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Unit-01-Introduction to Management Structure: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 1.2 Definitions of Management 1.3 Characteristics of Management 1.4 Scope and Levels of Management 1.5 Importance of Management 1.6 Role of Management 1.7 Administration and Management Self Assessment Questions 1.8 Summary 1.9 Terminal Questions 1.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 1.1 Introduction Management is a global need. It is essential to every individual, a family, educational institution, hospital, religious organizations, team of players, a government, military systems, cultural body, urban centers and business enterprises. No individual can satisfy all his needs by himself. Men should join together and accomplish goals through co-operation. Whenever, there is an organized group of people working towards a common goal, some type of management is needed. A business enterprise must be directed and controlled by a group of people to achieve its goals. The resources of money, manpower, material and technology will be waste unless they are out to work in a co-ordinated manner. It is the ‘management’ which uses the available resources in such a manner that a business enterprise is able to earn ‘surplus’ to meet the needs of growth and expansion. Management is required to plan, organize, co-
ordinate and control the affairs of a business concern. It brings together all resources and motivates people to achieve the objectives of a business enterprise. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Define management. · Explain the characteristics of management. · Differentiate between management and administration. · State the principles of management. · Explain the roles of managers. · Explain managerial skills. 1.2 Definitions of Management Management may be defined in many different ways. Many eminent authors on the subject have defined the term “management”. Some of these definitions are reproduced below: According to Lawerence A. Appley – “Management is the development of people and not the direction of things.” In the words of George R. Terry – “Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.” According to James L. Lundy – “Management is principally the task of planning, co-ordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective.” In the words of Henry Fayol – “To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.” According to Peter F. Drucker – “Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages a business and managers and manages worker and work”. In the words of Koontz and O’Donnel – “Management is defined as the creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals working together in groups can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals”.
According to Newman, Summer and Warren – “The job of management is to make co-operative endeavor to function properly. A Manager is one who gets things done by working with people and other resources.” From the definitions quoted above, it is clear that “management” is a technique of extracting work from others in an integrated and co-ordinated manner for realizing the specific objectives through productive use of material resources. Mobilizing the physical, human and financial resources and planning their utilization for business operations in such a manner as to reach the defined goals can be referred to as “management”. If the views of the various authorities are combined, management could be defined as a “distinct ongoing process of allocating inputs of an organization (human and economic resources) by typical managerial functions (planning, organizing, directing and controlling) for the purpose of achieving stated objectives, namelyoutput of goods and services desired by its customers (environment). In the process, work is performed with and through personnel of the organization in an ever-changing business environment.” From the above, it is clear that management refers to the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people. The process represents the functions or primary activities engaged in by managers. These functions are typically labeled planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Efficiency is a vital part of management. It refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs. If you can get more output from the given inputs, you have increased efficiency. Similarly, if you can get the same output from less input, you also have increased efficiency. Since managers deal with input resources that are scarce-mainly people, money and equipment-they are concerned with the efficient use of these resources. Management, therefore, is concerned with minimizing resource costs. Efficiency is often referred to as “doing things right”. However, it is not enough simply to be efficient. Management is also concerned with getting activities completed; i.e. it seeks effectiveness. When managers achieve their organization’s goals, we say they are effective. Effectiveness can be described as “doing the right things”. So efficiency is concerned with means and effectiveness with ends. Efficiency and effectiveness are interrelated. For instance, it is easier to be effective if one ignores efficiency. Timex could produce more accurate and attractive watches if it disregarded labour and material input costs. Some federal government agencies have been criticized regularly on the grounds that they are reasonably effective but extremely inefficient; that is, they get their jobs done but at a very high cost. Management is concerned, then, not only with getting activities completed (effectiveness), but also with doing so as efficiently as possible. Can organization be efficient and yet not effective? Yes, by doing the wrong things well. Many colleges have become highly efficient in processing students. By using computer-assisted learning, large lecture classes, and heavy reliance on part-time faculty, administrators have significantly cut the cost of educating each student. Yet students, alumni, and accrediting agencies have criticized some of these colleges for failing to educate their students properly. Of
One may not see with the naked eyes the functioning of management but its results are apparently known. All these resources are made available to those who manage. 5.3 Characteristics of Management Management is a distinct activity having the following salient features or characteristics: 1. Thus. Intangible Force: Management has been called an unseen force. buoyant spirit and adequate work output. directing and controlling. 4. Goal-oriented: Management is a purposeful activity. Results through Others: The managers cannot do everything themselves. They must motivate the subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them. Economic Resource: Management is one of the factors of production together with land. Distinct Process: Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the organizational goals are achieved. although they can’t observe it during operation. 3. capital and materials. 1. labour and capital. These factors do not by themselves ensure production. People often remark of the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of management on the basis of the end results. Integrative Force: The essence of management is integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives. And poor management is most often due to both inefficiency and ineffectiveness or to effectiveness achieved through inefficiency. organizing. management is an essential ingredient of an organization. the process of management involves decision-making and putting of decisions into practice. Managers apply knowledge. It is the force which assembles and integrates other resources. 2. These functions are so interwoven that it is not possible to lay down exactly the sequence of various functions or their relative significance.course. experience and management principles for getting the results from the workers by the use of non-human resources. feeling of management is result-oriented. Its presence is evidenced by the result of its efforts-orderliness. It co-ordinates the efforts of workers to achieve the goals of the organization. labour. . It is imperative that the organizational goals must be well-defined and properly understood by the mangers at various levels. It is the most critical input in the success of any organized group activity. informed employees. 6. high efficiency is associated more typically with high effectiveness. staffing. In essence. namely. Managers also seek to harmonize the individuals’ goals with the organizational goals for the smooth working of the organization. Thus. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others. they require the catalyst of management to produce goods and services required by the society.
materials. Generally. useful. Since the skills acquired by a manager are his personal possession. In modern organizations. Anthropology. management is required to covert the disorganized resources of men. · Management as a system of authority According to Herbison and Myers.e.7. · Management as an economic resource Management is one of the factors of production along with land. the effective use of the five M’s of management (money. materials. Henri Fayol suggested that principles of management would apply more or less in every situation. Managers at different levels possess varying degrees of authority. the degree of authority gets gradually reduced. education. how effectively and economically the five M’s are combined together to produce desired results. management may be understood as (i) an economic resource. According to Newman. The principles are working guidelines which are flexible and capable of adaptation to every organization where the efforts of human beings are to be co-ordinated. principles and techniques which have wide applications. and (iii) a class or elite. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively.4 Scope of Management The scope of management is very wide. Similarly. management is the rule-making and rule-enforcing body. 9. productivity orientation drew its inspiration from Industrial Engineering and human relations orientation from Psychology. that is. Much of the management literature is the result of association of these disciplines. government and hospital. manpower. management is viewed as an art. a hierarchy of command and control. Universal Application: Management is universal in character. military. The application of these concepts. So it is treated as a science. 8. on-going concern. It is bound together by a web of relationships between superiors and subordinates. it refers to three distinct ideas. money and machines into a productive. 10. principles and techniques requires specialized knowledge and skills on the part of the manager. discipline) taking the help of so many other disciplines such as Engineering. For instance. 1. In other words. people . labour and capital. The principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the fields of business. System of Authority: Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority. as we move down in the managerial hierarchy. A Science and an Art: Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of welldefined concepts. According to Herbision and Myers. Basically. Sociology and Psychology. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. (ii) a system of authority. Sociology and Operations Research have also contributed to the development of management science. Multi-disciplinary Subject: Management has grown as a field of study (i.
his job is to see that the decisions are implemented. Instructions and decisions downward and carry the problem and suggestions upward. and the range of production. Levels of Management An enterprise may have different levels of management.. technical facilities. Operative management is concerned with the “doing” function such as implementation of policies. The real significance of levels is that they explain authority relationships in an organization. The levels of management depend upon its size. Lower management (first line supervisors) is concerned with routine. ranks. We generally come across two broad levels of management.. Administrative management is concerned with “thinking” functions such as laying down policy. viz. Board of Directors.e. personnel manager etc.are bound by authority relationships.e. (i) administrative management (i. They transmit orders. wage and salary director of a company may assist in fixing wages and salary structure as a member of the Board of Directors. Middle management (departmental heads like work manage. it is difficult of draw any clear-cut demarcation between thinking function and doing function as the basic/fundamental managerial functions are performed by all managers irrespective of their levels. the term management refers to the group of individuals occupying managerial positions. For instance. its Chairman. but as head of wages and salary department. finance manager. All the managers form the chief executive to the first line supervisors are collectively addressed as ‘Management’ which refers to the group. . day-to-day matters. Managing Director. · Management as a class or elite Sociologists view management as a distinct class in society having its own value system. or. or the General Manager or Executive Committee having key officers. Considering the hierarchy of authority and responsibility. But in actual practice. As a separate group. planning and setting up of standards. and directing the operations to attain the objectives of the enterprise. the lower level of management). Managers working at top levels enjoy more authority than people working at lower levels. Levels of management refer to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an enterprise. the upper level of management) and (ii) operating management (i.) interprets and explains the policies framed by the top management. Top management determines objectives and provides direction to enterprise activities. or the Chief Executive. one can identify three levels of management namely: i) Top management of a company consists of owners/shareholders. The managerial class has become very important in modern organizations owing to its contribution to business success.
Marketing Manager. It serves as an essential link between the top management and the lower level or operative management. They are responsible to the top management for the functioning of their department. d) To assemble the resources of money. Purchase Manager. and Divisional Sectional Officers working under these Functional Heads. policies and plans for the enterprise. Top management: Top management is the ultimate source of authority and it lays down goals. It devotes more time on planning and co-ordinating functions. etc. They devote more time on the organization and motivation functions of management. men.ii) Middle management of a company consists of heads of functional departments namely. iii) Lower level or operative management of a company consists of Superintendents. duties and responsibilities for timely implementation of the plans. Production Manager. Middle management: The job of middle management is to implement the policies and plans framed by the top management. c) To set up an organizational framework to conduct the operations as per plans. c) To prepare the organizational set up in their own departments for fulfilling the objectives implied in various business policies. Financial Controller. e) To exercise effective control of the operations. They provide the guidance and the structure for a purposeful enterprise. . Without them the top management’s plans and ambitious expectations will not be fruitfully realized. Foremen. b) To interpret the policies chalked out by top management. etc. e) To assign activities. 2. It is accountable to the owners of the business of the overall management. d) To recruit and select suitable operative and supervisory staff. Supervisors.. machines and methods to put the plans into action. The important functions of top management include: a) To establish the objectives or goals of the enterprise. It is also described as the policy-making group responsible for the overall direction and success of all company activities. 1. The following are the main functions of middle management: a) To establish the objective or goals of the enterprise. f) To provide overall leadership to the enterprise. b) To make policies and frame plans to attain the objectives laid. materials.
the resources of production remain resources and never become production. and actual operations are the responsibility of this level of management. machines. an organization is merely a collection of men. They are concerned with direction and control functions of management. They pass on the instructions of the middle management to workers. Management makes group effort more effective. The importance of management can be understood from the following points. They interpret and divide the plans of the management into short-range operating plans. (i) Optimum use of resources: Management ensures optimum utilization of resources by attempting to avoid wastage of all kinds. h) To co-operate with the other departments for ensuring a smooth functioning of the entire organization. Employees feel a sense of security when they find a body of individual’s working day and night for the continued growth of an organization. They are in direct touch with the rank and file or workers. (ii) Effective leadership and motivation: In the absence of management. Their authority and responsibility is limited. k) To make suitable recommendations to the top management for the better execution of plans and policies. 1. j) To report to top management. Lower or operative management: It is placed at the bottom of the hierarchy of management. It enables employees to move cooperatively and achieve goals in a coordinated manner.f) To compile all the instructions and issue them to supervisors under their control. It consists of foreman. the working of an enterprise will become random and haphazard in nature. supervisors. They have to get the work done through the workers. A right climate is created for workers to put in their best and show superior performance. They devote more time in the supervision of the workers. i) To collect reports and information on performance in their departments. They are also involved in the process of decisions-making. accounts officers and so on. money and material.5 Importance of Management According to Drucker. Management creates teamwork and . 3. It is the activating force that gets things done through people. g) To motivate personnel to attain higher productivity and to reward them properly. Without management. management is the dynamic lift-giving element in every organization. In its absence. sales officers. They allot various jobs to the workers. evaluate their performance and report to the middle level management. It helps in putting the resources to the best advantage within the limitations set by the organization and its environment.
(v) Change and growth: Changes in technology. Management as a profession By a professional manager. government policy. all these help in realizing goals with maximum efficiency. Thus unnecessary deviations. manager tries to strike a happy balance between the demands of employees and organizational requirements. Management is goal-oriented. They try to put everything on the right tract. techniques. (vi) Improves standard of living : Management improves the standard of living of people by (a) using scarce resources efficiently and turning out profits. . iii) The establishment of a representative organization with professiona-lizing as its goal. etc. They initiate prompt actions whenever workers express dissatisfaction over organizational rules. and specialized knowledge. According to McFarland. counseling and effective leadership. competition. Objective can be achieved only when the human and non-human resources are combined in a proper way. (iii) Establishers sound industrial relations: Management minimizes industrial disputes and contributes to sound industrial relations in an undertaking.. Organize the resources properly. we generally mean a manager who undertakes management as a career and is not interested in acquiring ownership share in the enterprise which he manages. With a view to realize the predetermined goals-managers plan carefully. procedures and reward systems. often threaten the survival of a firm. In the final analysis. Industrial peace is an essential requirement for increasing productivity. (c) Exploiting new ideas for the benefit of society as a whole and (d) developing employee talents and capabilities while at work and prompting them to show peak performance. forecasting combined with efficient use of resources) and taking appropriate steps.motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. To this end. Failure to take note of customer’s needs regarding full efficiently has spelt doom for ‘Ideal java’ in the two-wheeler market in India. hire competent people and provide necessary guidance. methods. An enterprise has to take note of these changes and adapt itself quickly. a profession possesses the following characteristics: i) A body of principles. Overlapping efforts and waste motions are avoided. ii) Formalized methods of acquiring training and experience. (b) Ensuring the survival of the firm in the face of continued changes. Managers help an organization by anticipating these changes (carefull planning. Successful managers are the ones who anticipate and adjust to changing circumstances rather than being passively swept along or caught unprepared. skills. (iv) Achievement of goals: Management plays an important role in the achievement of objectives of an organization.
iv) The formation of ethical codes for the guidance of conduct. There are a number of representative organizations of management practitioners almost in all countries such as the All India Management Association in India. Management Development Institute. But unlike medicine or law. and the university departments of management offer a variety of short-term management training programmes. the All India Management Association. However. There was little time for reflective thinking because the managers encountered . none of them has the professionalizing of the management as its goal. Management does not fulfill the last two requirements of a profession. little regard is paid to the elevation of service over the desire for monetary compensation is evident by switching of jobs by managers. Some individual business organizations. Management partially fulfils the third characteristic of profession. What he discovered challenged several long-held notions about the manager’s job.6 Role of Management In the late 1960s. We have a number of institutes of management and university departments of management which provide formal education in this field. Indeed such mobile managers are regarded as more progressive and modern than others. unpatterned. managers in general. sabotaging trade unions. and it is distinct.A. however. Furthermore. manipulating prices and markets are by no means uncommon management practices. However. Management is also a profession in the sense that formalized methods of training is available to those who desire to be managers. and short-duration activities. Henry Mintzberg did a careful study of five chief executives at work. For instance. There is no ethical code of conduct for managers as for doctors and lawyers. and v) The charging of fees based on the nature of services. It may be concluded from the above discussion that management is a science. Management is a profession to the extent it fulfils the above conditions. Training facilities are provided in most companies by their training divisions. It is a profession in the sense that there is a systematized body of management. Mintberz found that his managers engaged in a large number of varied. management is not as exact as natural sciences. a management degree is not a pre-requisite to become a manager. the American Management Association in U. the Indian Institute of Management. As a social science.. It has also developed a vast number of tools and techniques. etc. do not seem to adhere to the principle of “service above self”.S. and it is not as fully a profession as medicine and law. identifiable discipline. In fact. an art as well as a profession. try to develop a code of conduct for their own managers but there is no general and uniform code of conduct for all managers. in contrast to the predominant views at the time that managers were reflective thinkers who carefully and systematically processed information before making decisions. bribing public officials to gain favours. A number of organizations such as the Administrative Staff College of India. 1.
constant interruptions. he or she is acting in a figurehead role. Interpersonal Roles: All managers are required to perform duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature – interpersonal roles. The third role within the interpersonal grouping is the liaison role. Responsible for the motivation Performing virtually all and activation of subordinates. subordinates. motivating. This role includes hiring. and may be inside or outside the organization.1: Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles Role Interpersonal Figurehead Description Identifiable Activities Leader Symbolic head. Mintzberg provided a categorization scheme for defining what managers do based on actual managers on the job. training. what competitors may be planning. When the president of a college hands out diplomas at commencement or a factory supervisor gives a group of high school students a tour of the plant. All managers have a role as a leader. and associated duties. and decision-making. duties of a legal or social nature. Informational Roles: All managers. This is the disseminator role. The term ‘management roles’ refers to specific categories of managerial behaviour. When that sales manager confers with other sales executives through a marketing trade association. But in addition to these insights. When they represent the organisation to outsiders. Table 1. Mintzberg concluded that managers perform ten different but highly interrelated roles. Managers also act as a conduit to transmit information to organizational members. he or she has an outside liaison relationship. These ten roles can be grouped as those primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships. signing perform a number of routine legal documents. . they do so by reading magazines and talking with others to learn of changes in the public’s tastes. Typically. and disciplining employees. manages also perform a spokesperson role. to some degree. The sales manager who obtains information from the human resources manager in his or her same company has an internal liaison relationship. and the like. obliged to Greeting visitors. activities that involve responsible for staffing. These sources are individuals or groups outside the manager’s unit. fulfill informational roles-receiving and collecting information from organizations and institutions outside their own. the transfer of information. Half of these managers’ activities lasted less than nine minutes each. Mintzberg called this the monitor role. Mintzberg described this activity as contacting external sources who provide the manager with information. training.
performing other favors and information. the organization – some information is factual. network of outside contacts doing external board and informers who provide work. unexpected involve disturbances and disturbances crises Responsible for the allocation Scheduling. results. Searches organization and its Organizing strategy and environment for opportunities review sessions to and initiates “improvement develop new programs. projects” to bring about change. performing all kinds – in effect. requesting of organizational resources of authorization. serves as expert on organization’s industry. etc. the making any activity that involves or approval of all significant budgeting and the Informational Monitor Disseminator Spokesperson Decisional Entrepreneur Disturbance handler Resource allocator . maintaining it current) to develop thorough personal contacts. supervises design of certain projects as well. some involves interpretation and integration of diverse value positions of organizational influencers. understanding of organization and environment. Transmits information to Holding board meetings. Responsible for corrective Organizing strategy and action when organization faces review sessions that important.Liaison Maintains self-developed Acknowledging mail. emerges as nerve center of internal and external information about the organization. policies. media.. Seeks and receives wide variety Reading periodicals and of special information (much of reports. Transmits information received Holding informational from outsides or from other meetings. actions. outsiders on organization’s giving information of the plans. making phone subordinates to members of calls to relay information. activities that involve outsiders.
Specifically. Managerial Skills As you can see from the preceding discussion. the roles of disseminator. the emphasis that managers give to the various roles seems to change with hierarchical level. Decisional Roles: Finally. the leader role is more important for lowerlevel managers than it is for either middle-or-top-level managers. managers take corrective action in response to previously unforeseen problems.organizational decisions. Last. are heavily involved in technical aspects of the organization’s operations. negotiations. or manufacturing. Publishers. such as engineering. managers perform as negotiators when they discuss and bargain with other groups to gain advantages for their own units. Katz found that managers need three essential skills or competencies: technical. As disturbance handlers. Responsible for representing Participating in union the organization at major contract negotiations. For example. and spokesperson are more important at the higher levels of the organization than at the lower ones. research by Robert L. During the early 1970. An Evaluation: A number of follow-up studies have tested the validity of Mintzberg’s role categories across different types of organizations and at different levels within given organizations. Negotiator programming of subordinates work. As entrepreneurs. managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization’s performance. a manager’s job is varied and complex. negotiator. as well as many middle managers. human. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row. The evidence generally supports the idea that managers – regardless of the type of organization or level in the organization-perform similar roles. 1973). Technical skills include knowledge of and proficiency in a certain specialized field. Managers need certain skills to perform the duties and activities associated with being a manager. He also found that the relative importance of these skills varied according to the manager’s level within the organization. The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper & Row. managers are responsible for allocating human. and conceptual. Technical Skills: First-line managers. Inc. computers. Conversely. However. liaison. an accounts payable manager must be proficient in accounting rules and standardized . pp 93-94 Copyright Ó 1973 by Hency Mintzberg. figurehead. As resource allocators. physical and monetary resources. Mintzberg identified four decisional roles which revolve around the making of choices. finance. Source: Henry Mintzberg.
Conceptual Skills: Managers also must have the ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract situations. Those who held management and administration distinct include Oliver Sheldon. Thus. motivate. In fact. These abilities are essential to effective decision-making. while others maintain that administration and management are two different functions. Administration is a higher level function: . This controversy is discussed as under in three heads: i) Administration is concerned with the determination of policies and management with the implementation of policies. even top managers need some proficiency in the organization’s speciality. Although technical skills become less important as manager moves into higher levels of management. administration is a higher level function. According to them. this skill is crucial. Managers with good human skills can get the best out of their people. lead. and inspire enthusiasm and trust. 1. and all managers are involved in making decisions. Some writers do not see any difference between the two terms. Human Skills: The ability to work well with other people both individually and in a group is a human skill. ii) Management is a generic term and includes administration. Since managers deal directly with people. But some English authors like Brech are of the opinion that management is a wider term including administration. it remains just as important at the top levels of management as it is at the lower levels.forms so that she can resolve problems and answer questions that her accounts payable clerks might encounter. These types of conceptual skills are needed by all managers at all levels but become more important as they move up the organizational hierarchy. Floerence and Tead. Spriegal and Lansburg. etc. They must be able to see the organization as a whole and the relationships among its various subunits and to visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment. They know how to communicate.7 Administration and Management The use of two terms ‘management’ and ‘administration’ has been a controversial issue in the management literature. management is a lower-level function and is concerned primarily with the execution of policies laid down by administration. iii) There is no distinction between the terms ‘management’ and ‘administration’ and they are used interchangeably.
2: Distinction between Administration and Management: Basic 1. Managers are Administrators are basically concerned mainly with concerned with planning and organisation and direction control. 8. 7. Status Administration refers to Management is relevant higher levels of management. administrative decisions. 5. 3. objectives. Meaning Administration Management Administration is concerned Management means with the formulation of getting the work done objectives. Administration is the phase of business enterprise that concerns itself with the overall determination of institutional objectives and the policies necessary to be followed in achieving those objectives. Table 1. is a doing function. on the other hand. Thus. of the organisation. Environment Administration has direct Management is mainly interaction with external concerned with internal environment of business and forces.Administration determines Management decides who Making what is to be done and when shall implement the it is to be done. administration involves broad policy-making and management involves the execution of policies laid down by the administration. 6. Scope It is concerned with It is concerned with the determination of major implementation of objectives and policies. It is a execution of decisions. 4. whereas management refers to execution of policies laid down by administration.e. Usage of Term The term ‘administration’ is The term ‘management’ is often associated with widely used in business . policies. This view is held by Tead. plans and policies through and with others. management as an executive function which is primarily concerned with carrying out of the broad policies laid down by the administration. making strategic plans to deal plans and policies of the effectively with the organisation. Spriegel and Walter. of human resources. Decision.Administration refers to policy-making. It thinking function. 2. Administration is a determinative function. i. operative workforce for the execution of plans.. Nature Administration relates to the Management relates to decision-making. environmental forces. Direction of It is concerned with leading It is concerned with Human Resources and motivation of middle leading and motivation of level executives. at lower levels of management.
materials. Explain its characteristics. 1. Management creates ________ and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. middle and lower. Money. 1. 2.8 Summary Management is concerned with getting things done through other people. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. Lower level managers require and use a greater degree of technical skill and managers at higher levels use a greater degree of conceptual skill. Human skills are important at all managerial levels. _________. Five M’s of management (________. counseling and effective leadership. Define management. 3. Bring out the difference between Administration and Management. Still management is not completely a profession. 2. ___________. Management 2. teamwork . 1. Managers perform different roles to discharge their responsibilities. Discuss the importance of management. manpower 3. It is the management which transforms physical resources of an organization into productive resources.9 Terminal Questions 1. __________is principally the task of planning.government offices. Self Assessment Questions in the 1. co-ordinating. public organisations sector and non-business private sector. There are three levels of management-top. motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective. Management is largely found at the middle and lower levels and administration is found at the higher levels. 3. organisations.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.
7 Motivating Self Assessment Questions 2.2 Process of Management 2. Refer section 1.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs .9 Terminal Questions 2.3 2.5 Staffing 2.8 Summary 2.Answers to TQs: 1.3 Planning 2.1.7 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . MU0004-Unit-02-Management Process Unit-02-Management Process Structure: 2. Refer section 1.5 3.6 Directing 2.2.1 Introduction Objectives 2.4 Organizing 2. Refer section 1.
1 Introduction Follett (1933) defined management as "the art of getting things done through people”. Policy Formulation We have noted earlier that all organizations have well-defined goals and objectives. Motivating. the two are not quite the same. as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan. leadership is about setting the desirable goals. You might well ask what the need for a policy is when objectives are already defined. 2. Staffing. in recent time. Commanding 4. One can also think of management functionally. It is difficult to say where objectives end and policies begin.2 Management Process Peter Drucker said: “Management is doing things right. Through leadership and management often overlap. Coordinating 5. There is a degree of overlap between the two. Management functions are as follows (Fayol. · Explain different functions of management Process. Objectives: After this studying this unit. management functions have been regrouped into four categories. Controlling However. Directing.2. since the managerial tasks have become highly challenging a fluid in nature making distinctions redundant to certain extent. you will be able to: · Define Management process. · Explain Planning. Organizing. Even . Planning 2. 1949): 1. Organizing 3. leadership is doing the right things“. Management is about accomplishing a goal efficiently.
A mission statement should be short – and should be easily understood and every employee should ideally be able to narrate it from memory. Planning in order to be useful must be linked to the strategic intent of an organization. driving comfort. It provides the direction for the other functions of management and for effective teamwork. However. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. is an enduring decision which holds good on a continuing basis to guide the members of the organization in doing what they are called upon to do. Therefore. kicking the ball with the left foot or right foot is a reflex action. what distinguishers policies form objectives is that you first decide the objective. Objectives are the ends. fuel and machine efficiency. Decision – Making Taking decisions is a process. it is not a decision in which any process is involved. Effective planning enables an organization adapt to change by identifying opportunities and avoiding problems. The tasks of the strategic planning process include the following steps: Define the mission: A mission is the purpose of the organization. Thus. overall goals. The mission statement is broad. Strategic Planning: Top level managers engage chiefly in strategic planning or long range planning Strategic planning is the process of developing and analyzing the organization’s mission. In the football field. while a policy. and allocating resources. should precede a good deal of research involving market surveys. a process in which one chooses a course which one thinks is the best. cost structure and so on. planning begins with clearly defining the mission of the organization. policies are the means to achieve those ends. say a passenger car. thus. Planning also enhances the decisionmaking process.so. and then set out the method for achieving it. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. general strategies. or where you want go to. planning is often referred to as strategic in nature and also termed as strategic planning. All levels of management engage in planning in their own way for achieving their preset goals.3 Planning It involves the process of defining goals. An explicit mission guides employees to work independently and yet collectively toward the realization of the organization’s potential. 2. the decision to change the design of a product. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. studies on passenger comfort. The mission statement may be accompanied by an overarching . summarizing what the organization does. it would be correct to assume that an objective is what you want to accomplish.
What are the vulnerable areas of the organization that could be exploited? 2. state. governments (local. How efficient is our manufacturing? 3. Do we have a superior reputation? For assessing the weaknesses of the organization the following questions are important: 1. The SWOT analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. international). What is our market share? 5. suppliers. Opportunities. customers (internal and external). Are the technologies obsolete? For identifying opportunities the following elements need to be looked at: 1. journals and reports (scientific. Sources of information may include stakeholders like. What makes the organization distinctive? 2. professional or trade associations (conventions and exhibitions). Weaknesses. In which areas is the competition not meeting customer needs? 2. For assessing the strengths of the organization the following questions are important: 1.statement of philosophy or strategic purpose designed to convey a vision for the future as envisaged by top management. federal. Is research and development adequate? 4. SWOT analysis provides the assumptions and facts on which a plan will be based. and trade). professional. Analyzing strengths and weaknesses comprises the internal assessment of the organization. Are the facilities outdated? 3. What are the possible new markets? . Threats) analysis is vital for the creation of any strategic plan. Organizations need to examine their business situation in order to map out the opportunities and threats present in their environments. How skilled is our workforce? 4. Conduct a situational or SWOT analysis A situation or SWOT (Strengths. What financing is available? 6.
What is the strength of the economy? 4. In turn. What substitute products exist? In general terms. It also helps in setting minimum acceptable standards or common-sense minimums. Is there a shortage of resources? 4. Are market tastes changing? 5. Is there a possibility of growth of existing market?) Identifying threats involves the following: 1. etc. Comparing the organization to external benchmarks (the best practices) is used to assess current capabilities. In which areas does the competition meet customer needs more effectively? 2. Develop related strategies (tactical and operational) Tactical plans are based on the organization’s strategic plan. What are the emerging technologies? 6. Set goals and objectives Strategic goals and objectives are developed to fill the gap between current capability and the mission.3. effectiveness. The SWOT analysis is used as a baseline for future improvement. These are specific plans that are needed for each task or supportive activity comprising the whole. Strategic. What are the new regulations? 6. organizations have longterm objectives for factors such as. as well as gap analysis. or outcomes of an organization against similar measures from other internal or external organizations. operational plans are based on the organization’s tactical plans. Are our rivals weak? 5. and operational planning . Generally. tactical. Objectives are also called performance goals. the best strategy is one that fits the organization’s strengths to opportunities in the environment. return on investment. Benchmarking systematically compares performance measures such as efficiency. earnings per share. Are there new competitors? 3. They are aligned with the mission and form the basis for the action plans of an organization.
Group related jobs together in a logical and efficient manner 5. To develop an environmental monitoring procedure. 2. working toward common goals. who is to do. how the tasks are to be grouped. structuring. A key issue in accomplishing the goals identified in the planning process is structuring the work of the organization. who reports to whom. The steps in the organizing process include: 1. Divide tasks into groups one person can accomplish – a job 4. necessary to maintain competitive advantage in the said market. grouped. Monitor the plan A systematic method of monitoring the environment must be adopted to continuously improve the strategic planning process. It is the official organizational structure conceived and built by top management. Formalization is an important aspect of structure. and where decisions are to be made. List all tasks to be accomplished 3. and goals are clearly stated.4 Organizing It involves designing. It is the extent to which the units of the organization are explicitly defined and its policies. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. The formal organization can be seen and represented in chart form. procedures. and relationships between departments. and coordinated. Organizational structure is the formal decision-making framework by which job tasks are divided. An organization chart displays the organizational structure and shows job titles. with ideas and resources. Delegate authority to establish relationships between jobs and groups of jobs. The purpose of the organizing function is to make the best use of the organization’s resources to achieve organizational goals. Review plans 2. This review is used for the next planning cycle and review. short-term standards for key variables that will tend to validate and support the long-range estimates must be established. 2. Feedback is encouraged and incorporated to determine if goals and objectives are feasible.5 Staffing . Assign work to individuals 6. lines of authority. Organizations are groups of people.must be accompanied by controls to ensure proper implantation of the plans. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done.
recruitment. performance appraisal etc. 2. Definition: 1. training. This task has been referred to as staffing. placement.It is not the machines. It aims at right man at right position: Staffing aims at selection of right person for right place at right time and retaining them in the organization. O’Donnell & Weihrich have defined staffing as “filling positions in the organization structure through identifying work force requirements. transfer and appraisal of personnel to fill the organizational positions. 2. Deals with people: Staffing is a separate managerial function which deals with people in the organization. Pervasiveness of Staffing: Effective execution of staffing function is the responsibility of all managers in the organization. development. Managers of the concerned departments are responsible for the selection and development of qualified people for their department and maintain them in their department. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. placement. recruitment. transport system and other physical resources that make the organization to achieve its goals but it is the competency and efficiency of the people who handle resources contributes for the accomplishment of objectives of the enterprise. money. appraisal. Curther Geelick Cyndall Urwick – “Staffing is the whole personnel function of brining in and training the staff and marinating of favorable conditions of work” Features of Staffing The analysis of the above definitions highlights the following features: 1. inventorying the people available. Therefore it is the responsibility of the management to secure and maintain competent and dedicated workforce including managers and operatives. 3. compensation and training of needed people”. promotion. Theo Haimann – “Concerned with the placement. selection. 3. growth and development of all those members of the organization whose function is to get things done through the efforts of other individuals”. selection. Koontz. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. It has many sub-functions: Staffing involves determination of the manpower requirement. . 4. materials.
6. overseeing and leading people. how to do and telling them to do to the best of their ability. It is a process: it is a process having a logical sequence i. management initiates actions in the organization. Present positions must be filled keeping in mind the future requirements. training development and maintenance of personnel. 8. It is a continuous function: With the growth and expansion of business additional manpower is needed.e. It deals with future requirements: Staffing deals with current and future personnel requirements. motivate them. Thus staffing is an ongoing process through – out the life of an organization. Direction function is performed at every level of management. vacancies arise out of retirement. 3. It is a continuing function. recruitment. promotion. . A manger needs to give orders to his subordinates. Definition According to Koontz and O’Donnel. It is an important managerial function. resignation. Characteristics of Direction The characteristic features of direction are as follow: 1.6 Directing Direction is one of the functions of management. Personnel policies and programs must be formulated as guides to perform the staffing function effectively. 2. It is instructing people as to what to do. Direction is continuous process and it continues throughout the life-time of the organization. Thus staffing deals with the future requirements also. Direction is the managerial function of guiding.5. directing is the “interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals”. selection. 7. It is performed in the context of superior-subordinate relationship and every manager in the organization performs his duties both as a superior and subordinate. etc. Through direction. lead them and guide them on a continuous basis. Direction is an important managerial function. 2. identifying the manpower requirements. induction.
only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior. to provide superiors opportunities for some more important work which their subordinates cannot do. Direction imitates at the top level in the organization and follows to bottom through the hierarchy. on the other. 2. It emphasizes that a subordinate is to be directed by his own superior only. Nature of Directing The nature of directing can be discussed under the following: 1.7 Motivating Motivating In the 1950s three specific theories were formulated and are the best known: Hierarchy of Needs theory. The amount of time and effort an executive spends in directing however.4. Continuous function: Directing is a continuous process. and other bodily needs . from the basic to the complex. without guiding and overseeing subordinates. 3. shelter. organizing and staffing on one hand and controlling on the other. Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. guide. It is an important function of management: Directing is an important management function which provides a connecting link between planning. 5. proposed by Maslow (1943). thirst. the more individuality. On the one hand. “without the issuance of directives. Theories X and Y. and the Two-Factor theory. Pervasive function: Directing is a managerial function performed by all mangers at all levels of the organization. The manager never ceases to direct. Essence of performance: Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. nothing or at the best very little would be accomplished”. it aims at getting things done by subordinates and. coach and supervise his subordinates. humanness and psychological health a person will show. The further they progress up the hierarchy. will vary depending upon his level. sex. As Theo Haimann puts it. the number of subordinate he has and the other duties he is expected to perform. human beings have wants and desires which influence their behaviour. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory According to this theory. 2. The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. The needs are arranged in order of importance. satisfied needs cannot. teach. The five needs are: · Physiological: Includes hunger. 4. Direction has dual objectives.
self-direction. and self-fulfillment Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders. acceptance. it is clear that Theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals. and external esteem factors. esteem. It is also believed that. Physiological and safety needs are described as lower-order. recognition. such as. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties.· Safety: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm · Social: Includes affection. Theory Y – In this theory management assumes employees may be ambitious. It is also assumed that workers generally place security above all other factors and will display little ambition. Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor argued that a manager’s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and he or she tends to mould his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions. Theory X – In this theory management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work. status. From the above. if they can. Social. and exercise self-control. and attention · Self-actualization: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming. Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. such as. and friendship · Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors. belongingness. externally. if given the chance employees have the desire to be creative and forward thinking in the workplace. Higher-order needs are satisfied internally. self-motivated. autonomy. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory . self-respect. achieving one’s potential. Workers need to be closely supervised and a comprehensive system of controls and a hierarchical structure is needed to supervise the workers closely. and self-actualization are classified as higherorder needs. whereas. anxious to accept greater responsibility. includes growth. There is a chance for greater productivity by giving employees the freedom to perform to the best of their abilities without being bogged down by rules. and achievement. autonomy and empowerment. Lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied.
Presence of these factors ensure job satisfaction. structuring. who is to do. The absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction. performance appraisal etc. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. such as. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. . many related to the tasks being performed. Hygiene factors on the other hand.8 Summary Management is the art of getting things done through people. such as. ____defined management as the art of getting things done through people. Planning involves the process of defining goals. company policy. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. In summary. To motivate people. how the tasks are to be grouped. The _____analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. Extrinsic factors. recruitment. _______refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. advancement. Job satisfaction factors are separate and distinct from job dissatisfaction factors. working conditions.Herzberg (1959) constructed a two-dimensional paradigm of factors affecting people’s attitudes about work. emphasize factors intrinsically rewarding that are associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it. When hygiene factors are adequate. have to do with a person’s relationship to the context or environment in which she or he performs the job. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. 2. Organization involves designing. supervision. Motivators are intrinsic factors. 2. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. The satisfiers relate to what a person does while the dissatisfiers relate to the situation in which the person does what he or she does. 3. These two factors are motivators and hygiene factors and this theory is also called motivation-hygiene theory. and where decisions are to be made. and achievement. neither will they be satisfied. who reports to whom. Directing is the interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals. responsibility. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction. recognition. interpersonal relations. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. motivators describe a person’s relationship with what she or he does. Self Assessment Questions 1. and salary are hygiene factors. people will not be dissatisfied.
5 3. Write a short not on directing. Reference 2. 2.3 2. Follett 2.2.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.9 Terminal Questions 1. SWOT 3. Explain Staffing in detail 3.1 Introduction Objectives . Reference 2. MU0002-Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Structure: 3. Staffing Answers to TQs: 1.6 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Reference 2. What is planning? 2.
3.2 Definitions 3.3 Characteristics of OD 3.4 Categories of OD 3.5 Goals of OD 3.6 OD and Management Development 3.7 Role of OD 3.8 Problems in OD Self Assessment Questions 3.9 Summary 3.10 Terminal Questions 3.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 3.1 Introduction Organization development is the applied behavioural science discipline dedicated to improving organizations and the people in them through the use of the theory and practice of planned change. Organizations face multiple challenges and threats today – threats to effectiveness, efficiency, and profitability; challenges from turbulent environments, increased competition, and changing customer demands; and the constant challenge to maintain congruence among organizational dimensions such as technology, strategy, culture, and processes. Keeping organizations healthy and viable in today’s world is a daunting task. Individuals in organizations likewise face multiple challenges – finding satisfaction in and through work, fighting obsolescence of one’s knowledge and skills, maintaining dignity and purpose in pursuit of organizational goals, and achieving human connectedness and community in the workplace. Simple survival – continuing to have an adequate job – is a major challenge today in the light of constant layoffs and cutbacks. Although new jobs are being created at record rates, old jobs are being destroyed at an accelerating pace. “Knowledge” work is replacing “muscle” work. In summary, organizations and the individuals in them face an enormously demanding present and future. Are any strategies available to help people and organizations cope, adapt, survive, and even prosper in these vexing times? Fortunately, the answer is “yes”. A variety of solutions exists. And organization development (OD) is one of them. Basically, organization development is a
process of teaching people how to solve problems, take advantage of opportunities, and learn how to do that better and better over time. OD focuses on issues related to the “human side” of organizations by finding ways to increase the effectiveness of individuals, teams, and the organization’s human and social processes. Organization development is a relatively recent invention. It started in the late 1950s when behavioural scientists steeped in the lore and technology of group dynamics attempted to apply that knowledge to improve team functioning and inter-group relations in organizations. Early returns were encouraging, and attention was soon directed toward other human and social processes in organizations such as the design of work tasks, organization structure, conflict resolution, strategy formulation and implementation, and the like. The field of OD grew rapidly in the 1970s and the 1980s with thousands of organizations in the private and public sectors using the theory and methods of OD with great success. Today, organization development represents one of the best strategies for coping with the rampant changes occurring in the marketplace and society. We predict that organization development will be preferred improvement strategy in future. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Define organization development. · Explain the characteristics of OD. · Discuss the categories of OD programme. · State the goals of OD. · Distinguish between OD and Management Development · Explore the problems in OD. 3.2 Definitions Organization Development (OD) is a response to change, a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs, attitudes, values and structure of organization so that they can better adapt to new technologies, markets, and challenges, and the dizzying rate of change itself. (Bennis, 1969). OD can be defined as a planned and sustained effort to apply behavioural science for system improvement, using reflexive, self-analytic methods. (Schmuck and Miles, 1971)
Organizational development is a process of planned change- change of an organization’s culture from one which avoids an examination of social processes (especially decision making, planning and communication) to one which institutionalizes and legitimizes this examination. (Burke and Hornstein, 1972) The aims of OD are: 1) Enhancing congruence between organizational structure, processes, strategy, people, and culture; 2) Developing new and creative organizational solutions; and 3) Developing the organization’s self-renewing capacity (Beer, 1980). Organization development is an organizational process for understanding and improving any and all substantive processes an organization may develop for performing any task and pursuing any objectives…. A “process for improving processes” – that is what OD has basically sought to be for approximately 25 years (Vaill, 1989) “Organizational development is a set of behavioural science-based theories, values, strategies, and techniques aimed at the planned change of the organizational work setting for the purpose of enhancing individual development and improving organizational performance, through the alteration of organizational members’ on-the-job behaviours.” (Porras and Robertson, 1992) “OD is a systematic application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies, structure, and processes for improving an organization’s effectiveness.” (Cummings and Worley, 1993) “Organization development is a planned process of change in an organization’s culture through the utilization of behavioural science technologies, research, and theory.” (Burke, 1994) As you can see, these definitions overlap a great deal (that’s encouraging), and contain several unique insights (that’s enlightening). All authors agree that OD applies behavioural science to achieve planned change. Likewise, they agree that the target of change is the total organization or system and that the goals are increased organizational effectiveness and individual development. Collectively, these definitions convey a sense of what organization development is and does. They describe in broad outline the nature and methods of OD. There is no set definition of OD and no agreement on the boundaries of the field, that is, what practices should be included and excluded. But these are not serious constraints given that the field is still evolving, and that practitioners share a central core of understanding as shown in the preceding definitions.
collaborative management of organization culture-with special emphasis on the culture of intact work teams and other team configurations-using the consultantfacilitator role and the theory and technology of applied behavioural science. or became distracted with other duties. There is no “quick fix” when it comes to lasting organizational improvement. but as one that includes characteristics we think are important for the present and future of the field. In fact.Now let’s turn to our definition of organization development. where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured. Peter Senge describes learning organizations as “… organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire. Visioning means creating a picture of the desired future that includes salient features of the human side of the organization and then working together to make that picture a reality. By empowerment. developing the strategy for getting there. it is more accurate to describe “improvement” as a never-ending journey of continuous change. One program or initiative moves the organization to a higher plateau. serious business. and culture. then another moves it to yet a higher plateau of effectiveness. and making it happen. but it includes a number of components that we consider essential. processes. coherent. Top management must initiate the improvement “journey” and be committed to seeing it through. We do not propose it as the “right” definition. listening. and what the organization and its members can expect from each other. learning. For empowerment to become fact of life. where . and self-examining processes that facilitate individual. Organizational change is hard. and shared picture of the nature of the products and services the organization offers. we mean those processes through which organization members develop a viable. it must be built into the very fabric of the organization-its strategy. By learning processes. to improve an organization’s visioning. we mean those interacting. led and supported by top management.several years in most cases. empowerment. structure. we mean that organizational change and development takes time. including action research. Most OD programs that fail do so because top management was ambivalent. “Organization development is a long-term effort. we mean involving large numbers of people in building the vision of tomorrow. By empowerment processes. The phrase led and supported by top management states an imperative: Top management must lead and actively encourage the change effort. We will explain this definition in some detail. and organizational learning. team. we mean those leadership behaviours and human resource practices that enable organization members to develop and use their talents as fully as possible toward individual growth and organizational success. the ways those goods will be produced and delivered to customers. By visioning processes. and problem-solving processes. it includes pain and setbacks as well as success. By long-term effort.” This definition is lengthy. lost its commitment. through an ongoing.
We further believe that having compelling. structure. we mean. And second. opportunities.collective aspiration is set free. Michael Beer’s definition called for “developing new and creative organizational solutions”. and problem-solving processes. learning. we affirm our belief that culture is the bedrock of behaviour in organizations. one of wide-spread participation in creating and managing a culture that satisfies that wants and needs of individuals at the same time that it fosters the organization’s purposes. and feel-that is why culture change is necessary for true organizational improvement. The reciprocal influence among culture. Still. and artifacts. and processes makes each important. attitudes. sentiments. make decisions. and norms of behaviour that are viewed as the correct way to perceive. commitment. or developed by a given group. so they are the place OD programs often begin – getting people to stop doing things one way and start doing them a different way. widely shared vision of a desired future creates the best climate for effective problem-solving by all the organization’s members. beliefs. Edgar Schein clarifies the nature and power of culture in his definition: “Culture can now be defined as (a) a pattern of basic assumptions. learning. norms. But change becomes permanent when the culture changes and people accept the new ways as the “right” ways. (d) that has worked well enough to be considered valid and. strategy. vitality. and common purposes of all members of the organization. So culture consists of basic assumptions. expectations. has a stake in making the organization work. Just as visioning. not just a small group. Empowerment means involving people in problems and decisions and letting them be responsible for results. By including culture so prominently in our definition. empowerment. (b) invented. and problem-solving processes are opportunities for collaboration in organization development. Our definition also places considerable weight on organizational processes. in contrast to having only a select few involved. . and challenges in the organization’s environment and its internal functioning. discovered. interactions.” Problem-solving processes refer to the ways organization members diagnose situations. so is managing the culture. (c) as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. and take actions on problems. first. therefore (e) is to be taught to new members as the (f) correct way to perceive. We believe that when the culture promotes collaboration. think. assumptions. and each influences the others. Processes are relatively easy to change. managing the culture should be a collaborative business. Collaborative management of the culture means that everyone. By ongoing collaborative management of the organization’s culture. solve problems. and we highlight the importance of visioning. culture is of primary importance. think. empowerment. and continuous learning the organization is bound to succeed. We believe solutions to problems are enhanced by tapping deeply into the creativity. empowerment. Processes are how things get done. that one of the most important things to manage in organizations is the culture: the prevailing pattern of values. and feel in relation to those problems. values. activities. and where people are continually learning how to learn together.
we recognize that teams are central to accomplishing work in organizations. and considerable antagonism among the separate functional specialists. firing. Tom Peters predicts that the work of tomorrow (most of which will be “brain work”) will be done by ad hoc teams brought together to accomplish a task. OD focuses on culture and processes. wasted time. manufacturing. according to Peters. We think teams are the basic building blocks of organizations. and procurement. and then disbanded with the people going on to new tasks. To summarize. and training. multifunctional.By intact work teams and other configurations. The results are usually highly gratifying both for the team members and for the organization. He uses the terms ‘multifunctional projectization’ and ‘horizontal systems’ to describe these teams and their work. . These self-directed teams assume complete responsibility for planning and executing work assignments. Over time. Today’s organizations increasingly use ad hoc teams that perform a specific task and disband when the task is completed. such as design. engineering. individuals and the organization function well. members are trained in competencies such as planning. When one function finished with its part of the project. constantly shifting teams will be the dominant configuration for getting work done. In Liberation Management. self-directed teams control performance appraisals. the process “threw the results over the wall” to the next functional unit. much rework. Temporary. here are the primary distinguishing characteristics of organization development: 1. The thesis of Liberation Management is that contemporary bureaucratic structures with their functional specialties and rigid hierarchies are all wrong for the demands of today’s fast-paced market place. OD encourages collaboration between organization leaders and members in managing culture and processes. But in many organizations today. The old method was to have functional specialists work on the problem sequentially. team culture can be collaboratively managed to ensure effectiveness. Further. In addition to team building and role and goal clarification. The definition we have just analyzed contains the elements we believe are important for OD. Team building and role and goal clarification interventions are standard activities in OD programs directed toward intact work teams. This method resulted in loss of synergy. and using management information. hiring. 2. When teams function well. Specifically. The current method for getting complex tasks done in organizations is to assemble a cross-functional team comprised of members from all the functional specialities required to get the job done. intact work teams do not have a boss in the traditional sense-the teams manage themselves. maintaining quality control. The most prevalent form of teams in organizations is intact work teams consisting of superior and subordinates with a specific job to perform.
OD relies on an action research model with extensive participation by client system members. they are ongoing. This ‘planned’ emphasis separates OD efforts from other kinds of more haphazard changes that are frequently undertaken by organizations. Attempting to create “win-win” solutions is standard practice in OD programs. Thus. Dynamic Process: OD is a dynamic process and includes the efforts to guide and direct changes as well as to cope with or adapt changes imposed. Participation and involvement in problem-solving and decision-making by all levels of the organization are hallmarks of OD. 4. 3. 7. 4.3 Characteristics of OD 1. 10. rather than focusing attention on individuals. so that change is easily observed. so the methods of attaining these goals should also change.3. 8. . and co-learners with the client system. 3. OD efforts are not one-shot actions. OD focuses on the elevation of an organization to a higher level of functioning by improving the performance and satisfaction. OD focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. OD takes a developmental view that seeks the betterment of both individuals and the organization. temporary. It recognizes that organizational goals change. OD efforts take an organization as an interrelated whole and no part of it can be changed meaningfully without making corresponding changes in other parts. Comprehensive Change: OD efforts focus on comprehensive change in the organization. or isolated problems. OD practitioners are facilitators. interactive. 9. The concept of comprehensive change is based on the systems concept-open. Long-range Change: OD efforts are not meant for solving short-term. Rather. Planned Change: OD is a strategy of planned change for organizational improvement. An overarching goal is to make the client system able to solve its problems on its own by teaching the skills and knowledge of continuous learning through self-analytical methods. rather. 5. and cyclic processes. OD views organization improvement as an ongoing process in the context of a constantly changing environment. 6. dynamic and adaptive system. OD focuses on total system change and views organizations as complex social systems. collaborators. Teams of all kinds are particularly important for accomplishing tasks and are targets for OD activities. 2.
he conducts surveys. . and then. and (c) Problems of organizational effectiveness. Although Organization Development Programmes vary. the collaborative relationships between the scientists. identity. This is done to arrive at certain desirable outcomes that may be in the form of increased effectiveness. Key areas are the normative type of model. 6. problem-solving. Participation of Change Agent: Most OD experts emphasize the need for an outside. participation. and adaptability for the organization as a whole. and integrate individual and organizational goals. There is a close working relationship between the change agent and the target organizational members to be changed. (b) The interventions are primarily directed towards problems and issues identified by the client group. all types of experience requiring Organization Development efforts may be grouped into three categories: (a) Problems of destiny. The relationship involves mutual trust. Two important elements of Organization Development are.5.4 Categories of OD Programmes In general. 3. further more. The change agent is a humanist seeking to get a humanistic philosophy in the organization. third party change agent. it is a programme with a purpose that is to guide present and future action. or catalyst. At the individual level. Organization Development is inextricably linked with action. OD attempts to provide opportunities to be ‘human’ and to increase awareness. evaluates these data. and revitalization. practitioners and the client laymen. joint goals and means. 7. the element which links Organization Development with the scientific method of inquiry and. rather. first. yet following features are common to most of the programmes: (a) The client is a total system or major subunit of total system. collects relevant data. They discourage ‘do it yourself’ approach. A change agent in OD process does not just introspect the people and introduce changes. and mutual influence. second. Normative Educational Process: OD is based on the principle that ‘norms form the basis for behaviour and change is a re-educative process of replacing old norms by new ones’. takes actions for intervention. growth. (b) Problems of human satisfaction and development. He designs intervention strategies based on these data. Action research is the basis for such intervention. He shares a social philosophy about human values. Emphasis on Intervention and Action Research: OD approach results in an active intervention in the ongoing activities of the organization. the importance and centrality of goals and objectives and the different role requirements of the consultant change agent vis-à-vis the clients.
3. (f) To develop a reward system which recognizes both the achievement of the organization’s goals (profit or service) and development of people. with the authority of knowledge and competence. (e) To make competition more relevant to work goals and to maximize collaborative efforts. like other normative re-educative programmes. 3. problem solving climate throughout an organization. and (d) The interventions are based on behavioural science theory and technology. This Organization Development progrmmes. (b) To supplement the authority associated with role or status. (c) To locate decision making and problem-solving responsibilities as close to sources of information as possible. (h) To help managers to manage according to relevant objectives rather than according to past practices or according to objectives which do not make sense for one’s area of responsibility. (g) To increase the sense of ‘ownership’ or organization’s objectives throughout the work force.6 OD and Management Development . (d) To build trust among persons and groups throughout an organization. (j) To improve effectiveness of the organization. We need to examine carefully the techniques of Organization Development. (i) To increase self-control and self-direction for people within the organization. its underlying theory and assumptions and some of the pitfall and challenges in attempting to improve organizations through behavioural science. should begin with a clear-cut statement of specific objectives and criteria for determining if these objectives have been met from the stand point of the employee/employees simply as team member or for the total group.(c) The interventions are directed towards problem-solving and improved functioning for the client system.5 Goals of Organization Development Following are the generally accepted goals of OD: (a) To create an open.
according to him. and greater display of feelings and emotions. While the latter aims at developing the mangers individually for the accomplishment of better performance in organizational setting. not on the and managers to perform managers. the former goes one step further and purports to change the entire organizational climate where the mangers work. Miner has drawn difference between two processes.” Organization development differs from management development. Based on this. Train and equip employees Focus on design. and (iv) a sense of responsibility. then would the results be functional for managing organization activity in a competitive world? Thus. management development has been defined as follows: “Management development is all those activities and programmes when recognized and controlled. He feels that management development reinforces the above four qualities and helps managers cultivate and develop the will to manage. (ii) competitiveness. MD tries to fit the men to the organization. The term ‘development’ refers broadly to the nature and direction of change induced in personnel through the process of training and education. there are four attributes of effective managers in large organization. and techniques adopted in both may overlap to some extent. it is beneficial to make a comparison between OD and Management Development (MD) as both have some common objectives that betterment of an organization. Difference between Management Development and OD Factors Objectives Management Development Organization Development Increasing manager’s Changing the nature of the contributions to goal organization. have substantial influence in changing the capacity of the individual to perform his assignment better and in so doing are likely to increase his potential for future management assignment. However. whereas OD efforts within organizations may cause confusion and chaos for incoming human resources if the organization is underplayed and the humanistic dimension alone is emphasized. These are: (i) a positive attitude towards authority. less individual competitiveness. According to him. more attention to peer-groups. Before making a comparison between the two. with their existing objectives and structure. OD tries to fit the organization to the men. Focus . focus on achieving better in existing improvement in design. organization. Burke and Schmidt have made this difference more clear which is presented in the following table.At this stage. accomplishments. If OD efforts train people towards anti-authority value. he appears to be biased against OD and the real distinction between OD and MD lies in between these two extremes. let us define management development as we have seen the definition of OD. (iii) assertiveness.
2. as a long-term strategy for organizational change. The basic problem in a change effort which is not comprehensive is that it does not work properly unless there is a proper change in the internal environment of the organization in which people work. 6. confrontation techniques. Since OD attempts to bring comprehensive change in the organization. horizontally.Approach Time Educative and training Short-range. 4. To increase the openness of communications in all directions-vertically. Specialist No special requirement. 3. etc.7 Role of Organization Development Organization development. Trained specialists required. To increase the level of trust and mutual emotional support among all organization members. To treat each human being as a complex person with a complex set of needs important in his work and his life. Problem-solving approach. 7. In early 60s. Thus. however. To increase the level of enthusiasms and personal satisfaction at all levels of the organization. 3. Research studies have also failed to conclude . OD became quite successful with many professional consultants offering high services and programmes to various organizations.8 Problems in Organization Development Organization development. OD can be utilized for the following results in the organization: 1. and laterally. however. 5. substantial disenchantment with OD became evident because of many controversial OD techniques like sensitivity training. has invited sharp criticism as a strategy to increase organizational viability and effectiveness because many OD programmes have failed. To increase the level of self and group responsibility in planning and its implementation. To create an environment in which authority of assigned role is augmented by authority based on knowledge and skills. Long-range strategy for organizational innovation and renewal. it is quite suitable for improving organizational performance on long-term basis. 3. To place emphasis on humanistic values and goals consistent with these vales. plays key role in organizational improvement. Much of the enthusiasm created at the beginning of OD programmes vanished over the period of time. By 70s.
Therefore. Resistance to change is a natural phenomenon and OD puts undue pressure to change. it fails even as a long-term strategy. 5.significant contributions of OD in all organizations. There is discrepancy between ideal and real situations. and (iii) failure to increase employee motivation through participation and development of personal growth and self-esteem. OD fails to motivate people with low level of achievement needs. and (ii) failure to correctly model appropriate personnel behaviour in the programme. and only large organizations can afford this luxury without any guarantee of positive outcome. OD makes people unfit for the real organizations world because no organization can fully adopt open system concept. If an organization is laden with these people. However. 3. some specific efforts are required. 4. OD is criticized on the following lines: 1. There should be proper use of OD interventions. Hence. it is useless to try OD. 5. People realized its dysfunctional aspects only when many OD efforts failed. Evans has identified three factors which have been responsible for the failure of OD programmes: (i) failure of the management consultant group to correctly tailor the programme to actual needs of the organization. These should be based on the specific needs of the organization. For example. 2. Thus. Enough time should be allowed so that the effects of OD programme are realized. There should be genuine support of OD programme from top management. Some of these efforts are as follows: 1. OD tries to achieve ideal without taking into account real. in order to make best use of OD efforts. Organization must formulate the objectives of OD programme very clearly and specifically. OD programmes are often quite costly. It can be seen that many of these criticisms are based on reality and experience. particularly in bottom-line ones. 4. 2. 3. . it can be visualized that OD itself may not be dysfunctional but application may be. Only fully competent OD consultant should be pressed for the service and he should develop understanding with internal change agents. it may be emphasized that OD programmes are likely to fail when these are not programmes and hence failure. Therefore. OD can not be taken as panacea for curing all organizational problems. In general.
Who is associated with the “Learning Organizations”? 5.10 Terminal Questions 1. 4. There is no ‘quick fix’ to organizations’ problems. OD focuses on culture and processes. 3. OD is the ultimate remedy for organizational improvements and developments. collaborative. 2.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. What are the problems involved in the implementation of OD? 3. The participative. Explain its salient features. Organization development should be led and supported by –––––––. 3. Top management 2. Define OD. Empowerment . 3. Distinguish between ‘organizational development’ and ‘management development’.Self Assessment Questions 1. It focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. problem-focused ‘nature of OD’ marshals the experience and expertise of organization members for problem-solving and capitalizes the opportunities in the organization. But OD aims at changing the entire organizational climate where the managers work. 5. _____________is a short-term strategy. 3. ––––––––– is a process which includes leadership behaviours and human resource practices. Tom Peters 3. Management development aims at developing the managers individually. ––––––– is associated with “Liberation Management”. 2. Explain the various characteristics of OD. 4.9 Summary The definitions clarify the distinctive features of OD and suggest why it is such a powerful change strategy. State the various roles of OD.
Refer section 3.6 Team-building .5 Leadership Development 4.2 2. Peter Senge 5.4 Grid Training 4.4.Organization Development – Interventions Unit-04.3 Process Consultation 4. Management development Answers to TQs: 1. MU0002-Unit-04. Refer section 3.6 4.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .3 3. Refer section 3. Refer section 3.Organization Development – Interventions Structure: 4.1 Introduction Objectives 4.2 Survey Feedback 4. Refer section 3.7 5.
However. and organizational culture. Interventions constitute the action thrust of organization development. they make things happen. For example.11 Terminal Questions 4. management grid. interpersonal level. inter-group activities.4. Thus. French and Bell have defined OD intervention as: “Sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage with a task or a sequence of tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvement.10 Summary 4.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 4. and organizational level. techno-structural activities.1 Introduction OD interventions refer to various activities which a consultant and client organization perform for improving organizational performance through enabling organizational members better manage their behaviour. work group. group level. survey feedback.9 Role of Change Agents Self Assessment Questions 4. team-building. French and Bell have suggested twelve families of OD interventions: diagnostic. many of them visualize data gathering as an intervention whereas it is treated as only preparatory work for OD by others. Therefore.” There are various OD interventions and they are classified in different ways. the classification appears to be more relevant because it may specify the . the classification of OD interventions shows variation. This classification of OD interventions is very comprehensive and many activities do not strictly form the part of OD as process of organizational improvement but other methods of improving the performance of the organization. inter-group level. A meaningful classification of OD interventions may be based on the improvement in the behaviour of people in the organization as OD is basically a behavioural approach. mediation and negotiation activities.8 Change Agents 4. process consultation. People’s behaviour may be relevant to understand at individual level. various consultants and practitioners have different opinions about the activities which can be included in interventions. Further. Nevertheless. interventions may be required to change people at all these levels.7 Inter Group Development 4. such a classification of interventions may not put them into mutually exclusive categories as a particular intervention may be applied at more than one level. education and training.
· Describe process consultation. and peer interaction facilitation. 2. and survey feedback method. and participative goal-setting which has become more popular as management by objectives. Process of Survey Feedback Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection. other techniques like process consultation. The questionnaire may include different aspects of organizational functioning. To assist the organization in diagnosing its problems and developing action plan for problemsolving.range of change that an organization requires. To assist the group members to improve the relationships through discussion of common problems. Though some type of survey method was prevalent in various organizations earlier. peer goal emphasis. you will be able to: · Describe survey feedback. managerial work facilitation. the other major thrust in the development of OD has come from survey research and feedback of data. feedback of information. . team.building. USA developed a comprehensive questionnaire for conducting survey in different aspects of an organization. developing action plans based on feedback. Data Collection: The first step in survey feedback is data collection usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. ISR has prepared a questionnaire which includes questions on leadership – managerial support. Objectives: After studying this unit. and follow up. · Realize the importance of team-building. peer support. The basic objectives of survey feedback are as follows: 1. grid training. · Explain grid training. · Role of change agents. 1. managerial goal emphasis. Institute for Social Research (ISR) of University of Michigan. peer work facilitation. Our further discussion follows this development. Subsequently. have been added.2 Survey Feedback Besides laboratory training (sensitivity and grid). Historically. OD efforts were attempted through sensitivity training. 4.
control within the company. Second. satisfaction with the supervisor. co-ordination between departments. and satisfaction with the work group. follow-up action may be in the form of developing some specific OD interventions particularly process consultation and team-building. even if valid and reliable information is collected. It generates great amount of information efficiently and quickly which can be used in solving problems faced by the organization and its members. 3. Follow-up Action: Survey feedback programme is not meaningful unless some follow-up action is taken based on the data collected. it is of no use unless follow-up action is taken based on the . If it is biased. Evaluation of Survey Feedback Survey feedback provides a base for many managerial actions which has been confirmed by various research studies. One such follow-up action may be to advise the participants to develop their own action plans to overcome the problems revealed through a feedback or as is more commonly the case. it should be constructive and suggestive. threatening and emotion-hurting as survey feedback is aimed at identifying weaknesses which must be overcome through follow-up actions and not the fault-finding technique for criticism. and analysis is made to arrive at some meaningful conclusions. all attempts to diagnose the problems will be abortive and futile. After the questionnaires are completed. However. it is provided through group discussion or problem-solving sessions conducted by the consultant. and general management. questionnaire used and method adopted for its administration should be reliable and valid. 3. The questionnaire is administered personally either by the members of consulting firm or by organization’s personnel. satisfaction with the job. In oral system of feedback. data are classified. It is cost-effective means of implementing a comprehensive OD programme making it a highly desirable technique. Whatever the method of giving feedback is adopted.organizational climate-communication with the company. motivation. satisfaction with the pay. feedback may be given in the form of a written summary of findings. The feedback may be given either orally or in a written form. rather. Alternatively. tabulated. feedback is given to the persons who have participated in the fulfilling up of questionnaire. 2. and satisfaction-satisfaction with the company. Decision-making and problem-solving abilities of organization can be improved tremendously because this approach applies the competence and knowledge throughout the organization and the problems faced by it. decision-making. effectiveness of survey feedback depends on two factors. by the consultant. Feedback of Information: After the data are analyzed. 2. First. survey feedback contributes in the following manner: 1. In particular.
C in which the client makes initial contact with the consultant with a view to solve the problems faced by the organization which cannot be solved by existing processes or resources. and interview about the problems. . A survey feedback is not a technique in itself for change. Steps in Process Consultation Schein has suggested following specific steps which the consultant would follow in a P. Define the Relationship: At this stage. Select the Setting and the Method: It involves a clear-cut understanding of where and how the consultant will do the job that is required. This data gathering occurs simultaneously with the entire consultative process. etc. spelled out at the initial stage. 4. Edgar Schein.information. group decision-making and problemsolving. and inter-group co-operation and conflicts. 2. Information collected is processed to diagnose the problems and their underlying causes. 4. At this stage. the consultant is introduced to the organizational members and basic objectives of the P.C is that the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events.” The basic objectives of P. the client’s expectations and hoped-for results are also decided. communication. client and consultant enter into agreement covering various aspects of consultancy services like fees.C has defined it as follows: “The set of activities on the part of the consultant which help the client to perceive. Gather Data and Make a Diagnosis: Information is collected from various sources thorough the use of questionnaires. At this stage. observations. 1. time. group norms. and spelling out services.C are communicated to them with a view that they co-operate with the consultant. and act upon the process events which occur in the client’s environment. To bring desired change in the various organizational processes like leadership. 2. it provides base for action for change. 3. To understand how various organizational processes can be linked to objective achievement in the organization. the leading writer and consultant on P. roles and functions of group members. The basic content of P.C) is a technique for intervening in an ongoing system.C programme of OD.C are as follows: 1. Initiate Contact: This is beginning stage of P.3 Process Consultation Process Consultation (P. understand.
focuses on skills. P. One basic reason for this phenomenon may be the consultant’s inability to steer the organization out of troubles. knowledge. feedback. To evaluate the styles of leadership and techniques of participation to produce desirable results. Its specific objectives are as follows: 1. groups.C is very effective intervention for organizational improvement. and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. In the review of various P.4 Grid Training Grid training is basically based on grid organization development developed by Blake and Mouton. Though he is involved only in suggesting the various changes in the processes. like other OD intervention techniques. both these problems may be overcome by engaging a suitable consultant and developing willingness among the members for change.C is completed. Reduce Involvement and Terminate: When the work of P. However. 6.C programmes. and/or structural change. coaching. group. Another problem may emerge at the level of the organization and its members in terms of how they inculcate the new processes and culture as suggested by the consultant. It utilizes a considerable number of instruments. 4. Evaluation of Process Consultation: Process consultation is quite in-depth activity of OD in which the consultant plays a major role. the consultant disengages from the client organization by mutual agreement but leaves the door open for future involvement. inter-group. P. Process of Grid Training The basic content of grid organization development is managerial grid as discussed. he assists the organizational members to incorporate those changes. It is a comprehensive and systematic OD programme which aims at individuals. The grid organization development consists of six phases. 3. However. the consultant intervenes in the organizational processes by using different interventions like agenda-setting.5. and the organization as a whole. The whole orientation is to develop managerial style through the application of behavioural science knowledge. Intervene: At this stage. enabling individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses.C is also not free from criticisms. . significant correlation between the outcomes has not been found. From this point of view. To understand the importance and rationale of systematic change. 2. and total organizational levels. To study the organization as an interactive system and apply techniques of analysis in diagnosing its problems.
The analysis will bring out the shortcomings that may be there. The individuals try to learn to become managers by practice. the focus shifts to the total organization and to develop skills necessary for organizational excellence. The action is designed to identify the characteristics of the ideal organization. the focus is on inter-group behaviour and relations. grid training has some positive contributions for organizational effectiveness. and alike. 5. Teamwork Development: The focus in this stage is to develop teamwork by analyzing team culture. communication skills. 2. the various programmes may be redesigned. 6. Developing Ideal Strategic Corporate Model: At this stage. Though research studies on the application of grid training are not many. in spite of these criticisms. Managerial grid: It covers various aspects of assessing managerial styles. Evaluation of Grid Training Most of the support of grid training has come from its originators-Blake and Mouton. problem-solving. 4. some of them have not supported the claims made by Blake and Mouton. Inter-group Development: At this phase. The strategy is then implemented. Grid training programme is criticized on the basis that it lacks contingency approach and. The thrust is on moving groups from conflict to co-operation. Implementing the Ideal Strategic Model: The implementation stage includes the building of the organization on the model of ideal organization on the basis of concepts developed under stage 4. grid training is a non-rigorous method. they maintained the same stand. it appears that this type of educational strategy can help to make significant contributions to organizational effectiveness. Systematic Critique: In this stage. the various efforts from phase 1 to phase 5 are evaluated and critical analysis is made.” In a later work. The members of the organization are trained for achieving this excellence. Furthermore. They have maintained that “managerial and team effectiveness can be taught to managers with outside assistance. traditions. and problemsolving are also developed. In this light. The skills relating to planning. it discounts reality. Each group may be given assignment to evolve strategy for making ideal organization with the help of the consultant. 4. Further. therefore.5 Leadership Development . Each group separately analyses the ideal inter-group relations. and teamwork.1. objective-setting. Action steps to move towards the ideal are developed and assigned to individuals who may be engaged in building co-operative inter-group relationships. 3.
Also during these times of change. brings hope for better times in the future. employees will look towards the leaders for a number of things. is the ability of leadership to…well. during and after change implementation is THE key to getting through the swamp. are closely associated with a very few advocates and practitioners. lead. French and Bell have opined that “probably the most important single group of interventions in the OD are the team-building activities the goals of which are the improvement and increased effectiveness of various teams within the organization. The existence of this trust. if haven’t established a track record of effective leadership. clearly the most important determinant of "getting through the swamp". Slogging Through The Swamp. confident and effective decision-making.When change is imposed (as in downsizing scenarios). The literature on the subject indicates that the nature of the change is secondary to the perceptions that employees have regarding the ability. problems in . therefore. while at the same time recognizing that tough decisions need to be made. must labor under the weight of employees who have given up. 4. and regular. and that makes coping with drastic change much easier. but more importantly. For example. competence. In organizations characterized by poor leadership. have no faith in the system or in the ability of leaders to turn the organization around. employees expect nothing positive. employees will perceive leadership as supportive. teambuilding is the most important. and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. Before going through how team-building exercise can be undertaken to develop effective teams. widely accepted. The Role of Leadership In an organization where there is faith in the abilities of formal leaders. concerned and committed to their welfare. by the time you have to deal with difficult changes. and After Arrival. which. employees will expect effective and sensible planning. As against these.” A possible reason for this phenomenon is that people in the organization work in groups (teams) and the effectiveness of these groups ultimately determine organizational effectiveness. how synergy is generated through team-work. complete communication that is timely. If you are to manage change effectively. let us consider the life cycle of a team. During drastic change times. The best way to summarize is that there is a climate of trust between leader and the rest of the team. We can call these Preparing For the Journey. employees learn that leaders will act in indecipherable ways and in ways that do not seem to be in anyone’s best interests. and credibility of senior and middle management. it may be too late.6 Team-building Various OD interventions discussed so far have their specific implications for OD and. Leadership before. you need to be aware that there are three distinct times zones where leadership is important. Unfortunately. if allowed to go on for too long. The organization must deal with the practical impact of unpleasant change. In a climate of distrust. We will look more carefully at each of these. Poor leadership means an absence of hope. results in an organization becoming completely nonfunctioning.
performing. jockeying for relative control. 3. and tasks are accompanied efficiently. 4. members start interaction among themselves in the form of competing for status. storming. 2.team-work. they often pass through several stages as they learn to work together as a team. and arguing for appropriate strategies to be adopted for achieving team’s goals. Norming: After storming stage. These stages are: forming. interaction among team members is often cautious especially when they are new to one another.1: Life Cycle of a Team Though these are not followed rigidly. These typical stages of life cycle of a team are described below: 1. The team begins to move in a co-operative fashion and a tentative balance among competing forces too is struck. because of individual differences. they learn to handle complex problems that come before the team. Sooner or later. Life Cycle of a Team When a number of individuals begin to work at interdependent jobs. Forming: At the first stage of the life cycle. and features of effective team so that team-building exercises focus more sharply on developing effective team. even the most successful teams as they have completed their mission. group norms emerge to guide individual behaviour which form the basis for co-operative feelings and behaviour among members. different members may experience varying degree of tension and anxiety out of this interaction pattern. At this stage. and adjourning as shown below: Fig. 5. At this stage. The . start to accept others. Functional roles are performed and exchanged as needed. and begin to turn their attention to the group tasks. Adjourning: Adjourning is the end phase of cycle of a team. Performing: When team members interact among themselves on the basis of norms that have emerged in the team. 4. They share personal information. team members get introduced to each other if they have not interacted earlier. each team has to be adjourned. These stages are the result of a variety of questions and issues that team members face such as “who will be members of the team?” “Who will perform what functions?” “Who will contribute what?” “What rules will be followed?” “How can conflicts among members be resolved?” and so on. they do represent a broad pattern that may be observed and predicted in many settings across team’s time together. norming. team members start settling. Storming: After the forming stage which is mostly related to perceiving and assessing each other.
intense social relationship among members comes to an end. This effect can be described as 2+2=5 effect. . and so on. synergistic effect is not automatic but depends on the complementarity of different elements that are put together and the way they interact among themselves. concept of stages is significant in the context of the nature of problem which team members are likely to face in team-work. committee. a team is created to undertake a task which requires a variety of skills and single individual cannot perform that task alone. Synergy in Team-work Another important feature of a team is the concept of synergy which generates in team-work and the understanding of which helps in developing effective team. The concept of synergy is quite popular in strategic management and it is defined as follows: “Synergy is the process of putting two or more elements together to achieve a sum total greater than the sum total of individual elements separately. To the extent.adjournment phase takes place in the case of those teams which are created for some special purposes like task force. After the adjournment of the team. in one experiment. the complementarity among members is achieved. In such an assignment. other factors remaining the same. They rely on the fact the more reliable members will complete the project without their help. This phenomenon may happen in teams in work organizations too. that is. A simple phenomenon of social loafing may be observed in a group assignment to students during their study. It is not necessary that all teams follow the rigid pattern prescribed here and the similar problems they face at each stage because each team is different in some respect based on the type of members and problems and functions assigned. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts. the team would be effective. Other types of team like a department in an organization run on the basis of some permanency though there may be changes in team members. In fact. students find that one or two students do not put their weight for the completion of the project.” Thus. etc. Social Loafing Social loafing is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. However. For example. fail to perform their assigned tasks. These students may be called loafers (not attaching the same connotation which is attached with the term loafer in our social phenomenon) who frequently miss the project group’s meetings. Putting the concept of synergy in teamwork means members of the team are complementary to each other and they contribute positively to one another. and still expect to share the credit and obtain the same marks from the professor since he will be concerned with determining who worked and who did not. how a particular element affects another and is affected by it.
super-ordinate goals and team rewards. it appears that there are many factors in an effective team.it was found that individuals’ total efforts were much higher than the group efforts. Skills and Role Clarity: For an effective team. Let us see how these factors make a team effective. the individual average dropped down still lower68. he may tend to affect others because of chain reaction just like a rotten apple injures its companions.2 pounds. understanding of roles helps members to meet the requirement of one another thereby solving the problems which the team faces. individual members do not contribute to the fullest extent. While skills are relevant for job performance. other factors remaining the same. When the division of work cannot be accomplished properly and individual efforts are hard to determine. 2. two things are required from its members. supportive environment. Thus. From this statement. Dropping of average output in group efforts indicates that some members of the group were not contributing as much as they did individually. 2. A group is not merely an assemblage of individuals but there should be a feeling that they are members of the group and share common interests. Effective Team An effective team is one which contributes to the achievement of organizational objectives by performing the task assigned to it and providing satisfaction to its members.6 pound of pressure while tugging on the rope. group of eight. we have mentioned that team effectiveness depends on the complementarity of team members. In the above paragraph. goals. The possibility of occurring of social loafing in a team-work increases because of the following reasons: 1. and attitudes. Even if one member lacks behind. . managers at higher levels particularly at the top level should set organizational climate and culture which enthuse team members to put their best. When the group is not cohesive with high output norms. They averaged 138. Individuals were asked to pull alone as hard as possible on a rope attached to a strain gauge. team members may not show high degree of enthusiasm and they will use only a part of their skills in performing the jobs. team members may tend to contribute positively to the teamwork. When the same individuals pulled on the rope of groups of three. Therefore. 1. group efforts tend to slacken. These factors are skills and role clarity. Supportive Environment: A team loaded with skilled members cannot perform well if the organizational climate is not supportive for that. If the organizational climate is not in tune with high achievement. skills which are complementary to the team requirement and understanding of one’s own role as well as roles of other members. The phenomenon of social loafing can be minimized by constituting effective team for group performance.
3. Super-ordinate Goals: Super-ordinate goals are those which are above the goals of a single team or a single individual. An individual works better if he is able to link how his goal attainment leads to the attainment of a higher-level goal. These super-ordinate goals, then, serve to focus attention, unify efforts, and stimulate more cohesive team efforts. 4. Team Rewards: Team performance depends on how reward is linked to team performance and how members perceive this linkage. If team members perceive that reward to contingent on team performance, they will put their maximum. Rewards of both types- financial and nonfinancial-should be taken into consideration. Further, organizations need to achieve a careful balance between encouraging and rewarding individual initiative and growth and stimulating full contributions to team success. Innovative non-financial team rewards for responsible behaviour may include the authority to select new members of the group, make recommendations regarding a new supervisor, or propose discipline for team members. The positive aspect of all these factors leads to team effectiveness and team members share common values regarding product quality, customer satisfaction, and share the responsibility for completing a project on schedule. Katzenbatch and Smith, management consultants, have suggested the concept of real team and they feel that this concept is relatively unexploited despite its capacity to outperform other groups and individuals. They define four characteristics of real teams: small size; complementary skills; common purpose, goals, and working approach: and willingness to be held mutually accountable. Real teams can be created and sustained by: 1. Selecting members for their complementary skills and potentials; 2. Developing clear rules of conduct and challenging performance goals; 3. Establishing a sense of urgency right from the first meeting. 4. Providing substantial time together in which new information is constantly shared; and 5. Providing positive feedback, recognition, and rewards. Team-building Process: Team-building attempts to improve effectiveness of the team by having team members to concentrate on: 1. Setting goals and priorities for the team. 2. Analyzing how team’s goals and priorities are linked to those of the organization. 3. Analyzing how the work is performed. 4. Analyzing how the team is working, and
5. Analyzing the relationships among the members who are performing the job. For achieving these, the team-building exercise proceeds in a particular way as shown in figure.
Fig. 4.2: Process of Team-building Various steps of team-building process are not one-shot action, rather, they are repetitive and cyclical as indicated by arrows in the figure. 1. Problem-sensing: There are a number of ways in which problems of a team can be obtained. Often the team itself defines which aspects of team-building it wishes to work on. This problem can better be identified in terms of what is hindering group effectiveness. At this stage, generally most of the members come forward with their arguments as to what the real problems are. The view may be quite different ranging from the organizational problem, group problems to even personal problem. In problem identification, the emphasis should be on consensus. The consensus-seeking part of the process necessitates that each person becomes thoroughly aware and understand clearly the basic concepts of team-development. Much of the problems may be solved through effective communication and training sessions. 2. Examining Differences: The perception of people on an issue differs because of their differing backgrounds, such as, their value systems, personality and attitudes. The perception may be brought to conformity through the process of exercise on perception which involves a number of psychological exercises particularly on perceptual differences. The role of communication is important in this context because it will help in clarifying the actual problems to the members. 3. Giving and Receiving Feedback: The step of perceiving things and listening to each other may be relayed back to the members as there is a possibility that such processes may create tense situation in the group. Often, members report about the painful feelings that they have at the time of evaluation of their feelings. The discussion should continue until all members of the team have commented. The feedback should be given to the members about their feelings, about the issue, the way people talk about the issue, the stying with the topic or going off on tangents, who was talking more or who was talking less, who was trying to resolve the differences, etc. Such feedback generally provides members to evaluate the values but at the same time, also provides opportunity to understand themselves. The concept of Johari Window may also be applied. This suggests that even people are not fully aware of themselves. 4. Developing Interactive Skills: The basic objective of this process is to increase the ability among the people as to how they should interact with others and engage in constructive behaviour. Following are the examples of constructive and negative behaviours:
Constructive Behaviour: (i) Building: developing and expanding the ideas of others. (ii) Bringing in: harmonizing, encouraging others to participate. (iii) Clarifying: resting, ensuring, understanding, seeking relevant information. (iv) Innovative: bringing in new relevant ideas, information, feelings, etc.
(i) Over talk: interrupting, talking together with speaker. (ii) Attacking: deriding, belittling, criticizing person. (iii) Negative: cooling, cynicism, undermining morale. At the time of discussion of feedback, people themselves take assignments to increase specific constructive behaviours and decrease specific negative behaviours. If this process is adopted several times, there is a strong possibility that members may learn constructive behaviours and leave negative behaviours. This is quite helpful in developing teamwork. 5. Follow-up Action: This is the final stage in team-building. At this stage, the total team is convened to review what has been learned and to identify what the next step should be. Follow-up action also helps in overcoming the drawback involved at the initial stages of teambuilding. It involves deciding who will take care of each area of the team’s responsibilities, and who will be responsible for team projects in a group that has not developed a satisfactory division of responsibility; clarifying and setting differences in perception concerning responsibility and authority in the team, with complex division of responsibility and authority among members. These attempts bring co-operative and supportive feelings among people involved in the team functioning. When this exercise is undertaken at the initial stage, it contributes positively towards the feelings of the people. However, to encourage and sustain such feelings, management should take such actions at regular intervals so that members feel reinforced and sustain their positive behaviour. Such actions will go a long way in shaping the organizational climate quite conducive to members for their efficient working. Evaluation of Team-building As mentioned earlier, team-building as an OD intervention has attracted maximum attention. Many research studies have also confirmed the positive contributions of team-building on the
etc.. It focuses only on work groups and other major organizational variables such as technology. In general. team-building has been termed as one-sided effort and it suffers from the following limitations: 1. monitoring. this has been a subject to which change efforts have been directed. in different degrees. . 2. and feedback skills). communicating. Although there are several approaches for improving intergroup relations. In this method. and perceptions that groups have of each other. listening. there have been calls for combining team-building with organization behaviour modification approaches. team-building contributes to the organizational performance in the following manner: 1. Once the causes of the difficulty have been identified. structure. team-building has a positive outlook. 2. In spite of these problems. 4. Team-building becomes a complicated exercise when there is frequent change in team members. However.7 Inter-group Development A major area of concern is OD is the dysfunctional conflict that exists between groups. the other group. It helps developing communication within the group and inter-group and overcoming many psychological barriers that block communication flow. Therefore. and the groups look for the causes of the disparities. The groups then share their lists. It seeks to change to attitudes. One such suggestion is to use a task hierarchy to reinforce the team as it progresses up a behaviour skill hierarchy (for example. Differences are clearly articulate. 3. are not given adequate attention. the groups can move to the integration phase – working to develop solutions that will improve relations. it is not that effective in isolation. As a result.organization’s outcomes. New member may find it difficult to adjust with the team because of his confusion over his roles in terms of task performance and building good relationships. However. after which similarities and differences are discussed. It improves the organization’s problem-solving and decision-making ability. though. stereotypes. It helps in developing effective interpersonal relationships by stimulating the group members for that. one of the more Popular methods emphasize problem solving. each group meets independently to develop lists of its perception of itself. and how it believes the other group perceivers it.
Subgroups. For major change efforts. and personnel. culture. Outside consultants also may be prone to initiating more drastic changes – which can be benefit or a disadvantage – because they don’t have to live with the repercussions after the change is implemented.8 Change Agents Change agents: Can be managers or nonmanagers. films. group discussions. or as fog lamp when the future is hazy. changing (intervening) and refreezing. 4. as the accelerator to build up momentum. internal staff specialists or managers when acting as change agents. According to Curtis Mial: “The Consultant may serve as the exhaust value. internal management often will hire the services or outside consultants to provide advice and assistance. as the break for too quick action. employees of the organization. or outside consultants. can now be created for further diagnosis and to begin to formulate possible alternative actions that will improve relations. He has to educate people on the need and importance o change using a variety of methodologies – lectures.9 Role of Change Agents The change agent may play different roles according to the need of organization development .These three roles are having been brief described below: Consultant A consultant is a professional (internal or external) who applies behavioral Science knowledge in an ongoing organization (or client system) with clear objectives of managing change and improving effectiveness. 4. but one thing he/she is not the driver”. cases and experiential learning etc. Trainer A change agent needs to be a trainer and educator. The consultant may fulfill a variety of functions. may be more thoughtful (and possibly cautious) because they to live with the consequences of their actions. The trainer role is most widely and intensively used at all stages of a change project: unfreezing. role-plays and instruments. Outside consultants. . operating procedures. as the radiator absorbing some of the heat of the controversy. In contrast. Because they are from the outside these individuals an offer can offer an objective perspective often unavailable to insiders. are disadvantaged because they usually have an inadequate understanding of the organization’s history. enabling the client to let off steam: as the ignition to spark action. with members from each of the conflicting groups. presentations. as the shock absorber when the going is rough. however.
Sensitivity training focuses on small group ranging from ten to twelve. skills and change in behavior. ________is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. feedback of information. Training is used both in ‘content orientation’ and process orientation’. What is survey feedback as an intervention of OD? How does it provide base for other OD interventions? . Data collection. Grid Training was developed by –––––––––––– 3. attitudes and beliefs. the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. Teambuilding is most important. diagnosis. Researcher A change agent has to carry out some research activities for the purpose of generating valid information prior to and during the change process. evolving best strategies for change by assessing alternatives and the important stages in a change project where the change agent has to be a Researcher. Grid training focuses on individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts 4. Self Assessment Questions 1. The first step in survey feedback is ______ usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. It focuses on skills.11 Terminal Questions 1. Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection. 4.Training is required for enhancing knowledge.10 Summary OD intervention strategies are various activities which a consultant and client organization performs for improving organizational performance. widely accepted and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. group. knowledge and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. 2. In process consultation. Useful hypothesis are to be formulated and tested. inter-group and total organization levels. generation of new behavioral science knowledge. What is Grid Training? How does it help in improving individual performance in an organization? 2. developing action plans based on feedback and follow-up.
What is team-building? What are the stages of life cycle of a team? 4.4 2. Refer section 4. MU0002-Unit-05-Values. Explain Change agents and discuss the role of change agents in detail. Social loafing Answers to TQs: 1. Refer section 4. and Beliefs in Organization Development Structure: 5.6 4.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 5.2 3. Refer section 4.3. Data collection 2.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . 4. Blake and Mouton. Beliefs in Organization Development Unit-05-Values. Assumptions. Assumptions. Refer section 4. 3.2 Definitions and .
4 Early Statements of OD Values and Assumptions 5. 5. it is a cognitive fact for the person. shaping the goals and methods of the field and distinguishing OD from other improvement strategies.5. and they continue to evolve as the field itself evolves. assumptions. Most of these beliefs were formulated early in the development of the field.7 Terminal Questions 5. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of values.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought 5. · List the chronology of events of values.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations 5. and beliefs constitutes an integral part of organization development.5.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions 5. .1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals 5.5. Objectives: After studying this unit.2 Definitions A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. beliefs and assumptions.6 Summary Self Assessment Questions 5. These values and assumptions have developed from research and theory by behavioural scientists and from the experiences and observations of practicing managers.5.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 5. beliefs and assumptions. · Give the statement of OD values and assumptions. · State the implications of OD values and assumptions.1 Introduction A set of values.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups 5.
Evidence for the validity of these values and their supporting assumptions comes from many sources – the Hawthorne studies. Democratic values assert the sanctity of the individual. assumptions. view all people as having the potential for growth and development. or spirit of the time. the right of people to be free from arbitrary misuse of power. Values and assumptions do not spring full grown from individuals or societies they are formed from the collective beliefs of an era-the zeitgeist. and the need for justice through the rule of law and due process. repetitive tasks in an attempt to find "the one best way" to do each job. repetitive tasks minimized the skills required to do the job. OD values tend to be humanistic. and democratic. research on the effects of different leadership styles. with values being beliefs about good and bad. the clash between fascism and democracy in World War II. Thus. the importance of fair and equitable treatment for all. greater understanding of individual motivation and group dynamics. and assumptions being. strongly held. Humanistic values proclaim the importance of the individual: respect the whole person. Simple. the laboratory training movement." Assumptions are beliefs that are regarded as so valuable and obviously correct that they are taken for granted and rarely examined or questioned. Major ingredients of the zeitgeist that influenced OD values and assumptions are presented here in a brief chronology. and the like. and goodwill are the tools for making progress. treat people with respect and dignity. and beliefs provide structure and stability for people as they attempt to understand the world around them. 5. Taylor’s methods quickly swept the country and the world as the way to organize work. increasing awareness of the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. assume that everyone has intrinsic worth. As these ingredients accumulated. and that rationality. assumptions. reason. Expert engineers and supervisors designed each task and ensured it was done correctly. that progress is possible and desirable in human affairs. Values. and beliefs are all cognitive facts or propositions. the human relations movement.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought Frederick Winslow Taylor’s ‘The Principles of Scientific Management’ (1911) launched the scientific management movement with its emphasis on time and motion studies and breaking jobs into small.g. dishonesty). they were fashioned into a coherent value foundation for the theory and practice of organization development." or slacking off. Optimistic values posit that people are basically good.Values are also beliefs and are defined as: "Beliefs about what is desirable or ‘good’ (e.. relatively unexamined beliefs accepted as the truth. values. ..g. free speech) and what is undesirable or ‘bad’ (e. Piece-rate pay systems were designed to increase motivation and to prevent "soldiering. optimistic.
organizations were not machines. but also contained serious flaws that led to unintended consequences. and rigid procedures would create a well-oiled human machine called the organization. authoritarian leadership caused dependency. Barnard (1938) presented insights from his experiences as President of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. ‘The Functions of the Executive’ by Chester 1. and White demonstrated that democratic leadership was superior to authoritarian leadership and laissez-faire leadership in affecting group climate and group performance. Lippitt (1939). by Roethlisberger and Dickson in 1939. Democratic leadership seemed to bring out the best in the groups. Much of her career was devoted to finding ways to reduce adversarial relationships between workers and management. Reports on these studies by Mayo in 1933 and 1945. . much of the research. Some early experiments were conducted in the late 1930s. Their simple. A strong hierarchy of authority. His acceptance theory of authority proposed that authority derives from the willingness of subordinates to comply with directions rather than from position power. People were not cogs. People came to work as whole people. apathy. The great German sociologist Max Weber (1922) introduced the concept of “bureaucracy” as the best. In a sense. extensive division of labor. Research by Lewin. aggressiveness and poor performance. These approaches possessed many desirable features. Barnard viewed organizations as social systems that must be effective (achieve goals) and efficient (satisfy the needs of employees). and the supervisor determined their performance. wrote an article on “The Giving of Orders” advocating participative leadership and joint problem-solving by labour and management. the work environment. Group Dynamics (1940) – The scientific study of groups using experimental research methods-was launched by Kurt Lewin and his students. The research demonstrated the primacy of social factors on productivity and morale. Mary Parker Follett (1926). their feelings and attitudes about the work. repetitive jobs left them feeling alienated and dispirited. a management theorist and astute observer of labourmanagement relations. most efficient way to organize people. theory. The Famous Hawthorne Studies (1927 to 1932) were conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company. and by Homans in 1950 profoundly and irreversibly affected people’s beliefs about organizational behaviour. and practice since the late 1920s have focused on the shortcomings of these two paradigms and how to overcome the limitations. Group norms had more powerful effects on productivity than economic incentives. Scientific management as the way to organize work and bureaucracy as the way to organize people were the prevailing paradigms for organizations in the early 1900s. impersonal rules.
dislike responsibility. Laboratory training taught people how to improve interpersonal relations. Douglas McGregor wrote ‘The Human Side of Enterprise’ (1960) in which he described his famous Theory X and Theory Y assumptions. Lester Coch and John R. Humanistic and democratic values suffused the movement. Motivation and Personality by Abraham Maslow (1954) presented a new view of human motivation. . and understand group dynamics. pioneers in laboratory training. Chris Argyrif’s Personality and Organization (1957) was the first of several books in which he stated that there is an inherent conflict between the needs of organizations and the needs of mature. “Overcoming Resistance to Change.” reported that resistance to change could be minimized by communicating the need for change and allowing the people affected by the change to participate in planning it. are self-centered. The Hawthorne Studies (1940s to 1960) spawned the human relations movement that was in full flower from the 1930s to the 1960s. healthy adults. training in interpersonal skills for supervisors. and a general “humanizing” of the workplace. P. higher-level needs become dominant. These years witnessed the beginnings of the laboratory training movement (1946 and 1947). proposed that the leadership functions of a group should be shared between the leader and group members and showed how that could be done. Eric Trist and Ken Bamforth of the Tavistock Clinic (1951) published the results of their work in British coal mines. The theory postulated that when lowerlevel needs are satisfied. greater attention to workers’ social needs. French’s (1948) article. increase self-understanding. which postulates that organizations are comprised of a social system and a technological system and that changes in one system will produce changes in the other system. Rogers’ focus on effective interpersonal communications was applicable to superior-subordinate relations. a direct precursor of OD. This article introduced the concept of organizations as sociotechnical systems. lack ambition. Ken Benne and Paul Sheats (1948). Those who subscribe to Theory X assume that people are lazy. Maslow suggested that human motivation is arranged in a hierarchy of needs from lower-level needs such as physiological and survival needs to higher-level needs such as esteem and self-actualization. caring social climate. The human relations movement advocated participative management. which holds that individuals have within themselves the capacity to assume responsibility for their behaviour and mental health when provided with a supportive. Carl Rogers’ Client-Centered Therapy (1951) demonstrated the efficacy of non-directive psychotherapy.
bureaucracy. theory. and need to be led. This chronology captures most of the significant influences from research. open communications. and shares decision-making with the work group. Kahn (1966) presented the first comprehensive exposition of organizations as open systems. In addition to presenting Theory X and Y. To summarize the intellectual climate of this period. dysfunctions. The Bennis and Beckhard quotations come from their books in the Addison-Wesley Six-Pack. optimistic. humanistic. an organic organization form is preferred. The task of management is to change organizational structures. as we have said. and greater individual autonomy. and authoritarian leadership gave way to increasing doubts about these organizational practices as theory and research pointed up their limitations. We will examine three early statements regarding OD values that had a significant impact on the field. groups. to assume responsibility. The Addison-Wesley Publishing Company “OD Six-Pack. Burns and Stalker (1961) described two very different forms of organization structuremechanistic and organic. organization development practitioners formulated a set of values and assumptions regarding people. Rensis Likert’s ‘New Patterns of Management’ (1961) presented data and theory showing the overwhelming superiority of a democratic leadership style in which the leader is group oriented. and democratic. Organic structures encourage decentralized decision making and authority. one-on-one leadership style. in an environment of high change. management practices. In an environment of slow change. Tannenbaum and Davis presented their ideas in an article appearing in Industrial Management Review. summarized the state of organization development a decade or so after its inception. the initial enthusiasm for scientific management. and negative consequences.” (1969) a set of six little books on OD by prominent practitioners. this book popularized Maslow’s motivation theory. practice. Those who subscribe to Theory Y assume that people have the potential to develop. and observations utilized by OD practitioners. and to pursue organizational goals if given the chance and the social environment to do so. and introduced practicing managers to the concepts of need hierarchy and self-actualization. Out of this zeitgeist. a mechanistic organization structure may be appropriate.indifferent to the organization’s needs. These six books presented the theory. and human resource practices to allow individual potential to be released. . and values of the field. goal-oriented. and organizations that is. resist change. ‘The Social Psychology of Organizations’ by Daniel Katz and Robert L. Values have always been an integral part of OD. This leadership style was contrasted with an authoritarian.
” For example." Mechanical systems insist on "strict division of labour and hierarchical supervision" while organic systems foster "multi-group membership and responsibility. · Development of increased understanding between and within working groups in order to reduce tensions." Mechanical systems encourage "centralized decision-making" while organic systems encourage "wide sharing of responsibility and control. M. · A shift in values so that human factors and feelings come to be considered legitimate. Through focused attention and through the collection and feedback of relevant data to relevant people. Here is his list. the capacity for functional groups to work more competently." like pushing buttons. Warren Bennis proposed that OD practitioners (change agents) share a set of normative goals based on their humanistic/ democratic philosophy. · Development of better methods of conflict resolution. not individuals. 1. the basic units of change are groups. Bennis clarified some of the salient differences between mechanical systems and organic systems. · Development of organic rather than mechanical systems. The basic building blocks of an organization are groups (teams). more rational and open methods of conflict resolution are sought. . He listed these normative goals as follows: · Improvement in interpersonal competence. · Development of more effective "team management. Another major player in the field was Richard Beckhard. and unprincipled power." that is. Rather than the usual bureaucratic methods which rely mainly on suppression. Therefore. The earlier work by Tom Burns and G. more choices become available and hence better decisions are made.Writing in 1969. mechanical systems rely on "authority-obedience relationships" while organic systems rely on "mutual confidence and trust." He then went on to state what he believed to be the central value underlying organization development theory and practice: The basic value underlying all organization development theory and practice is that of choice. Stalker used the term “mechanistic” in contrast to “mechanical. compromise. In his 1969 book he described "several assumptions about the nature and functioning of organizations" held by OD practitioners. This is a strong reaction against the idea of organizations as mechanisms which managers "work on.
director of organization development. 4. An always relevant change goal is the reduction of inappropriate competition between parts of the organization and the development of a more collaborative condition." People affected by a change must be allowed active participation and a sense of ownership in the planning and conduct of the change. a professor and Sheldon Davis. Decision-making in a healthy organization is located where the information sources are. · Away from resisting and fearing individual differences toward accepting and utilizing them. 5. sub-units of organizations. Controls are interim measurements. toward seeing them as being in process. · Away from a view of individuals as fixed. · Away from avoiding facing others with relevant data toward making appropriate confrontation. "People support what they help create. rather than in a particular role or level of hierarchy. One goal of a healthy organization is to develop generally open communication. . 3.2. 6. · Away from avoidance of negative evaluation of individuals toward confirming them as human beings. Robert Tannenbaum. · Away from use of status for maintaining power and personal prestige toward use of status for organizationally relevant purposes. presented their view of OD values in a 1969 article. They asserted that an important shift in values was occurring and that this shift signaled a more appropriate and accurate view of people in organizations. · Away from utilizing an individual primarily with reference to his or her job description toward viewing an individual as a whole person. · Away from walling off the expression of feelings toward making possible both appropriate expression and effective use. and individuals continuously manage their affairs against goals. not the basis of managerial strategy. and confidence between and across levels. They listed these “values in transition” as follows: · Away from a view of people as essentially bad toward a view of people as basically good. Organizations. · Away from maskmanship and game-playing toward authentic behaviour. mutual trust. · Away from distrusting people toward trusting them.
· Away from avoidance of risk-taking toward willingness to risk. set high standards. 5. open communication. and so forth were seldom espoused and rarely implemented in the vast majority of organizations at that time. and reward success. and organizations? 5. A tremendous amount of constructive energy can be tapped if organizations realize and act on these assumptions. and are capable of making. but in the 1950s and 1960s they represented a radical departure from accepted beliefs and assumptions. and arbitrary management practices as well as the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. the legitimacy of feelings.5. The humanistic values prompted a search for better ways to run organizations and develop the people in them. Most people want to develop their potential. challenge. participation and contribution by all organization members. listen. The democratic values prompted a critique of authoritarian. authentic interpersonal relations. The implications of these two assumptions are straightforward: Ask. groups.5. Beliefs such as trust and respect for the individual. decentralized decision making. give responsibility. support. We think most organization development practitioners held these humanistic and democratic values with their implications for different and "better" ways to run organizations and deal with people. give autonomy. permit failure.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions Let us examine specific assumptions and their implications for organization leaders and members. · Away from a primary emphasis on competition toward a much greater emphasis on collaboration.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups . 5. encourage risk-taking. The people doing the work are generally experts on how to do it and how to do it better. a greater contribution to attaining organization goals than most organizational environments permit. remove obstacles and barriers. autocratic.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals Two basic assumptions about individuals in organizations pervade organization development. appropriate uses of power. · Away from a view of process work as being unproductive effort toward seeing it as essential to effective task accomplishment. collaboration and co-operation. The first assumption is that most individuals have drives toward personal growth and development if provided an environment that is both supportive and challenging. We answer the question: What are some of the implications of OD assumptions and values for dealing with individuals. The second assumption is that most people desire to make. These values and assumptions may not seem profound today.
formalized cross-functional communication. such as a work group. and E can support these changes.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations Clearly. Finally. and co-operation within the group. not individuals. a growing awareness that “win-lose” organizational situations.5. experimenting with new organization structures and new forms of authority is imperative. group members should assist the leader with the multiple roles required for group effectiveness. but how A and B can work together to modify their interactions toward the goal of B becoming more effective and A and B becoming more mutually effective. a church or club group. Such problems have the greatest chance of constructive solution if all parties in the system alter their mutual relationships. and so on-are obsolete. They cannot meet the demands of the marketplace. To do this. traditional hierarchical forms of organization-fairly steep pyramid. Frequently the challenge is broader. most people wish to be accepted and to interact co-operatively with at least one small reference group. Dealing appropriately with feelings and attitudes increases the level of interpersonal trust. are the best way to satisfy social and emotional needs at work. including peers and boss. greatly influences feelings of satisfaction and competence. In addition. leaders should invest in groups: Invest the time required for group development. in addition. at both the formal and informal levels. emphasis on topdown directives. The question becomes not how A can get B to perform better. one of the most psychologically relevant reference groups for most people is the work group. Also. Let teams flourish because they are often the best way to get work done and. most people are capable of making greater contributions to a group’s effectiveness and development. conflict management. D. personal growth. support. Second. invest training time and money to increase group members’ skills. and job satisfaction.Several assumptions relate to the importance of work teams and the collaborative management of team culture. Third. grouping by specialized function. Another assumption is that the formal leader cannot perform all the leadership and maintenance functions required for a group to optimize its effectiveness. invest energy and intelligence in creating a positive climate. What occurs in the work group. By implication. and usually with more than one group. are dysfunctional . and interpersonal communication. Therefore. leaders need to give important work to teams. and so on. 5. facilitation. Hence. this group perspective requires a shift from viewing problems as "within the problem person" to viewing problems and solutions as transactional and as embedded in a system. including how persons C. the assumption is that many attitudinal and motivational problems in organizations require interactive and transactional solutions. the family. And because suppressed feelings and attitudes adversely affect problem-solving. adherence to the chain of command. This skill is a trainable one. First. It is especially important that leaders adopt a team leadership style. One implication is that group members should receive training in group effectiveness skills such as group problem-solving and decision-making. not a one-on-one leadership style. group members should be encouraged to learn to deal effectively with positive and negative feelings. in which one side wins and the other side loses. Implications of these assumptions are several.
Values are also beliefs. it is possible to create organizations that on the one hand are humane. and empowering. Finally. quality of output. and profitability. The belief that people can grow and develop in terms of personal and organizational competency tends to produce that result. The rapid technological. but are widely accepted today. OD values tend to be humanistic. an optimistic. 5. Still. beliefs and assumptions are cognitive facts. The implication is that people are an organization’s most important resource. Such an orientation creates a self-fulfilling prophecy. A key assumption in organization development is that the needs and aspirations of human beings are the reasons for organized effort in society. they change over time. By implication. they are the source of productivity and profits and should be treated with care." as behavioural scientists and managers continue to develop better understanding of authority structures. developmental set of assumptions about people is likely to reap rewards beneficial to both the organization and its members. Self Assessment Questions . assumptions and beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. These OD values were considered revolutionary when they emerged in the 1950s. societal. Creating co-operative rather than competitive organizational dynamics is a primary task of the organization’s leaders. The belief that people are important tends to result in their being important. and on the other hand are high performing in terms of productivity. organizing structures. A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true.over the long run and highlight the need for a “win win” attitude. values are never static. Values.6 Summary The field of OD rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. developmental. Values. This notion suggests it is good to have a developmental outlook and seek opportunities in which people can experience personal and professional growth. optimistic and democratic. Evidence for this assumption comes from numerous examples where “putting people first” paid off handsomely in profits and performance. Concluding Comment: The field of organization development rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. Chronology of events in management and OD tremendously influenced OD practitioners. These beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. and organizational changes taking place assure that tomorrow will bring new definitions of what is "true" and new beliefs about what is "good. and ways to optimize human potential. This discussion was intended to articulate an appreciation of OD values and explain where they came from.
Taylor’s principles of scientific management.7 Terminal Questions 1. 2. 3. beliefs.3 .8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Refer section 5. 4. Cognitive 2. values. and assumptions are all –––––––––– facts. 3.3 3. 2. _______________ gave theory X and theory Y. Taylor 3. Define concepts. Douglas McGregor Answers to TQs: 1. Refer section 5. The concept of –––––––––– was introduced by MaxWeber. Write a note about F. 5. 5. beliefs and assumptions.1. __________ is associated with scientific management. F. Refer section 5.2 2. Hawthorne experiments 5. The outcome of –––––––– was that people were not cogs and organizations were not machines. W.W. 5. Values. Bureaucracy 4. State the assumptions of Theory X and Theory Y. What are values and assumptions developed by Richard Bechard in the field of organizational development? 5. What was the outcome of Hawthorne Experiments? 4.
3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change 6.2.3 Socio-technical Theory and Open Systems Planning 184.108.40.206 Participation and Empowerment .4. Refer section 5.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change 6.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change 6.1 Introduction Objectives 6.2 Congruence among System Elements 6.3.1 The Nature of Systems 6.3 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .2.2.3 Systems Theory 6.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends 6. Refer section 5.2 Beyond the Quick Fix 6.3 5.3.2. MU0002-Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Structure: 6.4 Open Systems Thinking 6.
Leaders and OD practitioners use this knowledge base to plan and implement effective change programs. · Realize the importance of teams and teamwork.11 Terminal Questions 6. In this discussion.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 6.5 Teams and Teamwork 6. you will learn what OD practitioners think and how they think as they engage in the complicated task of improving organizational functioning. · Explain systems theory. · Explain the terms ‘participation’ and ‘empowerment’.6.6 Parallel Learning Structures 6. you will be able to: · Explain various models and theories of planned change. · Explain normative-re-educative strategy of changing The knowledge base of OD is extensive and is constantly growing. · Describe the parallel learning structures.9 Action Research Self Assessment Questions 6.8 Applied Behavioural Science 6. We will examine the following concepts: . Objectives: After studying this unit. Here we describe what we believe are the most important underpinnings for the field.7 A Normative – Re-educative Strategy of Changing 6.10 Summary 6.1 Introduction This unit describes the foundations of organization development theory and practice. art and science which form the knowledge base upon which OD is constructed.
· Models and theories of planned change · Systems theory · Participation and empowerment · Teams and teamwork · Parallel and learning structures · A normative-re-educative strategy of changing · Action research 6. with some forces pushing toward higher levels of production and some forces pushing toward lower levels of production. This concept is useful for thinking about the dynamics of change situations. The first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces. Although morale may get a little better or a little worse on occasion. it generally hovers around some equilibrium point that is the resultant in a field of forces. the status quo-whatever is happening right now-is the result of forces pushing in opposing directions. describe those features as variables. Several recent theories show great promise for increasing our understanding of what happens and how it happens in planned change.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change that have been influential since the 1940s. 6. Likewise. the important features of some phenomenon. He suggested that change is a three-stage process: .2 Models and Theories of Planned Change Organization development is planned change in an organizational context. The production level tends to remain fairly constant because the field of forces remains fairly constant. For example. and specify the relationships among the variables. we can identify the major forces that make up the field of forces and then develop action plans for moving the equilibrium point in one direction or the other. Here we provide a framework for thinking about planned change by exploring several models from the literature. Models and theories depict. That is. some forces pushing toward higher morale and some pushing toward lower morale.2. Lewin’s second idea was a model of the change process itself. With a technique called the force-field analysis. but pretty good for identifying the important variables involved. in words or pictures. we can think of the production level of a manufacturing plant as a resultant equilibrium point in a field of forces. we can think of the level of morale in that plant as a resultant equilibrium point. Planned change theories are rudimentary as far as explaining relationships among variables. The development of models of planned change facilitated the development of OD.
Creation of guilt or anxiety c. Change entails moving from one equilibrium point to another. that is. Identifying with a new role model. A Three-Stage Model of the Change Process: Stage 1: Unfreezing: Creating motivation and readiness to change through a. Significant relationships. b. . But unless the person feels comfortable with dropping the old behaviours and acquiring new ones. the non-smoking behaviour must become permanent. and react to things differently based on a new point of view obtained through a. feel things. unfreezing. Take the example of a man who smokes cigarettes and wants to quit. Edgar Schein took this excellent idea and improved it by specifying the psychological mechanisms involved in each stage.Unfreezing the old behaviour (or situation). b. that is. In stage 1. Refreezing the behaviour at the new level. Disconfirmation or lack of confirmation b. which motivate the person to change. Next. he must move. judge things. The three-stage model says he must first unfreeze the old behaviour of smoking. change his behaviour from being a smoker to being a non-smoker. Provision of psychological safety Stage 2: Changing through Cognitive Restructuring: Helping the client to see things. disconfirmation creates pain and discomfort. Lewin’s three-stage model is a powerful tool for understanding change situations. the person must develop a sense of psychological safety in order to replace the old behaviours with new behaviours. etc. moving to new level of behaviour.non-smoking becomes the new equilibrium point. believe that cigarette smoking is bad for him and that he should stop smoking. Scanning the environment for new relevant information Stage 3: Refreezing: Helping the client to integrate the new point of view into a. which cause guilt and anxiety. change will not occur. Finally. That is. mentor. Refreezing the desired behaviour requires establishing a new field of forces to support the new behaviour. The total personality and self-concept.
This phase corresponds to Lewin’s unfreezing phase. This seven-stage model lays out the logical steps involved in OD consulting. terminating the client-consultant relationship. These "road maps" are useful for thinking about change. Phase 4: Examining alternative routes and goals. Phase 7: Achieving a terminal relationship. That is.In stage 2. and 5 correspond ro Lewin’s moving phase. Their seven stages are as follows: Phase 1: Developing a need for change. In this phase a client system in need of help and a change agent from outside the system establish a working relationship. 6. Phase 3: Clarifying or diagnosing the client system’s problem. refreezing. The phrase significant relationships refer to important people in the person’s social environment-do these significant others approve of the changes? Another modification of Lewin’s model was proposed by Ronald Lippitt. and Bruce Westley. The person acquires information and evidence showing that the change is desirable and possible. Phases 3.2. that is. Phase 2: Establishing a change relationship. identifying with ex-smokers and learning about the health risks of smoking.2 Beyond the “Quick Fix” A comprehensive change model by Ralph Kilmann specifies the critical leverage points for organizational change. moving. stabilizing the changes requires testing to see if they fit-fit with the individual. Jeanne Watson. 4. The primary task in stage 3. is to integrate the new behaviours into the person’s personality. Phase 5: Transforming intentions into actual change efforts. and attitudes. Similar models have been developed by Kolb and Frohman and by Burke. and fit with the individual’s social surroundings. This motivating evidence is gained by. the person undergoes cognitive restructuring. . establishing goals and intentions of action. This phase corresponds to Lewin’s refreezing phase. Phase 6: Generalizing and stabilizing change. They expanded the three-stage model into a seven-stage model representing the consulting process. This model has five sequential stages: 1) Initiating the program. for example.
cause the organization to be successful. called "tracks. when functioning properly. Change programs take from one to five years to complete." that. Initiating the program entails securing commitment from top management. 3) Scheduling the "tracks". The management-skills track provides all management personnel with new ways of coping with complex problems and hidden assumptions. information sharing. Diagnosing the problems requires a thorough analysis of the problems and opportunities facing the organization. 3) The team-building track.2) Diagnosing the problems. Scheduling and implementing the "tracks" involve intervening in five critical leverage points. problem-solving sessions. critique practices and procedures. and 5) The reward system track. The team-building track infuses the new culture and updated management skills into each work unit – thereby instilling co-operation organization-wide so that complex problems can be addressed with all the expertise and information available. These problems and opportunities will be the targets of later interventions. Interventions include training programs. and willingness to change among members the conditions that must exist before any other improvement effort can succeed. 4) The strategy-structure track. 2) The management skills track. Kilmann describes the five tracks: What does each track do for the organization? The culture track enhances trust. . Kilmann’s five tracks are: 1) The culture track. communication. 4) Implementing the "tracks" 5) Evaluating the results. and so forth.
Organizational climate is defined as people’s perceptions and attitudes about the organizationwhether it is a good or bad place to work. then moving to the team-building track. its identification of the five tracks as critical leverage points. In first-order change. The model distinguishes between organizational climate and organizational culture. and so forth. and its holistic view of organization change and development. then moving to the management skills track. evolutionary.and second-order change. or discontinuous change. departments. with an increasing emphasis on second-order transformational change. adaptive. jobs. Kilmann has tested his model at AT&T. General Foods. An OD consultant implements the tracks in a phased sequence. radical. On the other hand. These perceptions are relatively easy to change because they are built on employees’ reactions to current managerial and organization practices. In second-order change. hard-working or easy-going. or continuous change. and Xerox with good results. and difficult to change. and all resources with the new strategic direction. and so forth. values. developed by Warner Burke and George Litwin. often unconscious. OD programs are directed toward both first. some features of the organization change but the fundamental nature of the organization remains the same.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change The next model to be examined is the Burke-Litwin model of individual and organizational performance. Changing culture is much more difficult than changing climate. and co-operative team efforts within and among all work groups. Eastman Kodak. incremental. work groups. The reward-system track establishes a performance-based reward system that sustains all improvements by officially sanctioning the new culture. beginning with the culture track. 6. and . Second-order change goes by many different labels: transformational. the nature of the organization is fundamentally and substantially altered – the organization is transformed. revolutionary.2. Ford General Electric. One likes this model because of its comprehensive nature.The strategy-structure track develops either a completely new or a revised strategic plan for the firm and then aligns divisions. organizational culture is defined as deep-seated assumptions. This model shows how to create first-order and second-order change (which the authors call “transactional change” and “transformational change”). The premise of the BurkeLitwin model is this: OD interventions directed toward structure. TRW. Westinghouse. management practices. friendly or unfriendly. and beliefs that are enduring. First-order change goes by many different labels: transactional. the use of updated management skills.
Transactional leadership is required to make this change in organizational climate.systems (policies and procedures) result in first-order change. Transactional leadership is sufficient for causing first-order change. These two concepts come from leadership research which found that some leaders are capable of obtaining extraordinary performance from followers while other leaders are not. which change motivation and. management practices. interventions directed toward mission and strategy. in turn. Transformational leadership is required for causing second-order change. Transactional leaders are "leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. leadership." Transformational leadership embodies inspiration which leads to new heights of performance. We will do so in several steps. and organization culture result in second-order change. Changing structure. 6. individual and organizational performance. Transformational leaders are "leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interest for the good of the organization and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers.1: The Transactional Factors Involved in First – Order Change . and systems cause changes in work unit climate. The model also makes a distinction between transactional and transformational leadership styles. Fig. Now let us look at the Burke-Litwin model. Following figure shows the factors involved in first-order (transactional) change." Transactional leadership embodies a fair exchange between leader and follower that leads to "normal" performance.
The above two figures together yield the full Burke-Litwin model shown in the following figure. determines the kind of change required (transactional or transformational). as shown in the above figure. leadership styles. if we want to cause second-order (transformational) change. 6. sudden "leaps" in behaviour. Burke says: “Thus there are two distinct sets of organizational dynamics. Interventions directed toward management practices. . which produces changes in individual and organizational performance. and then targets interventions toward factors of the organization that produce the desired change. These factors are able to change the climate. these transformational processes are required for genuine change in the culture of an organization. The top half of figure displays the factors involved in transformational change. The second set of dynamics is concerned with processes of human transformation. and systems produce transactional change or change in organizational climate.” We consider the Burke-Litwin model to be a significant advance in thinking about planned change. Burke and Litwin propose that interventions directed toward leadership. To summarize. Interventions directed toward these factors transform the organization and cause a permanent change in organization culture. These factors are powerful enough to change the culture fundamentally. mission and strategy.2: The Transformational Factors Involved in Second – Order Change On the other hand. One set primarily is associated with the transactional level of human behaviour or the everyday interactions and exchanges that create the climate. structure. that is. Research by Burke and his students suggests the model performs as intended. and organization culture produce transformational change or fundamental change in the organization’s culture.Fig. The OD practitioner sizes up the change situation. we must change mission and strategy. and organization culture. The bottom half of figure displays the factors involved in transactional change.
4: Organizational Work-Setting Factors This model is extremely useful for OD practitioners and organizational leaders. management style. which influence on-the job behaviours. The premise modeled here is that work setting factors influence organizational members’ cognitions (they learn what is expected.3: The Burke Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change 6. strategies. The work setting plays a central role in this model and consists of four factors: organizing arrangements. and rewards will affect organizing arrangements. 6.2. and these behaviour changes occur when elements of the work setting have been modified by OD interventions. Interventions that focus on culture. required. and technology. This model shows how OD interventions can be linked to factors in the work setting. rewarded). Interventions that focus on job design and work flow design will affect technology. and interaction processes will affect social factors. 6. physical setting. according to Porras and Robertson.Fig. The basic premise is that OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals’ behaviours. Fig. For example. Organizational change occurs only when individuals change their behaviour. Keep this framework in mind as you read the units on OD interventions because all interventions target one or more factors shown in figures. Following figure shows the work setting in the larger organizational framework. OD interventions that focus on goals.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change Jerry Porras and his associates developed a model of how organization development works. social factors. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements. it is described in a discussion by Porras and Peter Robertson. which determine organizational performance and individual development. . It is how OD works.
3 Systems Theory A second foundation of organization development is systems theory. Systems theory is one of the most powerful conceptual tools available for understanding the dynamics of organizations and organizational change. Thus." Kast and Rosenzweig define system as "an organized. when taking a systems approach." Hanna says: "A system is an arrangement of interrelated parts. and interrelatedness among elements in a set that constitutes an identifiable whole or gestalt. unitary whole composed of two or more interdependent parts. which views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment.system. describes the characteristics of systems. Ludwig Von Bertalanffy first articulated the principles of general systems theory in 1950.Fig. or subsystems. The words ‘arrangement’ and ‘interrelated’ describe interdependent elements forming an entity. components. and delineated by identifiable boundaries from its environmental supra. and Katz and Kahn were the first to apply open systems theory to organizations in 1966. that is the system. one begins by identifying the individual parts and then seeks to understand the nature of their collective interaction." Von Bertalanffy refers to a system as a set of "elements standing in interaction. system denotes interdependency. interconnectedness." To summarize. . 6. and shows how systems theory enhances the practice of OD. Fagen defines system as "a set of objects together with relationships between the objects and between their attributes. This section explains systems theory.5: A Change-based Organizational Framework 6.
raw material and so on. and if the environment does not want these outputs. resources. These purposes must align with purposes or needs in the environment.6: A System in Interaction with its Environment The law of entropy states that all systems “run down” and disintegrate unless they reverse the entropic process by importing more energy than they use. Open systems have purposes and goals. money. and what is outside the boundary is the environment. and energy between system and environment. Each of these three system processes must work well if the system is to be effective and survive. A good rule of thumb for drawing the boundary is that more energy exchange occurs within the boundary than across the boundary. Therefore. the organization’s purposes will be reflected in its outputs. dynamics. information. Boundaries of open systems are permeable.1 The Nature of Systems The nature. . in that they permit exchange of information. Here. Systems take inputs from the environment in the form of energy.6. Organizations achieve negative entropy when they are able to exchange their outputs for enough inputs to keep the system from running down. we examine the characteristics of open systems drawing OD expositions by Katz and Kahn and Hanna. conversion. 6. Organizations are open systems.3. and characteristics of open systems are well-known. They do something to the inputs via throughput. or transformation processes that change the inputs. the reasons for their existence. studying open systems leads to a good understanding of organizations. the organization will cease to exist. For example. All open systems are input-throughput-output mechanisms. and they export products to the environment in the form of outputs. What is inside the boundary is the system. Every system is delineated by a boundary. Fig. people.
that information is called positive feedback. Positive feedback measures whether or not the purpose and goals are aligned with environmental needs. competitors. and complex over time. Systems achieve a steady state or equilibrium point and seek to maintain this equilibrium against disruptive forces. eating fads. differentiated. however. If the mission (target) changes. it will signal whether the environment needs and/or wants buggy whips. increased integration and co-ordination are necessary. negative and positive. it receives information to that effect in the form of negative feedback. For example. but most are not useful. These subsystems can be arranged into a hierarchy of systems moving from less important to more important. Negative feedback tells you if you are on track with your scheduled production output. Feedback is information from the environment about system performance. and makes a course correction. With increased differentiation. The three major input factors are: . Negative feedback measures whether or not the output is on course with the purpose and goals. Another characteristic of open systems is steady state or dynamic homeostasis. Systems are bombarded by all kinds of information: some are useful. Positive feedback comes from the environment. 6. aerospace. Say your company makes buggy whips. systems tend to get more elaborated. specialized." Here is another example of negative and positive feedback. For example. Another characteristic of systems is equifinality. if a rocket ship traveling to the moon strays off its trajectory. Systems "code" useful information and incorporate it.Information is important to systems in several ways. The usefulness of the two concepts is that they demonstrate that it is not enough to merely measure our outputs versus the intended targets. either internal or external.” Also. "return to earth.2 Congruence among System Elements David Nadler and associates at Delta Consulting Group developed the congruence model for understanding organizational dynamics and change. this process is called differentiation. Survival of the system is equally influenced by whether or not the targets themselves are appropriate. As Katz and Kahn say: “The basic principle is the preservation of the character of the system. while screening out other information. This model depicts the organization as an input-throughput-output system. Subsystems exist within larger systems. It is sometimes called deviation-amplifying feed back. and the system adjusts to a new goal. It is also known as deviation-correcting feedback. mining.3. By the same token. and the production plan calls for 100 buggy whips per month. Systems require two kinds of feedback. organizations in the fast-food industry pay a lot of attention to information about their industry-nutrition. they usually ignore information about other industries such as electronics. and the like. the principle that there are multiple ways to arrive at a particular outcome or state – systems have multiple paths to goals. say. and so on.
and the workforce’s expectations. knowledge. Fig. If the strategy calls for entrepreneurial quickness and risk-taking and the formal organization is bureaucratic and highly centralized. formal organization. For example. and 3) History which consists of memories of past successes. perceptions. important events. which includes the organization’s culture informal rules and understandings. performance will suffer. 2) Resources available to the organization. the tasks people perform to create products and service markets people. and how things really work (versus how they are supposed to work as defined by the formal organization). You can use this model to analyze organizations with which you are familiar. Outputs are performance at the total organization level. If the organization’s culture (informal organization) praises individual accomplishments and the work requires teamwork and collaboration. failures. performance will suffer. and technology. and systems for performing the work." The premise is that alignment (harmony. people. and 2) Evaluating the "goodness of fit" or how well the elements "go together. knowledge.1) The environment. processes. such as capital. In a company that is performing poorly. which includes formal structures." and which elements . Elements of the organization per se are labeled strategy. 6. which components are "not functioning correctly. what the organization is trying to accomplish and how it plans to do it. performance will suffer. which includes skills. which imposes constraints and opportunities about what the organization can and can not do.7: The Congruence Model Showing the Organization as a System The congruence model’s value is as an analytical tool for: 1) Assessing the characteristics and functioning of each of the elements. work. . and critical decisions that still influence behaviour today. if people don’t have the skills and knowledge required to do the work. unit/group level. and informal organization. fit) must be present among the system’s components’ for the organization to produce satisfactory outputs. and individual level.
socio-technical systems theory (STS) and open systems planning (OSP)-play an important role in organization development. two active segments of OD today. Socio-technical systems theory was developed by Eric Trist.3 Socio-technical Systems Theory and Open Systems Planning Two major variations of open systems theory. a social system and a technical system. what is it about each element that causes that part of the system to function well and what are the characteristics of each element that cause all of them to fit together smoothly? The congruence model is an excellent diagnostic tool. forming autonomous work groups. It was the first attempt to help organizations methodically analyze the environmental demands and expectations placed on them and plan to successfully meet these demands and expectations. STS is the principal conceptual foundation for efforts in work redesign and organization restructuring. Open systems planning entails: 1) Scanning the environment to determine the expectations of external organizations and stake-holders. High-performance organizations almost always use principles from socio-technical systems theory. giving information and feedback to the people doing the work.KI Jayaram. and that changes in one system affect the other system. both realistic (likely to happen if the organization continues on its current course) and ideal (what the organization would like to see happen). controlling variance at the source. Hanna writes: In the late 1960s a small team of consultants led by James Clark. and information to the point of action. training group members in multiple skills. G. to the workers doing the job.are poorly aligned? In companies showing outstanding performance. Their technology became known as Open systems Planning (OSP). and Will McWhinney developed a technology for addressing the interface between organization and the environment. The thesis of STS is that all organizations are comprised of two interdependent systems. and others at the Tavistock Institute in the 1950s. organizations must optimize both systems. Principles such as optimizing the social and technical systems. Another important application of systems theory in organization development is open systems planning. especially autonomous work groups (self-regulated teams or self-direct teams).3. and . multi-skilled teams. and identifying core tasks help STS consultants structure organizations and tasks for maximum effectiveness and efficiency. Systems models are essential for the practice of OD. Fred Emery. 6. A number of design principles have been developed to implement socio-technical systems theory. 2) Developing scenarios of possible futures. Charles Krone. that is. To achieve high productivity and employee satisfaction.
Participation in OD programs is not restricted to elites or the top people. Increased participation and empowerment . 6. building shared vision. issues. mental models.3. the fifth discipline. from their activities. one changes the system. Learning organizations can cope effectively with rapidly changing environmental demands.4 Participation of Empowerment One of the most important foundations of organization development is a participation/ empowerment model. not just its component parts. a systems approach encourages analysis of events in terms of multiple causation rather than single causation. It keeps them from being separate gimmicks or the latest organization change fads. Of all these disciplines. Viewing organizations from this perspective has several consequences. First. according to Peter Senge. is the most important. By enhancing each of the other disciplines. Without a systemic orientation. He says of systems thinking: “It is the discipline that integrates the disciplines. systems thinking.3) Developing action plans to ensure that a desirable future occurs.” In conclusion. but seen in relation to other issues. according to field theory (Kurt Lewin). Senge believes that five disciplines must be mastered to create a learning organization: personal mastery. therefore. events and forces. This idea moves the practitioner away from analyzing historical events and toward examining contemporary events and forces. systems theory pervades the theory and practice of organization development. Third. 6.4 Open Systems Thinking Open systems thinking is required for creating learning organizations. and incidents are not viewed as isolated phenomena. because most phenomena have more than one cause. the forces in the field at the time of the event are the relevant forces for analysis. and systems thinking. And fifth. events. team learning. Fourth. to change a system. forces. Most OD practitioners engaged in redesign projects use a combination of socio-technical systems theory and open systems planning. For example. there is no motivation to look at how the disciplines interrelate. not single effects. Second. OD practitioners expect multiple effects. it continually reminds us that the whole can exceed the sum of its parts. from diagnosis to intervention to evaluation. changing one part of a system influences other parts. this combination is often used in designing high-performance organizations. fusing them into a coherent body of theory and practice. it is extended broadly throughout the organization.
The most important contrast between the two views involves the implicit but potentially volatile assumptions people make about trust and contro1. But both views contain valid ideas: for example. treat those closest to the problem as the relevant experts. Quinn and Spreitzer conclude: “Empowerment. and generally make people feel better about themselves and their worlds. Participation is an especially effective form of empowerment. To empower is to give someone power. Participation is a powerful elixir-it is good for people and performance. is not something that management does to employees.have always been central goals and fundamental values of the field. and empowerment in turn enhances performance and individual well-being. which they call "mechanistic. and growth. One view. They believed that it was about risk-taking. reduce stress levels. Researchers found that group dynamics work to overcome resistance to change. They describe the organic view: "The other group of executives saw empowerment much differently. employees must choose to be empowered. search conferences. then. to contribute their ideas. survey feedback. The entire field of OD is about empowerment. is the more useful perspective. and greatly enhance acceptance of decisions. the organic approach unleashes talent and energy in people that are best channeled by providing clear guidelines and boundaries." direct leaders to push decision-making lower in the organization. quality of work life programs. and the culture audit are all predicated on the belief that increased participation will lead to better solutions." and "Have decisions made by those who are closest to the problem. with its emphasis on risk-taking. and give more power to more people. but rather a mind-set that employees have about their roles in the organization. The other view. These pillars of OD practice are validated by both research and practice. and change. They must see themselves as having freedom and discretion. which is done by giving individuals the authority to make decisions. Further." is a top-down delegation of decision-making with clear boundaries and strict accountability that increases managerial control. and to be responsible. they must if personally connected to . This research demonstrated that most people desire increased involvement and participation. While management can create a context that is more empowering. growth." These authors believe the organic view. Participation enhances empowerment. OD interventions are basically methods for increasing participation. increase commitment to the organization. Rules of thumb such as "Involve all those who are part of the problem or part of the solution. Research on group dynamics began in the 1940s and achieved exponential growth in the 1950s and 1960s. For example. OD interventions are deliberately designed to increase involvement and participation by organization leaders and members." is bottom-up and less controlling. produce better solutions to problems. quality circles. called "organic. Robert Quinn and Gretchen Spreitzer found two vastly different views of empowerment. team building. involvement and participation energize greater performance. Empowerment meant trusting people and tolerating their imperfections. autonomous work groups. personal initiative. to exert influence.
many tasks are so complex they cannot be performed by individuals. crossfunctional "design-build" teams developed the Boeing 777. process consultation. and capable of having an impact on the system in which they are embedded. A number of OD interventions are specifically designed to improve team performance. A second fundamental belief is that teams must manage their culture. .5 Team and Teamwork A fundamental belief in organization development is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. confident about their abilities. status. to name just a few. Team Taurus developed Ford’s best-selling automobile. systems. recognition. teams at 3M generate the hundreds of innovations that keep 3M ahead of its competition. people must work together to accomplish them. HPOs (high-performance organizations). changes those norms and values. The previous discussion focused on empowerment and concluded that the act of empowering individuals greatly increased their performance and satisfaction. inter-group team-building. STS (socio-technical systems). Teams and teamwork are "in. the sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of the individual efforts of people working alone. research. and respectteams nurture human nature. Examples are team-building.the organization. If the team. HPWSs (high-performance work systems). Third. Teams at Motorola produced its bestselling cellular phones. teams satisfy people’s needs for social interaction. Teams are important for a number of reasons: First. that is. quality circles. much individual behaviour is rooted in the socio-cultural norms and values of the work team. processes. the noun team has become a verb. Theory. In this section. The message of this section is that putting those empowered individuals into teams creates extraordinary effects on performance and satisfaction. Fourth. and relationships if they are to be effective. teams create synergy. QCs (quality circles).” 6. the effects on individual behaviour are immediate and lasting. "The evidence is abundantly clear: Effective teams produce results far beyond the performance of unrelated individuals. Synergy is a principal reason teams are so important. Team Saturn produced the Saturn automobile. and team-related acronyms abound-SDTs (self-directed teams). Teams and teamwork are part of the foundation of organization development. we examine the potential of teams and teamwork. Second. Teams and teamwork are among the "hottest" things happening in organizations today – gurus extol the virtues of teams. and practice attest to the central role teams play in organizational success. teaming. and explore ways to realize that potential. as a team.
help each other. Union Pacific Railroad. Larson and LaFasto also discovered that the most frequent cause of team failure was letting personal or political agendas take precedence over the clear and elevating team goal. The net effect is that teams perform at increasingly higher levels. He uses examples from EDS (Electronic Data Systems). heart transplant surgical teams. and responsibility charting. High-performance teams regulate the behaviour of team members. Asea Brown Boveri. including collegiate football national champions. the crew of the USS Kitty Hawk. temporary teams. These interventions apply to formal work teams as well as startup teams. and others. cross-functional teams. Larson and LaFasto studied a number of high-performance teams. Organizations using autonomous work groups or self-directed teams devote considerable time and effort to ensure that team members possess the skills to be effective groups. team performance declines. empowered teams are what the best organizations are using right now to outdistance the competition. Team-building activities are now a way of life for many organizations. When any one feature is lost. role negotiation technique. elevating goal 2) A results-driven structure 3) Competent team members 4) Unified commitment 5) A collaborative climate 6) Standards of excellence 7) External support and recognition Principled leadership. and the like. autonomous. and individuals are trained as group leaders and group facilitators. Larson and LaFasto found eight characteristics always present: 1) A clear. and set ever-higher goals.parallel learning structures. . All these characteristics are required for superior team performance. Tom Peters asserts in Liberation Management that cross-functional. to determine the characteristics that make them successful. Grid OD and techniques such as role analysis technique. Teams periodically hold team-building meetings. that they achieve synergy. socio-technical systems programs. find innovative ways around barriers. and that teamwork becomes more satisfying for team members. people are trained in group dynamics and group problem-solving skills. Investigators are discovering why some teams are successful while others are not.
and employees. The charge to members of the parallel learning structure is to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization.Titeflex. and then leading the process. Dale had introduced this concept in 1974 under the label collateral organization and defined it as “a supplemental organization coexisting with the usual formal organization. Most socio-technical systems redesign efforts and open systems planning programs use parallel structures. If you don’t implement different norms and procedures. and continuous learning. talking. What’s important is that people act in a way that promotes learning and adaptation. engage in genuine inquiry and experimentation. 6. Parallel learning structures are a foundation of OD because they are prevalent in so many different OD programs. and acting differently than normally takes place at work. It isn’t the supplemental structure that’s important.6 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel learning structures. you don’t have a parallel structure. Projects are the work of the future. clear objectives. In essence.” Parallel structures help people break free of the normal constraints imposed by the organization. Parallel learning structures are often the best way to initiate change in large bureaucratic organizations. projects will be performed by teams. The most important and difficult task for the people creating the parallel learning structure is to create a different culture within it. deciding. High-performance organizations often use parallel structures to co-ordinate self-directed teams. At Ford Motor Company. specially created organizational structures for planning and guiding change programs. and report to one of your subordinates on another team. normal hierarchical considerations become obsolete for these project teams-you could be the boss of one team.” The purpose of the collateral organization is to deal with "ill-structured" problems the formal organization is unable to resolve. especially when the change involves a fundamental shift in the organization’s methods of work and/or culture.7 A Normative – Re-educative Strategy of Changing . and countless other organizations to demonstrate the ability of small project teams to produce high quality. and high accountability drive these project teams to outperform traditional organization structures on every measurable dimension. parallel structures are a vehicle for learning how to change the system. High responsibility. 6. Bushe and Shani say: “The key thing about parallel structures is that they create a bounded space and time for thinking. and initiate needed changes. flexible response. superior customer service. The quality of work life programs of the 1970s and 1980s used parallel structures composed of union leaders. a steering committee and working groups were used to co-ordinate the employee involvement teams. Considerable experimentation with collateral organizations occurred in the 1970s and 1980s. constitute another important foundation of organization development. Interestingly. managers.
anxieties. based on the assumption that change is compliance of those who have less power with the desires of those who have are power. These strategies build upon assumptions about human motivation different from those underlying the first. based on the assumptions that people are rational. The first type is empirical rational strategies. and significant relationships. and it rests on a particular strategy for change that has implications for practitioners and organization members alike. information. Evaluated against these three change strategies. and will change if and when they come to realize change is advantageous to them. The point here is that different strategies are available for effecting change. relationships and customary ways of doing things. The rationality and intelligence of men are not denied. based on the assumptions that norms form the basis for behaviour. Change in a pattern of practice or action. or intellectual rationales for action and practice. and they give more options to both the clients and the practitioner. The norms to be changed and the form of re-education are decided by the client system members. skills. Chin and Benne describe three types of strategies for changing. Patterns of action and practice are supported – by socio-cultural norms and by commitments on the part of the individuals to these norms. will occur only as the persons involved are brought to change their normative orientations to old patterns and develop commitments to new ones. Sociocultural norms are supported by the attitude and value systems of individuals-normative outlooks which undergird their commitments. not just changes in knowledge.Organization development involves change. and OD is based primarily on a normative-re-educative strategy and secondarily on a rational-empirical strategy. and change comes through re-education in which old norms are discarded and supplanted by new ones. according to this view. And changes in normative orientations involve changes in attitudes. Chin and Benne indicate the nature of the normative-reductive strategy as follows: A second group of strategies we call normative-re-educative. doubts. and’ negative feelings are surfaced for "working through. Anything hindering effective problem solving is brought to light and publicly examined. and together they define problems and seek solutions. strategy has the following implications for the practice of OD. attitudes. will follow their rational self-interest. . that is. the practitioner intervenes in a collaborative way with the clients. OD clearly falls within the normativere-educative category. The client system members define what changes and improvements they want to make. The third set of strategies is the power-coercive strategies. These implications give clients considerable control over the situation. Chin and Benne suggest that a normative-re-educative. The second group of strategies is normative-re-educative strategies." Solutions to problems are not a priori assigned to greater technical information but may reside in values. rather than the OD practitioner. values. they impel a collaborative effort rather than a "doing something to" effort. although often OD represents a combination of the normative-reeductive and the empirical-rational strategies.
OD is the application of behavioural science knowledge. The aim of this discussion is to look briefly at how behavioural science knowledge becomes applied behavioural science knowledge." Both diagnosis and treatment consist of observing a situation and. then the individual will be a deviate and either will come under pressure from the group to get back into line or will be rejected entirely. on the basis of selected variables. with their elaborations and implications constitute practice theory. the major leverage point for change is at the group level. Greenwood states: “The diagnostic and treatment typologies are employed together. A conventional distinction is made between (1) "pure" or basic science." applied science. 6. The practitioner examines the problem situation. for example. and (2) "technology. not the individual. by modifying a group norm or standards. lawful patterns of events produce effectiveness and ineffectiveness. Although human behaviour in organizations is far from an exact science. the object of which is knowledge for its own sake. re-establishes the equilibrium. practices. The practitioner uses treatment as the empirical test of his diagnosis. OD practitioners know about these patterns through research and theory. Burke writes: “If one attempts to change an attitude or the behaviour of an individual without attempting to change the same attitude or behaviour in the group to which the individual belongs. On this point. the treatment typology allows the practitioner to know what remedial efforts to apply to correct the problem. Greenwood discusses the activities of the practitioner as follows: "The problem that confronts a practitioner is customarily a state of disequilibrium that requires rectification. behavioural science knowledge. the object of which is knowledge to solve practical. or practice. i.. OD emphasizes the latter.” . The principles of diagnosis and of treatment constitute the principles of practice. success corroborating the diagnosis. thereby solving the problem. The diagnostic typology allows the practitioner to know what category of situation he or she has examined. This process is customarily referred to as diagnosis and treatment. and skills in ongoing systems in collaboration with system members.e.Because norms are socially accepted beliefs held by groups about appropriate and inappropriate behaviours. failure negating it and thus requiring re-diagnosis. applied science or practice.” Norms help determine individual behaviour and a normative-re-educative strategy of changing pervades the practice of OD. norms can best be changed by focusing on the group. hopefully.8 Applied Behavioural Science This foundation of OD relates to the primary knowledge base of the field. placing it in a classification scheme or typology. Thus. pressing problems. Each type description of the diagnostic typology contains implications for a certain type of treatment. on the basis of which he or she prescribes a solution that.
and research leading to social action… This by no means implies that the research needed is in any respect less scientific or "lower" than what would be required for pure science in the field of social events. the two top in puts. it is a program of applying behavioural science to organizations.” Concluding Comments: . and finally evaluating the effects of the treatments. and doing or implementing change efforts. feedback of the data to the client system members. then selecting and implementing treatments based on the diagnosis. perhaps more accurately. a comparative search on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action.From this "practice theory. problem-solving method that replicates the steps involved in the scientific method of inquiry underlies most OD activities. had this to say about it: “The research needed for social practice can best be characterized as research for social management or social engineering.9 Action Research The action research model – a data-based. 6. Kurt Lewin. 6. and action planning based on the data. I am inclined to hold the opposite to be true. represent contributions from applied science.8: Composition of Applied Behavioural Science Organization development is both a result of applied behavioural science and a." the OD practitioner works: first diagnosing the situation. practice research and practice theory. Action research involves three processes: data collection. The two bottom inputs. form of applied behavioural science. Fig. Action research is especially well-suited for planned change programs. who developed the concept of action research. behavioural science research and two behavioural science theory. represent contributions from pure or basic science. Action research is a method that combines learning and doing – learning about the dynamics of organizational change. It is a type of action-research.
which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements is the principle of Porras and Robertson model organizational change. First—order change is also called ___________. Self Assessment Questions 1. Taken collectively. Action research model combines learning and doing. Explain Kurt Lewin’s models and theories of planned organizational change.” 5. 3. they constitute the beginning of a theory of organization development and change that has enormous potential for improving organizational performance and individual development. Bring out the essence of “managing beyond the quick fix” model of organizational development. –––––––––– gave the model “Beyond the Quick Fix”. –––––––––– means moving to new level of behaviour. OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals’ behaviours. 6.10 Summary The foundations of organizational development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field.These foundations of organization development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. 2. A fundamental belief in OD is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. Taken separately. 3. Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change the first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces and the second is the model of the change process.11 Terminal Questions 1. . 4. 6. A _____________ is defined as “a set of elements standing in interaction. In parallel learning structures members have to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. Systems theory views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. The Burke-Litwin model emphasized on first-order and second-order change. _____________ means sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of individual efforts of members. each is a powerful conceptual tool for thinking out and implementing change. Ralph Kilmann specified the critical leverage points for organizational change. What are first-order and second order change according to Burke-Litwin Model of organizational change? Explain. 2.
Refer section 6. 6. Ralph Kilmann 3. Refer section 6.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture Culture and .2.1 2.3 5. Unfreezing 2. MU0002-Unit-07-Organization Climate Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Structure: 7.4.2. Transactional change 4. Refer section 6. Synergy Answers to TQs: 1. “Work teams are building blocks of organizational development.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. System 5.Refer section 6. Refer section 6.3 4.2 3.” Comment on this statement. What are the features of systems theory of organizational development? 5.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .2.1 Introduction Objectives 7.
thinking. but everyone knows it when they sense it. norms and tangible signs (artifacts) of organization members and their behaviors.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 7. but also changing the corporate culture as well. Culture is one of those terms that’s difficult to express distinctly.7 Terminal Questions 7. The concept of culture is particularly important when attempting to manage organization-wide change. You can tell the culture of an organization by looking at the arrangement of furniture.3 Types of Organization Culture. you will be able to: · Understand Organization Culture. etc. 7. organizational culture is the personality of the organization. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness 7. Practitioners are coming to realize that. Culture is comprised of the assumptions. discovered.1 Introduction Basically. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. what they brag about. – similar to what you can use to get a feeling about someone’s personality. what members wear.7.5 Developing and changing Organization Culture Self Assessment Questions 7. Objectives: After studying this unit. values. · Describe different types of Organization Culture · Explain organization culture and effectiveness. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. Members of an organization soon come to sense the particular culture of an organization.6 Summary 7. Martin and Meyerson. 1986). for-profit corporation is quite different than that of a hospital which is quite different than that of a university. despite the best-laid plans. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. organizational change must include not only changing structures and processes. For example. the culture of a large. .
Standards of behavior exist. Hierarchies have respect for position and power. 5. Low absenteeism and high efficiency. terminology. Dominate value: These are major values that the organization advocates and expects the participants to share. but one where all transactions. including guidelines on how much work to do. and rituals related to deference and demeanor.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture Organizational culture has a number of important characteristics. Hierarchical leaders are typically coordinators and organizers who keep a close eye on what is happening. processes and procedures. Observed behavioral regularities. the way participants interact. Rules: There are strict guidelines related to getting along in the organization. Norms. New-comers must learn those “ropes” in order to be accepted as full-fledged members of the group. 4. Note that the Market organization is not one which is focused just on marketing. and in particular taking note of transaction cost. do not do too little?” 3.· Discuss about developing and changing organization culture.3 Types of Organization Culture Hierarchy The hierarchy has a traditional approach to structure and control that flows from a strict chain of command as in Max Weber’s original view of bureaucracy. 2. 6. Philosophy: These are policies that set forth the organization’s beliefs about how employees and/or customers are to be treated. this was considered the only effective way of organizing and is still a basic element of the vast majority of organizations. For many years. Market The Market organization also seeks control but does so by looking outward. and the way members of the organization conduct themselves with customers or other outsiders. Organizational climate: This is an overall “feeling” that is conveyed by the physical layout. 7. Typical examples are high product quality. Which in many organizations come down to “Do not do too much. They often have well-defined policies. internal and external are viewed in market . 7. When organizational participants interact with one another. they use common language. Some of the most readily agreed upon are the following: 1.
Rather than strict rules and procedures. although not necessarily documented. 1993). shared goals. supportive way and may take on a parental role. Clan The Clan organization has less focus on structure and control and a greater concern for flexibility. discovered. Clan leaders act in a facilitative. which is necessary in a rapidly changing business climate. One culture could be distinguished from another in terms of how some commonly shared human problems are addressed and the specific solutions that one sought (Trompenaars. Leaders in an adhocracy are visionary. people are driven through vision. In contrast to Hierarchies. It will use prototyping and experimenting rather than long. affecting the performance of every-one within the culture in positive or negative ways. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness It is reflected in how things are done (Flanagan. Leaders in market cultures are often hard-driving competitors who seek always to deliver the goods. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of . innovative entrepreneurs who take calculated risks to make significant gains. It has an inward focus and a sense of family and people work well together. Where market success goes to those with greatest speed and adaptability. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. In an efficient market organization. the adhocracy will rapidly form teams to face new challenges. do still exist and are often communicated and inculcated socially. Market cultures are outward looking. big-bang projects and development. invisible to the naked eye. outputs and outcomes. Adhocracy The Adhocracy has even greater independence and flexibility than the Clan. culture is like the DNA of an organization. 7. Rules. value flows between people and stakeholders with minimal cost and delay. It may be defined as the ethos of a company (as US firms do) or the shared value and team sprit (as European firms prefer to define it). but critical to shaping its behavior. clans often have flat organizations and people and teams act more autonomousl. Transactions are exchanges of value.terms. In biological terms. strongly driven by loyalty to one another and the shared cause. 1995) and how problems are solved in an organization.
· Public documents it releases and media reports and stories about it. individually and collectively. etc. norms.perceiving. Though a large volume of literature is available on the concept and working of organizational effectiveness. productivity. various terms such as efficiency. communicating. and doing. also called as organizational success or growth. rules. The various approaches are judgmental and open to question. plaques. For example. and what is right and what is wrong. Values evolve out of the basic assumption and form the core (or heart) of the culture. and procedures. the way they dress etc.the informal rules of the fame telling employees what they are supposed to be saying. the jargon they use. symbols. there is often contradiction in various approaches. IBM norms dictate that employees should actively listen and respond to customer demands and complaints. and no unanimity is found in different approaches. Artifacts: The visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization such as: · Its structure. 1986). believing. The set of basic assumptions evolve into values artifacts and norms in terms of which an organization culture may be examined and understood. They are reflected in the core capabilities of a company. Organization Effectiveness Organizational effectiveness. Martin and Meyerson. . · The observable behavior of its members (the way they talk. from the basis of its policies and action. · Its rituals. Thus. goals. Though an organization espouses a series of values. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. Values: These are the social principles. and are generally not compromised for short-term benefits or financial gains. or standards held by members of an organization. systems and subsystems. Identifying. thinking. is defined and conceptualized in different ways. and shaping organization values is difficult as values relate more to employee emotions and feeling (affective dimension) than to their rational thinking (cognitive dimension) Norms: These are a significant element of the organization’s social environment and evolve of behavior. reflecting what is important in the organization and determining how the organization ought to be (the ethos. its core value are limited to a few in number. These are the essential and enduring tenets of an organization. the personality of the organization).
According to Likert. Intervening Variables: Intervening variables are those factors which are reflected as the internal state of organization. and behaviour. e. are often used interchangeably. motivations.which are useful in discussing organizational effectiveness over time. Intervening variables are concerned with building and developing the organization. 7. performance goals. costs. attitudes. to denote organizational effectiveness.. Whatever the criteria adopted for organizational effectiveness. business and leadership strategies. the process usually involves some version of the following steps: . Causal variables include the structure of the organization and management’s policies. end-result variables are the dependent variables which reflect the achievements in the organization such as its productivity. and (ii) the intervening behavioral cluster. Though each individual’s effectiveness is significant but perhaps the most important aspect of effectiveness is its relationship to the entire organization. scrap loss. there are numerous variables. 3. and decision-making. and perceptual cluster. communication. Causal Variables: Causal variables are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. Likert states that causal variables are independent variables which determine the course of developments within an organization and the results achieved by the organization. intervening and end result.g. and they tend to be long-term goals. Grouping variables into these categories aids greatly in the correct interpretation of the data and their use for diagnostic and other purposes. motivational. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and its management.profitability. End – result Variables: End-result variable are those factors which are caused by causal and intervening variable and are often in terms of the factors in which managers are interested or measure their effectiveness. the organizational analysis is incomplete for a practicing manager unless the factors underlying effectiveness are identifying. Likert states that the intervening variables reflect the internal state and health of the organization. These causal variables include only those independent variables which can be altered or changed by the organization and its management. organizational growth. skills. and earnings.5 Developing and Changing Organization Culture How Organizational Cultures Start Although organizational cultures can develop in a number of different ways. the loyalties. The intervening variables may be divided into two broad categories: (i) the intervening attitudinal. and perceptions of all members and their collective capacity for effective interaction. Many of these variables are caused by causal variables. decisions. 2. These variables have been classified by Likert into three groups-causal. 1. This is one part of effectiveness that many managers overlook because it emphasis long-term potential as well as short-term performance. From this point of view.
3. However. then such rapid change can be welcomed and accommodated with as little disruption and as few problems as possible. . Changing Organizational Culture Sometimes an organization determines that its culture has to be changed. powerful stakeholders such as unions. or even customers may support the existing culture.1. relationships. Politics. Predictable obstacles include entrenched skills. money. moving to a new culture or changing old cultures can be quite difficult: a case can even be made that it really can’t be done successfully?. The founding core group beings to act in concert to create an organization by raising funds. and energy that will be required. and structures that work together to reinforce traditional cultural patterns. the industry in which the partners come from and now reside. is worth running some risks for. and is worth the investment of time. 2. Even through some firms have had a culture in place to anticipate change. At this point. others are brought into the organization. and how this plays out among the partners will be important to cultural compatibility. building. and whether products and/or services are involved. Where does the power and managerial decision making really reside? Corporate cultures range from autocratic extremes to total employee empowerment. the geographic location. These factors from the two cultures include the size. In addition. is workable. The case of Mergers and Acquisitions The clash between the two cultures in a merger or acquisition can be focused into three major areas: 1. The founder brings in one or more other key people and creates a core group that shares a common vision with the founder. management. Staffs. all in this core group believe that the idea is a good one. age. and so on. Structure. locating space. the current environmental context has undergone drastic change and either the organization must adapt to these new conditions or it may not survive. New product development and information technology is changing so rapidly that any example would be soon out-of –date. if the appropriate organization culture is in place. and a common history begins to be built. incorporating. A single person (founder) has an idea for a new enterprise. For example. 2. roles. obtaining patents. 4. That is. and history of two firms.
___________are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. 8. so that they are able to interact well with the organizational personnel. 9. This attempt to change culture can take many different forms. 2. Simple guidelines such as the following can be helpful. 1. Emotions. Assess the current culture. if possible. _____are the visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization. 2. Include employees in the culture change process. 4.3. Set realistic goals that impact on the bottom line. especially when making changes in rules and processes. Move quickly and decisively to build momentum and to defuse resistance to the new culture. ________cultures are outward looking. so that a consistent message is delivered from all management team members. 7. take these losses early. Make changes from the top down. habits. attitudes. and patterns of daily behavior. The personal feelings. Self Assessment Questions 1. These emotions will be a major input into the clash or compatibility of the two cultures. Take out all trappings that remind the personnel of the previous culture. 6. Expect to have some problems and find people who would rather move than change with the culture and. 5. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive.6 Summary . the “culture contract” that individuals have bought into to guide their day-to-day thoughts. 7. Stay the course by being persistent. Recruit outside personnel with industry experience. 3. Guidelines for change Despite the significant barriers and resistance to change. commitment. 3. organizational cultures can be managed and changed over time.
Refer section 7. 7. behavioural approach. Finally. Factors in organizational effectiveness include casual variables.2 2. system-resource approach. Effectiveness of an organization can be increased through economic man approach and administrative man approach. Causal variables Answers to TQs: 1. effectiveness through adaptive-coping cycle has been discussed.Organizational effectiveness is the degree to which organization is successful in accomplishing its goals.goal approach. Discuss the development and change of organizational development. 7. intervening variables and end-result variables and there exists interrelationship among these variables.7 Terminal Questions 1.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Market 3. Artifacts 2. Organizations to be successful must be efficient and effective. Organizational effectiveness can be measured through various approaches. . 2. Refer section 7. and strategic constituencies approach. Refer section 7. Explain the characteristics of organization culture.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .3 3. 3. Briefly explain different types of organizational culture.
and for change to occur in an organization.2 Power Defined and Explored 8.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice of OD 8. indisputable facts of organizational life. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics.Power.1 Introduction Politics and Power and politics. Politics and Organization Development Structure: 8. must be understood if one is to be effective in organizations. As Warner Burke observes: "Organization development signifies change. power must be exercised.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 8.7 Operating in a Political Environment 8.MU0002-Unit-08Power.10 Terminal Questions 8.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored 8. That criticism was essentially correct for many years although it is less valid .1 Introduction Objectives 8. In this unit. we examine power and politics in relation to organization development.8 Acquiring and using Power Skills Self Assessment Questions 8.” Organization development has been criticized for not taking into account power in organizations.9 Summary 8.3 Two Faces of Power 8. Organization Development Unit-08.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power 8.
We therefore define interpersonal power as the ability to get one’s way in a social situation. confiscation.actions and the decisions that precede them.today. political. Without influence (power) people would have no cooperation and no society.” “A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would otherwise not do. the necessity of social interaction between two or more parties. The phenomenon of power is ubiquitous. you will be able to: · Define power and politics in organizations. and organizational activities. to effect outcomes. Power-in-action may . 8. financial. Objectives: After this studying this unit. humankind would not have the standard of living it does today. Without leadership (power) in medical.2 Power Defined and Explored "Power is the intentional influence over the beliefs. spiritual. and repression.’ To have power is to be able to get desired things done. humankind would not have much of the misery it does today. Potential power is the capacity to do so." "Power is defined in this unit simply as the capacity to effect (or affect) organizational outcomes. One goal of this unit is to advance our understanding of the role of power in OD and the role of OD in a power setting." “Power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. the act or ability of influencing others. · Explain theories about the sources of power. Without leadership (power) directed toward warfare. · Acquire skills to handle power and politics in organizations. emotions. but kinetic power is the act of doing so. and behaviours of people." Analyzing these definitions shows some common elements: effectance-getting one’s way. technological. · Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. The French word ‘pouvoir’ stands for both the noun ‘power’ and the verb ‘to be able. Recent years have seen a sizable outpouring of theory and research on power and politics from which OD practitioners have derived implications and applications for the field but we are still in the early stages of knowing how power and organization development should be related. and outcomes favoring one party over the other. One person exerts power over another to the degree that he is able to exact compliance as desired.
suggests that many problems with power stem from the goals of persons with power and the means they use." · French and Raven’s "Bases of Social Power. both positive and negative. the positive face of power seeks to empower self and others. not the possession of power as such. power being the predominant mode. This positive face of power enables others to reach their goals as well as lets the person exercising power reach his or her goals." A moment’s reflection. The positive face of power is characterized by a socialized need to initiate." · Salancik and Pfeffer’s "Strategic-Contingency Model of Power.take many forms. influence. bestowed. coercing-these are examples of negative uses of power." · Mintzberg’s Observations on the Genesis of Power in Organizations. Patchen studied organizational decision making and found that coercive tactics were "noticeable chiefly by their absence" while problem solving and consensus seeking were much more prevalent. Crushing. hurting. for organizations to function. the negative face of power is characterized by a primitive. According to him. or acquired? In this unit. How do some people come to possess power? How is power generated.3 Two Faces of Power David McClelland proposed an important distinction when he identified "two faces of power" – positive and negative. McClelland observed that while power has a negative connotation for most people. unsocialized need to dominate others. We think this distinction provides a good insight into the concept of power. persuading-these are examples of positive uses of power. influencing. absolute power corrupts absolutely. with collective. however." Her research in four organizations showed both kinds of power. or positive. It is especially salient in coordinated activities such as those found in organizations. The negative face of power seeks to dominate and control others. Power per se is probably neither good nor bad although Lord Acton observed that "power tends to corrupt. an authority or power dimension is required. In most organizations the positive face of power is much more prevalent than the negative face of power. In fact. forcing. . we will examine four different views about who gets power and how: · Emerson’s "Power-Dependence theory. being exercised. it is through the use of power that things get done in the world.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power Power exists in virtually all social situations. Leading. and lead. selling. Roberts came to a similar conclusion in her study of "collective power" and "competitive power. 8. 8.
when the net balance for us is negative. Referent power – power based on the power-receiver having an identification with (attraction to. that is." In other words. P. hate. The sociologist. attraction. which posits that what goes on between persons is an exchange of social commodities: love. Legitimate power – power based on everyone’s belief that the powerholder has a legitimate right to exert influence and that the power-receiver has a legitimate obligation to accept the influence.Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. we will continue the exchange relationship. and so forth. When the net balance for us is positive. rewards) that are controlled by one party. power. influence. to give something negatively valued by the other. and (2) inversely proportional to the availability of those goals to A outside of the A-B relation. power belongs to those persons who control or mediate desired commodities. Informational power is a form of expert power where the powerholder possesses important facts or information needed by the other. giving someone power over us is the commodity we exchange when we are dependent on that person for something we want. 2. . Exchange theory and power-dependence theory are quite compatible with the ideas proposed by French and Raven. Reward power – power based on the ability of the powerholder to reward another. rejection. to give something valued by the other. Coercive power – power based on the ability of the powerholder to punish another. that person has power over us. that is. we will terminate or alter the relationship. We enter into and continue in exchange relationships when what we receive from others is equivalent to or in excess of what we must give to others. and desired by the other." These authors suggested five sources. 5. Viewed in this light. French and Bertram Raven on "the bases of social power. Power-dependence theory is related to a broader framework of social interaction called social exchange theory. The components of this theory are a social relation between two parties and resources (commodities. 3. praise. or feeling of oneness with) the power holder. if a person has something we want badly and we cannot get it any other place. blame. Closely related to these ideas is the classic statement by John R. Social interaction represents an exchange of social goods and services. Richard Emerson states that "the dependence of Actor A upon Actor B is (1) directly proportional to A’s motivational investment in the goals mediated by B. In this theory. information. of social power as follows: 1. or bases. respect. Expert power – power based on the powerholder possessing expert knowledge or expertise needed by the other. goals. 4.
" These authors view organizational power as a good thing. the ability to solve critical problems or exigencies-anything that creates dependence of one actor or set of actors on another. "is built on the premise that organizational behavior is a power game in which various players. All of these must be critical to the organization. coupled with 2) The expenditure of energy in a 3) Politically skillful way. . the employees. These critical problems are generally "uncertainties" posed by the environment. to enhance their own survival through control of scarce critical resources. third. through the placement of allies in key positions. these four views of the sources of power are remarkably similar – power stems from possession of or mediation of desired resources. A fifth basis of power is access to those who have power based on the first four bases. suppliers. the five possible bases of power are. or departments) most important for solving the organization’s most critical problems. control of a resource. seek to control the organization’s decisions and actions. Henry Mintzberg has developed a theory of organizational power drawn from the organization theory literature and his own creative synthesis abilities. customers. supports the notion that those who have something highly valued by. like the ones discussed previously. and so forth." The three basic conditions for the exercise of power are 1) Some source or basis of power. first. knowledge. such as the board of directors. indeed. An organization has many potential influencers. The important aspects of Mintzberg’s theory are that the sources of power derive from possession of a commodity desired by others. and that the organization is the context for the exercise of power. Salancik and Pfeffer further suggest how power is used: "Power is used by subunits. the top executives. the influencer must have both the "will" and the "skill" to use it.The strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power in organizations accrues to the subunits (individuals. control of a technical skill. the managers. used by all who have it. the unions. regulators. and. The resources may be ability to reward and punish. the special expertise needed for the organization’s survival-have power. The fourth basis is legal prerogatives-being given exclusive rights to impose choices. called influencers. second. In summary. This theory. units. or information. for power in the hands of the critical problem solvers helps the organization cope with the various realities it faces. and through the definition of organizational problems and policies. control of a body of knowledge.others-in this case. According to Mintzberg. This theory. In addition to a base of power. that power-in-action requires will and skill. being in control of critical skills.
and conflict resolution processes. The positive face is characterized by a balanced pursuit of self-interest and the interests of others. withholding information. and a socialized need to lead. when. like power. viewing situations in win-win terms as much as possible. The negative face of politics is characterized by extreme pursuit of self-interest. and choosing among alternative means and goals. they are where the "goods" are distributed and the goals decided. surprise. “Organizational politics involve those activities taken within organizations to acquire.8. unsocialized needs to dominate others. holding hidden agendas. the capacity to get things done by virtue of the position held. In fact. conflict resolution. you must lose-rather than win-win terms.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice OD . Both relate to getting one’s way-effectance. it is engaging in activities to get one’s way.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored Harold Lasswell defined “politics simply as the study of who gets what. the power vested in office. one gains a quick understanding of the overall "political climate" of an organization by studying its methods of resource allocation. we view politics as a subset of power. deceiving. “Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the selfinterest of individuals or groups”. and predominant use of the tactics of fighting-secrecy. a tendency to view situations in win-lose terms-what I win. Organizational politics tend to be associated with decision-making. 8. For our purposes. The first three definitions treat politics as a neutral set of activities. has two faces. and influence others. but in this sense. initiate. Thus. organizational politics is power-in-action in organizations. Analyzing these definitions suggests that the concepts of power and politics are similar. and how”. develop and use power and other resources to obtain one’s preferred outcomes in a situation in which there is uncertainty about choices”. Likewise we also treat authority as a subset of power. These key areas are the battlefields where actors win and lose. Both relate to pursuit of self-interest and overcoming the resistance of others. engaging in open problem solving followed by action and influencing. We are inclined to consider politics as neither good nor bad per se but believe that politics. treating it as informal power. a relative absence of the tactics of fighting. “Organizational politics is the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain ends through non-sanctioned influence means”. One important feature in these definitions should be examined further. resource allocation. formal power. the last two definitions view politics as illegitimate or unsanctioned activities. illegitimate in nature.
co-operation. openness. Valid. and his or her values." The facilitator or educator role is incompatible with a political activist role because cooperation requires one set of behaviors and competition requires a different set of behaviors. and educator. and promoting individual and organizational competence are part of the foundation of organization development. This major . and weaknesses. The OD consultant. and (3) to promote the client’s internal commitment to the choices made. OD interventions do not deny or attempt to abolish the reality of power in organizations. like all consultants. collaboration. The practitioner works to strengthen skills and knowledge in the organization. all OD interventions promote problem-solving. Emphasis on power equalization stems from two beliefs: first. "Power equalization" has long been described as one of the values of organization development. Virtually. the "interventionist" has three primary tasks: (1) to generate valid useful information.We have discussed a number of ideas concerning power and politics. OD interventions typically generate valid. public data about the organization’s culture. problem solver. his or her program. OD values are consistent with the positive face of power. they enhance the positive face of power. organization development represents an approach and method to enable organization members to go beyond the negative face of power and politics. increases the amount of power available to organization members. The role of the OD practitioner is that of a facilitator. public data are indispensable-for problem solving but anathema for organizational politics. processes. catalyst. According to Chris Argyris. provides a service that the organization is free to "buy" or "not buy. fact-finding. as we discussed earlier. In this section we will attempt to integrate those concepts with organization development and offer advice to the OD practitioner for dealing with the political realities found in organizations. In summary. OD interventions increase problem-solving. These values are congruent with rational problem solving and incongruent with extremely political modes of operating. being one aspect of the positive face of power. For example. but not with the negative face of power. as a preferred way to get things accomplished. thereby making the negative face of power less prevalent and/or necessary. not politics. But organization members are free to accept or reject the practitioner. rather. informed choice. We know of no OD interventions designed to increase coercion or unilateral power. and effective pursuit of goals while decreasing reliance on the negative faces of power and politics. methods. (2) to promote free. it is instead a rational problem-solving approach that is incompatible with extreme poweroriented situations. second. The practitioner is not a political activist or power broker. problem solving is usually superior to power coercion as a way to find solutions to problematic situations. power equalization. and by so doing adds power to the organization. Not only is organization development not a power/political intervention strategy. strengths. Values such as trust. Cobb and Margulies caution that OD practitioners can get into trouble if they move from a facilitator role to a political role. and expertise. collaboration. individual dignity.
Early success in the OD program and its usefulness to key managers of the organization helps promote this reputation.strength of OD derives from the strategy of change. . Competence: Demonstrated competence is the most important source of power. 3. and the roles of OD practitioners."34 This maxim has been recognized for years under the heading of "get top-level support for the program. acceptability. expert power (the consultant possesses expert knowledge). Political access and sensitivity: Cultivating and nurturing multiple relationships with key power figures in the organization will ensure timely information and multiple sources of support. If the OD group is cohesive and free of internal dissention. in powerful places.7 Operating in a Political Environment We will present some general observations on operating in a political environment. the OD consultant possesses power from the following bases: legitimate power (the OD program and consultant are authorized by the organization’s decision makers). the values. Michael Beer has identified additional means by which an OD group can gain and wield power in organizations: 1. Sponsorship: "Organization development groups will gain power to the extent that they have sponsorship. Paying attention to these sources of power will enhance the likelihood of success of OD programs. Success leads to credibility and stature. Resource management: Power accrues to those who control resources-in this case. followed by some rules of thumb for the OD practitioner. the technology. These sources of influence produce a substantial power base that will enhance the likelihood of success. 6. 5. 8. it will be strong externally. and possibly referent power (others may identify with and be attracted to the consultant). organization development practitioners operate from a potentially strong power base they can use to advantage. preferably multiple sponsorship. First. and ability to gain organizational support. the resources of OD expertise and ability to help organizational subunits solve their pressing problems. Group support: If the OD group is strong internally. it will gain more power. informational power (the consultant has a wealth of information about the strengths and weaknesses of the organization)." 4. According to the framework of French and Raven. 2. Stature and credibility: Beer notes that power accrues to those who have been successful and effective.
Another way the OD program becomes a desired commodity is by focusing on important issues. coaching. communicating. problem solving. OD programs should be results-oriented. Beer and Walton argue that organization development should move from being practitioner centered to being manager-centered. Each is derived from one general principle: Mind your own business. The OD program belongs to the manager. Rule Five: Mind your own business. experience. Sometimes OD practitioners overlook that they are hired by others. Rule Two: Make the OD program itself a desired commodity. Rule One: Become a desired commodity. constructive social relationships. Skills such as listening. Becoming a desired commodity as a person means being interpersonally competent and trustworthy. A valuable by-product of this fact is that if the program runs into political turbulence. it gains an aura of respect and protection that sets it above most political entanglements. which is to help someone else solve his or her major problems. The following rules describe ways to avoid becoming involved in one’s own or in others’ political struggles. not the OD consultant. to help them achieve their goals and solve their problems. and showing appreciation for the strengths of others are components of interpersonal competence. Organizations are social systems in which members have both a history and a future of interacting. both as a person and as a professional. counseling. . usually managers. Rule Three: Make the OD program a valued commodity for multiple powerful people in the organization. and expertise. Rule Four: Create win-win solutions. OD programs become desired commodities when they are instruments that allow individuals and organizations to reach their goals. OD practitioners are likely to have high interpersonal competence by virtue of their training. The role of the OD consultant is to help others upon request. OD professionals who are skilled in conflict management techniques and OD programs that encompass conflict resolution activities become valued commodities. Many OD interventions promote win-win solutions for conflict situations.What advice is available for OD practitioners who want to operate more effectively in a political environment? Several rules of thumb are implied by the fact that power accrues to persons who control valued resources or commodities. When the OD program serves the needs of top executives. Good OD practitioners will have learned and practiced these skills. those issues vital to the organization’s success. OD consultants have a formal or informal contractual agreement with managers to help them do what they are trying to do-better. and effective conflict management techniques are required to enhance stable. The nature of organizations and the nature of organization development suggest this rule. The preceding rules of thumb describe ways to increase or solidify one’s power base. the manager will vigorously defend it. Being of value to multiple powerholders rather than a single one both increases support and reduces the likelihood that the program will become the target of political activities.
Illegitimate behavior causes others to try to exert greater control over the situation. We believe the legitimate role of the OD practitioner is that of facilitator. Rule Seven: Mind your own business because to do otherwise is to invite political trouble. The authors propose adding the "using social networks" strategy to their repertoires. negotiations the nature of power and politics. 8. thereby greatly expanding practitioner influence. while at the same time increasing his or her usefulness to the organization’s powerholders. yet legitimate means of acquiring power. not by getting involved in the answers. Earlier we stated that the OD practitioner should learn as much as possible about bargaining. such behavior is often interpreted as politically motivated. problem solver. and the characteristics and behaviors of powerholders. Attention to these rules can save OD practitioners time and energy that can be more profitably invested in the OD program.8 Acquiring and Using Power Skills The OD practitioner is neither power activist nor power broker. but these give the flavor of the issues one must consider when operating in a political environment. Abiding by this rule keeps the consultant from becoming entangled in politics.Rule Six: Mind your own business." "using social networks. Illegitimate behavior encroaches on others’ legitimate "turf. Table 8.1: Power Base and Power Strategy Connection Individual Power Bases Knowledge Strategies for Success Playing It Straight . Networking is recognized as a potent. and personality characteristics. individual power derives from knowledge. The principle is simple but powerful: know your legitimate business and stick to it. One carries out such a strategy by participating in alliances and coalitions." and "going around the formal system. Three successful power strategies are "playing it straight. A subtle phenomenon is involved here: when people engage in illegitimate behavior." which arouses defensive actions. and using contacts for information. not content. viable. catalyst. and educator. but that does not mean practitioners must be naive or incompetent in the political arena. dealing directly with powerholders and decision makers. We could propose more rules of thumb. not power activist or power broker. As shown in the figure. Organizational politics revolve around decisions: Should we seek Goal A or Goal B? Should we use Means X or Means Y? Should we promote Mary or John? The proper role of OD consultants is to help decision makers by providing them with good decision-making processes." OD practitioners have typically pursued a "playing it straight" strategy as their sole means of exerting power. which is to be an expert on process. the strategy and tactics of influence. others’ support.
in turn. personal attraction.) Position power derives from five sources: Centrality-access to information in a communication network. influence key powerholders to accept the OD program. the authors propose a four-stage model for using the OD process to help the power elite transform the organization in ways beneficial for all concerned. which in turn will protect the interests of all concerned. The power structure will realize that collaborative power is preferable to manipulation and deception. Whetton and Cameron’s model is shown in following figure. criticality-how important one’s job is flexibility-the amount of discretion in the job. a person’s power comes from two main sources. effort. The four stages are: Phase I Consolidating Power to Prepare for Change Phase ll Focusing Power on Strategic Consensus Phase Ill Aligning Power with Structure and People Phase IV Realizing Power through leadership and Collaboration These stages are the means the OD consultant uses to "take the high road" mentioned in the previous quotation-build a power base. This practical. In this model.· Expertise · Information · Tradition Others’ Support · Use data to convince · Focus on target group · Be persistent Using Social Networks · Alliances and coalitions · Deal with decision maker · Contacts for information Going Around Formal System · Work around roadblocks · (Don’t) use organization rules Political access Staff support Personality Charisma Reputation Professional credibility Finally. and legitimacy. how-to book on power and organization development is well worth studying. arises from expertise. personal power and position power. visibility-how much one’s work is seen by . even those of little power. (Legitimacy refers to abiding by and promoting the values of the organization. Personal power. then utilize a facilitative OD process in which the powerholders work on strategic business issues using consensus decision making to develop a corporate strategy.
"Power is converted into influence when the target individual consents to behave according to the desires of the power holder. one investigation of the determinants of effective management performance concluded that a key factor distinguishing high and low performers was the ability to establish informal relationships via networks”. Reason refers to persuasion by facts. actually using it to get things done is another. Whetton and Cameron suggest . Retribution refers to coercion and threats. Reciprocity refers to exchange of favors. Retribution is not recommended except in unusual cases. Indeed. “One of the most important ways of gaining power in an organization is by establishing a broad network of task and interpersonal relationships.influential people. Networks are critical to effective performance for one compelling reason: Except for routine jobs. 8.1: Model of Power and Influence Networking is used to increase both personal power and position power. and (3) empowering others. Fig. (2) selecting the proper influence strategy. power-in-use is called influence. no one has the necessary information and resources to accomplish what’s expected of them." Three things are involved in converting power into influence: (1) resisting other people’s inappropriate influence attempts. They write: "Influence entails actually securing the consent of others to work with you in accomplishing an objective. reciprocity. Usually reason is the preferred strategy." And. and relevance-how important one’s task is in relation to organizational priorities. According to these authors. Having power is one thing. and reciprocity can be useful when reason fails. Three influence strategies can be used to influence others-reason. and retribution.
8. we have examined power and politics with the goals of understanding the phenomena and deriving implications for OD practitioners. Self Assessment Questions 1. Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self-interest of individuals or groups. –––––– is the intentional influence over the beliefs. Our suggestions for using power to operate effectively in organizations may help practitioner avoid the perils and pitfalls of power that "go with the territory" of organizational change. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. Power can be either positive or negative. and (6) build on success. reputation and professional credibility. 3. –––––––––– is made up of Charisma. and how. Strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power that accrues to the individuals. Define power in an organizational context and explain types of power. when and how. and are amenable to positive control. units or departments is most important in solving organizational problems. 2. . (3) reward and encourage others in visible and personal ways. Concluding Comments: In this unit. 4. 5. Organizational power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. Power and politics are similar in nature. Power and politics are similar in nature. and are amenable to positive control. Organizational politics is defined as the study of who gets what. _____________ has identified two faces of power. Power based on the power-receiver having identification with the power holder is called ––– ––––––––.. collaborative work environment. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. (4) express confidence (5) foster initiative and responsibility.9 Summary Power and politics are inseparable facts of organizational life.10 Terminal Questions 1. (2) provide a positive. Methods for empowering others are the following: (1) involve subordinates in assigning work. 8. arise from known conditions. when.several means of resisting others’ influence attempts such as confrontation and using countervailing power. arise from known conditions. –––––––– defined politics as the study of who gets what. emotions or behaviour of people.
5 4. Identify the bases of individual power and the respective strategies for their success. 4.Refer section 8. Referent power 4. Harold Lasswell 5. Define organization politics. Refer section 8. Describe briefly various theories of power.4 3.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. 3. Personality Answers to TQs: 1. 5.1 Introduction . MU0002-Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Structure: 9. Refer section 8.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Power 2.2 2. McClelland 3.6 5.2. Refer section 8. 8. Refer section 8.
Objectives: . An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities.9 Reengineering Self Assessment Questions 9.6 Quality of Work Life Projects 9. These methods are receiving increasing attention in Organization Development.4 Management By Objectives 9.Objectives 9. organizational problems may repeat.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 9. actions.7 Parallel Learning Structures 9.11 Terminal Questions 9.5 Quality Circles 9.8 Total Quality Management 9. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing.2 Meaning and Definitions 9. In this dynamic and fluid environment. These programs are derived from careful diagnosis. how to produce product or service which is related to Employee involvement approaches and how to design work is related to Work design.10 Summary 9. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. These interventions vary from standardized program that have been developed and sometimes tailored program. One important intervention technique is Technostructural interventions because these are related to technical and structural issues such as how to divide labour and how to coordinate department which is related to Restructuring organization.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future.3 Socio Technical Systems 9.
meaning the major costs are associated with analysis and design of change. includes removing or adding layers to hierarchy. 3. Rapidity of change. Downsizing associated with restructuring. 5. In addition. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. Weeks and months of group effort are saved. Succession Doesn’t Destroy Change Effort. Greater Predictability. 2. · Discuss the Management By Objectives · Explain the Quality Circles. Changes can involve decentralization and centralization. Structure changes are normally “institutionalized” and less subject to this problem. Organization Acceptance of Change. 4. Cost is Low. organization theory. and more . and OD practice enables the change agent to estimate the probable consequences of the change. Basic reinforcement theories. Managers and administrators are notoriously pragmatic. · Explain Total Quality Management. change can be introduced relatively rapidly by top management. · Discuss the parallel Learning Structures. From a benefit cost analysis. 9.2 Meaning and Definitions Structural Intervention is related to the changes that relate elements of organization to one another. Once diagnosed and an appropriate correction developed. their attractiveness is also increased by the following advantages: 1. Structural changes are consistent with their operating styles and are generally understood by practitioners.After studying this unit. The cost of structural change is generally “front-end” loaded. · Explain Reengineering. This normally is a reasonable. One problem with behavioral/ group interventions is the tendency for new managers or employees to discount or fail to continue the change program. you will be able to: · Explain the Socio technical change. Advantages of Structural Interventions There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention.
1976. a predictable cost Implementation of group strategies involves significant long-term man-hour and consultant costs. it has been defined as follows: MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. 1967. is a technique and system which helps in improving organizational performance. though not strictly an OD intervention in the sense in which other interventions have been discussed so far. 9.” . 1988): • Determining the environmental demands • Creating a vision statement • Educating organizational members • Creating the change structure • Conducting socio-technical analysis • Formulating re-design proposals · Defining the scope of the system to be re-designed · Implementing recommended changes · Evaluating changes 9. Pasmore. It could involve the following steps (Foster. therefore.4 Management by Objectives Management by objectives (MBO). processes and functions to create a balance between the organization and its changing external environment. Though there are some variations in the practices of MBO and. Cummings. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives.3 Socio Technical Systems Socio-technical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. Since then. The term MBO was coined by Drucker in 1964 when he emphasized the concept of managing by results. It endeavors to re-design the organization’s structure. its definitional aspect. many business and nonbusiness organizations have adopted this in some form or the other. Its basic idea has been derived from the concept of participative goal setting as a technique of OD.critically.
Periodic review of performance is an important feature of MBO. often MBO provides the stimulus for the introduction of new techniques of management and enhances the relevance and utility of the existing ones. MBO is an approach and philosophy to management and not merely a technique. A management technique can be applied in selected parts of the organization and will have limited implications for its other parts. In fact.. The review is future-oriented because it provides basis for planning and corrective actions. This is possible because MBO tries to match objectives and resources. Resource allocation. It is a particular way of thinking about management. reward and punishment system is attached with the achievement of the objectives. its subsystems and people. The performance review is held regularly. and human resources of the organization by integrating the individual with organization and organization with the environment. The basic emphasis of MBO is on objectives. Objectives are established for all the levels of the organization. are determined on the basis of objectives. As an approach to management. MBO is also concerned with determining what these results and resources should be.” Based on the definition of MBO. MBO is likely to affect every management practice in the organization. including the corporate level. with objective orientation as its essence. MBO employs several techniques but it is not merely the sum total of all these techniques. 2. Certain degree of overlapping is there. 5. Similarly. It works as an integrating device. its features can be identified as follows: 1. 3. superiors and subordinates. MBO is the joint application of a number of principles and techniques. managers have the opportunities for clarifying their job relationships with peers. The MBO is characterized by the participation of concerned managers in objective setting and performance reviews. 6. Therefore. etc. Whereas the various techniques of management help in measurement of results in resources. MBO is bound to have some relationship with every management technique. Therefore. each manager takes active part in setting objectives for himself and also in evaluating his performance as to how he is performing. normally once a year. all the units or departments and individual manager. 4. Objectives provide the means for integrating the organization with its environment. It emphasises initiative and active role by the manger who is responsible for achieving objectives. physical. . This process clarifies the role very sharply in terms of what one is expected to achieve. delegation of authority. Objectives in MBO provide guidelines for appropriate system and procedures. The total management process revolves round the objectives set jointly by the superior and the subordinate. operational managerial process for the effective utilization of material.The integration of individual and organizational objectives through MBO has been emphasized by Chakravarty when he has defined MBO as follows: “MBO is a result-centered. non-specialist. On the other hand.
Process of MBO MBO is a system for achieving organizational objectives, enhancement of employee commitment and participation. Therefore, its process should facilitate translation of basic concepts into management practice. The MBO process is characterized by the emphasis on the rigorous analysis, the clarity and balance of objectives, and participation of the managers with accountability for results. The MBO process is not as simple as it appears to be. Managers need training and experience for developing the required skills. 1. Setting of Organizational Purpose and Objectives: The first step in MBO is the definition of organizational purpose and objectives. Questions, such as, “why does the organization exist?”. What business are we in?” and what should be our business?” provide guidelines for the statement of purpose. This, in interaction with external factors, then determines the long-range strategic objectives like (i) whether to achieve growth through expansion in the same line of business or diversity: (ii) what should be blending of trading and manufacturing activities; (iii) what should be the degree of vertical integration and so on. Usually the objective setting starts at the top level of the organization and moves downward to the lowest managerial levels. This will go in a sequence like this (i) defining the purpose of the organization, (ii) long-range and strategic objectives, (iii) short-term organizational objectives, (iv) divisional/departmental/sectional objectives, (v) individual manager’s objectives. 2. Key Result Areas: Organizational objective and planning premises together provide the basis for the identification of key result areas (KRAs). It may be emphasized that KRAs are derived from the expectations of various stakeholders and indicate the priorities for organizational performance. KRAs also indicate the present state of an organization’s health and the top management perspective for the future. Examples of KRAs applicable to most of the business organizations are (i) profitability, (ii) market standing, (iii) innovation, (iv) productivity, (v) worker performance, (vi) financial and physical resources, (vii) manager performance, and (viii) public responsibility. Even though KRAs are most durable, the list of KRAs gets considerably changed over the period in response to new needs and opportunities. Sometimes, the achievement in a particular KRA also provides the impetus for a new KRA in future. 3. Setting Subordinates’ Objectives: The organizational objectives are achieved through individuals. Therefore, each individual manager must know in advance what he is expected to achieve. Every manager in the managerial hierarchy is both superior and subordinate except the person at the top level and lowest level. Therefore, there is a series of superior and subordinate relationships. The process of objective setting begins with superior’s proposed recommendations for his subordinate’s objectives. In turn, the subordinate states his own objectives as perceived by him. Thereafter, the final objectives for the subordinate are set by the mutual negotiation between superior and subordinate. In the beginning of MBO process in an organization, there may be wide gap between the recommended objectives by the superior and subordinate’s stated objectives because the latter may like to put lesser burden on him by
setting easily achievable objectives. However, with the experience gained over the period of time, this gap narrows because of narrowing down of perception of superior and subordinate about what can be done at a particular level. 4. Matching Resources with Objectives: When objectives are set carefully, they also indicate the resource requirement. In fact, resource availability becomes an important aspect of objective setting because it is the proper application of resources which ensures objective achievement. Therefore, there should be matching between objectives and resources. By relating these to objectives, a superior manager is better able to set the need and economy of allocating resources. By relating these to objectives, a superior manger is better able to see the need and economy of allocating resources. The allocation and movement of resources should be done in consultation with the subordinate manager. 5. Appraisal: Appraisal aspect of MBO tries to measure whether the subordinate is achieving his objective or not. If not, what are the problems and how these problems can be overcome? Appraisal is undertaken as an ongoing process with a view to find out deficiency in the working and also to remove it promptly. It is not taken merely to punish the non-performer or to reward the performer. It is taken as a matter of system to ensure that everything is going as planned and the organization is able to achieve its objectives. 6. Recycling: Though appraisal is the last aspect of MBO process, it is used as an input for recycling objectives and other actions. Objectives are neither set at the top and communicated to the bottom nor are they set at the bottom and go up. Objective setting is a joint process through interaction between superior and subordinate. Therefore, what happens at each level may affect other levels also. The outcome of appraisal at one level is recycled to see if the objectives have been set properly at the level concerned and also at the next higher level. 9.5 Quality Circles Quality circle is one of the most popular methods in the USA which was originally developed in Japan in 1950s.Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. Quality circle requires a managerial philosophy and culture that promotes sharing power, information, knowledge, and rewards. Quality circle program consists of several circles, each having three to fifteen members. The original idea of quality circles involved small groups of volunteers meeting on a regular basis, but in its contemporary form, quality groups are often compulsory and organized around specific work teams. Some organizations have even gone as far as setting targets for the number of suggestions quality groups are expected to come up with. 9.6 Quality of Work Life Based on the research of Eric Trist et al. at the Tavistcock Institute of Human Relations in London, this approach looked both at technical and human sides of organizations and how they
are interrelated. QWL programs, in general, require joint participation by union and management in the process of work-designing, which consequently result into high level of task variety, appropriate feedback and employee discretion. The most distinguishing feature of QWL program is the development of self-managing work groups which consist of multi-skilled workers. 9.7 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel Learning Structures (also known as Communities of Practice) promote innovation and change in large bureaucratic organizations while retaining the advantages of bureaucratic design. Groups representing various levels and functions work to open new channels of communication outside of and parallel to the normal, hierarchical structure. Parallel Learning Structures may be a form of Knowledge Management. Knowledge Management involves capturing the organization’s collective expertise wherever it resides (in databases, on paper, or in people’s heads) and distributing it to the people who need it in a timely and efficient way. It Consists of a steering committee and a number of working groups that: · Study what changes are needed in the organization, · Make recommendations for improvement, and · Then monitor the resulting change efforts. 9.8 Total Quality Management It is a long term effort that orients all of an organization’s activities around the concept of quality. It is very popular in USA in 1990s.TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization, provides relevant information to all employees, ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. It is also called continuous quality improvement. A combination of a number of organization improvement techniques and approaches, including the use of quality circles, statistical quality control, statistical process control, self-managed teams and task forces, and extensive use of employee participation. Features that characterize TQM: · Primary emphasis on customers. · Daily operational use of the concept of internal customers. · An emphasis on measurement using both statistical quality control and statistical process control techniques.
3. · A major emphasis on continuous learning. __________ represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. Sociotechnical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs.10 Summary An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. contemporary measures of performance. service. 9. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. · An emphasis on teams and teamwork. such as cost. · Top management support on an ongoing basis. actions. actions. The term MBO was coined by _________ in 1964. eliminating. and speed.· Competitive benchmarking. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. Reengineering focuses on visualizing and streamlining any or all business processes in the organization. Quality . structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. Reengineering is a top-down process. MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. 2. It seeks to make such processes more efficient by combining. quality.9 Reengineering It is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical. An organization development __________ is a sequence of activities. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. 9. There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. From a benefit cost analysis. assumes neither an upward flow of involvement nor that consensus decision making. · Participative management. · Continuous search for sources of defects with a goal of eliminating them entirely. Self Assessment Questions 1. or restructuring activities without regard to present hierarchical or control procedures.
It is also called continuous quality improvement. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. Refer section 9. Discuss Socio Technical Systems? 2.5 4.circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. .2 3. Refer section 9. 9. TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization. Refer section 9. Drucker 3. Quality circle Answers to TQs: 1. Explain Management By Objectives? 4.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . 9. What are the advantages of structural interventions? 3. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems.11 Terminal Questions 1.Refer section 9.3 2. provides relevant information to all employees. Write a short note on Total Quality Management. Intervention 2.12 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1.
1 Introduction Change in Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival.4 Causes for Resistance to Change. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future. Hence.8 Terminal Questions 10. organizational problems may repeat.9 Answers to SAQs and TQs 10. Self Assessment Questions 10.3 Resistance to Change 10. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing. 10. cope with the ongoing changes successfully in the first instance. and initiate new change so as to overtake the competitors one the one hand and delight the customers on the other. Objectives: . the mangers and other employees must be able to practically anticipate the changes (planned and unprecedented).5 Impact of Change on the Future Manager 10.2 Nature of Change 10.7 Summary 10.MU0002-Unit-10-Managing Organization Development Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Structure: 10.1 Introduction Objectives 10.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change. In this dynamic and fluid environment.
which are major ones. and others. others. it has stretched slightly. less. employees want to maintain a status quo. job design and people. . However. Thus. They have illustrated it by comparing an organization to an air-filled balloon. The type of new equilibrium depends on the degree of change and its impact on the organization. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of organization change. · Discuss the nature of change · Explain resistance to change and the factors which resist change. When a finger (which represents external force) is forced against a point on the balloon (which represents the organization).After studying this unit. · State the methods of reducing resistance to change. Any change may effect the whole organization. Thus. what is important at this point is that a change in any part affects the entire organization and subsequent changes are required in other parts. While managers as change agents want to bring changes in the organization.whether physical. · Impact of change on future managers. 2. the change in organization does not occur purely on mechanical relationship. some changes which are of minor type may be absorbed by the existing equilibrium. if we look minutely. organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. 10. it disturbs the old equilibrium necessitating the development of a new equilibrium. However. Thus. they have concluded that the whole organization tends to be affected by change in any part of it. indirectly. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization – technology. Organizational change is a continuous process. organizational change may have the following features: 1. 3. However. some parts of organization may be affected more. the contour of the balloon visibly changes. or social. and others.2 Nature of Change The term ‘change’ refers to an alteration in a system. Newstrom and Davis have explained the impact of a change in any part of the organization on the total organization. structural arrangement. When change occurs in any part of the organization. Though this phenomenon will be taken later. it becomes indented at the point of contact. may require special change efforts. we find that the shape of the entire balloon has changed. biological. some parts may be affected directly.
While on negative side. people act to establish a steady state of need fulfillment and to secure themselves from disturbance of that balance. We wanted a new culture and new layout. Managing Director of Bajaj Auto. the managers face the problem of resistance to change. let us discuss whether resistance is always bad as it is generally perceived to be.as cost and as benefit. In order to increase its manufacturing capacity of two-wheelers. like shifting of the manufacturing plants at new locations. In fact. the reality lies in between. and on the other.3 Resistance to Change In the management of change effectively. Resistance as Cost: Since all changes have some cost. “The Pune plant is fully saturated. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. that is. the organizational may not be able to introduce new phenomena in order to adapt environmental requirement. In fact. because it produces identical symptoms. Thus. If people resist to change. Resistance to change forces management to find out this reality which helps in managing change more effectively. many organizations have been forced to abandon change programmes because of resistance to such programmes. We saw resistance to change at the existing plant. social systems tend to resist change because of homeostasis. and its basic survival may be jeopardized. Before we trace out the reasons for résistance to change. Resistance by some members of the organization provides an opportunity to the change agents to weigh the pros and cons of introducing change more carefully. so is the resistance to change. We shall take new workers at the new place. On this phenomenon. but when a change is major or unusual.10. or they have been forced to adopt alternative strategies. resistance to change provides help in managing change in two ways: . Homeostasis implies self-correcting characteristics of organism to maintain equilibrium as a result of change. the company procured land near its old plant site but later shifted the new plant site away from the old plant because of resisting work culture of the old plant which was expected to percolate to the new plant also. resistance to change is costly affair. there are two sides of resistance. One example of Bajaj Auto Limited is relevant here. fear of change can be as significantly disrupting as change itself. adjustment is fairly routine. Similarly.” Resistance as Benefit: On the one hand. This leads to general proposition that people and their social systems will often resist change in organizations. Madhur Bajaj. Many companies have been forced to do so in the past. In fact. it provides some benefits to the organization as its change agent. When change is minor and within the scope of correcting programme. commented. more serious upsets may occur.
These feeling may be based either on reality or there may be emotional feeling towards the change. People may perceive that they will be adversely affected by the change in terms of their needs satisfaction in the following ways: 1. 3. etc. whenever people sense that new machinery (change) poses a threat of replacing or degrading them. psychological and social. people may feel that in the new system. 2. All these are well-established in the old system. Degree of force in resistance depends on how people feel about change. job security etc. bonus. either real or emotional. technology. This feeling is created because people feel that those who can match the new requirements will be better off than those who cannot match. they simply resist such a change. Therefore. When computer was introduced in the business sector in India. These feelings.. the reasons underlying resistance to change may be identified at these two levels: Individual Resistance There are many factors operating at the individual level which are responsible for resistance. Skill Obsolescence: A change is generally meant for better methods of working which may involve new techniques. It may signal the need for more effective communication about the meaning and purpose of a change or need to rethink precisely how a proposed change will affect the organization and its members. etc.1. Factors in Resistance to Change People tend to evaluate the effect of change individually but they express it through group in collective form. 2. Reduced Opportunities for Incentives: Employees are generally offered incentives linked to their output in the form of incentive schemes. Whenever there is change. It also highlights real inadequacies in the proposed change and suggests better ways for developing and introducing changes. they will have lower opportunity to earn incentives and bonus as the new system requires additional skills. reduce job options. precede over other needs. may be seen in the context of three types of factors: economic. Economic Factors People feel attached to the organization for satisfying their needs and economic needsphysiological. Fear of Economic Loss: A change may create fear of economic loss in the sense that it may affect economic compensation adversely. it attracted a lot of resistance because of this reason. Psychological Factors . and turn into technological unemployment.
The major factors causing resistance to change are: desire to retain existing social interaction and feeling of outside interference. These are qualitative and. 3. the change may be perceived as an instrument for exposing the weakness of the people. sentiments and attitudes towards change. 1. Therefore. The change initiated by the organization disturbs such equilibrium and people have to obtain another equilibrium which is a painful exercise. and fear of unknown. Social Factors People derive need satisfaction. This lack of certainty creates anxiety and stress in the minds of people and they want to avoid it.e. which is always uncertain. They form their own social groups at the work place for the satisfaction of their social needs. Low Tolerance for Change: In the context of maintaining status quo. This is the reason why labour union resists changes initiated by management because of the feeling that labour and management are two different interest groups in the organization. Fear of Unknown: A change may be perceived as entering into unchartered area which is unknown. Some people have very low level of tolerance for change and ambiguity as compared to others. The lack of adequate information about the likely impact of change further complicates the problems. through their mutual compatible interactions. people resist change. . 2. people resist it. If people have low degree of confidence in the change agent. The change will bring results in future. these people resist any new idea. which people do not want. people may differ. that is. Major psychological factors responsible for resistance are: ego defensiveness. may be logical from people’s point of view but may be illogical from the change agent’s point of view. To the extent the satisfaction of these needs is affected by a change. they resist change. Lack of Trust in Change Agent: The effect of change is perceived in the context of change agent. 5. Therefore. Status Quo: People want status quo. A change in itself suggests that everything is not right at a particular level. particularly social needs. status quo. they show resistance to change efforts. 1.Psychological factors are based on people’s emotions. Ego Defensiveness: A change may affect the ego of the people affected by the change and in order to defend their ego. they do not want any disturbance in their existing equilibrium of life and work pattern. low tolerance for change. therefore. everyone tries to avoid it. 4. their existing social interactions are likely to be changed. Thus. Therefore. the person who initiates change. When there is any change. i. lack of trust in change agent. Desire to Maintain Existing Social Interaction: People desire to maintain existing social interaction since it is a satisfying one.
For example. It a change is required in these aspects. all these companies have been victims of corporate disease. Zerox or nearer home-TI cycles. first two reasons are basic and others are by-products of the first two. Whether it is IBM. change initiated by managers affecting workers. Digital Equipment Corporation. Since these organizations have achieved success by following a particular set of management practices. Counting Past Successes: A major problem before the organizations which have past success stories is how to face challenges of the changing environment. and inter-organizational agreement. Many organizations are designed to be innovation-resisting. a bureaucratic organization has certain fixed rules. Feeling of Outside Interference: A change brought about by the change agent is considered to be interference in the working of people. The latter my feel that managers try to make workers an instrument for higher productivity but the outcome of this productivity will be retained by them. prescribes rigid authority relationships. If the organization is not fully equipped for meeting such demands. it may not be possible for the organization to bring necessary change. dogmas. they become too rigid to change and they hide their failure to change in the guise of past successes.2.. It is called ‘The Failure of Success’. stability of systems. if new . even the organization itself resists many changes because of certain reasons. The system is stabilized and any change may be perceived as a threat by the organization itself. Organizational Resistance to Change: Not only individuals and groups within an organization resist change. Resource Limitations: No doubt. the organization may not bring it easily because it is accustomed to a particular system. and institutes reward and punishment system. Some of these reasons are basic while others are by-products of those. a professor of strategic leadership who is considered to be a management Guru. Sumantra Ghoshal. Caterpillar. e. Stability of Systems: The organization may design a system through which it may derive many benefits.g. an organization has to adapt to its environment but the adaptation has its own cost. 3. 1. millstones and routines. Many powerful organizations of the past have failed to change and they have developed into routines. Strategies. All these work in some circumstances. sunk cost. For example. The major reasons for organizational failure to change are: counting past successes.” This statement suggests that organizations tend to stabilize at a particular level and if the change efforts are not brought. This phenomenon is heightened if the change agent belongs to another social class. For example. resource limitations. these organizations start falling. For example. 2. nothing fails as spectacularly as spectacular success. resources and processes of the most successful companies have in the past ossified into clichés. values. This is the reason why many old industrial houses are languishing far behind and their places are being taken away by newer organizations. has commented as follows: “Nothing fails like success.
and put less emphasis on environmental scanning. it may enter into agreement with other organizations over certain aspects of working. For example. Otherwise. 5. This can be in the form of people also. They go on searching new products/markets on regular basis. Analyzers: Above two are the extreme cases of choice-making modes in between the analyzers and reactors. innovative. decentralized controls.defenders. broad environmental scanning. the organization has to take into consideration the wishes of other organizations too. organization has to pay for his services though these may not be as useful. Prospectors: These firms use broad planning approaches. Thus. Sunk Cost: Most of the organizations have sunk cost involved in various assets. Defenders: These are the firms which penetrate in a narrow market product domain and guard it. it is not necessary that his services are done away with. building and training for its personnel. and reactors. Once the assets are acquired. they cannot survive. They emphasize more on cost-effectiveness. forward-looking. Analyzers act sometimes as defenders and sometimes as prospectors. Therefore. what will happen to these assets? Naturally. the organization may take change programmes much more frequently. those who watch things happen. Miles and Snow have classified them into four categories. if the change is required. and commensurate expenses on other items also. Based on the aggressiveness which various companies show in changing themselves. 3. It depends more on the style of top management. they have to behave in one of the above three ways.technology is adopted. these can be used for specific period. and has zeal for progress. Now. it will require resources to procure machine. 1. In such a case. the organization may enter into agreement with labour union about not bringing any technological change. centralized control. Inter-organizational Agreements: The organization interacts with its environment. In this interaction process. 4. It is necessary too that other organizations also agree to the change proposal. If it is risk-taking. Let us see what someone has said long back: “There are three types of companies: those who make things happen. 4. those who wonder what happened.” This is the true reflection of difference between change-initiating companies and changeresisting companies. and reserve some resources unutilized for future use. It an individual is not making commensurate contribution. Sunk cost cannot be only in terms of various physical things. 2. analyzers. intensive planning. if any change is to be incorporated. the organization will like to make a comparison between the outcomes of changed programme and continuing with old programme in the light of this sunk cost. . prospectors. Reactors: These organizations realize that their specific environment is changing but fail to relate themselves with the changing environment.
a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints. engaging in a work showdown. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. threatening to go on strike. So when your department is moved to a new office building across town. or deferred. Resistance can be overt. Security: People who have a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feeling of safety. it means you’re likely to have to change many habits: waking up 10 minutes earlier. many employees at these firms may fear that their jobs are in jeopardy. Changes in job tasks or established work routines also can arouse economic fear if people are concerned they won’t be able to perform the new tasks or routines to their previous standards. do you continually use the same route and streets? Probably if you’re like most people. adjusting to the new office layout. Economic Factors: Another source of individual resistance is concern that changes will lower one’s income. we’ve categorized them by individual and organizational sources. therefore. this tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance. For example. As human beings. To cope with this complexity. or the like. or programmed responses. finding a new parking place. And people in general don’t like the unknown. For analytical purpose. Life is complex enough. When Boeing announces its laying off 10. especially when pay is closely tied to productivity.000 people or Ford introduces new robotic equipment. some may fear they’ll be unable to do so. Habit Every day. immediate. taking a new set of streets to work. we don’t need to consider the full range of options for the hundreds of decisions we have to make every day. If for example. The same applies to employee. Training . we’re creatures of habit. you find a single route and you use it regularly. Let’s look at the sources of resistance. develop a negative attitude towards quality management or behave dysfunctionally if required to use statistical techniques. developing a new lunchtime routine. Fear of the Unknown: Change substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the known. and so on.4 Cause for Resistance to Change Resistance to change doesn’t necessarily surface in standardized ways. when you go to work or school. implicit. we all rely on habits. For instance. They may. the introduction of a quality management program requires that production workers learn statistical process control techniques. When we are confronted with change. the selection process systematically selects certain people in and certain people out.10. Organizational resistance Structural Inertia: Organizations have built-in mechanisms to produce stability.
Group Inertia: Even if individuals want to change their behavior. human resource people with engineers and finance individuals with operations employees. That is. These teams are comprised of people from various areas within the company. Threat to Established Resource Allocations: the groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. The recent move by some companies to outsource many of their human resource activities – such as training. 10.5 Impact of Change on Future Manager Organizations are changing nearly daily. So limited changes in subsystems tend to get nullified by the larger system. People from one functional department are placed on terms with people from other functional areas. Will the change. if management changes the technological processes without simultaneously modifying the organization’s structure to match. Changing Skill Sets More organizations are utilizing cross functional teams. For example. The only constant in organizational life today appears to be the presence of continuous change. may be willing to accept changes in his job suggested by management. development of pay plans. Introduction of participative decision making or self-managed work teams are examples of changes that often are seen as threats to the power of supervisors and middle managers. Limited Focus of Change: Organization is made up of interdependent subsystems. They tend to be content with the way things are. One area of organizations that continues its metamorphosis is the design itself. Why? Because this outsourcing is a threat to the specialized skills held by people in HR departments. For example. . and benefits administration – has been resisted by many human resource departments. he’s likely to resist. group norms may act as a constraint. Formalization provides job description. the change in technology is not likely to be accepted. rules and procedures for employees to follow. for instance. mean a reduction in their budgets or a cut in their staff size? Those who most benefit from the current allocation of resources are often threatened by change that may affect future allocations. Thereat to Established Power Relationships: Any redistribution of decision-making authority can threaten long-established power relationship within the organization. Threat to Expertise: Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups. accountants work with marketers. You can’t change one without affecting the others. the way in which companies are configured today is changing. But if union norms dictate resisting any unilateral change made by management. An individual union member.and other socialization techniques reinforce specific role requirements and skills. for instance.
at the level of individual and at the level of group. It may affect only a few while others may not be affected. Stephen Robbins suggests that “…… managers in virtual structures spend most of their time coordinating and controlling external relations.The ultimate goal is to improve organizational performance by cutting production time or time to market. typically by way of computer network links. managers must be more skilled at reading the environment and grasping the big picture. it can make effectively by managing resistance effectively. the role of formal authority in implementing a change may not be effective all the times. More fluid structures require that managers improve their strategic orientation. When the resistance comes from the people at individual levels. They need to be adept at reading the trends in the environment and then determining what they mean specifically for their own organization. through group dynamics. As organizations must be better equipped to respond to change in their external environment. this is not a one-time action. Efforts at Individual Level A change is likely to affect some people in some way. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. that is. Involvement: Involvement is a process through which those who are affected by the change are brought to understand the change.” The newer organizational structures use term problem solving. For example. Unless this problem is overcome properly. Therefore. In many cases. even the impact of change may be dysfunctional if change is imposed upon the people by the use of formal authority. rather should be looked upon as a dialogue which continues over a period of time. Problem solving now involves the people who are experts in the issue – not necessarily those in high positions in the organization. both at the formal and informal levels. However. Locavini observes that “the secret of real success is effective management of the emotional vulnerability that accompanies organizational change. the problems can be solved at the same level. This requires that managers think differently and teach employees to think differently. the following efforts can be taken: 1. the effect of the change may not be as functional as envisaged by the management. Decision making is becoming more and more comfortable for those throughout the organization as the need to make decisions is distributed more evenly across all organizational levels. For this purpose. 10. It implies explanation and .” Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. strategic directions for the company must be identified in light of these changes. In addition.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change One of the basic problems in managing change is to overcome people’s resistance to change successfully.
Usually. the level of resistance to change tends to decrease. it is desirable at the group level to get better acceptability of change. Efforts at Group Level Although agreement to a change can be obtained individually. the manager can form strategies for overcoming resistance in the following manner: . For using group as a means of overcoming resistance to change. Leadership: The role of leadership in getting acceptance for a change is very important as a capable leader reinforces a climate of psychological support for change. understanding of change increases and personal involvement in the change increases. more than one person is involved in the change. education must be a part of the manager’s everyday activity on the job. It grows slowly along with relationship. People always have some ideas and opinions about what is going on in the world and more specially if touches them personally. either the subordinates do not resist or if they resist. instead of solving the problem at the individual level. Getting opinions out in the open. Thus. Training and Psychological Counseling: The management can change the basic values of the people by training and psychological counseling. An effective leader tries to time a change to fit the psychological needs of his followers. It includes finding out from the members how they interpret the proposed changes and what they think about them. 3. and indoctrinated in new relationships. People should be educated to become familiar with change. must be understood so that its effective use can be made. A manager as weak leader presents change on the basis of the impersonal requirements of the situation. They must be taught new skills. 4. but a transformational leader can use personal reasons for change without arousing resistance. its basic nature. Commitment to take part in the change programme can be obtained in private from each individual. he expresses it through a group. The fundamental idea in this process is to encourage the person to say something about any aspect of the change. the leader tries to overcome this resistance by leadership process. to become effective. sometimes. Though each person interprets the change individually often. However. it is more meaningful if it is done through group. so that they are looked at and evaluated. Such educational process can be aided by training classes. Group dynamics offers some basic help in this regard. is an important trust-building task. 2. as discussed earlier. As this process goes. its process and working. Based on these characteristics of group as a means of change. Thus. most of the times. getting a man to commit himself in private to change programme may yield fewer results than if he voluntarily and publicly gives his commitment to an idea of change. and conferences. However. Obtaining Commitment: Commitment is an agreement to take an active part in the actual mechanics of the change. The decision to commit oneself is a dynamic process. This helps in creating receptive environment in the organization. meetings.then discussion of the proposed changes. helped to change attitudes.
Even if only some of the members are affected by the change. (iii) Group can get at the basic problem very rapidly as compared to a single individual. the group itself should be the point of contact. Self Assessment Questions 1.1. one can communicate with more people per unit of time. and how the benefits of the meaningful and continuous dialogue are necessary. thereby the people can build up the climate based on mutual trust and understanding which are essential for bringing organizational changes successfully. Free flow of information helps people to understand the real picture of the change and many misunderstandings may be avoided. job design and people. taking whole of the group into confidence helps in maintaining a cooperative attitude. (ii) In group. It would be prudent for management to take labour representatives into confidence before implementing any change. Through the group contact. __________ are based on people’s emotions. It makes people feel that the organization needs their opinions and ideas and is unwilling to go ahead without taking them into account. Research studies also support this aspect. psychodrama. They must be made a party to the change rather than an agent for resistance to change. 2. 3. The laboratory method provides a setting where group processes can be studied intensively. However. Such training techniques provide understanding of behaviour. 2. and how members contribute. 3. benefits of change. mere participation may not help. The organization must regard the participation as meaningful and share the results of the change with its members. It purports how the results are. Participation: Participation helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. Group Contact: Any effect to change is likely to succeed if the group accepts that change. The same is true of problem-solving. many things about change can be made clear. there may be some person who may communicate to the same group. Such training techniques include role playing. Those people who are directly affected by the change should be given opportunity to participate in that change before the final decisions are reached. The group contact offers some specific advantages: (i) Through groups. and sensitivity or T-group training. This is more important in the case of workers who themselves treat a separate group and do not identify with the management. sentiments and attitudes towards change. _________ is the alteration of work environment in an organization. structural arrangement. Group Dynamics Training for Change: Group dynamics also helps in providing various training programmes for accepting and implementing change. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization – technology. For this purpose.such aspects as the reasons for change. . _________ helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance.
It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization. through group dynamics. 10. Refer section 10.7 Summary Change is inevitable. Economic factors. both at the formal and informal levels. Discuss the methods of reducing resistance to change. that is. Psychological factors 3. social factors. Organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization.6. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints. immediate. Explain the nature of change? 2. Refer section 10.8 Terminal Questions 1. Why do organizations resist change? 3. group resistance and vested interests. engaging in a work showdown. Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. Resistance can be overt. Refer section 10. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate.9 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. psychological factors. 10. For instance. implicit. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups.4 3. or deferred. or the like. threatening to go on strike. Organizational change 2.2 2. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. at the level of individual and at the level of group. Participation Answers to TQs: 1. Changes may be influenced by external and internal factors.10. Reference: .
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