies.Administration refers to policy-making. whereas management refers to execution of policies laid down by administration. It thinking function. Usage of Term The term ‘administration’ is The term ‘management’ is often associated with widely used in business . Managers are Administrators are basically concerned mainly with concerned with planning and organisation and direction control. Scope It is concerned with It is concerned with the determination of major implementation of objectives and policies. Administration is the phase of business enterprise that concerns itself with the overall determination of institutional objectives and the policies necessary to be followed in achieving those objectives. administration involves broad policy-making and management involves the execution of policies laid down by the administration. 8. 6. Thus. on the other hand. operative workforce for the execution of plans. Table 1. 3. at lower levels of management.2: Distinction between Administration and Management: Basic 1. environmental forces. management as an executive function which is primarily concerned with carrying out of the broad policies laid down by the administration. Nature Administration relates to the Management relates to decision-making. Spriegel and Walter.Administration determines Management decides who Making what is to be done and when shall implement the it is to be done.e. 2. Direction of It is concerned with leading It is concerned with Human Resources and motivation of middle leading and motivation of level executives. 5. Meaning Administration Management Administration is concerned Management means with the formulation of getting the work done objectives. administrative decisions. Decision. is a doing function. plans and policies through and with others. It is a execution of decisions. of human resources. Administration is a determinative function.
Management creates ________ and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. There are three levels of management-top. Management 2. Define management. It is the management which transforms physical resources of an organization into productive resources. teamwork . Management is largely found at the middle and lower levels and administration is found at the higher levels. Still management is not completely a profession. public organisations sector and non-business private sector. motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective. Human skills are important at all managerial levels. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. 3. _________. ___________. organisations. __________is principally the task of planning.government offices. Five M’s of management (________. 1.8 Summary Management is concerned with getting things done through other people. middle and lower. 3. Discuss the importance of management. manpower 3. Managers perform different roles to discharge their responsibilities. 2.9 Terminal Questions 1. co-ordinating. materials. Self Assessment Questions in the 1. Lower level managers require and use a greater degree of technical skill and managers at higher levels use a greater degree of conceptual skill. Bring out the difference between Administration and Management. counseling and effective leadership. Explain its characteristics. 1. 1. Money.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. 2.
4 Organizing 2.1 Introduction Objectives 2.3 2.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs . Refer section 1.3 Planning 2.9 Terminal Questions 2.7 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer section 1.7 Motivating Self Assessment Questions 2.2 Process of Management 2.2.Answers to TQs: 1.8 Summary 2.1. Refer section 1.5 3.5 Staffing 2. MU0004-Unit-02-Management Process Unit-02-Management Process Structure: 2.6 Directing 2.
1949): 1. Even .1 Introduction Follett (1933) defined management as "the art of getting things done through people”. Coordinating 5. the two are not quite the same. management functions have been regrouped into four categories. There is a degree of overlap between the two. in recent time. Management functions are as follows (Fayol. Planning 2. Through leadership and management often overlap. Objectives: After this studying this unit. · Explain Planning. leadership is doing the right things“. you will be able to: · Define Management process. as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan. Staffing. Directing.2 Management Process Peter Drucker said: “Management is doing things right. Organizing. Motivating. Organizing 3. One can also think of management functionally. Controlling However. · Explain different functions of management Process. Management is about accomplishing a goal efficiently.2. Commanding 4. 2. Policy Formulation We have noted earlier that all organizations have well-defined goals and objectives. You might well ask what the need for a policy is when objectives are already defined. leadership is about setting the desirable goals. It is difficult to say where objectives end and policies begin. since the managerial tasks have become highly challenging a fluid in nature making distinctions redundant to certain extent.
establishing strategies for achieving these goals. say a passenger car. what distinguishers policies form objectives is that you first decide the objective. thus. All levels of management engage in planning in their own way for achieving their preset goals. and then set out the method for achieving it. fuel and machine efficiency. it is not a decision in which any process is involved. overall goals. 2. Therefore. planning is often referred to as strategic in nature and also termed as strategic planning. Effective planning enables an organization adapt to change by identifying opportunities and avoiding problems. The mission statement is broad. summarizing what the organization does. Thus. A mission statement should be short – and should be easily understood and every employee should ideally be able to narrate it from memory. and allocating resources. The tasks of the strategic planning process include the following steps: Define the mission: A mission is the purpose of the organization.3 Planning It involves the process of defining goals. Planning in order to be useful must be linked to the strategic intent of an organization. Planning also enhances the decisionmaking process. Decision – Making Taking decisions is a process. In the football field. a process in which one chooses a course which one thinks is the best. studies on passenger comfort. while a policy. policies are the means to achieve those ends. general strategies. However. Strategic Planning: Top level managers engage chiefly in strategic planning or long range planning Strategic planning is the process of developing and analyzing the organization’s mission. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. the decision to change the design of a product. kicking the ball with the left foot or right foot is a reflex action. is an enduring decision which holds good on a continuing basis to guide the members of the organization in doing what they are called upon to do. driving comfort. An explicit mission guides employees to work independently and yet collectively toward the realization of the organization’s potential.so. should precede a good deal of research involving market surveys. planning begins with clearly defining the mission of the organization. cost structure and so on. or where you want go to. The mission statement may be accompanied by an overarching . Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. It provides the direction for the other functions of management and for effective teamwork. it would be correct to assume that an objective is what you want to accomplish. Objectives are the ends.
Threats) analysis is vital for the creation of any strategic plan. For assessing the strengths of the organization the following questions are important: 1. and trade). professional or trade associations (conventions and exhibitions). professional. What is our market share? 5. In which areas is the competition not meeting customer needs? 2. Organizations need to examine their business situation in order to map out the opportunities and threats present in their environments. Analyzing strengths and weaknesses comprises the internal assessment of the organization. SWOT analysis provides the assumptions and facts on which a plan will be based. The SWOT analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. international). customers (internal and external). How skilled is our workforce? 4.statement of philosophy or strategic purpose designed to convey a vision for the future as envisaged by top management. suppliers. What makes the organization distinctive? 2. Conduct a situational or SWOT analysis A situation or SWOT (Strengths. Sources of information may include stakeholders like. Opportunities. How efficient is our manufacturing? 3. Weaknesses. What are the vulnerable areas of the organization that could be exploited? 2. federal. Are the facilities outdated? 3. What financing is available? 6. What are the possible new markets? . Is research and development adequate? 4. state. Do we have a superior reputation? For assessing the weaknesses of the organization the following questions are important: 1. governments (local. journals and reports (scientific. Are the technologies obsolete? For identifying opportunities the following elements need to be looked at: 1.
It also helps in setting minimum acceptable standards or common-sense minimums. Develop related strategies (tactical and operational) Tactical plans are based on the organization’s strategic plan.3. They are aligned with the mission and form the basis for the action plans of an organization. What are the emerging technologies? 6. as well as gap analysis. Are market tastes changing? 5. Is there a possibility of growth of existing market?) Identifying threats involves the following: 1. What are the new regulations? 6. the best strategy is one that fits the organization’s strengths to opportunities in the environment. Are our rivals weak? 5. return on investment. The SWOT analysis is used as a baseline for future improvement. These are specific plans that are needed for each task or supportive activity comprising the whole. operational plans are based on the organization’s tactical plans. effectiveness. What substitute products exist? In general terms. What is the strength of the economy? 4. Strategic. earnings per share. In which areas does the competition meet customer needs more effectively? 2. etc. organizations have longterm objectives for factors such as. Set goals and objectives Strategic goals and objectives are developed to fill the gap between current capability and the mission. Generally. tactical. Comparing the organization to external benchmarks (the best practices) is used to assess current capabilities. Benchmarking systematically compares performance measures such as efficiency. Are there new competitors? 3. In turn. or outcomes of an organization against similar measures from other internal or external organizations. Is there a shortage of resources? 4. Objectives are also called performance goals. and operational planning .
It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. An organization chart displays the organizational structure and shows job titles. structuring. Review plans 2. 2.must be accompanied by controls to ensure proper implantation of the plans.5 Staffing . Divide tasks into groups one person can accomplish – a job 4. and where decisions are to be made. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. and coordinated. Assign work to individuals 6. and goals are clearly stated. It is the extent to which the units of the organization are explicitly defined and its policies. necessary to maintain competitive advantage in the said market. who is to do. short-term standards for key variables that will tend to validate and support the long-range estimates must be established. Formalization is an important aspect of structure. grouped. It is the official organizational structure conceived and built by top management. This review is used for the next planning cycle and review. List all tasks to be accomplished 3. and relationships between departments. Organizational structure is the formal decision-making framework by which job tasks are divided. Monitor the plan A systematic method of monitoring the environment must be adopted to continuously improve the strategic planning process. lines of authority. procedures. Feedback is encouraged and incorporated to determine if goals and objectives are feasible. The purpose of the organizing function is to make the best use of the organization’s resources to achieve organizational goals. Organizations are groups of people. The formal organization can be seen and represented in chart form.4 Organizing It involves designing. Group related jobs together in a logical and efficient manner 5. with ideas and resources. The steps in the organizing process include: 1. A key issue in accomplishing the goals identified in the planning process is structuring the work of the organization. 2. Delegate authority to establish relationships between jobs and groups of jobs. To develop an environmental monitoring procedure. how the tasks are to be grouped. who reports to whom. working toward common goals.
Koontz. O’Donnell & Weihrich have defined staffing as “filling positions in the organization structure through identifying work force requirements. development. promotion. performance appraisal etc. It has many sub-functions: Staffing involves determination of the manpower requirement. 4. Definition: 1. placement. growth and development of all those members of the organization whose function is to get things done through the efforts of other individuals”.It is not the machines. It aims at right man at right position: Staffing aims at selection of right person for right place at right time and retaining them in the organization. Pervasiveness of Staffing: Effective execution of staffing function is the responsibility of all managers in the organization. . 2. Managers of the concerned departments are responsible for the selection and development of qualified people for their department and maintain them in their department. 2. 3. Theo Haimann – “Concerned with the placement. materials. recruitment. Deals with people: Staffing is a separate managerial function which deals with people in the organization. Therefore it is the responsibility of the management to secure and maintain competent and dedicated workforce including managers and operatives. This task has been referred to as staffing. compensation and training of needed people”. Curther Geelick Cyndall Urwick – “Staffing is the whole personnel function of brining in and training the staff and marinating of favorable conditions of work” Features of Staffing The analysis of the above definitions highlights the following features: 1. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. money. placement. selection. training. inventorying the people available. appraisal. recruitment. transfer and appraisal of personnel to fill the organizational positions. selection. transport system and other physical resources that make the organization to achieve its goals but it is the competency and efficiency of the people who handle resources contributes for the accomplishment of objectives of the enterprise. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. 3.
Direction function is performed at every level of management. Direction is an important managerial function. It is performed in the context of superior-subordinate relationship and every manager in the organization performs his duties both as a superior and subordinate. management initiates actions in the organization. Thus staffing deals with the future requirements also. Direction is continuous process and it continues throughout the life-time of the organization. overseeing and leading people. It is a continuing function. how to do and telling them to do to the best of their ability. Personnel policies and programs must be formulated as guides to perform the staffing function effectively. It is instructing people as to what to do.6 Directing Direction is one of the functions of management. 2. Through direction. Present positions must be filled keeping in mind the future requirements. motivate them. identifying the manpower requirements. Definition According to Koontz and O’Donnel. It is an important managerial function. resignation. vacancies arise out of retirement. promotion. A manger needs to give orders to his subordinates. . 8. Characteristics of Direction The characteristic features of direction are as follow: 1. selection. etc. recruitment. Thus staffing is an ongoing process through – out the life of an organization. 6.e. Direction is the managerial function of guiding. It is a continuous function: With the growth and expansion of business additional manpower is needed. lead them and guide them on a continuous basis. 7. training development and maintenance of personnel.5. 3. directing is the “interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals”. It deals with future requirements: Staffing deals with current and future personnel requirements. induction. It is a process: it is a process having a logical sequence i. 2.
the more individuality. from the basic to the complex. On the one hand. The further they progress up the hierarchy. As Theo Haimann puts it. It emphasizes that a subordinate is to be directed by his own superior only. on the other. nothing or at the best very little would be accomplished”. Theories X and Y. only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior. satisfied needs cannot. it aims at getting things done by subordinates and. Direction has dual objectives. Essence of performance: Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. 2. The needs are arranged in order of importance. Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. sex. Pervasive function: Directing is a managerial function performed by all mangers at all levels of the organization. Continuous function: Directing is a continuous process. The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. without guiding and overseeing subordinates. organizing and staffing on one hand and controlling on the other. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory According to this theory.7 Motivating Motivating In the 1950s three specific theories were formulated and are the best known: Hierarchy of Needs theory. The manager never ceases to direct. guide. and the Two-Factor theory. 5. The amount of time and effort an executive spends in directing however. The five needs are: · Physiological: Includes hunger. It is an important function of management: Directing is an important management function which provides a connecting link between planning. 4. thirst.4. and other bodily needs . coach and supervise his subordinates. proposed by Maslow (1943). 3. human beings have wants and desires which influence their behaviour. shelter. teach. Nature of Directing The nature of directing can be discussed under the following: 1. to provide superiors opportunities for some more important work which their subordinates cannot do. the number of subordinate he has and the other duties he is expected to perform. humanness and psychological health a person will show. 2. “without the issuance of directives. will vary depending upon his level. Direction imitates at the top level in the organization and follows to bottom through the hierarchy.
Higher-order needs are satisfied internally. From the above. such as. status. and attention · Self-actualization: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming. and external esteem factors. anxious to accept greater responsibility.· Safety: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm · Social: Includes affection. recognition. and self-fulfillment Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders. Workers need to be closely supervised and a comprehensive system of controls and a hierarchical structure is needed to supervise the workers closely. Theory Y – In this theory management assumes employees may be ambitious. if given the chance employees have the desire to be creative and forward thinking in the workplace. and achievement. autonomy and empowerment. Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor argued that a manager’s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and he or she tends to mould his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions. and friendship · Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors. There is a chance for greater productivity by giving employees the freedom to perform to the best of their abilities without being bogged down by rules. It is also believed that. if they can. whereas. self-respect. self-direction. and exercise self-control. belongingness. it is clear that Theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals. Theory X – In this theory management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work. self-motivated. Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. such as. Lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied. includes growth. achieving one’s potential. Physiological and safety needs are described as lower-order. autonomy. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory . Social. and self-actualization are classified as higherorder needs. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. acceptance. esteem. It is also assumed that workers generally place security above all other factors and will display little ambition. externally.
Job satisfaction factors are separate and distinct from job dissatisfaction factors. Planning involves the process of defining goals. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. advancement.8 Summary Management is the art of getting things done through people. Directing is the interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals. Motivators are intrinsic factors. emphasize factors intrinsically rewarding that are associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it. 2. To motivate people. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. how the tasks are to be grouped. and achievement. The _____analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. supervision. people will not be dissatisfied. Extrinsic factors. who reports to whom. working conditions. many related to the tasks being performed. When hygiene factors are adequate. The satisfiers relate to what a person does while the dissatisfiers relate to the situation in which the person does what he or she does. 3. In summary. _______refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. and salary are hygiene factors.Herzberg (1959) constructed a two-dimensional paradigm of factors affecting people’s attitudes about work. These two factors are motivators and hygiene factors and this theory is also called motivation-hygiene theory. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. such as. company policy. responsibility. Organization involves designing. Presence of these factors ensure job satisfaction. have to do with a person’s relationship to the context or environment in which she or he performs the job. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. recruitment. ____defined management as the art of getting things done through people. who is to do. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. recognition. and where decisions are to be made. Hygiene factors on the other hand. such as. interpersonal relations. The absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. Self Assessment Questions 1. . but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. 2. neither will they be satisfied. performance appraisal etc. structuring. motivators describe a person’s relationship with what she or he does.
Write a short not on directing. 2. SWOT 3. What is planning? 2. Follett 2. Reference 2. Explain Staffing in detail 3.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.9 Terminal Questions 1.3 2. Reference 2. Staffing Answers to TQs: 1. MU0002-Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Structure: 3.6 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .5 3. Reference 2.2.1 Introduction Objectives .
3.2 Definitions 3.3 Characteristics of OD 3.4 Categories of OD 3.5 Goals of OD 3.6 OD and Management Development 3.7 Role of OD 3.8 Problems in OD Self Assessment Questions 3.9 Summary 3.10 Terminal Questions 3.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 3.1 Introduction Organization development is the applied behavioural science discipline dedicated to improving organizations and the people in them through the use of the theory and practice of planned change. Organizations face multiple challenges and threats today – threats to effectiveness, efficiency, and profitability; challenges from turbulent environments, increased competition, and changing customer demands; and the constant challenge to maintain congruence among organizational dimensions such as technology, strategy, culture, and processes. Keeping organizations healthy and viable in today’s world is a daunting task. Individuals in organizations likewise face multiple challenges – finding satisfaction in and through work, fighting obsolescence of one’s knowledge and skills, maintaining dignity and purpose in pursuit of organizational goals, and achieving human connectedness and community in the workplace. Simple survival – continuing to have an adequate job – is a major challenge today in the light of constant layoffs and cutbacks. Although new jobs are being created at record rates, old jobs are being destroyed at an accelerating pace. “Knowledge” work is replacing “muscle” work. In summary, organizations and the individuals in them face an enormously demanding present and future. Are any strategies available to help people and organizations cope, adapt, survive, and even prosper in these vexing times? Fortunately, the answer is “yes”. A variety of solutions exists. And organization development (OD) is one of them. Basically, organization development is a
process of teaching people how to solve problems, take advantage of opportunities, and learn how to do that better and better over time. OD focuses on issues related to the “human side” of organizations by finding ways to increase the effectiveness of individuals, teams, and the organization’s human and social processes. Organization development is a relatively recent invention. It started in the late 1950s when behavioural scientists steeped in the lore and technology of group dynamics attempted to apply that knowledge to improve team functioning and inter-group relations in organizations. Early returns were encouraging, and attention was soon directed toward other human and social processes in organizations such as the design of work tasks, organization structure, conflict resolution, strategy formulation and implementation, and the like. The field of OD grew rapidly in the 1970s and the 1980s with thousands of organizations in the private and public sectors using the theory and methods of OD with great success. Today, organization development represents one of the best strategies for coping with the rampant changes occurring in the marketplace and society. We predict that organization development will be preferred improvement strategy in future. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Define organization development. · Explain the characteristics of OD. · Discuss the categories of OD programme. · State the goals of OD. · Distinguish between OD and Management Development · Explore the problems in OD. 3.2 Definitions Organization Development (OD) is a response to change, a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs, attitudes, values and structure of organization so that they can better adapt to new technologies, markets, and challenges, and the dizzying rate of change itself. (Bennis, 1969). OD can be defined as a planned and sustained effort to apply behavioural science for system improvement, using reflexive, self-analytic methods. (Schmuck and Miles, 1971)
Organizational development is a process of planned change- change of an organization’s culture from one which avoids an examination of social processes (especially decision making, planning and communication) to one which institutionalizes and legitimizes this examination. (Burke and Hornstein, 1972) The aims of OD are: 1) Enhancing congruence between organizational structure, processes, strategy, people, and culture; 2) Developing new and creative organizational solutions; and 3) Developing the organization’s self-renewing capacity (Beer, 1980). Organization development is an organizational process for understanding and improving any and all substantive processes an organization may develop for performing any task and pursuing any objectives…. A “process for improving processes” – that is what OD has basically sought to be for approximately 25 years (Vaill, 1989) “Organizational development is a set of behavioural science-based theories, values, strategies, and techniques aimed at the planned change of the organizational work setting for the purpose of enhancing individual development and improving organizational performance, through the alteration of organizational members’ on-the-job behaviours.” (Porras and Robertson, 1992) “OD is a systematic application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies, structure, and processes for improving an organization’s effectiveness.” (Cummings and Worley, 1993) “Organization development is a planned process of change in an organization’s culture through the utilization of behavioural science technologies, research, and theory.” (Burke, 1994) As you can see, these definitions overlap a great deal (that’s encouraging), and contain several unique insights (that’s enlightening). All authors agree that OD applies behavioural science to achieve planned change. Likewise, they agree that the target of change is the total organization or system and that the goals are increased organizational effectiveness and individual development. Collectively, these definitions convey a sense of what organization development is and does. They describe in broad outline the nature and methods of OD. There is no set definition of OD and no agreement on the boundaries of the field, that is, what practices should be included and excluded. But these are not serious constraints given that the field is still evolving, and that practitioners share a central core of understanding as shown in the preceding definitions.
but it includes a number of components that we consider essential. By visioning processes. or became distracted with other duties. to improve an organization’s visioning. listening. Top management must initiate the improvement “journey” and be committed to seeing it through. We will explain this definition in some detail. By empowerment processes. and self-examining processes that facilitate individual. and problem-solving processes. then another moves it to yet a higher plateau of effectiveness. One program or initiative moves the organization to a higher plateau. structure. lost its commitment. led and supported by top management. and what the organization and its members can expect from each other. it must be built into the very fabric of the organization-its strategy. For empowerment to become fact of life. Peter Senge describes learning organizations as “… organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire.Now let’s turn to our definition of organization development. collaborative management of organization culture-with special emphasis on the culture of intact work teams and other team configurations-using the consultantfacilitator role and the theory and technology of applied behavioural science. By empowerment. By learning processes. where . empowerment.several years in most cases. Most OD programs that fail do so because top management was ambivalent. including action research. serious business. and culture. the ways those goods will be produced and delivered to customers. learning. and organizational learning. it includes pain and setbacks as well as success.” This definition is lengthy. it is more accurate to describe “improvement” as a never-ending journey of continuous change. and shared picture of the nature of the products and services the organization offers. “Organization development is a long-term effort. through an ongoing. We do not propose it as the “right” definition. we mean those leadership behaviours and human resource practices that enable organization members to develop and use their talents as fully as possible toward individual growth and organizational success. but as one that includes characteristics we think are important for the present and future of the field. team. Organizational change is hard. we mean that organizational change and development takes time. The phrase led and supported by top management states an imperative: Top management must lead and actively encourage the change effort. we mean those interacting. we mean involving large numbers of people in building the vision of tomorrow. In fact. Visioning means creating a picture of the desired future that includes salient features of the human side of the organization and then working together to make that picture a reality. There is no “quick fix” when it comes to lasting organizational improvement. and making it happen. processes. we mean those processes through which organization members develop a viable. where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured. By long-term effort. developing the strategy for getting there. coherent.
solve problems. (d) that has worked well enough to be considered valid and. learning. Edgar Schein clarifies the nature and power of culture in his definition: “Culture can now be defined as (a) a pattern of basic assumptions. discovered. we affirm our belief that culture is the bedrock of behaviour in organizations. and feel-that is why culture change is necessary for true organizational improvement. and norms of behaviour that are viewed as the correct way to perceive. Collaborative management of the culture means that everyone. attitudes. widely shared vision of a desired future creates the best climate for effective problem-solving by all the organization’s members. that one of the most important things to manage in organizations is the culture: the prevailing pattern of values. make decisions. empowerment. not just a small group. (c) as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. and take actions on problems. empowerment. learning. By including culture so prominently in our definition. Our definition also places considerable weight on organizational processes. first. beliefs. And second.” Problem-solving processes refer to the ways organization members diagnose situations. But change becomes permanent when the culture changes and people accept the new ways as the “right” ways. assumptions. and where people are continually learning how to learn together.collective aspiration is set free. opportunities. We believe solutions to problems are enhanced by tapping deeply into the creativity. Empowerment means involving people in problems and decisions and letting them be responsible for results. so is managing the culture. and we highlight the importance of visioning. and challenges in the organization’s environment and its internal functioning. The reciprocal influence among culture. We further believe that having compelling. norms. in contrast to having only a select few involved. and artifacts. . think. Processes are relatively easy to change. Michael Beer’s definition called for “developing new and creative organizational solutions”. and feel in relation to those problems. We believe that when the culture promotes collaboration. and common purposes of all members of the organization. values. strategy. think. managing the culture should be a collaborative business. interactions. Processes are how things get done. and continuous learning the organization is bound to succeed. vitality. culture is of primary importance. empowerment. so they are the place OD programs often begin – getting people to stop doing things one way and start doing them a different way. one of wide-spread participation in creating and managing a culture that satisfies that wants and needs of individuals at the same time that it fosters the organization’s purposes. expectations. structure. commitment. By ongoing collaborative management of the organization’s culture. Just as visioning. we mean. has a stake in making the organization work. or developed by a given group. therefore (e) is to be taught to new members as the (f) correct way to perceive. sentiments. (b) invented. and each influences the others. and processes makes each important. activities. and problem-solving processes. Still. and problem-solving processes are opportunities for collaboration in organization development. So culture consists of basic assumptions.
To summarize. In Liberation Management. In addition to team building and role and goal clarification. Over time. When one function finished with its part of the project. The current method for getting complex tasks done in organizations is to assemble a cross-functional team comprised of members from all the functional specialities required to get the job done. The results are usually highly gratifying both for the team members and for the organization. But in many organizations today. the process “threw the results over the wall” to the next functional unit. We think teams are the basic building blocks of organizations. OD encourages collaboration between organization leaders and members in managing culture and processes. The definition we have just analyzed contains the elements we believe are important for OD. The thesis of Liberation Management is that contemporary bureaucratic structures with their functional specialties and rigid hierarchies are all wrong for the demands of today’s fast-paced market place. and training. maintaining quality control. much rework. Team building and role and goal clarification interventions are standard activities in OD programs directed toward intact work teams. according to Peters. He uses the terms ‘multifunctional projectization’ and ‘horizontal systems’ to describe these teams and their work. and using management information. When teams function well. here are the primary distinguishing characteristics of organization development: 1. intact work teams do not have a boss in the traditional sense-the teams manage themselves.By intact work teams and other configurations. The most prevalent form of teams in organizations is intact work teams consisting of superior and subordinates with a specific job to perform. Temporary. Tom Peters predicts that the work of tomorrow (most of which will be “brain work”) will be done by ad hoc teams brought together to accomplish a task. multifunctional. and procurement. These self-directed teams assume complete responsibility for planning and executing work assignments. engineering. manufacturing. Today’s organizations increasingly use ad hoc teams that perform a specific task and disband when the task is completed. hiring. . team culture can be collaboratively managed to ensure effectiveness. Further. we recognize that teams are central to accomplishing work in organizations. 2. The old method was to have functional specialists work on the problem sequentially. such as design. individuals and the organization function well. This method resulted in loss of synergy. wasted time. firing. constantly shifting teams will be the dominant configuration for getting work done. Specifically. and considerable antagonism among the separate functional specialists. self-directed teams control performance appraisals. OD focuses on culture and processes. members are trained in competencies such as planning. and then disbanded with the people going on to new tasks.
Teams of all kinds are particularly important for accomplishing tasks and are targets for OD activities. Comprehensive Change: OD efforts focus on comprehensive change in the organization. The concept of comprehensive change is based on the systems concept-open. It recognizes that organizational goals change. collaborators. Planned Change: OD is a strategy of planned change for organizational improvement. they are ongoing. dynamic and adaptive system. 6. Thus. 5. Dynamic Process: OD is a dynamic process and includes the efforts to guide and direct changes as well as to cope with or adapt changes imposed. 8. This ‘planned’ emphasis separates OD efforts from other kinds of more haphazard changes that are frequently undertaken by organizations. Rather. OD focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. rather. OD efforts take an organization as an interrelated whole and no part of it can be changed meaningfully without making corresponding changes in other parts. and co-learners with the client system. 7. so that change is easily observed. OD views organization improvement as an ongoing process in the context of a constantly changing environment. OD focuses on total system change and views organizations as complex social systems. 4. 9. OD relies on an action research model with extensive participation by client system members. so the methods of attaining these goals should also change. 10. and cyclic processes. 3.3 Characteristics of OD 1. . or isolated problems. rather than focusing attention on individuals. Attempting to create “win-win” solutions is standard practice in OD programs. Long-range Change: OD efforts are not meant for solving short-term. OD focuses on the elevation of an organization to a higher level of functioning by improving the performance and satisfaction.3. OD efforts are not one-shot actions. interactive. 3. Participation and involvement in problem-solving and decision-making by all levels of the organization are hallmarks of OD. OD takes a developmental view that seeks the betterment of both individuals and the organization. 4. temporary. An overarching goal is to make the client system able to solve its problems on its own by teaching the skills and knowledge of continuous learning through self-analytical methods. 2. OD practitioners are facilitators.
growth. He shares a social philosophy about human values. Although Organization Development Programmes vary. first.5. Emphasis on Intervention and Action Research: OD approach results in an active intervention in the ongoing activities of the organization. Action research is the basis for such intervention. There is a close working relationship between the change agent and the target organizational members to be changed. Key areas are the normative type of model. joint goals and means. participation. rather. takes actions for intervention. They discourage ‘do it yourself’ approach. OD attempts to provide opportunities to be ‘human’ and to increase awareness. 6.4 Categories of OD Programmes In general. . and mutual influence. it is a programme with a purpose that is to guide present and future action. 3. This is done to arrive at certain desirable outcomes that may be in the form of increased effectiveness. collects relevant data. Normative Educational Process: OD is based on the principle that ‘norms form the basis for behaviour and change is a re-educative process of replacing old norms by new ones’. second. identity. evaluates these data. and revitalization. and adaptability for the organization as a whole. all types of experience requiring Organization Development efforts may be grouped into three categories: (a) Problems of destiny. practitioners and the client laymen. The relationship involves mutual trust. (b) The interventions are primarily directed towards problems and issues identified by the client group. He designs intervention strategies based on these data. and (c) Problems of organizational effectiveness. and then. Two important elements of Organization Development are. At the individual level. yet following features are common to most of the programmes: (a) The client is a total system or major subunit of total system. (b) Problems of human satisfaction and development. 7. further more. the collaborative relationships between the scientists. he conducts surveys. the element which links Organization Development with the scientific method of inquiry and. the importance and centrality of goals and objectives and the different role requirements of the consultant change agent vis-à-vis the clients. The change agent is a humanist seeking to get a humanistic philosophy in the organization. A change agent in OD process does not just introspect the people and introduce changes. third party change agent. and integrate individual and organizational goals. problem-solving. Participation of Change Agent: Most OD experts emphasize the need for an outside. or catalyst. Organization Development is inextricably linked with action.
problem solving climate throughout an organization. (j) To improve effectiveness of the organization. (d) To build trust among persons and groups throughout an organization. 3. 3. (b) To supplement the authority associated with role or status. (h) To help managers to manage according to relevant objectives rather than according to past practices or according to objectives which do not make sense for one’s area of responsibility. (g) To increase the sense of ‘ownership’ or organization’s objectives throughout the work force. We need to examine carefully the techniques of Organization Development. its underlying theory and assumptions and some of the pitfall and challenges in attempting to improve organizations through behavioural science. (e) To make competition more relevant to work goals and to maximize collaborative efforts. with the authority of knowledge and competence. (f) To develop a reward system which recognizes both the achievement of the organization’s goals (profit or service) and development of people.6 OD and Management Development .5 Goals of Organization Development Following are the generally accepted goals of OD: (a) To create an open. should begin with a clear-cut statement of specific objectives and criteria for determining if these objectives have been met from the stand point of the employee/employees simply as team member or for the total group. (i) To increase self-control and self-direction for people within the organization. like other normative re-educative programmes. This Organization Development progrmmes. (c) To locate decision making and problem-solving responsibilities as close to sources of information as possible.(c) The interventions are directed towards problem-solving and improved functioning for the client system. and (d) The interventions are based on behavioural science theory and technology.
organization. OD tries to fit the organization to the men. (iii) assertiveness. he appears to be biased against OD and the real distinction between OD and MD lies in between these two extremes. Miner has drawn difference between two processes. Focus . However. focus on achieving better in existing improvement in design. Difference between Management Development and OD Factors Objectives Management Development Organization Development Increasing manager’s Changing the nature of the contributions to goal organization. more attention to peer-groups. These are: (i) a positive attitude towards authority. have substantial influence in changing the capacity of the individual to perform his assignment better and in so doing are likely to increase his potential for future management assignment. whereas OD efforts within organizations may cause confusion and chaos for incoming human resources if the organization is underplayed and the humanistic dimension alone is emphasized. MD tries to fit the men to the organization. He feels that management development reinforces the above four qualities and helps managers cultivate and develop the will to manage. While the latter aims at developing the mangers individually for the accomplishment of better performance in organizational setting. then would the results be functional for managing organization activity in a competitive world? Thus. (ii) competitiveness. Before making a comparison between the two. If OD efforts train people towards anti-authority value. Based on this. and greater display of feelings and emotions. not on the and managers to perform managers. the former goes one step further and purports to change the entire organizational climate where the mangers work. there are four attributes of effective managers in large organization.” Organization development differs from management development. The term ‘development’ refers broadly to the nature and direction of change induced in personnel through the process of training and education. Burke and Schmidt have made this difference more clear which is presented in the following table. less individual competitiveness. let us define management development as we have seen the definition of OD. accomplishments. management development has been defined as follows: “Management development is all those activities and programmes when recognized and controlled. and techniques adopted in both may overlap to some extent. with their existing objectives and structure. and (iv) a sense of responsibility. Train and equip employees Focus on design. it is beneficial to make a comparison between OD and Management Development (MD) as both have some common objectives that betterment of an organization. According to him.At this stage. according to him.
it is quite suitable for improving organizational performance on long-term basis. Long-range strategy for organizational innovation and renewal.8 Problems in Organization Development Organization development. Specialist No special requirement. Problem-solving approach. 7. 2. 3. To increase the level of enthusiasms and personal satisfaction at all levels of the organization. 5. Research studies have also failed to conclude . however.7 Role of Organization Development Organization development. plays key role in organizational improvement.Approach Time Educative and training Short-range. horizontally. and laterally. To treat each human being as a complex person with a complex set of needs important in his work and his life. To place emphasis on humanistic values and goals consistent with these vales. OD became quite successful with many professional consultants offering high services and programmes to various organizations. confrontation techniques. etc. The basic problem in a change effort which is not comprehensive is that it does not work properly unless there is a proper change in the internal environment of the organization in which people work. 3. Much of the enthusiasm created at the beginning of OD programmes vanished over the period of time. To increase the level of self and group responsibility in planning and its implementation. Thus. has invited sharp criticism as a strategy to increase organizational viability and effectiveness because many OD programmes have failed. By 70s. 6. To increase the level of trust and mutual emotional support among all organization members. however. substantial disenchantment with OD became evident because of many controversial OD techniques like sensitivity training. To create an environment in which authority of assigned role is augmented by authority based on knowledge and skills. OD can be utilized for the following results in the organization: 1. 3. In early 60s. 4. as a long-term strategy for organizational change. Since OD attempts to bring comprehensive change in the organization. Trained specialists required. To increase the openness of communications in all directions-vertically.
3. some specific efforts are required. particularly in bottom-line ones. Therefore. OD fails to motivate people with low level of achievement needs. OD is criticized on the following lines: 1. There should be proper use of OD interventions. 5. If an organization is laden with these people. Therefore.significant contributions of OD in all organizations. In general. it fails even as a long-term strategy. Evans has identified three factors which have been responsible for the failure of OD programmes: (i) failure of the management consultant group to correctly tailor the programme to actual needs of the organization. Enough time should be allowed so that the effects of OD programme are realized. 2. 5. OD can not be taken as panacea for curing all organizational problems. OD tries to achieve ideal without taking into account real. 3. For example. There is discrepancy between ideal and real situations. . it can be visualized that OD itself may not be dysfunctional but application may be. Hence. and only large organizations can afford this luxury without any guarantee of positive outcome. Only fully competent OD consultant should be pressed for the service and he should develop understanding with internal change agents. Some of these efforts are as follows: 1. it is useless to try OD. People realized its dysfunctional aspects only when many OD efforts failed. and (iii) failure to increase employee motivation through participation and development of personal growth and self-esteem. it may be emphasized that OD programmes are likely to fail when these are not programmes and hence failure. in order to make best use of OD efforts. These should be based on the specific needs of the organization. Resistance to change is a natural phenomenon and OD puts undue pressure to change. Thus. Organization must formulate the objectives of OD programme very clearly and specifically. 4. It can be seen that many of these criticisms are based on reality and experience. and (ii) failure to correctly model appropriate personnel behaviour in the programme. 2. There should be genuine support of OD programme from top management. OD makes people unfit for the real organizations world because no organization can fully adopt open system concept. However. OD programmes are often quite costly. 4.
10 Terminal Questions 1. What are the problems involved in the implementation of OD? 3. Organization development should be led and supported by –––––––. Tom Peters 3. It focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. 3. Top management 2. 3.Self Assessment Questions 1. 2. State the various roles of OD. Explain the various characteristics of OD. _____________is a short-term strategy. collaborative. ––––––– is associated with “Liberation Management”. Distinguish between ‘organizational development’ and ‘management development’. But OD aims at changing the entire organizational climate where the managers work. Who is associated with the “Learning Organizations”? 5. Explain its salient features. 3.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. There is no ‘quick fix’ to organizations’ problems. Empowerment . 3. 5. 4. OD is the ultimate remedy for organizational improvements and developments. 4. ––––––––– is a process which includes leadership behaviours and human resource practices. 2. Management development aims at developing the managers individually.9 Summary The definitions clarify the distinctive features of OD and suggest why it is such a powerful change strategy. The participative. OD focuses on culture and processes. problem-focused ‘nature of OD’ marshals the experience and expertise of organization members for problem-solving and capitalizes the opportunities in the organization. Define OD.
5 Leadership Development 4. Refer section 3. Refer section 3.2 Survey Feedback 4.6 Team-building .4 Grid Training 4. Refer section 3. MU0002-Unit-04.7 5.Organization Development – Interventions Structure: 4. Refer section 3.1 Introduction Objectives 4. Management development Answers to TQs: 1. Peter Senge 5. Refer section 3.Organization Development – Interventions Unit-04.3 Process Consultation 4.2 2.3 3.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .4.6 4.
many of them visualize data gathering as an intervention whereas it is treated as only preparatory work for OD by others. French and Bell have defined OD intervention as: “Sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage with a task or a sequence of tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvement. People’s behaviour may be relevant to understand at individual level.1 Introduction OD interventions refer to various activities which a consultant and client organization perform for improving organizational performance through enabling organizational members better manage their behaviour. inter-group level. Further.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 4. they make things happen. This classification of OD interventions is very comprehensive and many activities do not strictly form the part of OD as process of organizational improvement but other methods of improving the performance of the organization. various consultants and practitioners have different opinions about the activities which can be included in interventions. such a classification of interventions may not put them into mutually exclusive categories as a particular intervention may be applied at more than one level.9 Role of Change Agents Self Assessment Questions 4. group level. interpersonal level. process consultation.10 Summary 4. Nevertheless. For example. Interventions constitute the action thrust of organization development. management grid. Thus. interventions may be required to change people at all these levels.4. team-building. and organizational level. the classification of OD interventions shows variation. education and training. inter-group activities.7 Inter Group Development 4.8 Change Agents 4.” There are various OD interventions and they are classified in different ways. work group.11 Terminal Questions 4. techno-structural activities. Therefore. mediation and negotiation activities. However. and organizational culture. French and Bell have suggested twelve families of OD interventions: diagnostic. the classification appears to be more relevant because it may specify the . A meaningful classification of OD interventions may be based on the improvement in the behaviour of people in the organization as OD is basically a behavioural approach. survey feedback.
The basic objectives of survey feedback are as follows: 1. · Describe process consultation.building. Though some type of survey method was prevalent in various organizations earlier. 1. ISR has prepared a questionnaire which includes questions on leadership – managerial support. Process of Survey Feedback Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection. peer support. and survey feedback method. Data Collection: The first step in survey feedback is data collection usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. To assist the organization in diagnosing its problems and developing action plan for problemsolving. you will be able to: · Describe survey feedback. 4. · Realize the importance of team-building. 2. · Role of change agents. grid training. and participative goal-setting which has become more popular as management by objectives. team. peer work facilitation. Subsequently. . the other major thrust in the development of OD has come from survey research and feedback of data.range of change that an organization requires. Objectives: After studying this unit. developing action plans based on feedback.2 Survey Feedback Besides laboratory training (sensitivity and grid). USA developed a comprehensive questionnaire for conducting survey in different aspects of an organization. · Explain grid training. To assist the group members to improve the relationships through discussion of common problems. other techniques like process consultation. OD efforts were attempted through sensitivity training. and follow up. Historically. managerial work facilitation. The questionnaire may include different aspects of organizational functioning. and peer interaction facilitation. feedback of information. have been added. peer goal emphasis. managerial goal emphasis. Our further discussion follows this development. Institute for Social Research (ISR) of University of Michigan.
It generates great amount of information efficiently and quickly which can be used in solving problems faced by the organization and its members. all attempts to diagnose the problems will be abortive and futile. and satisfaction-satisfaction with the company. effectiveness of survey feedback depends on two factors. The feedback may be given either orally or in a written form. data are classified. However. First. it is of no use unless follow-up action is taken based on the . co-ordination between departments. satisfaction with the job. decision-making. In oral system of feedback. threatening and emotion-hurting as survey feedback is aimed at identifying weaknesses which must be overcome through follow-up actions and not the fault-finding technique for criticism. by the consultant. and analysis is made to arrive at some meaningful conclusions. Decision-making and problem-solving abilities of organization can be improved tremendously because this approach applies the competence and knowledge throughout the organization and the problems faced by it.organizational climate-communication with the company. 2. 2. tabulated. it is provided through group discussion or problem-solving sessions conducted by the consultant. it should be constructive and suggestive. Evaluation of Survey Feedback Survey feedback provides a base for many managerial actions which has been confirmed by various research studies. and satisfaction with the work group. satisfaction with the supervisor. control within the company. rather. feedback is given to the persons who have participated in the fulfilling up of questionnaire. follow-up action may be in the form of developing some specific OD interventions particularly process consultation and team-building. and general management. It is cost-effective means of implementing a comprehensive OD programme making it a highly desirable technique. The questionnaire is administered personally either by the members of consulting firm or by organization’s personnel. even if valid and reliable information is collected. feedback may be given in the form of a written summary of findings. satisfaction with the pay. If it is biased. survey feedback contributes in the following manner: 1. In particular. motivation. One such follow-up action may be to advise the participants to develop their own action plans to overcome the problems revealed through a feedback or as is more commonly the case. Feedback of Information: After the data are analyzed. 3. Second. Whatever the method of giving feedback is adopted. After the questionnaires are completed. Follow-up Action: Survey feedback programme is not meaningful unless some follow-up action is taken based on the data collected. questionnaire used and method adopted for its administration should be reliable and valid. 3. Alternatively.
understand. .C programme of OD. 4. roles and functions of group members. spelled out at the initial stage. 1. 4.C are communicated to them with a view that they co-operate with the consultant. At this stage. etc. A survey feedback is not a technique in itself for change. the consultant is introduced to the organizational members and basic objectives of the P. client and consultant enter into agreement covering various aspects of consultancy services like fees. and inter-group co-operation and conflicts. and interview about the problems. time. Steps in Process Consultation Schein has suggested following specific steps which the consultant would follow in a P. To bring desired change in the various organizational processes like leadership. 3. Initiate Contact: This is beginning stage of P.C are as follows: 1. observations. 2. To understand how various organizational processes can be linked to objective achievement in the organization. Information collected is processed to diagnose the problems and their underlying causes.C is that the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events.C has defined it as follows: “The set of activities on the part of the consultant which help the client to perceive.” The basic objectives of P.C) is a technique for intervening in an ongoing system.C in which the client makes initial contact with the consultant with a view to solve the problems faced by the organization which cannot be solved by existing processes or resources.3 Process Consultation Process Consultation (P. group decision-making and problemsolving. the client’s expectations and hoped-for results are also decided. group norms. Gather Data and Make a Diagnosis: Information is collected from various sources thorough the use of questionnaires. and act upon the process events which occur in the client’s environment.information. The basic content of P. At this stage. Edgar Schein. communication. the leading writer and consultant on P. Select the Setting and the Method: It involves a clear-cut understanding of where and how the consultant will do the job that is required. Define the Relationship: At this stage. 2. and spelling out services. This data gathering occurs simultaneously with the entire consultative process. it provides base for action for change.
To evaluate the styles of leadership and techniques of participation to produce desirable results. However. It utilizes a considerable number of instruments. feedback. It is a comprehensive and systematic OD programme which aims at individuals. The whole orientation is to develop managerial style through the application of behavioural science knowledge. groups. P. From this point of view. To understand the importance and rationale of systematic change. and total organizational levels. inter-group. Though he is involved only in suggesting the various changes in the processes. The grid organization development consists of six phases. enabling individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. like other OD intervention techniques. and the organization as a whole. both these problems may be overcome by engaging a suitable consultant and developing willingness among the members for change. Process of Grid Training The basic content of grid organization development is managerial grid as discussed. Intervene: At this stage. . and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. Evaluation of Process Consultation: Process consultation is quite in-depth activity of OD in which the consultant plays a major role. 2. Reduce Involvement and Terminate: When the work of P. knowledge.C is completed. P. the consultant intervenes in the organizational processes by using different interventions like agenda-setting.4 Grid Training Grid training is basically based on grid organization development developed by Blake and Mouton. coaching. In the review of various P. To study the organization as an interactive system and apply techniques of analysis in diagnosing its problems. group. Its specific objectives are as follows: 1.5. Another problem may emerge at the level of the organization and its members in terms of how they inculcate the new processes and culture as suggested by the consultant. However. focuses on skills. 6. 3. 4.C programmes.C is also not free from criticisms.C is very effective intervention for organizational improvement. significant correlation between the outcomes has not been found. the consultant disengages from the client organization by mutual agreement but leaves the door open for future involvement. and/or structural change. One basic reason for this phenomenon may be the consultant’s inability to steer the organization out of troubles. he assists the organizational members to incorporate those changes.
In this light. Further.” In a later work.5 Leadership Development . Though research studies on the application of grid training are not many. Teamwork Development: The focus in this stage is to develop teamwork by analyzing team culture. they maintained the same stand. it discounts reality. grid training is a non-rigorous method. Managerial grid: It covers various aspects of assessing managerial styles. Implementing the Ideal Strategic Model: The implementation stage includes the building of the organization on the model of ideal organization on the basis of concepts developed under stage 4. 3. traditions. and alike. objective-setting. communication skills. Grid training programme is criticized on the basis that it lacks contingency approach and. The analysis will bring out the shortcomings that may be there. Each group separately analyses the ideal inter-group relations. The individuals try to learn to become managers by practice. the focus is on inter-group behaviour and relations. 6. Action steps to move towards the ideal are developed and assigned to individuals who may be engaged in building co-operative inter-group relationships. The strategy is then implemented. 2. The action is designed to identify the characteristics of the ideal organization. problem-solving. the various programmes may be redesigned. The thrust is on moving groups from conflict to co-operation. Furthermore.1. Systematic Critique: In this stage. Developing Ideal Strategic Corporate Model: At this stage. Inter-group Development: At this phase. Evaluation of Grid Training Most of the support of grid training has come from its originators-Blake and Mouton. 4. They have maintained that “managerial and team effectiveness can be taught to managers with outside assistance. in spite of these criticisms. some of them have not supported the claims made by Blake and Mouton. The skills relating to planning. it appears that this type of educational strategy can help to make significant contributions to organizational effectiveness. Each group may be given assignment to evolve strategy for making ideal organization with the help of the consultant. the focus shifts to the total organization and to develop skills necessary for organizational excellence. The members of the organization are trained for achieving this excellence. grid training has some positive contributions for organizational effectiveness. and problemsolving are also developed. 5. therefore. the various efforts from phase 1 to phase 5 are evaluated and critical analysis is made. 4. and teamwork.
When change is imposed (as in downsizing scenarios).” A possible reason for this phenomenon is that people in the organization work in groups (teams) and the effectiveness of these groups ultimately determine organizational effectiveness. Poor leadership means an absence of hope. and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. have no faith in the system or in the ability of leaders to turn the organization around. employees expect nothing positive. Also during these times of change. We will look more carefully at each of these. lead. Before going through how team-building exercise can be undertaken to develop effective teams. 4. by the time you have to deal with difficult changes. are closely associated with a very few advocates and practitioners. French and Bell have opined that “probably the most important single group of interventions in the OD are the team-building activities the goals of which are the improvement and increased effectiveness of various teams within the organization. how synergy is generated through team-work. The organization must deal with the practical impact of unpleasant change. Leadership before. competence. employees will look towards the leaders for a number of things. and regular. if allowed to go on for too long. and After Arrival. it may be too late. therefore. confident and effective decision-making. concerned and committed to their welfare. problems in . let us consider the life cycle of a team. For example.6 Team-building Various OD interventions discussed so far have their specific implications for OD and. widely accepted. you need to be aware that there are three distinct times zones where leadership is important. brings hope for better times in the future. during and after change implementation is THE key to getting through the swamp. In a climate of distrust. must labor under the weight of employees who have given up. We can call these Preparing For the Journey. complete communication that is timely. but more importantly. During drastic change times. and that makes coping with drastic change much easier. teambuilding is the most important. The existence of this trust. As against these. employees will perceive leadership as supportive. clearly the most important determinant of "getting through the swamp". The literature on the subject indicates that the nature of the change is secondary to the perceptions that employees have regarding the ability. which. The Role of Leadership In an organization where there is faith in the abilities of formal leaders. Unfortunately. If you are to manage change effectively. is the ability of leadership to…well. while at the same time recognizing that tough decisions need to be made. employees will expect effective and sensible planning. The best way to summarize is that there is a climate of trust between leader and the rest of the team. employees learn that leaders will act in indecipherable ways and in ways that do not seem to be in anyone’s best interests. if haven’t established a track record of effective leadership. Slogging Through The Swamp. results in an organization becoming completely nonfunctioning. In organizations characterized by poor leadership. and credibility of senior and middle management.
Norming: After storming stage. Performing: When team members interact among themselves on the basis of norms that have emerged in the team. and adjourning as shown below: Fig. 2. 3. The .team-work. because of individual differences. each team has to be adjourned. They share personal information. 4. different members may experience varying degree of tension and anxiety out of this interaction pattern. team members get introduced to each other if they have not interacted earlier. they learn to handle complex problems that come before the team. start to accept others. Functional roles are performed and exchanged as needed. At this stage. performing. These stages are: forming. Adjourning: Adjourning is the end phase of cycle of a team. At this stage. they often pass through several stages as they learn to work together as a team.1: Life Cycle of a Team Though these are not followed rigidly. and features of effective team so that team-building exercises focus more sharply on developing effective team. Forming: At the first stage of the life cycle. Life Cycle of a Team When a number of individuals begin to work at interdependent jobs. storming. The team begins to move in a co-operative fashion and a tentative balance among competing forces too is struck. jockeying for relative control. These typical stages of life cycle of a team are described below: 1. interaction among team members is often cautious especially when they are new to one another. Storming: After the forming stage which is mostly related to perceiving and assessing each other. 4. 5. members start interaction among themselves in the form of competing for status. and arguing for appropriate strategies to be adopted for achieving team’s goals. group norms emerge to guide individual behaviour which form the basis for co-operative feelings and behaviour among members. even the most successful teams as they have completed their mission. These stages are the result of a variety of questions and issues that team members face such as “who will be members of the team?” “Who will perform what functions?” “Who will contribute what?” “What rules will be followed?” “How can conflicts among members be resolved?” and so on. and begin to turn their attention to the group tasks. team members start settling. and tasks are accompanied efficiently. Sooner or later. norming. they do represent a broad pattern that may be observed and predicted in many settings across team’s time together.
This phenomenon may happen in teams in work organizations too. This effect can be described as 2+2=5 effect. After the adjournment of the team. Social Loafing Social loafing is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. committee. A simple phenomenon of social loafing may be observed in a group assignment to students during their study. and still expect to share the credit and obtain the same marks from the professor since he will be concerned with determining who worked and who did not. synergistic effect is not automatic but depends on the complementarity of different elements that are put together and the way they interact among themselves. in one experiment. . that is. To the extent.adjournment phase takes place in the case of those teams which are created for some special purposes like task force. In such an assignment. Putting the concept of synergy in teamwork means members of the team are complementary to each other and they contribute positively to one another. Synergy in Team-work Another important feature of a team is the concept of synergy which generates in team-work and the understanding of which helps in developing effective team. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts. They rely on the fact the more reliable members will complete the project without their help. fail to perform their assigned tasks. the complementarity among members is achieved. These students may be called loafers (not attaching the same connotation which is attached with the term loafer in our social phenomenon) who frequently miss the project group’s meetings. It is not necessary that all teams follow the rigid pattern prescribed here and the similar problems they face at each stage because each team is different in some respect based on the type of members and problems and functions assigned. students find that one or two students do not put their weight for the completion of the project. In fact. how a particular element affects another and is affected by it. The concept of synergy is quite popular in strategic management and it is defined as follows: “Synergy is the process of putting two or more elements together to achieve a sum total greater than the sum total of individual elements separately. However. a team is created to undertake a task which requires a variety of skills and single individual cannot perform that task alone. For example. Other types of team like a department in an organization run on the basis of some permanency though there may be changes in team members. the team would be effective. etc. intense social relationship among members comes to an end. and so on. other factors remaining the same.” Thus. concept of stages is significant in the context of the nature of problem which team members are likely to face in team-work.
From this statement. understanding of roles helps members to meet the requirement of one another thereby solving the problems which the team faces.6 pound of pressure while tugging on the rope. super-ordinate goals and team rewards. The possibility of occurring of social loafing in a team-work increases because of the following reasons: 1. Skills and Role Clarity: For an effective team. When the group is not cohesive with high output norms. Individuals were asked to pull alone as hard as possible on a rope attached to a strain gauge. Therefore. A group is not merely an assemblage of individuals but there should be a feeling that they are members of the group and share common interests. They averaged 138. Effective Team An effective team is one which contributes to the achievement of organizational objectives by performing the task assigned to it and providing satisfaction to its members. group efforts tend to slacken. it appears that there are many factors in an effective team. skills which are complementary to the team requirement and understanding of one’s own role as well as roles of other members. 2. other factors remaining the same. and attitudes. he may tend to affect others because of chain reaction just like a rotten apple injures its companions. . group of eight. the individual average dropped down still lower68. managers at higher levels particularly at the top level should set organizational climate and culture which enthuse team members to put their best.it was found that individuals’ total efforts were much higher than the group efforts. Even if one member lacks behind. In the above paragraph.2 pounds. we have mentioned that team effectiveness depends on the complementarity of team members. Let us see how these factors make a team effective. While skills are relevant for job performance. If the organizational climate is not in tune with high achievement. Thus. supportive environment. two things are required from its members. 2. goals. When the division of work cannot be accomplished properly and individual efforts are hard to determine. Dropping of average output in group efforts indicates that some members of the group were not contributing as much as they did individually. individual members do not contribute to the fullest extent. These factors are skills and role clarity. 1. team members may tend to contribute positively to the teamwork. The phenomenon of social loafing can be minimized by constituting effective team for group performance. Supportive Environment: A team loaded with skilled members cannot perform well if the organizational climate is not supportive for that. team members may not show high degree of enthusiasm and they will use only a part of their skills in performing the jobs. When the same individuals pulled on the rope of groups of three.
3. Super-ordinate Goals: Super-ordinate goals are those which are above the goals of a single team or a single individual. An individual works better if he is able to link how his goal attainment leads to the attainment of a higher-level goal. These super-ordinate goals, then, serve to focus attention, unify efforts, and stimulate more cohesive team efforts. 4. Team Rewards: Team performance depends on how reward is linked to team performance and how members perceive this linkage. If team members perceive that reward to contingent on team performance, they will put their maximum. Rewards of both types- financial and nonfinancial-should be taken into consideration. Further, organizations need to achieve a careful balance between encouraging and rewarding individual initiative and growth and stimulating full contributions to team success. Innovative non-financial team rewards for responsible behaviour may include the authority to select new members of the group, make recommendations regarding a new supervisor, or propose discipline for team members. The positive aspect of all these factors leads to team effectiveness and team members share common values regarding product quality, customer satisfaction, and share the responsibility for completing a project on schedule. Katzenbatch and Smith, management consultants, have suggested the concept of real team and they feel that this concept is relatively unexploited despite its capacity to outperform other groups and individuals. They define four characteristics of real teams: small size; complementary skills; common purpose, goals, and working approach: and willingness to be held mutually accountable. Real teams can be created and sustained by: 1. Selecting members for their complementary skills and potentials; 2. Developing clear rules of conduct and challenging performance goals; 3. Establishing a sense of urgency right from the first meeting. 4. Providing substantial time together in which new information is constantly shared; and 5. Providing positive feedback, recognition, and rewards. Team-building Process: Team-building attempts to improve effectiveness of the team by having team members to concentrate on: 1. Setting goals and priorities for the team. 2. Analyzing how team’s goals and priorities are linked to those of the organization. 3. Analyzing how the work is performed. 4. Analyzing how the team is working, and
5. Analyzing the relationships among the members who are performing the job. For achieving these, the team-building exercise proceeds in a particular way as shown in figure.
Fig. 4.2: Process of Team-building Various steps of team-building process are not one-shot action, rather, they are repetitive and cyclical as indicated by arrows in the figure. 1. Problem-sensing: There are a number of ways in which problems of a team can be obtained. Often the team itself defines which aspects of team-building it wishes to work on. This problem can better be identified in terms of what is hindering group effectiveness. At this stage, generally most of the members come forward with their arguments as to what the real problems are. The view may be quite different ranging from the organizational problem, group problems to even personal problem. In problem identification, the emphasis should be on consensus. The consensus-seeking part of the process necessitates that each person becomes thoroughly aware and understand clearly the basic concepts of team-development. Much of the problems may be solved through effective communication and training sessions. 2. Examining Differences: The perception of people on an issue differs because of their differing backgrounds, such as, their value systems, personality and attitudes. The perception may be brought to conformity through the process of exercise on perception which involves a number of psychological exercises particularly on perceptual differences. The role of communication is important in this context because it will help in clarifying the actual problems to the members. 3. Giving and Receiving Feedback: The step of perceiving things and listening to each other may be relayed back to the members as there is a possibility that such processes may create tense situation in the group. Often, members report about the painful feelings that they have at the time of evaluation of their feelings. The discussion should continue until all members of the team have commented. The feedback should be given to the members about their feelings, about the issue, the way people talk about the issue, the stying with the topic or going off on tangents, who was talking more or who was talking less, who was trying to resolve the differences, etc. Such feedback generally provides members to evaluate the values but at the same time, also provides opportunity to understand themselves. The concept of Johari Window may also be applied. This suggests that even people are not fully aware of themselves. 4. Developing Interactive Skills: The basic objective of this process is to increase the ability among the people as to how they should interact with others and engage in constructive behaviour. Following are the examples of constructive and negative behaviours:
Constructive Behaviour: (i) Building: developing and expanding the ideas of others. (ii) Bringing in: harmonizing, encouraging others to participate. (iii) Clarifying: resting, ensuring, understanding, seeking relevant information. (iv) Innovative: bringing in new relevant ideas, information, feelings, etc.
(i) Over talk: interrupting, talking together with speaker. (ii) Attacking: deriding, belittling, criticizing person. (iii) Negative: cooling, cynicism, undermining morale. At the time of discussion of feedback, people themselves take assignments to increase specific constructive behaviours and decrease specific negative behaviours. If this process is adopted several times, there is a strong possibility that members may learn constructive behaviours and leave negative behaviours. This is quite helpful in developing teamwork. 5. Follow-up Action: This is the final stage in team-building. At this stage, the total team is convened to review what has been learned and to identify what the next step should be. Follow-up action also helps in overcoming the drawback involved at the initial stages of teambuilding. It involves deciding who will take care of each area of the team’s responsibilities, and who will be responsible for team projects in a group that has not developed a satisfactory division of responsibility; clarifying and setting differences in perception concerning responsibility and authority in the team, with complex division of responsibility and authority among members. These attempts bring co-operative and supportive feelings among people involved in the team functioning. When this exercise is undertaken at the initial stage, it contributes positively towards the feelings of the people. However, to encourage and sustain such feelings, management should take such actions at regular intervals so that members feel reinforced and sustain their positive behaviour. Such actions will go a long way in shaping the organizational climate quite conducive to members for their efficient working. Evaluation of Team-building As mentioned earlier, team-building as an OD intervention has attracted maximum attention. Many research studies have also confirmed the positive contributions of team-building on the
etc. It improves the organization’s problem-solving and decision-making ability. In spite of these problems. 2. after which similarities and differences are discussed. . in different degrees. team-building has a positive outlook. However.7 Inter-group Development A major area of concern is OD is the dysfunctional conflict that exists between groups. One such suggestion is to use a task hierarchy to reinforce the team as it progresses up a behaviour skill hierarchy (for example. stereotypes. and feedback skills). this has been a subject to which change efforts have been directed. Once the causes of the difficulty have been identified. each group meets independently to develop lists of its perception of itself. team-building has been termed as one-sided effort and it suffers from the following limitations: 1. 3. structure. Therefore. listening. It helps developing communication within the group and inter-group and overcoming many psychological barriers that block communication flow. In general. it is not that effective in isolation. the groups can move to the integration phase – working to develop solutions that will improve relations. In this method. However. The groups then share their lists. It helps in developing effective interpersonal relationships by stimulating the group members for that. 2. New member may find it difficult to adjust with the team because of his confusion over his roles in terms of task performance and building good relationships. monitoring. are not given adequate attention. It focuses only on work groups and other major organizational variables such as technology. though. and perceptions that groups have of each other. and how it believes the other group perceivers it. communicating. and the groups look for the causes of the disparities.organization’s outcomes. team-building contributes to the organizational performance in the following manner: 1. As a result. It seeks to change to attitudes. one of the more Popular methods emphasize problem solving. Differences are clearly articulate. there have been calls for combining team-building with organization behaviour modification approaches.. Team-building becomes a complicated exercise when there is frequent change in team members. the other group. 4. Although there are several approaches for improving intergroup relations.
9 Role of Change Agents The change agent may play different roles according to the need of organization development . 4. as the radiator absorbing some of the heat of the controversy. Outside consultants also may be prone to initiating more drastic changes – which can be benefit or a disadvantage – because they don’t have to live with the repercussions after the change is implemented. The trainer role is most widely and intensively used at all stages of a change project: unfreezing. can now be created for further diagnosis and to begin to formulate possible alternative actions that will improve relations. internal management often will hire the services or outside consultants to provide advice and assistance. Trainer A change agent needs to be a trainer and educator. The consultant may fulfill a variety of functions. employees of the organization. According to Curtis Mial: “The Consultant may serve as the exhaust value. . He has to educate people on the need and importance o change using a variety of methodologies – lectures. Because they are from the outside these individuals an offer can offer an objective perspective often unavailable to insiders. changing (intervening) and refreezing. with members from each of the conflicting groups.Subgroups. role-plays and instruments. or outside consultants. Outside consultants. as the shock absorber when the going is rough. For major change efforts. are disadvantaged because they usually have an inadequate understanding of the organization’s history. internal staff specialists or managers when acting as change agents. as the accelerator to build up momentum.8 Change Agents Change agents: Can be managers or nonmanagers. may be more thoughtful (and possibly cautious) because they to live with the consequences of their actions. however. and personnel. or as fog lamp when the future is hazy. presentations. culture.These three roles are having been brief described below: Consultant A consultant is a professional (internal or external) who applies behavioral Science knowledge in an ongoing organization (or client system) with clear objectives of managing change and improving effectiveness. cases and experiential learning etc. but one thing he/she is not the driver”. as the break for too quick action. group discussions. In contrast. 4. operating procedures. films. enabling the client to let off steam: as the ignition to spark action.
widely accepted and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. inter-group and total organization levels. Grid Training was developed by –––––––––––– 3. Researcher A change agent has to carry out some research activities for the purpose of generating valid information prior to and during the change process.10 Summary OD intervention strategies are various activities which a consultant and client organization performs for improving organizational performance. evolving best strategies for change by assessing alternatives and the important stages in a change project where the change agent has to be a Researcher. Grid training focuses on individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts 4. 2. Useful hypothesis are to be formulated and tested.11 Terminal Questions 1. knowledge and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual.Training is required for enhancing knowledge. group. 4. Teambuilding is most important. feedback of information. the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. The first step in survey feedback is ______ usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection. skills and change in behavior. diagnosis. developing action plans based on feedback and follow-up. What is Grid Training? How does it help in improving individual performance in an organization? 2. Sensitivity training focuses on small group ranging from ten to twelve. generation of new behavioral science knowledge. In process consultation. What is survey feedback as an intervention of OD? How does it provide base for other OD interventions? . Self Assessment Questions 1. attitudes and beliefs. It focuses on skills. ________is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. Training is used both in ‘content orientation’ and process orientation’. Data collection.
Refer section 4. Data collection 2.2 Definitions and . Explain Change agents and discuss the role of change agents in detail. and Beliefs in Organization Development Structure: 5.6 4. Refer section 4.1 Introduction Objectives 5. 3.3.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.2 3. Refer section 4. MU0002-Unit-05-Values. Assumptions. What is team-building? What are the stages of life cycle of a team? 4. 4.4 2. Assumptions. Refer section 4. Beliefs in Organization Development Unit-05-Values. Social loafing Answers to TQs: 1. Blake and Mouton.
5.4 Early Statements of OD Values and Assumptions 5.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations 5.7 Terminal Questions 5. beliefs and assumptions.5.2 Definitions A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. These values and assumptions have developed from research and theory by behavioural scientists and from the experiences and observations of practicing managers.6 Summary Self Assessment Questions 5. .1 Introduction A set of values. and they continue to evolve as the field itself evolves. it is a cognitive fact for the person. · State the implications of OD values and assumptions. Most of these beliefs were formulated early in the development of the field.5. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of values. assumptions. shaping the goals and methods of the field and distinguishing OD from other improvement strategies.5. · Give the statement of OD values and assumptions.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 5.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals 5. beliefs and assumptions.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions 5. · List the chronology of events of values. Objectives: After studying this unit. and beliefs constitutes an integral part of organization development.5.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups 5.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought 5.
dishonesty). assume that everyone has intrinsic worth.. and beliefs are all cognitive facts or propositions. free speech) and what is undesirable or ‘bad’ (e. and that rationality. and beliefs provide structure and stability for people as they attempt to understand the world around them. the importance of fair and equitable treatment for all. Expert engineers and supervisors designed each task and ensured it was done correctly. and goodwill are the tools for making progress. 5. view all people as having the potential for growth and development. reason." Assumptions are beliefs that are regarded as so valuable and obviously correct that they are taken for granted and rarely examined or questioned. Simple.Values are also beliefs and are defined as: "Beliefs about what is desirable or ‘good’ (e. the right of people to be free from arbitrary misuse of power. with values being beliefs about good and bad.g. that progress is possible and desirable in human affairs. increasing awareness of the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. assumptions. Thus. assumptions. and the like. repetitive tasks minimized the skills required to do the job. greater understanding of individual motivation and group dynamics. . the laboratory training movement. and democratic. OD values tend to be humanistic.. and the need for justice through the rule of law and due process. optimistic. Major ingredients of the zeitgeist that influenced OD values and assumptions are presented here in a brief chronology. Humanistic values proclaim the importance of the individual: respect the whole person. or spirit of the time. they were fashioned into a coherent value foundation for the theory and practice of organization development. Piece-rate pay systems were designed to increase motivation and to prevent "soldiering. Democratic values assert the sanctity of the individual. Evidence for the validity of these values and their supporting assumptions comes from many sources – the Hawthorne studies. As these ingredients accumulated. repetitive tasks in an attempt to find "the one best way" to do each job. Taylor’s methods quickly swept the country and the world as the way to organize work. research on the effects of different leadership styles. strongly held. the human relations movement.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought Frederick Winslow Taylor’s ‘The Principles of Scientific Management’ (1911) launched the scientific management movement with its emphasis on time and motion studies and breaking jobs into small.g. treat people with respect and dignity. Values." or slacking off. Values and assumptions do not spring full grown from individuals or societies they are formed from the collective beliefs of an era-the zeitgeist. values. and assumptions being. Optimistic values posit that people are basically good. relatively unexamined beliefs accepted as the truth. the clash between fascism and democracy in World War II.
Scientific management as the way to organize work and bureaucracy as the way to organize people were the prevailing paradigms for organizations in the early 1900s. Barnard (1938) presented insights from his experiences as President of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. and practice since the late 1920s have focused on the shortcomings of these two paradigms and how to overcome the limitations. These approaches possessed many desirable features. authoritarian leadership caused dependency. People came to work as whole people. wrote an article on “The Giving of Orders” advocating participative leadership and joint problem-solving by labour and management. A strong hierarchy of authority. their feelings and attitudes about the work. and by Homans in 1950 profoundly and irreversibly affected people’s beliefs about organizational behaviour. extensive division of labor. a management theorist and astute observer of labourmanagement relations. by Roethlisberger and Dickson in 1939. much of the research. and White demonstrated that democratic leadership was superior to authoritarian leadership and laissez-faire leadership in affecting group climate and group performance. Group norms had more powerful effects on productivity than economic incentives. The research demonstrated the primacy of social factors on productivity and morale. and rigid procedures would create a well-oiled human machine called the organization. Their simple. the work environment. The Famous Hawthorne Studies (1927 to 1932) were conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company. Much of her career was devoted to finding ways to reduce adversarial relationships between workers and management. theory. organizations were not machines. ‘The Functions of the Executive’ by Chester 1. People were not cogs. repetitive jobs left them feeling alienated and dispirited. In a sense. His acceptance theory of authority proposed that authority derives from the willingness of subordinates to comply with directions rather than from position power. Mary Parker Follett (1926). Some early experiments were conducted in the late 1930s. Group Dynamics (1940) – The scientific study of groups using experimental research methods-was launched by Kurt Lewin and his students. Barnard viewed organizations as social systems that must be effective (achieve goals) and efficient (satisfy the needs of employees). Lippitt (1939). apathy. Reports on these studies by Mayo in 1933 and 1945. and the supervisor determined their performance. . Democratic leadership seemed to bring out the best in the groups. The great German sociologist Max Weber (1922) introduced the concept of “bureaucracy” as the best. but also contained serious flaws that led to unintended consequences. most efficient way to organize people. impersonal rules. Research by Lewin. aggressiveness and poor performance.
Chris Argyrif’s Personality and Organization (1957) was the first of several books in which he stated that there is an inherent conflict between the needs of organizations and the needs of mature. Maslow suggested that human motivation is arranged in a hierarchy of needs from lower-level needs such as physiological and survival needs to higher-level needs such as esteem and self-actualization. and understand group dynamics. proposed that the leadership functions of a group should be shared between the leader and group members and showed how that could be done. The Hawthorne Studies (1940s to 1960) spawned the human relations movement that was in full flower from the 1930s to the 1960s. a direct precursor of OD. which holds that individuals have within themselves the capacity to assume responsibility for their behaviour and mental health when provided with a supportive. caring social climate. This article introduced the concept of organizations as sociotechnical systems. dislike responsibility.” reported that resistance to change could be minimized by communicating the need for change and allowing the people affected by the change to participate in planning it. and a general “humanizing” of the workplace. Ken Benne and Paul Sheats (1948). Humanistic and democratic values suffused the movement. healthy adults. Lester Coch and John R. Carl Rogers’ Client-Centered Therapy (1951) demonstrated the efficacy of non-directive psychotherapy. The human relations movement advocated participative management. greater attention to workers’ social needs. . Rogers’ focus on effective interpersonal communications was applicable to superior-subordinate relations. “Overcoming Resistance to Change. which postulates that organizations are comprised of a social system and a technological system and that changes in one system will produce changes in the other system. Motivation and Personality by Abraham Maslow (1954) presented a new view of human motivation. The theory postulated that when lowerlevel needs are satisfied. pioneers in laboratory training. Eric Trist and Ken Bamforth of the Tavistock Clinic (1951) published the results of their work in British coal mines. are self-centered. training in interpersonal skills for supervisors. Laboratory training taught people how to improve interpersonal relations. French’s (1948) article. P. increase self-understanding. Douglas McGregor wrote ‘The Human Side of Enterprise’ (1960) in which he described his famous Theory X and Theory Y assumptions. higher-level needs become dominant. lack ambition. Those who subscribe to Theory X assume that people are lazy. These years witnessed the beginnings of the laboratory training movement (1946 and 1947).
‘The Social Psychology of Organizations’ by Daniel Katz and Robert L. and observations utilized by OD practitioners. The Addison-Wesley Publishing Company “OD Six-Pack. bureaucracy. In an environment of slow change. a mechanistic organization structure may be appropriate. The task of management is to change organizational structures. We will examine three early statements regarding OD values that had a significant impact on the field. summarized the state of organization development a decade or so after its inception. theory. and shares decision-making with the work group. In addition to presenting Theory X and Y. and authoritarian leadership gave way to increasing doubts about these organizational practices as theory and research pointed up their limitations. Burns and Stalker (1961) described two very different forms of organization structuremechanistic and organic. and organizations that is. Out of this zeitgeist. optimistic. dysfunctions. an organic organization form is preferred. Those who subscribe to Theory Y assume that people have the potential to develop. To summarize the intellectual climate of this period. and introduced practicing managers to the concepts of need hierarchy and self-actualization. goal-oriented. and negative consequences.” (1969) a set of six little books on OD by prominent practitioners. and need to be led. one-on-one leadership style. and democratic. management practices. Kahn (1966) presented the first comprehensive exposition of organizations as open systems. Organic structures encourage decentralized decision making and authority. resist change. to assume responsibility. These six books presented the theory. Values have always been an integral part of OD. Rensis Likert’s ‘New Patterns of Management’ (1961) presented data and theory showing the overwhelming superiority of a democratic leadership style in which the leader is group oriented. organization development practitioners formulated a set of values and assumptions regarding people. practice. This chronology captures most of the significant influences from research. Tannenbaum and Davis presented their ideas in an article appearing in Industrial Management Review. and human resource practices to allow individual potential to be released. and to pursue organizational goals if given the chance and the social environment to do so. and values of the field. in an environment of high change. groups. humanistic. . open communications. and greater individual autonomy. this book popularized Maslow’s motivation theory. The Bennis and Beckhard quotations come from their books in the Addison-Wesley Six-Pack.indifferent to the organization’s needs. This leadership style was contrasted with an authoritarian. the initial enthusiasm for scientific management. as we have said.
Another major player in the field was Richard Beckhard. · Development of organic rather than mechanical systems. Stalker used the term “mechanistic” in contrast to “mechanical. Rather than the usual bureaucratic methods which rely mainly on suppression." Mechanical systems encourage "centralized decision-making" while organic systems encourage "wide sharing of responsibility and control. more rational and open methods of conflict resolution are sought. Bennis clarified some of the salient differences between mechanical systems and organic systems." that is. the capacity for functional groups to work more competently. Here is his list.” For example.Writing in 1969. compromise. The basic building blocks of an organization are groups (teams)." He then went on to state what he believed to be the central value underlying organization development theory and practice: The basic value underlying all organization development theory and practice is that of choice. · A shift in values so that human factors and feelings come to be considered legitimate." like pushing buttons. 1. Therefore. He listed these normative goals as follows: · Improvement in interpersonal competence. This is a strong reaction against the idea of organizations as mechanisms which managers "work on. In his 1969 book he described "several assumptions about the nature and functioning of organizations" held by OD practitioners. Through focused attention and through the collection and feedback of relevant data to relevant people. and unprincipled power. more choices become available and hence better decisions are made. mechanical systems rely on "authority-obedience relationships" while organic systems rely on "mutual confidence and trust. · Development of more effective "team management. The earlier work by Tom Burns and G." Mechanical systems insist on "strict division of labour and hierarchical supervision" while organic systems foster "multi-group membership and responsibility. · Development of better methods of conflict resolution. not individuals. Warren Bennis proposed that OD practitioners (change agents) share a set of normative goals based on their humanistic/ democratic philosophy. the basic units of change are groups. · Development of increased understanding between and within working groups in order to reduce tensions. . M.
· Away from avoidance of negative evaluation of individuals toward confirming them as human beings. . 5. · Away from walling off the expression of feelings toward making possible both appropriate expression and effective use. · Away from use of status for maintaining power and personal prestige toward use of status for organizationally relevant purposes. Organizations. sub-units of organizations. 3. Robert Tannenbaum. They listed these “values in transition” as follows: · Away from a view of people as essentially bad toward a view of people as basically good. not the basis of managerial strategy. and confidence between and across levels. One goal of a healthy organization is to develop generally open communication. toward seeing them as being in process.2. Decision-making in a healthy organization is located where the information sources are. An always relevant change goal is the reduction of inappropriate competition between parts of the organization and the development of a more collaborative condition." People affected by a change must be allowed active participation and a sense of ownership in the planning and conduct of the change. They asserted that an important shift in values was occurring and that this shift signaled a more appropriate and accurate view of people in organizations. presented their view of OD values in a 1969 article. · Away from distrusting people toward trusting them. · Away from utilizing an individual primarily with reference to his or her job description toward viewing an individual as a whole person. · Away from resisting and fearing individual differences toward accepting and utilizing them. · Away from a view of individuals as fixed. "People support what they help create. 6. mutual trust. director of organization development. rather than in a particular role or level of hierarchy. · Away from maskmanship and game-playing toward authentic behaviour. · Away from avoiding facing others with relevant data toward making appropriate confrontation. 4. Controls are interim measurements. and individuals continuously manage their affairs against goals. a professor and Sheldon Davis.
but in the 1950s and 1960s they represented a radical departure from accepted beliefs and assumptions. and are capable of making. and arbitrary management practices as well as the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. and so forth were seldom espoused and rarely implemented in the vast majority of organizations at that time. We answer the question: What are some of the implications of OD assumptions and values for dealing with individuals.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions Let us examine specific assumptions and their implications for organization leaders and members. The second assumption is that most people desire to make. set high standards.· Away from avoidance of risk-taking toward willingness to risk. decentralized decision making. participation and contribution by all organization members. collaboration and co-operation. 5. listen. · Away from a primary emphasis on competition toward a much greater emphasis on collaboration. the legitimacy of feelings. The first assumption is that most individuals have drives toward personal growth and development if provided an environment that is both supportive and challenging. support. and reward success.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals Two basic assumptions about individuals in organizations pervade organization development. authentic interpersonal relations.5.5. appropriate uses of power. open communication. The democratic values prompted a critique of authoritarian. groups. We think most organization development practitioners held these humanistic and democratic values with their implications for different and "better" ways to run organizations and deal with people. Beliefs such as trust and respect for the individual. encourage risk-taking. permit failure. · Away from a view of process work as being unproductive effort toward seeing it as essential to effective task accomplishment. The humanistic values prompted a search for better ways to run organizations and develop the people in them. and organizations? 5. Most people want to develop their potential.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups . These values and assumptions may not seem profound today. autocratic. challenge. give responsibility. A tremendous amount of constructive energy can be tapped if organizations realize and act on these assumptions. 5. a greater contribution to attaining organization goals than most organizational environments permit. give autonomy. The people doing the work are generally experts on how to do it and how to do it better. remove obstacles and barriers. The implications of these two assumptions are straightforward: Ask.
group members should be encouraged to learn to deal effectively with positive and negative feelings. at both the formal and informal levels. Dealing appropriately with feelings and attitudes increases the level of interpersonal trust. including how persons C. support. To do this. personal growth. Second. the family. and so on-are obsolete. Therefore. The question becomes not how A can get B to perform better. emphasis on topdown directives. They cannot meet the demands of the marketplace. in which one side wins and the other side loses. 5. and job satisfaction. Hence. Let teams flourish because they are often the best way to get work done and. not a one-on-one leadership style. First. D. a growing awareness that “win-lose” organizational situations. and so on. experimenting with new organization structures and new forms of authority is imperative. including peers and boss. are dysfunctional . By implication. the assumption is that many attitudinal and motivational problems in organizations require interactive and transactional solutions. What occurs in the work group. adherence to the chain of command. Frequently the challenge is broader. and usually with more than one group. traditional hierarchical forms of organization-fairly steep pyramid. It is especially important that leaders adopt a team leadership style.Several assumptions relate to the importance of work teams and the collaborative management of team culture. conflict management. Also. One implication is that group members should receive training in group effectiveness skills such as group problem-solving and decision-making. formalized cross-functional communication. leaders should invest in groups: Invest the time required for group development. and interpersonal communication. This skill is a trainable one. Implications of these assumptions are several. a church or club group. invest energy and intelligence in creating a positive climate. but how A and B can work together to modify their interactions toward the goal of B becoming more effective and A and B becoming more mutually effective. Such problems have the greatest chance of constructive solution if all parties in the system alter their mutual relationships. and co-operation within the group. invest training time and money to increase group members’ skills.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations Clearly. And because suppressed feelings and attitudes adversely affect problem-solving. in addition. Another assumption is that the formal leader cannot perform all the leadership and maintenance functions required for a group to optimize its effectiveness. group members should assist the leader with the multiple roles required for group effectiveness. greatly influences feelings of satisfaction and competence. this group perspective requires a shift from viewing problems as "within the problem person" to viewing problems and solutions as transactional and as embedded in a system. Finally. leaders need to give important work to teams. In addition. not individuals. most people wish to be accepted and to interact co-operatively with at least one small reference group. and E can support these changes. facilitation. are the best way to satisfy social and emotional needs at work.5. Third. grouping by specialized function. most people are capable of making greater contributions to a group’s effectiveness and development. one of the most psychologically relevant reference groups for most people is the work group. such as a work group.
The belief that people are important tends to result in their being important. optimistic and democratic. developmental. A key assumption in organization development is that the needs and aspirations of human beings are the reasons for organized effort in society. The belief that people can grow and develop in terms of personal and organizational competency tends to produce that result. OD values tend to be humanistic. This notion suggests it is good to have a developmental outlook and seek opportunities in which people can experience personal and professional growth. Values are also beliefs. and profitability. quality of output. Chronology of events in management and OD tremendously influenced OD practitioners. Creating co-operative rather than competitive organizational dynamics is a primary task of the organization’s leaders. This discussion was intended to articulate an appreciation of OD values and explain where they came from. Self Assessment Questions . and organizational changes taking place assure that tomorrow will bring new definitions of what is "true" and new beliefs about what is "good.6 Summary The field of OD rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. they change over time. These OD values were considered revolutionary when they emerged in the 1950s. and empowering. societal. Concluding Comment: The field of organization development rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. they are the source of productivity and profits and should be treated with care. Such an orientation creates a self-fulfilling prophecy. Finally.over the long run and highlight the need for a “win win” attitude. These beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. it is possible to create organizations that on the one hand are humane. and ways to optimize human potential. but are widely accepted today. and on the other hand are high performing in terms of productivity. The implication is that people are an organization’s most important resource. assumptions and beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. an optimistic. Evidence for this assumption comes from numerous examples where “putting people first” paid off handsomely in profits and performance. By implication. 5. developmental set of assumptions about people is likely to reap rewards beneficial to both the organization and its members." as behavioural scientists and managers continue to develop better understanding of authority structures. Values. values are never static. Still. The rapid technological. organizing structures. Values. beliefs and assumptions are cognitive facts.
1. 4.3 3. 3. Write a note about F.7 Terminal Questions 1. W. Taylor’s principles of scientific management. 3. __________ is associated with scientific management. The concept of –––––––––– was introduced by MaxWeber. The outcome of –––––––– was that people were not cogs and organizations were not machines. Define concepts. Refer section 5.3 . F. Bureaucracy 4. values. Values. and assumptions are all –––––––––– facts. 5. beliefs and assumptions. Douglas McGregor Answers to TQs: 1. Refer section 5. Refer section 5. beliefs. _______________ gave theory X and theory Y. Hawthorne experiments 5.2 2. 2. Taylor 3. Cognitive 2. 5. 5. What was the outcome of Hawthorne Experiments? 4. State the assumptions of Theory X and Theory Y.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.W. 2. What are values and assumptions developed by Richard Bechard in the field of organizational development? 5.
3 Socio-technical Theory and Open Systems Planning 6.3 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change 6.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends 6.3 22.214.171.124.3 Systems Theory 6. Refer section 5.2 Congruence among System Elements 126.96.36.199 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change 6.2 Beyond the Quick Fix 6.4 Open Systems Thinking 188.8.131.52 Models and Theories of Planned Change 6.3.1 The Nature of Systems 6.1 Introduction Objectives 6. MU0002-Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Structure: 6.4 Participation and Empowerment . Refer section 5.2.
We will examine the following concepts: . you will be able to: · Explain various models and theories of planned change.10 Summary 6. · Explain the terms ‘participation’ and ‘empowerment’. Leaders and OD practitioners use this knowledge base to plan and implement effective change programs.5 Teams and Teamwork 6. In this discussion. · Realize the importance of teams and teamwork.6.1 Introduction This unit describes the foundations of organization development theory and practice. Objectives: After studying this unit.7 A Normative – Re-educative Strategy of Changing 6.6 Parallel Learning Structures 6. · Describe the parallel learning structures. you will learn what OD practitioners think and how they think as they engage in the complicated task of improving organizational functioning. · Explain normative-re-educative strategy of changing The knowledge base of OD is extensive and is constantly growing. Here we describe what we believe are the most important underpinnings for the field.9 Action Research Self Assessment Questions 6. · Explain systems theory.11 Terminal Questions 6.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 6.8 Applied Behavioural Science 6. art and science which form the knowledge base upon which OD is constructed.
some forces pushing toward higher morale and some pushing toward lower morale. For example. the status quo-whatever is happening right now-is the result of forces pushing in opposing directions. Here we provide a framework for thinking about planned change by exploring several models from the literature. we can identify the major forces that make up the field of forces and then develop action plans for moving the equilibrium point in one direction or the other. Several recent theories show great promise for increasing our understanding of what happens and how it happens in planned change. Planned change theories are rudimentary as far as explaining relationships among variables. The development of models of planned change facilitated the development of OD. it generally hovers around some equilibrium point that is the resultant in a field of forces. Although morale may get a little better or a little worse on occasion. Lewin’s second idea was a model of the change process itself.· Models and theories of planned change · Systems theory · Participation and empowerment · Teams and teamwork · Parallel and learning structures · A normative-re-educative strategy of changing · Action research 6. With a technique called the force-field analysis. Models and theories depict. the important features of some phenomenon. This concept is useful for thinking about the dynamics of change situations.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change that have been influential since the 1940s. 6.2. in words or pictures. describe those features as variables. and specify the relationships among the variables. but pretty good for identifying the important variables involved. we can think of the level of morale in that plant as a resultant equilibrium point. The first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces. He suggested that change is a three-stage process: . That is. Likewise.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change Organization development is planned change in an organizational context. with some forces pushing toward higher levels of production and some forces pushing toward lower levels of production. The production level tends to remain fairly constant because the field of forces remains fairly constant. we can think of the production level of a manufacturing plant as a resultant equilibrium point in a field of forces.
Provision of psychological safety Stage 2: Changing through Cognitive Restructuring: Helping the client to see things. That is. b. The total personality and self-concept. Take the example of a man who smokes cigarettes and wants to quit. Creation of guilt or anxiety c. the person must develop a sense of psychological safety in order to replace the old behaviours with new behaviours. change his behaviour from being a smoker to being a non-smoker. moving to new level of behaviour. mentor. that is. But unless the person feels comfortable with dropping the old behaviours and acquiring new ones. Refreezing the desired behaviour requires establishing a new field of forces to support the new behaviour. unfreezing. he must move. Edgar Schein took this excellent idea and improved it by specifying the psychological mechanisms involved in each stage. etc. judge things. Significant relationships.Unfreezing the old behaviour (or situation). The three-stage model says he must first unfreeze the old behaviour of smoking. that is. and react to things differently based on a new point of view obtained through a. Change entails moving from one equilibrium point to another. b. Finally. A Three-Stage Model of the Change Process: Stage 1: Unfreezing: Creating motivation and readiness to change through a. In stage 1. Next. . the non-smoking behaviour must become permanent.non-smoking becomes the new equilibrium point. change will not occur. Scanning the environment for new relevant information Stage 3: Refreezing: Helping the client to integrate the new point of view into a. believe that cigarette smoking is bad for him and that he should stop smoking. Identifying with a new role model. Refreezing the behaviour at the new level. Lewin’s three-stage model is a powerful tool for understanding change situations. Disconfirmation or lack of confirmation b. feel things. which cause guilt and anxiety. disconfirmation creates pain and discomfort. which motivate the person to change.
This phase corresponds to Lewin’s unfreezing phase. establishing goals and intentions of action. for example. That is. moving. This motivating evidence is gained by. Phases 3. 4. Phase 6: Generalizing and stabilizing change.2. stabilizing the changes requires testing to see if they fit-fit with the individual. The person acquires information and evidence showing that the change is desirable and possible. Phase 2: Establishing a change relationship. and fit with the individual’s social surroundings. . This phase corresponds to Lewin’s refreezing phase. Phase 5: Transforming intentions into actual change efforts. In this phase a client system in need of help and a change agent from outside the system establish a working relationship. These "road maps" are useful for thinking about change. Phase 3: Clarifying or diagnosing the client system’s problem. Similar models have been developed by Kolb and Frohman and by Burke. and Bruce Westley. This seven-stage model lays out the logical steps involved in OD consulting. The phrase significant relationships refer to important people in the person’s social environment-do these significant others approve of the changes? Another modification of Lewin’s model was proposed by Ronald Lippitt. This model has five sequential stages: 1) Initiating the program. and attitudes. 6. Phase 7: Achieving a terminal relationship. is to integrate the new behaviours into the person’s personality. Jeanne Watson. They expanded the three-stage model into a seven-stage model representing the consulting process. and 5 correspond ro Lewin’s moving phase.2 Beyond the “Quick Fix” A comprehensive change model by Ralph Kilmann specifies the critical leverage points for organizational change. Phase 4: Examining alternative routes and goals. terminating the client-consultant relationship. Their seven stages are as follows: Phase 1: Developing a need for change. identifying with ex-smokers and learning about the health risks of smoking.In stage 2. the person undergoes cognitive restructuring. refreezing. that is. The primary task in stage 3.
and 5) The reward system track. and willingness to change among members the conditions that must exist before any other improvement effort can succeed. Scheduling and implementing the "tracks" involve intervening in five critical leverage points.2) Diagnosing the problems. 4) The strategy-structure track. Diagnosing the problems requires a thorough analysis of the problems and opportunities facing the organization. cause the organization to be successful. critique practices and procedures. Interventions include training programs. Change programs take from one to five years to complete." that. 4) Implementing the "tracks" 5) Evaluating the results. The team-building track infuses the new culture and updated management skills into each work unit – thereby instilling co-operation organization-wide so that complex problems can be addressed with all the expertise and information available. Kilmann describes the five tracks: What does each track do for the organization? The culture track enhances trust. These problems and opportunities will be the targets of later interventions. The management-skills track provides all management personnel with new ways of coping with complex problems and hidden assumptions. . Kilmann’s five tracks are: 1) The culture track. 3) Scheduling the "tracks". called "tracks. when functioning properly. 2) The management skills track. 3) The team-building track. and so forth. information sharing. communication. Initiating the program entails securing commitment from top management. problem-solving sessions.
and so forth. departments. values. The model distinguishes between organizational climate and organizational culture. and beliefs that are enduring. and . Westinghouse. organizational culture is defined as deep-seated assumptions. The reward-system track establishes a performance-based reward system that sustains all improvements by officially sanctioning the new culture. hard-working or easy-going. beginning with the culture track. Ford General Electric.2. and co-operative team efforts within and among all work groups. adaptive. OD programs are directed toward both first. This model shows how to create first-order and second-order change (which the authors call “transactional change” and “transformational change”). or discontinuous change. 6. Organizational climate is defined as people’s perceptions and attitudes about the organizationwhether it is a good or bad place to work. with an increasing emphasis on second-order transformational change. management practices. Kilmann has tested his model at AT&T. General Foods. TRW. then moving to the team-building track.The strategy-structure track develops either a completely new or a revised strategic plan for the firm and then aligns divisions. The premise of the BurkeLitwin model is this: OD interventions directed toward structure. incremental. One likes this model because of its comprehensive nature. friendly or unfriendly. revolutionary. developed by Warner Burke and George Litwin. or continuous change. Eastman Kodak.and second-order change. evolutionary. and difficult to change. often unconscious. the nature of the organization is fundamentally and substantially altered – the organization is transformed. Second-order change goes by many different labels: transformational. In second-order change. radical. its identification of the five tracks as critical leverage points. jobs. and Xerox with good results. On the other hand. and its holistic view of organization change and development. then moving to the management skills track. and all resources with the new strategic direction. Changing culture is much more difficult than changing climate. In first-order change. work groups. and so forth. An OD consultant implements the tracks in a phased sequence.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change The next model to be examined is the Burke-Litwin model of individual and organizational performance. First-order change goes by many different labels: transactional. the use of updated management skills. These perceptions are relatively easy to change because they are built on employees’ reactions to current managerial and organization practices. some features of the organization change but the fundamental nature of the organization remains the same.
Transactional leadership is required to make this change in organizational climate. We will do so in several steps. Transactional leaders are "leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. Changing structure. Transformational leadership is required for causing second-order change. The model also makes a distinction between transactional and transformational leadership styles. which change motivation and. Now let us look at the Burke-Litwin model. Fig. Transformational leaders are "leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interest for the good of the organization and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers. management practices. These two concepts come from leadership research which found that some leaders are capable of obtaining extraordinary performance from followers while other leaders are not. 6.systems (policies and procedures) result in first-order change. Transactional leadership is sufficient for causing first-order change." Transactional leadership embodies a fair exchange between leader and follower that leads to "normal" performance. in turn. and systems cause changes in work unit climate.1: The Transactional Factors Involved in First – Order Change . Following figure shows the factors involved in first-order (transactional) change. individual and organizational performance. leadership. interventions directed toward mission and strategy. and organization culture result in second-order change." Transformational leadership embodies inspiration which leads to new heights of performance.
that is. which produces changes in individual and organizational performance. as shown in the above figure. The bottom half of figure displays the factors involved in transactional change. Interventions directed toward these factors transform the organization and cause a permanent change in organization culture. The top half of figure displays the factors involved in transformational change. sudden "leaps" in behaviour. One set primarily is associated with the transactional level of human behaviour or the everyday interactions and exchanges that create the climate. . leadership styles. These factors are able to change the climate. determines the kind of change required (transactional or transformational). The second set of dynamics is concerned with processes of human transformation.Fig.2: The Transformational Factors Involved in Second – Order Change On the other hand.” We consider the Burke-Litwin model to be a significant advance in thinking about planned change. these transformational processes are required for genuine change in the culture of an organization. structure. and systems produce transactional change or change in organizational climate. To summarize. Burke says: “Thus there are two distinct sets of organizational dynamics. Burke and Litwin propose that interventions directed toward leadership. The OD practitioner sizes up the change situation. we must change mission and strategy. The above two figures together yield the full Burke-Litwin model shown in the following figure. and organization culture. Research by Burke and his students suggests the model performs as intended. These factors are powerful enough to change the culture fundamentally. Interventions directed toward management practices. and organization culture produce transformational change or fundamental change in the organization’s culture. and then targets interventions toward factors of the organization that produce the desired change. 6. mission and strategy. if we want to cause second-order (transformational) change.
6. Interventions that focus on culture. which determine organizational performance and individual development. This model shows how OD interventions can be linked to factors in the work setting. and interaction processes will affect social factors. which influence on-the job behaviours. The work setting plays a central role in this model and consists of four factors: organizing arrangements. and rewards will affect organizing arrangements. Interventions that focus on job design and work flow design will affect technology.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change Jerry Porras and his associates developed a model of how organization development works. strategies. The premise modeled here is that work setting factors influence organizational members’ cognitions (they learn what is expected. management style. 6. It is how OD works. it is described in a discussion by Porras and Peter Robertson. Following figure shows the work setting in the larger organizational framework. Fig. OD interventions that focus on goals. For example. Organizational change occurs only when individuals change their behaviour. Keep this framework in mind as you read the units on OD interventions because all interventions target one or more factors shown in figures.Fig. . according to Porras and Robertson. The basic premise is that OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals’ behaviours.2. social factors. rewarded). which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements. required. and these behaviour changes occur when elements of the work setting have been modified by OD interventions. physical setting.4: Organizational Work-Setting Factors This model is extremely useful for OD practitioners and organizational leaders.3: The Burke Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change 6. and technology.
This section explains systems theory. one begins by identifying the individual parts and then seeks to understand the nature of their collective interaction. Thus." Hanna says: "A system is an arrangement of interrelated parts.Fig. which views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. . system denotes interdependency. or subsystems." Von Bertalanffy refers to a system as a set of "elements standing in interaction.system. Systems theory is one of the most powerful conceptual tools available for understanding the dynamics of organizations and organizational change. and delineated by identifiable boundaries from its environmental supra.3 Systems Theory A second foundation of organization development is systems theory." Kast and Rosenzweig define system as "an organized. The words ‘arrangement’ and ‘interrelated’ describe interdependent elements forming an entity. 6. Ludwig Von Bertalanffy first articulated the principles of general systems theory in 1950. when taking a systems approach." To summarize.5: A Change-based Organizational Framework 6. interconnectedness. and Katz and Kahn were the first to apply open systems theory to organizations in 1966. Fagen defines system as "a set of objects together with relationships between the objects and between their attributes. and shows how systems theory enhances the practice of OD. components. that is the system. unitary whole composed of two or more interdependent parts. and interrelatedness among elements in a set that constitutes an identifiable whole or gestalt. describes the characteristics of systems.
Organizations achieve negative entropy when they are able to exchange their outputs for enough inputs to keep the system from running down. or transformation processes that change the inputs.6: A System in Interaction with its Environment The law of entropy states that all systems “run down” and disintegrate unless they reverse the entropic process by importing more energy than they use. For example. Fig. . Every system is delineated by a boundary. Here. Open systems have purposes and goals. money. 6.1 The Nature of Systems The nature. Therefore. Boundaries of open systems are permeable. All open systems are input-throughput-output mechanisms. and characteristics of open systems are well-known. conversion. in that they permit exchange of information. Each of these three system processes must work well if the system is to be effective and survive. the organization’s purposes will be reflected in its outputs. raw material and so on. and energy between system and environment. the organization will cease to exist. and if the environment does not want these outputs.3. the reasons for their existence. we examine the characteristics of open systems drawing OD expositions by Katz and Kahn and Hanna. information. and they export products to the environment in the form of outputs. A good rule of thumb for drawing the boundary is that more energy exchange occurs within the boundary than across the boundary. They do something to the inputs via throughput. Organizations are open systems. dynamics. resources. studying open systems leads to a good understanding of organizations. These purposes must align with purposes or needs in the environment. What is inside the boundary is the system.6. Systems take inputs from the environment in the form of energy. people. and what is outside the boundary is the environment.
increased integration and co-ordination are necessary. but most are not useful. It is also known as deviation-correcting feedback.3. Systems achieve a steady state or equilibrium point and seek to maintain this equilibrium against disruptive forces. mining. If the mission (target) changes. 6. negative and positive. and the like. Systems "code" useful information and incorporate it. and so on. eating fads. Negative feedback measures whether or not the output is on course with the purpose and goals. and the production plan calls for 100 buggy whips per month. For example. aerospace. either internal or external. and makes a course correction. and the system adjusts to a new goal. specialized. it receives information to that effect in the form of negative feedback. Systems require two kinds of feedback. By the same token. For example. With increased differentiation. while screening out other information. These subsystems can be arranged into a hierarchy of systems moving from less important to more important. and complex over time. Survival of the system is equally influenced by whether or not the targets themselves are appropriate. It is sometimes called deviation-amplifying feed back. "return to earth. The three major input factors are: . As Katz and Kahn say: “The basic principle is the preservation of the character of the system.Information is important to systems in several ways. it will signal whether the environment needs and/or wants buggy whips. that information is called positive feedback. Systems are bombarded by all kinds of information: some are useful." Here is another example of negative and positive feedback. This model depicts the organization as an input-throughput-output system.” Also. Another characteristic of open systems is steady state or dynamic homeostasis.2 Congruence among System Elements David Nadler and associates at Delta Consulting Group developed the congruence model for understanding organizational dynamics and change. The usefulness of the two concepts is that they demonstrate that it is not enough to merely measure our outputs versus the intended targets. Another characteristic of systems is equifinality. Positive feedback measures whether or not the purpose and goals are aligned with environmental needs. Say your company makes buggy whips. Subsystems exist within larger systems. the principle that there are multiple ways to arrive at a particular outcome or state – systems have multiple paths to goals. if a rocket ship traveling to the moon strays off its trajectory. Positive feedback comes from the environment. they usually ignore information about other industries such as electronics. organizations in the fast-food industry pay a lot of attention to information about their industry-nutrition. Negative feedback tells you if you are on track with your scheduled production output. Feedback is information from the environment about system performance. however. systems tend to get more elaborated. differentiated. competitors. this process is called differentiation. say.
which includes the organization’s culture informal rules and understandings. knowledge. unit/group level. Outputs are performance at the total organization level. You can use this model to analyze organizations with which you are familiar. which components are "not functioning correctly. perceptions. knowledge. fit) must be present among the system’s components’ for the organization to produce satisfactory outputs. formal organization. 6. and informal organization. performance will suffer. important events. performance will suffer. people. which imposes constraints and opportunities about what the organization can and can not do. and 2) Evaluating the "goodness of fit" or how well the elements "go together. . Elements of the organization per se are labeled strategy. such as capital." The premise is that alignment (harmony. If the strategy calls for entrepreneurial quickness and risk-taking and the formal organization is bureaucratic and highly centralized. and systems for performing the work. the tasks people perform to create products and service markets people.1) The environment. which includes skills. if people don’t have the skills and knowledge required to do the work. which includes formal structures. what the organization is trying to accomplish and how it plans to do it. and 3) History which consists of memories of past successes. and technology. In a company that is performing poorly. and critical decisions that still influence behaviour today. If the organization’s culture (informal organization) praises individual accomplishments and the work requires teamwork and collaboration. and how things really work (versus how they are supposed to work as defined by the formal organization). processes. 2) Resources available to the organization. and the workforce’s expectations. Fig. work.7: The Congruence Model Showing the Organization as a System The congruence model’s value is as an analytical tool for: 1) Assessing the characteristics and functioning of each of the elements. failures. performance will suffer." and which elements . and individual level. For example.
organizations must optimize both systems. Hanna writes: In the late 1960s a small team of consultants led by James Clark.socio-technical systems theory (STS) and open systems planning (OSP)-play an important role in organization development. It was the first attempt to help organizations methodically analyze the environmental demands and expectations placed on them and plan to successfully meet these demands and expectations. Systems models are essential for the practice of OD. Principles such as optimizing the social and technical systems. G. multi-skilled teams. STS is the principal conceptual foundation for efforts in work redesign and organization restructuring. The thesis of STS is that all organizations are comprised of two interdependent systems. Their technology became known as Open systems Planning (OSP).are poorly aligned? In companies showing outstanding performance. and others at the Tavistock Institute in the 1950s.3 Socio-technical Systems Theory and Open Systems Planning Two major variations of open systems theory. Fred Emery. to the workers doing the job.3. and . giving information and feedback to the people doing the work.KI Jayaram. training group members in multiple skills. and identifying core tasks help STS consultants structure organizations and tasks for maximum effectiveness and efficiency. 2) Developing scenarios of possible futures. and that changes in one system affect the other system. High-performance organizations almost always use principles from socio-technical systems theory. Charles Krone. and information to the point of action. Another important application of systems theory in organization development is open systems planning. two active segments of OD today. what is it about each element that causes that part of the system to function well and what are the characteristics of each element that cause all of them to fit together smoothly? The congruence model is an excellent diagnostic tool. controlling variance at the source. forming autonomous work groups. Socio-technical systems theory was developed by Eric Trist. To achieve high productivity and employee satisfaction. a social system and a technical system. and Will McWhinney developed a technology for addressing the interface between organization and the environment. 6. A number of design principles have been developed to implement socio-technical systems theory. that is. Open systems planning entails: 1) Scanning the environment to determine the expectations of external organizations and stake-holders. especially autonomous work groups (self-regulated teams or self-direct teams). both realistic (likely to happen if the organization continues on its current course) and ideal (what the organization would like to see happen).
6. 6. Senge believes that five disciplines must be mastered to create a learning organization: personal mastery. events.” In conclusion. Participation in OD programs is not restricted to elites or the top people. is the most important. the forces in the field at the time of the event are the relevant forces for analysis. from their activities. Viewing organizations from this perspective has several consequences. Without a systemic orientation. this combination is often used in designing high-performance organizations. This idea moves the practitioner away from analyzing historical events and toward examining contemporary events and forces. to change a system. there is no motivation to look at how the disciplines interrelate. and systems thinking. forces. because most phenomena have more than one cause. Most OD practitioners engaged in redesign projects use a combination of socio-technical systems theory and open systems planning.3. team learning. systems theory pervades the theory and practice of organization development. from diagnosis to intervention to evaluation. He says of systems thinking: “It is the discipline that integrates the disciplines. OD practitioners expect multiple effects. therefore. fusing them into a coherent body of theory and practice. Increased participation and empowerment . By enhancing each of the other disciplines. Third. building shared vision. and incidents are not viewed as isolated phenomena. First. a systems approach encourages analysis of events in terms of multiple causation rather than single causation. Of all these disciplines. mental models. systems thinking. but seen in relation to other issues. it is extended broadly throughout the organization. For example. one changes the system. not single effects. Second. according to field theory (Kurt Lewin). It keeps them from being separate gimmicks or the latest organization change fads. the fifth discipline. events and forces. issues. Learning organizations can cope effectively with rapidly changing environmental demands. not just its component parts.4 Participation of Empowerment One of the most important foundations of organization development is a participation/ empowerment model. And fifth. Fourth. changing one part of a system influences other parts.3) Developing action plans to ensure that a desirable future occurs. according to Peter Senge.4 Open Systems Thinking Open systems thinking is required for creating learning organizations. it continually reminds us that the whole can exceed the sum of its parts.
search conferences. To empower is to give someone power. personal initiative." is bottom-up and less controlling. reduce stress levels. is the more useful perspective. The other view. Empowerment meant trusting people and tolerating their imperfections. Robert Quinn and Gretchen Spreitzer found two vastly different views of empowerment. they must if personally connected to . Quinn and Spreitzer conclude: “Empowerment. employees must choose to be empowered. One view. is not something that management does to employees." is a top-down delegation of decision-making with clear boundaries and strict accountability that increases managerial control. Participation is a powerful elixir-it is good for people and performance. to exert influence. and the culture audit are all predicated on the belief that increased participation will lead to better solutions. They must see themselves as having freedom and discretion. The most important contrast between the two views involves the implicit but potentially volatile assumptions people make about trust and contro1. with its emphasis on risk-taking. produce better solutions to problems. then. which they call "mechanistic.have always been central goals and fundamental values of the field. team building. increase commitment to the organization. Research on group dynamics began in the 1940s and achieved exponential growth in the 1950s and 1960s. Researchers found that group dynamics work to overcome resistance to change. and greatly enhance acceptance of decisions. These pillars of OD practice are validated by both research and practice. OD interventions are basically methods for increasing participation. Rules of thumb such as "Involve all those who are part of the problem or part of the solution." and "Have decisions made by those who are closest to the problem. the organic approach unleashes talent and energy in people that are best channeled by providing clear guidelines and boundaries. and generally make people feel better about themselves and their worlds. They describe the organic view: "The other group of executives saw empowerment much differently. and to be responsible. For example. This research demonstrated that most people desire increased involvement and participation. survey feedback. The entire field of OD is about empowerment. and give more power to more people. called "organic. But both views contain valid ideas: for example." direct leaders to push decision-making lower in the organization. autonomous work groups. and change. Participation is an especially effective form of empowerment. to contribute their ideas. quality circles. treat those closest to the problem as the relevant experts. and growth. growth. involvement and participation energize greater performance. which is done by giving individuals the authority to make decisions. and empowerment in turn enhances performance and individual well-being. They believed that it was about risk-taking. but rather a mind-set that employees have about their roles in the organization. Participation enhances empowerment. While management can create a context that is more empowering. OD interventions are deliberately designed to increase involvement and participation by organization leaders and members. quality of work life programs." These authors believe the organic view. Further.
and practice attest to the central role teams play in organizational success. much individual behaviour is rooted in the socio-cultural norms and values of the work team. and explore ways to realize that potential. many tasks are so complex they cannot be performed by individuals. STS (socio-technical systems). If the team. and capable of having an impact on the system in which they are embedded. teams at 3M generate the hundreds of innovations that keep 3M ahead of its competition. Fourth. QCs (quality circles). process consultation. Teams and teamwork are among the "hottest" things happening in organizations today – gurus extol the virtues of teams. status.” 6. Third. Team Taurus developed Ford’s best-selling automobile. Synergy is a principal reason teams are so important. Teams and teamwork are "in.5 Team and Teamwork A fundamental belief in organization development is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. A second fundamental belief is that teams must manage their culture. that is. In this section. quality circles. HPWSs (high-performance work systems). . Second. The message of this section is that putting those empowered individuals into teams creates extraordinary effects on performance and satisfaction. A number of OD interventions are specifically designed to improve team performance. the effects on individual behaviour are immediate and lasting. Teams are important for a number of reasons: First. crossfunctional "design-build" teams developed the Boeing 777. recognition. HPOs (high-performance organizations). Teams at Motorola produced its bestselling cellular phones. the sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of the individual efforts of people working alone. The previous discussion focused on empowerment and concluded that the act of empowering individuals greatly increased their performance and satisfaction. inter-group team-building. and relationships if they are to be effective.the organization. processes. teams create synergy. Theory. teaming. and team-related acronyms abound-SDTs (self-directed teams). as a team. Team Saturn produced the Saturn automobile. we examine the potential of teams and teamwork. changes those norms and values. Examples are team-building. teams satisfy people’s needs for social interaction. research. confident about their abilities. systems. "The evidence is abundantly clear: Effective teams produce results far beyond the performance of unrelated individuals. and respectteams nurture human nature. people must work together to accomplish them. to name just a few. Teams and teamwork are part of the foundation of organization development. the noun team has become a verb.
and the like. team performance declines. Organizations using autonomous work groups or self-directed teams devote considerable time and effort to ensure that team members possess the skills to be effective groups. role negotiation technique. and others. and individuals are trained as group leaders and group facilitators. elevating goal 2) A results-driven structure 3) Competent team members 4) Unified commitment 5) A collaborative climate 6) Standards of excellence 7) External support and recognition Principled leadership. Investigators are discovering why some teams are successful while others are not. the crew of the USS Kitty Hawk. and responsibility charting. Larson and LaFasto studied a number of high-performance teams. All these characteristics are required for superior team performance. and set ever-higher goals. Larson and LaFasto found eight characteristics always present: 1) A clear. socio-technical systems programs. empowered teams are what the best organizations are using right now to outdistance the competition. When any one feature is lost. and that teamwork becomes more satisfying for team members. The net effect is that teams perform at increasingly higher levels. Tom Peters asserts in Liberation Management that cross-functional. Teams periodically hold team-building meetings. including collegiate football national champions. help each other. Larson and LaFasto also discovered that the most frequent cause of team failure was letting personal or political agendas take precedence over the clear and elevating team goal. people are trained in group dynamics and group problem-solving skills. Team-building activities are now a way of life for many organizations. cross-functional teams. that they achieve synergy. autonomous. to determine the characteristics that make them successful. Grid OD and techniques such as role analysis technique. These interventions apply to formal work teams as well as startup teams. Union Pacific Railroad. High-performance teams regulate the behaviour of team members. . He uses examples from EDS (Electronic Data Systems). Asea Brown Boveri. temporary teams. heart transplant surgical teams. find innovative ways around barriers.parallel learning structures.
flexible response. engage in genuine inquiry and experimentation. and initiate needed changes. and continuous learning. normal hierarchical considerations become obsolete for these project teams-you could be the boss of one team. High responsibility. deciding. The quality of work life programs of the 1970s and 1980s used parallel structures composed of union leaders. At Ford Motor Company. The charge to members of the parallel learning structure is to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. Parallel learning structures are a foundation of OD because they are prevalent in so many different OD programs. 6. you don’t have a parallel structure. It isn’t the supplemental structure that’s important. Dale had introduced this concept in 1974 under the label collateral organization and defined it as “a supplemental organization coexisting with the usual formal organization. and employees. Interestingly. In essence. Parallel learning structures are often the best way to initiate change in large bureaucratic organizations. Considerable experimentation with collateral organizations occurred in the 1970s and 1980s. Most socio-technical systems redesign efforts and open systems planning programs use parallel structures.7 A Normative – Re-educative Strategy of Changing . High-performance organizations often use parallel structures to co-ordinate self-directed teams. 6. projects will be performed by teams. talking.Titeflex. especially when the change involves a fundamental shift in the organization’s methods of work and/or culture. and acting differently than normally takes place at work. constitute another important foundation of organization development.” The purpose of the collateral organization is to deal with "ill-structured" problems the formal organization is unable to resolve. parallel structures are a vehicle for learning how to change the system. and countless other organizations to demonstrate the ability of small project teams to produce high quality. and report to one of your subordinates on another team. Projects are the work of the future.6 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel learning structures. What’s important is that people act in a way that promotes learning and adaptation. and then leading the process.” Parallel structures help people break free of the normal constraints imposed by the organization. If you don’t implement different norms and procedures. a steering committee and working groups were used to co-ordinate the employee involvement teams. Bushe and Shani say: “The key thing about parallel structures is that they create a bounded space and time for thinking. The most important and difficult task for the people creating the parallel learning structure is to create a different culture within it. clear objectives. and high accountability drive these project teams to outperform traditional organization structures on every measurable dimension. superior customer service. specially created organizational structures for planning and guiding change programs. managers.
Patterns of action and practice are supported – by socio-cultural norms and by commitments on the part of the individuals to these norms. The norms to be changed and the form of re-education are decided by the client system members. Chin and Benne suggest that a normative-re-educative. Chin and Benne describe three types of strategies for changing. And changes in normative orientations involve changes in attitudes. and will change if and when they come to realize change is advantageous to them. skills. OD clearly falls within the normativere-educative category. values. and together they define problems and seek solutions. and’ negative feelings are surfaced for "working through. based on the assumptions that people are rational. Chin and Benne indicate the nature of the normative-reductive strategy as follows: A second group of strategies we call normative-re-educative.Organization development involves change. Evaluated against these three change strategies. rather than the OD practitioner. The client system members define what changes and improvements they want to make. they impel a collaborative effort rather than a "doing something to" effort. The first type is empirical rational strategies. and it rests on a particular strategy for change that has implications for practitioners and organization members alike. not just changes in knowledge. and significant relationships. relationships and customary ways of doing things. These implications give clients considerable control over the situation. Anything hindering effective problem solving is brought to light and publicly examined. Sociocultural norms are supported by the attitude and value systems of individuals-normative outlooks which undergird their commitments. or intellectual rationales for action and practice. and change comes through re-education in which old norms are discarded and supplanted by new ones. and they give more options to both the clients and the practitioner. will occur only as the persons involved are brought to change their normative orientations to old patterns and develop commitments to new ones. strategy has the following implications for the practice of OD. anxieties." Solutions to problems are not a priori assigned to greater technical information but may reside in values. will follow their rational self-interest. The third set of strategies is the power-coercive strategies. that is. The second group of strategies is normative-re-educative strategies. information. The point here is that different strategies are available for effecting change. although often OD represents a combination of the normative-reeductive and the empirical-rational strategies. doubts. attitudes. Change in a pattern of practice or action. and OD is based primarily on a normative-re-educative strategy and secondarily on a rational-empirical strategy. according to this view. based on the assumption that change is compliance of those who have less power with the desires of those who have are power. the practitioner intervenes in a collaborative way with the clients. . These strategies build upon assumptions about human motivation different from those underlying the first. The rationality and intelligence of men are not denied. based on the assumptions that norms form the basis for behaviour.
norms can best be changed by focusing on the group. applied science or practice.8 Applied Behavioural Science This foundation of OD relates to the primary knowledge base of the field. for example. placing it in a classification scheme or typology. then the individual will be a deviate and either will come under pressure from the group to get back into line or will be rejected entirely. This process is customarily referred to as diagnosis and treatment. and skills in ongoing systems in collaboration with system members. or practice." applied science. not the individual.” Norms help determine individual behaviour and a normative-re-educative strategy of changing pervades the practice of OD. practices. Greenwood discusses the activities of the practitioner as follows: "The problem that confronts a practitioner is customarily a state of disequilibrium that requires rectification. the major leverage point for change is at the group level. failure negating it and thus requiring re-diagnosis. 6. The practitioner uses treatment as the empirical test of his diagnosis. The principles of diagnosis and of treatment constitute the principles of practice. by modifying a group norm or standards. on the basis of selected variables. and (2) "technology. the object of which is knowledge for its own sake. OD emphasizes the latter. A conventional distinction is made between (1) "pure" or basic science. on the basis of which he or she prescribes a solution that. behavioural science knowledge. success corroborating the diagnosis.” . Greenwood states: “The diagnostic and treatment typologies are employed together. The practitioner examines the problem situation. pressing problems. Each type description of the diagnostic typology contains implications for a certain type of treatment. hopefully. i. lawful patterns of events produce effectiveness and ineffectiveness." Both diagnosis and treatment consist of observing a situation and. re-establishes the equilibrium. The aim of this discussion is to look briefly at how behavioural science knowledge becomes applied behavioural science knowledge. the object of which is knowledge to solve practical. OD is the application of behavioural science knowledge. OD practitioners know about these patterns through research and theory.. Burke writes: “If one attempts to change an attitude or the behaviour of an individual without attempting to change the same attitude or behaviour in the group to which the individual belongs. Although human behaviour in organizations is far from an exact science. the treatment typology allows the practitioner to know what remedial efforts to apply to correct the problem.e.Because norms are socially accepted beliefs held by groups about appropriate and inappropriate behaviours. Thus. with their elaborations and implications constitute practice theory. On this point. The diagnostic typology allows the practitioner to know what category of situation he or she has examined. thereby solving the problem.
It is a type of action-research. Action research is a method that combines learning and doing – learning about the dynamics of organizational change. Action research is especially well-suited for planned change programs. and action planning based on the data. and doing or implementing change efforts. 6. Fig. problem-solving method that replicates the steps involved in the scientific method of inquiry underlies most OD activities. behavioural science research and two behavioural science theory. represent contributions from applied science." the OD practitioner works: first diagnosing the situation.From this "practice theory. Kurt Lewin. 6. the two top in puts. Action research involves three processes: data collection. had this to say about it: “The research needed for social practice can best be characterized as research for social management or social engineering. feedback of the data to the client system members. The two bottom inputs. it is a program of applying behavioural science to organizations. and finally evaluating the effects of the treatments.9 Action Research The action research model – a data-based. represent contributions from pure or basic science. practice research and practice theory. I am inclined to hold the opposite to be true. then selecting and implementing treatments based on the diagnosis.” Concluding Comments: . and research leading to social action… This by no means implies that the research needed is in any respect less scientific or "lower" than what would be required for pure science in the field of social events. who developed the concept of action research. form of applied behavioural science. a comparative search on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action.8: Composition of Applied Behavioural Science Organization development is both a result of applied behavioural science and a. perhaps more accurately.
6. A fundamental belief in OD is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements is the principle of Porras and Robertson model organizational change.” 5. . A _____________ is defined as “a set of elements standing in interaction. Taken collectively. Ralph Kilmann specified the critical leverage points for organizational change. _____________ means sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of individual efforts of members. 4. What are first-order and second order change according to Burke-Litwin Model of organizational change? Explain. Action research model combines learning and doing.10 Summary The foundations of organizational development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. In parallel learning structures members have to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization.11 Terminal Questions 1. Taken separately. The Burke-Litwin model emphasized on first-order and second-order change. they constitute the beginning of a theory of organization development and change that has enormous potential for improving organizational performance and individual development. 3. each is a powerful conceptual tool for thinking out and implementing change. OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals’ behaviours. Bring out the essence of “managing beyond the quick fix” model of organizational development. –––––––––– means moving to new level of behaviour. First—order change is also called ___________. Self Assessment Questions 1. 2. 2. –––––––––– gave the model “Beyond the Quick Fix”.These foundations of organization development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. Explain Kurt Lewin’s models and theories of planned organizational change. 6. 3. Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change the first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces and the second is the model of the change process. Systems theory views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment.
“Work teams are building blocks of organizational development.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. 6.1 2.3 5.Refer section 6. Refer section 6. Refer section 6. Synergy Answers to TQs: 1.2. Transactional change 4. Unfreezing 2.2.3 4.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture Culture and . Ralph Kilmann 3. Refer section 6. MU0002-Unit-07-Organization Climate Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Structure: 7.4.1 Introduction Objectives 7.2. System 5.2 3. Refer section 6.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . What are the features of systems theory of organizational development? 5.” Comment on this statement.
or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. organizational change must include not only changing structures and processes. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. despite the best-laid plans.6 Summary 7. 1986). The concept of culture is particularly important when attempting to manage organization-wide change.7 Terminal Questions 7. norms and tangible signs (artifacts) of organization members and their behaviors. 7. For example. for-profit corporation is quite different than that of a hospital which is quite different than that of a university. Objectives: After studying this unit. but everyone knows it when they sense it.7.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 7. Culture is comprised of the assumptions. Culture is one of those terms that’s difficult to express distinctly. etc. what they brag about. Martin and Meyerson. values.1 Introduction Basically.3 Types of Organization Culture. organizational culture is the personality of the organization.5 Developing and changing Organization Culture Self Assessment Questions 7. thinking. you will be able to: · Understand Organization Culture. · Describe different types of Organization Culture · Explain organization culture and effectiveness. discovered. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. Members of an organization soon come to sense the particular culture of an organization. what members wear. You can tell the culture of an organization by looking at the arrangement of furniture. but also changing the corporate culture as well. – similar to what you can use to get a feeling about someone’s personality. the culture of a large.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness 7. . Practitioners are coming to realize that. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving.
Some of the most readily agreed upon are the following: 1.· Discuss about developing and changing organization culture. they use common language. 6. and the way members of the organization conduct themselves with customers or other outsiders. Dominate value: These are major values that the organization advocates and expects the participants to share. Note that the Market organization is not one which is focused just on marketing. and in particular taking note of transaction cost. Which in many organizations come down to “Do not do too much. 7. 4. New-comers must learn those “ropes” in order to be accepted as full-fledged members of the group. Hierarchical leaders are typically coordinators and organizers who keep a close eye on what is happening. Organizational climate: This is an overall “feeling” that is conveyed by the physical layout. Hierarchies have respect for position and power. Rules: There are strict guidelines related to getting along in the organization.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture Organizational culture has a number of important characteristics. For many years. the way participants interact. processes and procedures. When organizational participants interact with one another. Typical examples are high product quality. Market The Market organization also seeks control but does so by looking outward. and rituals related to deference and demeanor.3 Types of Organization Culture Hierarchy The hierarchy has a traditional approach to structure and control that flows from a strict chain of command as in Max Weber’s original view of bureaucracy. 7. Observed behavioral regularities. Standards of behavior exist. Low absenteeism and high efficiency. 2. do not do too little?” 3. They often have well-defined policies. including guidelines on how much work to do. Philosophy: These are policies that set forth the organization’s beliefs about how employees and/or customers are to be treated. terminology. 5. internal and external are viewed in market . Norms. this was considered the only effective way of organizing and is still a basic element of the vast majority of organizations. but one where all transactions.
discovered. It may be defined as the ethos of a company (as US firms do) or the shared value and team sprit (as European firms prefer to define it). do still exist and are often communicated and inculcated socially. Transactions are exchanges of value.terms. One culture could be distinguished from another in terms of how some commonly shared human problems are addressed and the specific solutions that one sought (Trompenaars. Rules. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of . the adhocracy will rapidly form teams to face new challenges. It will use prototyping and experimenting rather than long. In contrast to Hierarchies. Rather than strict rules and procedures. but critical to shaping its behavior. although not necessarily documented. outputs and outcomes. Clan The Clan organization has less focus on structure and control and a greater concern for flexibility. Clan leaders act in a facilitative. Leaders in an adhocracy are visionary. 7. big-bang projects and development. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. 1993). shared goals. Adhocracy The Adhocracy has even greater independence and flexibility than the Clan. strongly driven by loyalty to one another and the shared cause. invisible to the naked eye. culture is like the DNA of an organization. which is necessary in a rapidly changing business climate. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. 1995) and how problems are solved in an organization. It has an inward focus and a sense of family and people work well together. value flows between people and stakeholders with minimal cost and delay.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness It is reflected in how things are done (Flanagan. In an efficient market organization. Leaders in market cultures are often hard-driving competitors who seek always to deliver the goods. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. people are driven through vision. Where market success goes to those with greatest speed and adaptability. clans often have flat organizations and people and teams act more autonomousl. supportive way and may take on a parental role. Market cultures are outward looking. affecting the performance of every-one within the culture in positive or negative ways. In biological terms. innovative entrepreneurs who take calculated risks to make significant gains.
from the basis of its policies and action. The set of basic assumptions evolve into values artifacts and norms in terms of which an organization culture may be examined and understood. The various approaches are judgmental and open to question. Organization Effectiveness Organizational effectiveness. and procedures. Artifacts: The visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization such as: · Its structure. there is often contradiction in various approaches. the way they dress etc. These are the essential and enduring tenets of an organization. 1986). plaques. productivity. IBM norms dictate that employees should actively listen and respond to customer demands and complaints. rules. the jargon they use. Though a large volume of literature is available on the concept and working of organizational effectiveness. individually and collectively. its core value are limited to a few in number. and are generally not compromised for short-term benefits or financial gains. Values: These are the social principles. etc. thinking. goals. systems and subsystems. Thus. · The observable behavior of its members (the way they talk. norms. is defined and conceptualized in different ways. · Public documents it releases and media reports and stories about it.perceiving.the informal rules of the fame telling employees what they are supposed to be saying. Though an organization espouses a series of values. or standards held by members of an organization. believing. and shaping organization values is difficult as values relate more to employee emotions and feeling (affective dimension) than to their rational thinking (cognitive dimension) Norms: These are a significant element of the organization’s social environment and evolve of behavior. For example. and doing. · Its rituals. various terms such as efficiency. They are reflected in the core capabilities of a company. Martin and Meyerson. communicating. the personality of the organization). Identifying. symbols. and no unanimity is found in different approaches. also called as organizational success or growth. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. reflecting what is important in the organization and determining how the organization ought to be (the ethos. and what is right and what is wrong. Values evolve out of the basic assumption and form the core (or heart) of the culture. .
The intervening variables may be divided into two broad categories: (i) the intervening attitudinal. and perceptual cluster. organizational growth. These causal variables include only those independent variables which can be altered or changed by the organization and its management.which are useful in discussing organizational effectiveness over time. intervening and end result. the loyalties. and they tend to be long-term goals. and earnings.. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and management’s policies. From this point of view. to denote organizational effectiveness. the organizational analysis is incomplete for a practicing manager unless the factors underlying effectiveness are identifying. Though each individual’s effectiveness is significant but perhaps the most important aspect of effectiveness is its relationship to the entire organization. motivational. and (ii) the intervening behavioral cluster. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and its management. attitudes. Grouping variables into these categories aids greatly in the correct interpretation of the data and their use for diagnostic and other purposes. motivations. skills. e. communication.5 Developing and Changing Organization Culture How Organizational Cultures Start Although organizational cultures can develop in a number of different ways. 1.g. the process usually involves some version of the following steps: . business and leadership strategies. End – result Variables: End-result variable are those factors which are caused by causal and intervening variable and are often in terms of the factors in which managers are interested or measure their effectiveness. costs.profitability. and perceptions of all members and their collective capacity for effective interaction. Causal Variables: Causal variables are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. Likert states that the intervening variables reflect the internal state and health of the organization. 7. These variables have been classified by Likert into three groups-causal. 3. Intervening Variables: Intervening variables are those factors which are reflected as the internal state of organization. are often used interchangeably. This is one part of effectiveness that many managers overlook because it emphasis long-term potential as well as short-term performance. decisions. performance goals. 2. end-result variables are the dependent variables which reflect the achievements in the organization such as its productivity. Intervening variables are concerned with building and developing the organization. and behaviour. scrap loss. Likert states that causal variables are independent variables which determine the course of developments within an organization and the results achieved by the organization. Many of these variables are caused by causal variables. there are numerous variables. Whatever the criteria adopted for organizational effectiveness. According to Likert. and decision-making.
others are brought into the organization. and a common history begins to be built. These factors from the two cultures include the size. Even through some firms have had a culture in place to anticipate change. all in this core group believe that the idea is a good one. A single person (founder) has an idea for a new enterprise. moving to a new culture or changing old cultures can be quite difficult: a case can even be made that it really can’t be done successfully?. the current environmental context has undergone drastic change and either the organization must adapt to these new conditions or it may not survive. the industry in which the partners come from and now reside. obtaining patents. Predictable obstacles include entrenched skills. and so on. Politics. Structure. and energy that will be required. In addition. is workable. At this point. Where does the power and managerial decision making really reside? Corporate cultures range from autocratic extremes to total employee empowerment. money. 2.1. roles. The founder brings in one or more other key people and creates a core group that shares a common vision with the founder. locating space. and whether products and/or services are involved. 3. That is. if the appropriate organization culture is in place. 2. relationships. . and history of two firms. management. Changing Organizational Culture Sometimes an organization determines that its culture has to be changed. For example. the geographic location. powerful stakeholders such as unions. Staffs. and is worth the investment of time. is worth running some risks for. New product development and information technology is changing so rapidly that any example would be soon out-of –date. The case of Mergers and Acquisitions The clash between the two cultures in a merger or acquisition can be focused into three major areas: 1. The founding core group beings to act in concert to create an organization by raising funds. 4. and structures that work together to reinforce traditional cultural patterns. or even customers may support the existing culture. However. incorporating. then such rapid change can be welcomed and accommodated with as little disruption and as few problems as possible. age. and how this plays out among the partners will be important to cultural compatibility. building.
Move quickly and decisively to build momentum and to defuse resistance to the new culture. Self Assessment Questions 1. Set realistic goals that impact on the bottom line. 7. and patterns of daily behavior. the “culture contract” that individuals have bought into to guide their day-to-day thoughts. Include employees in the culture change process. Expect to have some problems and find people who would rather move than change with the culture and. attitudes. Simple guidelines such as the following can be helpful. so that they are able to interact well with the organizational personnel. _____are the visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization. These emotions will be a major input into the clash or compatibility of the two cultures. if possible. so that a consistent message is delivered from all management team members. 9. 5. 2. Take out all trappings that remind the personnel of the previous culture. 3. 2. 8. take these losses early. 1. Recruit outside personnel with industry experience. 6. 7.3. ___________are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. Emotions. Stay the course by being persistent. especially when making changes in rules and processes. The personal feelings. Guidelines for change Despite the significant barriers and resistance to change. 4. ________cultures are outward looking. 3. Assess the current culture. commitment. organizational cultures can be managed and changed over time.6 Summary . are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. Make changes from the top down. habits. This attempt to change culture can take many different forms.
3 3. Refer section 7. Refer section 7. 7. Causal variables Answers to TQs: 1. 7.2 2.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. 3. effectiveness through adaptive-coping cycle has been discussed.goal approach. Explain the characteristics of organization culture. Effectiveness of an organization can be increased through economic man approach and administrative man approach. 2. Finally. system-resource approach. Discuss the development and change of organizational development. . Organizations to be successful must be efficient and effective. behavioural approach.Organizational effectiveness is the degree to which organization is successful in accomplishing its goals.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .7 Terminal Questions 1. intervening variables and end-result variables and there exists interrelationship among these variables. Briefly explain different types of organizational culture. Organizational effectiveness can be measured through various approaches. Artifacts 2. Factors in organizational effectiveness include casual variables. Refer section 7. Market 3. and strategic constituencies approach.
2 Power Defined and Explored 8. Organization Development Unit-08. and for change to occur in an organization.9 Summary 8. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. That criticism was essentially correct for many years although it is less valid . must be understood if one is to be effective in organizations.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored 8.MU0002-Unit-08Power. indisputable facts of organizational life.1 Introduction Politics and Power and politics.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice of OD 8.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 8.7 Operating in a Political Environment 8.10 Terminal Questions 8.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power 8.3 Two Faces of Power 8. In this unit. As Warner Burke observes: "Organization development signifies change.8 Acquiring and using Power Skills Self Assessment Questions 8. we examine power and politics in relation to organization development. power must be exercised.” Organization development has been criticized for not taking into account power in organizations.1 Introduction Objectives 8.Power. Politics and Organization Development Structure: 8.
and outcomes favoring one party over the other. and behaviours of people. the act or ability of influencing others.” “A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would otherwise not do. Power-in-action may . Without leadership (power) directed toward warfare. you will be able to: · Define power and politics in organizations. Potential power is the capacity to do so. and organizational activities. One person exerts power over another to the degree that he is able to exact compliance as desired.’ To have power is to be able to get desired things done. We therefore define interpersonal power as the ability to get one’s way in a social situation." Analyzing these definitions shows some common elements: effectance-getting one’s way. The French word ‘pouvoir’ stands for both the noun ‘power’ and the verb ‘to be able. The phenomenon of power is ubiquitous. · Acquire skills to handle power and politics in organizations. humankind would not have the standard of living it does today. · Explain theories about the sources of power. 8. financial. but kinetic power is the act of doing so. Without leadership (power) in medical. and repression. spiritual. Without influence (power) people would have no cooperation and no society. to effect outcomes.2 Power Defined and Explored "Power is the intentional influence over the beliefs. One goal of this unit is to advance our understanding of the role of power in OD and the role of OD in a power setting.today." “Power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. emotions. humankind would not have much of the misery it does today." "Power is defined in this unit simply as the capacity to effect (or affect) organizational outcomes. the necessity of social interaction between two or more parties. confiscation. Recent years have seen a sizable outpouring of theory and research on power and politics from which OD practitioners have derived implications and applications for the field but we are still in the early stages of knowing how power and organization development should be related. political. Objectives: After this studying this unit.actions and the decisions that precede them. technological. · Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD.
How do some people come to possess power? How is power generated. In fact. persuading-these are examples of positive uses of power. or positive.take many forms. not the possession of power as such. It is especially salient in coordinated activities such as those found in organizations. Patchen studied organizational decision making and found that coercive tactics were "noticeable chiefly by their absence" while problem solving and consensus seeking were much more prevalent. . the negative face of power is characterized by a primitive. The negative face of power seeks to dominate and control others." · Salancik and Pfeffer’s "Strategic-Contingency Model of Power." · Mintzberg’s Observations on the Genesis of Power in Organizations. selling. however. This positive face of power enables others to reach their goals as well as lets the person exercising power reach his or her goals. it is through the use of power that things get done in the world. for organizations to function. The positive face of power is characterized by a socialized need to initiate. an authority or power dimension is required. According to him. forcing. In most organizations the positive face of power is much more prevalent than the negative face of power. 8. being exercised. Roberts came to a similar conclusion in her study of "collective power" and "competitive power." Her research in four organizations showed both kinds of power. influencing. coercing-these are examples of negative uses of power.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power Power exists in virtually all social situations. absolute power corrupts absolutely. Leading. influence. or acquired? In this unit. and lead. with collective. 8. bestowed." A moment’s reflection. unsocialized need to dominate others. We think this distinction provides a good insight into the concept of power. McClelland observed that while power has a negative connotation for most people. Crushing. Power per se is probably neither good nor bad although Lord Acton observed that "power tends to corrupt. power being the predominant mode.3 Two Faces of Power David McClelland proposed an important distinction when he identified "two faces of power" – positive and negative. the positive face of power seeks to empower self and others." · French and Raven’s "Bases of Social Power. both positive and negative. we will examine four different views about who gets power and how: · Emerson’s "Power-Dependence theory. hurting. suggests that many problems with power stem from the goals of persons with power and the means they use.
Expert power – power based on the powerholder possessing expert knowledge or expertise needed by the other. Richard Emerson states that "the dependence of Actor A upon Actor B is (1) directly proportional to A’s motivational investment in the goals mediated by B. when the net balance for us is negative. In this theory. that is. Closely related to these ideas is the classic statement by John R. to give something negatively valued by the other. Viewed in this light. praise. to give something valued by the other. Informational power is a form of expert power where the powerholder possesses important facts or information needed by the other. goals. that is. blame. Referent power – power based on the power-receiver having an identification with (attraction to. Reward power – power based on the ability of the powerholder to reward another. information. and desired by the other. We enter into and continue in exchange relationships when what we receive from others is equivalent to or in excess of what we must give to others. French and Bertram Raven on "the bases of social power." In other words. P. power. 4. we will continue the exchange relationship. 2. rejection. . The sociologist. respect. giving someone power over us is the commodity we exchange when we are dependent on that person for something we want. Power-dependence theory is related to a broader framework of social interaction called social exchange theory. that person has power over us. we will terminate or alter the relationship. Legitimate power – power based on everyone’s belief that the powerholder has a legitimate right to exert influence and that the power-receiver has a legitimate obligation to accept the influence. or bases. attraction. rewards) that are controlled by one party. and (2) inversely proportional to the availability of those goals to A outside of the A-B relation. The components of this theory are a social relation between two parties and resources (commodities." These authors suggested five sources. of social power as follows: 1. and so forth. which posits that what goes on between persons is an exchange of social commodities: love. if a person has something we want badly and we cannot get it any other place. or feeling of oneness with) the power holder. hate.Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. 5. power belongs to those persons who control or mediate desired commodities. 3. influence. Social interaction represents an exchange of social goods and services. When the net balance for us is positive. Coercive power – power based on the ability of the powerholder to punish another. Exchange theory and power-dependence theory are quite compatible with the ideas proposed by French and Raven.
"is built on the premise that organizational behavior is a power game in which various players. that power-in-action requires will and skill. . knowledge. control of a body of knowledge. control of a resource. second. the unions. first. The important aspects of Mintzberg’s theory are that the sources of power derive from possession of a commodity desired by others. indeed. control of a technical skill. for power in the hands of the critical problem solvers helps the organization cope with the various realities it faces. Henry Mintzberg has developed a theory of organizational power drawn from the organization theory literature and his own creative synthesis abilities. through the placement of allies in key positions. the five possible bases of power are. or departments) most important for solving the organization’s most critical problems. units.others-in this case." These authors view organizational power as a good thing. being in control of critical skills. these four views of the sources of power are remarkably similar – power stems from possession of or mediation of desired resources. An organization has many potential influencers. third. and so forth. This theory. the influencer must have both the "will" and the "skill" to use it. and. suppliers. This theory. the ability to solve critical problems or exigencies-anything that creates dependence of one actor or set of actors on another. and through the definition of organizational problems and policies. seek to control the organization’s decisions and actions. like the ones discussed previously. the special expertise needed for the organization’s survival-have power. the top executives. customers. In summary. All of these must be critical to the organization. the managers. such as the board of directors. to enhance their own survival through control of scarce critical resources.The strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power in organizations accrues to the subunits (individuals. According to Mintzberg. called influencers. The fourth basis is legal prerogatives-being given exclusive rights to impose choices. or information. used by all who have it. coupled with 2) The expenditure of energy in a 3) Politically skillful way. A fifth basis of power is access to those who have power based on the first four bases. and that the organization is the context for the exercise of power. supports the notion that those who have something highly valued by." The three basic conditions for the exercise of power are 1) Some source or basis of power. regulators. In addition to a base of power. These critical problems are generally "uncertainties" posed by the environment. Salancik and Pfeffer further suggest how power is used: "Power is used by subunits. the employees. The resources may be ability to reward and punish.
These key areas are the battlefields where actors win and lose. and a socialized need to lead. a tendency to view situations in win-lose terms-what I win. We are inclined to consider politics as neither good nor bad per se but believe that politics.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice OD . one gains a quick understanding of the overall "political climate" of an organization by studying its methods of resource allocation. you must lose-rather than win-win terms. treating it as informal power. they are where the "goods" are distributed and the goals decided. 8. has two faces. Likewise we also treat authority as a subset of power. the power vested in office. The positive face is characterized by a balanced pursuit of self-interest and the interests of others. Both relate to getting one’s way-effectance. The negative face of politics is characterized by extreme pursuit of self-interest. like power. a relative absence of the tactics of fighting. formal power. Both relate to pursuit of self-interest and overcoming the resistance of others. unsocialized needs to dominate others. we view politics as a subset of power. initiate. For our purposes. Analyzing these definitions suggests that the concepts of power and politics are similar. and how”.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored Harold Lasswell defined “politics simply as the study of who gets what. viewing situations in win-win terms as much as possible. One important feature in these definitions should be examined further. In fact.8. when. Thus. the capacity to get things done by virtue of the position held. “Organizational politics involve those activities taken within organizations to acquire. and predominant use of the tactics of fighting-secrecy. organizational politics is power-in-action in organizations. surprise. and conflict resolution processes. conflict resolution. illegitimate in nature. engaging in open problem solving followed by action and influencing. holding hidden agendas. resource allocation. and choosing among alternative means and goals. and influence others. it is engaging in activities to get one’s way. the last two definitions view politics as illegitimate or unsanctioned activities. The first three definitions treat politics as a neutral set of activities. deceiving. “Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the selfinterest of individuals or groups”. “Organizational politics is the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain ends through non-sanctioned influence means”. develop and use power and other resources to obtain one’s preferred outcomes in a situation in which there is uncertainty about choices”. but in this sense. withholding information. Organizational politics tend to be associated with decision-making.
Valid. being one aspect of the positive face of power. The role of the OD practitioner is that of a facilitator. and promoting individual and organizational competence are part of the foundation of organization development. thereby making the negative face of power less prevalent and/or necessary.We have discussed a number of ideas concerning power and politics. Virtually. methods. increases the amount of power available to organization members. In this section we will attempt to integrate those concepts with organization development and offer advice to the OD practitioner for dealing with the political realities found in organizations. but not with the negative face of power. OD interventions do not deny or attempt to abolish the reality of power in organizations. informed choice. it is instead a rational problem-solving approach that is incompatible with extreme poweroriented situations. collaboration. provides a service that the organization is free to "buy" or "not buy. second. and educator. Emphasis on power equalization stems from two beliefs: first." The facilitator or educator role is incompatible with a political activist role because cooperation requires one set of behaviors and competition requires a different set of behaviors. strengths. Not only is organization development not a power/political intervention strategy. OD interventions typically generate valid. problem solving is usually superior to power coercion as a way to find solutions to problematic situations. public data are indispensable-for problem solving but anathema for organizational politics. and expertise. like all consultants. the "interventionist" has three primary tasks: (1) to generate valid useful information. fact-finding. The OD consultant. We know of no OD interventions designed to increase coercion or unilateral power. openness. These values are congruent with rational problem solving and incongruent with extremely political modes of operating. they enhance the positive face of power. and effective pursuit of goals while decreasing reliance on the negative faces of power and politics. not politics. individual dignity. organization development represents an approach and method to enable organization members to go beyond the negative face of power and politics. and weaknesses. his or her program. problem solver. public data about the organization’s culture. The practitioner is not a political activist or power broker. power equalization. Cobb and Margulies caution that OD practitioners can get into trouble if they move from a facilitator role to a political role. "Power equalization" has long been described as one of the values of organization development. and by so doing adds power to the organization. In summary. collaboration. OD interventions increase problem-solving. This major . as we discussed earlier. and (3) to promote the client’s internal commitment to the choices made. rather. catalyst. OD values are consistent with the positive face of power. as a preferred way to get things accomplished. processes. co-operation. For example. But organization members are free to accept or reject the practitioner. all OD interventions promote problem-solving. The practitioner works to strengthen skills and knowledge in the organization. (2) to promote free. According to Chris Argyris. and his or her values. Values such as trust.
3. and possibly referent power (others may identify with and be attracted to the consultant). Sponsorship: "Organization development groups will gain power to the extent that they have sponsorship. Stature and credibility: Beer notes that power accrues to those who have been successful and effective. in powerful places. it will be strong externally. 6. Michael Beer has identified additional means by which an OD group can gain and wield power in organizations: 1. 5. and the roles of OD practitioners. Political access and sensitivity: Cultivating and nurturing multiple relationships with key power figures in the organization will ensure timely information and multiple sources of support. Resource management: Power accrues to those who control resources-in this case. Group support: If the OD group is strong internally. followed by some rules of thumb for the OD practitioner. expert power (the consultant possesses expert knowledge)." 4. preferably multiple sponsorship."34 This maxim has been recognized for years under the heading of "get top-level support for the program. First. Paying attention to these sources of power will enhance the likelihood of success of OD programs. Early success in the OD program and its usefulness to key managers of the organization helps promote this reputation. According to the framework of French and Raven. Success leads to credibility and stature. These sources of influence produce a substantial power base that will enhance the likelihood of success. 8. If the OD group is cohesive and free of internal dissention. . it will gain more power. organization development practitioners operate from a potentially strong power base they can use to advantage.7 Operating in a Political Environment We will present some general observations on operating in a political environment. acceptability. the OD consultant possesses power from the following bases: legitimate power (the OD program and consultant are authorized by the organization’s decision makers). the technology. the resources of OD expertise and ability to help organizational subunits solve their pressing problems. Competence: Demonstrated competence is the most important source of power. and ability to gain organizational support. 2.strength of OD derives from the strategy of change. informational power (the consultant has a wealth of information about the strengths and weaknesses of the organization). the values.
Sometimes OD practitioners overlook that they are hired by others. constructive social relationships. Being of value to multiple powerholders rather than a single one both increases support and reduces the likelihood that the program will become the target of political activities. those issues vital to the organization’s success. counseling. Many OD interventions promote win-win solutions for conflict situations. Each is derived from one general principle: Mind your own business. OD consultants have a formal or informal contractual agreement with managers to help them do what they are trying to do-better. OD programs become desired commodities when they are instruments that allow individuals and organizations to reach their goals.What advice is available for OD practitioners who want to operate more effectively in a political environment? Several rules of thumb are implied by the fact that power accrues to persons who control valued resources or commodities. The role of the OD consultant is to help others upon request. OD programs should be results-oriented. experience. Skills such as listening. and showing appreciation for the strengths of others are components of interpersonal competence. When the OD program serves the needs of top executives. Rule Four: Create win-win solutions. problem solving. usually managers. which is to help someone else solve his or her major problems. Organizations are social systems in which members have both a history and a future of interacting. The nature of organizations and the nature of organization development suggest this rule. Rule Two: Make the OD program itself a desired commodity. Another way the OD program becomes a desired commodity is by focusing on important issues. to help them achieve their goals and solve their problems. communicating. . the manager will vigorously defend it. Rule One: Become a desired commodity. Rule Three: Make the OD program a valued commodity for multiple powerful people in the organization. and expertise. and effective conflict management techniques are required to enhance stable. both as a person and as a professional. Beer and Walton argue that organization development should move from being practitioner centered to being manager-centered. it gains an aura of respect and protection that sets it above most political entanglements. A valuable by-product of this fact is that if the program runs into political turbulence. The preceding rules of thumb describe ways to increase or solidify one’s power base. Becoming a desired commodity as a person means being interpersonally competent and trustworthy. OD practitioners are likely to have high interpersonal competence by virtue of their training. Good OD practitioners will have learned and practiced these skills. coaching. not the OD consultant. OD professionals who are skilled in conflict management techniques and OD programs that encompass conflict resolution activities become valued commodities. Rule Five: Mind your own business. The following rules describe ways to avoid becoming involved in one’s own or in others’ political struggles. The OD program belongs to the manager.
yet legitimate means of acquiring power. not content. Organizational politics revolve around decisions: Should we seek Goal A or Goal B? Should we use Means X or Means Y? Should we promote Mary or John? The proper role of OD consultants is to help decision makers by providing them with good decision-making processes. Table 8.Rule Six: Mind your own business. As shown in the figure. but that does not mean practitioners must be naive or incompetent in the political arena. negotiations the nature of power and politics. Networking is recognized as a potent. which is to be an expert on process. Earlier we stated that the OD practitioner should learn as much as possible about bargaining. Attention to these rules can save OD practitioners time and energy that can be more profitably invested in the OD program. dealing directly with powerholders and decision makers.1: Power Base and Power Strategy Connection Individual Power Bases Knowledge Strategies for Success Playing It Straight . 8. One carries out such a strategy by participating in alliances and coalitions. while at the same time increasing his or her usefulness to the organization’s powerholders. such behavior is often interpreted as politically motivated. the strategy and tactics of influence. The authors propose adding the "using social networks" strategy to their repertoires. and the characteristics and behaviors of powerholders. Three successful power strategies are "playing it straight." "using social networks. Illegitimate behavior causes others to try to exert greater control over the situation. Abiding by this rule keeps the consultant from becoming entangled in politics. and using contacts for information. Illegitimate behavior encroaches on others’ legitimate "turf. Rule Seven: Mind your own business because to do otherwise is to invite political trouble. others’ support. A subtle phenomenon is involved here: when people engage in illegitimate behavior. and personality characteristics. not by getting involved in the answers. The principle is simple but powerful: know your legitimate business and stick to it. thereby greatly expanding practitioner influence.8 Acquiring and Using Power Skills The OD practitioner is neither power activist nor power broker. and educator." which arouses defensive actions. We could propose more rules of thumb. We believe the legitimate role of the OD practitioner is that of facilitator. but these give the flavor of the issues one must consider when operating in a political environment. not power activist or power broker." OD practitioners have typically pursued a "playing it straight" strategy as their sole means of exerting power. viable. catalyst. problem solver. individual power derives from knowledge." and "going around the formal system.
In this model. then utilize a facilitative OD process in which the powerholders work on strategic business issues using consensus decision making to develop a corporate strategy.· Expertise · Information · Tradition Others’ Support · Use data to convince · Focus on target group · Be persistent Using Social Networks · Alliances and coalitions · Deal with decision maker · Contacts for information Going Around Formal System · Work around roadblocks · (Don’t) use organization rules Political access Staff support Personality Charisma Reputation Professional credibility Finally. personal attraction. Whetton and Cameron’s model is shown in following figure. The four stages are: Phase I Consolidating Power to Prepare for Change Phase ll Focusing Power on Strategic Consensus Phase Ill Aligning Power with Structure and People Phase IV Realizing Power through leadership and Collaboration These stages are the means the OD consultant uses to "take the high road" mentioned in the previous quotation-build a power base. Personal power. the authors propose a four-stage model for using the OD process to help the power elite transform the organization in ways beneficial for all concerned. personal power and position power. (Legitimacy refers to abiding by and promoting the values of the organization. The power structure will realize that collaborative power is preferable to manipulation and deception. criticality-how important one’s job is flexibility-the amount of discretion in the job. in turn. which in turn will protect the interests of all concerned. This practical. a person’s power comes from two main sources. influence key powerholders to accept the OD program. arises from expertise. even those of little power. visibility-how much one’s work is seen by . how-to book on power and organization development is well worth studying. effort.) Position power derives from five sources: Centrality-access to information in a communication network. and legitimacy.
Having power is one thing. “One of the most important ways of gaining power in an organization is by establishing a broad network of task and interpersonal relationships.influential people. Usually reason is the preferred strategy. and reciprocity can be useful when reason fails. Reciprocity refers to exchange of favors. Indeed. reciprocity. (2) selecting the proper influence strategy. one investigation of the determinants of effective management performance concluded that a key factor distinguishing high and low performers was the ability to establish informal relationships via networks”. and (3) empowering others. According to these authors. and retribution. Fig. and relevance-how important one’s task is in relation to organizational priorities." Three things are involved in converting power into influence: (1) resisting other people’s inappropriate influence attempts. Reason refers to persuasion by facts." And. actually using it to get things done is another. Networks are critical to effective performance for one compelling reason: Except for routine jobs.1: Model of Power and Influence Networking is used to increase both personal power and position power. They write: "Influence entails actually securing the consent of others to work with you in accomplishing an objective. no one has the necessary information and resources to accomplish what’s expected of them. 8. Whetton and Cameron suggest . Retribution refers to coercion and threats. Retribution is not recommended except in unusual cases. power-in-use is called influence. Three influence strategies can be used to influence others-reason. "Power is converted into influence when the target individual consents to behave according to the desires of the power holder.
8. 8. 2. Self Assessment Questions 1. collaborative work environment. Organizational power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. –––––– is the intentional influence over the beliefs. and are amenable to positive control. –––––––––– is made up of Charisma. (3) reward and encourage others in visible and personal ways. when. Methods for empowering others are the following: (1) involve subordinates in assigning work. (2) provide a positive. Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self-interest of individuals or groups. and how. –––––––– defined politics as the study of who gets what. Power and politics are similar in nature.several means of resisting others’ influence attempts such as confrontation and using countervailing power. Define power in an organizational context and explain types of power. Power and politics are similar in nature. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. Our suggestions for using power to operate effectively in organizations may help practitioner avoid the perils and pitfalls of power that "go with the territory" of organizational change.. Organizational politics is defined as the study of who gets what. Strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power that accrues to the individuals. _____________ has identified two faces of power. emotions or behaviour of people. 4. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. 5. arise from known conditions. and (6) build on success. Power can be either positive or negative. Power based on the power-receiver having identification with the power holder is called ––– ––––––––. . and are amenable to positive control. units or departments is most important in solving organizational problems. (4) express confidence (5) foster initiative and responsibility. Concluding Comments: In this unit. 3. reputation and professional credibility. arise from known conditions. we have examined power and politics with the goals of understanding the phenomena and deriving implications for OD practitioners.9 Summary Power and politics are inseparable facts of organizational life.10 Terminal Questions 1. when and how.
Refer section 8.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. 4.1 Introduction . Define organization politics.4 3. Describe briefly various theories of power.2. Referent power 4.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer section 8. Power 2. Harold Lasswell 5. Personality Answers to TQs: 1. Identify the bases of individual power and the respective strategies for their success. 3. 8. McClelland 3. 5. Refer section 8.5 4.2 2. Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD.6 5. MU0002-Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Structure: 9. Refer section 8. Refer section 8.
Objectives: .2 Meaning and Definitions 9. actions.9 Reengineering Self Assessment Questions 9.8 Total Quality Management 9.Objectives 9. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing.6 Quality of Work Life Projects 9. In this dynamic and fluid environment.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 9. organizational problems may repeat. One important intervention technique is Technostructural interventions because these are related to technical and structural issues such as how to divide labour and how to coordinate department which is related to Restructuring organization.3 Socio Technical Systems 9.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival.7 Parallel Learning Structures 9. These methods are receiving increasing attention in Organization Development. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. how to produce product or service which is related to Employee involvement approaches and how to design work is related to Work design.4 Management By Objectives 9. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future.11 Terminal Questions 9.10 Summary 9.5 Quality Circles 9. These programs are derived from careful diagnosis. An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. These interventions vary from standardized program that have been developed and sometimes tailored program.
their attractiveness is also increased by the following advantages: 1. From a benefit cost analysis. 3. and more . Organization Acceptance of Change. · Discuss the parallel Learning Structures. Managers and administrators are notoriously pragmatic. Weeks and months of group effort are saved. Downsizing associated with restructuring. 9. Greater Predictability. · Explain Reengineering. · Explain Total Quality Management. change can be introduced relatively rapidly by top management. 2. Advantages of Structural Interventions There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. Succession Doesn’t Destroy Change Effort. This normally is a reasonable. Structure changes are normally “institutionalized” and less subject to this problem.After studying this unit. Structural changes are consistent with their operating styles and are generally understood by practitioners. meaning the major costs are associated with analysis and design of change. Once diagnosed and an appropriate correction developed.2 Meaning and Definitions Structural Intervention is related to the changes that relate elements of organization to one another. you will be able to: · Explain the Socio technical change. One problem with behavioral/ group interventions is the tendency for new managers or employees to discount or fail to continue the change program. The cost of structural change is generally “front-end” loaded. In addition. 5. 4. organization theory. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. · Discuss the Management By Objectives · Explain the Quality Circles. Cost is Low. includes removing or adding layers to hierarchy. Basic reinforcement theories. Rapidity of change. Changes can involve decentralization and centralization. and OD practice enables the change agent to estimate the probable consequences of the change.
critically. It endeavors to re-design the organization’s structure. 1976. Though there are some variations in the practices of MBO and. Pasmore. is a technique and system which helps in improving organizational performance. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives.3 Socio Technical Systems Socio-technical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. 1988): • Determining the environmental demands • Creating a vision statement • Educating organizational members • Creating the change structure • Conducting socio-technical analysis • Formulating re-design proposals · Defining the scope of the system to be re-designed · Implementing recommended changes · Evaluating changes 9. it has been defined as follows: MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. its definitional aspect.4 Management by Objectives Management by objectives (MBO). Since then.” . a predictable cost Implementation of group strategies involves significant long-term man-hour and consultant costs. though not strictly an OD intervention in the sense in which other interventions have been discussed so far. many business and nonbusiness organizations have adopted this in some form or the other. Cummings. processes and functions to create a balance between the organization and its changing external environment. 9. The term MBO was coined by Drucker in 1964 when he emphasized the concept of managing by results. It could involve the following steps (Foster. therefore. 1967. Its basic idea has been derived from the concept of participative goal setting as a technique of OD.
etc. Resource allocation. MBO is also concerned with determining what these results and resources should be. MBO employs several techniques but it is not merely the sum total of all these techniques. Periodic review of performance is an important feature of MBO. Objectives are established for all the levels of the organization. 4. its subsystems and people. Whereas the various techniques of management help in measurement of results in resources. It emphasises initiative and active role by the manger who is responsible for achieving objectives. As an approach to management. A management technique can be applied in selected parts of the organization and will have limited implications for its other parts.” Based on the definition of MBO. delegation of authority. In fact. The MBO is characterized by the participation of concerned managers in objective setting and performance reviews. operational managerial process for the effective utilization of material.The integration of individual and organizational objectives through MBO has been emphasized by Chakravarty when he has defined MBO as follows: “MBO is a result-centered. 5. with objective orientation as its essence. normally once a year. managers have the opportunities for clarifying their job relationships with peers. . including the corporate level. MBO is likely to affect every management practice in the organization. On the other hand. physical. and human resources of the organization by integrating the individual with organization and organization with the environment. all the units or departments and individual manager. The performance review is held regularly. It works as an integrating device. MBO is an approach and philosophy to management and not merely a technique. 6. its features can be identified as follows: 1. Certain degree of overlapping is there. The basic emphasis of MBO is on objectives. non-specialist. reward and punishment system is attached with the achievement of the objectives. Similarly. This is possible because MBO tries to match objectives and resources. often MBO provides the stimulus for the introduction of new techniques of management and enhances the relevance and utility of the existing ones. The total management process revolves round the objectives set jointly by the superior and the subordinate. each manager takes active part in setting objectives for himself and also in evaluating his performance as to how he is performing. This process clarifies the role very sharply in terms of what one is expected to achieve. MBO is the joint application of a number of principles and techniques. Therefore. Objectives provide the means for integrating the organization with its environment. Therefore. 3. Objectives in MBO provide guidelines for appropriate system and procedures.. superiors and subordinates. It is a particular way of thinking about management. MBO is bound to have some relationship with every management technique. The review is future-oriented because it provides basis for planning and corrective actions. are determined on the basis of objectives. 2.
Process of MBO MBO is a system for achieving organizational objectives, enhancement of employee commitment and participation. Therefore, its process should facilitate translation of basic concepts into management practice. The MBO process is characterized by the emphasis on the rigorous analysis, the clarity and balance of objectives, and participation of the managers with accountability for results. The MBO process is not as simple as it appears to be. Managers need training and experience for developing the required skills. 1. Setting of Organizational Purpose and Objectives: The first step in MBO is the definition of organizational purpose and objectives. Questions, such as, “why does the organization exist?”. What business are we in?” and what should be our business?” provide guidelines for the statement of purpose. This, in interaction with external factors, then determines the long-range strategic objectives like (i) whether to achieve growth through expansion in the same line of business or diversity: (ii) what should be blending of trading and manufacturing activities; (iii) what should be the degree of vertical integration and so on. Usually the objective setting starts at the top level of the organization and moves downward to the lowest managerial levels. This will go in a sequence like this (i) defining the purpose of the organization, (ii) long-range and strategic objectives, (iii) short-term organizational objectives, (iv) divisional/departmental/sectional objectives, (v) individual manager’s objectives. 2. Key Result Areas: Organizational objective and planning premises together provide the basis for the identification of key result areas (KRAs). It may be emphasized that KRAs are derived from the expectations of various stakeholders and indicate the priorities for organizational performance. KRAs also indicate the present state of an organization’s health and the top management perspective for the future. Examples of KRAs applicable to most of the business organizations are (i) profitability, (ii) market standing, (iii) innovation, (iv) productivity, (v) worker performance, (vi) financial and physical resources, (vii) manager performance, and (viii) public responsibility. Even though KRAs are most durable, the list of KRAs gets considerably changed over the period in response to new needs and opportunities. Sometimes, the achievement in a particular KRA also provides the impetus for a new KRA in future. 3. Setting Subordinates’ Objectives: The organizational objectives are achieved through individuals. Therefore, each individual manager must know in advance what he is expected to achieve. Every manager in the managerial hierarchy is both superior and subordinate except the person at the top level and lowest level. Therefore, there is a series of superior and subordinate relationships. The process of objective setting begins with superior’s proposed recommendations for his subordinate’s objectives. In turn, the subordinate states his own objectives as perceived by him. Thereafter, the final objectives for the subordinate are set by the mutual negotiation between superior and subordinate. In the beginning of MBO process in an organization, there may be wide gap between the recommended objectives by the superior and subordinate’s stated objectives because the latter may like to put lesser burden on him by
setting easily achievable objectives. However, with the experience gained over the period of time, this gap narrows because of narrowing down of perception of superior and subordinate about what can be done at a particular level. 4. Matching Resources with Objectives: When objectives are set carefully, they also indicate the resource requirement. In fact, resource availability becomes an important aspect of objective setting because it is the proper application of resources which ensures objective achievement. Therefore, there should be matching between objectives and resources. By relating these to objectives, a superior manager is better able to set the need and economy of allocating resources. By relating these to objectives, a superior manger is better able to see the need and economy of allocating resources. The allocation and movement of resources should be done in consultation with the subordinate manager. 5. Appraisal: Appraisal aspect of MBO tries to measure whether the subordinate is achieving his objective or not. If not, what are the problems and how these problems can be overcome? Appraisal is undertaken as an ongoing process with a view to find out deficiency in the working and also to remove it promptly. It is not taken merely to punish the non-performer or to reward the performer. It is taken as a matter of system to ensure that everything is going as planned and the organization is able to achieve its objectives. 6. Recycling: Though appraisal is the last aspect of MBO process, it is used as an input for recycling objectives and other actions. Objectives are neither set at the top and communicated to the bottom nor are they set at the bottom and go up. Objective setting is a joint process through interaction between superior and subordinate. Therefore, what happens at each level may affect other levels also. The outcome of appraisal at one level is recycled to see if the objectives have been set properly at the level concerned and also at the next higher level. 9.5 Quality Circles Quality circle is one of the most popular methods in the USA which was originally developed in Japan in 1950s.Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. Quality circle requires a managerial philosophy and culture that promotes sharing power, information, knowledge, and rewards. Quality circle program consists of several circles, each having three to fifteen members. The original idea of quality circles involved small groups of volunteers meeting on a regular basis, but in its contemporary form, quality groups are often compulsory and organized around specific work teams. Some organizations have even gone as far as setting targets for the number of suggestions quality groups are expected to come up with. 9.6 Quality of Work Life Based on the research of Eric Trist et al. at the Tavistcock Institute of Human Relations in London, this approach looked both at technical and human sides of organizations and how they
are interrelated. QWL programs, in general, require joint participation by union and management in the process of work-designing, which consequently result into high level of task variety, appropriate feedback and employee discretion. The most distinguishing feature of QWL program is the development of self-managing work groups which consist of multi-skilled workers. 9.7 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel Learning Structures (also known as Communities of Practice) promote innovation and change in large bureaucratic organizations while retaining the advantages of bureaucratic design. Groups representing various levels and functions work to open new channels of communication outside of and parallel to the normal, hierarchical structure. Parallel Learning Structures may be a form of Knowledge Management. Knowledge Management involves capturing the organization’s collective expertise wherever it resides (in databases, on paper, or in people’s heads) and distributing it to the people who need it in a timely and efficient way. It Consists of a steering committee and a number of working groups that: · Study what changes are needed in the organization, · Make recommendations for improvement, and · Then monitor the resulting change efforts. 9.8 Total Quality Management It is a long term effort that orients all of an organization’s activities around the concept of quality. It is very popular in USA in 1990s.TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization, provides relevant information to all employees, ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. It is also called continuous quality improvement. A combination of a number of organization improvement techniques and approaches, including the use of quality circles, statistical quality control, statistical process control, self-managed teams and task forces, and extensive use of employee participation. Features that characterize TQM: · Primary emphasis on customers. · Daily operational use of the concept of internal customers. · An emphasis on measurement using both statistical quality control and statistical process control techniques.
The term MBO was coined by _________ in 1964.· Competitive benchmarking. service. assumes neither an upward flow of involvement nor that consensus decision making. actions. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. · An emphasis on teams and teamwork. · Continuous search for sources of defects with a goal of eliminating them entirely. Reengineering is a top-down process.9 Reengineering It is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical. eliminating. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. Quality . and speed. 2. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. · A major emphasis on continuous learning. It seeks to make such processes more efficient by combining. quality. 9. or restructuring activities without regard to present hierarchical or control procedures. actions. contemporary measures of performance. Self Assessment Questions 1. · Participative management. · Top management support on an ongoing basis. such as cost. 3. __________ represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement.10 Summary An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. An organization development __________ is a sequence of activities. Reengineering focuses on visualizing and streamlining any or all business processes in the organization. Sociotechnical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. From a benefit cost analysis. 9.
Refer section 9.12 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1.3 2. Write a short note on Total Quality Management. Refer section 9.2 3. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. 9.circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. Intervention 2. . It is also called continuous quality improvement.5 4.Refer section 9. Explain Management By Objectives? 4. Drucker 3. provides relevant information to all employees.11 Terminal Questions 1. 9. Discuss Socio Technical Systems? 2. Refer section 9. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization. Quality circle Answers to TQs: 1. What are the advantages of structural interventions? 3.
6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change. 10.1 Introduction Objectives 10.5 Impact of Change on the Future Manager 10. In this dynamic and fluid environment. organizational problems may repeat. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing.MU0002-Unit-10-Managing Organization Development Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Structure: 10.4 Causes for Resistance to Change. and initiate new change so as to overtake the competitors one the one hand and delight the customers on the other.7 Summary 10. cope with the ongoing changes successfully in the first instance. Hence. the mangers and other employees must be able to practically anticipate the changes (planned and unprecedented). Objectives: . but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future.8 Terminal Questions 10.9 Answers to SAQs and TQs 10. Self Assessment Questions 10.2 Nature of Change 10.3 Resistance to Change 10.1 Introduction Change in Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival.
3. may require special change efforts. · Impact of change on future managers. 10. However. others. Newstrom and Davis have explained the impact of a change in any part of the organization on the total organization.whether physical. However.After studying this unit. Though this phenomenon will be taken later. . Thus. the contour of the balloon visibly changes. we find that the shape of the entire balloon has changed. When change occurs in any part of the organization. some changes which are of minor type may be absorbed by the existing equilibrium. Thus. organizational change may have the following features: 1. less. Organizational change is a continuous process. job design and people. they have concluded that the whole organization tends to be affected by change in any part of it. if we look minutely. some parts of organization may be affected more.2 Nature of Change The term ‘change’ refers to an alteration in a system. employees want to maintain a status quo. Any change may effect the whole organization. some parts may be affected directly. · Discuss the nature of change · Explain resistance to change and the factors which resist change. The type of new equilibrium depends on the degree of change and its impact on the organization. biological. structural arrangement. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of organization change. indirectly. it has stretched slightly. organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. it becomes indented at the point of contact. · State the methods of reducing resistance to change. it disturbs the old equilibrium necessitating the development of a new equilibrium. 2. the change in organization does not occur purely on mechanical relationship. However. or social. They have illustrated it by comparing an organization to an air-filled balloon. what is important at this point is that a change in any part affects the entire organization and subsequent changes are required in other parts. While managers as change agents want to bring changes in the organization. and others. When a finger (which represents external force) is forced against a point on the balloon (which represents the organization). which are major ones. Thus. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization – technology. and others.
many organizations have been forced to abandon change programmes because of resistance to such programmes. the organizational may not be able to introduce new phenomena in order to adapt environmental requirement.” Resistance as Benefit: On the one hand. Similarly. or they have been forced to adopt alternative strategies. people act to establish a steady state of need fulfillment and to secure themselves from disturbance of that balance. Madhur Bajaj. While on negative side. there are two sides of resistance. Managing Director of Bajaj Auto. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. This leads to general proposition that people and their social systems will often resist change in organizations. social systems tend to resist change because of homeostasis. If people resist to change. the managers face the problem of resistance to change. like shifting of the manufacturing plants at new locations. resistance to change provides help in managing change in two ways: . and on the other. because it produces identical symptoms.10. When change is minor and within the scope of correcting programme. Before we trace out the reasons for résistance to change. Many companies have been forced to do so in the past. In fact. and its basic survival may be jeopardized.3 Resistance to Change In the management of change effectively. the reality lies in between. it provides some benefits to the organization as its change agent. let us discuss whether resistance is always bad as it is generally perceived to be. Resistance as Cost: Since all changes have some cost. that is. Resistance by some members of the organization provides an opportunity to the change agents to weigh the pros and cons of introducing change more carefully. Thus. On this phenomenon. resistance to change is costly affair. “The Pune plant is fully saturated. We wanted a new culture and new layout. more serious upsets may occur. We shall take new workers at the new place. fear of change can be as significantly disrupting as change itself. adjustment is fairly routine. but when a change is major or unusual. so is the resistance to change.as cost and as benefit. In order to increase its manufacturing capacity of two-wheelers. We saw resistance to change at the existing plant. In fact. commented. Resistance to change forces management to find out this reality which helps in managing change more effectively. Homeostasis implies self-correcting characteristics of organism to maintain equilibrium as a result of change. In fact. the company procured land near its old plant site but later shifted the new plant site away from the old plant because of resisting work culture of the old plant which was expected to percolate to the new plant also. One example of Bajaj Auto Limited is relevant here.
bonus. reduce job options. it attracted a lot of resistance because of this reason. they will have lower opportunity to earn incentives and bonus as the new system requires additional skills. whenever people sense that new machinery (change) poses a threat of replacing or degrading them. Skill Obsolescence: A change is generally meant for better methods of working which may involve new techniques. may be seen in the context of three types of factors: economic. 2. job security etc. These feelings. People may perceive that they will be adversely affected by the change in terms of their needs satisfaction in the following ways: 1. Factors in Resistance to Change People tend to evaluate the effect of change individually but they express it through group in collective form. Psychological Factors . they simply resist such a change. etc. It also highlights real inadequacies in the proposed change and suggests better ways for developing and introducing changes. 2. the reasons underlying resistance to change may be identified at these two levels: Individual Resistance There are many factors operating at the individual level which are responsible for resistance. These feeling may be based either on reality or there may be emotional feeling towards the change. precede over other needs. and turn into technological unemployment. Economic Factors People feel attached to the organization for satisfying their needs and economic needsphysiological. Reduced Opportunities for Incentives: Employees are generally offered incentives linked to their output in the form of incentive schemes.1. This feeling is created because people feel that those who can match the new requirements will be better off than those who cannot match. people may feel that in the new system. technology. psychological and social. etc. either real or emotional. Degree of force in resistance depends on how people feel about change. It may signal the need for more effective communication about the meaning and purpose of a change or need to rethink precisely how a proposed change will affect the organization and its members. Fear of Economic Loss: A change may create fear of economic loss in the sense that it may affect economic compensation adversely. Whenever there is change. 3.. When computer was introduced in the business sector in India. Therefore. All these are well-established in the old system.
Some people have very low level of tolerance for change and ambiguity as compared to others. people resist it. A change in itself suggests that everything is not right at a particular level. Desire to Maintain Existing Social Interaction: People desire to maintain existing social interaction since it is a satisfying one. Major psychological factors responsible for resistance are: ego defensiveness. 1.e. Fear of Unknown: A change may be perceived as entering into unchartered area which is unknown. To the extent the satisfaction of these needs is affected by a change. they show resistance to change efforts. which people do not want. i. Lack of Trust in Change Agent: The effect of change is perceived in the context of change agent. that is. The lack of adequate information about the likely impact of change further complicates the problems. Social Factors People derive need satisfaction. Thus. The change initiated by the organization disturbs such equilibrium and people have to obtain another equilibrium which is a painful exercise. Therefore. Ego Defensiveness: A change may affect the ego of the people affected by the change and in order to defend their ego. the person who initiates change. The change will bring results in future. When there is any change. people resist change. They form their own social groups at the work place for the satisfaction of their social needs. The major factors causing resistance to change are: desire to retain existing social interaction and feeling of outside interference. they resist change. sentiments and attitudes towards change. 4. lack of trust in change agent. everyone tries to avoid it. 3. these people resist any new idea. Low Tolerance for Change: In the context of maintaining status quo. people may differ. low tolerance for change. This lack of certainty creates anxiety and stress in the minds of people and they want to avoid it. which is always uncertain. and fear of unknown. particularly social needs. This is the reason why labour union resists changes initiated by management because of the feeling that labour and management are two different interest groups in the organization. 2.Psychological factors are based on people’s emotions. through their mutual compatible interactions. Therefore. the change may be perceived as an instrument for exposing the weakness of the people. . 1. 5. These are qualitative and. they do not want any disturbance in their existing equilibrium of life and work pattern. If people have low degree of confidence in the change agent. Therefore. Status Quo: People want status quo. status quo. therefore. may be logical from people’s point of view but may be illogical from the change agent’s point of view. their existing social interactions are likely to be changed.
resources and processes of the most successful companies have in the past ossified into clichés. stability of systems. an organization has to adapt to its environment but the adaptation has its own cost. these organizations start falling. first two reasons are basic and others are by-products of the first two. Many powerful organizations of the past have failed to change and they have developed into routines. resource limitations. Stability of Systems: The organization may design a system through which it may derive many benefits. has commented as follows: “Nothing fails like success. Zerox or nearer home-TI cycles. Some of these reasons are basic while others are by-products of those. Sumantra Ghoshal. even the organization itself resists many changes because of certain reasons. 2. It a change is required in these aspects. Digital Equipment Corporation. a bureaucratic organization has certain fixed rules. dogmas. nothing fails as spectacularly as spectacular success. it may not be possible for the organization to bring necessary change. Resource Limitations: No doubt. sunk cost. and inter-organizational agreement. This is the reason why many old industrial houses are languishing far behind and their places are being taken away by newer organizations. they become too rigid to change and they hide their failure to change in the guise of past successes. Strategies.2. change initiated by managers affecting workers. Organizational Resistance to Change: Not only individuals and groups within an organization resist change. Since these organizations have achieved success by following a particular set of management practices. It is called ‘The Failure of Success’. The system is stabilized and any change may be perceived as a threat by the organization itself. a professor of strategic leadership who is considered to be a management Guru. 1. This phenomenon is heightened if the change agent belongs to another social class. Caterpillar. e. For example. The latter my feel that managers try to make workers an instrument for higher productivity but the outcome of this productivity will be retained by them.. If the organization is not fully equipped for meeting such demands. Feeling of Outside Interference: A change brought about by the change agent is considered to be interference in the working of people. if new .g. the organization may not bring it easily because it is accustomed to a particular system. Counting Past Successes: A major problem before the organizations which have past success stories is how to face challenges of the changing environment.” This statement suggests that organizations tend to stabilize at a particular level and if the change efforts are not brought. Whether it is IBM. values. For example. all these companies have been victims of corporate disease. The major reasons for organizational failure to change are: counting past successes. All these work in some circumstances. and institutes reward and punishment system. 3. For example. For example. prescribes rigid authority relationships. millstones and routines. Many organizations are designed to be innovation-resisting.
and reserve some resources unutilized for future use. Let us see what someone has said long back: “There are three types of companies: those who make things happen. and put less emphasis on environmental scanning. it may enter into agreement with other organizations over certain aspects of working. the organization will like to make a comparison between the outcomes of changed programme and continuing with old programme in the light of this sunk cost. Defenders: These are the firms which penetrate in a narrow market product domain and guard it. these can be used for specific period. building and training for its personnel. In such a case. 4. Now. Sunk Cost: Most of the organizations have sunk cost involved in various assets. Inter-organizational Agreements: The organization interacts with its environment. Once the assets are acquired. the organization may enter into agreement with labour union about not bringing any technological change. forward-looking.” This is the true reflection of difference between change-initiating companies and changeresisting companies. and reactors. prospectors. those who watch things happen. Prospectors: These firms use broad planning approaches. It depends more on the style of top management. and has zeal for progress. Analyzers: Above two are the extreme cases of choice-making modes in between the analyzers and reactors. broad environmental scanning. what will happen to these assets? Naturally. 3. For example. In this interaction process. if the change is required. they cannot survive. Otherwise. organization has to pay for his services though these may not be as useful. centralized control. . Miles and Snow have classified them into four categories. and commensurate expenses on other items also. It is necessary too that other organizations also agree to the change proposal. If it is risk-taking. the organization has to take into consideration the wishes of other organizations too. It an individual is not making commensurate contribution. They emphasize more on cost-effectiveness. intensive planning. it is not necessary that his services are done away with.technology is adopted. 1. Therefore. Thus. Reactors: These organizations realize that their specific environment is changing but fail to relate themselves with the changing environment. Based on the aggressiveness which various companies show in changing themselves. Sunk cost cannot be only in terms of various physical things. 4.defenders. the organization may take change programmes much more frequently. innovative. 5. analyzers. those who wonder what happened. decentralized controls. 2. if any change is to be incorporated. This can be in the form of people also. They go on searching new products/markets on regular basis. Analyzers act sometimes as defenders and sometimes as prospectors. it will require resources to procure machine. they have to behave in one of the above three ways.
10. this tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance. we all rely on habits. Habit Every day. engaging in a work showdown. finding a new parking place. Economic Factors: Another source of individual resistance is concern that changes will lower one’s income. Security: People who have a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feeling of safety. developing a new lunchtime routine. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. taking a new set of streets to work. adjusting to the new office layout. do you continually use the same route and streets? Probably if you’re like most people. and so on. we’ve categorized them by individual and organizational sources. When Boeing announces its laying off 10. implicit. therefore. the selection process systematically selects certain people in and certain people out. or deferred. Resistance can be overt.4 Cause for Resistance to Change Resistance to change doesn’t necessarily surface in standardized ways. For example. Life is complex enough. many employees at these firms may fear that their jobs are in jeopardy. When we are confronted with change. So when your department is moved to a new office building across town. To cope with this complexity. or programmed responses. you find a single route and you use it regularly. threatening to go on strike. Fear of the Unknown: Change substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the known. especially when pay is closely tied to productivity. They may. we don’t need to consider the full range of options for the hundreds of decisions we have to make every day. immediate. some may fear they’ll be unable to do so. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints. the introduction of a quality management program requires that production workers learn statistical process control techniques. For instance.000 people or Ford introduces new robotic equipment. or the like. Let’s look at the sources of resistance. it means you’re likely to have to change many habits: waking up 10 minutes earlier. If for example. And people in general don’t like the unknown. develop a negative attitude towards quality management or behave dysfunctionally if required to use statistical techniques. Organizational resistance Structural Inertia: Organizations have built-in mechanisms to produce stability. Training . As human beings. Changes in job tasks or established work routines also can arouse economic fear if people are concerned they won’t be able to perform the new tasks or routines to their previous standards. when you go to work or school. we’re creatures of habit. For analytical purpose. The same applies to employee.
5 Impact of Change on Future Manager Organizations are changing nearly daily. the way in which companies are configured today is changing. rules and procedures for employees to follow. For example. One area of organizations that continues its metamorphosis is the design itself. 10. . Group Inertia: Even if individuals want to change their behavior. Will the change. if management changes the technological processes without simultaneously modifying the organization’s structure to match. mean a reduction in their budgets or a cut in their staff size? Those who most benefit from the current allocation of resources are often threatened by change that may affect future allocations. and benefits administration – has been resisted by many human resource departments. Threat to Established Resource Allocations: the groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. human resource people with engineers and finance individuals with operations employees. For example. Introduction of participative decision making or self-managed work teams are examples of changes that often are seen as threats to the power of supervisors and middle managers. Threat to Expertise: Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups. That is. They tend to be content with the way things are. But if union norms dictate resisting any unilateral change made by management. for instance. accountants work with marketers. he’s likely to resist. An individual union member. Thereat to Established Power Relationships: Any redistribution of decision-making authority can threaten long-established power relationship within the organization.and other socialization techniques reinforce specific role requirements and skills. Formalization provides job description. The only constant in organizational life today appears to be the presence of continuous change. These teams are comprised of people from various areas within the company. may be willing to accept changes in his job suggested by management. People from one functional department are placed on terms with people from other functional areas. for instance. Why? Because this outsourcing is a threat to the specialized skills held by people in HR departments. Changing Skill Sets More organizations are utilizing cross functional teams. You can’t change one without affecting the others. The recent move by some companies to outsource many of their human resource activities – such as training. Limited Focus of Change: Organization is made up of interdependent subsystems. development of pay plans. group norms may act as a constraint. So limited changes in subsystems tend to get nullified by the larger system. the change in technology is not likely to be accepted.
For this purpose.” The newer organizational structures use term problem solving. Stephen Robbins suggests that “…… managers in virtual structures spend most of their time coordinating and controlling external relations. rather should be looked upon as a dialogue which continues over a period of time. They need to be adept at reading the trends in the environment and then determining what they mean specifically for their own organization. typically by way of computer network links. It implies explanation and . Decision making is becoming more and more comfortable for those throughout the organization as the need to make decisions is distributed more evenly across all organizational levels. Problem solving now involves the people who are experts in the issue – not necessarily those in high positions in the organization.” Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. Unless this problem is overcome properly. This requires that managers think differently and teach employees to think differently. In addition.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change One of the basic problems in managing change is to overcome people’s resistance to change successfully. even the impact of change may be dysfunctional if change is imposed upon the people by the use of formal authority. the role of formal authority in implementing a change may not be effective all the times.The ultimate goal is to improve organizational performance by cutting production time or time to market. As organizations must be better equipped to respond to change in their external environment. It may affect only a few while others may not be affected. at the level of individual and at the level of group. For example. Locavini observes that “the secret of real success is effective management of the emotional vulnerability that accompanies organizational change. that is. More fluid structures require that managers improve their strategic orientation. Involvement: Involvement is a process through which those who are affected by the change are brought to understand the change. managers must be more skilled at reading the environment and grasping the big picture. it can make effectively by managing resistance effectively. However. both at the formal and informal levels. the following efforts can be taken: 1. Efforts at Individual Level A change is likely to affect some people in some way. the problems can be solved at the same level. Therefore. the effect of the change may not be as functional as envisaged by the management. 10. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. this is not a one-time action. In many cases. When the resistance comes from the people at individual levels. strategic directions for the company must be identified in light of these changes. through group dynamics.
as discussed earlier. the level of resistance to change tends to decrease. its basic nature. The fundamental idea in this process is to encourage the person to say something about any aspect of the change. is an important trust-building task. Group dynamics offers some basic help in this regard. must be understood so that its effective use can be made. Thus. it is more meaningful if it is done through group. helped to change attitudes. Training and Psychological Counseling: The management can change the basic values of the people by training and psychological counseling. A manager as weak leader presents change on the basis of the impersonal requirements of the situation. People should be educated to become familiar with change. either the subordinates do not resist or if they resist. However. its process and working. it is desirable at the group level to get better acceptability of change. 2. Leadership: The role of leadership in getting acceptance for a change is very important as a capable leader reinforces a climate of psychological support for change. However. 4. Obtaining Commitment: Commitment is an agreement to take an active part in the actual mechanics of the change. understanding of change increases and personal involvement in the change increases. Thus. Commitment to take part in the change programme can be obtained in private from each individual. the manager can form strategies for overcoming resistance in the following manner: . but a transformational leader can use personal reasons for change without arousing resistance. more than one person is involved in the change. and indoctrinated in new relationships. Such educational process can be aided by training classes. It includes finding out from the members how they interpret the proposed changes and what they think about them. This helps in creating receptive environment in the organization. getting a man to commit himself in private to change programme may yield fewer results than if he voluntarily and publicly gives his commitment to an idea of change. instead of solving the problem at the individual level. Getting opinions out in the open. to become effective. and conferences. Based on these characteristics of group as a means of change. Efforts at Group Level Although agreement to a change can be obtained individually. An effective leader tries to time a change to fit the psychological needs of his followers.then discussion of the proposed changes. Usually. For using group as a means of overcoming resistance to change. They must be taught new skills. 3. education must be a part of the manager’s everyday activity on the job. most of the times. The decision to commit oneself is a dynamic process. he expresses it through a group. so that they are looked at and evaluated. Though each person interprets the change individually often. meetings. People always have some ideas and opinions about what is going on in the world and more specially if touches them personally. It grows slowly along with relationship. sometimes. As this process goes. the leader tries to overcome this resistance by leadership process.
It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization – technology. It would be prudent for management to take labour representatives into confidence before implementing any change. 3. and how the benefits of the meaningful and continuous dialogue are necessary. For this purpose. _________ helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. 2. Free flow of information helps people to understand the real picture of the change and many misunderstandings may be avoided. 2. 3. They must be made a party to the change rather than an agent for resistance to change. one can communicate with more people per unit of time. taking whole of the group into confidence helps in maintaining a cooperative attitude. The group contact offers some specific advantages: (i) Through groups. __________ are based on people’s emotions. Such training techniques provide understanding of behaviour. (ii) In group. mere participation may not help. and how members contribute. Participation: Participation helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. The organization must regard the participation as meaningful and share the results of the change with its members. structural arrangement. Such training techniques include role playing. (iii) Group can get at the basic problem very rapidly as compared to a single individual. job design and people. The same is true of problem-solving. _________ is the alteration of work environment in an organization.1. This is more important in the case of workers who themselves treat a separate group and do not identify with the management. many things about change can be made clear. benefits of change. Through the group contact. Research studies also support this aspect. there may be some person who may communicate to the same group. Even if only some of the members are affected by the change. . Group Contact: Any effect to change is likely to succeed if the group accepts that change. It purports how the results are. psychodrama. sentiments and attitudes towards change. thereby the people can build up the climate based on mutual trust and understanding which are essential for bringing organizational changes successfully. Those people who are directly affected by the change should be given opportunity to participate in that change before the final decisions are reached. Self Assessment Questions 1.such aspects as the reasons for change. The laboratory method provides a setting where group processes can be studied intensively. However. Group Dynamics Training for Change: Group dynamics also helps in providing various training programmes for accepting and implementing change. and sensitivity or T-group training. the group itself should be the point of contact. It makes people feel that the organization needs their opinions and ideas and is unwilling to go ahead without taking them into account.
Refer section 10. Reference: . implicit. threatening to go on strike. For instance. that is. Changes may be influenced by external and internal factors. Refer section 10. Organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. Economic factors. Organizational change 2.8 Terminal Questions 1. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups.9 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1.10. immediate. or deferred.6. engaging in a work showdown. Explain the nature of change? 2. Psychological factors 3.4 3. both at the formal and informal levels. Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels.2 2. 10.7 Summary Change is inevitable. at the level of individual and at the level of group. social factors. Discuss the methods of reducing resistance to change. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints. Why do organizations resist change? 3. Participation Answers to TQs: 1. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization. Resistance can be overt. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. Refer section 10. 10. or the like. group resistance and vested interests. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. psychological factors. through group dynamics.
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