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Unit-01-Introduction to Management Structure: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 1.2 Definitions of Management 1.3 Characteristics of Management 1.4 Scope and Levels of Management 1.5 Importance of Management 1.6 Role of Management 1.7 Administration and Management Self Assessment Questions 1.8 Summary 1.9 Terminal Questions 1.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs 1.1 Introduction Management is a global need. It is essential to every individual, a family, educational institution, hospital, religious organizations, team of players, a government, military systems, cultural body, urban centers and business enterprises. No individual can satisfy all his needs by himself. Men should join together and accomplish goals through co-operation. Whenever, there is an organized group of people working towards a common goal, some type of management is needed. A business enterprise must be directed and controlled by a group of people to achieve its goals. The resources of money, manpower, material and technology will be waste unless they are out to work in a co-ordinated manner. It is the ‘management’ which uses the available resources in such a manner that a business enterprise is able to earn ‘surplus’ to meet the needs of growth and expansion. Management is required to plan, organize, co-
ordinate and control the affairs of a business concern. It brings together all resources and motivates people to achieve the objectives of a business enterprise. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Define management. · Explain the characteristics of management. · Differentiate between management and administration. · State the principles of management. · Explain the roles of managers. · Explain managerial skills. 1.2 Definitions of Management Management may be defined in many different ways. Many eminent authors on the subject have defined the term “management”. Some of these definitions are reproduced below: According to Lawerence A. Appley – “Management is the development of people and not the direction of things.” In the words of George R. Terry – “Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.” According to James L. Lundy – “Management is principally the task of planning, co-ordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective.” In the words of Henry Fayol – “To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.” According to Peter F. Drucker – “Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages a business and managers and manages worker and work”. In the words of Koontz and O’Donnel – “Management is defined as the creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals working together in groups can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals”.
According to Newman, Summer and Warren – “The job of management is to make co-operative endeavor to function properly. A Manager is one who gets things done by working with people and other resources.” From the definitions quoted above, it is clear that “management” is a technique of extracting work from others in an integrated and co-ordinated manner for realizing the specific objectives through productive use of material resources. Mobilizing the physical, human and financial resources and planning their utilization for business operations in such a manner as to reach the defined goals can be referred to as “management”. If the views of the various authorities are combined, management could be defined as a “distinct ongoing process of allocating inputs of an organization (human and economic resources) by typical managerial functions (planning, organizing, directing and controlling) for the purpose of achieving stated objectives, namelyoutput of goods and services desired by its customers (environment). In the process, work is performed with and through personnel of the organization in an ever-changing business environment.” From the above, it is clear that management refers to the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people. The process represents the functions or primary activities engaged in by managers. These functions are typically labeled planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Efficiency is a vital part of management. It refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs. If you can get more output from the given inputs, you have increased efficiency. Similarly, if you can get the same output from less input, you also have increased efficiency. Since managers deal with input resources that are scarce-mainly people, money and equipment-they are concerned with the efficient use of these resources. Management, therefore, is concerned with minimizing resource costs. Efficiency is often referred to as “doing things right”. However, it is not enough simply to be efficient. Management is also concerned with getting activities completed; i.e. it seeks effectiveness. When managers achieve their organization’s goals, we say they are effective. Effectiveness can be described as “doing the right things”. So efficiency is concerned with means and effectiveness with ends. Efficiency and effectiveness are interrelated. For instance, it is easier to be effective if one ignores efficiency. Timex could produce more accurate and attractive watches if it disregarded labour and material input costs. Some federal government agencies have been criticized regularly on the grounds that they are reasonably effective but extremely inefficient; that is, they get their jobs done but at a very high cost. Management is concerned, then, not only with getting activities completed (effectiveness), but also with doing so as efficiently as possible. Can organization be efficient and yet not effective? Yes, by doing the wrong things well. Many colleges have become highly efficient in processing students. By using computer-assisted learning, large lecture classes, and heavy reliance on part-time faculty, administrators have significantly cut the cost of educating each student. Yet students, alumni, and accrediting agencies have criticized some of these colleges for failing to educate their students properly. Of
3 Characteristics of Management Management is a distinct activity having the following salient features or characteristics: 1. namely. high efficiency is associated more typically with high effectiveness. Managers apply knowledge. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the organizational goals are achieved. Its presence is evidenced by the result of its efforts-orderliness. And poor management is most often due to both inefficiency and ineffectiveness or to effectiveness achieved through inefficiency. It is the most critical input in the success of any organized group activity. management is an essential ingredient of an organization. 6. These factors do not by themselves ensure production. Intangible Force: Management has been called an unseen force. labour. directing and controlling. People often remark of the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of management on the basis of the end results. All these resources are made available to those who manage. . In essence. informed employees. labour and capital. Economic Resource: Management is one of the factors of production together with land. 5. 3. Thus. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others.course. organizing. 2. Distinct Process: Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning. experience and management principles for getting the results from the workers by the use of non-human resources. capital and materials. It co-ordinates the efforts of workers to achieve the goals of the organization. These functions are so interwoven that it is not possible to lay down exactly the sequence of various functions or their relative significance. although they can’t observe it during operation. Results through Others: The managers cannot do everything themselves. Integrative Force: The essence of management is integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives. 1. the process of management involves decision-making and putting of decisions into practice. buoyant spirit and adequate work output. It is imperative that the organizational goals must be well-defined and properly understood by the mangers at various levels. It is the force which assembles and integrates other resources. Goal-oriented: Management is a purposeful activity. They must motivate the subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them. 4. One may not see with the naked eyes the functioning of management but its results are apparently known. they require the catalyst of management to produce goods and services required by the society. staffing. feeling of management is result-oriented. Thus. Managers also seek to harmonize the individuals’ goals with the organizational goals for the smooth working of the organization.
manpower. Generally. management is the rule-making and rule-enforcing body. 10. as we move down in the managerial hierarchy. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. principles and techniques which have wide applications. Similarly. and (iii) a class or elite. materials. The principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the fields of business. Managers at different levels possess varying degrees of authority. that is. For instance. a hierarchy of command and control. on-going concern. useful. 8. money and machines into a productive. principles and techniques requires specialized knowledge and skills on the part of the manager. Henri Fayol suggested that principles of management would apply more or less in every situation. Sociology and Operations Research have also contributed to the development of management science. people . It is bound together by a web of relationships between superiors and subordinates. (ii) a system of authority.7.e. the degree of authority gets gradually reduced. 1. · Management as a system of authority According to Herbison and Myers. In other words. · Management as an economic resource Management is one of the factors of production along with land. According to Herbision and Myers. Multi-disciplinary Subject: Management has grown as a field of study (i. A Science and an Art: Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of welldefined concepts. productivity orientation drew its inspiration from Industrial Engineering and human relations orientation from Psychology. government and hospital. 9. Anthropology. how effectively and economically the five M’s are combined together to produce desired results. materials. Much of the management literature is the result of association of these disciplines. System of Authority: Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority. The application of these concepts. Sociology and Psychology. Basically. management may be understood as (i) an economic resource. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively. Universal Application: Management is universal in character. military. the effective use of the five M’s of management (money. it refers to three distinct ideas. discipline) taking the help of so many other disciplines such as Engineering. Since the skills acquired by a manager are his personal possession. So it is treated as a science. labour and capital. management is required to covert the disorganized resources of men.4 Scope of Management The scope of management is very wide. management is viewed as an art. In modern organizations. education. According to Newman. The principles are working guidelines which are flexible and capable of adaptation to every organization where the efforts of human beings are to be co-ordinated.
(i) administrative management (i. finance manager.e. ranks. the term management refers to the group of individuals occupying managerial positions.. Administrative management is concerned with “thinking” functions such as laying down policy. personnel manager etc.e. it is difficult of draw any clear-cut demarcation between thinking function and doing function as the basic/fundamental managerial functions are performed by all managers irrespective of their levels. Board of Directors. technical facilities.) interprets and explains the policies framed by the top management. Operative management is concerned with the “doing” function such as implementation of policies. Managers working at top levels enjoy more authority than people working at lower levels. · Management as a class or elite Sociologists view management as a distinct class in society having its own value system. All the managers form the chief executive to the first line supervisors are collectively addressed as ‘Management’ which refers to the group. For instance. The real significance of levels is that they explain authority relationships in an organization. and the range of production. wage and salary director of a company may assist in fixing wages and salary structure as a member of the Board of Directors. the upper level of management) and (ii) operating management (i. and directing the operations to attain the objectives of the enterprise. one can identify three levels of management namely: i) Top management of a company consists of owners/shareholders. viz. Instructions and decisions downward and carry the problem and suggestions upward. the lower level of management). or the Chief Executive. . Top management determines objectives and provides direction to enterprise activities. his job is to see that the decisions are implemented. but as head of wages and salary department. As a separate group. day-to-day matters. its Chairman. Middle management (departmental heads like work manage. Managing Director..are bound by authority relationships. But in actual practice. The managerial class has become very important in modern organizations owing to its contribution to business success. or. The levels of management depend upon its size. Lower management (first line supervisors) is concerned with routine. planning and setting up of standards. Levels of Management An enterprise may have different levels of management. or the General Manager or Executive Committee having key officers. They transmit orders. Levels of management refer to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an enterprise. Considering the hierarchy of authority and responsibility. We generally come across two broad levels of management.
and Divisional Sectional Officers working under these Functional Heads. Without them the top management’s plans and ambitious expectations will not be fruitfully realized. Marketing Manager. c) To prepare the organizational set up in their own departments for fulfilling the objectives implied in various business policies. They are responsible to the top management for the functioning of their department. It is also described as the policy-making group responsible for the overall direction and success of all company activities. It serves as an essential link between the top management and the lower level or operative management. 1. They provide the guidance and the structure for a purposeful enterprise. b) To interpret the policies chalked out by top management. policies and plans for the enterprise.ii) Middle management of a company consists of heads of functional departments namely. Production Manager. f) To provide overall leadership to the enterprise. Purchase Manager. Middle management: The job of middle management is to implement the policies and plans framed by the top management. Supervisors. men. Foremen. etc. d) To assemble the resources of money. e) To exercise effective control of the operations. etc. 2. It is accountable to the owners of the business of the overall management. c) To set up an organizational framework to conduct the operations as per plans. The following are the main functions of middle management: a) To establish the objective or goals of the enterprise. The important functions of top management include: a) To establish the objectives or goals of the enterprise. It devotes more time on planning and co-ordinating functions. Financial Controller. duties and responsibilities for timely implementation of the plans. iii) Lower level or operative management of a company consists of Superintendents. e) To assign activities. . b) To make policies and frame plans to attain the objectives laid. Top management: Top management is the ultimate source of authority and it lays down goals. They devote more time on the organization and motivation functions of management. d) To recruit and select suitable operative and supervisory staff.. materials. machines and methods to put the plans into action.
The importance of management can be understood from the following points. They are in direct touch with the rank and file or workers. In its absence. 1. money and material. They allot various jobs to the workers. It enables employees to move cooperatively and achieve goals in a coordinated manner. They have to get the work done through the workers. They pass on the instructions of the middle management to workers. Without management. It consists of foreman. They devote more time in the supervision of the workers. the resources of production remain resources and never become production. 3. supervisors. (i) Optimum use of resources: Management ensures optimum utilization of resources by attempting to avoid wastage of all kinds. and actual operations are the responsibility of this level of management. i) To collect reports and information on performance in their departments. Employees feel a sense of security when they find a body of individual’s working day and night for the continued growth of an organization. management is the dynamic lift-giving element in every organization. evaluate their performance and report to the middle level management. k) To make suitable recommendations to the top management for the better execution of plans and policies. machines. They interpret and divide the plans of the management into short-range operating plans. the working of an enterprise will become random and haphazard in nature. j) To report to top management. (ii) Effective leadership and motivation: In the absence of management. They are also involved in the process of decisions-making. sales officers. A right climate is created for workers to put in their best and show superior performance.f) To compile all the instructions and issue them to supervisors under their control. Management makes group effort more effective. g) To motivate personnel to attain higher productivity and to reward them properly. an organization is merely a collection of men. Their authority and responsibility is limited. It helps in putting the resources to the best advantage within the limitations set by the organization and its environment. Lower or operative management: It is placed at the bottom of the hierarchy of management. accounts officers and so on. h) To co-operate with the other departments for ensuring a smooth functioning of the entire organization. They are concerned with direction and control functions of management.5 Importance of Management According to Drucker. Management creates teamwork and . It is the activating force that gets things done through people.
motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. (vi) Improves standard of living : Management improves the standard of living of people by (a) using scarce resources efficiently and turning out profits. hire competent people and provide necessary guidance. (c) Exploiting new ideas for the benefit of society as a whole and (d) developing employee talents and capabilities while at work and prompting them to show peak performance. An enterprise has to take note of these changes and adapt itself quickly. Organize the resources properly. They initiate prompt actions whenever workers express dissatisfaction over organizational rules. all these help in realizing goals with maximum efficiency. Thus unnecessary deviations. Managers help an organization by anticipating these changes (carefull planning. competition. Failure to take note of customer’s needs regarding full efficiently has spelt doom for ‘Ideal java’ in the two-wheeler market in India. They try to put everything on the right tract. . procedures and reward systems. techniques. Management is goal-oriented. skills. According to McFarland. iii) The establishment of a representative organization with professiona-lizing as its goal. etc. In the final analysis. forecasting combined with efficient use of resources) and taking appropriate steps. (b) Ensuring the survival of the firm in the face of continued changes. (iii) Establishers sound industrial relations: Management minimizes industrial disputes and contributes to sound industrial relations in an undertaking. counseling and effective leadership. and specialized knowledge. With a view to realize the predetermined goals-managers plan carefully. (iv) Achievement of goals: Management plays an important role in the achievement of objectives of an organization. Successful managers are the ones who anticipate and adjust to changing circumstances rather than being passively swept along or caught unprepared. manager tries to strike a happy balance between the demands of employees and organizational requirements. Industrial peace is an essential requirement for increasing productivity.. government policy. ii) Formalized methods of acquiring training and experience. a profession possesses the following characteristics: i) A body of principles. Management as a profession By a professional manager. To this end. often threaten the survival of a firm. methods. Objective can be achieved only when the human and non-human resources are combined in a proper way. Overlapping efforts and waste motions are avoided. we generally mean a manager who undertakes management as a career and is not interested in acquiring ownership share in the enterprise which he manages. (v) Change and growth: Changes in technology.
Management does not fulfill the last two requirements of a profession. etc. in contrast to the predominant views at the time that managers were reflective thinkers who carefully and systematically processed information before making decisions. 1. What he discovered challenged several long-held notions about the manager’s job. Management partially fulfils the third characteristic of profession. It has also developed a vast number of tools and techniques. and the university departments of management offer a variety of short-term management training programmes. bribing public officials to gain favours. and short-duration activities. But unlike medicine or law. Management is also a profession in the sense that formalized methods of training is available to those who desire to be managers. the American Management Association in U. the Indian Institute of Management. a management degree is not a pre-requisite to become a manager. and v) The charging of fees based on the nature of services. As a social science.iv) The formation of ethical codes for the guidance of conduct. There are a number of representative organizations of management practitioners almost in all countries such as the All India Management Association in India. It may be concluded from the above discussion that management is a science. For instance. There was little time for reflective thinking because the managers encountered . We have a number of institutes of management and university departments of management which provide formal education in this field. However. managers in general. unpatterned. In fact. try to develop a code of conduct for their own managers but there is no general and uniform code of conduct for all managers. identifiable discipline. However. and it is distinct. There is no ethical code of conduct for managers as for doctors and lawyers. manipulating prices and markets are by no means uncommon management practices. Furthermore. Indeed such mobile managers are regarded as more progressive and modern than others. A number of organizations such as the Administrative Staff College of India. however. It is a profession in the sense that there is a systematized body of management. do not seem to adhere to the principle of “service above self”. sabotaging trade unions. Mintberz found that his managers engaged in a large number of varied. Training facilities are provided in most companies by their training divisions. and it is not as fully a profession as medicine and law.A. little regard is paid to the elevation of service over the desire for monetary compensation is evident by switching of jobs by managers. the All India Management Association. an art as well as a profession.6 Role of Management In the late 1960s. Management is a profession to the extent it fulfils the above conditions.. Henry Mintzberg did a careful study of five chief executives at work. management is not as exact as natural sciences. Some individual business organizations. Management Development Institute.S. none of them has the professionalizing of the management as its goal.
they do so by reading magazines and talking with others to learn of changes in the public’s tastes. The term ‘management roles’ refers to specific categories of managerial behaviour. and may be inside or outside the organization. and decision-making. Mintzberg provided a categorization scheme for defining what managers do based on actual managers on the job. training. what competitors may be planning. Managers also act as a conduit to transmit information to organizational members. The third role within the interpersonal grouping is the liaison role. fulfill informational roles-receiving and collecting information from organizations and institutions outside their own. Half of these managers’ activities lasted less than nine minutes each. This is the disseminator role. These ten roles can be grouped as those primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships. Interpersonal Roles: All managers are required to perform duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature – interpersonal roles. to some degree. motivating. the transfer of information. These sources are individuals or groups outside the manager’s unit. When they represent the organisation to outsiders. and associated duties. Responsible for the motivation Performing virtually all and activation of subordinates. Mintzberg called this the monitor role. he or she has an outside liaison relationship. . Mintzberg concluded that managers perform ten different but highly interrelated roles.1: Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles Role Interpersonal Figurehead Description Identifiable Activities Leader Symbolic head. All managers have a role as a leader. Typically. This role includes hiring. When the president of a college hands out diplomas at commencement or a factory supervisor gives a group of high school students a tour of the plant. manages also perform a spokesperson role. activities that involve responsible for staffing. training. he or she is acting in a figurehead role. and the like. Informational Roles: All managers. duties of a legal or social nature. and disciplining employees. Table 1. subordinates. Mintzberg described this activity as contacting external sources who provide the manager with information.constant interruptions. The sales manager who obtains information from the human resources manager in his or her same company has an internal liaison relationship. When that sales manager confers with other sales executives through a marketing trade association. obliged to Greeting visitors. But in addition to these insights. signing perform a number of routine legal documents.
unexpected involve disturbances and disturbances crises Responsible for the allocation Scheduling. network of outside contacts doing external board and informers who provide work. supervises design of certain projects as well. results. performing other favors and information.Liaison Maintains self-developed Acknowledging mail. requesting of organizational resources of authorization. Searches organization and its Organizing strategy and environment for opportunities review sessions to and initiates “improvement develop new programs. actions. etc. Transmits information received Holding informational from outsides or from other meetings. Responsible for corrective Organizing strategy and action when organization faces review sessions that important. Seeks and receives wide variety Reading periodicals and of special information (much of reports. maintaining it current) to develop thorough personal contacts. projects” to bring about change. understanding of organization and environment. emerges as nerve center of internal and external information about the organization.. activities that involve outsiders. media. the making any activity that involves or approval of all significant budgeting and the Informational Monitor Disseminator Spokesperson Decisional Entrepreneur Disturbance handler Resource allocator . the organization – some information is factual. performing all kinds – in effect. serves as expert on organization’s industry. outsiders on organization’s giving information of the plans. Transmits information to Holding board meetings. making phone subordinates to members of calls to relay information. policies. some involves interpretation and integration of diverse value positions of organizational influencers.
the emphasis that managers give to the various roles seems to change with hierarchical level. and conceptual. Conversely. 1973). negotiator. As resource allocators. Source: Henry Mintzberg. the roles of disseminator. or manufacturing. Managerial Skills As you can see from the preceding discussion. managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization’s performance. computers. physical and monetary resources. Publishers. The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper & Row. As entrepreneurs. Managers need certain skills to perform the duties and activities associated with being a manager. finance. such as engineering. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row. For example. Technical skills include knowledge of and proficiency in a certain specialized field. the leader role is more important for lowerlevel managers than it is for either middle-or-top-level managers. An Evaluation: A number of follow-up studies have tested the validity of Mintzberg’s role categories across different types of organizations and at different levels within given organizations. Inc. managers perform as negotiators when they discuss and bargain with other groups to gain advantages for their own units. During the early 1970. figurehead. as well as many middle managers. Decisional Roles: Finally. pp 93-94 Copyright Ó 1973 by Hency Mintzberg. are heavily involved in technical aspects of the organization’s operations. managers take corrective action in response to previously unforeseen problems. negotiations. research by Robert L. Mintzberg identified four decisional roles which revolve around the making of choices. Technical Skills: First-line managers. However. a manager’s job is varied and complex.organizational decisions. The evidence generally supports the idea that managers – regardless of the type of organization or level in the organization-perform similar roles. As disturbance handlers. Responsible for representing Participating in union the organization at major contract negotiations. Negotiator programming of subordinates work. an accounts payable manager must be proficient in accounting rules and standardized . managers are responsible for allocating human. He also found that the relative importance of these skills varied according to the manager’s level within the organization. Katz found that managers need three essential skills or competencies: technical. liaison. Specifically. Last. human. and spokesperson are more important at the higher levels of the organization than at the lower ones.
But some English authors like Brech are of the opinion that management is a wider term including administration. They must be able to see the organization as a whole and the relationships among its various subunits and to visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment. ii) Management is a generic term and includes administration. This controversy is discussed as under in three heads: i) Administration is concerned with the determination of policies and management with the implementation of policies. it remains just as important at the top levels of management as it is at the lower levels.7 Administration and Management The use of two terms ‘management’ and ‘administration’ has been a controversial issue in the management literature. Those who held management and administration distinct include Oliver Sheldon. Spriegal and Lansburg. 1. These abilities are essential to effective decision-making. According to them. and inspire enthusiasm and trust. In fact. They know how to communicate. motivate. and all managers are involved in making decisions. management is a lower-level function and is concerned primarily with the execution of policies laid down by administration. Conceptual Skills: Managers also must have the ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract situations. Human Skills: The ability to work well with other people both individually and in a group is a human skill. while others maintain that administration and management are two different functions. etc. Managers with good human skills can get the best out of their people. These types of conceptual skills are needed by all managers at all levels but become more important as they move up the organizational hierarchy. Administration is a higher level function: . even top managers need some proficiency in the organization’s speciality. this skill is crucial. Thus. Although technical skills become less important as manager moves into higher levels of management. administration is a higher level function.forms so that she can resolve problems and answer questions that her accounts payable clerks might encounter. Since managers deal directly with people. Some writers do not see any difference between the two terms. lead. Floerence and Tead. iii) There is no distinction between the terms ‘management’ and ‘administration’ and they are used interchangeably.
i. This view is held by Tead. Administration is a determinative function.2: Distinction between Administration and Management: Basic 1. environmental forces. Environment Administration has direct Management is mainly interaction with external concerned with internal environment of business and forces..Administration refers to policy-making. Decision. administrative decisions. Direction of It is concerned with leading It is concerned with Human Resources and motivation of middle leading and motivation of level executives. whereas management refers to execution of policies laid down by administration. of the organisation. 4. Scope It is concerned with It is concerned with the determination of major implementation of objectives and policies. is a doing function. plans and policies through and with others.Administration determines Management decides who Making what is to be done and when shall implement the it is to be done. Status Administration refers to Management is relevant higher levels of management. at lower levels of management. 6. of human resources. 5. It thinking function. on the other hand. objectives. 2. making strategic plans to deal plans and policies of the effectively with the organisation. 8. Spriegel and Walter. management as an executive function which is primarily concerned with carrying out of the broad policies laid down by the administration. policies.e. Meaning Administration Management Administration is concerned Management means with the formulation of getting the work done objectives. 7. operative workforce for the execution of plans. Administration is the phase of business enterprise that concerns itself with the overall determination of institutional objectives and the policies necessary to be followed in achieving those objectives. Usage of Term The term ‘administration’ is The term ‘management’ is often associated with widely used in business . Thus. Nature Administration relates to the Management relates to decision-making. administration involves broad policy-making and management involves the execution of policies laid down by the administration. Table 1. It is a execution of decisions. 3. Managers are Administrators are basically concerned mainly with concerned with planning and organisation and direction control.
There are three levels of management-top. 3. machinery and methods or ways of doing things) depends to a great extent on the quality of management. Management 2. Management creates ________ and motivates employees to work harder and better by providing necessary guidance. Human skills are important at all managerial levels. ___________. Self Assessment Questions in the 1. 1. Still management is not completely a profession. __________is principally the task of planning. teamwork . It is the management which transforms physical resources of an organization into productive resources. Lower level managers require and use a greater degree of technical skill and managers at higher levels use a greater degree of conceptual skill. Five M’s of management (________.8 Summary Management is concerned with getting things done through other people. middle and lower. Managers perform different roles to discharge their responsibilities. Explain its characteristics. public organisations sector and non-business private sector. organisations.government offices. Money. co-ordinating. 1. _________. materials. counseling and effective leadership. Define management.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. 2. Bring out the difference between Administration and Management. motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective. Discuss the importance of management. 1. 2. manpower 3.9 Terminal Questions 1. Management is largely found at the middle and lower levels and administration is found at the higher levels. 3.
2.1.3 Planning 2.4 Organizing 2.3 2.7 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .5 3.7 Motivating Self Assessment Questions 2.1 Introduction Objectives 2. Refer section 1. Refer section 1.5 Staffing 2.10 Answers to SAQs and TQs . MU0004-Unit-02-Management Process Unit-02-Management Process Structure: 2.Answers to TQs: 1. Refer section 1.2 Process of Management 2.9 Terminal Questions 2.8 Summary 2.6 Directing 2.
2 Management Process Peter Drucker said: “Management is doing things right. in recent time. Staffing. Organizing 3. It is difficult to say where objectives end and policies begin. management functions have been regrouped into four categories.1 Introduction Follett (1933) defined management as "the art of getting things done through people”. You might well ask what the need for a policy is when objectives are already defined. There is a degree of overlap between the two. leadership is about setting the desirable goals. Controlling However. Coordinating 5. One can also think of management functionally. as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan. · Explain Planning. Policy Formulation We have noted earlier that all organizations have well-defined goals and objectives. 2. you will be able to: · Define Management process. Through leadership and management often overlap. · Explain different functions of management Process. 1949): 1. Organizing. Directing. Management functions are as follows (Fayol. Motivating. the two are not quite the same. leadership is doing the right things“. Objectives: After this studying this unit. Even . Planning 2. Management is about accomplishing a goal efficiently. since the managerial tasks have become highly challenging a fluid in nature making distinctions redundant to certain extent.2. Commanding 4.
It provides the direction for the other functions of management and for effective teamwork. An explicit mission guides employees to work independently and yet collectively toward the realization of the organization’s potential. The mission statement may be accompanied by an overarching . the decision to change the design of a product. or where you want go to. Effective planning enables an organization adapt to change by identifying opportunities and avoiding problems. is an enduring decision which holds good on a continuing basis to guide the members of the organization in doing what they are called upon to do. studies on passenger comfort. Therefore. kicking the ball with the left foot or right foot is a reflex action. 2. general strategies. and then set out the method for achieving it. driving comfort. In the football field. A mission statement should be short – and should be easily understood and every employee should ideally be able to narrate it from memory. and allocating resources. Objectives are the ends. Planning also enhances the decisionmaking process.so. planning begins with clearly defining the mission of the organization. a process in which one chooses a course which one thinks is the best. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. The mission statement is broad.3 Planning It involves the process of defining goals. say a passenger car. summarizing what the organization does. Planning in order to be useful must be linked to the strategic intent of an organization. thus. while a policy. should precede a good deal of research involving market surveys. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. All levels of management engage in planning in their own way for achieving their preset goals. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. cost structure and so on. Thus. planning is often referred to as strategic in nature and also termed as strategic planning. it would be correct to assume that an objective is what you want to accomplish. fuel and machine efficiency. Decision – Making Taking decisions is a process. The tasks of the strategic planning process include the following steps: Define the mission: A mission is the purpose of the organization. what distinguishers policies form objectives is that you first decide the objective. However. policies are the means to achieve those ends. overall goals. it is not a decision in which any process is involved. Strategic Planning: Top level managers engage chiefly in strategic planning or long range planning Strategic planning is the process of developing and analyzing the organization’s mission.
Sources of information may include stakeholders like. federal. Are the facilities outdated? 3. In which areas is the competition not meeting customer needs? 2. How efficient is our manufacturing? 3. Opportunities. and trade). How skilled is our workforce? 4. governments (local. Are the technologies obsolete? For identifying opportunities the following elements need to be looked at: 1. suppliers. professional. Organizations need to examine their business situation in order to map out the opportunities and threats present in their environments. SWOT analysis provides the assumptions and facts on which a plan will be based. customers (internal and external). professional or trade associations (conventions and exhibitions). Do we have a superior reputation? For assessing the weaknesses of the organization the following questions are important: 1. For assessing the strengths of the organization the following questions are important: 1.statement of philosophy or strategic purpose designed to convey a vision for the future as envisaged by top management. What are the vulnerable areas of the organization that could be exploited? 2. What makes the organization distinctive? 2. Is research and development adequate? 4. Threats) analysis is vital for the creation of any strategic plan. Weaknesses. What are the possible new markets? . What is our market share? 5. The SWOT analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. international). Conduct a situational or SWOT analysis A situation or SWOT (Strengths. Analyzing strengths and weaknesses comprises the internal assessment of the organization. state. journals and reports (scientific. What financing is available? 6.
What is the strength of the economy? 4. earnings per share. the best strategy is one that fits the organization’s strengths to opportunities in the environment. It also helps in setting minimum acceptable standards or common-sense minimums. Set goals and objectives Strategic goals and objectives are developed to fill the gap between current capability and the mission. Comparing the organization to external benchmarks (the best practices) is used to assess current capabilities. What are the new regulations? 6.3. In which areas does the competition meet customer needs more effectively? 2. and operational planning . In turn. Are market tastes changing? 5. Develop related strategies (tactical and operational) Tactical plans are based on the organization’s strategic plan. Are there new competitors? 3. return on investment. as well as gap analysis. operational plans are based on the organization’s tactical plans. These are specific plans that are needed for each task or supportive activity comprising the whole. Benchmarking systematically compares performance measures such as efficiency. organizations have longterm objectives for factors such as. Is there a shortage of resources? 4. What are the emerging technologies? 6. tactical. Generally. Is there a possibility of growth of existing market?) Identifying threats involves the following: 1. etc. effectiveness. or outcomes of an organization against similar measures from other internal or external organizations. Are our rivals weak? 5. Objectives are also called performance goals. They are aligned with the mission and form the basis for the action plans of an organization. The SWOT analysis is used as a baseline for future improvement. What substitute products exist? In general terms. Strategic.
The formal organization can be seen and represented in chart form.4 Organizing It involves designing. To develop an environmental monitoring procedure. Organizational structure is the formal decision-making framework by which job tasks are divided. Feedback is encouraged and incorporated to determine if goals and objectives are feasible. procedures. and relationships between departments. It is the official organizational structure conceived and built by top management. List all tasks to be accomplished 3. Formalization is an important aspect of structure. Organizations are groups of people. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. structuring. lines of authority. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. how the tasks are to be grouped. necessary to maintain competitive advantage in the said market.5 Staffing . Group related jobs together in a logical and efficient manner 5. A key issue in accomplishing the goals identified in the planning process is structuring the work of the organization. Monitor the plan A systematic method of monitoring the environment must be adopted to continuously improve the strategic planning process. 2. short-term standards for key variables that will tend to validate and support the long-range estimates must be established. grouped. Divide tasks into groups one person can accomplish – a job 4. who reports to whom. The steps in the organizing process include: 1. An organization chart displays the organizational structure and shows job titles. 2. and goals are clearly stated. who is to do.must be accompanied by controls to ensure proper implantation of the plans. Review plans 2. The purpose of the organizing function is to make the best use of the organization’s resources to achieve organizational goals. This review is used for the next planning cycle and review. It is the extent to which the units of the organization are explicitly defined and its policies. Delegate authority to establish relationships between jobs and groups of jobs. and where decisions are to be made. with ideas and resources. and coordinated. Assign work to individuals 6. working toward common goals.
placement. 3. . This task has been referred to as staffing. It aims at right man at right position: Staffing aims at selection of right person for right place at right time and retaining them in the organization. Definition: 1. selection. Curther Geelick Cyndall Urwick – “Staffing is the whole personnel function of brining in and training the staff and marinating of favorable conditions of work” Features of Staffing The analysis of the above definitions highlights the following features: 1. 3. performance appraisal etc. It has many sub-functions: Staffing involves determination of the manpower requirement. compensation and training of needed people”. selection.It is not the machines. Pervasiveness of Staffing: Effective execution of staffing function is the responsibility of all managers in the organization. placement. materials. 4. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. transfer and appraisal of personnel to fill the organizational positions. promotion. Therefore it is the responsibility of the management to secure and maintain competent and dedicated workforce including managers and operatives. Managers of the concerned departments are responsible for the selection and development of qualified people for their department and maintain them in their department. inventorying the people available. training. growth and development of all those members of the organization whose function is to get things done through the efforts of other individuals”. recruitment. Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. development. recruitment. O’Donnell & Weihrich have defined staffing as “filling positions in the organization structure through identifying work force requirements. 2. Theo Haimann – “Concerned with the placement. appraisal. 2. transport system and other physical resources that make the organization to achieve its goals but it is the competency and efficiency of the people who handle resources contributes for the accomplishment of objectives of the enterprise. money. Deals with people: Staffing is a separate managerial function which deals with people in the organization. Koontz.
Thus staffing is an ongoing process through – out the life of an organization. identifying the manpower requirements. resignation. promotion. Characteristics of Direction The characteristic features of direction are as follow: 1. It is an important managerial function.6 Directing Direction is one of the functions of management. 2. 6. It is performed in the context of superior-subordinate relationship and every manager in the organization performs his duties both as a superior and subordinate. training development and maintenance of personnel. lead them and guide them on a continuous basis.5. It is a continuing function. It is instructing people as to what to do. It deals with future requirements: Staffing deals with current and future personnel requirements. A manger needs to give orders to his subordinates. recruitment.e. etc. 2. Direction is an important managerial function. Present positions must be filled keeping in mind the future requirements. Definition According to Koontz and O’Donnel. It is a continuous function: With the growth and expansion of business additional manpower is needed. overseeing and leading people. Personnel policies and programs must be formulated as guides to perform the staffing function effectively. Thus staffing deals with the future requirements also. Direction is the managerial function of guiding. how to do and telling them to do to the best of their ability. Direction is continuous process and it continues throughout the life-time of the organization. 7. directing is the “interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals”. selection. It is a process: it is a process having a logical sequence i. induction. Through direction. management initiates actions in the organization. vacancies arise out of retirement. Direction function is performed at every level of management. 3. motivate them. 8. .
On the one hand. sex. 2. Theories X and Y. Direction imitates at the top level in the organization and follows to bottom through the hierarchy. to provide superiors opportunities for some more important work which their subordinates cannot do. the number of subordinate he has and the other duties he is expected to perform. nothing or at the best very little would be accomplished”. “without the issuance of directives. Continuous function: Directing is a continuous process. Essence of performance: Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. shelter. only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior. on the other. teach. The five needs are: · Physiological: Includes hunger. guide.4. without guiding and overseeing subordinates. from the basic to the complex.7 Motivating Motivating In the 1950s three specific theories were formulated and are the best known: Hierarchy of Needs theory. coach and supervise his subordinates. human beings have wants and desires which influence their behaviour. It emphasizes that a subordinate is to be directed by his own superior only. organizing and staffing on one hand and controlling on the other. satisfied needs cannot. humanness and psychological health a person will show. proposed by Maslow (1943). and other bodily needs . 3. will vary depending upon his level. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory According to this theory. As Theo Haimann puts it. The amount of time and effort an executive spends in directing however. 4. Direction has dual objectives. The further they progress up the hierarchy. and the Two-Factor theory. 2. The manager never ceases to direct. Nature of Directing The nature of directing can be discussed under the following: 1. 5. thirst. Directing is the process around which all performances revolve. Pervasive function: Directing is a managerial function performed by all mangers at all levels of the organization. it aims at getting things done by subordinates and. The needs are arranged in order of importance. It is an important function of management: Directing is an important management function which provides a connecting link between planning. the more individuality. The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied.
includes growth. anxious to accept greater responsibility. and self-actualization are classified as higherorder needs. recognition. Higher-order needs are satisfied internally. and achievement. if they can. Theory Y – In this theory management assumes employees may be ambitious. achieving one’s potential. belongingness. Physiological and safety needs are described as lower-order. and external esteem factors. esteem. Lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied. whereas. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory . self-motivated.· Safety: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm · Social: Includes affection. such as. Workers need to be closely supervised and a comprehensive system of controls and a hierarchical structure is needed to supervise the workers closely. Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. and attention · Self-actualization: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming. status. and exercise self-control. if given the chance employees have the desire to be creative and forward thinking in the workplace. and self-fulfillment Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders. self-respect. autonomy and empowerment. Social. Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor argued that a manager’s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and he or she tends to mould his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions. externally. Theory X – In this theory management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work. It is also believed that. There is a chance for greater productivity by giving employees the freedom to perform to the best of their abilities without being bogged down by rules. self-direction. such as. It is also assumed that workers generally place security above all other factors and will display little ambition. it is clear that Theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals. acceptance. and friendship · Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors. autonomy. From the above.
Staffing refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. Self Assessment Questions 1. When hygiene factors are adequate. _______refers to the managerial function of determining and improving the manpower requirements of an enterprise. how the tasks are to be grouped. neither will they be satisfied. responsibility. The absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction. 2. To motivate people. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. and where decisions are to be made. It involves many sub-functions such as manpower planning. Organization involves designing. such as. establishing strategies for achieving these goals. have to do with a person’s relationship to the context or environment in which she or he performs the job. recognition. . supervision. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. Directing is the interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and co-ordinate effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprises goals. and salary are hygiene factors. who reports to whom.Herzberg (1959) constructed a two-dimensional paradigm of factors affecting people’s attitudes about work. These two factors are motivators and hygiene factors and this theory is also called motivation-hygiene theory. performance appraisal etc. working conditions. and achievement. Hygiene factors on the other hand. Job satisfaction factors are separate and distinct from job dissatisfaction factors. many related to the tasks being performed. ____defined management as the art of getting things done through people. such as. The _____analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. In summary. recruitment. structuring. Planning involves the process of defining goals. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. The satisfiers relate to what a person does while the dissatisfiers relate to the situation in which the person does what he or she does.8 Summary Management is the art of getting things done through people. company policy. people will not be dissatisfied. advancement. motivators describe a person’s relationship with what she or he does. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done. who is to do. but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction. Presence of these factors ensure job satisfaction. and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. interpersonal relations. emphasize factors intrinsically rewarding that are associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it. Motivators are intrinsic factors. Extrinsic factors. 2. 3.
Follett 2. Reference 2.5 3. Reference 2.3 2.1 Introduction Objectives .2. Write a short not on directing. What is planning? 2. Explain Staffing in detail 3. Reference 2.9 Terminal Questions 1. Staffing Answers to TQs: 1. SWOT 3.6 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .10 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. 2. MU0002-Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Unit-03-Organization Development: A Need Structure: 3.
3.2 Definitions 3.3 Characteristics of OD 3.4 Categories of OD 3.5 Goals of OD 3.6 OD and Management Development 3.7 Role of OD 3.8 Problems in OD Self Assessment Questions 3.9 Summary 3.10 Terminal Questions 3.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 3.1 Introduction Organization development is the applied behavioural science discipline dedicated to improving organizations and the people in them through the use of the theory and practice of planned change. Organizations face multiple challenges and threats today – threats to effectiveness, efficiency, and profitability; challenges from turbulent environments, increased competition, and changing customer demands; and the constant challenge to maintain congruence among organizational dimensions such as technology, strategy, culture, and processes. Keeping organizations healthy and viable in today’s world is a daunting task. Individuals in organizations likewise face multiple challenges – finding satisfaction in and through work, fighting obsolescence of one’s knowledge and skills, maintaining dignity and purpose in pursuit of organizational goals, and achieving human connectedness and community in the workplace. Simple survival – continuing to have an adequate job – is a major challenge today in the light of constant layoffs and cutbacks. Although new jobs are being created at record rates, old jobs are being destroyed at an accelerating pace. “Knowledge” work is replacing “muscle” work. In summary, organizations and the individuals in them face an enormously demanding present and future. Are any strategies available to help people and organizations cope, adapt, survive, and even prosper in these vexing times? Fortunately, the answer is “yes”. A variety of solutions exists. And organization development (OD) is one of them. Basically, organization development is a
process of teaching people how to solve problems, take advantage of opportunities, and learn how to do that better and better over time. OD focuses on issues related to the “human side” of organizations by finding ways to increase the effectiveness of individuals, teams, and the organization’s human and social processes. Organization development is a relatively recent invention. It started in the late 1950s when behavioural scientists steeped in the lore and technology of group dynamics attempted to apply that knowledge to improve team functioning and inter-group relations in organizations. Early returns were encouraging, and attention was soon directed toward other human and social processes in organizations such as the design of work tasks, organization structure, conflict resolution, strategy formulation and implementation, and the like. The field of OD grew rapidly in the 1970s and the 1980s with thousands of organizations in the private and public sectors using the theory and methods of OD with great success. Today, organization development represents one of the best strategies for coping with the rampant changes occurring in the marketplace and society. We predict that organization development will be preferred improvement strategy in future. Objectives: After studying this unit, you will be able to: · Define organization development. · Explain the characteristics of OD. · Discuss the categories of OD programme. · State the goals of OD. · Distinguish between OD and Management Development · Explore the problems in OD. 3.2 Definitions Organization Development (OD) is a response to change, a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs, attitudes, values and structure of organization so that they can better adapt to new technologies, markets, and challenges, and the dizzying rate of change itself. (Bennis, 1969). OD can be defined as a planned and sustained effort to apply behavioural science for system improvement, using reflexive, self-analytic methods. (Schmuck and Miles, 1971)
Organizational development is a process of planned change- change of an organization’s culture from one which avoids an examination of social processes (especially decision making, planning and communication) to one which institutionalizes and legitimizes this examination. (Burke and Hornstein, 1972) The aims of OD are: 1) Enhancing congruence between organizational structure, processes, strategy, people, and culture; 2) Developing new and creative organizational solutions; and 3) Developing the organization’s self-renewing capacity (Beer, 1980). Organization development is an organizational process for understanding and improving any and all substantive processes an organization may develop for performing any task and pursuing any objectives…. A “process for improving processes” – that is what OD has basically sought to be for approximately 25 years (Vaill, 1989) “Organizational development is a set of behavioural science-based theories, values, strategies, and techniques aimed at the planned change of the organizational work setting for the purpose of enhancing individual development and improving organizational performance, through the alteration of organizational members’ on-the-job behaviours.” (Porras and Robertson, 1992) “OD is a systematic application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies, structure, and processes for improving an organization’s effectiveness.” (Cummings and Worley, 1993) “Organization development is a planned process of change in an organization’s culture through the utilization of behavioural science technologies, research, and theory.” (Burke, 1994) As you can see, these definitions overlap a great deal (that’s encouraging), and contain several unique insights (that’s enlightening). All authors agree that OD applies behavioural science to achieve planned change. Likewise, they agree that the target of change is the total organization or system and that the goals are increased organizational effectiveness and individual development. Collectively, these definitions convey a sense of what organization development is and does. They describe in broad outline the nature and methods of OD. There is no set definition of OD and no agreement on the boundaries of the field, that is, what practices should be included and excluded. But these are not serious constraints given that the field is still evolving, and that practitioners share a central core of understanding as shown in the preceding definitions.
we mean that organizational change and development takes time. We will explain this definition in some detail. We do not propose it as the “right” definition. Top management must initiate the improvement “journey” and be committed to seeing it through. collaborative management of organization culture-with special emphasis on the culture of intact work teams and other team configurations-using the consultantfacilitator role and the theory and technology of applied behavioural science. team.several years in most cases. empowerment. where . it must be built into the very fabric of the organization-its strategy. and what the organization and its members can expect from each other. listening. coherent. For empowerment to become fact of life. In fact. Visioning means creating a picture of the desired future that includes salient features of the human side of the organization and then working together to make that picture a reality. developing the strategy for getting there. Organizational change is hard.” This definition is lengthy. and shared picture of the nature of the products and services the organization offers. but it includes a number of components that we consider essential. we mean involving large numbers of people in building the vision of tomorrow.Now let’s turn to our definition of organization development. learning. lost its commitment. Most OD programs that fail do so because top management was ambivalent. led and supported by top management. By long-term effort. and problem-solving processes. it includes pain and setbacks as well as success. and self-examining processes that facilitate individual. By empowerment. structure. serious business. to improve an organization’s visioning. There is no “quick fix” when it comes to lasting organizational improvement. One program or initiative moves the organization to a higher plateau. we mean those leadership behaviours and human resource practices that enable organization members to develop and use their talents as fully as possible toward individual growth and organizational success. The phrase led and supported by top management states an imperative: Top management must lead and actively encourage the change effort. By visioning processes. and culture. then another moves it to yet a higher plateau of effectiveness. processes. the ways those goods will be produced and delivered to customers. where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured. but as one that includes characteristics we think are important for the present and future of the field. By empowerment processes. it is more accurate to describe “improvement” as a never-ending journey of continuous change. we mean those interacting. and organizational learning. or became distracted with other duties. “Organization development is a long-term effort. and making it happen. By learning processes. we mean those processes through which organization members develop a viable. through an ongoing. including action research. Peter Senge describes learning organizations as “… organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire.
and feel in relation to those problems. empowerment. and problem-solving processes are opportunities for collaboration in organization development. activities. therefore (e) is to be taught to new members as the (f) correct way to perceive. we affirm our belief that culture is the bedrock of behaviour in organizations. By ongoing collaborative management of the organization’s culture. that one of the most important things to manage in organizations is the culture: the prevailing pattern of values. learning. learning. so is managing the culture. and artifacts. managing the culture should be a collaborative business. Collaborative management of the culture means that everyone. assumptions. (b) invented. so they are the place OD programs often begin – getting people to stop doing things one way and start doing them a different way. and norms of behaviour that are viewed as the correct way to perceive. has a stake in making the organization work. Still. and we highlight the importance of visioning. Our definition also places considerable weight on organizational processes. We believe solutions to problems are enhanced by tapping deeply into the creativity. widely shared vision of a desired future creates the best climate for effective problem-solving by all the organization’s members. Empowerment means involving people in problems and decisions and letting them be responsible for results. and each influences the others. and take actions on problems. We further believe that having compelling. Just as visioning. we mean. attitudes. and common purposes of all members of the organization. not just a small group. empowerment. Michael Beer’s definition called for “developing new and creative organizational solutions”. in contrast to having only a select few involved. . By including culture so prominently in our definition. solve problems. We believe that when the culture promotes collaboration. think. sentiments. Processes are relatively easy to change. one of wide-spread participation in creating and managing a culture that satisfies that wants and needs of individuals at the same time that it fosters the organization’s purposes. and processes makes each important. structure. discovered. and feel-that is why culture change is necessary for true organizational improvement. values. The reciprocal influence among culture. commitment. Processes are how things get done. beliefs. (d) that has worked well enough to be considered valid and. and where people are continually learning how to learn together. make decisions. (c) as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. And second. So culture consists of basic assumptions. strategy. and problem-solving processes. But change becomes permanent when the culture changes and people accept the new ways as the “right” ways. vitality. or developed by a given group.collective aspiration is set free.” Problem-solving processes refer to the ways organization members diagnose situations. opportunities. empowerment. expectations. first. and challenges in the organization’s environment and its internal functioning. Edgar Schein clarifies the nature and power of culture in his definition: “Culture can now be defined as (a) a pattern of basic assumptions. and continuous learning the organization is bound to succeed. culture is of primary importance. interactions. think. norms.
In Liberation Management. team culture can be collaboratively managed to ensure effectiveness. This method resulted in loss of synergy. Today’s organizations increasingly use ad hoc teams that perform a specific task and disband when the task is completed. hiring. The definition we have just analyzed contains the elements we believe are important for OD. and procurement. These self-directed teams assume complete responsibility for planning and executing work assignments. We think teams are the basic building blocks of organizations. In addition to team building and role and goal clarification. Specifically. OD encourages collaboration between organization leaders and members in managing culture and processes. The old method was to have functional specialists work on the problem sequentially. constantly shifting teams will be the dominant configuration for getting work done. The current method for getting complex tasks done in organizations is to assemble a cross-functional team comprised of members from all the functional specialities required to get the job done. When teams function well. engineering. To summarize. OD focuses on culture and processes. here are the primary distinguishing characteristics of organization development: 1. maintaining quality control. and considerable antagonism among the separate functional specialists. The results are usually highly gratifying both for the team members and for the organization. multifunctional. such as design. The thesis of Liberation Management is that contemporary bureaucratic structures with their functional specialties and rigid hierarchies are all wrong for the demands of today’s fast-paced market place. much rework. Temporary. The most prevalent form of teams in organizations is intact work teams consisting of superior and subordinates with a specific job to perform. and training. members are trained in competencies such as planning. and using management information. according to Peters. Over time. we recognize that teams are central to accomplishing work in organizations. But in many organizations today. and then disbanded with the people going on to new tasks. Team building and role and goal clarification interventions are standard activities in OD programs directed toward intact work teams. intact work teams do not have a boss in the traditional sense-the teams manage themselves.By intact work teams and other configurations. firing. individuals and the organization function well. Tom Peters predicts that the work of tomorrow (most of which will be “brain work”) will be done by ad hoc teams brought together to accomplish a task. . manufacturing. self-directed teams control performance appraisals. 2. When one function finished with its part of the project. the process “threw the results over the wall” to the next functional unit. wasted time. Further. He uses the terms ‘multifunctional projectization’ and ‘horizontal systems’ to describe these teams and their work.
An overarching goal is to make the client system able to solve its problems on its own by teaching the skills and knowledge of continuous learning through self-analytical methods. and cyclic processes.3 Characteristics of OD 1. and co-learners with the client system. OD takes a developmental view that seeks the betterment of both individuals and the organization. Planned Change: OD is a strategy of planned change for organizational improvement. 4. OD practitioners are facilitators. 8. Attempting to create “win-win” solutions is standard practice in OD programs. Comprehensive Change: OD efforts focus on comprehensive change in the organization. OD relies on an action research model with extensive participation by client system members. OD efforts take an organization as an interrelated whole and no part of it can be changed meaningfully without making corresponding changes in other parts. temporary. collaborators. This ‘planned’ emphasis separates OD efforts from other kinds of more haphazard changes that are frequently undertaken by organizations. OD focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. Dynamic Process: OD is a dynamic process and includes the efforts to guide and direct changes as well as to cope with or adapt changes imposed. OD efforts are not one-shot actions. It recognizes that organizational goals change. 6. OD focuses on total system change and views organizations as complex social systems. The concept of comprehensive change is based on the systems concept-open. interactive. Thus. dynamic and adaptive system.3. they are ongoing. so the methods of attaining these goals should also change. rather than focusing attention on individuals. rather. 7. 10. 3. 9. or isolated problems. 3. Teams of all kinds are particularly important for accomplishing tasks and are targets for OD activities. Long-range Change: OD efforts are not meant for solving short-term. 5. so that change is easily observed. Rather. 4. OD views organization improvement as an ongoing process in the context of a constantly changing environment. Participation and involvement in problem-solving and decision-making by all levels of the organization are hallmarks of OD. 2. OD focuses on the elevation of an organization to a higher level of functioning by improving the performance and satisfaction. .
Participation of Change Agent: Most OD experts emphasize the need for an outside. This is done to arrive at certain desirable outcomes that may be in the form of increased effectiveness. the importance and centrality of goals and objectives and the different role requirements of the consultant change agent vis-à-vis the clients. evaluates these data. 6. takes actions for intervention. yet following features are common to most of the programmes: (a) The client is a total system or major subunit of total system. A change agent in OD process does not just introspect the people and introduce changes. The change agent is a humanist seeking to get a humanistic philosophy in the organization. 3. They discourage ‘do it yourself’ approach. first. Two important elements of Organization Development are. the element which links Organization Development with the scientific method of inquiry and. third party change agent. second. all types of experience requiring Organization Development efforts may be grouped into three categories: (a) Problems of destiny. participation. Action research is the basis for such intervention. it is a programme with a purpose that is to guide present and future action. Normative Educational Process: OD is based on the principle that ‘norms form the basis for behaviour and change is a re-educative process of replacing old norms by new ones’. There is a close working relationship between the change agent and the target organizational members to be changed. He shares a social philosophy about human values. rather. He designs intervention strategies based on these data. Emphasis on Intervention and Action Research: OD approach results in an active intervention in the ongoing activities of the organization. (b) Problems of human satisfaction and development. identity. and adaptability for the organization as a whole. and mutual influence. and then. practitioners and the client laymen. further more. . and revitalization. (b) The interventions are primarily directed towards problems and issues identified by the client group. joint goals and means. and (c) Problems of organizational effectiveness. growth.4 Categories of OD Programmes In general.5. and integrate individual and organizational goals. OD attempts to provide opportunities to be ‘human’ and to increase awareness. the collaborative relationships between the scientists. Although Organization Development Programmes vary. Key areas are the normative type of model. 7. Organization Development is inextricably linked with action. he conducts surveys. The relationship involves mutual trust. collects relevant data. At the individual level. or catalyst. problem-solving.
like other normative re-educative programmes. (b) To supplement the authority associated with role or status. (c) To locate decision making and problem-solving responsibilities as close to sources of information as possible. with the authority of knowledge and competence. (d) To build trust among persons and groups throughout an organization. and (d) The interventions are based on behavioural science theory and technology. (j) To improve effectiveness of the organization. This Organization Development progrmmes. (g) To increase the sense of ‘ownership’ or organization’s objectives throughout the work force. (i) To increase self-control and self-direction for people within the organization. (h) To help managers to manage according to relevant objectives rather than according to past practices or according to objectives which do not make sense for one’s area of responsibility. 3. (f) To develop a reward system which recognizes both the achievement of the organization’s goals (profit or service) and development of people. We need to examine carefully the techniques of Organization Development.6 OD and Management Development .5 Goals of Organization Development Following are the generally accepted goals of OD: (a) To create an open. problem solving climate throughout an organization.(c) The interventions are directed towards problem-solving and improved functioning for the client system. its underlying theory and assumptions and some of the pitfall and challenges in attempting to improve organizations through behavioural science. should begin with a clear-cut statement of specific objectives and criteria for determining if these objectives have been met from the stand point of the employee/employees simply as team member or for the total group. (e) To make competition more relevant to work goals and to maximize collaborative efforts. 3.
(iii) assertiveness. more attention to peer-groups. management development has been defined as follows: “Management development is all those activities and programmes when recognized and controlled. less individual competitiveness. accomplishments. with their existing objectives and structure. If OD efforts train people towards anti-authority value. While the latter aims at developing the mangers individually for the accomplishment of better performance in organizational setting. according to him. According to him. focus on achieving better in existing improvement in design. Train and equip employees Focus on design. and (iv) a sense of responsibility.At this stage. he appears to be biased against OD and the real distinction between OD and MD lies in between these two extremes. and greater display of feelings and emotions. have substantial influence in changing the capacity of the individual to perform his assignment better and in so doing are likely to increase his potential for future management assignment. Before making a comparison between the two. and techniques adopted in both may overlap to some extent. He feels that management development reinforces the above four qualities and helps managers cultivate and develop the will to manage. Difference between Management Development and OD Factors Objectives Management Development Organization Development Increasing manager’s Changing the nature of the contributions to goal organization. MD tries to fit the men to the organization. it is beneficial to make a comparison between OD and Management Development (MD) as both have some common objectives that betterment of an organization. (ii) competitiveness. Miner has drawn difference between two processes. The term ‘development’ refers broadly to the nature and direction of change induced in personnel through the process of training and education.” Organization development differs from management development. whereas OD efforts within organizations may cause confusion and chaos for incoming human resources if the organization is underplayed and the humanistic dimension alone is emphasized. the former goes one step further and purports to change the entire organizational climate where the mangers work. Based on this. not on the and managers to perform managers. there are four attributes of effective managers in large organization. These are: (i) a positive attitude towards authority. Burke and Schmidt have made this difference more clear which is presented in the following table. organization. then would the results be functional for managing organization activity in a competitive world? Thus. let us define management development as we have seen the definition of OD. However. Focus . OD tries to fit the organization to the men.
Much of the enthusiasm created at the beginning of OD programmes vanished over the period of time. horizontally. OD became quite successful with many professional consultants offering high services and programmes to various organizations. however. substantial disenchantment with OD became evident because of many controversial OD techniques like sensitivity training. To increase the openness of communications in all directions-vertically. has invited sharp criticism as a strategy to increase organizational viability and effectiveness because many OD programmes have failed. 4. as a long-term strategy for organizational change. By 70s. 6.Approach Time Educative and training Short-range. 7. The basic problem in a change effort which is not comprehensive is that it does not work properly unless there is a proper change in the internal environment of the organization in which people work.8 Problems in Organization Development Organization development. In early 60s. Since OD attempts to bring comprehensive change in the organization. Thus. To treat each human being as a complex person with a complex set of needs important in his work and his life. To increase the level of trust and mutual emotional support among all organization members. plays key role in organizational improvement. OD can be utilized for the following results in the organization: 1. 5. Specialist No special requirement. Long-range strategy for organizational innovation and renewal. 3. To increase the level of enthusiasms and personal satisfaction at all levels of the organization. Research studies have also failed to conclude . Problem-solving approach. and laterally. To increase the level of self and group responsibility in planning and its implementation. however. To create an environment in which authority of assigned role is augmented by authority based on knowledge and skills. 3. 2. etc. To place emphasis on humanistic values and goals consistent with these vales. it is quite suitable for improving organizational performance on long-term basis. confrontation techniques. 3. Trained specialists required.7 Role of Organization Development Organization development.
OD tries to achieve ideal without taking into account real. If an organization is laden with these people. OD programmes are often quite costly. OD makes people unfit for the real organizations world because no organization can fully adopt open system concept. 5. OD is criticized on the following lines: 1. For example. Resistance to change is a natural phenomenon and OD puts undue pressure to change. Therefore. it may be emphasized that OD programmes are likely to fail when these are not programmes and hence failure. In general. There should be genuine support of OD programme from top management. Therefore. Hence. Enough time should be allowed so that the effects of OD programme are realized. People realized its dysfunctional aspects only when many OD efforts failed. 4. it can be visualized that OD itself may not be dysfunctional but application may be. it is useless to try OD. Only fully competent OD consultant should be pressed for the service and he should develop understanding with internal change agents. Some of these efforts are as follows: 1. It can be seen that many of these criticisms are based on reality and experience. There should be proper use of OD interventions. OD can not be taken as panacea for curing all organizational problems. . Evans has identified three factors which have been responsible for the failure of OD programmes: (i) failure of the management consultant group to correctly tailor the programme to actual needs of the organization. particularly in bottom-line ones. 3. 2. Organization must formulate the objectives of OD programme very clearly and specifically. and (iii) failure to increase employee motivation through participation and development of personal growth and self-esteem. Thus. There is discrepancy between ideal and real situations. 2. However. and only large organizations can afford this luxury without any guarantee of positive outcome. it fails even as a long-term strategy. in order to make best use of OD efforts. 3. 5. and (ii) failure to correctly model appropriate personnel behaviour in the programme. OD fails to motivate people with low level of achievement needs. These should be based on the specific needs of the organization.significant contributions of OD in all organizations. some specific efforts are required. 4.
problem-focused ‘nature of OD’ marshals the experience and expertise of organization members for problem-solving and capitalizes the opportunities in the organization. Tom Peters 3. 2. Organization development should be led and supported by –––––––. 3. Explain the various characteristics of OD. _____________is a short-term strategy. 4. 3. But OD aims at changing the entire organizational climate where the managers work. Distinguish between ‘organizational development’ and ‘management development’. There is no ‘quick fix’ to organizations’ problems. The participative. 4. 3. Define OD. collaborative. What are the problems involved in the implementation of OD? 3. Management development aims at developing the managers individually. Who is associated with the “Learning Organizations”? 5. ––––––– is associated with “Liberation Management”. 3.10 Terminal Questions 1. 2. Empowerment . Explain its salient features. OD is the ultimate remedy for organizational improvements and developments. It focuses on the human and social side of the organization and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. ––––––––– is a process which includes leadership behaviours and human resource practices.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. 5.9 Summary The definitions clarify the distinctive features of OD and suggest why it is such a powerful change strategy. OD focuses on culture and processes. Top management 2.Self Assessment Questions 1. State the various roles of OD.
MU0002-Unit-04. Refer section 3.6 4.Organization Development – Interventions Unit-04.4. Refer section 3. Refer section 3. Management development Answers to TQs: 1.5 Leadership Development 4. Peter Senge 5.2 Survey Feedback 4.3 3.Organization Development – Interventions Structure: 4.4 Grid Training 4. Refer section 3.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .2 2.7 5. Refer section 3.6 Team-building .1 Introduction Objectives 4.3 Process Consultation 4.
process consultation. For example.11 Terminal Questions 4. techno-structural activities.10 Summary 4. French and Bell have defined OD intervention as: “Sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage with a task or a sequence of tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvement. Nevertheless. work group. mediation and negotiation activities. and organizational culture. education and training.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 4.” There are various OD interventions and they are classified in different ways. Thus. French and Bell have suggested twelve families of OD interventions: diagnostic. interventions may be required to change people at all these levels.7 Inter Group Development 4. they make things happen. inter-group activities. various consultants and practitioners have different opinions about the activities which can be included in interventions. A meaningful classification of OD interventions may be based on the improvement in the behaviour of people in the organization as OD is basically a behavioural approach.4. group level. People’s behaviour may be relevant to understand at individual level. inter-group level. the classification appears to be more relevant because it may specify the . Further.1 Introduction OD interventions refer to various activities which a consultant and client organization perform for improving organizational performance through enabling organizational members better manage their behaviour. This classification of OD interventions is very comprehensive and many activities do not strictly form the part of OD as process of organizational improvement but other methods of improving the performance of the organization. the classification of OD interventions shows variation. team-building. Interventions constitute the action thrust of organization development. survey feedback. many of them visualize data gathering as an intervention whereas it is treated as only preparatory work for OD by others.9 Role of Change Agents Self Assessment Questions 4.8 Change Agents 4. such a classification of interventions may not put them into mutually exclusive categories as a particular intervention may be applied at more than one level. Therefore. and organizational level. However. interpersonal level. management grid.
developing action plans based on feedback. and follow up. other techniques like process consultation. To assist the group members to improve the relationships through discussion of common problems. 4. peer work facilitation.range of change that an organization requires. OD efforts were attempted through sensitivity training. 1. peer goal emphasis. managerial work facilitation. Institute for Social Research (ISR) of University of Michigan. and survey feedback method. To assist the organization in diagnosing its problems and developing action plan for problemsolving. peer support. Subsequently.2 Survey Feedback Besides laboratory training (sensitivity and grid). Though some type of survey method was prevalent in various organizations earlier. the other major thrust in the development of OD has come from survey research and feedback of data. managerial goal emphasis. you will be able to: · Describe survey feedback. ISR has prepared a questionnaire which includes questions on leadership – managerial support. Process of Survey Feedback Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection. The questionnaire may include different aspects of organizational functioning. · Explain grid training. Our further discussion follows this development. The basic objectives of survey feedback are as follows: 1. Historically. and peer interaction facilitation. · Realize the importance of team-building. team. · Describe process consultation. USA developed a comprehensive questionnaire for conducting survey in different aspects of an organization. feedback of information. · Role of change agents. Objectives: After studying this unit. . Data Collection: The first step in survey feedback is data collection usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire. have been added. grid training.building. 2. and participative goal-setting which has become more popular as management by objectives.
2. control within the company. Whatever the method of giving feedback is adopted. effectiveness of survey feedback depends on two factors. 3. decision-making. satisfaction with the job. follow-up action may be in the form of developing some specific OD interventions particularly process consultation and team-building. The questionnaire is administered personally either by the members of consulting firm or by organization’s personnel. rather. It is cost-effective means of implementing a comprehensive OD programme making it a highly desirable technique. and analysis is made to arrive at some meaningful conclusions. After the questionnaires are completed. satisfaction with the pay. Feedback of Information: After the data are analyzed. and general management. However. threatening and emotion-hurting as survey feedback is aimed at identifying weaknesses which must be overcome through follow-up actions and not the fault-finding technique for criticism. Decision-making and problem-solving abilities of organization can be improved tremendously because this approach applies the competence and knowledge throughout the organization and the problems faced by it. Follow-up Action: Survey feedback programme is not meaningful unless some follow-up action is taken based on the data collected. In particular. It generates great amount of information efficiently and quickly which can be used in solving problems faced by the organization and its members. feedback may be given in the form of a written summary of findings. and satisfaction-satisfaction with the company. even if valid and reliable information is collected. Alternatively. 2. One such follow-up action may be to advise the participants to develop their own action plans to overcome the problems revealed through a feedback or as is more commonly the case. 3. by the consultant. survey feedback contributes in the following manner: 1. Evaluation of Survey Feedback Survey feedback provides a base for many managerial actions which has been confirmed by various research studies. all attempts to diagnose the problems will be abortive and futile. and satisfaction with the work group. co-ordination between departments. it is of no use unless follow-up action is taken based on the .organizational climate-communication with the company. it is provided through group discussion or problem-solving sessions conducted by the consultant. tabulated. First. feedback is given to the persons who have participated in the fulfilling up of questionnaire. it should be constructive and suggestive. If it is biased. questionnaire used and method adopted for its administration should be reliable and valid. The feedback may be given either orally or in a written form. Second. In oral system of feedback. data are classified. satisfaction with the supervisor. motivation.
At this stage. time.C in which the client makes initial contact with the consultant with a view to solve the problems faced by the organization which cannot be solved by existing processes or resources. 4. Edgar Schein. The basic content of P. roles and functions of group members. observations.C programme of OD. 2. At this stage.C are as follows: 1. client and consultant enter into agreement covering various aspects of consultancy services like fees. Select the Setting and the Method: It involves a clear-cut understanding of where and how the consultant will do the job that is required. Gather Data and Make a Diagnosis: Information is collected from various sources thorough the use of questionnaires. it provides base for action for change. Initiate Contact: This is beginning stage of P. the client’s expectations and hoped-for results are also decided. communication. understand. Steps in Process Consultation Schein has suggested following specific steps which the consultant would follow in a P. To bring desired change in the various organizational processes like leadership. the consultant is introduced to the organizational members and basic objectives of the P. 1. This data gathering occurs simultaneously with the entire consultative process.C has defined it as follows: “The set of activities on the part of the consultant which help the client to perceive. group decision-making and problemsolving. spelled out at the initial stage.C is that the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. A survey feedback is not a technique in itself for change. 3. and interview about the problems.3 Process Consultation Process Consultation (P. group norms. the leading writer and consultant on P.C) is a technique for intervening in an ongoing system.” The basic objectives of P. etc. 4. . and inter-group co-operation and conflicts.C are communicated to them with a view that they co-operate with the consultant. and act upon the process events which occur in the client’s environment. Define the Relationship: At this stage. 2. and spelling out services.information. Information collected is processed to diagnose the problems and their underlying causes. To understand how various organizational processes can be linked to objective achievement in the organization.
he assists the organizational members to incorporate those changes. However. Process of Grid Training The basic content of grid organization development is managerial grid as discussed. significant correlation between the outcomes has not been found. Though he is involved only in suggesting the various changes in the processes. coaching. From this point of view. group. Reduce Involvement and Terminate: When the work of P. groups. Another problem may emerge at the level of the organization and its members in terms of how they inculcate the new processes and culture as suggested by the consultant. and total organizational levels. both these problems may be overcome by engaging a suitable consultant and developing willingness among the members for change. To study the organization as an interactive system and apply techniques of analysis in diagnosing its problems. The whole orientation is to develop managerial style through the application of behavioural science knowledge. To understand the importance and rationale of systematic change. Intervene: At this stage. The grid organization development consists of six phases. However. 2.C is completed. It is a comprehensive and systematic OD programme which aims at individuals.C is very effective intervention for organizational improvement.C programmes. the consultant intervenes in the organizational processes by using different interventions like agenda-setting. . the consultant disengages from the client organization by mutual agreement but leaves the door open for future involvement.5. P. feedback. 4. 3. 6. focuses on skills.4 Grid Training Grid training is basically based on grid organization development developed by Blake and Mouton. and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. knowledge. enabling individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses.C is also not free from criticisms. and/or structural change. To evaluate the styles of leadership and techniques of participation to produce desirable results. and the organization as a whole. like other OD intervention techniques. It utilizes a considerable number of instruments. inter-group. Evaluation of Process Consultation: Process consultation is quite in-depth activity of OD in which the consultant plays a major role. Its specific objectives are as follows: 1. P. One basic reason for this phenomenon may be the consultant’s inability to steer the organization out of troubles. In the review of various P.
Systematic Critique: In this stage. it discounts reality. The individuals try to learn to become managers by practice. The skills relating to planning. In this light. Further. and teamwork. Each group separately analyses the ideal inter-group relations. 5. in spite of these criticisms. The strategy is then implemented. Grid training programme is criticized on the basis that it lacks contingency approach and. and alike. 2. therefore. Managerial grid: It covers various aspects of assessing managerial styles. Though research studies on the application of grid training are not many. objective-setting. Implementing the Ideal Strategic Model: The implementation stage includes the building of the organization on the model of ideal organization on the basis of concepts developed under stage 4. traditions. Each group may be given assignment to evolve strategy for making ideal organization with the help of the consultant. grid training is a non-rigorous method. the various efforts from phase 1 to phase 5 are evaluated and critical analysis is made. Inter-group Development: At this phase. They have maintained that “managerial and team effectiveness can be taught to managers with outside assistance. Teamwork Development: The focus in this stage is to develop teamwork by analyzing team culture. The thrust is on moving groups from conflict to co-operation. the various programmes may be redesigned.5 Leadership Development . The analysis will bring out the shortcomings that may be there. The members of the organization are trained for achieving this excellence. and problemsolving are also developed. the focus shifts to the total organization and to develop skills necessary for organizational excellence. 4. Furthermore. The action is designed to identify the characteristics of the ideal organization. 6. Action steps to move towards the ideal are developed and assigned to individuals who may be engaged in building co-operative inter-group relationships. problem-solving. it appears that this type of educational strategy can help to make significant contributions to organizational effectiveness. the focus is on inter-group behaviour and relations.1. some of them have not supported the claims made by Blake and Mouton. they maintained the same stand. Evaluation of Grid Training Most of the support of grid training has come from its originators-Blake and Mouton.” In a later work. communication skills. 3. grid training has some positive contributions for organizational effectiveness. Developing Ideal Strategic Corporate Model: At this stage. 4.
employees will perceive leadership as supportive. In organizations characterized by poor leadership. For example. while at the same time recognizing that tough decisions need to be made. by the time you have to deal with difficult changes. and After Arrival.When change is imposed (as in downsizing scenarios). must labor under the weight of employees who have given up. During drastic change times. you need to be aware that there are three distinct times zones where leadership is important. but more importantly. problems in . The literature on the subject indicates that the nature of the change is secondary to the perceptions that employees have regarding the ability. how synergy is generated through team-work. French and Bell have opined that “probably the most important single group of interventions in the OD are the team-building activities the goals of which are the improvement and increased effectiveness of various teams within the organization. employees expect nothing positive. The best way to summarize is that there is a climate of trust between leader and the rest of the team. We can call these Preparing For the Journey. results in an organization becoming completely nonfunctioning. teambuilding is the most important. complete communication that is timely. lead. Slogging Through The Swamp. Leadership before. concerned and committed to their welfare. which. Also during these times of change. and regular. We will look more carefully at each of these. In a climate of distrust. it may be too late. employees learn that leaders will act in indecipherable ways and in ways that do not seem to be in anyone’s best interests. confident and effective decision-making. employees will look towards the leaders for a number of things. employees will expect effective and sensible planning. The existence of this trust. let us consider the life cycle of a team. Unfortunately. and that makes coping with drastic change much easier. widely accepted. brings hope for better times in the future. Before going through how team-building exercise can be undertaken to develop effective teams.6 Team-building Various OD interventions discussed so far have their specific implications for OD and. and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. therefore.” A possible reason for this phenomenon is that people in the organization work in groups (teams) and the effectiveness of these groups ultimately determine organizational effectiveness. Poor leadership means an absence of hope. and credibility of senior and middle management. The Role of Leadership In an organization where there is faith in the abilities of formal leaders. during and after change implementation is THE key to getting through the swamp. clearly the most important determinant of "getting through the swamp". is the ability of leadership to…well. if allowed to go on for too long. are closely associated with a very few advocates and practitioners. If you are to manage change effectively. have no faith in the system or in the ability of leaders to turn the organization around. 4. competence. As against these. The organization must deal with the practical impact of unpleasant change. if haven’t established a track record of effective leadership.
team members get introduced to each other if they have not interacted earlier. The . Storming: After the forming stage which is mostly related to perceiving and assessing each other. they often pass through several stages as they learn to work together as a team. members start interaction among themselves in the form of competing for status. 3. team members start settling. At this stage. Life Cycle of a Team When a number of individuals begin to work at interdependent jobs. Performing: When team members interact among themselves on the basis of norms that have emerged in the team. and arguing for appropriate strategies to be adopted for achieving team’s goals. Norming: After storming stage. they do represent a broad pattern that may be observed and predicted in many settings across team’s time together. 5. 2. each team has to be adjourned. Adjourning: Adjourning is the end phase of cycle of a team. group norms emerge to guide individual behaviour which form the basis for co-operative feelings and behaviour among members. The team begins to move in a co-operative fashion and a tentative balance among competing forces too is struck. because of individual differences. and begin to turn their attention to the group tasks. and adjourning as shown below: Fig. Forming: At the first stage of the life cycle. start to accept others. storming. different members may experience varying degree of tension and anxiety out of this interaction pattern. they learn to handle complex problems that come before the team. Functional roles are performed and exchanged as needed. These typical stages of life cycle of a team are described below: 1. They share personal information. and tasks are accompanied efficiently. even the most successful teams as they have completed their mission.1: Life Cycle of a Team Though these are not followed rigidly. 4. These stages are the result of a variety of questions and issues that team members face such as “who will be members of the team?” “Who will perform what functions?” “Who will contribute what?” “What rules will be followed?” “How can conflicts among members be resolved?” and so on. 4. norming. These stages are: forming. jockeying for relative control.team-work. At this stage. and features of effective team so that team-building exercises focus more sharply on developing effective team. interaction among team members is often cautious especially when they are new to one another. Sooner or later. performing.
a team is created to undertake a task which requires a variety of skills and single individual cannot perform that task alone. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts.” Thus. and so on. . A simple phenomenon of social loafing may be observed in a group assignment to students during their study. other factors remaining the same. committee. how a particular element affects another and is affected by it. In fact. In such an assignment. concept of stages is significant in the context of the nature of problem which team members are likely to face in team-work. intense social relationship among members comes to an end. After the adjournment of the team. in one experiment. This effect can be described as 2+2=5 effect. This phenomenon may happen in teams in work organizations too. the complementarity among members is achieved. To the extent. They rely on the fact the more reliable members will complete the project without their help. fail to perform their assigned tasks. For example. Putting the concept of synergy in teamwork means members of the team are complementary to each other and they contribute positively to one another. Synergy in Team-work Another important feature of a team is the concept of synergy which generates in team-work and the understanding of which helps in developing effective team.adjournment phase takes place in the case of those teams which are created for some special purposes like task force. and still expect to share the credit and obtain the same marks from the professor since he will be concerned with determining who worked and who did not. Social Loafing Social loafing is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. synergistic effect is not automatic but depends on the complementarity of different elements that are put together and the way they interact among themselves. Other types of team like a department in an organization run on the basis of some permanency though there may be changes in team members. The concept of synergy is quite popular in strategic management and it is defined as follows: “Synergy is the process of putting two or more elements together to achieve a sum total greater than the sum total of individual elements separately. These students may be called loafers (not attaching the same connotation which is attached with the term loafer in our social phenomenon) who frequently miss the project group’s meetings. that is. etc. the team would be effective. However. students find that one or two students do not put their weight for the completion of the project. It is not necessary that all teams follow the rigid pattern prescribed here and the similar problems they face at each stage because each team is different in some respect based on the type of members and problems and functions assigned.
other factors remaining the same. 1. Individuals were asked to pull alone as hard as possible on a rope attached to a strain gauge. While skills are relevant for job performance. individual members do not contribute to the fullest extent. Let us see how these factors make a team effective. the individual average dropped down still lower68. If the organizational climate is not in tune with high achievement. team members may tend to contribute positively to the teamwork. understanding of roles helps members to meet the requirement of one another thereby solving the problems which the team faces. Skills and Role Clarity: For an effective team.it was found that individuals’ total efforts were much higher than the group efforts. 2. They averaged 138. Dropping of average output in group efforts indicates that some members of the group were not contributing as much as they did individually. group of eight. In the above paragraph. The phenomenon of social loafing can be minimized by constituting effective team for group performance. Even if one member lacks behind. 2. When the same individuals pulled on the rope of groups of three. Supportive Environment: A team loaded with skilled members cannot perform well if the organizational climate is not supportive for that. These factors are skills and role clarity. Therefore. The possibility of occurring of social loafing in a team-work increases because of the following reasons: 1. . and attitudes. managers at higher levels particularly at the top level should set organizational climate and culture which enthuse team members to put their best. goals.6 pound of pressure while tugging on the rope. team members may not show high degree of enthusiasm and they will use only a part of their skills in performing the jobs. supportive environment. From this statement. two things are required from its members. group efforts tend to slacken.2 pounds. it appears that there are many factors in an effective team. skills which are complementary to the team requirement and understanding of one’s own role as well as roles of other members. When the group is not cohesive with high output norms. we have mentioned that team effectiveness depends on the complementarity of team members. he may tend to affect others because of chain reaction just like a rotten apple injures its companions. super-ordinate goals and team rewards. A group is not merely an assemblage of individuals but there should be a feeling that they are members of the group and share common interests. When the division of work cannot be accomplished properly and individual efforts are hard to determine. Effective Team An effective team is one which contributes to the achievement of organizational objectives by performing the task assigned to it and providing satisfaction to its members. Thus.
3. Super-ordinate Goals: Super-ordinate goals are those which are above the goals of a single team or a single individual. An individual works better if he is able to link how his goal attainment leads to the attainment of a higher-level goal. These super-ordinate goals, then, serve to focus attention, unify efforts, and stimulate more cohesive team efforts. 4. Team Rewards: Team performance depends on how reward is linked to team performance and how members perceive this linkage. If team members perceive that reward to contingent on team performance, they will put their maximum. Rewards of both types- financial and nonfinancial-should be taken into consideration. Further, organizations need to achieve a careful balance between encouraging and rewarding individual initiative and growth and stimulating full contributions to team success. Innovative non-financial team rewards for responsible behaviour may include the authority to select new members of the group, make recommendations regarding a new supervisor, or propose discipline for team members. The positive aspect of all these factors leads to team effectiveness and team members share common values regarding product quality, customer satisfaction, and share the responsibility for completing a project on schedule. Katzenbatch and Smith, management consultants, have suggested the concept of real team and they feel that this concept is relatively unexploited despite its capacity to outperform other groups and individuals. They define four characteristics of real teams: small size; complementary skills; common purpose, goals, and working approach: and willingness to be held mutually accountable. Real teams can be created and sustained by: 1. Selecting members for their complementary skills and potentials; 2. Developing clear rules of conduct and challenging performance goals; 3. Establishing a sense of urgency right from the first meeting. 4. Providing substantial time together in which new information is constantly shared; and 5. Providing positive feedback, recognition, and rewards. Team-building Process: Team-building attempts to improve effectiveness of the team by having team members to concentrate on: 1. Setting goals and priorities for the team. 2. Analyzing how team’s goals and priorities are linked to those of the organization. 3. Analyzing how the work is performed. 4. Analyzing how the team is working, and
5. Analyzing the relationships among the members who are performing the job. For achieving these, the team-building exercise proceeds in a particular way as shown in figure.
Fig. 4.2: Process of Team-building Various steps of team-building process are not one-shot action, rather, they are repetitive and cyclical as indicated by arrows in the figure. 1. Problem-sensing: There are a number of ways in which problems of a team can be obtained. Often the team itself defines which aspects of team-building it wishes to work on. This problem can better be identified in terms of what is hindering group effectiveness. At this stage, generally most of the members come forward with their arguments as to what the real problems are. The view may be quite different ranging from the organizational problem, group problems to even personal problem. In problem identification, the emphasis should be on consensus. The consensus-seeking part of the process necessitates that each person becomes thoroughly aware and understand clearly the basic concepts of team-development. Much of the problems may be solved through effective communication and training sessions. 2. Examining Differences: The perception of people on an issue differs because of their differing backgrounds, such as, their value systems, personality and attitudes. The perception may be brought to conformity through the process of exercise on perception which involves a number of psychological exercises particularly on perceptual differences. The role of communication is important in this context because it will help in clarifying the actual problems to the members. 3. Giving and Receiving Feedback: The step of perceiving things and listening to each other may be relayed back to the members as there is a possibility that such processes may create tense situation in the group. Often, members report about the painful feelings that they have at the time of evaluation of their feelings. The discussion should continue until all members of the team have commented. The feedback should be given to the members about their feelings, about the issue, the way people talk about the issue, the stying with the topic or going off on tangents, who was talking more or who was talking less, who was trying to resolve the differences, etc. Such feedback generally provides members to evaluate the values but at the same time, also provides opportunity to understand themselves. The concept of Johari Window may also be applied. This suggests that even people are not fully aware of themselves. 4. Developing Interactive Skills: The basic objective of this process is to increase the ability among the people as to how they should interact with others and engage in constructive behaviour. Following are the examples of constructive and negative behaviours:
Constructive Behaviour: (i) Building: developing and expanding the ideas of others. (ii) Bringing in: harmonizing, encouraging others to participate. (iii) Clarifying: resting, ensuring, understanding, seeking relevant information. (iv) Innovative: bringing in new relevant ideas, information, feelings, etc.
(i) Over talk: interrupting, talking together with speaker. (ii) Attacking: deriding, belittling, criticizing person. (iii) Negative: cooling, cynicism, undermining morale. At the time of discussion of feedback, people themselves take assignments to increase specific constructive behaviours and decrease specific negative behaviours. If this process is adopted several times, there is a strong possibility that members may learn constructive behaviours and leave negative behaviours. This is quite helpful in developing teamwork. 5. Follow-up Action: This is the final stage in team-building. At this stage, the total team is convened to review what has been learned and to identify what the next step should be. Follow-up action also helps in overcoming the drawback involved at the initial stages of teambuilding. It involves deciding who will take care of each area of the team’s responsibilities, and who will be responsible for team projects in a group that has not developed a satisfactory division of responsibility; clarifying and setting differences in perception concerning responsibility and authority in the team, with complex division of responsibility and authority among members. These attempts bring co-operative and supportive feelings among people involved in the team functioning. When this exercise is undertaken at the initial stage, it contributes positively towards the feelings of the people. However, to encourage and sustain such feelings, management should take such actions at regular intervals so that members feel reinforced and sustain their positive behaviour. Such actions will go a long way in shaping the organizational climate quite conducive to members for their efficient working. Evaluation of Team-building As mentioned earlier, team-building as an OD intervention has attracted maximum attention. Many research studies have also confirmed the positive contributions of team-building on the
communicating. It seeks to change to attitudes. 3. The groups then share their lists. In general. As a result.organization’s outcomes. In this method. Therefore. are not given adequate attention. and the groups look for the causes of the disparities. However. after which similarities and differences are discussed. though. monitoring. stereotypes. team-building contributes to the organizational performance in the following manner: 1. It helps developing communication within the group and inter-group and overcoming many psychological barriers that block communication flow.. Differences are clearly articulate. structure. Although there are several approaches for improving intergroup relations. and perceptions that groups have of each other. However. team-building has been termed as one-sided effort and it suffers from the following limitations: 1. listening. It helps in developing effective interpersonal relationships by stimulating the group members for that.7 Inter-group Development A major area of concern is OD is the dysfunctional conflict that exists between groups. It focuses only on work groups and other major organizational variables such as technology. 2. the other group. Team-building becomes a complicated exercise when there is frequent change in team members. this has been a subject to which change efforts have been directed. Once the causes of the difficulty have been identified. . It improves the organization’s problem-solving and decision-making ability. etc. In spite of these problems. New member may find it difficult to adjust with the team because of his confusion over his roles in terms of task performance and building good relationships. 4. and feedback skills). the groups can move to the integration phase – working to develop solutions that will improve relations. there have been calls for combining team-building with organization behaviour modification approaches. it is not that effective in isolation. One such suggestion is to use a task hierarchy to reinforce the team as it progresses up a behaviour skill hierarchy (for example. one of the more Popular methods emphasize problem solving. in different degrees. each group meets independently to develop lists of its perception of itself. 2. and how it believes the other group perceivers it. team-building has a positive outlook.
. He has to educate people on the need and importance o change using a variety of methodologies – lectures.These three roles are having been brief described below: Consultant A consultant is a professional (internal or external) who applies behavioral Science knowledge in an ongoing organization (or client system) with clear objectives of managing change and improving effectiveness.9 Role of Change Agents The change agent may play different roles according to the need of organization development . as the accelerator to build up momentum. In contrast. as the radiator absorbing some of the heat of the controversy. 4. but one thing he/she is not the driver”. operating procedures. and personnel. According to Curtis Mial: “The Consultant may serve as the exhaust value. Because they are from the outside these individuals an offer can offer an objective perspective often unavailable to insiders. changing (intervening) and refreezing. group discussions.8 Change Agents Change agents: Can be managers or nonmanagers. role-plays and instruments. Trainer A change agent needs to be a trainer and educator. cases and experiential learning etc. Outside consultants also may be prone to initiating more drastic changes – which can be benefit or a disadvantage – because they don’t have to live with the repercussions after the change is implemented.Subgroups. For major change efforts. however. films. culture. The trainer role is most widely and intensively used at all stages of a change project: unfreezing. as the shock absorber when the going is rough. presentations. enabling the client to let off steam: as the ignition to spark action. as the break for too quick action. internal management often will hire the services or outside consultants to provide advice and assistance. Outside consultants. or as fog lamp when the future is hazy. 4. with members from each of the conflicting groups. may be more thoughtful (and possibly cautious) because they to live with the consequences of their actions. employees of the organization. can now be created for further diagnosis and to begin to formulate possible alternative actions that will improve relations. or outside consultants. The consultant may fulfill a variety of functions. are disadvantaged because they usually have an inadequate understanding of the organization’s history. internal staff specialists or managers when acting as change agents.
It focuses on skills.10 Summary OD intervention strategies are various activities which a consultant and client organization performs for improving organizational performance. What is Grid Training? How does it help in improving individual performance in an organization? 2. attitudes and beliefs. Survey feedback usually proceeds with sequential activities involving data collection. Grid training focuses on individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses. Training is used both in ‘content orientation’ and process orientation’. skills and change in behavior. 2.11 Terminal Questions 1. ________is antithesis of synergy in team-work which suggests that people working together on a common task may actually decrease their individual efforts. 4. Grid Training was developed by –––––––––––– 3. inter-group and total organization levels. What is survey feedback as an intervention of OD? How does it provide base for other OD interventions? . The first step in survey feedback is ______ usually by a consultant based on a structured questionnaire.Training is required for enhancing knowledge. Data collection. Teambuilding is most important. knowledge and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. Useful hypothesis are to be formulated and tested. Sensitivity training focuses on small group ranging from ten to twelve. group. the consultant works with individuals and groups in the organization to help them learn about human and social processes and to solve problems that stem from process events. widely accepted and applied OD intervention for organizational improvement. evolving best strategies for change by assessing alternatives and the important stages in a change project where the change agent has to be a Researcher. In process consultation. developing action plans based on feedback and follow-up. Researcher A change agent has to carry out some research activities for the purpose of generating valid information prior to and during the change process. diagnosis. feedback of information. Self Assessment Questions 1. generation of new behavioral science knowledge. team-work does not necessarily spurt group efforts 4.
Beliefs in Organization Development Unit-05-Values.2 3. Assumptions.1 Introduction Objectives 5.4 2. and Beliefs in Organization Development Structure: 5.6 4. Refer section 4.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. Refer section 4.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Refer section 4. Explain Change agents and discuss the role of change agents in detail. 3. Refer section 4. Blake and Mouton.3. What is team-building? What are the stages of life cycle of a team? 4.2 Definitions and . Social loafing Answers to TQs: 1. 4. MU0002-Unit-05-Values. Assumptions. Data collection 2.
and they continue to evolve as the field itself evolves.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals 5. . you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of values.7 Terminal Questions 5.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups 5.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 5. Objectives: After studying this unit. · List the chronology of events of values.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations 5. shaping the goals and methods of the field and distinguishing OD from other improvement strategies. and beliefs constitutes an integral part of organization development. · State the implications of OD values and assumptions.5.2 Definitions A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. it is a cognitive fact for the person. These values and assumptions have developed from research and theory by behavioural scientists and from the experiences and observations of practicing managers.5. beliefs and assumptions.1 Introduction A set of values.5. · Give the statement of OD values and assumptions.5. Most of these beliefs were formulated early in the development of the field.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions 5. beliefs and assumptions. 5. assumptions.6 Summary Self Assessment Questions 5.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought 5.4 Early Statements of OD Values and Assumptions 5.
the human relations movement." or slacking off. assumptions. and democratic. and beliefs provide structure and stability for people as they attempt to understand the world around them. and the like. Major ingredients of the zeitgeist that influenced OD values and assumptions are presented here in a brief chronology.3 Chronology of Events in Management and Organization Thought Frederick Winslow Taylor’s ‘The Principles of Scientific Management’ (1911) launched the scientific management movement with its emphasis on time and motion studies and breaking jobs into small. Humanistic values proclaim the importance of the individual: respect the whole person. Simple. strongly held. the clash between fascism and democracy in World War II. assumptions. the laboratory training movement. that progress is possible and desirable in human affairs. research on the effects of different leadership styles. Taylor’s methods quickly swept the country and the world as the way to organize work. and assumptions being.. Thus. OD values tend to be humanistic. Democratic values assert the sanctity of the individual. As these ingredients accumulated. repetitive tasks in an attempt to find "the one best way" to do each job. the importance of fair and equitable treatment for all.g. they were fashioned into a coherent value foundation for the theory and practice of organization development. Values. greater understanding of individual motivation and group dynamics." Assumptions are beliefs that are regarded as so valuable and obviously correct that they are taken for granted and rarely examined or questioned. optimistic. Piece-rate pay systems were designed to increase motivation and to prevent "soldiering. dishonesty). the right of people to be free from arbitrary misuse of power. with values being beliefs about good and bad. 5. and beliefs are all cognitive facts or propositions.g. and that rationality. reason. and the need for justice through the rule of law and due process. assume that everyone has intrinsic worth.Values are also beliefs and are defined as: "Beliefs about what is desirable or ‘good’ (e. Expert engineers and supervisors designed each task and ensured it was done correctly. or spirit of the time. Evidence for the validity of these values and their supporting assumptions comes from many sources – the Hawthorne studies. free speech) and what is undesirable or ‘bad’ (e. Values and assumptions do not spring full grown from individuals or societies they are formed from the collective beliefs of an era-the zeitgeist. Optimistic values posit that people are basically good. repetitive tasks minimized the skills required to do the job. view all people as having the potential for growth and development. and goodwill are the tools for making progress. treat people with respect and dignity. values. .. relatively unexamined beliefs accepted as the truth. increasing awareness of the dysfunctions of bureaucracies.
theory. and the supervisor determined their performance. and rigid procedures would create a well-oiled human machine called the organization. repetitive jobs left them feeling alienated and dispirited. Democratic leadership seemed to bring out the best in the groups. Barnard (1938) presented insights from his experiences as President of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. Mary Parker Follett (1926). Scientific management as the way to organize work and bureaucracy as the way to organize people were the prevailing paradigms for organizations in the early 1900s. and by Homans in 1950 profoundly and irreversibly affected people’s beliefs about organizational behaviour. Group norms had more powerful effects on productivity than economic incentives. Barnard viewed organizations as social systems that must be effective (achieve goals) and efficient (satisfy the needs of employees). and practice since the late 1920s have focused on the shortcomings of these two paradigms and how to overcome the limitations. Some early experiments were conducted in the late 1930s. Research by Lewin. A strong hierarchy of authority. their feelings and attitudes about the work. Lippitt (1939). wrote an article on “The Giving of Orders” advocating participative leadership and joint problem-solving by labour and management. The great German sociologist Max Weber (1922) introduced the concept of “bureaucracy” as the best. The research demonstrated the primacy of social factors on productivity and morale. Their simple. ‘The Functions of the Executive’ by Chester 1. . impersonal rules. the work environment. Reports on these studies by Mayo in 1933 and 1945. authoritarian leadership caused dependency. aggressiveness and poor performance. These approaches possessed many desirable features. In a sense. by Roethlisberger and Dickson in 1939. Group Dynamics (1940) – The scientific study of groups using experimental research methods-was launched by Kurt Lewin and his students. most efficient way to organize people. but also contained serious flaws that led to unintended consequences. His acceptance theory of authority proposed that authority derives from the willingness of subordinates to comply with directions rather than from position power. extensive division of labor. People were not cogs. People came to work as whole people. organizations were not machines. apathy. much of the research. a management theorist and astute observer of labourmanagement relations. Much of her career was devoted to finding ways to reduce adversarial relationships between workers and management. The Famous Hawthorne Studies (1927 to 1932) were conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company. and White demonstrated that democratic leadership was superior to authoritarian leadership and laissez-faire leadership in affecting group climate and group performance.
proposed that the leadership functions of a group should be shared between the leader and group members and showed how that could be done. Ken Benne and Paul Sheats (1948). The Hawthorne Studies (1940s to 1960) spawned the human relations movement that was in full flower from the 1930s to the 1960s. increase self-understanding. French’s (1948) article. Laboratory training taught people how to improve interpersonal relations. . The theory postulated that when lowerlevel needs are satisfied. pioneers in laboratory training. which holds that individuals have within themselves the capacity to assume responsibility for their behaviour and mental health when provided with a supportive. Carl Rogers’ Client-Centered Therapy (1951) demonstrated the efficacy of non-directive psychotherapy.” reported that resistance to change could be minimized by communicating the need for change and allowing the people affected by the change to participate in planning it. “Overcoming Resistance to Change. Humanistic and democratic values suffused the movement. a direct precursor of OD. The human relations movement advocated participative management. caring social climate. Maslow suggested that human motivation is arranged in a hierarchy of needs from lower-level needs such as physiological and survival needs to higher-level needs such as esteem and self-actualization. Eric Trist and Ken Bamforth of the Tavistock Clinic (1951) published the results of their work in British coal mines. training in interpersonal skills for supervisors. and understand group dynamics. higher-level needs become dominant. This article introduced the concept of organizations as sociotechnical systems. Lester Coch and John R. greater attention to workers’ social needs. lack ambition. are self-centered. These years witnessed the beginnings of the laboratory training movement (1946 and 1947). Douglas McGregor wrote ‘The Human Side of Enterprise’ (1960) in which he described his famous Theory X and Theory Y assumptions. healthy adults. and a general “humanizing” of the workplace. P. dislike responsibility. Those who subscribe to Theory X assume that people are lazy. Motivation and Personality by Abraham Maslow (1954) presented a new view of human motivation. Chris Argyrif’s Personality and Organization (1957) was the first of several books in which he stated that there is an inherent conflict between the needs of organizations and the needs of mature. which postulates that organizations are comprised of a social system and a technological system and that changes in one system will produce changes in the other system. Rogers’ focus on effective interpersonal communications was applicable to superior-subordinate relations.
and introduced practicing managers to the concepts of need hierarchy and self-actualization. The Addison-Wesley Publishing Company “OD Six-Pack. Those who subscribe to Theory Y assume that people have the potential to develop. ‘The Social Psychology of Organizations’ by Daniel Katz and Robert L. management practices. and need to be led. Values have always been an integral part of OD. open communications. an organic organization form is preferred. Rensis Likert’s ‘New Patterns of Management’ (1961) presented data and theory showing the overwhelming superiority of a democratic leadership style in which the leader is group oriented. and human resource practices to allow individual potential to be released. optimistic. The task of management is to change organizational structures. resist change. Out of this zeitgeist. humanistic. groups. summarized the state of organization development a decade or so after its inception. Organic structures encourage decentralized decision making and authority. Kahn (1966) presented the first comprehensive exposition of organizations as open systems.indifferent to the organization’s needs. and to pursue organizational goals if given the chance and the social environment to do so. and values of the field. and authoritarian leadership gave way to increasing doubts about these organizational practices as theory and research pointed up their limitations. goal-oriented. and negative consequences. Burns and Stalker (1961) described two very different forms of organization structuremechanistic and organic. and shares decision-making with the work group. and democratic. as we have said. . In an environment of slow change. This leadership style was contrasted with an authoritarian. organization development practitioners formulated a set of values and assumptions regarding people. practice. one-on-one leadership style. and observations utilized by OD practitioners. to assume responsibility. and organizations that is. bureaucracy. These six books presented the theory. dysfunctions. this book popularized Maslow’s motivation theory. To summarize the intellectual climate of this period. the initial enthusiasm for scientific management. in an environment of high change. The Bennis and Beckhard quotations come from their books in the Addison-Wesley Six-Pack. Tannenbaum and Davis presented their ideas in an article appearing in Industrial Management Review. We will examine three early statements regarding OD values that had a significant impact on the field. a mechanistic organization structure may be appropriate. and greater individual autonomy. In addition to presenting Theory X and Y. This chronology captures most of the significant influences from research.” (1969) a set of six little books on OD by prominent practitioners. theory.
Writing in 1969. Therefore. Bennis clarified some of the salient differences between mechanical systems and organic systems." Mechanical systems encourage "centralized decision-making" while organic systems encourage "wide sharing of responsibility and control. more rational and open methods of conflict resolution are sought. He listed these normative goals as follows: · Improvement in interpersonal competence.” For example. · Development of better methods of conflict resolution. Here is his list. Stalker used the term “mechanistic” in contrast to “mechanical. compromise. Through focused attention and through the collection and feedback of relevant data to relevant people. not individuals. Warren Bennis proposed that OD practitioners (change agents) share a set of normative goals based on their humanistic/ democratic philosophy. In his 1969 book he described "several assumptions about the nature and functioning of organizations" held by OD practitioners. the capacity for functional groups to work more competently." He then went on to state what he believed to be the central value underlying organization development theory and practice: The basic value underlying all organization development theory and practice is that of choice. and unprincipled power. 1. · Development of organic rather than mechanical systems." that is. the basic units of change are groups. mechanical systems rely on "authority-obedience relationships" while organic systems rely on "mutual confidence and trust. Another major player in the field was Richard Beckhard. M." Mechanical systems insist on "strict division of labour and hierarchical supervision" while organic systems foster "multi-group membership and responsibility." like pushing buttons. . This is a strong reaction against the idea of organizations as mechanisms which managers "work on. The basic building blocks of an organization are groups (teams). more choices become available and hence better decisions are made. The earlier work by Tom Burns and G. · A shift in values so that human factors and feelings come to be considered legitimate. Rather than the usual bureaucratic methods which rely mainly on suppression. · Development of more effective "team management. · Development of increased understanding between and within working groups in order to reduce tensions.
They asserted that an important shift in values was occurring and that this shift signaled a more appropriate and accurate view of people in organizations. An always relevant change goal is the reduction of inappropriate competition between parts of the organization and the development of a more collaborative condition. One goal of a healthy organization is to develop generally open communication. Decision-making in a healthy organization is located where the information sources are. "People support what they help create. · Away from avoiding facing others with relevant data toward making appropriate confrontation. · Away from utilizing an individual primarily with reference to his or her job description toward viewing an individual as a whole person. 4. 5. and individuals continuously manage their affairs against goals. 3. Controls are interim measurements. Robert Tannenbaum." People affected by a change must be allowed active participation and a sense of ownership in the planning and conduct of the change. mutual trust.2. a professor and Sheldon Davis. toward seeing them as being in process. · Away from avoidance of negative evaluation of individuals toward confirming them as human beings. rather than in a particular role or level of hierarchy. Organizations. · Away from a view of individuals as fixed. · Away from resisting and fearing individual differences toward accepting and utilizing them. · Away from distrusting people toward trusting them. sub-units of organizations. presented their view of OD values in a 1969 article. not the basis of managerial strategy. · Away from walling off the expression of feelings toward making possible both appropriate expression and effective use. . They listed these “values in transition” as follows: · Away from a view of people as essentially bad toward a view of people as basically good. · Away from maskmanship and game-playing toward authentic behaviour. 6. and confidence between and across levels. · Away from use of status for maintaining power and personal prestige toward use of status for organizationally relevant purposes. director of organization development.
Most people want to develop their potential. A tremendous amount of constructive energy can be tapped if organizations realize and act on these assumptions. support. Beliefs such as trust and respect for the individual. give responsibility. and are capable of making.5.· Away from avoidance of risk-taking toward willingness to risk. a greater contribution to attaining organization goals than most organizational environments permit. The second assumption is that most people desire to make. give autonomy. listen. The first assumption is that most individuals have drives toward personal growth and development if provided an environment that is both supportive and challenging. and reward success. authentic interpersonal relations. and so forth were seldom espoused and rarely implemented in the vast majority of organizations at that time. autocratic. decentralized decision making. groups. We answer the question: What are some of the implications of OD assumptions and values for dealing with individuals. the legitimacy of feelings. set high standards. collaboration and co-operation. open communication. These values and assumptions may not seem profound today. permit failure. · Away from a primary emphasis on competition toward a much greater emphasis on collaboration.1 Implications for Dealing with Individuals Two basic assumptions about individuals in organizations pervade organization development. remove obstacles and barriers. 5. challenge. We think most organization development practitioners held these humanistic and democratic values with their implications for different and "better" ways to run organizations and deal with people. appropriate uses of power. The democratic values prompted a critique of authoritarian. The implications of these two assumptions are straightforward: Ask.5 Implications of OD Values and Assumptions Let us examine specific assumptions and their implications for organization leaders and members. The humanistic values prompted a search for better ways to run organizations and develop the people in them. and organizations? 5. 5. The people doing the work are generally experts on how to do it and how to do it better.2 Implications for Dealing with Groups . but in the 1950s and 1960s they represented a radical departure from accepted beliefs and assumptions. · Away from a view of process work as being unproductive effort toward seeing it as essential to effective task accomplishment.5. and arbitrary management practices as well as the dysfunctions of bureaucracies. encourage risk-taking. participation and contribution by all organization members.
First. and so on-are obsolete. most people wish to be accepted and to interact co-operatively with at least one small reference group. not a one-on-one leadership style. adherence to the chain of command. in which one side wins and the other side loses. and co-operation within the group. the family. One implication is that group members should receive training in group effectiveness skills such as group problem-solving and decision-making. Another assumption is that the formal leader cannot perform all the leadership and maintenance functions required for a group to optimize its effectiveness. To do this. grouping by specialized function. the assumption is that many attitudinal and motivational problems in organizations require interactive and transactional solutions. What occurs in the work group. and interpersonal communication. And because suppressed feelings and attitudes adversely affect problem-solving. Let teams flourish because they are often the best way to get work done and. support. Implications of these assumptions are several. Second. Therefore. Finally. at both the formal and informal levels. are the best way to satisfy social and emotional needs at work.Several assumptions relate to the importance of work teams and the collaborative management of team culture. including how persons C. The question becomes not how A can get B to perform better. and usually with more than one group. and job satisfaction. most people are capable of making greater contributions to a group’s effectiveness and development. Hence. 5. experimenting with new organization structures and new forms of authority is imperative. emphasis on topdown directives. This skill is a trainable one. one of the most psychologically relevant reference groups for most people is the work group. invest training time and money to increase group members’ skills. not individuals. such as a work group. personal growth. are dysfunctional . Dealing appropriately with feelings and attitudes increases the level of interpersonal trust. Frequently the challenge is broader. leaders need to give important work to teams. and E can support these changes. greatly influences feelings of satisfaction and competence. a growing awareness that “win-lose” organizational situations. By implication. a church or club group. In addition. formalized cross-functional communication. but how A and B can work together to modify their interactions toward the goal of B becoming more effective and A and B becoming more mutually effective. leaders should invest in groups: Invest the time required for group development. Also. group members should assist the leader with the multiple roles required for group effectiveness. conflict management. traditional hierarchical forms of organization-fairly steep pyramid. including peers and boss. They cannot meet the demands of the marketplace. Such problems have the greatest chance of constructive solution if all parties in the system alter their mutual relationships. Third. in addition.3 Implications for Designing and Running Organizations Clearly. invest energy and intelligence in creating a positive climate.5. and so on. facilitation. this group perspective requires a shift from viewing problems as "within the problem person" to viewing problems and solutions as transactional and as embedded in a system. It is especially important that leaders adopt a team leadership style. D. group members should be encouraged to learn to deal effectively with positive and negative feelings.
they are the source of productivity and profits and should be treated with care. developmental set of assumptions about people is likely to reap rewards beneficial to both the organization and its members. and organizational changes taking place assure that tomorrow will bring new definitions of what is "true" and new beliefs about what is "good. OD values tend to be humanistic. By implication. values are never static. The belief that people are important tends to result in their being important. it is possible to create organizations that on the one hand are humane. The implication is that people are an organization’s most important resource. Evidence for this assumption comes from numerous examples where “putting people first” paid off handsomely in profits and performance. Values. Concluding Comment: The field of organization development rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. Chronology of events in management and OD tremendously influenced OD practitioners. an optimistic. but are widely accepted today. Creating co-operative rather than competitive organizational dynamics is a primary task of the organization’s leaders. and on the other hand are high performing in terms of productivity. optimistic and democratic. Values. These beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. and ways to optimize human potential. assumptions and beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. The belief that people can grow and develop in terms of personal and organizational competency tends to produce that result. Such an orientation creates a self-fulfilling prophecy. organizing structures. and profitability. A key assumption in organization development is that the needs and aspirations of human beings are the reasons for organized effort in society. developmental. This discussion was intended to articulate an appreciation of OD values and explain where they came from.over the long run and highlight the need for a “win win” attitude. Finally. A belief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. Still.6 Summary The field of OD rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and organizations. quality of output." as behavioural scientists and managers continue to develop better understanding of authority structures. This notion suggests it is good to have a developmental outlook and seek opportunities in which people can experience personal and professional growth. Self Assessment Questions . they change over time. societal. These OD values were considered revolutionary when they emerged in the 1950s. beliefs and assumptions are cognitive facts. Values are also beliefs. and empowering. The rapid technological. 5.
Bureaucracy 4.2 2. Cognitive 2. 2.3 . What was the outcome of Hawthorne Experiments? 4. values. W. __________ is associated with scientific management. State the assumptions of Theory X and Theory Y. 4. 3. Define concepts. The outcome of –––––––– was that people were not cogs and organizations were not machines. and assumptions are all –––––––––– facts. 5. Values.1. Taylor 3. Taylor’s principles of scientific management. beliefs.W.7 Terminal Questions 1. Hawthorne experiments 5. F. Refer section 5. _______________ gave theory X and theory Y. 2. Douglas McGregor Answers to TQs: 1.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. The concept of –––––––––– was introduced by MaxWeber. 5. Write a note about F. 3.3 3. What are values and assumptions developed by Richard Bechard in the field of organizational development? 5. beliefs and assumptions. Refer section 5. 5. Refer section 5.
3.4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change 188.8.131.52 Beyond the Quick Fix 6.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change 6.2. Refer section 5.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends 6.3.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change 6.3 Systems Theory 6. MU0002-Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Unit-06-Foundations of Organization Development Structure: 6.2.2 Congruence among System Elements 6.2.3 Socio-technical Theory and Open Systems Planning 6.4 Participation and Empowerment .3 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .3 5.1 The Nature of Systems 6.3. Refer section 5.4.4 Open Systems Thinking 6.1 Introduction Objectives 6.
11 Terminal Questions 6.6 Parallel Learning Structures 6. · Explain the terms ‘participation’ and ‘empowerment’.8 Applied Behavioural Science 6. We will examine the following concepts: .5 Teams and Teamwork 6. Objectives: After studying this unit. Here we describe what we believe are the most important underpinnings for the field.7 A Normative – Re-educative Strategy of Changing 6.12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 6. In this discussion.1 Introduction This unit describes the foundations of organization development theory and practice.9 Action Research Self Assessment Questions 6. Leaders and OD practitioners use this knowledge base to plan and implement effective change programs. · Explain normative-re-educative strategy of changing The knowledge base of OD is extensive and is constantly growing. · Describe the parallel learning structures. · Realize the importance of teams and teamwork.10 Summary 6.6. art and science which form the knowledge base upon which OD is constructed. you will learn what OD practitioners think and how they think as they engage in the complicated task of improving organizational functioning. · Explain systems theory. you will be able to: · Explain various models and theories of planned change.
He suggested that change is a three-stage process: . Although morale may get a little better or a little worse on occasion. 6. and specify the relationships among the variables. describe those features as variables.1 Kurt Lewin and Friends Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change that have been influential since the 1940s. For example. The development of models of planned change facilitated the development of OD. Here we provide a framework for thinking about planned change by exploring several models from the literature. we can identify the major forces that make up the field of forces and then develop action plans for moving the equilibrium point in one direction or the other. the status quo-whatever is happening right now-is the result of forces pushing in opposing directions. That is. Likewise. Models and theories depict.2 Models and Theories of Planned Change Organization development is planned change in an organizational context. This concept is useful for thinking about the dynamics of change situations. it generally hovers around some equilibrium point that is the resultant in a field of forces. we can think of the level of morale in that plant as a resultant equilibrium point. but pretty good for identifying the important variables involved. with some forces pushing toward higher levels of production and some forces pushing toward lower levels of production. the important features of some phenomenon. we can think of the production level of a manufacturing plant as a resultant equilibrium point in a field of forces. some forces pushing toward higher morale and some pushing toward lower morale. in words or pictures. The first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces.· Models and theories of planned change · Systems theory · Participation and empowerment · Teams and teamwork · Parallel and learning structures · A normative-re-educative strategy of changing · Action research 6. With a technique called the force-field analysis. Several recent theories show great promise for increasing our understanding of what happens and how it happens in planned change. Lewin’s second idea was a model of the change process itself. The production level tends to remain fairly constant because the field of forces remains fairly constant.2. Planned change theories are rudimentary as far as explaining relationships among variables.
mentor. Change entails moving from one equilibrium point to another. that is. But unless the person feels comfortable with dropping the old behaviours and acquiring new ones. that is. which cause guilt and anxiety. change will not occur. etc. In stage 1. The total personality and self-concept.non-smoking becomes the new equilibrium point. b. disconfirmation creates pain and discomfort. and react to things differently based on a new point of view obtained through a. Disconfirmation or lack of confirmation b. The three-stage model says he must first unfreeze the old behaviour of smoking. the non-smoking behaviour must become permanent. A Three-Stage Model of the Change Process: Stage 1: Unfreezing: Creating motivation and readiness to change through a. That is. change his behaviour from being a smoker to being a non-smoker. Scanning the environment for new relevant information Stage 3: Refreezing: Helping the client to integrate the new point of view into a. Identifying with a new role model. Refreezing the desired behaviour requires establishing a new field of forces to support the new behaviour. unfreezing. judge things. Significant relationships. Edgar Schein took this excellent idea and improved it by specifying the psychological mechanisms involved in each stage. Take the example of a man who smokes cigarettes and wants to quit. the person must develop a sense of psychological safety in order to replace the old behaviours with new behaviours. feel things. Next. Creation of guilt or anxiety c. b. Refreezing the behaviour at the new level. . believe that cigarette smoking is bad for him and that he should stop smoking. he must move. which motivate the person to change. Lewin’s three-stage model is a powerful tool for understanding change situations. Provision of psychological safety Stage 2: Changing through Cognitive Restructuring: Helping the client to see things.Unfreezing the old behaviour (or situation). moving to new level of behaviour. Finally.
The phrase significant relationships refer to important people in the person’s social environment-do these significant others approve of the changes? Another modification of Lewin’s model was proposed by Ronald Lippitt. and attitudes. Phase 3: Clarifying or diagnosing the client system’s problem. 4. is to integrate the new behaviours into the person’s personality. moving. The primary task in stage 3.In stage 2. This model has five sequential stages: 1) Initiating the program. Phase 2: Establishing a change relationship. The person acquires information and evidence showing that the change is desirable and possible. In this phase a client system in need of help and a change agent from outside the system establish a working relationship. They expanded the three-stage model into a seven-stage model representing the consulting process. establishing goals and intentions of action. Phase 5: Transforming intentions into actual change efforts. and fit with the individual’s social surroundings. . and 5 correspond ro Lewin’s moving phase. This seven-stage model lays out the logical steps involved in OD consulting. for example. 6. terminating the client-consultant relationship. This phase corresponds to Lewin’s refreezing phase. This phase corresponds to Lewin’s unfreezing phase. Phase 7: Achieving a terminal relationship. That is. and Bruce Westley. These "road maps" are useful for thinking about change.2 Beyond the “Quick Fix” A comprehensive change model by Ralph Kilmann specifies the critical leverage points for organizational change. Jeanne Watson. the person undergoes cognitive restructuring. Phases 3. refreezing. Similar models have been developed by Kolb and Frohman and by Burke. that is. This motivating evidence is gained by. Their seven stages are as follows: Phase 1: Developing a need for change. Phase 6: Generalizing and stabilizing change. identifying with ex-smokers and learning about the health risks of smoking. Phase 4: Examining alternative routes and goals.2. stabilizing the changes requires testing to see if they fit-fit with the individual.
cause the organization to be successful. 3) The team-building track. critique practices and procedures. Scheduling and implementing the "tracks" involve intervening in five critical leverage points. Initiating the program entails securing commitment from top management. Interventions include training programs. 4) The strategy-structure track. when functioning properly. and 5) The reward system track. called "tracks. 2) The management skills track. 4) Implementing the "tracks" 5) Evaluating the results. . The management-skills track provides all management personnel with new ways of coping with complex problems and hidden assumptions." that. These problems and opportunities will be the targets of later interventions. problem-solving sessions. Kilmann describes the five tracks: What does each track do for the organization? The culture track enhances trust. Kilmann’s five tracks are: 1) The culture track. information sharing. and so forth. 3) Scheduling the "tracks". Diagnosing the problems requires a thorough analysis of the problems and opportunities facing the organization.2) Diagnosing the problems. and willingness to change among members the conditions that must exist before any other improvement effort can succeed. Change programs take from one to five years to complete. The team-building track infuses the new culture and updated management skills into each work unit – thereby instilling co-operation organization-wide so that complex problems can be addressed with all the expertise and information available. communication.
and . revolutionary. One likes this model because of its comprehensive nature.and second-order change. The premise of the BurkeLitwin model is this: OD interventions directed toward structure. and its holistic view of organization change and development. hard-working or easy-going. organizational culture is defined as deep-seated assumptions. In second-order change. Changing culture is much more difficult than changing climate. and beliefs that are enduring. Westinghouse. management practices. values. Kilmann has tested his model at AT&T. and co-operative team efforts within and among all work groups. An OD consultant implements the tracks in a phased sequence. First-order change goes by many different labels: transactional. with an increasing emphasis on second-order transformational change. the use of updated management skills. TRW. and all resources with the new strategic direction. then moving to the management skills track. friendly or unfriendly. jobs. Second-order change goes by many different labels: transformational. This model shows how to create first-order and second-order change (which the authors call “transactional change” and “transformational change”). radical. then moving to the team-building track. In first-order change. departments. adaptive. or discontinuous change. work groups. evolutionary. beginning with the culture track. and so forth. Eastman Kodak. the nature of the organization is fundamentally and substantially altered – the organization is transformed. General Foods. On the other hand. The reward-system track establishes a performance-based reward system that sustains all improvements by officially sanctioning the new culture. some features of the organization change but the fundamental nature of the organization remains the same. 6.3 The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change The next model to be examined is the Burke-Litwin model of individual and organizational performance. OD programs are directed toward both first. often unconscious. The model distinguishes between organizational climate and organizational culture.2.The strategy-structure track develops either a completely new or a revised strategic plan for the firm and then aligns divisions. Ford General Electric. Organizational climate is defined as people’s perceptions and attitudes about the organizationwhether it is a good or bad place to work. or continuous change. and so forth. and difficult to change. developed by Warner Burke and George Litwin. and Xerox with good results. its identification of the five tracks as critical leverage points. incremental. These perceptions are relatively easy to change because they are built on employees’ reactions to current managerial and organization practices.
The model also makes a distinction between transactional and transformational leadership styles. Transactional leadership is sufficient for causing first-order change. Now let us look at the Burke-Litwin model. in turn. leadership. Fig. management practices. 6. which change motivation and. Transformational leadership is required for causing second-order change." Transformational leadership embodies inspiration which leads to new heights of performance. Following figure shows the factors involved in first-order (transactional) change.1: The Transactional Factors Involved in First – Order Change ." Transactional leadership embodies a fair exchange between leader and follower that leads to "normal" performance. Transactional leadership is required to make this change in organizational climate. These two concepts come from leadership research which found that some leaders are capable of obtaining extraordinary performance from followers while other leaders are not. We will do so in several steps.systems (policies and procedures) result in first-order change. Changing structure. Transformational leaders are "leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interest for the good of the organization and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers. interventions directed toward mission and strategy. individual and organizational performance. Transactional leaders are "leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. and organization culture result in second-order change. and systems cause changes in work unit climate.
if we want to cause second-order (transformational) change. that is. sudden "leaps" in behaviour. and then targets interventions toward factors of the organization that produce the desired change. The top half of figure displays the factors involved in transformational change. leadership styles.Fig. as shown in the above figure. . The OD practitioner sizes up the change situation. these transformational processes are required for genuine change in the culture of an organization. To summarize. These factors are able to change the climate. and systems produce transactional change or change in organizational climate. and organization culture. mission and strategy. which produces changes in individual and organizational performance. The above two figures together yield the full Burke-Litwin model shown in the following figure.” We consider the Burke-Litwin model to be a significant advance in thinking about planned change. Interventions directed toward management practices. and organization culture produce transformational change or fundamental change in the organization’s culture. The second set of dynamics is concerned with processes of human transformation. we must change mission and strategy. Burke and Litwin propose that interventions directed toward leadership. The bottom half of figure displays the factors involved in transactional change. determines the kind of change required (transactional or transformational). structure.2: The Transformational Factors Involved in Second – Order Change On the other hand. Research by Burke and his students suggests the model performs as intended. Interventions directed toward these factors transform the organization and cause a permanent change in organization culture. These factors are powerful enough to change the culture fundamentally. Burke says: “Thus there are two distinct sets of organizational dynamics. One set primarily is associated with the transactional level of human behaviour or the everyday interactions and exchanges that create the climate. 6.
4 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change Jerry Porras and his associates developed a model of how organization development works. and interaction processes will affect social factors. The work setting plays a central role in this model and consists of four factors: organizing arrangements. The basic premise is that OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals’ behaviours. It is how OD works. OD interventions that focus on goals. This model shows how OD interventions can be linked to factors in the work setting. Fig. and rewards will affect organizing arrangements. Interventions that focus on culture. which determine organizational performance and individual development. and these behaviour changes occur when elements of the work setting have been modified by OD interventions. social factors. For example. required. . rewarded). and technology. 6. The premise modeled here is that work setting factors influence organizational members’ cognitions (they learn what is expected. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements.3: The Burke Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change 6. Following figure shows the work setting in the larger organizational framework. Keep this framework in mind as you read the units on OD interventions because all interventions target one or more factors shown in figures. Organizational change occurs only when individuals change their behaviour. physical setting. Interventions that focus on job design and work flow design will affect technology.2. it is described in a discussion by Porras and Peter Robertson. which influence on-the job behaviours.4: Organizational Work-Setting Factors This model is extremely useful for OD practitioners and organizational leaders. management style. according to Porras and Robertson. strategies.Fig. 6.
describes the characteristics of systems. This section explains systems theory. and shows how systems theory enhances the practice of OD.3 Systems Theory A second foundation of organization development is systems theory. that is the system. which views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. Ludwig Von Bertalanffy first articulated the principles of general systems theory in 1950.system. when taking a systems approach. Fagen defines system as "a set of objects together with relationships between the objects and between their attributes. 6. or subsystems. Thus. unitary whole composed of two or more interdependent parts. Systems theory is one of the most powerful conceptual tools available for understanding the dynamics of organizations and organizational change." To summarize. one begins by identifying the individual parts and then seeks to understand the nature of their collective interaction. The words ‘arrangement’ and ‘interrelated’ describe interdependent elements forming an entity.Fig." Hanna says: "A system is an arrangement of interrelated parts. . and delineated by identifiable boundaries from its environmental supra. components. and Katz and Kahn were the first to apply open systems theory to organizations in 1966. system denotes interdependency.5: A Change-based Organizational Framework 6. interconnectedness. and interrelatedness among elements in a set that constitutes an identifiable whole or gestalt." Von Bertalanffy refers to a system as a set of "elements standing in interaction." Kast and Rosenzweig define system as "an organized.
6: A System in Interaction with its Environment The law of entropy states that all systems “run down” and disintegrate unless they reverse the entropic process by importing more energy than they use. These purposes must align with purposes or needs in the environment. and if the environment does not want these outputs. Every system is delineated by a boundary. All open systems are input-throughput-output mechanisms. dynamics. Boundaries of open systems are permeable. They do something to the inputs via throughput. or transformation processes that change the inputs. Organizations are open systems. Each of these three system processes must work well if the system is to be effective and survive. the organization’s purposes will be reflected in its outputs. A good rule of thumb for drawing the boundary is that more energy exchange occurs within the boundary than across the boundary. Here. studying open systems leads to a good understanding of organizations. and they export products to the environment in the form of outputs. 6.1 The Nature of Systems The nature. and energy between system and environment. . in that they permit exchange of information. resources. What is inside the boundary is the system. people. money. information. the reasons for their existence. Open systems have purposes and goals. For example. Fig. and what is outside the boundary is the environment. Systems take inputs from the environment in the form of energy. Organizations achieve negative entropy when they are able to exchange their outputs for enough inputs to keep the system from running down. the organization will cease to exist. raw material and so on. Therefore.6. conversion. we examine the characteristics of open systems drawing OD expositions by Katz and Kahn and Hanna.3. and characteristics of open systems are well-known.
negative and positive. if a rocket ship traveling to the moon strays off its trajectory. It is also known as deviation-correcting feedback. As Katz and Kahn say: “The basic principle is the preservation of the character of the system. The three major input factors are: . 6. and the system adjusts to a new goal. systems tend to get more elaborated. This model depicts the organization as an input-throughput-output system. specialized. that information is called positive feedback. Say your company makes buggy whips. and complex over time. Feedback is information from the environment about system performance. differentiated. either internal or external. organizations in the fast-food industry pay a lot of attention to information about their industry-nutrition. Systems are bombarded by all kinds of information: some are useful. the principle that there are multiple ways to arrive at a particular outcome or state – systems have multiple paths to goals. For example. and the like. while screening out other information. and so on. say. These subsystems can be arranged into a hierarchy of systems moving from less important to more important. Another characteristic of open systems is steady state or dynamic homeostasis. it receives information to that effect in the form of negative feedback. It is sometimes called deviation-amplifying feed back. With increased differentiation. eating fads. but most are not useful. Negative feedback tells you if you are on track with your scheduled production output.Information is important to systems in several ways. Subsystems exist within larger systems. Systems "code" useful information and incorporate it. If the mission (target) changes. Positive feedback measures whether or not the purpose and goals are aligned with environmental needs. mining. The usefulness of the two concepts is that they demonstrate that it is not enough to merely measure our outputs versus the intended targets.” Also. competitors.3. "return to earth. Another characteristic of systems is equifinality. however. Systems require two kinds of feedback. they usually ignore information about other industries such as electronics. Survival of the system is equally influenced by whether or not the targets themselves are appropriate. By the same token. and makes a course correction. Positive feedback comes from the environment. aerospace. Negative feedback measures whether or not the output is on course with the purpose and goals. this process is called differentiation. and the production plan calls for 100 buggy whips per month. increased integration and co-ordination are necessary. For example." Here is another example of negative and positive feedback. it will signal whether the environment needs and/or wants buggy whips.2 Congruence among System Elements David Nadler and associates at Delta Consulting Group developed the congruence model for understanding organizational dynamics and change. Systems achieve a steady state or equilibrium point and seek to maintain this equilibrium against disruptive forces.
formal organization. important events. Outputs are performance at the total organization level.1) The environment. and critical decisions that still influence behaviour today. Fig. which components are "not functioning correctly. failures. which includes the organization’s culture informal rules and understandings. If the organization’s culture (informal organization) praises individual accomplishments and the work requires teamwork and collaboration. knowledge. if people don’t have the skills and knowledge required to do the work. the tasks people perform to create products and service markets people. In a company that is performing poorly. performance will suffer. such as capital. unit/group level. and 3) History which consists of memories of past successes. Elements of the organization per se are labeled strategy. fit) must be present among the system’s components’ for the organization to produce satisfactory outputs." and which elements . work. and how things really work (versus how they are supposed to work as defined by the formal organization). 6. people. . knowledge. which imposes constraints and opportunities about what the organization can and can not do. processes. and 2) Evaluating the "goodness of fit" or how well the elements "go together. performance will suffer. and systems for performing the work.7: The Congruence Model Showing the Organization as a System The congruence model’s value is as an analytical tool for: 1) Assessing the characteristics and functioning of each of the elements. and informal organization. which includes formal structures. and individual level. which includes skills. 2) Resources available to the organization. You can use this model to analyze organizations with which you are familiar." The premise is that alignment (harmony. performance will suffer. If the strategy calls for entrepreneurial quickness and risk-taking and the formal organization is bureaucratic and highly centralized. and technology. perceptions. and the workforce’s expectations. For example. what the organization is trying to accomplish and how it plans to do it.
Open systems planning entails: 1) Scanning the environment to determine the expectations of external organizations and stake-holders. and that changes in one system affect the other system. A number of design principles have been developed to implement socio-technical systems theory. Principles such as optimizing the social and technical systems. both realistic (likely to happen if the organization continues on its current course) and ideal (what the organization would like to see happen).are poorly aligned? In companies showing outstanding performance. Fred Emery. Their technology became known as Open systems Planning (OSP). two active segments of OD today.KI Jayaram.3. STS is the principal conceptual foundation for efforts in work redesign and organization restructuring. multi-skilled teams. Socio-technical systems theory was developed by Eric Trist. what is it about each element that causes that part of the system to function well and what are the characteristics of each element that cause all of them to fit together smoothly? The congruence model is an excellent diagnostic tool. and identifying core tasks help STS consultants structure organizations and tasks for maximum effectiveness and efficiency. Systems models are essential for the practice of OD. controlling variance at the source. and information to the point of action. and others at the Tavistock Institute in the 1950s. training group members in multiple skills. and . especially autonomous work groups (self-regulated teams or self-direct teams). G. 2) Developing scenarios of possible futures. High-performance organizations almost always use principles from socio-technical systems theory. forming autonomous work groups.3 Socio-technical Systems Theory and Open Systems Planning Two major variations of open systems theory. Another important application of systems theory in organization development is open systems planning.socio-technical systems theory (STS) and open systems planning (OSP)-play an important role in organization development. 6. Hanna writes: In the late 1960s a small team of consultants led by James Clark. and Will McWhinney developed a technology for addressing the interface between organization and the environment. to the workers doing the job. that is. Charles Krone. It was the first attempt to help organizations methodically analyze the environmental demands and expectations placed on them and plan to successfully meet these demands and expectations. giving information and feedback to the people doing the work. To achieve high productivity and employee satisfaction. organizations must optimize both systems. a social system and a technical system. The thesis of STS is that all organizations are comprised of two interdependent systems.
3) Developing action plans to ensure that a desirable future occurs. events and forces. Viewing organizations from this perspective has several consequences. a systems approach encourages analysis of events in terms of multiple causation rather than single causation. First. systems thinking. He says of systems thinking: “It is the discipline that integrates the disciplines. systems theory pervades the theory and practice of organization development. there is no motivation to look at how the disciplines interrelate. but seen in relation to other issues. the forces in the field at the time of the event are the relevant forces for analysis. according to field theory (Kurt Lewin). Third. For example. 6. one changes the system. not just its component parts. it is extended broadly throughout the organization. events. It keeps them from being separate gimmicks or the latest organization change fads. forces.” In conclusion. By enhancing each of the other disciplines. Most OD practitioners engaged in redesign projects use a combination of socio-technical systems theory and open systems planning. this combination is often used in designing high-performance organizations.4 Open Systems Thinking Open systems thinking is required for creating learning organizations. fusing them into a coherent body of theory and practice. Of all these disciplines. mental models. and systems thinking. And fifth. the fifth discipline. OD practitioners expect multiple effects. not single effects. it continually reminds us that the whole can exceed the sum of its parts. Fourth.3.4 Participation of Empowerment One of the most important foundations of organization development is a participation/ empowerment model. from diagnosis to intervention to evaluation. This idea moves the practitioner away from analyzing historical events and toward examining contemporary events and forces. Participation in OD programs is not restricted to elites or the top people. from their activities. Senge believes that five disciplines must be mastered to create a learning organization: personal mastery. changing one part of a system influences other parts. issues. 6. because most phenomena have more than one cause. Second. Learning organizations can cope effectively with rapidly changing environmental demands. Without a systemic orientation. and incidents are not viewed as isolated phenomena. to change a system. therefore. according to Peter Senge. Increased participation and empowerment . is the most important. team learning. building shared vision.
which they call "mechanistic." These authors believe the organic view. to contribute their ideas. They must see themselves as having freedom and discretion. and greatly enhance acceptance of decisions. This research demonstrated that most people desire increased involvement and participation. then. and change." direct leaders to push decision-making lower in the organization. These pillars of OD practice are validated by both research and practice." is bottom-up and less controlling. They describe the organic view: "The other group of executives saw empowerment much differently." and "Have decisions made by those who are closest to the problem. treat those closest to the problem as the relevant experts. Robert Quinn and Gretchen Spreitzer found two vastly different views of empowerment. employees must choose to be empowered. personal initiative. the organic approach unleashes talent and energy in people that are best channeled by providing clear guidelines and boundaries. OD interventions are deliberately designed to increase involvement and participation by organization leaders and members. and empowerment in turn enhances performance and individual well-being. The other view. Empowerment meant trusting people and tolerating their imperfections. growth. Participation is an especially effective form of empowerment.have always been central goals and fundamental values of the field. produce better solutions to problems. is not something that management does to employees. The most important contrast between the two views involves the implicit but potentially volatile assumptions people make about trust and contro1. but rather a mind-set that employees have about their roles in the organization. and the culture audit are all predicated on the belief that increased participation will lead to better solutions. While management can create a context that is more empowering. For example. and to be responsible. team building. Participation enhances empowerment. increase commitment to the organization. autonomous work groups. which is done by giving individuals the authority to make decisions. and growth. But both views contain valid ideas: for example. they must if personally connected to . to exert influence." is a top-down delegation of decision-making with clear boundaries and strict accountability that increases managerial control. reduce stress levels. involvement and participation energize greater performance. search conferences. quality circles. and give more power to more people. Further. Rules of thumb such as "Involve all those who are part of the problem or part of the solution. quality of work life programs. They believed that it was about risk-taking. One view. is the more useful perspective. The entire field of OD is about empowerment. To empower is to give someone power. Researchers found that group dynamics work to overcome resistance to change. Participation is a powerful elixir-it is good for people and performance. Research on group dynamics began in the 1940s and achieved exponential growth in the 1950s and 1960s. Quinn and Spreitzer conclude: “Empowerment. with its emphasis on risk-taking. OD interventions are basically methods for increasing participation. called "organic. survey feedback. and generally make people feel better about themselves and their worlds.
teams create synergy. changes those norms and values. and respectteams nurture human nature. teams satisfy people’s needs for social interaction. HPWSs (high-performance work systems). Examples are team-building. STS (socio-technical systems). Teams are important for a number of reasons: First. to name just a few. recognition. In this section. much individual behaviour is rooted in the socio-cultural norms and values of the work team. teaming. A second fundamental belief is that teams must manage their culture. and practice attest to the central role teams play in organizational success. the effects on individual behaviour are immediate and lasting. and capable of having an impact on the system in which they are embedded. The previous discussion focused on empowerment and concluded that the act of empowering individuals greatly increased their performance and satisfaction. status.5 Team and Teamwork A fundamental belief in organization development is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations. Theory. processes. we examine the potential of teams and teamwork. and team-related acronyms abound-SDTs (self-directed teams). crossfunctional "design-build" teams developed the Boeing 777. Team Saturn produced the Saturn automobile. If the team.the organization. quality circles.” 6. Teams and teamwork are part of the foundation of organization development. teams at 3M generate the hundreds of innovations that keep 3M ahead of its competition. Teams and teamwork are among the "hottest" things happening in organizations today – gurus extol the virtues of teams. and relationships if they are to be effective. QCs (quality circles). people must work together to accomplish them. Teams and teamwork are "in. as a team. inter-group team-building. systems. research. the noun team has become a verb. A number of OD interventions are specifically designed to improve team performance. Teams at Motorola produced its bestselling cellular phones. process consultation. that is. and explore ways to realize that potential. "The evidence is abundantly clear: Effective teams produce results far beyond the performance of unrelated individuals. HPOs (high-performance organizations). . Fourth. Second. confident about their abilities. Team Taurus developed Ford’s best-selling automobile. the sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of the individual efforts of people working alone. Third. many tasks are so complex they cannot be performed by individuals. The message of this section is that putting those empowered individuals into teams creates extraordinary effects on performance and satisfaction. Synergy is a principal reason teams are so important.
Grid OD and techniques such as role analysis technique. . He uses examples from EDS (Electronic Data Systems). The net effect is that teams perform at increasingly higher levels. socio-technical systems programs. All these characteristics are required for superior team performance. and individuals are trained as group leaders and group facilitators. Organizations using autonomous work groups or self-directed teams devote considerable time and effort to ensure that team members possess the skills to be effective groups. role negotiation technique.parallel learning structures. the crew of the USS Kitty Hawk. Larson and LaFasto also discovered that the most frequent cause of team failure was letting personal or political agendas take precedence over the clear and elevating team goal. including collegiate football national champions. and others. High-performance teams regulate the behaviour of team members. and the like. team performance declines. empowered teams are what the best organizations are using right now to outdistance the competition. Team-building activities are now a way of life for many organizations. autonomous. Asea Brown Boveri. Tom Peters asserts in Liberation Management that cross-functional. temporary teams. and set ever-higher goals. and responsibility charting. that they achieve synergy. elevating goal 2) A results-driven structure 3) Competent team members 4) Unified commitment 5) A collaborative climate 6) Standards of excellence 7) External support and recognition Principled leadership. Larson and LaFasto studied a number of high-performance teams. to determine the characteristics that make them successful. Larson and LaFasto found eight characteristics always present: 1) A clear. help each other. heart transplant surgical teams. and that teamwork becomes more satisfying for team members. These interventions apply to formal work teams as well as startup teams. people are trained in group dynamics and group problem-solving skills. Union Pacific Railroad. cross-functional teams. When any one feature is lost. Investigators are discovering why some teams are successful while others are not. find innovative ways around barriers. Teams periodically hold team-building meetings.
6 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel learning structures. It isn’t the supplemental structure that’s important. and then leading the process. 6. Considerable experimentation with collateral organizations occurred in the 1970s and 1980s.” Parallel structures help people break free of the normal constraints imposed by the organization. deciding. High responsibility. and report to one of your subordinates on another team. and initiate needed changes. engage in genuine inquiry and experimentation. The charge to members of the parallel learning structure is to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. Most socio-technical systems redesign efforts and open systems planning programs use parallel structures. flexible response. and continuous learning. If you don’t implement different norms and procedures.” The purpose of the collateral organization is to deal with "ill-structured" problems the formal organization is unable to resolve. 6. Projects are the work of the future. talking. managers. constitute another important foundation of organization development. The most important and difficult task for the people creating the parallel learning structure is to create a different culture within it. parallel structures are a vehicle for learning how to change the system. and high accountability drive these project teams to outperform traditional organization structures on every measurable dimension. Parallel learning structures are often the best way to initiate change in large bureaucratic organizations.Titeflex. Parallel learning structures are a foundation of OD because they are prevalent in so many different OD programs. In essence. Dale had introduced this concept in 1974 under the label collateral organization and defined it as “a supplemental organization coexisting with the usual formal organization.7 A Normative – Re-educative Strategy of Changing . Interestingly. and employees. clear objectives. especially when the change involves a fundamental shift in the organization’s methods of work and/or culture. The quality of work life programs of the 1970s and 1980s used parallel structures composed of union leaders. normal hierarchical considerations become obsolete for these project teams-you could be the boss of one team. and countless other organizations to demonstrate the ability of small project teams to produce high quality. specially created organizational structures for planning and guiding change programs. What’s important is that people act in a way that promotes learning and adaptation. At Ford Motor Company. projects will be performed by teams. and acting differently than normally takes place at work. Bushe and Shani say: “The key thing about parallel structures is that they create a bounded space and time for thinking. superior customer service. you don’t have a parallel structure. a steering committee and working groups were used to co-ordinate the employee involvement teams. High-performance organizations often use parallel structures to co-ordinate self-directed teams.
values.Organization development involves change. The second group of strategies is normative-re-educative strategies. or intellectual rationales for action and practice. OD clearly falls within the normativere-educative category. And changes in normative orientations involve changes in attitudes. Sociocultural norms are supported by the attitude and value systems of individuals-normative outlooks which undergird their commitments." Solutions to problems are not a priori assigned to greater technical information but may reside in values. will occur only as the persons involved are brought to change their normative orientations to old patterns and develop commitments to new ones. rather than the OD practitioner. attitudes. The first type is empirical rational strategies. and change comes through re-education in which old norms are discarded and supplanted by new ones. These strategies build upon assumptions about human motivation different from those underlying the first. The client system members define what changes and improvements they want to make. Patterns of action and practice are supported – by socio-cultural norms and by commitments on the part of the individuals to these norms. and they give more options to both the clients and the practitioner. although often OD represents a combination of the normative-reeductive and the empirical-rational strategies. and significant relationships. The third set of strategies is the power-coercive strategies. relationships and customary ways of doing things. based on the assumption that change is compliance of those who have less power with the desires of those who have are power. they impel a collaborative effort rather than a "doing something to" effort. The norms to be changed and the form of re-education are decided by the client system members. Change in a pattern of practice or action. and together they define problems and seek solutions. anxieties. and OD is based primarily on a normative-re-educative strategy and secondarily on a rational-empirical strategy. Anything hindering effective problem solving is brought to light and publicly examined. Chin and Benne describe three types of strategies for changing. Evaluated against these three change strategies. and will change if and when they come to realize change is advantageous to them. The point here is that different strategies are available for effecting change. Chin and Benne indicate the nature of the normative-reductive strategy as follows: A second group of strategies we call normative-re-educative. the practitioner intervenes in a collaborative way with the clients. and’ negative feelings are surfaced for "working through. . doubts. strategy has the following implications for the practice of OD. that is. These implications give clients considerable control over the situation. and it rests on a particular strategy for change that has implications for practitioners and organization members alike. based on the assumptions that norms form the basis for behaviour. The rationality and intelligence of men are not denied. Chin and Benne suggest that a normative-re-educative. based on the assumptions that people are rational. according to this view. not just changes in knowledge. information. skills. will follow their rational self-interest.
The diagnostic typology allows the practitioner to know what category of situation he or she has examined. The practitioner uses treatment as the empirical test of his diagnosis. placing it in a classification scheme or typology. OD practitioners know about these patterns through research and theory. the object of which is knowledge to solve practical.e. with their elaborations and implications constitute practice theory. the major leverage point for change is at the group level. This process is customarily referred to as diagnosis and treatment. Each type description of the diagnostic typology contains implications for a certain type of treatment. success corroborating the diagnosis. Greenwood states: “The diagnostic and treatment typologies are employed together. A conventional distinction is made between (1) "pure" or basic science. norms can best be changed by focusing on the group. OD is the application of behavioural science knowledge. Thus. Greenwood discusses the activities of the practitioner as follows: "The problem that confronts a practitioner is customarily a state of disequilibrium that requires rectification. and skills in ongoing systems in collaboration with system members. behavioural science knowledge. Although human behaviour in organizations is far from an exact science.” . then the individual will be a deviate and either will come under pressure from the group to get back into line or will be rejected entirely.” Norms help determine individual behaviour and a normative-re-educative strategy of changing pervades the practice of OD. on the basis of which he or she prescribes a solution that. the treatment typology allows the practitioner to know what remedial efforts to apply to correct the problem. on the basis of selected variables. The principles of diagnosis and of treatment constitute the principles of practice. The aim of this discussion is to look briefly at how behavioural science knowledge becomes applied behavioural science knowledge. On this point. Burke writes: “If one attempts to change an attitude or the behaviour of an individual without attempting to change the same attitude or behaviour in the group to which the individual belongs. applied science or practice. lawful patterns of events produce effectiveness and ineffectiveness. the object of which is knowledge for its own sake." Both diagnosis and treatment consist of observing a situation and. failure negating it and thus requiring re-diagnosis." applied science. i. OD emphasizes the latter. pressing problems. and (2) "technology. or practice. practices.8 Applied Behavioural Science This foundation of OD relates to the primary knowledge base of the field. re-establishes the equilibrium.Because norms are socially accepted beliefs held by groups about appropriate and inappropriate behaviours. not the individual. for example. by modifying a group norm or standards. 6. thereby solving the problem.. The practitioner examines the problem situation. hopefully.
represent contributions from pure or basic science. form of applied behavioural science.From this "practice theory. and finally evaluating the effects of the treatments.8: Composition of Applied Behavioural Science Organization development is both a result of applied behavioural science and a. and research leading to social action… This by no means implies that the research needed is in any respect less scientific or "lower" than what would be required for pure science in the field of social events. behavioural science research and two behavioural science theory. perhaps more accurately. practice research and practice theory. I am inclined to hold the opposite to be true. The two bottom inputs. represent contributions from applied science. it is a program of applying behavioural science to organizations. Fig. 6. Action research is a method that combines learning and doing – learning about the dynamics of organizational change. Action research involves three processes: data collection. then selecting and implementing treatments based on the diagnosis. and action planning based on the data. and doing or implementing change efforts. who developed the concept of action research. feedback of the data to the client system members. Kurt Lewin. a comparative search on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action. 6. Action research is especially well-suited for planned change programs.” Concluding Comments: ." the OD practitioner works: first diagnosing the situation. problem-solving method that replicates the steps involved in the scientific method of inquiry underlies most OD activities. had this to say about it: “The research needed for social practice can best be characterized as research for social management or social engineering.9 Action Research The action research model – a data-based. the two top in puts. It is a type of action-research.
A fundamental belief in OD is that work teams are the building blocks of organizations.These foundations of organization development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. 2. Action research model combines learning and doing. 3. OD interventions alter features of the work setting causing changes in individuals’ behaviours. 4. _____________ means sum of the efforts of team members is far greater than the sum of individual efforts of members. –––––––––– gave the model “Beyond the Quick Fix”. 6. 3. which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements is the principle of Porras and Robertson model organizational change. 6.” 5. Taken collectively. Self Assessment Questions 1. In parallel learning structures members have to think and behave in ways that are different from the normal roles and rules of the organization. A _____________ is defined as “a set of elements standing in interaction. each is a powerful conceptual tool for thinking out and implementing change. –––––––––– means moving to new level of behaviour. Kurt Lewin introduced two ideas about change the first idea states that what is occurring at any point in time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces and the second is the model of the change process. . 2. Ralph Kilmann specified the critical leverage points for organizational change. they constitute the beginning of a theory of organization development and change that has enormous potential for improving organizational performance and individual development. First—order change is also called ___________. The Burke-Litwin model emphasized on first-order and second-order change.10 Summary The foundations of organizational development form the theoretical and practice underpinnings of the field. What are first-order and second order change according to Burke-Litwin Model of organizational change? Explain. Bring out the essence of “managing beyond the quick fix” model of organizational development.11 Terminal Questions 1. Systems theory views organizations as open systems in active exchange with their environment. Taken separately. Explain Kurt Lewin’s models and theories of planned organizational change.
12 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 7.1 2. Refer section 6.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . What are the features of systems theory of organizational development? 5. Synergy Answers to TQs: 1.” Comment on this statement.2.2 3. “Work teams are building blocks of organizational development. Ralph Kilmann 3.3 5.4. Unfreezing 2.2. System 5. MU0002-Unit-07-Organization Climate Unit-07-Organization Culture and Climate Structure: 7.3 4.Refer section 6. Refer section 6. 6. Transactional change 4.2.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture Culture and . Refer section 6. Refer section 6.
despite the best-laid plans. For example. thinking. 7.7. values. norms and tangible signs (artifacts) of organization members and their behaviors. organizational change must include not only changing structures and processes. you will be able to: · Understand Organization Culture. The concept of culture is particularly important when attempting to manage organization-wide change. Members of an organization soon come to sense the particular culture of an organization. etc.1 Introduction Basically.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 7. organizational culture is the personality of the organization. . · Describe different types of Organization Culture · Explain organization culture and effectiveness. Objectives: After studying this unit. 1986).3 Types of Organization Culture.6 Summary 7. what members wear. but everyone knows it when they sense it. Martin and Meyerson.5 Developing and changing Organization Culture Self Assessment Questions 7. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. Culture is one of those terms that’s difficult to express distinctly. Practitioners are coming to realize that. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness 7. what they brag about. Culture is comprised of the assumptions. the culture of a large. You can tell the culture of an organization by looking at the arrangement of furniture. discovered. but also changing the corporate culture as well. – similar to what you can use to get a feeling about someone’s personality. for-profit corporation is quite different than that of a hospital which is quite different than that of a university. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of perceiving.7 Terminal Questions 7.
do not do too little?” 3. 6. They often have well-defined policies. but one where all transactions. Rules: There are strict guidelines related to getting along in the organization. Some of the most readily agreed upon are the following: 1. When organizational participants interact with one another. the way participants interact. For many years. Which in many organizations come down to “Do not do too much. and the way members of the organization conduct themselves with customers or other outsiders. Hierarchical leaders are typically coordinators and organizers who keep a close eye on what is happening. processes and procedures. Dominate value: These are major values that the organization advocates and expects the participants to share. they use common language. Note that the Market organization is not one which is focused just on marketing.2 Characteristics of Organization Culture Organizational culture has a number of important characteristics. Norms. Observed behavioral regularities. including guidelines on how much work to do. Philosophy: These are policies that set forth the organization’s beliefs about how employees and/or customers are to be treated. this was considered the only effective way of organizing and is still a basic element of the vast majority of organizations. Market The Market organization also seeks control but does so by looking outward. 7. terminology. Hierarchies have respect for position and power. and in particular taking note of transaction cost.3 Types of Organization Culture Hierarchy The hierarchy has a traditional approach to structure and control that flows from a strict chain of command as in Max Weber’s original view of bureaucracy. internal and external are viewed in market . 2. 4. Organizational climate: This is an overall “feeling” that is conveyed by the physical layout. New-comers must learn those “ropes” in order to be accepted as full-fledged members of the group. 7. Standards of behavior exist. Low absenteeism and high efficiency. Typical examples are high product quality.· Discuss about developing and changing organization culture. and rituals related to deference and demeanor. 5.
Comprehensively organization culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that is invented. although not necessarily documented. Clan leaders act in a facilitative. affecting the performance of every-one within the culture in positive or negative ways. innovative entrepreneurs who take calculated risks to make significant gains. Rules. Leaders in market cultures are often hard-driving competitors who seek always to deliver the goods. In biological terms. 1993). Rather than strict rules and procedures. Adhocracy The Adhocracy has even greater independence and flexibility than the Clan. do still exist and are often communicated and inculcated socially. Market cultures are outward looking. are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive.terms. invisible to the naked eye. which is necessary in a rapidly changing business climate. 7. It has an inward focus and a sense of family and people work well together. people are driven through vision. Transactions are exchanges of value. strongly driven by loyalty to one another and the shared cause.4 Organization Culture and Effectiveness It is reflected in how things are done (Flanagan. Leaders in an adhocracy are visionary. big-bang projects and development. or developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. It will use prototyping and experimenting rather than long. In contrast to Hierarchies. supportive way and may take on a parental role. clans often have flat organizations and people and teams act more autonomousl. 1995) and how problems are solved in an organization. discovered. outputs and outcomes. In an efficient market organization. It may be defined as the ethos of a company (as US firms do) or the shared value and team sprit (as European firms prefer to define it). culture is like the DNA of an organization. One culture could be distinguished from another in terms of how some commonly shared human problems are addressed and the specific solutions that one sought (Trompenaars. the adhocracy will rapidly form teams to face new challenges. and validated enough to be taught to new members as the correct ways of . value flows between people and stakeholders with minimal cost and delay. but critical to shaping its behavior. Clan The Clan organization has less focus on structure and control and a greater concern for flexibility. shared goals. Where market success goes to those with greatest speed and adaptability.
there is often contradiction in various approaches. and what is right and what is wrong. various terms such as efficiency.the informal rules of the fame telling employees what they are supposed to be saying. Values evolve out of the basic assumption and form the core (or heart) of the culture. Identifying. Thus. norms. the way they dress etc. from the basis of its policies and action. and doing. communicating. and no unanimity is found in different approaches. symbols. and shaping organization values is difficult as values relate more to employee emotions and feeling (affective dimension) than to their rational thinking (cognitive dimension) Norms: These are a significant element of the organization’s social environment and evolve of behavior. For example. also called as organizational success or growth. reflecting what is important in the organization and determining how the organization ought to be (the ethos. The various approaches are judgmental and open to question. systems and subsystems. They are reflected in the core capabilities of a company. . individually and collectively. Values: These are the social principles. · Its rituals. · The observable behavior of its members (the way they talk. The set of basic assumptions evolve into values artifacts and norms in terms of which an organization culture may be examined and understood. the jargon they use. or standards held by members of an organization. goals. is defined and conceptualized in different ways. · Public documents it releases and media reports and stories about it. 1986). rules. productivity. Though a large volume of literature is available on the concept and working of organizational effectiveness.perceiving. IBM norms dictate that employees should actively listen and respond to customer demands and complaints. thinking. plaques. Though an organization espouses a series of values. believing. Artifacts: The visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization such as: · Its structure. Martin and Meyerson. the personality of the organization). and procedures. etc. These are the essential and enduring tenets of an organization. its core value are limited to a few in number. and feeling in relation to these problems (Schein. and are generally not compromised for short-term benefits or financial gains. Organization Effectiveness Organizational effectiveness.
the loyalties.profitability. 7. scrap loss. and perceptual cluster. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and its management. the organizational analysis is incomplete for a practicing manager unless the factors underlying effectiveness are identifying. and behaviour. Whatever the criteria adopted for organizational effectiveness. and they tend to be long-term goals. the process usually involves some version of the following steps: .. Likert states that the intervening variables reflect the internal state and health of the organization. 3. are often used interchangeably. and (ii) the intervening behavioral cluster. These causal variables include only those independent variables which can be altered or changed by the organization and its management. to denote organizational effectiveness. From this point of view. These variables have been classified by Likert into three groups-causal. According to Likert. attitudes. The intervening variables may be divided into two broad categories: (i) the intervening attitudinal.5 Developing and Changing Organization Culture How Organizational Cultures Start Although organizational cultures can develop in a number of different ways. 1. Though each individual’s effectiveness is significant but perhaps the most important aspect of effectiveness is its relationship to the entire organization. 2. there are numerous variables. organizational growth. end-result variables are the dependent variables which reflect the achievements in the organization such as its productivity. Likert states that causal variables are independent variables which determine the course of developments within an organization and the results achieved by the organization. costs. Intervening Variables: Intervening variables are those factors which are reflected as the internal state of organization. motivations. e. motivational. Grouping variables into these categories aids greatly in the correct interpretation of the data and their use for diagnostic and other purposes. and earnings. This is one part of effectiveness that many managers overlook because it emphasis long-term potential as well as short-term performance.which are useful in discussing organizational effectiveness over time. Causal Variables: Causal variables are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. skills. Intervening variables are concerned with building and developing the organization.g. Causal variables include the structure of the organization and management’s policies. Many of these variables are caused by causal variables. intervening and end result. performance goals. and decision-making. decisions. and perceptions of all members and their collective capacity for effective interaction. End – result Variables: End-result variable are those factors which are caused by causal and intervening variable and are often in terms of the factors in which managers are interested or measure their effectiveness. business and leadership strategies. communication.
New product development and information technology is changing so rapidly that any example would be soon out-of –date. and history of two firms. powerful stakeholders such as unions. 3. Predictable obstacles include entrenched skills. the geographic location. In addition. However. obtaining patents. The founding core group beings to act in concert to create an organization by raising funds. money. then such rapid change can be welcomed and accommodated with as little disruption and as few problems as possible. and so on. 2. 4. Even through some firms have had a culture in place to anticipate change.1. the current environmental context has undergone drastic change and either the organization must adapt to these new conditions or it may not survive. Where does the power and managerial decision making really reside? Corporate cultures range from autocratic extremes to total employee empowerment. or even customers may support the existing culture. These factors from the two cultures include the size. relationships. and is worth the investment of time. and energy that will be required. That is. incorporating. and structures that work together to reinforce traditional cultural patterns. and how this plays out among the partners will be important to cultural compatibility. Staffs. is worth running some risks for. management. The case of Mergers and Acquisitions The clash between the two cultures in a merger or acquisition can be focused into three major areas: 1. At this point. Structure. all in this core group believe that the idea is a good one. For example. The founder brings in one or more other key people and creates a core group that shares a common vision with the founder. 2. Politics. age. roles. locating space. Changing Organizational Culture Sometimes an organization determines that its culture has to be changed. A single person (founder) has an idea for a new enterprise. moving to a new culture or changing old cultures can be quite difficult: a case can even be made that it really can’t be done successfully?. and whether products and/or services are involved. . the industry in which the partners come from and now reside. if the appropriate organization culture is in place. others are brought into the organization. building. and a common history begins to be built. is workable.
are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive. so that a consistent message is delivered from all management team members. Recruit outside personnel with industry experience. take these losses early. ___________are those factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishment. ________cultures are outward looking. Make changes from the top down. attitudes. 7. 7.3. commitment. _____are the visible manifestations of culture as seen in the physical and social environment of the organization. 6. habits. so that they are able to interact well with the organizational personnel. 8. 5. 4. Take out all trappings that remind the personnel of the previous culture. Self Assessment Questions 1. Move quickly and decisively to build momentum and to defuse resistance to the new culture. 1. organizational cultures can be managed and changed over time. Expect to have some problems and find people who would rather move than change with the culture and. This attempt to change culture can take many different forms. if possible. and patterns of daily behavior. 3. 3. the “culture contract” that individuals have bought into to guide their day-to-day thoughts. Stay the course by being persistent. Assess the current culture. These emotions will be a major input into the clash or compatibility of the two cultures. 2. The personal feelings. Guidelines for change Despite the significant barriers and resistance to change. Set realistic goals that impact on the bottom line. Emotions. 2. 9. especially when making changes in rules and processes.6 Summary . Include employees in the culture change process. Simple guidelines such as the following can be helpful.
and strategic constituencies approach. Organizational effectiveness can be measured through various approaches. Explain the characteristics of organization culture. Refer section 7. Factors in organizational effectiveness include casual variables. Refer section 7. Briefly explain different types of organizational culture. .7 Terminal Questions 1.goal approach. effectiveness through adaptive-coping cycle has been discussed. Causal variables Answers to TQs: 1. Effectiveness of an organization can be increased through economic man approach and administrative man approach. Market 3.Organizational effectiveness is the degree to which organization is successful in accomplishing its goals. Finally. Refer section 7. behavioural approach. 7.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1. system-resource approach.2 2. 3.5 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . Organizations to be successful must be efficient and effective. intervening variables and end-result variables and there exists interrelationship among these variables. 2.3 3. 7. Artifacts 2. Discuss the development and change of organizational development.
Politics and Organization Development Structure: 8. The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored 8. Organization Development Unit-08. That criticism was essentially correct for many years although it is less valid .2 Power Defined and Explored 8. and for change to occur in an organization. we examine power and politics in relation to organization development.10 Terminal Questions 8.9 Summary 8. As Warner Burke observes: "Organization development signifies change.7 Operating in a Political Environment 8.Power.MU0002-Unit-08Power. In this unit.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice of OD 8. power must be exercised. indisputable facts of organizational life.1 Introduction Politics and Power and politics.1 Introduction Objectives 8.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs 8.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power 8. must be understood if one is to be effective in organizations.” Organization development has been criticized for not taking into account power in organizations.3 Two Faces of Power 8.8 Acquiring and using Power Skills Self Assessment Questions 8.
· Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. Without leadership (power) directed toward warfare." "Power is defined in this unit simply as the capacity to effect (or affect) organizational outcomes. Power-in-action may . Without leadership (power) in medical. We therefore define interpersonal power as the ability to get one’s way in a social situation. 8. and behaviours of people.” “A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would otherwise not do. One person exerts power over another to the degree that he is able to exact compliance as desired. but kinetic power is the act of doing so. to effect outcomes. emotions." “Power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. Objectives: After this studying this unit." Analyzing these definitions shows some common elements: effectance-getting one’s way. you will be able to: · Define power and politics in organizations. technological.’ To have power is to be able to get desired things done. The phenomenon of power is ubiquitous. and outcomes favoring one party over the other. Without influence (power) people would have no cooperation and no society. confiscation. and repression. The French word ‘pouvoir’ stands for both the noun ‘power’ and the verb ‘to be able.2 Power Defined and Explored "Power is the intentional influence over the beliefs. One goal of this unit is to advance our understanding of the role of power in OD and the role of OD in a power setting.actions and the decisions that precede them. humankind would not have the standard of living it does today. the act or ability of influencing others. · Explain theories about the sources of power. Recent years have seen a sizable outpouring of theory and research on power and politics from which OD practitioners have derived implications and applications for the field but we are still in the early stages of knowing how power and organization development should be related. spiritual. humankind would not have much of the misery it does today. the necessity of social interaction between two or more parties. · Acquire skills to handle power and politics in organizations. and organizational activities. political.today. Potential power is the capacity to do so. financial.
This positive face of power enables others to reach their goals as well as lets the person exercising power reach his or her goals. or acquired? In this unit." · French and Raven’s "Bases of Social Power. unsocialized need to dominate others. power being the predominant mode. however.take many forms. . influence. absolute power corrupts absolutely. coercing-these are examples of negative uses of power. persuading-these are examples of positive uses of power." A moment’s reflection. for organizations to function. being exercised." · Mintzberg’s Observations on the Genesis of Power in Organizations. suggests that many problems with power stem from the goals of persons with power and the means they use. influencing. forcing. We think this distinction provides a good insight into the concept of power.4 Theories about the Sources of Social Power Power exists in virtually all social situations. In most organizations the positive face of power is much more prevalent than the negative face of power. an authority or power dimension is required. the positive face of power seeks to empower self and others. bestowed. How do some people come to possess power? How is power generated.3 Two Faces of Power David McClelland proposed an important distinction when he identified "two faces of power" – positive and negative. or positive. with collective. McClelland observed that while power has a negative connotation for most people. The negative face of power seeks to dominate and control others. Crushing. and lead. The positive face of power is characterized by a socialized need to initiate. not the possession of power as such. Roberts came to a similar conclusion in her study of "collective power" and "competitive power. selling." · Salancik and Pfeffer’s "Strategic-Contingency Model of Power. It is especially salient in coordinated activities such as those found in organizations. the negative face of power is characterized by a primitive. hurting. Patchen studied organizational decision making and found that coercive tactics were "noticeable chiefly by their absence" while problem solving and consensus seeking were much more prevalent. it is through the use of power that things get done in the world. Leading. 8. 8. In fact." Her research in four organizations showed both kinds of power. both positive and negative. According to him. we will examine four different views about who gets power and how: · Emerson’s "Power-Dependence theory. Power per se is probably neither good nor bad although Lord Acton observed that "power tends to corrupt.
and (2) inversely proportional to the availability of those goals to A outside of the A-B relation. Referent power – power based on the power-receiver having an identification with (attraction to. Viewed in this light. we will continue the exchange relationship. Coercive power – power based on the ability of the powerholder to punish another. Social interaction represents an exchange of social goods and services. When the net balance for us is positive. that is. P. The sociologist. to give something valued by the other. information. Informational power is a form of expert power where the powerholder possesses important facts or information needed by the other. French and Bertram Raven on "the bases of social power. power belongs to those persons who control or mediate desired commodities. respect. blame. We enter into and continue in exchange relationships when what we receive from others is equivalent to or in excess of what we must give to others. Exchange theory and power-dependence theory are quite compatible with the ideas proposed by French and Raven. or bases. rejection. Richard Emerson states that "the dependence of Actor A upon Actor B is (1) directly proportional to A’s motivational investment in the goals mediated by B. 5. if a person has something we want badly and we cannot get it any other place. and desired by the other. Expert power – power based on the powerholder possessing expert knowledge or expertise needed by the other. Reward power – power based on the ability of the powerholder to reward another. giving someone power over us is the commodity we exchange when we are dependent on that person for something we want." These authors suggested five sources. The components of this theory are a social relation between two parties and resources (commodities. of social power as follows: 1. Legitimate power – power based on everyone’s belief that the powerholder has a legitimate right to exert influence and that the power-receiver has a legitimate obligation to accept the influence. rewards) that are controlled by one party. that person has power over us. praise. Closely related to these ideas is the classic statement by John R. and so forth. that is. or feeling of oneness with) the power holder. hate. we will terminate or alter the relationship." In other words. to give something negatively valued by the other. when the net balance for us is negative. which posits that what goes on between persons is an exchange of social commodities: love. 3. attraction. Power-dependence theory is related to a broader framework of social interaction called social exchange theory. In this theory.Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. goals. power. 4. . influence. 2.
the top executives. third. coupled with 2) The expenditure of energy in a 3) Politically skillful way. This theory. such as the board of directors. that power-in-action requires will and skill. The important aspects of Mintzberg’s theory are that the sources of power derive from possession of a commodity desired by others. called influencers. the unions. like the ones discussed previously. indeed. to enhance their own survival through control of scarce critical resources. Salancik and Pfeffer further suggest how power is used: "Power is used by subunits. A fifth basis of power is access to those who have power based on the first four bases. regulators. This theory. the five possible bases of power are. suppliers. and that the organization is the context for the exercise of power. or departments) most important for solving the organization’s most critical problems.The strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power in organizations accrues to the subunits (individuals. the special expertise needed for the organization’s survival-have power. second. control of a technical skill. the managers. These critical problems are generally "uncertainties" posed by the environment. knowledge. seek to control the organization’s decisions and actions. "is built on the premise that organizational behavior is a power game in which various players. control of a body of knowledge. units. first. supports the notion that those who have something highly valued by. and. for power in the hands of the critical problem solvers helps the organization cope with the various realities it faces. All of these must be critical to the organization. the ability to solve critical problems or exigencies-anything that creates dependence of one actor or set of actors on another." The three basic conditions for the exercise of power are 1) Some source or basis of power. An organization has many potential influencers. customers. used by all who have it. the influencer must have both the "will" and the "skill" to use it. and through the definition of organizational problems and policies. and so forth. the employees. The resources may be ability to reward and punish. Henry Mintzberg has developed a theory of organizational power drawn from the organization theory literature and his own creative synthesis abilities. According to Mintzberg. The fourth basis is legal prerogatives-being given exclusive rights to impose choices. control of a resource. through the placement of allies in key positions. these four views of the sources of power are remarkably similar – power stems from possession of or mediation of desired resources.others-in this case. being in control of critical skills. In addition to a base of power. . In summary." These authors view organizational power as a good thing. or information.
formal power. Likewise we also treat authority as a subset of power. organizational politics is power-in-action in organizations. conflict resolution. we view politics as a subset of power. viewing situations in win-win terms as much as possible. has two faces. the last two definitions view politics as illegitimate or unsanctioned activities. a relative absence of the tactics of fighting. you must lose-rather than win-win terms. and predominant use of the tactics of fighting-secrecy. The first three definitions treat politics as a neutral set of activities. the power vested in office. resource allocation. These key areas are the battlefields where actors win and lose. treating it as informal power. “Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the selfinterest of individuals or groups”. illegitimate in nature. “Organizational politics involve those activities taken within organizations to acquire. but in this sense. they are where the "goods" are distributed and the goals decided.6 The Role of Power and Politics in the Practice OD . like power. Organizational politics tend to be associated with decision-making. holding hidden agendas. For our purposes. Both relate to pursuit of self-interest and overcoming the resistance of others. and influence others. We are inclined to consider politics as neither good nor bad per se but believe that politics. 8. Analyzing these definitions suggests that the concepts of power and politics are similar. and a socialized need to lead. surprise. The positive face is characterized by a balanced pursuit of self-interest and the interests of others. deceiving. Thus. develop and use power and other resources to obtain one’s preferred outcomes in a situation in which there is uncertainty about choices”.8. The negative face of politics is characterized by extreme pursuit of self-interest. initiate. a tendency to view situations in win-lose terms-what I win. unsocialized needs to dominate others.5 Organizational Politics Defined and Explored Harold Lasswell defined “politics simply as the study of who gets what. it is engaging in activities to get one’s way. and conflict resolution processes. One important feature in these definitions should be examined further. engaging in open problem solving followed by action and influencing. Both relate to getting one’s way-effectance. withholding information. one gains a quick understanding of the overall "political climate" of an organization by studying its methods of resource allocation. when. and choosing among alternative means and goals. “Organizational politics is the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain ends through non-sanctioned influence means”. In fact. and how”. the capacity to get things done by virtue of the position held.
thereby making the negative face of power less prevalent and/or necessary. public data are indispensable-for problem solving but anathema for organizational politics. OD values are consistent with the positive face of power. and weaknesses. and educator. Emphasis on power equalization stems from two beliefs: first. But organization members are free to accept or reject the practitioner." The facilitator or educator role is incompatible with a political activist role because cooperation requires one set of behaviors and competition requires a different set of behaviors. collaboration. Values such as trust. rather. public data about the organization’s culture. it is instead a rational problem-solving approach that is incompatible with extreme poweroriented situations. they enhance the positive face of power. processes. the "interventionist" has three primary tasks: (1) to generate valid useful information. second. The role of the OD practitioner is that of a facilitator. and his or her values. organization development represents an approach and method to enable organization members to go beyond the negative face of power and politics. The practitioner works to strengthen skills and knowledge in the organization. and (3) to promote the client’s internal commitment to the choices made. problem solving is usually superior to power coercion as a way to find solutions to problematic situations. all OD interventions promote problem-solving. Not only is organization development not a power/political intervention strategy. being one aspect of the positive face of power. In summary. individual dignity. openness. "Power equalization" has long been described as one of the values of organization development. but not with the negative face of power. and expertise. OD interventions do not deny or attempt to abolish the reality of power in organizations. not politics. The OD consultant. his or her program. co-operation. and by so doing adds power to the organization. like all consultants. OD interventions typically generate valid. collaboration. Cobb and Margulies caution that OD practitioners can get into trouble if they move from a facilitator role to a political role. as a preferred way to get things accomplished. informed choice. catalyst. problem solver. Valid. fact-finding. This major . (2) to promote free. These values are congruent with rational problem solving and incongruent with extremely political modes of operating. power equalization. We know of no OD interventions designed to increase coercion or unilateral power. provides a service that the organization is free to "buy" or "not buy. methods. OD interventions increase problem-solving. and promoting individual and organizational competence are part of the foundation of organization development. and effective pursuit of goals while decreasing reliance on the negative faces of power and politics. In this section we will attempt to integrate those concepts with organization development and offer advice to the OD practitioner for dealing with the political realities found in organizations. According to Chris Argyris. Virtually. The practitioner is not a political activist or power broker. For example. as we discussed earlier. strengths. increases the amount of power available to organization members.We have discussed a number of ideas concerning power and politics.
Success leads to credibility and stature." 4. the OD consultant possesses power from the following bases: legitimate power (the OD program and consultant are authorized by the organization’s decision makers). expert power (the consultant possesses expert knowledge). Paying attention to these sources of power will enhance the likelihood of success of OD programs.7 Operating in a Political Environment We will present some general observations on operating in a political environment. 8. and possibly referent power (others may identify with and be attracted to the consultant). the technology. informational power (the consultant has a wealth of information about the strengths and weaknesses of the organization). According to the framework of French and Raven. it will gain more power. 2. These sources of influence produce a substantial power base that will enhance the likelihood of success. followed by some rules of thumb for the OD practitioner. the values. Political access and sensitivity: Cultivating and nurturing multiple relationships with key power figures in the organization will ensure timely information and multiple sources of support.strength of OD derives from the strategy of change. the resources of OD expertise and ability to help organizational subunits solve their pressing problems. it will be strong externally. in powerful places. 6. Group support: If the OD group is strong internally. Early success in the OD program and its usefulness to key managers of the organization helps promote this reputation. . acceptability. Sponsorship: "Organization development groups will gain power to the extent that they have sponsorship. Michael Beer has identified additional means by which an OD group can gain and wield power in organizations: 1. 5. Competence: Demonstrated competence is the most important source of power. If the OD group is cohesive and free of internal dissention. organization development practitioners operate from a potentially strong power base they can use to advantage. and ability to gain organizational support."34 This maxim has been recognized for years under the heading of "get top-level support for the program. Stature and credibility: Beer notes that power accrues to those who have been successful and effective. and the roles of OD practitioners. Resource management: Power accrues to those who control resources-in this case. preferably multiple sponsorship. First. 3.
and expertise. Each is derived from one general principle: Mind your own business. not the OD consultant. Many OD interventions promote win-win solutions for conflict situations. Sometimes OD practitioners overlook that they are hired by others. both as a person and as a professional. OD practitioners are likely to have high interpersonal competence by virtue of their training. Rule Three: Make the OD program a valued commodity for multiple powerful people in the organization. The nature of organizations and the nature of organization development suggest this rule. usually managers. The preceding rules of thumb describe ways to increase or solidify one’s power base. Rule Four: Create win-win solutions. the manager will vigorously defend it. those issues vital to the organization’s success. Being of value to multiple powerholders rather than a single one both increases support and reduces the likelihood that the program will become the target of political activities. Rule Five: Mind your own business. Another way the OD program becomes a desired commodity is by focusing on important issues. Rule One: Become a desired commodity. problem solving. Becoming a desired commodity as a person means being interpersonally competent and trustworthy. Good OD practitioners will have learned and practiced these skills. OD programs should be results-oriented. and effective conflict management techniques are required to enhance stable.What advice is available for OD practitioners who want to operate more effectively in a political environment? Several rules of thumb are implied by the fact that power accrues to persons who control valued resources or commodities. The following rules describe ways to avoid becoming involved in one’s own or in others’ political struggles. The role of the OD consultant is to help others upon request. and showing appreciation for the strengths of others are components of interpersonal competence. Rule Two: Make the OD program itself a desired commodity. OD programs become desired commodities when they are instruments that allow individuals and organizations to reach their goals. to help them achieve their goals and solve their problems. When the OD program serves the needs of top executives. A valuable by-product of this fact is that if the program runs into political turbulence. experience. coaching. OD consultants have a formal or informal contractual agreement with managers to help them do what they are trying to do-better. which is to help someone else solve his or her major problems. Skills such as listening. communicating. it gains an aura of respect and protection that sets it above most political entanglements. Beer and Walton argue that organization development should move from being practitioner centered to being manager-centered. The OD program belongs to the manager. counseling. constructive social relationships. . Organizations are social systems in which members have both a history and a future of interacting. OD professionals who are skilled in conflict management techniques and OD programs that encompass conflict resolution activities become valued commodities.
Three successful power strategies are "playing it straight. thereby greatly expanding practitioner influence. 8. One carries out such a strategy by participating in alliances and coalitions." which arouses defensive actions. while at the same time increasing his or her usefulness to the organization’s powerholders. and using contacts for information. Illegitimate behavior causes others to try to exert greater control over the situation. the strategy and tactics of influence." OD practitioners have typically pursued a "playing it straight" strategy as their sole means of exerting power. catalyst. Illegitimate behavior encroaches on others’ legitimate "turf. viable. problem solver. and the characteristics and behaviors of powerholders. Abiding by this rule keeps the consultant from becoming entangled in politics. but these give the flavor of the issues one must consider when operating in a political environment. not content. We believe the legitimate role of the OD practitioner is that of facilitator. Table 8. and personality characteristics. not by getting involved in the answers. We could propose more rules of thumb. not power activist or power broker." and "going around the formal system. Rule Seven: Mind your own business because to do otherwise is to invite political trouble. negotiations the nature of power and politics. Attention to these rules can save OD practitioners time and energy that can be more profitably invested in the OD program. which is to be an expert on process. others’ support. but that does not mean practitioners must be naive or incompetent in the political arena. and educator. dealing directly with powerholders and decision makers. yet legitimate means of acquiring power. The authors propose adding the "using social networks" strategy to their repertoires. The principle is simple but powerful: know your legitimate business and stick to it. individual power derives from knowledge.1: Power Base and Power Strategy Connection Individual Power Bases Knowledge Strategies for Success Playing It Straight . Organizational politics revolve around decisions: Should we seek Goal A or Goal B? Should we use Means X or Means Y? Should we promote Mary or John? The proper role of OD consultants is to help decision makers by providing them with good decision-making processes. Networking is recognized as a potent. such behavior is often interpreted as politically motivated. As shown in the figure." "using social networks. A subtle phenomenon is involved here: when people engage in illegitimate behavior. Earlier we stated that the OD practitioner should learn as much as possible about bargaining.Rule Six: Mind your own business.8 Acquiring and Using Power Skills The OD practitioner is neither power activist nor power broker.
The four stages are: Phase I Consolidating Power to Prepare for Change Phase ll Focusing Power on Strategic Consensus Phase Ill Aligning Power with Structure and People Phase IV Realizing Power through leadership and Collaboration These stages are the means the OD consultant uses to "take the high road" mentioned in the previous quotation-build a power base. personal power and position power.) Position power derives from five sources: Centrality-access to information in a communication network. and legitimacy.· Expertise · Information · Tradition Others’ Support · Use data to convince · Focus on target group · Be persistent Using Social Networks · Alliances and coalitions · Deal with decision maker · Contacts for information Going Around Formal System · Work around roadblocks · (Don’t) use organization rules Political access Staff support Personality Charisma Reputation Professional credibility Finally. visibility-how much one’s work is seen by . in turn. arises from expertise. criticality-how important one’s job is flexibility-the amount of discretion in the job. how-to book on power and organization development is well worth studying. This practical. a person’s power comes from two main sources. influence key powerholders to accept the OD program. personal attraction. which in turn will protect the interests of all concerned. Whetton and Cameron’s model is shown in following figure. even those of little power. (Legitimacy refers to abiding by and promoting the values of the organization. then utilize a facilitative OD process in which the powerholders work on strategic business issues using consensus decision making to develop a corporate strategy. Personal power. the authors propose a four-stage model for using the OD process to help the power elite transform the organization in ways beneficial for all concerned. effort. In this model. The power structure will realize that collaborative power is preferable to manipulation and deception.
Reason refers to persuasion by facts. They write: "Influence entails actually securing the consent of others to work with you in accomplishing an objective. and reciprocity can be useful when reason fails. According to these authors. Reciprocity refers to exchange of favors. and (3) empowering others. and relevance-how important one’s task is in relation to organizational priorities. Indeed. (2) selecting the proper influence strategy. Retribution is not recommended except in unusual cases.influential people. one investigation of the determinants of effective management performance concluded that a key factor distinguishing high and low performers was the ability to establish informal relationships via networks”. no one has the necessary information and resources to accomplish what’s expected of them.1: Model of Power and Influence Networking is used to increase both personal power and position power. Whetton and Cameron suggest . Usually reason is the preferred strategy. actually using it to get things done is another. "Power is converted into influence when the target individual consents to behave according to the desires of the power holder. Having power is one thing. “One of the most important ways of gaining power in an organization is by establishing a broad network of task and interpersonal relationships. and retribution. Three influence strategies can be used to influence others-reason. Networks are critical to effective performance for one compelling reason: Except for routine jobs." And. 8. power-in-use is called influence. reciprocity." Three things are involved in converting power into influence: (1) resisting other people’s inappropriate influence attempts. Fig. Retribution refers to coercion and threats.
reputation and professional credibility. and (6) build on success. Power and politics are similar in nature. Our suggestions for using power to operate effectively in organizations may help practitioner avoid the perils and pitfalls of power that "go with the territory" of organizational change. Self Assessment Questions 1. arise from known conditions. _____________ has identified two faces of power. –––––– is the intentional influence over the beliefs. we have examined power and politics with the goals of understanding the phenomena and deriving implications for OD practitioners. units or departments is most important in solving organizational problems.9 Summary Power and politics are inseparable facts of organizational life. and are amenable to positive control. –––––––––– is made up of Charisma. 2. Organizational politics is defined as the study of who gets what. when and how. 8. . The OD practitioner needs both knowledge and skill in the arenas of organizational power and politics. 3. Define power in an organizational context and explain types of power. (2) provide a positive. Methods for empowering others are the following: (1) involve subordinates in assigning work. Power-dependence theory states that power is inherent in any social relationship in which one person is dependent on another. Power based on the power-receiver having identification with the power holder is called ––– ––––––––. 5. Organizational power is the ability of those who possess power to bring about the outcomes they desire. arise from known conditions. emotions or behaviour of people. Power and politics are similar in nature. and how. –––––––– defined politics as the study of who gets what.. when. (4) express confidence (5) foster initiative and responsibility. (3) reward and encourage others in visible and personal ways. and are amenable to positive control. 4. Concluding Comments: In this unit. Organizational politics involve intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self-interest of individuals or groups.10 Terminal Questions 1. collaborative work environment.several means of resisting others’ influence attempts such as confrontation and using countervailing power. Power can be either positive or negative. Strategic-contingency model of power asserts that power that accrues to the individuals. 8.
Personality Answers to TQs: 1. MU0002-Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Unit-09-Structural Interventions and Applicability of Organization Development Structure: 9. Refer section 8. Describe briefly various theories of power. Explain the role of power and politics in the practice of OD. Define organization politics. McClelland 3.2 2.Refer section 8. Refer section 8. Identify the bases of individual power and the respective strategies for their success. Refer section 8.6 5. 4.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University . 8. Refer section 8. Referent power 4. 5. Power 2.11 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs: 1.2.1 Introduction .4 3. Harold Lasswell 5. 3.5 4.
12 Answers to SAQs and TQs 9.4 Management By Objectives 9.10 Summary 9. These programs are derived from careful diagnosis.7 Parallel Learning Structures 9.8 Total Quality Management 9. In this dynamic and fluid environment. actions. how to produce product or service which is related to Employee involvement approaches and how to design work is related to Work design. but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future. An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities.11 Terminal Questions 9.3 Socio Technical Systems 9. These methods are receiving increasing attention in Organization Development.9 Reengineering Self Assessment Questions 9. These interventions vary from standardized program that have been developed and sometimes tailored program.6 Quality of Work Life Projects 9.Objectives 9. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing. organizational problems may repeat.2 Meaning and Definitions 9.1 Introduction Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival. One important intervention technique is Technostructural interventions because these are related to technical and structural issues such as how to divide labour and how to coordinate department which is related to Restructuring organization. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. Objectives: .5 Quality Circles 9.
Once diagnosed and an appropriate correction developed. Basic reinforcement theories. · Explain Reengineering. · Explain Total Quality Management. Organization Acceptance of Change. Succession Doesn’t Destroy Change Effort. Structure changes are normally “institutionalized” and less subject to this problem. meaning the major costs are associated with analysis and design of change. organization theory. Downsizing associated with restructuring. Managers and administrators are notoriously pragmatic. Advantages of Structural Interventions There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention.2 Meaning and Definitions Structural Intervention is related to the changes that relate elements of organization to one another. Greater Predictability. 3. 9. change can be introduced relatively rapidly by top management. and more . 4. Structural changes are consistent with their operating styles and are generally understood by practitioners. Weeks and months of group effort are saved. their attractiveness is also increased by the following advantages: 1. you will be able to: · Explain the Socio technical change.After studying this unit. · Discuss the parallel Learning Structures. · Discuss the Management By Objectives · Explain the Quality Circles. 2. Cost is Low. 5. This normally is a reasonable. Rapidity of change. Changes can involve decentralization and centralization. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. From a benefit cost analysis. The cost of structural change is generally “front-end” loaded. In addition. and OD practice enables the change agent to estimate the probable consequences of the change. includes removing or adding layers to hierarchy. One problem with behavioral/ group interventions is the tendency for new managers or employees to discount or fail to continue the change program.
its definitional aspect. Its basic idea has been derived from the concept of participative goal setting as a technique of OD. The term MBO was coined by Drucker in 1964 when he emphasized the concept of managing by results. 1976.” .3 Socio Technical Systems Socio-technical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs. 9. therefore. 1967. is a technique and system which helps in improving organizational performance. It could involve the following steps (Foster. It endeavors to re-design the organization’s structure. Though there are some variations in the practices of MBO and. Cummings. though not strictly an OD intervention in the sense in which other interventions have been discussed so far.critically. many business and nonbusiness organizations have adopted this in some form or the other.4 Management by Objectives Management by objectives (MBO). it has been defined as follows: MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. a predictable cost Implementation of group strategies involves significant long-term man-hour and consultant costs. processes and functions to create a balance between the organization and its changing external environment. Pasmore. 1988): • Determining the environmental demands • Creating a vision statement • Educating organizational members • Creating the change structure • Conducting socio-technical analysis • Formulating re-design proposals · Defining the scope of the system to be re-designed · Implementing recommended changes · Evaluating changes 9. Since then. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives.
A management technique can be applied in selected parts of the organization and will have limited implications for its other parts. Objectives provide the means for integrating the organization with its environment. with objective orientation as its essence. This process clarifies the role very sharply in terms of what one is expected to achieve. The total management process revolves round the objectives set jointly by the superior and the subordinate.” Based on the definition of MBO. reward and punishment system is attached with the achievement of the objectives. The MBO is characterized by the participation of concerned managers in objective setting and performance reviews. Whereas the various techniques of management help in measurement of results in resources. 4. managers have the opportunities for clarifying their job relationships with peers. Objectives are established for all the levels of the organization. Objectives in MBO provide guidelines for appropriate system and procedures. and human resources of the organization by integrating the individual with organization and organization with the environment.. its features can be identified as follows: 1. The basic emphasis of MBO is on objectives. 6. all the units or departments and individual manager. each manager takes active part in setting objectives for himself and also in evaluating his performance as to how he is performing. It works as an integrating device. Periodic review of performance is an important feature of MBO. MBO is the joint application of a number of principles and techniques. Similarly. MBO is also concerned with determining what these results and resources should be. On the other hand. Certain degree of overlapping is there. its subsystems and people. delegation of authority. MBO is an approach and philosophy to management and not merely a technique.The integration of individual and organizational objectives through MBO has been emphasized by Chakravarty when he has defined MBO as follows: “MBO is a result-centered. normally once a year. non-specialist. . 2. often MBO provides the stimulus for the introduction of new techniques of management and enhances the relevance and utility of the existing ones. including the corporate level. superiors and subordinates. Therefore. MBO is bound to have some relationship with every management technique. It is a particular way of thinking about management. physical. It emphasises initiative and active role by the manger who is responsible for achieving objectives. Resource allocation. 3. etc. The review is future-oriented because it provides basis for planning and corrective actions. 5. This is possible because MBO tries to match objectives and resources. As an approach to management. operational managerial process for the effective utilization of material. are determined on the basis of objectives. Therefore. MBO employs several techniques but it is not merely the sum total of all these techniques. The performance review is held regularly. In fact. MBO is likely to affect every management practice in the organization.
Process of MBO MBO is a system for achieving organizational objectives, enhancement of employee commitment and participation. Therefore, its process should facilitate translation of basic concepts into management practice. The MBO process is characterized by the emphasis on the rigorous analysis, the clarity and balance of objectives, and participation of the managers with accountability for results. The MBO process is not as simple as it appears to be. Managers need training and experience for developing the required skills. 1. Setting of Organizational Purpose and Objectives: The first step in MBO is the definition of organizational purpose and objectives. Questions, such as, “why does the organization exist?”. What business are we in?” and what should be our business?” provide guidelines for the statement of purpose. This, in interaction with external factors, then determines the long-range strategic objectives like (i) whether to achieve growth through expansion in the same line of business or diversity: (ii) what should be blending of trading and manufacturing activities; (iii) what should be the degree of vertical integration and so on. Usually the objective setting starts at the top level of the organization and moves downward to the lowest managerial levels. This will go in a sequence like this (i) defining the purpose of the organization, (ii) long-range and strategic objectives, (iii) short-term organizational objectives, (iv) divisional/departmental/sectional objectives, (v) individual manager’s objectives. 2. Key Result Areas: Organizational objective and planning premises together provide the basis for the identification of key result areas (KRAs). It may be emphasized that KRAs are derived from the expectations of various stakeholders and indicate the priorities for organizational performance. KRAs also indicate the present state of an organization’s health and the top management perspective for the future. Examples of KRAs applicable to most of the business organizations are (i) profitability, (ii) market standing, (iii) innovation, (iv) productivity, (v) worker performance, (vi) financial and physical resources, (vii) manager performance, and (viii) public responsibility. Even though KRAs are most durable, the list of KRAs gets considerably changed over the period in response to new needs and opportunities. Sometimes, the achievement in a particular KRA also provides the impetus for a new KRA in future. 3. Setting Subordinates’ Objectives: The organizational objectives are achieved through individuals. Therefore, each individual manager must know in advance what he is expected to achieve. Every manager in the managerial hierarchy is both superior and subordinate except the person at the top level and lowest level. Therefore, there is a series of superior and subordinate relationships. The process of objective setting begins with superior’s proposed recommendations for his subordinate’s objectives. In turn, the subordinate states his own objectives as perceived by him. Thereafter, the final objectives for the subordinate are set by the mutual negotiation between superior and subordinate. In the beginning of MBO process in an organization, there may be wide gap between the recommended objectives by the superior and subordinate’s stated objectives because the latter may like to put lesser burden on him by
setting easily achievable objectives. However, with the experience gained over the period of time, this gap narrows because of narrowing down of perception of superior and subordinate about what can be done at a particular level. 4. Matching Resources with Objectives: When objectives are set carefully, they also indicate the resource requirement. In fact, resource availability becomes an important aspect of objective setting because it is the proper application of resources which ensures objective achievement. Therefore, there should be matching between objectives and resources. By relating these to objectives, a superior manager is better able to set the need and economy of allocating resources. By relating these to objectives, a superior manger is better able to see the need and economy of allocating resources. The allocation and movement of resources should be done in consultation with the subordinate manager. 5. Appraisal: Appraisal aspect of MBO tries to measure whether the subordinate is achieving his objective or not. If not, what are the problems and how these problems can be overcome? Appraisal is undertaken as an ongoing process with a view to find out deficiency in the working and also to remove it promptly. It is not taken merely to punish the non-performer or to reward the performer. It is taken as a matter of system to ensure that everything is going as planned and the organization is able to achieve its objectives. 6. Recycling: Though appraisal is the last aspect of MBO process, it is used as an input for recycling objectives and other actions. Objectives are neither set at the top and communicated to the bottom nor are they set at the bottom and go up. Objective setting is a joint process through interaction between superior and subordinate. Therefore, what happens at each level may affect other levels also. The outcome of appraisal at one level is recycled to see if the objectives have been set properly at the level concerned and also at the next higher level. 9.5 Quality Circles Quality circle is one of the most popular methods in the USA which was originally developed in Japan in 1950s.Quality circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems. Quality circle requires a managerial philosophy and culture that promotes sharing power, information, knowledge, and rewards. Quality circle program consists of several circles, each having three to fifteen members. The original idea of quality circles involved small groups of volunteers meeting on a regular basis, but in its contemporary form, quality groups are often compulsory and organized around specific work teams. Some organizations have even gone as far as setting targets for the number of suggestions quality groups are expected to come up with. 9.6 Quality of Work Life Based on the research of Eric Trist et al. at the Tavistcock Institute of Human Relations in London, this approach looked both at technical and human sides of organizations and how they
are interrelated. QWL programs, in general, require joint participation by union and management in the process of work-designing, which consequently result into high level of task variety, appropriate feedback and employee discretion. The most distinguishing feature of QWL program is the development of self-managing work groups which consist of multi-skilled workers. 9.7 Parallel Learning Structures Parallel Learning Structures (also known as Communities of Practice) promote innovation and change in large bureaucratic organizations while retaining the advantages of bureaucratic design. Groups representing various levels and functions work to open new channels of communication outside of and parallel to the normal, hierarchical structure. Parallel Learning Structures may be a form of Knowledge Management. Knowledge Management involves capturing the organization’s collective expertise wherever it resides (in databases, on paper, or in people’s heads) and distributing it to the people who need it in a timely and efficient way. It Consists of a steering committee and a number of working groups that: · Study what changes are needed in the organization, · Make recommendations for improvement, and · Then monitor the resulting change efforts. 9.8 Total Quality Management It is a long term effort that orients all of an organization’s activities around the concept of quality. It is very popular in USA in 1990s.TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization, provides relevant information to all employees, ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. It is also called continuous quality improvement. A combination of a number of organization improvement techniques and approaches, including the use of quality circles, statistical quality control, statistical process control, self-managed teams and task forces, and extensive use of employee participation. Features that characterize TQM: · Primary emphasis on customers. · Daily operational use of the concept of internal customers. · An emphasis on measurement using both statistical quality control and statistical process control techniques.
contemporary measures of performance. Sociotechnical systems design is better suited to meet the requirements of a changing external environment in comparison with traditional designs.· Competitive benchmarking. 2. service. Reengineering is a top-down process. Reengineering focuses on visualizing and streamlining any or all business processes in the organization. and speed.9 Reengineering It is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical. actions. MBO is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key managerial activities in a systematic manner. · Top management support on an ongoing basis. · A major emphasis on continuous learning. · Continuous search for sources of defects with a goal of eliminating them entirely. From a benefit cost analysis. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. · An emphasis on teams and teamwork. __________ represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. structural Interventions compare quite favorably with all other alternatives. · Participative management. 9. Quality . or restructuring activities without regard to present hierarchical or control procedures. 9. An organization development __________ is a sequence of activities. There are a number of reasons why a consultant should consider employing a structural intervention. The term MBO was coined by _________ in 1964. quality. 3. eliminating. assumes neither an upward flow of involvement nor that consensus decision making. events intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness.10 Summary An organization development intervention is a sequence of activities. actions. such as cost. It seeks to make such processes more efficient by combining. Self Assessment Questions 1. consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives.
9. 9. What are the advantages of structural interventions? 3. . Explain Management By Objectives? 4. Drucker 3.3 2. It is also called continuous quality improvement.circle represents a participative approach to employee involvement in problem solving and productivity improvement. Refer section 9.5 4.Refer section 9.11 Terminal Questions 1.2 3.12 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. Intervention 2. TQM pushes decision making power downwards in the organization. Refer section 9. Refer section 9. Discuss Socio Technical Systems? 2. Quality circle Answers to TQs: 1. provides relevant information to all employees. ties reward to performance and increase workers knowledge and skills through extensive training. Write a short note on Total Quality Management. It consists of small group of employees who meet voluntarily to identify and solve productivity problems.8 Copyright © 2009 SMU Powered by Sikkim Manipal University .
cope with the ongoing changes successfully in the first instance. 10. and initiate new change so as to overtake the competitors one the one hand and delight the customers on the other. the mangers and other employees must be able to practically anticipate the changes (planned and unprecedented). but solutions to the same problems which worked out very well in the past may not be of any use to tackle the same problems at present or in the foreseeable future.1 Introduction Objectives 10. organizational problems may repeat.1 Introduction Change in Organizations are increasingly realizing the fact that change is the price of the survival.9 Answers to SAQs and TQs 10. Nothing is permanent except change because change is permanently changing.2 Nature of Change 10. Hence.7 Summary 10.3 Resistance to Change 10. Objectives: . Self Assessment Questions 10.8 Terminal Questions 10.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change.4 Causes for Resistance to Change.MU0002-Unit-10-Managing Organization Development Unit-10-Managing Change in Organization Development Structure: 10. In this dynamic and fluid environment.5 Impact of Change on the Future Manager 10.
· State the methods of reducing resistance to change.whether physical. biological. some parts may be affected directly. They have illustrated it by comparing an organization to an air-filled balloon.After studying this unit. organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. organizational change may have the following features: 1. some changes which are of minor type may be absorbed by the existing equilibrium. some parts of organization may be affected more. The type of new equilibrium depends on the degree of change and its impact on the organization. Thus. and others. 10. and others. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization – technology. you will be able to: · Explain the meaning of organization change. the contour of the balloon visibly changes. Thus. it disturbs the old equilibrium necessitating the development of a new equilibrium. 3. job design and people. Thus. others. indirectly. Organizational change is a continuous process. if we look minutely. When a finger (which represents external force) is forced against a point on the balloon (which represents the organization). Newstrom and Davis have explained the impact of a change in any part of the organization on the total organization. Any change may effect the whole organization. 2. . However.2 Nature of Change The term ‘change’ refers to an alteration in a system. or social. the change in organization does not occur purely on mechanical relationship. they have concluded that the whole organization tends to be affected by change in any part of it. · Impact of change on future managers. employees want to maintain a status quo. However. structural arrangement. we find that the shape of the entire balloon has changed. it becomes indented at the point of contact. While managers as change agents want to bring changes in the organization. When change occurs in any part of the organization. it has stretched slightly. what is important at this point is that a change in any part affects the entire organization and subsequent changes are required in other parts. Though this phenomenon will be taken later. However. which are major ones. may require special change efforts. less. · Discuss the nature of change · Explain resistance to change and the factors which resist change.
Thus. On this phenomenon. “The Pune plant is fully saturated. In fact.as cost and as benefit. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. like shifting of the manufacturing plants at new locations. Resistance to change forces management to find out this reality which helps in managing change more effectively. When change is minor and within the scope of correcting programme. commented. let us discuss whether resistance is always bad as it is generally perceived to be. the company procured land near its old plant site but later shifted the new plant site away from the old plant because of resisting work culture of the old plant which was expected to percolate to the new plant also. Managing Director of Bajaj Auto. or they have been forced to adopt alternative strategies. the reality lies in between. resistance to change is costly affair.” Resistance as Benefit: On the one hand. and its basic survival may be jeopardized. Homeostasis implies self-correcting characteristics of organism to maintain equilibrium as a result of change. We shall take new workers at the new place. In fact. Similarly. people act to establish a steady state of need fulfillment and to secure themselves from disturbance of that balance. but when a change is major or unusual. Resistance as Cost: Since all changes have some cost. Madhur Bajaj. more serious upsets may occur. One example of Bajaj Auto Limited is relevant here. because it produces identical symptoms. many organizations have been forced to abandon change programmes because of resistance to such programmes. In order to increase its manufacturing capacity of two-wheelers. it provides some benefits to the organization as its change agent. and on the other. the managers face the problem of resistance to change. so is the resistance to change. resistance to change provides help in managing change in two ways: . adjustment is fairly routine. This leads to general proposition that people and their social systems will often resist change in organizations. social systems tend to resist change because of homeostasis. the organizational may not be able to introduce new phenomena in order to adapt environmental requirement. We wanted a new culture and new layout. In fact. If people resist to change. fear of change can be as significantly disrupting as change itself.10. Before we trace out the reasons for résistance to change. that is. While on negative side. there are two sides of resistance. Resistance by some members of the organization provides an opportunity to the change agents to weigh the pros and cons of introducing change more carefully. We saw resistance to change at the existing plant.3 Resistance to Change In the management of change effectively. Many companies have been forced to do so in the past.
Reduced Opportunities for Incentives: Employees are generally offered incentives linked to their output in the form of incentive schemes.. Whenever there is change. Fear of Economic Loss: A change may create fear of economic loss in the sense that it may affect economic compensation adversely. When computer was introduced in the business sector in India. 2. job security etc. it attracted a lot of resistance because of this reason. either real or emotional. etc. These feeling may be based either on reality or there may be emotional feeling towards the change. the reasons underlying resistance to change may be identified at these two levels: Individual Resistance There are many factors operating at the individual level which are responsible for resistance. they will have lower opportunity to earn incentives and bonus as the new system requires additional skills. technology. These feelings. etc. Factors in Resistance to Change People tend to evaluate the effect of change individually but they express it through group in collective form. People may perceive that they will be adversely affected by the change in terms of their needs satisfaction in the following ways: 1. precede over other needs. Therefore. psychological and social. Skill Obsolescence: A change is generally meant for better methods of working which may involve new techniques. people may feel that in the new system. 3. they simply resist such a change. It also highlights real inadequacies in the proposed change and suggests better ways for developing and introducing changes. and turn into technological unemployment. whenever people sense that new machinery (change) poses a threat of replacing or degrading them. All these are well-established in the old system. This feeling is created because people feel that those who can match the new requirements will be better off than those who cannot match. reduce job options. may be seen in the context of three types of factors: economic. Degree of force in resistance depends on how people feel about change. 2. Economic Factors People feel attached to the organization for satisfying their needs and economic needsphysiological.1. It may signal the need for more effective communication about the meaning and purpose of a change or need to rethink precisely how a proposed change will affect the organization and its members. bonus. Psychological Factors .
1. Major psychological factors responsible for resistance are: ego defensiveness. This lack of certainty creates anxiety and stress in the minds of people and they want to avoid it. Desire to Maintain Existing Social Interaction: People desire to maintain existing social interaction since it is a satisfying one. The major factors causing resistance to change are: desire to retain existing social interaction and feeling of outside interference. Some people have very low level of tolerance for change and ambiguity as compared to others. people may differ. through their mutual compatible interactions. and fear of unknown. 3. Status Quo: People want status quo. people resist it. the person who initiates change. Social Factors People derive need satisfaction. particularly social needs. Thus. Therefore. that is. If people have low degree of confidence in the change agent. which is always uncertain. . 5. which people do not want. This is the reason why labour union resists changes initiated by management because of the feeling that labour and management are two different interest groups in the organization.Psychological factors are based on people’s emotions. When there is any change. low tolerance for change. these people resist any new idea. Therefore. i. they resist change. Ego Defensiveness: A change may affect the ego of the people affected by the change and in order to defend their ego. they do not want any disturbance in their existing equilibrium of life and work pattern. may be logical from people’s point of view but may be illogical from the change agent’s point of view. everyone tries to avoid it. The change will bring results in future. To the extent the satisfaction of these needs is affected by a change. Lack of Trust in Change Agent: The effect of change is perceived in the context of change agent. The lack of adequate information about the likely impact of change further complicates the problems. the change may be perceived as an instrument for exposing the weakness of the people. people resist change. Fear of Unknown: A change may be perceived as entering into unchartered area which is unknown. A change in itself suggests that everything is not right at a particular level. The change initiated by the organization disturbs such equilibrium and people have to obtain another equilibrium which is a painful exercise. These are qualitative and. therefore. 1. lack of trust in change agent. they show resistance to change efforts. Low Tolerance for Change: In the context of maintaining status quo. 2. sentiments and attitudes towards change. status quo. 4. their existing social interactions are likely to be changed.e. Therefore. They form their own social groups at the work place for the satisfaction of their social needs.
these organizations start falling. Strategies. Many organizations are designed to be innovation-resisting. a bureaucratic organization has certain fixed rules. Whether it is IBM. For example. prescribes rigid authority relationships. change initiated by managers affecting workers. 3. If the organization is not fully equipped for meeting such demands. Zerox or nearer home-TI cycles. Sumantra Ghoshal. the organization may not bring it easily because it is accustomed to a particular system. For example. It a change is required in these aspects. resources and processes of the most successful companies have in the past ossified into clichés. It is called ‘The Failure of Success’. Stability of Systems: The organization may design a system through which it may derive many benefits. e. 2. All these work in some circumstances. all these companies have been victims of corporate disease. and inter-organizational agreement. even the organization itself resists many changes because of certain reasons. The latter my feel that managers try to make workers an instrument for higher productivity but the outcome of this productivity will be retained by them. The major reasons for organizational failure to change are: counting past successes. it may not be possible for the organization to bring necessary change.. This is the reason why many old industrial houses are languishing far behind and their places are being taken away by newer organizations. nothing fails as spectacularly as spectacular success. resource limitations. and institutes reward and punishment system. a professor of strategic leadership who is considered to be a management Guru. Feeling of Outside Interference: A change brought about by the change agent is considered to be interference in the working of people. The system is stabilized and any change may be perceived as a threat by the organization itself. has commented as follows: “Nothing fails like success. sunk cost.” This statement suggests that organizations tend to stabilize at a particular level and if the change efforts are not brought. Organizational Resistance to Change: Not only individuals and groups within an organization resist change. For example. Caterpillar. Digital Equipment Corporation. Counting Past Successes: A major problem before the organizations which have past success stories is how to face challenges of the changing environment. Some of these reasons are basic while others are by-products of those. Since these organizations have achieved success by following a particular set of management practices. first two reasons are basic and others are by-products of the first two.2.g. For example. stability of systems. an organization has to adapt to its environment but the adaptation has its own cost. millstones and routines. This phenomenon is heightened if the change agent belongs to another social class. they become too rigid to change and they hide their failure to change in the guise of past successes. Many powerful organizations of the past have failed to change and they have developed into routines. dogmas. values. Resource Limitations: No doubt. if new . 1.
Defenders: These are the firms which penetrate in a narrow market product domain and guard it. In such a case. if the change is required. innovative. Now. and put less emphasis on environmental scanning. 5. If it is risk-taking. It depends more on the style of top management.technology is adopted. Thus. those who watch things happen. and reserve some resources unutilized for future use. the organization may take change programmes much more frequently. the organization has to take into consideration the wishes of other organizations too. 1. Analyzers: Above two are the extreme cases of choice-making modes in between the analyzers and reactors.” This is the true reflection of difference between change-initiating companies and changeresisting companies. prospectors. Otherwise.defenders. building and training for its personnel. In this interaction process. 4. Once the assets are acquired. it may enter into agreement with other organizations over certain aspects of working. Prospectors: These firms use broad planning approaches. it is not necessary that his services are done away with. forward-looking. . For example. Reactors: These organizations realize that their specific environment is changing but fail to relate themselves with the changing environment. Let us see what someone has said long back: “There are three types of companies: those who make things happen. Based on the aggressiveness which various companies show in changing themselves. Sunk cost cannot be only in terms of various physical things. they have to behave in one of the above three ways. and has zeal for progress. This can be in the form of people also. They go on searching new products/markets on regular basis. decentralized controls. Sunk Cost: Most of the organizations have sunk cost involved in various assets. if any change is to be incorporated. organization has to pay for his services though these may not be as useful. Miles and Snow have classified them into four categories. what will happen to these assets? Naturally. those who wonder what happened. Analyzers act sometimes as defenders and sometimes as prospectors. centralized control. broad environmental scanning. analyzers. 4. the organization will like to make a comparison between the outcomes of changed programme and continuing with old programme in the light of this sunk cost. It an individual is not making commensurate contribution. They emphasize more on cost-effectiveness. It is necessary too that other organizations also agree to the change proposal. the organization may enter into agreement with labour union about not bringing any technological change. and reactors. they cannot survive. 2. Inter-organizational Agreements: The organization interacts with its environment. intensive planning. these can be used for specific period. and commensurate expenses on other items also. 3. Therefore. it will require resources to procure machine.
therefore. So when your department is moved to a new office building across town. They may. do you continually use the same route and streets? Probably if you’re like most people. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints. we all rely on habits. If for example. or deferred. many employees at these firms may fear that their jobs are in jeopardy. taking a new set of streets to work. it means you’re likely to have to change many habits: waking up 10 minutes earlier. we’ve categorized them by individual and organizational sources. you find a single route and you use it regularly. developing a new lunchtime routine. Economic Factors: Another source of individual resistance is concern that changes will lower one’s income. the selection process systematically selects certain people in and certain people out. finding a new parking place. Security: People who have a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feeling of safety. this tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance. Training . Let’s look at the sources of resistance. Organizational resistance Structural Inertia: Organizations have built-in mechanisms to produce stability.10. and so on. Changes in job tasks or established work routines also can arouse economic fear if people are concerned they won’t be able to perform the new tasks or routines to their previous standards. or programmed responses. Life is complex enough. some may fear they’ll be unable to do so. As human beings. implicit. threatening to go on strike. or the like. Fear of the Unknown: Change substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the known. engaging in a work showdown. the introduction of a quality management program requires that production workers learn statistical process control techniques. adjusting to the new office layout. And people in general don’t like the unknown. Resistance can be overt. we’re creatures of habit. The same applies to employee. when you go to work or school. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. For analytical purpose. immediate. especially when pay is closely tied to productivity. develop a negative attitude towards quality management or behave dysfunctionally if required to use statistical techniques. When Boeing announces its laying off 10. For example. When we are confronted with change.4 Cause for Resistance to Change Resistance to change doesn’t necessarily surface in standardized ways.000 people or Ford introduces new robotic equipment. To cope with this complexity. Habit Every day. For instance. we don’t need to consider the full range of options for the hundreds of decisions we have to make every day.
development of pay plans. One area of organizations that continues its metamorphosis is the design itself. For example. human resource people with engineers and finance individuals with operations employees. group norms may act as a constraint. rules and procedures for employees to follow. But if union norms dictate resisting any unilateral change made by management. may be willing to accept changes in his job suggested by management. Threat to Expertise: Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups. if management changes the technological processes without simultaneously modifying the organization’s structure to match. Thereat to Established Power Relationships: Any redistribution of decision-making authority can threaten long-established power relationship within the organization. for instance.and other socialization techniques reinforce specific role requirements and skills. accountants work with marketers. 10. Introduction of participative decision making or self-managed work teams are examples of changes that often are seen as threats to the power of supervisors and middle managers. These teams are comprised of people from various areas within the company. For example. They tend to be content with the way things are. People from one functional department are placed on terms with people from other functional areas. Group Inertia: Even if individuals want to change their behavior.5 Impact of Change on Future Manager Organizations are changing nearly daily. Why? Because this outsourcing is a threat to the specialized skills held by people in HR departments. You can’t change one without affecting the others. for instance. Changing Skill Sets More organizations are utilizing cross functional teams. mean a reduction in their budgets or a cut in their staff size? Those who most benefit from the current allocation of resources are often threatened by change that may affect future allocations. So limited changes in subsystems tend to get nullified by the larger system. the way in which companies are configured today is changing. That is. the change in technology is not likely to be accepted. and benefits administration – has been resisted by many human resource departments. . The recent move by some companies to outsource many of their human resource activities – such as training. he’s likely to resist. Will the change. Limited Focus of Change: Organization is made up of interdependent subsystems. The only constant in organizational life today appears to be the presence of continuous change. Threat to Established Resource Allocations: the groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. Formalization provides job description. An individual union member.
at the level of individual and at the level of group. More fluid structures require that managers improve their strategic orientation. For this purpose. the problems can be solved at the same level. Therefore. When the resistance comes from the people at individual levels. In many cases.” The newer organizational structures use term problem solving. it can make effectively by managing resistance effectively. both at the formal and informal levels. rather should be looked upon as a dialogue which continues over a period of time. Involvement: Involvement is a process through which those who are affected by the change are brought to understand the change. As organizations must be better equipped to respond to change in their external environment.” Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. strategic directions for the company must be identified in light of these changes. the role of formal authority in implementing a change may not be effective all the times. This requires that managers think differently and teach employees to think differently. 10.The ultimate goal is to improve organizational performance by cutting production time or time to market. Unless this problem is overcome properly. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups. this is not a one-time action. Stephen Robbins suggests that “…… managers in virtual structures spend most of their time coordinating and controlling external relations. It implies explanation and . They need to be adept at reading the trends in the environment and then determining what they mean specifically for their own organization. typically by way of computer network links. In addition. Problem solving now involves the people who are experts in the issue – not necessarily those in high positions in the organization.6 Methods of Reducing Resistance to Change One of the basic problems in managing change is to overcome people’s resistance to change successfully. the following efforts can be taken: 1. Efforts at Individual Level A change is likely to affect some people in some way. Decision making is becoming more and more comfortable for those throughout the organization as the need to make decisions is distributed more evenly across all organizational levels. However. even the impact of change may be dysfunctional if change is imposed upon the people by the use of formal authority. Locavini observes that “the secret of real success is effective management of the emotional vulnerability that accompanies organizational change. managers must be more skilled at reading the environment and grasping the big picture. that is. the effect of the change may not be as functional as envisaged by the management. For example. through group dynamics. It may affect only a few while others may not be affected.
more than one person is involved in the change. It includes finding out from the members how they interpret the proposed changes and what they think about them. A manager as weak leader presents change on the basis of the impersonal requirements of the situation. The fundamental idea in this process is to encourage the person to say something about any aspect of the change. 4. and indoctrinated in new relationships. Commitment to take part in the change programme can be obtained in private from each individual. However.then discussion of the proposed changes. 2. the leader tries to overcome this resistance by leadership process. Based on these characteristics of group as a means of change. is an important trust-building task. either the subordinates do not resist or if they resist. Obtaining Commitment: Commitment is an agreement to take an active part in the actual mechanics of the change. However. They must be taught new skills. People should be educated to become familiar with change. it is desirable at the group level to get better acceptability of change. its process and working. it is more meaningful if it is done through group. An effective leader tries to time a change to fit the psychological needs of his followers. Leadership: The role of leadership in getting acceptance for a change is very important as a capable leader reinforces a climate of psychological support for change. sometimes. Such educational process can be aided by training classes. helped to change attitudes. he expresses it through a group. most of the times. Training and Psychological Counseling: The management can change the basic values of the people by training and psychological counseling. As this process goes. For using group as a means of overcoming resistance to change. 3. the level of resistance to change tends to decrease. The decision to commit oneself is a dynamic process. Though each person interprets the change individually often. education must be a part of the manager’s everyday activity on the job. This helps in creating receptive environment in the organization. so that they are looked at and evaluated. must be understood so that its effective use can be made. the manager can form strategies for overcoming resistance in the following manner: . It grows slowly along with relationship. and conferences. to become effective. its basic nature. understanding of change increases and personal involvement in the change increases. Thus. as discussed earlier. Group dynamics offers some basic help in this regard. getting a man to commit himself in private to change programme may yield fewer results than if he voluntarily and publicly gives his commitment to an idea of change. meetings. Efforts at Group Level Although agreement to a change can be obtained individually. Thus. but a transformational leader can use personal reasons for change without arousing resistance. People always have some ideas and opinions about what is going on in the world and more specially if touches them personally. instead of solving the problem at the individual level. Usually. Getting opinions out in the open.
It makes people feel that the organization needs their opinions and ideas and is unwilling to go ahead without taking them into account. Free flow of information helps people to understand the real picture of the change and many misunderstandings may be avoided. The laboratory method provides a setting where group processes can be studied intensively. The group contact offers some specific advantages: (i) Through groups. psychodrama. It would be prudent for management to take labour representatives into confidence before implementing any change. Self Assessment Questions 1. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization – technology. 3. _________ is the alteration of work environment in an organization. and how members contribute. Those people who are directly affected by the change should be given opportunity to participate in that change before the final decisions are reached. Through the group contact. It purports how the results are. benefits of change. For this purpose. there may be some person who may communicate to the same group. __________ are based on people’s emotions. The same is true of problem-solving. 2. mere participation may not help. taking whole of the group into confidence helps in maintaining a cooperative attitude. 2. and how the benefits of the meaningful and continuous dialogue are necessary. Research studies also support this aspect. _________ helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. Such training techniques include role playing. Such training techniques provide understanding of behaviour. the group itself should be the point of contact. structural arrangement. Participation: Participation helps to give people involved in the organizational change and inculcate a feeling of importance. one can communicate with more people per unit of time.such aspects as the reasons for change. (ii) In group. (iii) Group can get at the basic problem very rapidly as compared to a single individual. job design and people. Group Contact: Any effect to change is likely to succeed if the group accepts that change. . 3. thereby the people can build up the climate based on mutual trust and understanding which are essential for bringing organizational changes successfully. many things about change can be made clear. Even if only some of the members are affected by the change. and sensitivity or T-group training. sentiments and attitudes towards change. However. They must be made a party to the change rather than an agent for resistance to change.1. This is more important in the case of workers who themselves treat a separate group and do not identify with the management. The organization must regard the participation as meaningful and share the results of the change with its members. Group Dynamics Training for Change: Group dynamics also helps in providing various training programmes for accepting and implementing change.
Organizational change is the alteration of work environment in an organization. group resistance and vested interests. psychological factors. threatening to go on strike. Why do organizations resist change? 3. Organizational change 2. For instance. Economic factors. Refer section 10. or the like. 10. Refer section 10. implicit. or deferred. through group dynamics. that is. Changes may be influenced by external and internal factors. Explain the nature of change? 2.10. immediate. both at the formal and informal levels. at the level of individual and at the level of group. Both these attempts are complementary and sometimes these efforts may be overlapping because every individual is a member of some of the groups.9 Answers to SAQs and TQS SAQs: 1. Reference: .8 Terminal Questions 1.4 3. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organization. engaging in a work showdown. social factors. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate. People tend to resist many types of changes because new habits or sacrifices are required. Psychological factors 3.2 2.7 Summary Change is inevitable. Participation Answers to TQs: 1. 10. Refer section 10.6. Problem of overcoming resistance to change can be handled at two levels. Discuss the methods of reducing resistance to change. a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints. Resistance can be overt.
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