STEEL CASTINGS HANDBOOK Supplement 7 Welding of High Alloy Castings

Steel Founders' Society of America 2004

Welding of high alloy steel castings by E. A. Schoefer Consultant Steel Founders’ Society of America Edited by M. Blair Steel Founders’ Society of America 1. Introduction Iron-base and nickel-base high alloys - by definition those containing eight percent or more of another element - are widely used for construction of industrial process equipment that must resist the deteriorating effect of a corrosive of high temperature environment. Both wrought and cast forms of such alloys may be welded during the manufacture of finished components so the weldability of the alloys often is a matter of concern to the user. The same welding processes are applied to wrought and cast products and, in general, similar techniques and practices are employed. Differences between wrought and cast alloys in chemical composition and microstructure, however, influence the welding characteristics of each form and must be given consideration. In addition, the high alloys differ markedly from carbon and low alloy steels in physical properties such as electrical resistance, thermal expansion and thermal conductivity. It is essential, therefore, to employ procedures allowing for all these factors when welding high alloy castings. 1.1 All the casting alloys have equal or better weldability than the corresponding wrought alloys, but there are variations from grade to grade in the ease with which satisfactory welds are obtained. The low-carbon, austenitic grades usually are considered easier to weld than high-carbon austenitic or straight-chromium ferritic or martensitic types. Nevertheless, each of the standard alloy compositions can be welded successfully in the foundry. Using information derived from the extensive research of Alloy Casting Institute and Steel Founders’ Society of America, the foundryman often is able to tailor the composition balance especially to provide the optimum weldability. Accordingly, castings are readily welded into fabricated structures and welding is considered a regular part of the foundry production process. 1.2 Welding is used a procedure for upgrading casting quality during the course of manufacture through improvement of surface conditions, or by elimination of shrinkage voids. It is also used for producing large or complex assemblies where the size of the completed structure precludes production as a one-piece castings, or where total quality will be improved by dividing the structure into simpler components which can later be welded int an integral assembly. 1.3 Welds properly made do not impair high alloy castings with respect to their corrosion resistance or their mechanical properties from sub-zero to elevated temperatures.

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Proven welding techniques that are procedurally correct and metallurgically sound involve consideration of the following factors: a. Characteristics of the alloy type b. Choice of filler material c. Preparation of the weld cavity or joint d. The weld process to be used e. Preweld and postweld heat treatment f. Methods of demonstrating weld quality All of these topics will be covered in subsequent sections of this discussion or in the accompanying welding procedure descriptions. 2. Properties of the alloy types At the outset it is necessary to review the microstructures and the physical and mechanical properties of the different high alloy types because the effects of exposure to welding temperatures vary among the alloy grades. The microstructures that are developed during welding influence the physical and mechanical properties of the alloys, and they, in turn, influence the soundness of the welds. Four classes of high alloy castings will be discussed: a) Iron-Chromium, b) Iron-Chromium-Nickel, c) IronNickel-Chromium, and d) Nickel-base. The cast alloys are also classified according to their end use as “corrosion resistant” or “heat resistant” and there are important differences in the alloy compositions used in each group. In the corrosion resistant category by far the greatest tonnage of castings is produced in the iron-chromium-nickel class, with iron-chromium types in second place; whereas in the heat resistant group the iron-nickel-chromium alloy types rank almost equally with the iron-chromium-nickel class. The heat resistant alloys are generally higher in alloy content than the corrosion resistant types and in nearly all cases are substantially higher in carbon content. These differences make it desirable to consider the corrosion and heat groups separately. 2.1 Corrosion resistant grades Electrical resistivity of the corrosion resistant alloys is five to ten times higher than carbon steel. Welding current requirements therefore, are lower than for carbon steel and attention should be given to the amperage and voltage recommendations of the filler metal manufacturer. Excessive heat input should be avoided because the low thermal conductivities of the high alloys (about 50 percent less than steel) combined with the generally higher thermal expansion coefficients (about 50 percent greater than steel) tend to create steep temperature gradients and high thermal stresses in the weld zone. 2.1.1 Iron-chromium alloy types are martensitic or ferritic in microstructure depending on the chromium and carbon content in the composition. They are sub-divided, therefore, into “hardenable” and “non-hardenable” groups. 2.1.1.1 The CA15 and CA40 (11.5 - 14 Cr) hardenable alloys transform to austenite in the weld and in the heat affected zone of the base metal. Transformation of the

an austenitic filler metal can be used to improve the ductility of the weld deposit. 2. the difference in expansion characteristics of the base and weld metals should be considered before using such filler metal. two-phase austenite-martensite or austeniteferrite structures.2 The CB30 (18 . brittle martensite is essentially completed at about 300oF (149oC) on cooling from welding temperature and will promote weld cracking .30 Cr) non-hardenable alloys are subject to rapid grain growth during welding which reduces their ductility and promotes cracking. Thus. however. The CB30 alloy customarily is heated to 1450oF (788oC) and the CC50 alloy to 1650oF (899oC) or higher then air cooled. and without cooling below 300oF (149oC).399oC) is advisable to avoid embrittlement. As soon as possible after welding. Furthermore. iron-chromium-nickel filler metal which has a coefficient about 50 percent greater. At elevated temperatures the CB7Cu grade is transformed to austenite most of which forms martensite on cooling below 300oF (149oC). Copper. because the dilution of the base metal with nickel increases the probability of martensite formation.2 Iron-chromium-nickel alloys with additions of copper (CB7Cu) or copper and molybdenum (CD4MCu) are high-strength. although it sometimes desirable to preheat tp 500oF (260oC) when welding heavy sections.788oC) and cooled to temper any martensite that has formed and to restore the ductility and impact strength of the metal. These alloys have coefficients of thermal expansion similar to carbon steel but are sometimes welded using austenitic. Consideration also must be given to difficulties that might arise from the difference in thermal expansion coefficients of the weld and base metals. For this reason castings are preheated to about 500oF (260oC) and maintained above the martensite transformation temperature during welding. however because of the low carbon content.22 Cr) and CC50 (26 . This does not change the need for pre.1. 2. therefore to obtain satisfactory welds. it is possible for some austenite to form and subsequently transform to martensite. In addition to the differences in ductility and hardness. Stray arc strikes can cause hard spots and should be avoided.the higher the carbon content the greater the cracking tendency.and pot-weld heat treatments. If conditions of service permit the welded area to have mechanical properties different from the remainder of the casting. precipitates sub-microscopically if the alloy is reheated to the range 900-1100oF (482-593oC) and subsequently increases the strength and hardness of the casting. such castings require a solution heat treatment in the temperature range 1850 -1950oF (1010 - . Rapid cooling through the range 1100 . Sections which require multi-pass welds are handled better in the annealed condition than after aging since the prolonged heat of welding will introduce non-uniform hardening characteristics to the weld zone. although the alloys are essentially ferritic. retained in the martensite as a super-saturated solution.1. castings are heated to 1100 . Postweld heat treatment is required to reduce brittleness in the weld zone.austenite to hard. Preheating to above 400oF (204oC) sometimes as high as 1300oF (704oC) usually is necessary. This is a relatively soft martensite.1. particularly if the welded structure will be subjected to heating and cooling in service. In either the annealed or hardened condition castings can be welded without preheat.750oF (593 .1450oF (593 .

austenite-ferrite microstructure is strengthened by the copper and molybdenum contents.1066oC) followed by rapid cooling before being hardened by reheating to the precipitation temperature. In this respect the casting alloys differ from the corresponding wrought stainless steels which normally are balanced to be wholly austenitic since partially ferritic alloys have inferior rolling qualitites. carbon. The corrosion resistance of the alloys is greatest when the carbon is completely dissolved and this accomplished by heating them to 1900oF (1038oC) or higher. If the alloys cool slowly through the “sensitizing” temperature range. any area that has been depleted of chromium by the precipitation of chromium carbide will be subject to increased corrosive attack. followed by rapid cooling through the range 1600 to 800oF 871 tp 427oC). Properties of the alloy are influenced critically by the chemical composition balance so it is essential that the filler metal used in welding this grade create a weld deposit closely matching the base metal. manganese and nitrogen) and the ferrite-promoting elements (chromium. 2. CF20. but the two-phase. This is so-called “weld-decay” in which severe corrosion is experienced in the heat affected zone adjacent to a weld. the structure may vary from wholly austenite to austenite plus ferrite in the range 0 to 40 percent. To restore the ductility and maximum corrosion resistance to the weld zone.1. CF8. CF3M. and columbium). CG8M. molybdenum. CF8M. The CD4MCu alloy has very low carbon content.3 Iron-chromium-nickel alloy types CE30. slow cooling to 1900oF (1038oC) to allow transformation of some ferrite to austenite. there is a danger that the carbon will combine with some of the chromium and precipitate as chromium carbide. Castings are welded in the solution annealed condition and preheat is not required. CF3. Depending on the balance in the chemical composition among the austenite-promoting elements (nickel. Since a high chromium content is essential to maximum corrosion resistance. . silicon. CH20 and CK20 are all austenitic in microstructure. followed by rapid cooling to room temperature. CF8C. castings require a postweld solution heat treatment at 2050oF (1121oC) or higher. Only the low temperature aging treatment is needed to harden the weld zone on single pass welds.

Due to the presence of some ferrite in castings. to restore maximum corrosion resistance to the weld zone. on the other hand. the carbides precipitate in the discontinuous ferrite pools so that intergranular attack is less likely to occur. The extra-low carbon content of alloys CF3 and CF3M can be welded without postweld heat treatment because very little chromium carbide can be formed. the carbides must be redissolved by a high temperature heat treatment and a rapid quench. Nevertheless. Chromium depletion is avoided in the CF8C alloy type by the intentional addition of columbium carbides instead of chromium carbides. .When wholly austenitic microstructures such as usually found in wrought alloys are exposed to sensitizing temperatures they suffer from intergranular corrosion because the chromium carbides precipitate along the grain boundaries and thus form a continuous network along which corrosion can proceed.

Small amounts of sigma that may form in a ferrite-containing weld of a heavy section will be eliminated. and CZ100 are “austenitic” in microstructure and do not undergo change in phase when cooling from welding temperature. CY40. Although there are several methods for estimating the amount of ferrite present in an austenitic alloy. these grades can be welded more readily than the wrought types without the use of filler metal. however. through retransformation to ferrite by a postweld solution heat treatment. CF16F. This transformation can take place after long exposure of alloys that are initially wholly austenitic. (See Item 20 in the Bibliography. CF3M. Since may of the casting alloys are themselves partially ferritic. Consequently.The presence of ferrite in the microstructure of the austenitic alloys is also helpful in avoiding cracking or microfissuring of welds. Because as previously noted. M-35. and have lowered ductility in the 1200 to 1800oF (649 to 928oC) temperature range. 2. Embrittlement and possible cracking of high ferrite content weld deposits may result form the slow cooling of heavy sections so that nominal ferrite contents are usually limited to maximum amounts depending on experience with specific casting configurations. Recent investigations have shown. however. are less susceptible to cracking than the wholly austenitic types CH20 and CK20.4 The iron-nickel-chromium and nickel-base alloys CN7M. CF8M.1. and in such cases preheat is sometimes helpful as indicted on the individual . they are prone to cracking when welded so the filler compositions used are usually balanced to a partially ferritic weld deposit and thereby take advantage of the improved resistance to microfissuring provided by this structure. the CE30. CW12M. N12M. CF3. They are subject to carbide precipitation. a method has bee approved by the Advisory Subcommittee of the Welding Research Council for calibrating magnetic measuring instruments to read in “Ferrite Numbers”.) It should be recognized that considerable variation of indicated ferrite content will occur over the surface of a casting or weld zone. the one most often used is based on the fact that ferrite is ferromagnetic whereas austenite is not. CF8C and CG8M grades. however. High chromium alloys held for appreciable times at elevated temperatures may transform partially to the sigma phase with resultant decrease in high temperature strength and room temperature ductility. For example. but may occur quite rapidly in partially ferritic alloys. a spread of ferrite number from 4 to 16 should not be unexpected when the nominal value is 10. Cracking of the weld zone may occur for this reason if there is substantial restraint. Upper limits on the ferrite contents of castings and weld deposits are frequently set when heavy sections are to be welded or where the service temperature may exceed 800oF (427oC). which normally contain over 5 percent ferrite. as in the case of the inert gas tungsten welding process often used for fusion of root passes or elimination of small surface discontinuities. CF8. wrought stainless steels of the AISI 300 series are generally balanced to have wholly austenitic structures. that no method is yet available for the accurate determination of absolute ferrite content. Accordingly. Instruments for measuring the magnetic attraction of a weld deposit or casting have assumed to be capable of determining the true percentage of ferrite present. and due allowance should be made for this in any specification.

2. Type HC has the same microstructure and welding characteristics as the CC50 alloy discussed in Section 2.1. It is unnecessary to preheat castings for welding and postweld heat treatment is required only for relief of welding stresses in complicated sections. Castings are usually welded in the solution annealed condition and are given a postweld heat treatment to restore corrosion resistance and relieve stresses. oil and even some degreasing compounds can be such sources . as normally made. Removal of all traces of molding sand by grinding the surface in the weld area is desirable for type —35 and sometimes for other alloys.2000oF (982 .1. Another cause of cracking in high alloys is embrittlement from contamination of the weld by lead. The HF. sulfur. The generally higher carbon contents of the heat resistant alloys makes them stronger at elevated temperatures than the corrosion resistant types and the extensive carbide networks in the microstructures result in relatively low room temperature ductility.alloy procedure sheets. pearlitic-martensitic alloy that has good oxidation resistance at temperatures up to about 1200oF (649oC). have a microstructure of carbides in a wholly austenitic matrix.2. Furthermore. HI. HK and HL grades.1 Iron-chromium alloy type HA is a hardenable.1.2. Its behavior in welding is similar to that described for the CA alloys in Section 2.1.should be removed by a final washing with alcohol. 2. They have substantially better ductility as-cast than the iron-chromium HC type but will become embrittled upon long exposure to temperatures around 1500oF (816oC) through formation of the sigma phase. Ferrite-free compositions are preferred for high temperature strength and less susceptibility to sigma formation. Ductility of the alloys can be restored by heating them to the range 1800 .2 Heat resistant grades These have physical properties similar to the corrosion resistant grades so that some of the same considerations apply with regard to electrical characteristics and thermally imposed stresses. the alloys with carbon at the higher end of the composition range are somewhat easier to weld than those on the low side. It is especially difficult to weld castings that have been in elevated temperature service because of embrittlement. Anything that might contribute one or more of the detrimental elements-marking crayon. welding filler metal .1093oC) and cooling rapidly to below 1200oF (649oC). The HH and HI alloys are borderline and unless balanced to be wholly austenitic will contain some ferrite. acetone of hot water before starting to weld. and similar care must be exercised in keeping weld areas and the heat affected zones clean.2 Iron-chromium-nickel alloy types HD and HE have two-phase austenite-ferrite microstructures containing chromium carbides. Because increase in carbon content tends to decrease the microfissuring of wholly austenitic welds.2. 2. phosphorous and other elements such as arsenic and antimony.1. Producers o castings exert great care to ensure low levels of these contaminants in the alloys. HH. paint.

Ductility falls off sharply at high silicon-low carbon ratios and welds are badly fissured. 3.matching the carbon content of the cast alloys is available and is preferred to the lowcarbon. Prediction of the structure to be expected can be obtained form the Schaeffler diagram. HW and HX. are available and are preferred for successful welds. 2. The high alloy piece than can be welded to this prepared groove by using the normal filler metal. The use of carbon or low alloy steel filler metal on high alloys must be avoided since brittle. Welding frequently is looked on as just a repair technique whereby defective castings are salvaged. can be made successfully with most of the heat and corrosion resistant grades. They are wholly austenitic in microstructure and contain substantial amounts of carbides but do not form sigma phase under any conditions. When such welds are attempted. Welding as a casting production and utilization process Few processes are more important to the production and utilization of high alloy castings than welding. will be different from either of the base materials and will have properties determined by the chemical composition balance of the diluted metal.2. it may seem a misnomer to call welding a foundry “production process”.55 percent. respectively.75 to 1. that improved foundry .1. Welding electrodes and filler metal that create weld deposits having silicon and carbon ion the ranges 0. sulfur or phosphorous is also very detrimental to these alloys and the same precautions regarding cleaning of the weld zone should be observed as described for the high nickel corrosion resistant grades in Section 2. HT. partially ferritic type used for welding corrosion resistant alloys since it provides high temperature strength comparable to the base metal. HU. HT and HU grades have improved weldability if preheated to around 400oF (204oC). are often used when welding high alloys to carbon steel. crack-prone welds will result. The microstructure in the weld zone between a wholly austenitic and ferritic alloy. It is implied.40 to 0. therefore. for example. 2.3 Iron-nickel-chromium alloys in which the nickel content exceeds the chromium are grades HN. Depending on the actual silicon and carbon contents. In order to prevent martensite formation in the weld zone under conditions of restraint.3 Welding dissimilar metals Welds between different high alloys or between a high alloy and low alloy or carbon steel. the weld is sound at any silicon level but ductility decreases as carbon content increases. where mechanical connections are undesirable). The ratio of silicon to carbon is important to the weldability of these alloys especially the HT and HU grades. but complex shapes and heavy sections of the HN. for example. Although it may be obvious why welding is an important means for incorporating castings into composite structures (pipe lines. the effects of dilution of the filler metal in the weld deposit must be given attention.50 percent and 0. Contamination of the weld by lead. (See items 3 and 12 in the Bibliography. the low alloy should first be “buttered” with a layer of high alloy weld metal which should subsequently be shaped to provide the weld groove. a ratio in the general neighborhood of 2:1 is considered to give the best balance between weld soundness and ductility. With sufficiently high carbon.) Filler metals of higher alloy content than the high alloy base metal. Preheat is not required for welding these alloys in general.4.

an otherwise uneconomical or impractical configuration may become feasible by welding together several less complex components. so that if the casting design makes it impossible to feed every portion of the mold effectively. if specified) to the casting a s a whole. if the least costly molding method is chosen. On occasion. On the other hand.2 The relative versatility of the casting process among the various methods for producing desired shapes. If dye penetrant or radiographic examination is required the same criteria of acceptability are often applied to the prepared cavity as those applying (or which would apply.2. This inspection may be visual or it may be specified to be done by radiographic or dye penetrant examination. both welding and machining may be required if rough machining discloses shallow sub-surface voids. no mater how complex. Visual determination that unsound metal has been removed is usually considered sufficient to allow welding to proceed. and higher over-all quality achieved than possible with a onepiece casting.1 Preparation fo welding involves removal of metal inward from the surface of the as-cast section to eliminate the internal shrinkage or non-metallic inclusion. 3. Where surfaces are machined. leads many designers into the belief that any configuration. however. What constitutes removal of porosity or inclusions to “sound” base metal is subject to interpretation and should be a matter of agreement between the purchaser and the foundry. the purchaser’s selection may then be based on economic considerations. Such is not the case. yet it is seldom. if ever. a casting technique requiring the most costly pattern equipment may be selected with the result that little or no welding on the surface of the castings will be involved. unacceptable shrinkage must be corrected by the deposition of weld metal to fill the voids. production of the individual parts can be arranged for optimum soundness.1 Surface irregularities on castings are inherent in varying degree in the available molding processes. then welding becomes a production tool for the “cosmetic” improvement of surface quality by elimination of excessive irregularities or for the structural rebuilding of surface discontinuities.2 Where design considerations prevent the proper feeding of casting sections. machining is the production tool for the improvement of the surface finish. considered a “salvage” or “repair” operation. Such a viewpoint overlooks the fact that the use of welding in casting production is dictated largely by specification requirements of the user and by the casting design. It is obviously more economical to weld sound cast sections to one another in a preplanned fashion than to search for an internal void by non-destructive . 3. 3. where relative freedom from surface irregularities is desired. 3. The cavity is then inspected to determine that all “unsound” metal has been removed before the section is rebuilt with layers of weld beads. If warranted by a large quantity of pieces and savings in cost to the purchaser on subsequent manufacturing processes in his operation. The foundry often can offer a choice of manufacturing methods and.practices would result in production of defect-free castings and obviate the need for weld repair. When the structure is assembled from two or more smaller and simpler castings.2. should be castable with all sections completely free of internal voids or inclusions.

4. however. are both costly and frequently unnecessary. are influential in the choice of welding process to be employed. since it may result in weld inclusions and must be cleaned carefully from each bead before deposition of the next one. The great majority of welds are made by arc-welding techniques and of these the shielded metal-arc process is the most popular. For large structures that require machining in only one area. . are especially informative. however. and then rebuild the section with weld metal. The usefulness of cast-weld construction. and oxyacetylene processes. and discussions of each welding technique. are confined to the application of the processes to high alloy castings. however.inspection. therefore. where a part is too big to be machine-molded in one piece but which can be divided into two machine-molded castings and then reunited by welding. to remove good as-cast metal in order to get to the flaw.1 detailed descriptions of the equipment used in each process.1 Shielded metal-arc process Used for repair and fabrication welding on both corrosion and heat resistant alloy types. The following comments. published by the American Society of Metals. electroslag. it is sometimes advantageous to cast and machine that portion separately and afterward to weld the two parts together. Considerable skill is required of the operator in control of the arc and weld metal. Although in carbon steel weld slags on one bead may sometimes be “floated out” through the next pass. 4 Welding processes in general use for high alloy castings Cast high alloys can be welded by electric arc. Economies also can be obtained. Electrode coatings must be guarded against pick up of moisture in order to minimize pinholing. suggested joint designs. The slag developed during welding is a drawback. 4. is not confined to exceptionally large or complex castings.3 Quality of welds in most of the high alloy types is not affected by the size of the sections or the cavity dimensions. Eight Edition. The strength of properly made welds is equivalent to that of the base metal (if the filler metal used creates a weld deposit of the same alloy composition) so that arbitrary limitations on the amount of welding permitted on castings. this cannot be relied on in high alloys. Thus the distinction between so-called “minor” and “major” welds has no real significance and is often over-emphasized in purchase specifications. 3. All the processes provide protection of the metal from the atmosphere during welding which is essential to ensure quality of the weld. Electrodes are available in small or large quantities for all alloy compositions. It is a manual process that lends itself to wide variation in size and configuration of welds and to conditions of shop or filed welding. The appropriate chapters in Volume 6 “Welding and Brazing” of the Metals Handbook. The type of weld to be made and the characteristics of the alloy being welded.1. are contained in equipment manufacturers’ literature and in several of the references listed in the appended bibliography. for example. this process is adaptable to many of the situations encountered in casting manufacture or assembly. or timedelaying inspection and approval requirements prior to welding.

filler metal is added to the weld in the form of bare wire. particularly where postweld heat treatment is inconvenient. Thus welds can be made merely by fusion of the base metal without the addition of filler metal.1.5 Oxyacetylene welding Welding using the flame of a torch burning a mixture of oxygen and acetylene gases to heat the work and simultaneously protect the weld pool from the air can be done on high alloy castings. 4. As in the GTAW process. Filler metal is added through an electrically conductive molten slag which melts the surface of the base metal.4.2 Gas metal-arc process Known frequently as “MIG” welding but currently designated as “GMAW” by the American Welding Society. High heating rates and low heat inputs are characteristic of the tungsten arc which is especially desirable in welding in welding corrosion resistant alloys. The process is used for high alloys. Gas tungsten-arc welding is also used for the root pass of fabrication welds because of the excellent visibility of the weld pool to the operator and the high quality of welds obtained. and the entire weld pool is retained by watercooled copper shoes bridging the joint on each side of the pieces being welded. In addition to fabrication welding. the process is used for repair welding of some alloy types as noted on the individual welding procedure sheets. but because of its limited application. this process is used mainly for fabrication welding where advantage can be taken of the high speed and relatively long periods of welding made possible by the continuous feeding of filler metal in the form of uncoated wire. Shielding of the weld by an inert gas practically eliminates development of slag. This is not a serious factor with high-chromium.4 Electroslag welding This process is used almost exclusively for the production of fabrication welds joining very large and heavy-walled castings where considerable quantities of metal are required in the joint. For this reason many superficial welds are made by this process. but slag can be formed by reactions within the molten pool so that cleaning of each weld pass is advisable. gas tungsten-arc (TIG or GTAW) uses an inert gas to protect the weld zone from the atmosphere but heat for fusion is provided by an arc between the casting and a non-consumable tungsten electrode. The need for protection of the shielding gas from drafts and reduced portability of the equipment make this process less attractive tan shielded metal-arc welding or gas tungsten-arc welding fo casting repair. may be added as bare wire. 4. no welding procedure sheets are being issued. if needed.1.1.1. The process suffers from the same disadvantage as the gas metal-arc in that the weld zone must be protected from drafts that might dilute the shielding gas and cause inferior weld quality. Subsequent passes often are laid down by other processes where large welds are involved. heat resistant . 4. This requires extensive auxiliary equipment for positioning the castings and for automatically feeding the filler metal to the weld.3 Gas tungsten-arc process Like the gas metal-arc process described earlier. The process is never advisable for use with the corrosion resistant alloys because of the pick up of carbon from the flame which reduces the corrosion resistance of the weld. or filler metal.

hot arc pool is characteristic of the lime coatings and the slag freezes quickly. the reader . Proper training of welders is essential. Electrodes from freshly opened packages are considered best for critical welds. Titania coatings which can be used for either AC or DC welding are distinguished by small arc puddles and a thin. The need for cleanliness for the surfaces of prepared cavities or joints cannot be over emphasized. “Safety in Welding and Cutting”.2 Individual alloy welding procedures The following pages covering individual alloy types provide specific welding procedure information for may of the standard grades of corrosion resistant and heat resistant casting alloys. These are covered by American National Standard Z 49. Bibliography For additional information on the subjects covered in the foregoing review.alloy types. 4. For many types of construction. Once the container in which such electrodes are received is opened. Cleaning of the entire weld zone before. lime coatings give better weld pool protection and are more frequently used for welding cast high alloys. The coatings on electrodes (for direct current welding) can be either the lime of titania type. For this reason. Several hours exposure to high humidity can raise the coating moisture to a detrimental level. during and after welding is essential to successful welding of high alloy castings. Contamination of the weld itself or the adjacent base metal can seriously affect the performance of the casting in service. The qualification of welders and welding procedures necessary to meet the requirements of these codes are set forth in Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. the coating may absorb water from the atmospheric humidity and a porous weld deposit may result. Safety precautions should be observed. low viscosity slag. Although welds made with titania-coated electrodes have generally smoother surfaces than those made with the lime-coated types. but oxyacetylene welding has no advantage over electric are welding which has almost completely superseded it commercially.1. and slag that is easier to remove. The requirements for postweld heat treatment as set forth in Section 12 of the individual alloy welding procedures should be given careful attention. Care must be taken to keep the coatings on coated electrodes free from moisture. compliance must be established with the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and the American National Standard Code for Pressure Piping both of which are published by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Some general comments are in order regarding the production of good welds on high alloy castings and their acceptability. A large. A weld zone that is mechanically sound may be unfit for its intended service if it has not been restored to a microstructure having adequate corrosion resistance. unused electrodes should be stored at 200oF (93oC) or higher.

Dauber.. pp 481-s to 491-s.will find details in the following references: 1.A.L. “Crack Sensitivity of Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Weld Metal”.M. H.Bearing Stainless Steel”.. No. Metal Progress.9..FeCb eutectic. E. Scweissen und Schneiden. R.35%Ni Welds”. 3. Medovar and Yu. R. “The Hot Cracking of Austenitic Chromium-Nickel Steel Welds”. Rozet. Metal Progress. 1946 [Advantages of ferritic limecoated electrodes. D.I. 1948 [Importance of Si/C ratio] 3. Metal Progress. Emerson. Jr. “Welding Cracks in Columbium . pp 385-ss to 393-s. April 1959 [Increase of carbon to 0. 13. A. W. “Transition Joints Between Austenitic and Ferritic Steel Piping for High Temperature Steam Service”. No. Fritze. D. H. 8. Schoefer. British Welding Journal. Campbell and R. No. Jackson and C. . September. Anger. “Joining of Nickel-Base Alloys. January.W. pp 109 . B. April. Hirsch and H. physical and mechanical properties of corrosion and heat resistant cast alloys] 12.C. Thomas. “Some Aspects of Cracking in Welded Cr-Ni Austenitic Steels”.W. Welding Journal. Younger.20 percent suppresses sigma formation] 8. Welding Journal. The Welding Engineer. Steel Founders’ Society of America [Chemical.C. 27.D. Evans. pp 474 .111.W. Borland and R.N. November 1949 [Determination of ferrite content from chemical composition of an alloy] 4. R. E. December 20. Malevsky. Campbell. “Constitution Diagram for Stainless Steel Weld Metal”.A. 1960 [Extensive bibliography on subject from 1920 to 1959] 9. May 1955 [cracking in type 347 reduced by 4 . “Identifying Corrosion and Welding Failures in Stainless Steels”. “The Effect of Chemical Composition of Austenitic 25-20 Weld Metal on the Gamma-Sigma Transformation”. pp 680 .8 percent ferrite] 6.E. J. Anon. “ACI Data Sheets”. cracking does not occur if ferrite is present] 7. “Effect of Weld Metal Composition on the Strength and Ductility of 15%Cr .680B. 1962 11. 10. May and September. Welding Production (Russian). Schaeffler. 1962 [Use of higher alloy filler metal] 10. 50.M. R. B. Thompson “How to Weld High Alloy Castings”. 1956 [Columbium favors cracking of austenite by forming an austenite . Dundin and G. 56.479. Jr. 67. danger of changes in weld metal composition from dilution by base metal] 2. DMIC Report 181.C. W. 1953 5. Thomas.

“Fusion Welding of Stainless Steel”. “Calibration Procedure for Instruments to Measure the Delta Ferrite Content of Austenitic Stainless Weld Metal”. No. 418.T.969.A. R. August 1965 [Higher carbon in weld reduces cracking] 14. etc. F. American Welding Society Handbook. ASM.41 [Details of welding processes and techniques] 18. No. pp 399-s to 490-s 1967 [Ferrite-austenite grain boundaries are not wet by last freezing liquid and hence sustain contraction stresses imposed by restraint. K. Ibid. 1971 . carbon. published by High Alloys Committee of the Welding Research Council. Fifth Edition. July.E.G. Haddrill and R. pp 16 .12-69. 6. AWS A5.4-69. “Microcracking in Austenitic Weld Metal”. Chapters 64 and 65. “Welding and Brazing”. Baker. Welding Journal.M. “Metals and Their Weldability” 22. G. Schweissen und Schneiden.11-69.14-69. “Effects of Delta Ferrite on the Hot Cracking of Stainless Steel”. “Weldability of Austenitic Stainless Steel as Affected by Residual Elements”. No. in preference to austenite grain boundaries and thus reduces crack sensitivity of weld] 19. 1967 [Possibility of slag formation from reactions within the weld pool] 16. October 1963 [Distinction between failure of a weld due to its corrosion resistance or to its mechanical characteristics] 13. “Influencing the Weldability of Austenitic Chromium Nickel Steels by Means of Their Ferrite Contents”.Materials Protection. 1968 [Ferrite is location of precipitated phosphorus. 5-10 percent ferrite the preferred range] 15. American Society for Metals Metals Handbook. American Welding Society Specifications for Electrodes: AWS A5. NACE. AWS A5.9. “Welding Characteristics of Stainless Steels”. Vol.. W. AWS A5. Section IV. Eighth Edition. D. Linnert.0-69 20. also “Terms and Definitions”. Delong. Sullivan. Linnert. Ebert. British Welding Journal. G. Metals Engineering Quarterly. 20. Hull. 7. AWS A3.E. pp 16-41 [Details of welding processes and techniques] 17. 46. cannot resist contraction and cracking results. therefore.P.C. whereas austenite-austenite grain boundaries are so wet and. ASTM Special Technical Publication No. silicon. AWS A5. July 1972 21. 1966.2. 4.

A ±15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. 3. (This rod should not be used for AC. For section thicknesses over three inches. preheating may be employed. all welding is done in the "flat" position. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Filler Metal AWS E410 Ni Mo-15 AWS E410 Ni Mo-16 Lime coated electrode is preferred for DC welding. castings may be preheated in the range of 212 to 300°F (100 to 150°C). Where dye penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified for the castings as a whole. acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further preparation (3.40-1.1).5-4. 4 5 6 7 8 . Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. chipping.Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type CA6NM alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 2 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type CA6NM (11. grinding or machining. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 90° sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity. If section thickness is under ½ inch.5 Ni. and the interpass temperature may be maintained at 500 to 600°F (260 to 315°C) as a guideline. .0 Mo) static and centrifugal castings.2. and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. gouging. Alcohol and acetone are solvents frequently used for cleaning. Preheat Temperature CA6NM can normally be welded at room temperature (70°F) (21°C). dye penetrant. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Section Size Section size normally is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant. Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical.) Titania coated electrode is preferred for AC welding and may be used for DC. it may be desirable to limit electrode size to 1/8 inch maximum. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. For large welds in heavy or highly stressed sections. Welding of castings in the heat treated condition is preferred to welding as-cast metal. This type rod is useful for welding positions other than vertical-down.5-14 Cr. or radiography. or by some combination of these operations. 3 Position Whenever possible.

or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly. it is good practice to use small diameter electrodes and low heat to prevent distortion. undercutting or lack of penetration. is limited to two to three times the electrode wire diameter. 3. if any. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or porosity. If a defect penetrates through the casting. the burn-off rate of the electrode is higher than for carbon steel. All slag is removed between passes with a hammer and a stainless wire brush. Arc length should be maintained as short as possible. liquid penetrant. Electrical Characteristics Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. or twice the gas cup orifice diameter. In cases where a special hardness requirement must be attained. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4). take the following precautions: 1. Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. 10 11 12 13 14 . Weaving. radiography. the welded casting is given a full reheat treatment followed by tempering. Electrode sizes from 3/32 to 3/16 inch may be used with the current and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular size rod. ultrasonic. magnetic particle. and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). or a needle gun. 2. Use the proper filler metal (2). Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. The backing plate. is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel. or pressure.9 Welding Techniques Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. which should be removed after welding. Post-Weld Heat Treatment Welds normally are heated to the range 1100-1150°F (593-620°C) and then air cooled. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. one 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place.

Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. Preheat Temperature Heat this alloy to the range 300-600°F (149-315°C) and maintain the metal above 300°F (149°C) during the welding operation. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant. all welding is done in the "flat" position.2. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 90° are sometimes used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity.1). Welding of castings in the annealed condition is preferred to welding of as-cast metal. 0. dye penetrant. Filler Metal AWS E410-15 AWS E410-16 Lime coated electrode is preferred for DC welding. it may be desirable to limit electrode size to 1/8 inch maximum. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air.10 percent. grinding. 4 5 6 7 8 . In general. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Welds sometimes are made successfully without preheat. If section thickness is under ½ inch.5-14 Cr. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained.15 max. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further preparation (3. Alcohol and acetone are solvents frequently used for cleaning. Where dye penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole. gouging. or by some combination of these operations. For section thicknesses over three inches. A ±15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat.Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of types CA15 and CA40 alloys as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 2 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type CA15 (11. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical. This type rod is useful for welding positions other than vertical-down. especially if the carbon content of the alloy is less than 0. preheat temperature should be at the high end of the range. (This rod should not be used for AC. C) static and centrifugal castings. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground. preheat is preferred. and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. Heating in the range 600-1100°F (315-593°C) is avoided because it will result in a loss of ductility and impact strength.) Titania coated electrode is preferred for AC welding and may be used for DC. or machining. chipping. 3 Position Whenever possible. or radiography. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.

Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. All slag is removed between passes with a hammer and a wire brush. Post-Weld Heat Treatment Welds usually are heated to the range 1100-1450°F (593-788°C). a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. which should be removed after welding. the burn-off rate of the electrode is higher than for carbon steel. using AC. Minor. In some cases where welds are large or located in critical areas of the casting. and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). Technique for Welding Machined Castings This process can be used for welding machined castings by keeping heat to a minimum through use of small electrodes. Use the proper filler metal (2). If a defect penetrates through the casting. take the following precautions: 1. Successful welds can be made. undercutting or lack of penetration. or a needle gun using stainless steel needles. 10 11 12 13 14 . is limited to two to three times the electrode wire diameter. The backing plate. however. A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long arc sometimes can be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or porosity. if any. is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. magnetic particle. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. 2. Type AWS E309-15 or AWS E310-15 electrodes sometimes are used. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. Electrode sizes from 3/32 to 3/16 inch may be used with the current and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular size rod. followed by air cooling and tempering at the specified temperature. Tack welding should be performed after the casting has been preheated in order to minimize the possibility of initiating a crack at the tack weld (6 and 7). Weaving. and then either air or furnace cooled depending on the specification of mechanical properties for the casting. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4). Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. 3. radiography. or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly. they are given a full re-heat treatment of heating to 1800°F (982°C) minimum. Arc length should be maintained as short as possible. No peening is done unless the welds are large and/or the cavity or weld groove is deep. or ultrasonic. superficial welds sometimes are not post-heat treated when the presence of hard spots resulting from untempered martensite in the weld deposits can be tolerated. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel. pressure. dye penetrant. Electrical Characteristics Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. and by cooling to room temperature between passes.9 Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations.

preheat is preferred. gouging. In general. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. Welds sometimes are made successfully without preheat. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 90° sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity. C) static and centrifugal castings.1).Gas Metal-Arc (GMAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of types CA15 and CA40 alloys as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 2 3 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type CA15 (11. Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. Preheat Temperature Heat this alloy to the range 300-600°F (149-315°C) and maintain the metal above 300°F (149°C) during the welding operation. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.10 percent. grinding or machining. dye penetrant. chipping. or by some combination of these operations. A ±15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat.15 max. Heating in the range 600-1100°F (315-593°C) is avoided because it will result in a loss of ductility and impact strength. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air. preheat should be above 400°F (204°C). For section thicknesses over two inches. or radiography. Filler Metal AWS ER410 . Where dye penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole. Lack of attention to this may result 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations.5-14 Cr. 0. acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further preparation (3.2.Bare wire is used in this process. Alcohol and acetone are solvents frequently used for cleaning. and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. Welding of castings in the annealed condition is preferred to welding of as-cast metal. especially if the carbon content of the alloy is less than 0.

Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the wire size used are normally followed. Weaving. if any. 2. pressure. is limited to about the diameter of the gas nozzle.094 inch. 10 Electrical Characteristics Welding is done using DC reverse polarity. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). they are given a full re-heat treatment of heating to 1800°F (982°C) minimum. followed by air cooling and tempering at the specified temperature. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. magnetic particle. If a defect penetrates through the casting. 11 12 13 14 . Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. AWS ER309 or AWS ER310 type electrode wire is used. which should be removed after welding. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. The backing plate. Minor. undercutting or lack of penetration. radiography. or ultrasonic. dye penetrant.in defective welds. superficial welds sometimes are not post-heat treated when the presence of hard spots resulting from untempered martensite in the weld deposits can be tolerated. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4). 3. Use the proper filler metal (2). Wire diameter range is from 0. or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly. In some cases where welds are large or located in critical areas of the casting. An alternate mixture of 75 percent argon plus 25 percent carbon dioxide at a flow rate of 20 cfh also is used. It is customary to remove any defects in the weld by grinding before laying down the next bead. is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. Post-Weld Heat Treatment Welds usually are heated to the range 1100-1450°F (593-788°C). when it is. take the following precautions: 1. Tack welding should be performed after the casting has been preheated in order to minimize the possibility of initiating a crack at the tack weld (6 and 7).035 to 0. No peening is done. Technique for Welding Machined Castings This process is seldom used to weld machined castings. and then either air or furnace cooled depending on the specification of mechanical properties for the casting. Shielding gas is usually argon plus two percent (2%) oxygen at a flow rate of 30 to 50 cfh.

Weaving.Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of types CA15 and CA40 alloys as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 2 3 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type CA15 (11. preheat is preferred. C) static and centrifugal castings. hence very little metal excavation is necessary and dimensions are not critical.15 max. Successful welds can be made by this process. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground. especially if the carbon content of the alloy is less than 0. The backing plate. Preheat Temperature Heat this alloy to the range 300-600°F (149-315°C) and maintain the metal above 300°F (149°C) during the welding operation. Welding of castings in the annealed condition is preferred to welding of as-cast metal. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. in all positions. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant. Tack welding should be 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. Peening may be done between successive passes on deep welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair. dye penetrant. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.Bare wire is used to weld this alloy. is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. In general. Defect removal is accomplished by grinding. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. if any. however. Alcohol and acetone are solvents frequently used for cleaning. If parts to be fabricated fit together poorly. 0. Heating in the range 600-1100°F (315-593°C) is avoided because it will result in a loss of ductility and impact strength. is not restricted in extent. Position Whenever possible. Filler Metal AWS ER410 . a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. A ±15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. or radiography.10 percent. which should be removed after welding. Cavity Dimensions This process is used mainly for surface welds.5-14 Cr. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. all welding is done in the "flat" position. Welds sometimes are made successfully without preheat.

2. followed by air cooling and then tempering at the specified temperature. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the electrode size used normally are followed. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. and then either air or furnace cooled depending on the specification of mechanical properties for the casting. wire sizes range from 1/16 to 3/16 inch. it is good practice. radiography. A high frequency method of starting the arc is preferred over a "scratch start" to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. A non-consumable electrode made of thoriated tungsten (EWTh-2) is used. but argon is preferred with a flow of 20 to 50 cfh. Use the proper filler metal (2). superficial welds often are not post-heat treated. Either helium or argon may be used for the inert shielding gas. to use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4). dye penetrant. they are given a full re-heat treatment of heating to 1800°F (982°C) minimum. Minor. take the following precautions: 1. The arc should not be struck on a carbon block. 3. 10 Electrical Characteristics Welding is done using DC straight polarity.performed after the casting has been preheated in order to minimize the possibility of initiating a crack at the tack weld (6). Post-Weld Heat Treatment Welds usually are heated to the range 1100-1450°F (593-788°C). 11 12 13 14 . Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. however. Where filler metal is used. Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). pressure. magnetic particle. or ultrasonic. In some cases where welds are large or located in critical areas of the casting. undercutting or lack of penetration. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual.

0. acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further preparation (3. Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical.2 Cu.5-3. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair. or by some combination of these operations. This rod should not be used for AC. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. Filler Metal AWS E630-15 AWS E630-16 3 Lime coated electrode is preferred for DC welding. Where dye penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole. 4. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air. 2 Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. dye penetrant.5 Cr. grinding.5-3. however. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 90° sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity. 0. the alloy may be preheated to 500°F (260°C).5 Ni. chipping. gouging.6 Ni. C) static and centrifugal castings.Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type CB7Cu alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy types CB7Cu-1 (15. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. Lack of attention to this may result 4 5 6 7 8 9 .6-4. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. 3. or machining. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. C) and CB7Cu-2 (14.2.5-17. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Preheat Temperature Normally this alloy is not preheated. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground.5-5.0-15.07 max. A ±15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. and the extent of the weld substantial. 2. or radiography. if the section size is over 3/4 inch in thickness. Titania coated electrode is used for AC welding and may be used for DC. Alcohol and acetone are solvents frequently used for cleaning.07 max.2 Cu. Thick sections may require preheat (6) for satisfactory welds. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. 2. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant.1).0 Cr.

Single-pass welds usually do not require postweld solution heat treatment. the burn-off rate of the electrode is higher than for carbon steel. which should be removed after welding. rapidly cooled by quenching in water. held until uniformly at temperature. For small welds on heavy sections. undercutting or lack of penetration. But to restore hardenability properties to multiple-pass welds on heavy sections. If a defect penetrates through the casting. dye penetrant. oil or air. Post-Weld Heat Treatment Both annealed and aged type CB7Cu castings can be restored to specified hardness by low temperature postweld hardening treatment in the range 900-1100°F (482-593°C). Tack welding should be performed after the casting has been preheated in order to minimize the possibility of initiating a crack at the tack weld (6 and 7). however. Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. 10 Electrical Characteristics Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. using AC. If the welded area will be subject to corrosion.in defective welds. is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). or needle gun using stainless steel needles. 11 12 13 14 . Weaving. or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly. if any. 2. All slag is removed with a stainless steel wire brush or slagging hammer. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel. radiography. Use the proper filler metal (2). Arc length should be maintained as short as possible. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4). Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. Successful welds can be made. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. 3. Electrode sizes from 3/32 to 1/4 inch may be used with the amperage and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular size rod. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or porosity. however. No peening is done. Fully hardened castings are frequently preheated (6) and welded with low heat and small rods. it is good practice. this may not be necessary since the heavy mass will tend to cool the weld zone rapidly. a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. to use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. they are heated to the range 1850-1950°F (1010-1066°C). or pressure. The backing plate. and followed by the desired aging treatment. it is desirable to quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each pass. is limited to two and one-half times the electrode diameter. take the following precautions: 1.

Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair.5-17. Filler Metal AWS ER630 Bare wire is used. Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical.2 Cu. or by some combination of these operations. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground. if the section size is over 3/4 inch in thickness. gouging.).5 Cr. C) and CB7Cu-2 (14.5-3. If a defect penetrates through the casting. and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. A ±15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. Weaving. 2 3 Position All welding is done in the "flat" position.Gas Metal-Arc (GMAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type CB7Cu alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy types CB7Cu-1 (15. or radiography. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.6 Ni.5-5.5-3. however. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. 2. 2. a 3/16 inch 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. No peening is done. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant.07 max. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together.2. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.2 Cu. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. C) static and centrifugal castings. 0. Thick sections may require preheat (6) for satisfactory welds. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 90° sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity. 3.0-15. or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly. 4. Preheat Temperature Normally this alloy is not preheated. Where dye penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. grinding or machining. and the extent of the weld substantial. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air. if any.07 max.6-4. dye penetrant. the alloy may be preheated to 500°F (260°C). Alcohol and acetone are solvents frequently used for cleaning. 0.1. is limited to two and one-half times the wire diameter.0 Cr.5 Ni. chipping. acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further preparation (3.

undercutting or lack of penetration. however. and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). 2. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel. 3. or pressure. use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. Arc length should be maintained as short as possible. A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long arc sometimes can be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or porosity. oil or air. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4). the burn-off rate of the electrode is much higher than for carbon steel. Tack welding should be performed after the casting has been preheated in order to minimize the possibility of initiating a crack at the tack weld (6 and 7).backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. The backing plate. Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. held until uniformly at temperature. For small welds on heavy sections. they are heated to the range 1850-1950°F (1010-1066°C). quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each pass. Post-Weld Heat Treatment Both annealed and aged type CB7Cu castings can be restored to specified hardness by low temperature postweld hardening treatment in the range 900-1100°F (482-593°C). using AC. is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. If the welded area will be subject to corrosion. and followed by the desired aging treatment. which should be removed after welding. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. Electrode sizes from 3/64 to 3/32 inch may be used with the current and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular size rod. Successful welds can be made. Shielding gas is usually argon plus two percent (2%) oxygen at a flow rate of 30 to 50 cfh. take the following precautions: 1. 11 12 13 14 . rapidly cooled by quenching in water. radiography. this may not be necessary since the heavy mass will tend to cool the weld zone rapidly. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. dye penetrant. Single pass welds usually do not require postweld heat treatment. But to restore hardenability properties to multiple-pass welds on heavy sections. Use the proper filler metal (2). however. 10 Electrical Characteristics Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity.

dye penetrant. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations.Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type CB7Cu alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy types CB7Cu-1 (15. Because no slag is formed during the welding 4 5 6 7 8 9 . if the section size is over 3/4 inch in thickness.2. chipping. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. For repair of small surface irregularities. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. grinding or machining. Where dye penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole. gouging.0-15. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds.5-3.2 Cu. and the extent of the weld substantial. Alcohol and acetone are solvents frequently used for cleaning.6 Ni. welds are sometimes made without the use of any filler metal. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. 2. Preheat Temperature Normally this alloy is not preheated.5-5. however.1). No peening is done. A ±15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further preparation (3.2 Cu. 3. 4. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground.5-3. or radiography. 0. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air. the alloy may be preheated to 500°F (260°C). Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair. or by some combination of these operations.0 Cr.6-4.07 max.5 Cr. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. C) static and centrifugal castings. Thick sections may require preheat (6) for satisfactory welds. 2. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. C) and CB7Cu-2 (14. Filler Metal AWS ER630 Bare wire is used.5-17.07 max. but very little weaving is done. 0. 2 3 Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. Cavity Dimensions This process is used mainly for surface welds.5 Ni. hence very little metal excavation is necessary and dimensions are not critical.

3. 10 Electrical Characteristics Welding is done using DC straight polarity.operation. or pressure. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. The arc should not be struck on a carbon block. Either helium or argon may be used for the inert shielding gas. radiography. oil or air. a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. But to restore hardenability properties to multiple-pass welds on heavy sections. however. but argon is preferred with a flow of 15 cfh. The backing plate. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. rapidly cooled by quenching in water. and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). A non-consumable electrode made of thoriated tungsten (EWTh-2) is used. 2. Use the proper filler metal (2). Tack welding should be performed after the casting has been preheated in order to minimize the possibility of initiating a crack at the tack weld (6 and 7). interpass cleaning is not necessary. If parts to be fabricated fit together poorly. A high frequency method of starting the arc is preferred over a "scratch start" to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. undercutting or lack of penetration. and followed by the desired aging treatment. wire sizes range from 1/16 to 3/16 inch. Single pass welds usually do not require postweld heat treatment. dye penetrant. held until uniformly at temperature. use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each pass. Post-Weld Heat Treatment Both annealed and aged type CB7Cu castings can be restored to specified hardness by low temperature postweld hardening treatment in the range 900-1100°F (482-593°C). 11 12 13 14 . For small welds on heavy sections. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. this may not be necessary since the heavy mass will tend to cool the weld zone rapidly. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the electrode size used are normally followed. which should be removed after welding. they are heated to the range 1850-1950°F (1010-1066°C). Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4). Where filler metal is used. Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. If the welded area will be subject to corrosion. take the following precautions: 1.

Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. grinding. is limited to two to three times the electrode wire diameter. 1. or machining. or by some combination of these operations.25 Cu. dye penetrant. The weld deposit should approximate the base metal because the properties of this alloy are influenced critically by the chemical composition. All slag is removed between passes with a hammer and/or a stainless steel wire brush. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air. chipping.5 Cr. No peening is done. or radiography.04 max. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. 4.5-26.25 Mo. however. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. Preheat Temperature No preheat is required for type CD4MCu alloy.2. C) static and centrifugal castings.1). Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant. Where dye penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. if any.75-3.Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type CD4MCu alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type CD4MCu (24. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. some minor variation in composition may be necessary to obtain the desired microstructure.75-6 Ni. If a defect 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .75-2. gouging. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. Filler Metal Lime coated electrodes that will deposit weld metal of the CD4MCu composition are available and are used. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 90° sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity. acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further preparation (3. 2. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. 0.

Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. This alloy cannot be welded satisfactorily to other metals. use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. Post-Weld Heat Treatment To restore maximum corrosion resistance to welded type CD4MCu castings. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. or pressure. held until uniformly at temperature. 11 12 13 14 . and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). 10 Electrical Characteristics Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. 2. furnace cooled to 1900°F (1038°C). Use the proper filler metal (2). The backing plate. dye penetrant. Arc length should be maintained as short as possible. or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. however. the burn-off rate of the electrode is much higher than for carbon steel. radiography. and then rapidly cooled by quenching in water. a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4). they are heated to 2050°F (1121°C) minimum. 3. oil or air. take the following precautions: 1. Electrode sizes from 3/32 to 3/16 inch may be used with the current and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular size rod. undercutting or lack of penetration.penetrates through the casting. A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or porosity. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel. which should be removed after welding.

Defect removal is accomplished by grinding.75-6 Ni. or radiography. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. 2. This alloy cannot be welded satisfactorily to other metals. Cavity Dimensions This process is used mainly for surface welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used.75-2. The arc should not be struck on a carbon block.75-3. When filler metal is used. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication This process is not being used for fabrications of type CD4MCu castings. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. wire sizes range from 1/16 to 3/16 inch.04 max. 4. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects usually are removed before attempting any repair. Preheat Temperature No preheat is required for type CD4MCu alloy. hence very little metal excavation is necessary and dimensions are not critical. Where filler metal is used. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the electrode size used are normally followed.5 Cr.25 Mo.5-26. Electrical Characteristics Welding is done using DC straight polarity. dye penetrant. some minor variation in composition may be necessary to obtain the desired microstructure.25 Cu. without the addition of any filler metal. 1. Either helium or argon may 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 . Filler Metal Small defects and root passes are sometimes welded by fusion of the base metal only. 0.Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type CD4MCu alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type CD4MCu (24. it is frequently cast rod of the CD4MCu composition. A high frequency method of starting the arc is preferred over a "scratch start" to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. C) static and centrifugal castings. A non-consumable electrode made of thoriated tungsten (EWTh-2) is used. however. The weld deposit should approximate the base metal because the properties of this alloy are influenced critically by the chemical composition.

Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4). but argon is preferred with a flow of 20 to 50 cfh. however. and then rapidly cooled by quenching in water. furnace cooled to 1900°F (1038°C). 3. oil or air. 2. or pressure. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. radiography. they are heated to 2050°F (1121°C) minimum. Use the proper filler metal (2).be used for the inert shielding gas. Post-Weld Heat Treatment To restore maximum corrosion resistance to welded type CD4MCu castings. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). dye penetrant. undercutting or lack of penetration. held until uniformly at temperature. 11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. take the following precautions: 1. 12 13 14 .

0.08 max. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 90° sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity. 8-12 Ni. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. dye penetrant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. gouging. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. C). 0. 9-12 Ni. Titania-coated electrode is used for AC welding and may be used for DC. Where dye penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole.1). Lime-coated electrode is preferred for DC welding.03 max. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. 1.5 max. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type CF8 alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type Also types Filler Metal AWS E308-15 AWS E308L-15 AWS E308-16 3 CF8 (18-21 Cr.) Used for type CF3.) Used for types CF8 and CF16F. acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further preparation (3. 8-11 Ni. Mo. When sections are under ½ inch in thickness.2.16 max. and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. 0. C) static and centrifugal castings. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant. Lack of attention to this may result 4 5 6 7 8 9 . CF3 (17-21 Cr. use an electrode no larger than 1/8 inch.35 Se. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air. 0. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair. (This rod should not be used for AC. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. chipping. Lime-coated electrode is preferred for DC welding. 2 Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. or by some combination of these operations.20-0. grinding. or machining. or radiography. (This rod should not be used for AC. Preheat Temperature No preheat is required for type CF8 alloy. C) and CF16F (18-21 Cr.

If the welded area will be subject to corrosion. 3. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each pass. Small welds which have been made to improve the appearance of casting surfaces that will not be subjected to corrosive attack in service may not require postweld heat treatment. undercutting or lack of penetration. take the following precautions: 1. Successful welds can be made. Electrode sizes from 3/32 to 1/4 inch may be used with the current and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular size rod. oil or air. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or porosity. For small welds on heavy sections. Weaving. held until uniformly at temperature. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. and then rapidly cooled by quenching in water. or a needle gun using stainless steel needles. dye penetrant. however. or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly. All slag should be removed between passes with a hammer and/or a stainless steel wire brush. use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. The backing plate. 11 12 13 14 . Use the proper filler metal (2). if any. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4). they are heated to 1900°F (1038°C) (2000°F [1093°C] for CF16F and CF20) minimum. 10 Electrical Characteristics Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity.in defective welds. If a defect penetrates through the casting. a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. radiography. and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). or pressure. however. Type CF3 castings may not require postweld heat treatment. No peening is done. this may not be necessary because the heavy mass will tend to cool the weld zone rapidly. using AC. is limited to two to four times the electrode wire diameter. is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. the burn-off rate of the electrode is much higher than for carbon steel. Post-Weld Heat Treatment To restore maximum corrosion resistance to welded type CF8 castings. Arc length should be maintained as short as possible. 2. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel. which should be removed after welding. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements.

8-11 Ni.08 max. If a defect penetrates through the casting. C). 0. and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root.Gas Metal-Arc (GMAW) Process Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type CF8 alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section Subject/Procedure 1 Base Metal Alloy type Also types Filler Metal AWS ER308L AWS ER308 CF8 (18-21 Cr. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air.1. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. gouging. Where dye penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole. acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further preparation (3. or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly. or not in excess of the diameter of the gas nozzle. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. grinding or machining.20-0. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair. which should be removed after welding. is generally of such a size that it 4 5 6 7 8 9 . A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. Bare wire is used for CF8 and CF16F.03 max. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 90° sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity. Bare wire is used for CF3. Mo. or by some combination of these operations. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. No peening is done. 0. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. CF3 (17-21 Cr. Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. Beads are cleaned between passes with a stainless steel wire brush.2). C) static and centrifugal castings. 1. dye penetrant. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. 2 3 Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground. 0. Weaving. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual.35 Se. a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. The backing plate. 9-12 Ni. C) and CF16F (18-21 Cr. Preheat Temperature No preheat is required for type CF8 alloy. chipping. or radiography. if any. 8-12 Ni.16 max. 0.5 max. is limited to about ½ inch.

and then rapidly cooled by quenching in water. and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. take the following precautions: 1. quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each pass. An alternate mixture of 75 percent argon plus 25 percent carbon dioxide at a flow rate of 20 cfh is also used. use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. 3. but may affect the corrosion resistance of the weld adversely on multipass welds. For small welds on heavy sections. Type CF3 castings may not require postweld heat treatment. this may not be necessary because the heavy mass will tend to cool the weld zone rapidly. Post-Weld Heat Treatment To restore maximum corrosion resistance to welded type CF8 castings.035 to 0.094 inch. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. radiography.extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. Shielding gas is usually argon plus two percent (2%) oxygen at a flow rate of 30 to 50 cfh. however. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4). 11 12 13 14 . Use the proper filler metal (2). dye penetrant. 2. held until uniformly at temperature. 10 Electrical Characteristics Welding is done using DC reverse polarity. or pressure. undercutting or lack of penetration. Small welds which have been made to improve the appearance of casting surfaces that will not be subjected to corrosive attack in service may not require postweld heat treatment. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the wire size used are normally followed. Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. oil or air. they are heated to 1900°F (1038°C) (2000°F [1093°C] for CF16F and CF20) minimum. Wire diameter range is from 0. If the welded area will be subject to corrosion.

Removal normally is accomplished by grinding. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Minor. 0. 9-12 Ni. If a defect penetrates through the casting. or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly. 0. Bare wire is used for CF8. No peening is done and. however. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication This process is seldom used for fabrication of composite castings. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. A good fit of the mating parts is essential for production of good welds. 8-12 Ni. When section thickness is under 1/4 inch. 0. Small defects and root passes are sometimes welded by fusion of the base metal only. C). because no slag is formed during the welding operation.08 max. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. is limited. 2 Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. Parts to be joined are ground or machined to provide a groove when placed together. or radiography.16 max. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. superficial defects are occasionally welded without any preparation other than sandblasting. Cavity Dimensions This process is used mainly for surface welds.Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW) Process Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type CF8 alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section Subject/Procedure 1 Base Metal Alloy type Also types Filler Metal AWS ER308L AWS ER308 3 CF8 (18-21 Cr. interpass cleaning usually is unnecessary. Mo. Bare wire is used for CF3. hence very little metal excavation is necessary and dimensions are not critical.5 max. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. C) static and centrifugal castings. before attempting repair. It is more frequently used for combining wrought and cast components.03 max. Defects usually are removed. CF3 (17-21 Cr. 0. 1. if any. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Preheat Temperature No preheat is required for type CF8 alloy. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. Weaving.35 Se. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant and to clean the parts thoroughly before assembly. very little weaving is done in this process. C) and CF16F (18-21 Cr. use a copper back-up strip for through welds. a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 8-11 Ni. dye penetrant.20-0. without the addition of any filler metal.

and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). If the welded area will be subject to corrosion. oil or air. wire sizes range from 1/16 to 3/16 inch. held until uniformly at temperature. Use the proper filler metal (2). The arc should not be struck on a carbon block. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. 10 Electrical Characteristics Welding is done using DC straight polarity. which should be removed after welding. Type CF3 castings may not require postweld heat treatment. they are heated to 1900°F (1038°C) (2000°F [1093°C] for CF16F and CF20) minimum. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. dye penetrant. Either helium or argon may be used for the inert shielding gas. radiography. or pressure. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the electrode size used are normally followed. is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. 2. this may not be necessary because the heavy mass will tend to cool the weld zone rapidly. Post-Weld Heat Treatment To restore maximum corrosion resistance to welded type CF8 castings. A high frequency method of starting the arc is preferred over a "scratch start" to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. Small welds which have been made to improve the appearance of casting surfaces that will not be subjected to corrosive attack in service may not require postweld heat treatment. For small welds on heavy sections. quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each pass. and then rapidly cooled by quenching in water.place. take the following precautions: 1. Where filler metal is used. undercutting or lack of penetration. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4). but argon is preferred with a flow of 20 to 50 cfh. however. Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. 11 12 13 14 . 3. A non-consumable electrode made of thoriated tungsten (EWTh-2) is used. The backing plate.

chipping. 2-3 Mo. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. C) and CG8M (18-21 Cr.1). * For welding type CG8M castings. Preheat Temperature No preheat is required for type CF8M alloy.08 max.Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type CF8M alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type Also types 2 CF8M (18-21 Cr. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further preparation (3. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air. 4 5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. 9-13 Ni. 9-13 Ni. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up 6 7 8 . Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. C). 0. Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical. grinding. 2-3 Mo. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant. Lime-coated electrode is preferred for DC welding. Where dye penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole.08 max. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground. Filler Metal AWS E308 Mo-15 AWS E316-15 AWS E317-15 * AWS E316L-15 AWS E308 MoL-15 AWS E308 Mo-16 AWS E316-16 AWS E317-16 * 3 Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. dye penetrant. Titania-coated electrode is used for AC welding and may be used for DC. gouging. C) static and centrifugal castings. 3-4 Mo. CF3M (17-21 Cr. 9-12 Ni. (This rod should not be used for AC. 0. or machining.) Used for welding type CF-3M alloy. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained.2. or by some combination of these operations. or radiography. 0.03 max.

to 90° sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. 9 Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is limited to two to three times the electrode wire diameter. All slag is removed between passes with a hammer and/or a stainless steel wire brush, or a needle gun using stainless steel needles. No peening is done on most welds, but occasionally light peening of the bead edges may prove beneficial. If a defect penetrates through the casting, or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly, a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. The backing plate, which should be removed after welding, is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. Electrical Characteristics Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. Successful welds can be made, however, using AC. Electrode sizes from 3/32 to 1/4 inch may be used with the current and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular size rod. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel, the burn-off rate of the electrode is much higher than for carbon steel. Arc length should be maintained as short as possible. A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or porosity. Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; however, use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. If the welded area will be subject to corrosion, it is desirable to quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each pass. For small welds on heavy sections, this may not be necessary because the heavy mass will tend to cool the weld zone rapidly. Post-Weld Heat Treatment To restore maximum corrosion resistance to welded type CF8M castings, they are heated to 1900°F (1038°C) minimum, held until uniformly at temperature, and then rapidly cooled by quenching in water, oil or air. Small welds which have been made to improve the appearance of casting surfaces that will not be subjected to corrosive attack in service may not require postweld heat treatment. Type CF3M castings may not require postweld heat treatment. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual, dye penetrant, radiography, or pressure. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions: 1. 2. 3. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4), and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). Use the proper filler metal (2). Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity, undercutting or lack of penetration.

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Gas Metal-Arc (GMAW)

Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type CF8M alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type Also types 2 CF8M (18-21 Cr, 9-12 Ni, 2-3 Mo, 0.08 max. C) static and centrifugal castings. CF3M (17-21 Cr, 9-13 Ni, 2-3 Mo, 0.03 max. C) and CG8M (18-21 Cr, 9-13 Ni, 3-4 Mo, 0.08 max. C). Bare wire is used for CF3M. Bare wire is used for CF8M. Bare wire is used for type CG8M.

Filler Metal AWS ER308 MoL AWS ER316L AWS ER316 AWS ER308 Mo AWS ER317

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Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air, chipping, gouging, grinding or machining, or by some combination of these operations. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography. Where dye penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole, acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further preparation (3.2.1). Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. Preheat Temperature No preheat is required for type CF8M alloy. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 90° sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or

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weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is limited to about ½ inch, or not in excess of the diameter of the gas nozzle. No peening is done. Beads are cleaned between passes with a stainless steel wire brush. If a defect penetrates through the casting, or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly, a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. The backing plate, which should be removed after welding, is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. 10 Electrical Characteristics Welding is done using DC reverse polarity. Wire diameter range is from 0.035 to 0.063 inch. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the wire size used are normally followed. Shielding gas is usually argon plus two percent (2%) oxygen at a flow rate of 30 to 50 cfh. Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; it is good practice, however, to use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. If the welded area will be subject to corrosion, quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each pass. For small welds on heavy sections, this may not be necessary because the heavy mass will tend to cool the weld zone rapidly. Post-Weld Heat Treatment To restore maximum corrosion resistance to welded type CF8M castings, they are heated to 1900°F (1038°C) minimum, held until uniformly at temperature, and then rapidly cooled by quenching in water, oil or air. Small welds which have been made to improve the appearance of casting surfaces that will not be subjected to corrosive attack in service may not require postweld heat treatment. Type CF3M castings may not require postweld heat treatment. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual, dye penetrant, radiography, or pressure. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions: 1. 2. 3. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4), and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). Use the proper filler metal (2). Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity, undercutting or lack of penetration.

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Filler Metal AWS ER308 MoL AWS ER316L AWS ER316 AWS ER308 Mo AWS ER317 Small defects and root passes are sometimes welded by fusion of the base metal only. 0. Bare wire is used for CF8M. before attempting repair. 0.Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type CF8M alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type Also types 2 CF8M (18-21 Cr. 9-13 Ni. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Minor. Bare wire is used for type CG8M.08 max. 9-13 Ni. however. A good fit of the mating parts is essential for production of good welds. or radiography. 0. C) and CG8M (18-21 Cr. superficial defects are occasionally welded without any preparation other than sandblasting. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant and to clean the parts thoroughly before assembly. 2-3 Mo. Defects usually are removed. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. 3-4 Mo. 2-3 Mo. C) static and centrifugal castings. Preheat Temperature No preheat is required for type CF8M alloy. Cavity Dimensions This process is used mainly for surface welds. 9-12 Ni. Parts to be joined are ground or machined to provide a groove when placed together. without the addition of any filler metal. dye penetrant. Removal normally is accomplished by grinding. 3 Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication This process is seldom used for fabrication of composite castings. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. Bare wire is used for CF3M. hence very little metal excavation is necessary and dimensions are not critical. It is sometimes used for the root pass with subsequent passes laid down by some other process.08 max.03 max. 4 5 6 7 8 . C). More frequently. CF3M (17-21 Cr. it is used for combining wrought and cast components.

this may not be necessary because the heavy mass will tend to cool the weld zone rapidly. however. but argon is preferred with a flow of 20 to 50 cfh. A non-consumable electrode made of thoriated tungsten (EWTh-2) is used.9 Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. If a defect penetrates through the casting. Interpass cleaning usually is not required because no slag is formed unless coated electrodes (even with the coating removed) have been used as filler metal. 3. The arc should not be struck on a carbon block. wire sizes range from 1/16 to 3/16 inch. or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly. which should be removed after welding. oil or air. The backing plate. or pressure. is limited. 10 11 12 13 14 . Small welds which have been made to improve the appearance of casting surfaces that will not be subjected to corrosive attack in service may not require postweld heat treatment. and then rapidly cooled by quenching in water. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. if any. is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. undercutting or lack of penetration. Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. If the welded area will be subject to corrosion. Use the proper filler metal (2). Electrical Characteristics Welding is done using DC straight polarity. 2. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the electrode size used are normally followed. Weaving. For small welds on heavy sections. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. held until uniformly at temperature. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4). A high frequency method of starting the arc is preferred over a "scratch start" to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. it is desirable to quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each pass. take the following precautions: 1. dye penetrant. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. Any cleaning should be done with a stainless steel wire brush. Post-Weld Heat Treatment To restore maximum corrosion resistance to welded type CF8M castings. they are heated to 1900°F (1038°C) minimum. Where filler metal is used. Type CF3M castings may not require postweld heat treatment. radiography. very little weaving is done in this process. Either helium or argon may be used for the inert shielding gas. a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity.

gouging. Preheat Temperature No preheat is required for type CK20 alloy. if any. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair. 0. chipping. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used.20 max. All slag is removed between passes with a hammer and/or a stainless steel wire brush. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 90° sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air. If a defect penetrates through the casting.2. 19-22 Ni.Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type CK20 alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 2 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type CK20 (23-27 Cr. No peening is done on most welds. 4 5 6 7 8 9 . A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat.1). grinding. or machining. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. Filler Metal AWS E310-15 AWS E310-16 3 Lime-coated electrode is preferred for DC welding.) Titania-coated electrode is used for AC welding and may be used for DC. but light peening of each pass is sometimes helpful in producing sound welds. or by some combination of these operations. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further preparation (3. Weaving. or radiography. Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical. and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. dye penetrant. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. is limited to two to three times the electrode wire diameter. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Where dye penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. (This rod should not be used for AC. or a needle gun using stainless steel needles. C) static and centrifugal castings.

radiography. 10 Electrical Characteristics Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel. is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. The backing plate. 3. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4). If the welded area will be subject to corrosion.or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly. undercutting or lack of penetration. Electrode sizes from 3/32 to 3/16 inch may be used with the current and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular size rod. Small welds which have been made to improve the appearance of casting surfaces that will not be subjected to corrosive attack in service may not require postweld heat treatment. a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. which should be removed after welding. use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. however. however. For small welds on heavy sections. Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. Successful welds can be made. this may not be necessary because the heavy mass will tend to cool the weld zone rapidly. held until uniformly at temperature. the burn-off rate of the electrode is much higher than for carbon steel. 11 12 13 14 . A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or porosity. they are heated to 2000°F (1093°C) minimum. 2. quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each pass. and then rapidly cooled by quenching in water. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). or pressure. dye penetrant. Use the proper filler metal (2). oil or air. using AC. Post-Weld Heat Treatment To restore maximum corrosion resistance to welded type CK20 castings. Arc length should be maintained as short as possible. take the following precautions: 1. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements.

Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type CK20 alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 2 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type CK20 (23-27 Cr. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant and to clean the parts thoroughly before assembly. Small defects and root passes are sometimes welded by fusion of the base metal only. 0. Defects usually are removed. it is used for combining wrought and cast components. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. If a defect penetrates through the casting. Parts to be joined are ground or machined to provide a groove when placed together. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication This process is seldom used for fabrication of composite castings. 19-22 Ni. C) static and centrifugal castings. More frequently.20 max. 3 Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. No peening is done. Cavity Dimensions This process is used mainly for surface welds. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. without the addition of any filler metal. It is sometimes used for the root pass with subsequent passes laid down by some other process. dye penetrant. a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. before attempting repair. superficial defects are occasionally welded without any preparation other than sandblasting. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Minor. or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly. A good fit of the mating parts is essential for production of good welds. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. Filler Metal AWS ER310 Bare wire is preferred in this process. hence very little metal excavation is necessary and dimensions are not critical. The backing plate. which should be removed after welding. Preheat Temperature No preheat is required for type CK20 alloy. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. Removal normally is accomplished by grinding. or radiography. Beads are cleaned between passes with a stainless steel wire brush if required because of slag formation. Stringer bead placement is used. however. is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all 4 5 6 7 8 9 .

dye penetrant. take the following precautions: 1. The arc should not be struck on a carbon block. Post-Weld Heat Treatment To restore maximum corrosion resistance to welded type CK20 castings. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. this may not be necessary because the heavy mass will tend to cool the weld zone rapidly.directions. Either helium or argon may be used for the inert shielding gas. A non-consumable electrode made of thoriated tungsten (EWTh-2) is used. If the welded area will be subject to corrosion. Where filler metal is used. and then rapidly cooled by quenching in water. however. oil or air. 2. wire sizes range from 1/16 to 3/16 inch. 11 12 13 14 . For small welds on heavy sections. they are heated to 2000°F (1093°C) minimum. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4). or pressure. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. Small welds which have been made to improve the appearance of casting surfaces that will not be subjected to corrosive attack in service may not require postweld heat treatment. 3. quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each pass. radiography. 10 Electrical Characteristics Welding is done using DC straight polarity. and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). A high frequency method of starting the arc is preferred over a "scratch start" to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. but argon is preferred with a flow of 20 to 50 cfh. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the electrode size used are normally followed. undercutting or lack of penetration. held until uniformly at temperature. Use the proper filler metal (2).

and/or stainless steel wire brush. 2 Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. grinding. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 90° sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground. 4 5 6 7 8 9 .5-30. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. 2-3 Mo. hammer. if any. All slag is removed with chisel. chipping. is limited to four times the electrode wire diameter. gouging. Where dye penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole. this alloy is not preheated. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. the alloy may be preheated to 400-600°F (204-315°C).) Titania-coated electrode is used for AC welding and may be used for DC. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air. dye penetrant. however. Filler Metal AWS E320-15 AWS E320-16 3 Lime-coated electrode is preferred for DC welding. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair.Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type CN7M alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type CN7M (19-22 Cr. or by some combination of these operations. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. or machining. 27. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. 0. Preheat Temperature Normally. or radiography. Interpass temperature is kept as low as possible. (This rod should not be used for AC.2. C) static and centrifugal castings.07 max. Weaving.1). 3-4 Cu. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant. acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further preparation (3. Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used.5 Ni. if the extent of the weld is substantial. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations.

then at center. Successful welds can be made. this may not be necessary because the heavy mass will tend to cool the weld zone rapidly. however.Beads are lightly peened at edges first. radiography. If preheating is done. tack welding should be performed after the casting has been preheated in order to minimize the possibility of initiating a crack at the tack weld. the burn-off rate of the electrode is much higher than for carbon steel. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel. and then rapidly cooled by quenching in water. undercutting or lack of penetration. quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each pass. Small welds which have been made to improve the appearance of casting surfaces that will not be subjected to corrosive attack in service may not require postweld heat treatment. use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. dye penetrant. however. Post-Weld Heat Treatment To restore maximum corrosion resistance to welded type CN7M castings. 3. a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. 11 12 13 14 . using AC. Electrode sizes from 3/32 to 3/16 inch may be used with the current and voltage on the low side of the range suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular size rod. The backing plate. Use the proper filler metal (2). and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). If the welded area will be subject to corrosion. For small welds on heavy sections. 10 Electrical Characteristics Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. or pressure. which should be removed after welding. take the following precautions: 1. or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly. 2. If a defect penetrates through the casting. Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. they are heated to 2050°F (1121°C) minimum. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. held until uniformly at temperature. oil or air. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4). Arc length should be maintained as short as possible. A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or porosity. is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions.

Gas Metal-Arc (GMAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type CN7M alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type CN7M (19-22 Cr. 3-4 Cu. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. 0.5-30. 27. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. 2-3 Mo. if the extent of the weld is substantial. Preheat Temperature Normally. No peening is done. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. Electrical Characteristics Welding is done using DC reverse polarity. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground. this alloy is not preheated.035 to 0. Wire diameter range is from 0. Filler Metal AWS ER-320 Bare wire is used in this process. Special attention is paid to directing the arc into the side walls and root of the joint. Shielding gas is usually argon plus two percent (2%) oxygen at a flow rate of 30 to 50 cfh. Beads are cleaned between passes with a stainless steel wire brush. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant. well prepared joints are essential.07 max. the smaller size wires are used. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. 2 3 Position All welding is done in the "flat" position.5 Ni. however.094 inch. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. Cavity Dimensions Good fitting. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. but dimensions are not critical. For root passes. 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 . Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the wire size used are normally followed. Base Metal Preparation for Repair This process is not being used for repair welding of castings. the alloy may be preheated to 400-600°F (204-315°C). Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. C) static and centrifugal castings. Technique for Welding Machined Castings This process is not being used to weld machined castings.

and then rapidly cooled by quenching in water. undercutting or lack of penetration. 13 14 . radiography. take the following precautions: 1. 2. Small welds which have been made to improve the appearance of casting surfaces that will not be subjected to corrosive attack in service may not require postweld heat treatment. oil or air. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. Make sure that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). Use the proper filler metal (2). they are heated to 2050°F (1121°C) minimum. 3.12 Post-Weld Heat TreatmentTo restore maximum corrosion resistance to welded type CN7M castings. held until uniformly at temperature. dye penetrant. or pressure.

Preheat Temperature No preheat is required for type CN7M alloy. 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 . Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. without the addition of any filler metal.5 Ni. Filler Metal AWS ER320 Bare wire is used in this process. No peening is done. is limited. The arc should not be struck on a carbon block. 2 Small defects and root passes sometimes are welded by fusion of the base metal only. Electrical Characteristics Welding is done using DC straight polarity. Beads are cleaned with a stainless steel wire brush. or machining. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. gouging. 3 Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. wire sizes range from 1/16 to 3/16 inch. C) static and centrifugal castings. Either helium or argon may be used for the inert shielding gas. if any. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication This process is not being used for fabrication of castings. Where filler metal is used. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. 3-4 Cu. A non-consumable electrode made of thoriated tungsten (EWTh-2) is used. 0. sandblast. but argon is preferred with a flow of 20 to 50 cfh. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair.5-30. A high frequency method of starting the arc is preferred over a "scratch start" to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the electrode size used are normally followed. chipping. or radiography. Cavity Dimensions This process is used mainly for surface welds.Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type CN7M alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type CN7M (19-22 Cr. grinding. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air. Weaving. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. or by some combination of these operations. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. 2-3 Mo.07 max. 27. dye penetrant. hence very little metal excavation is necessary and dimensions are not critical.

Post-Weld Heat Treatment To restore maximum corrosion resistance to welded type CN7M castings. 12 13 14 . Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. 3. If the welded area will be subject to corrosion. held until uniformly at temperature. take the following precautions: 1. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. 2. oil or air. and then rapidly cooled by quenching in water. radiography. For small welds on heavy sections. however. this may not be necessary because the heavy mass will tend to cool the weld zone rapidly. use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. they are heated to 2050°F (1121°C) minimum. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4). Small welds which have been made to improve the appearance of casting surfaces that will not be subjected to corrosive attack in service may not require postweld heat treatment. quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each pass.11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. undercutting or lack of penetration. or pressure. dye penetrant. and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). Use the proper filler metal (2).

W. Light peening of the first pass is sometimes helpful in producing a sound weld. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. this alloy is not preheated.5 max. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. 7. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. 2. or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly. C. 2 3 Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. 16-20 Mo. however. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. Where dye penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. dye penetrant.1).5-20 Cr. Weaving. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air. acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further preparation (3. 5. if any. balance Ni) static and centrifugal castings. Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical. If a defect penetrates through the casting. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 90° sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity. Co. All slag is removed between passes with a hammer and/or stainless steel wire brush. or machining. Fe. It is considered good practice to machine dry with no lubricant. 0. if the extent of the weld is substantial. or radiography.Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type CW12M alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type CW12M (15.25 max. grinding. Preheat Temperature Normally. a 3/16 inch backing plate is 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. or by some combination of these operations. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair.2.5 max. the alloy may be preheated to 400-600°F (204-315°C). is limited to two and one-half times the electrode wire diameter.12 max. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. Filler Metal AWS ENiCrMo-4-15 AWS ENiCrMo-5-15 Lime coated electrode is used.

it is good practice. which should be removed after welding. it is desirable to quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each pass. however.formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. Arc length should be maintained as short as possible. take the following precautions: 1. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. to use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. 11 12 13 14 . Summary In order to produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. Post-Weld Heat Treatment To restore maximum corrosion resistance to welded type CW12M castings. 3. Electrode sizes from 3/32 to 3/16 inch may be used with the current and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular size rod. Use the proper filler metal (2). If the welded area will be subject to corrosion. A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or porosity. undercutting or lack of penetration. the burn-off rate of the electrode is much higher than for carbon steel. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel. they are heated to 2150oF (1177oC) minimum. Small welds which have been made to improve the appearance of casting surfaces that will not be subjected to corrosive attack in service may not require post weld heat treatment Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. or pressure. held for two hours or until uniformly at temperature. radiography. For small welds on heavy sections this may not be necessary since the heavy mass will tend to cool the weld zone rapidly. is generally of such a size that it extends to a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. 10 Electrical Characteristics Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. The backing plate. Successful welds can be made. dye penetrant. using AC. and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). 2. however. and then rapidly cooled by quenching in water. oil or air. Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4).

0. or radiography. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual.5 max. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication This process is not being used for the fabrication of castings. W. grinding. C. 7. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Where dye penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole. Co. No peening is done. or by some combination of these operations. Fe. 16-20 Mo. Preheat Temperature No preheat is required for type CW12M alloy. without the addition of any filler metal. 2.5-20 Cr. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations.5 max. Cavity Dimensions The process is used mainly for surface welds. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. Filler Metal AWS ENiCrMo-4 Bare wire is used. acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further preparation (3.25 max. hence very little metal excavation is necessary and dimensions are not critical. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair.1). balance Ni) static and centrifugal castings. Beads are cleaned with hammer and/or stainless steel wire brush if any slag is present.Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type CW12M alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type CW12M (15. or machining. AWS EniCrMo-5 AWS EniCrMo-7 Small defects and root passes are sometimes welded by fusion of the base metal only. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air. dye penetrant.2. 5.12 max.

A high frequency method of starting the arc is preferred over a “scratch start” to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. A non-consumable electrode made of thoriated tungsten (EWTh-2) is used. The arc should not be struck on a carbon block. Post-Weld Heat Treatment To restore maximum corrosion resistance to welded type CW12M castings. they are heated to 2150oF (1177oC) minimum. 3. undercutting or lack of penetration. wire sizes range from 1/16 to 3/16 inch. it is good practice. Use the proper filler metal (2). Amperage and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the electrode size used are normally followed.10 Electrical Characteristics Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. or pressure. radiography. dye penetrant. it is desirable to quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each pass. however. Where filler metal is used. Summary In order to produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. For small welds on heavy sections this may not be necessary since the heavy mass will tend to cool the weld zone rapidly. but argon is preferred with a flow of 20 to 50 cfh. If the welded area will be subject to corrosion. oil or air. Small welds which have been made to improve the appearance of casting surfaces that will not be subjected to corrosive attack in service may not require post weld heat treatment Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. take the following precautions: 1. 11 12 13 14 . and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. held for two hours or until uniformly at temperature. and then rapidly cooled by quenching in water. to use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4). 2. Either helium or argon may be used for the inert shielding gas.

0. dye penetrant. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground. gouging. The backing plate. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. however. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. chipping. is limited to two and one-half times the electrode wire diameter. Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical. or radiography. remove all traces of slag from the finished weld area. No peening is done. if the extent of the weld is substantial. Filler Metal AWS ENiCrFe-1 Coated electrodes of the types listed are used for DC welding. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat.1). Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.2. Fe. If a defect penetrates through the casting. 2 3 Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. grinding. Where dye penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole. if any. or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Preheat Temperature Normally. this alloy is not preheated. Weaving. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. or by some combination of these operations. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. 11 max. the alloy may be preheated to 400-600°F (204-315°C). C) static and centrifugal castings.40 max. which should be removed after 4 5 6 7 8 9 .Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type CY40 alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type CY40 (14-17 Cr. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further preparation (3. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. or machining. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 90° sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity. a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. balance Ni. All slag is removed between passes with a hammer and/or stainless steel wire brush. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. If the casting will be exposed to high temperature in service.

Electrode sizes from 3/32 to 3/16 inch may be used with the current and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular size rod. 2. however. the burn-off rate of the electrode is much higher than for carbon steel. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel. Successful welds can be made. however. using AC. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements.welding. 11 12 13 14 . dye penetrant. 10 Electrical Characteristics Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. or pressure. undercutting or lack of penetration. is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. take the following precautions: 1. Arc length should be maintained as short as possible. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. held until uniformly at temperature. radiography. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4). and then rapidly cooled by quenching in water. and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or porosity. 3. oil or air. Use the proper filler metal (2). Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. Post-Weld Heat Treatment Welded type CY40 castings are heated to 1900°F (1038°C) minimum. Small welds may not require postweld heat treatment.

Either helium or argon may be used for the inert shielding gas.Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type CY40 alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type CY40 (14-17 Cr. 0. 11 max. Fe. A non-consumable electrode made of thoriated tungsten (EWTh-2) is used. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. No peening is done. hence very little metal excavation is necessary and dimensions are not critical. but argon is preferred with a flow of 20 to 50 cfh. Cavity Dimensions This process is used mainly for surface welds. or radiography. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair. 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 . Defect removal is accomplished by sandblasting and grinding. 3 Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. Beads are cleaned with hammer and/or stainless steel wire brush if any slag is present. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. C) static and centrifugal castings. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Electrical Characteristics Welding is done using DC straight polarity. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. The arc should not be struck on a carbon block. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. dye penetrant. Filler Metal AWS ERNiCrFe-5 Bare wire is used. A high frequency method of starting the arc is preferred over a "scratch start" to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. Preheat Temperature No preheat is required for type CY40 alloy. 2 Small defects and root passes sometimes are welded by fusion of the base metal only. Where filler metal is used. wire sizes range from 1/16 to 3/16 inch. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the electrode size used are normally followed. or by some combination of these operations.40 max. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication This process is not being used for fabrication of castings. balance Ni. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. without the addition of any filler metal.

and then rapidly cooled by quenching in water. use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. held until uniformly at temperature. dye penetrant. oil or air. Small welds may not require postweld heat treatment. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. however. 2. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. Post-Weld Heat Treatment Welded type CY40 castings are heated to 1900°F (1038°C) minimum. 3. and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. undercutting or lack of penetration. radiography. 12 13 14 . Use the proper filler metal (2). or pressure. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4). take the following precautions: 1.

Fe. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. but no peening is done on later passes. however. dye penetrant. and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. or by some combination of these operations.00 max. or machining. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant. which should be removed after welding. C) static and centrifugal castings. Preheat Temperature No preheat is required for type CZ100 alloy. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Filler Metal AWS ENi-1 A coated electrode with 0. Weaving. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. preheat of 200-300°F (93-149°C) sometimes is desirable. Ni. The backing plate.10 max. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair. a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. chipping. Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical. grinding. A minimum included angle of 80° should be maintained between the sides of the cavity. carbon. if any. or a needle gun using stainless steel needles. 1. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground. If a defect penetrates through the casting. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. is limited to three times the electrode wire diameter. Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. gouging. When breaking the arc. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. If sections are under ½ inch in thickness.Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type CZ100 alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 2 3 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type CZ100 (95 min. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 4 5 6 7 8 9 . or radiography. For complicated castings where high stresses may be developed in welding. Light peening of the first pass is helpful. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. use small electrodes and keep the heat low. it should be shortened and the rate of travel increased to avoid crater oxidation. 3 max. or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly. All slag is removed between passes and from the completed weld with a hammer and/or stainless steel wire brush.

or pressure. Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. however. radiography. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. Arc length should be maintained as short as possible. take the following precautions: 1. using AC. use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. Post-Weld Heat Treatment No postweld heat treatment is given to welded type CZ100 alloy. 11 12 13 14 . and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). Use the proper filler metal (2).3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. dye penetrant. however. 2. 3. Electrode sizes from 1/8 or 5/32 inch may be used with the current and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular size rod. undercutting or lack of penetration. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4). Successful welds can be made. A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or porosity. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. 10 Electrical Characteristics Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. Tack welding should be performed after the casting has been preheated in order to minimize the possibility of initiating a crack at the tack weld.

Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type N-12M alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type N-12M (26-33 Mo. If a defect penetrates through the casting. Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical. chipping.12 max. gouging. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly. Weaving. dye penetrant. All slag is removed between passes with a hammer and/or stainless steel wire brush. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair. grinding. if any. is generally of such a size that it 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Stringer beads usually are preferred. is limited to three times the electrode wire diameter. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. 6 max. 0. C) static and centrifugal castings. Minimum weld restraint is arranged. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground. if section size is over 3/4 inch in thickness. or machining. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 90° sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity. Light peening of the first pass is sometimes helpful in producing a sound weld. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. Preheat Temperature Normally this alloy is not preheated: however. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. Fe. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy (6). Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. balance Ni. a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. Filler Metal AWS ENiMo-1-15 Lime coated electrode is used. which should be removed after welding. The backing plate. and the extent of the weld substantial. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. 2 3 Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. or by some combination of these operations. or radiography. the alloy may be preheated to 800-1000°F (427538°C). Cleanliness is especially important in welding this alloy.

or pressure. If the welded area will be subject to corrosion. undercutting or lack of penetration. 11 12 13 14 . however. Arc length should be maintained as short as possible. For small welds on heavy sections this may not be necessary since the heavy mass will tend to cool the weld zone rapidly. and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). and then rapidly cooled by quenching in water. Post-Weld Heat Treatment To restore maximum corrosion resistance to welded type N-12M castings. Tack welding should be performed after the casting has been preheated in order to minimize the possibility of initiating a crack at the tack weld. Electrode sizes from 1/8 to 5/32 inch may be used with the amperage and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular size rod.extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. oil or air. Successful welds can be made. Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. they are heated to 2100oF (1149oC) minimum. take the following precautions: 1. it is desirable to quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each pass. the burn-off rate of the electrode is much higher than for carbon steel. A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or porosity. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. it is good practice however. dye penetrant. to use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. 2. radiography. 10 Electrical Characteristics Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4). Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. held until uniformly at temperature. Use the proper filler metal (2). 3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. using AC.

A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat.Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type N-12M alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type N-12M (26-33Mo. Any slag or oxide present is removed by chipping or brushing with a stainless steel wire brush. or by some combination of these operations. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. Preheat Temperature No preheat is required for type N-12M alloy. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication This process is not being used for fabrication of castings. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. 0. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair.12 max. 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 . 2 Small defects and root passes sometimes are welded by fusion of the base metal only. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. hence very little metal excavation is necessary and dimensions are not critical. balance Ni. Cavity Dimensions This process is used mainly for surface welds. 3 Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. or radiography. Filler Metal AWS ERNiMo-1 AWS ERNiMo-7 Bare wire is used. Fe. Either helium or argon may be used for the inert shielding gas. Amperages and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the electrode size used are normally followed. or machining. 6 max. The arc should not be struck on a carbon block. dye penetrant. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. Electrical Characteristics Welding is done using DC straight polarity. A non-consumable electrode made of thoriated tungsten (EWTh-2) is used. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air. without the addition of any filler metal. A high frequency method of starting the arc is preferred over a "scratch start" to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. No peening is done. but argon is preferred with a flow of 20 to 50 cfh. wire sizes range from 1/16 to 3/16 inch. C) static and centrifugal castings. Where filler metal is used. Stringer bead placement is used. grinding.

Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4). held until uniformly at temperature.11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. If the welded area will be subject to corrosion. or pressure. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. they are heated to 2100oF (1149oC) minimum. undercutting or lack of penetration. Small welds that have been made to improve the appearance of casting surfaces that will not be subjected to corrosive attack in service. and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). however. may not require postweld heat treatment. Use the proper filler metal (2). however. For small welds on heavy sections. oil or air. radiography. Post-Weld Heat Treatment To restore maximum corrosion resistance to welded type N-12M castings. 12 13 14 . take the following precautions: 1. and then rapidly cooled by quenching in water. it is desirable to quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each pass. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. to use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. dye penetrant. it is good practice. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. 2. 3. this may not be necessary because the heavy mass will tend to cool the weld zone rapidly.

or machining. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. If a defect penetrates through the casting. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.5 max. balance Ni. dye penetrant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. 3. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. if any. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant. Filler Metal AWS ENiCu-7 Electrode is preferred for welding this alloy. For sections under ½ inch in thickness. Fe. Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical. Weaving. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air. grinding. Stringer beads are preferred. or radiography. is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. All slag is removed between passes with a hammer and/or stainless steel wire brush. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. gouging.Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type M-35 alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type M-35 (26-33 Cu. 0. No peening is done. a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair. or by some combination of these operations. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. chipping. small electrodes and low current are used to keep temperature as low as possible. The backing plate. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. 2 3 Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly. which should be removed after welding. Preheat Temperature No preheat is required for type M-35 alloy. Tack welding should be performed after the casting has been preheated in 4 5 6 7 8 9 . C) static and centrifugal castings. preheat of 200-300°F (93-149°C) is sometimes desirable. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground. is limited to three times the electrode wire diameter. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 90° sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity.35 max. For complicated castings where high stresses may be developed in welding.

Electrode sizes from 3/32 to 3/16 inch may be used with the current and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular size rod. 10 Electrical Characteristics Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. Grind surface area around the groove or cavity to be welded to remove silica from molding sand to prevent surface cracking around weld-base metal interface. 2. Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). Post-Weld Heat Treatment No postweld heat treatment is used for type M-35 castings. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. using AC. Successful welds can be made. 3. Use the proper filler metal (2).order to minimize the possibility of initiating a crack at the tack weld. take the following precautions: 1. use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4). undercutting or lack of penetration. dye penetrant. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel. Arc length should be maintained as short as possible. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or porosity. the burn-off rate of the electrode is much higher than for carbon steel. however. 11 12 13 14 . or pressure. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. radiography. however. 4.

balance Ni. 3. Electrical Characteristics Welding is done using DC straight polarity. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 . Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair. dye penetrant. or by some combination of these operations.Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type M-35 alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type M-35 (26-33 Cu. 3 Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. hence very little metal excavation is necessary and dimensions are not critical. Agitation of the molten puddle is avoided. grinding. or radiography.35 max. A non-consumable electrode made of thoriated tungsten (EWTh-2) is used. and the puddle plus the hot end of filler metal wire is kept within the shielding gas at all times. A high frequency method of starting the arc is preferred over a "scratch start" to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. without the addition of any filler metal. 2 Small defects and root passes sometimes are welded by fusion of the base metal only. Care is taken to prevent air contamination of the shielding gas from drafts. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. The arc should not be struck on a carbon block. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations.5 max. Cavity Dimensions This process is used mainly for surface welds. Preheat Temperature No preheat is required for type M-35 alloy. Fe. C) static and centrifugal castings. Filler Metal AWS ERNiCu-1 AWS ERNiCu-7 Bare wire is used. or machining. 0. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication This process is not being used for fabrication of castings.

undercutting or lack of penetration. this may not be necessary because the heavy mass will tend to cool the weld zone rapidly. quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each pass. Either helium or argon may be used for the inert shielding gas. or pressure. 3. 11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. Grind surface area around the groove or cavity to be welded to remove silica from molding sand to prevent surface cracking around weld-base metal interface. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. 4. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. If the welded area will be subject to corrosion. 12 13 14 . dye penetrant. Use the proper filler metal (2). Where filler metal is used. wire sizes range from 1/16 to 1/8 inch. Post-Weld Heat Treatment No postweld heat treatment is used for type M-35 castings. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4). use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. For small welds on heavy sections. 2. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. but argon is preferred with a flow of 20 to 50 cfh. take the following precautions: 1.for the electrode size used are normally followed. and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). radiography. however.

Section Size Section size usually is considered important in welding this alloy. 4max. or by some combination of these operations. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. Ni. It is considered good practice to machine dry with no lubricant. or radiography. dye penetrant. 2 Filler Metal AWS E446-15 Lime coated electrodes are preferred for welding type HC castings. (Refer to Secs. AWS E310-15 AWS E312-15 AWS E329-15 3 Lime coated electrodes are also used where improved ductility of the weld is required.50max. and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. chipping. Several re-welds may be required. preheat is sometimes omitted but on heavier sections preheat is required. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground. 0. Preheat Temperature Preheat temperatures from 400-600°F (204-313°C) are used in welding this alloy. gouging. grinding or machining. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 90° sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. it may be necessary to go to the high end of the range to obtain good welds. attempts to repair by welding are often considered to be useless. Although successful welds are made with low preheat temperatures. 6 and 7) 4 5 6 7 8 .C) static and centrifugal castings. Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical. Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. If section thickness is 1/4 inch or less. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. NOTE: This alloy is considered extremely difficult to weld because of low ductility and tendency toward cleavage type fractures. When the depth of a defect exceeds 15 percent of the wall thickness.Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type HC alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type HC (26-30Cr. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat.

it is good practice. is limited to three times the electrode wire diameter. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel. undercutting or lack of penetration. The backing plate. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4) and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). Tack welding should be performed after the casting has been preheated in order to minimize the possibility of initiating a crack at the tack weld. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. however. a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. If parts to be fabricated fit together poorly. dye penetrant. is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. if any. A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or porosity. Weaving. radiography or pressure. to use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. 3. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. Electrical Characteristics Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. using AC. All slag is removed between passes with a hammer and/or wire brush. Generally. the burn-off rate of the electrode is much higher than for carbon steel. however. take the following precautions: 1.9 Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. 9) is necessary for welding machined castings. Post-Weld Heat Treatment Welds are usually heated to the range 1550-1900°F (843-1038°C) and then cooled rapidly. 2. Electrode sizes from 1/8 to 3/16 inch may be used with the current and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular size rod. Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (see Sec. Use the proper filler metal (2). Arc length should be maintained as short as possible. Staggered stringer beads are used on heavy sections. peening is not done but a light peen after each pass is sometimes helpful. which should be removed after welding. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Successful welds can be made. 10 11 12 13 14 .

or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. 0. Preheat Temperature Preheat temperatures from 400-600°F (204-313°C) are used in welding this alloy. NOTE: This alloy is considered extremely difficult to weld because of low ductility and tendency toward cleavage type fractures.Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type HC alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type HC (26-30Cr. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. chipping. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. which should be removed after welding. a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. Ni. Section Size Section size usually is considered important in welding this alloy.C) centrifugal castings. Tack welding should be performed after the casting has been preheated in order to minimize the possibility of initiating a crack at the 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 4max. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. Subsequent passes are laid down by the shield metalarc process (SMAW). Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 90° sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity. If parts to be fabricated fit together poorly. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. (See procedure for shielded metal-arc welding of type HC alloy. The backing plate. Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. gouging. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air. or by some combination of these operations. It is considered good practice to machine dry with no lubricant. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair. or radiography.50max. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground. grinding or machining. 2 Filler Metal This process is used mainly for root passes which are welded by fusion of the base metal without the addition of any filler metal. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root.) Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical. dye penetrant.

Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. dye penetrant. but argon is preferred with a flow of 15 to 25 cfh. 11 12 13 14 . The arc should not be struck on a carbon block. Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. it is customary to take the following precautions: 1. 2. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4) and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the electrode size used are normally followed. Post-Weld Heat Treatment Welds are usually heated to the range 1550-1900°F (843-1038°C) and then cooled rapidly. A non-consumable electrode made of thoriated tungsten (EWTh-2) is used.tack weld. radiography or pressure. 10 Electrical Characteristics Welding normally is done using DC straight polarity. Either helium or argon may be used for the inert shielding gas. Summary In order to produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. A high frequency method of starting the arc is preferred over a "scratch start" to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. undercutting or lack of penetration.

Filler Metal AWS E308-15 AWS E310-15 (0. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. however. 0. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Where dye penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole.30C) AWS E330-15 AWS E308-16 AWS E309-16 Lime coated electrodes are used for DC welding of this alloy. 4 5 6 7 8 . grinding or machining.40C) static and centrifugal castings.2. welding (3. 9-12Ni. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. chipping. if the section size is over 3/4 inch in thickness. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. Section Size Section size usually is considered important in welding this alloy. 3 Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. (See Introduction. or by some combination of these operations.20-0. Prior solution annealing at 1800-2100°F (982-1149°C) is often used before welding of aged castings. dye penetrant. (These rods should not be used for AC) Titania coated electrodes are preferred for AC welding and may be used for DC. Heavy sections may require preheat or postheat. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 90° sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. gouging.Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type HF alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 2 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type HF (19-23Cr. Preheat Temperature Normally this alloy is not preheated. and the extent of the weld substantial. (6 and 12) Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical. acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further preparation. the alloy may be preheated to 200-400°F (93-204°C). The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground. or radiography.1).

10 11 12 13 14 . Weaving. A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or porosity. 3. Tack welding should be performed after the casting has been preheated in order to minimize the possibility of initiating a crack at the tack weld. if any. take the following precautions: 1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4) and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). dye penetrant. or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. Residual slag is very corrosive to the alloy at high temperature. the burn-off rate of the electrode is much higher than for carbon steel. which should be removed after welding. Sometimes stringer beads are used exclusively. Electrical Characteristics Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. Arc length should be maintained as short as possible. All slag is removed between passes and from finished weld with hammer. Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. Use the proper filler metal (2). radiography or pressure. If a defect penetrates through the casting. or are used for root passes with weave beads use for later passes. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual.9 Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. however. grinder and/or wire brush. however. but when section size exceeds one inch castings may be stress relieved at 1600°F (871°C) after welding. Post-Weld Heat Treatment In general no post-weld heat treatment is given to type HF alloy. undercutting or lack of penetration. is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel. Successful welds can be made. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Electrode sizes from 1/8 to 3/16 inch may be used with the current and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular size rod. The backing plate. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. is limited to three times the electrode wire diameter. using AC. 2. No peening is done.

No peening is done.035 to 0. 9-12Ni. 6 7 8 9 10 11 . the alloy may be preheated to 200-400°F (93-204°C). Preheat Temperature Normally this alloy is not preheated. and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. then weave beads on subsequent filler passes.40C) static and centrifugal castings. Base Metal Preparation for Repair This process is not being used for repair welding of castings. Wire diameter range is from 0. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant.062 inch. Technique for Welding Machined Castings This process is not being used to weld machined castings. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.Gas Metal-Arc (GMAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type HF alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 2 3 4 5 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type HF (19-23Cr. however. Beads are cleaned between passes by wire brushing. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 90° sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity. Shielding gas is usually argon plus 2-5 percent oxygen at a flow rate of 30 to 50 cfh. Electrical Characteristics Welding is done using DC reverse polarity. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the wire size used are normally followed. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. 0. Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical. Prior solution annealing at 1800-2100°F (982-1149°C) is often used before welding of aged castings. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. if the section size is over 3/4 inch in thickness. Stringer beads are used on the root pass. Position This process is being used mainly for fabrication of tubes positioned horizontally on rolls.30C) Bare wire is used.20-0. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground. Filler Metal AWS ER310 (0. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. and the extent of the weld substantial.

12 13 Post-Weld Heat Treatment Welded castings may be stress relieved by heat to 1600°F (871°C) and held for one hour. take the following precautions: 1. 2. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. 3. Use the proper filler metal (2). Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. dye penetrant. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. undercutting or lack of penetration. Make sure that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). 14 . radiography or pressure.

gouging. It is considered good practice to machine dry with no lubricant. chipping. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations.Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type HF alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 2 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type HF (19-23Cr. or by some combination of these operations. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair. acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further preparation (3.20-0. or radiography. If a defect penetrates through the casting. Filler Metal This process is used mainly for root passes which are welded by fusion of the base metal without the addition of any filler metal.1). Subsequent passes are laid down by the shield metal-arc process (SMAW).40C) static and centrifugal castings. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. dye penetrant. or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly. and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. The backing plate. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air. Where dye penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole. is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions.2. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 90° sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity. 9-12Ni. grinding or machining. Preheat Temperature No preheat is required for type HF alloy. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. 0. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground. which should be removed after welding. a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place.

undercutting or lack of penetration. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. 11 12 13 14 . Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4) and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). dye penetrant. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. 2. Post-Weld Heat Treatment Usually no postweld heat treatment is required. A high frequency method of starting the arc is preferred over a "scratch start" to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. radiography or pressure. A non-consumable electrode made of thoriated tungsten (EWTh-2) is used. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity.10 Electrical Characteristics Welding normally is done using DC straight polarity. Either helium or argon may be used for the inert shielding gas. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the electrode size used are normally followed. The arc should not be struck on a carbon block. take the following precautions: 1. Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. but argon is preferred with a flow of 20 to 50 cfh.

chipping. 0. if the section size is over 3/4 inch in thickness. grinding or machining. Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical. however. 8-11Ni. AWS E312-15 or AWS E310-15HC are used for welding alloy types HE and HI.2. Section Size Section size usually is considered important in welding this alloy.50C) static and centrifugal castings. 3 Position All welding usually is done in the "flat" position. a vertical uphill welding position is sometimes used.1). and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. dye penetrant. 14-19Ni. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. good practice is to use an electrode no larger than 1/8 inch diameter. high carbon electrode is used for AC welding and may be used for DC. It is considered good practice to machine dry with no lubricant. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground.20-0. 0. or radiography. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 90° sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity. and the extent of the weld substantial. high carbon electrode is preferred for DC welding. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.20-0. When sections are under ½ inch in thickness. (Should not be used for AC) AWS E309-16HC Titania coated. For large defects.50C) and HI (26-30Cr. gouging. 11-14Ni. Where dye penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole. 2 4 5 6 7 8 . acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further preparation (3. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat (8). or by some combination of these operations.20-0. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Preheat Temperature Normally this alloy is not preheated.Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type HH alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type HH (24-28CR. 0. Prior solution annealing at 1800-2100°F (982-1149°C) followed by furnace or air cooling is often used before welding of aged castings. the alloy may be preheated to 200-400°F (93-204°C). Also types HE (26-30Cr. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair.50C) Filler Metal AWS E309-15HC Lime coated. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air.

or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly. dye penetrant. it is good practice. to use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. No peening is done. Residual slag is very corrosive to the alloy at high temperature. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. take the following precautions: 1. they are given a heat treatment of 3-4 hours at 19002050°F (1038-1121°C) and either furnace cooled or air cooled. the burn-off rate of the electrode is much higher than for carbon steel. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. HE and HI usually are not given any post-weld heat treatment. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. if any. In some cases where welds are large or located in critical areas of geometrically complicated castings. however. Electrode sizes from 3/32 to 1/4 inch may be used with the current and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular size rod. 2. Electrical Characteristics Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. is limited to three times the electrode wire diameter. however. Tack welding should be performed after the casting has been preheated in order to minimize the possibility of initiating a crack at the tack weld. undercutting or lack of penetration. Weaving. The backing plate.9 Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Interpass temperatures are held to 300°F (149°C). All slag is removed between passes and from finished weld with a hammer and/or stainless steel wire brush. Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. which should be removed after welding. 10 11 12 13 14 . Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel. If a defect penetrates through the casting. 3. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. using AC. Use the proper filler metal (2). Post-Weld Heat Treatment Welded castings of alloy types HH. radiography or pressure. A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or porosity. Arc length should be maintained as short as possible. Successful welds can be made. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4) and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). Any undercuts or rough spots in beads are faired in by grinding before next pass. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions.

Weaving. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. AWS ER310 3 Bare wire is used with composition modified to match carbon content of the Bare wire is used for types HE and HI. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Prior solution annealing at 1800-2100°F (982-1149°C) followed by air or furnace cooling is often used before welding of aged castings. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 90° are sometimes used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity. Also types HE (26-30Cr. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air. is limited to the diameter of the gas nozzle.20-0. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. chipping. or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly.Gas Metal-Arc (GMAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type HH alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type HH (24-28CR. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. gouging. Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical. if any. grinding or machining. Maximum bead thickness is held to 1/8 inch. 2 Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat.20-0. All oxides are cleaned from beads by hammer and/or wire brush. No peening is done. a 3/16 4 5 6 7 8 9 . If a defect penetrates through the casting.50C) static and centrifugal castings. 0. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair. the alloy may be preheated to 200-400°F (93-204°C).50C) Filler Metal AWS ER309 HH alloy.20-0. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds.50C) and HI (26-30Cr. 8-11Ni. however. Preheat Temperature Normally this alloy is not preheated. 14-19Ni. or by some combination of these operations. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant. 11-14Ni. 0. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. or radiography. and the extent of the weld substantial. 0. if the section size is over 3/4 inch in thickness. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. dye penetrant.

An alternate mixture of 75 percent argon plus 25 percent carbon dioxide at a flow rate of 20 cfh is also used but may affect that corrosion resistance of the weld adversely on multipass welds. radiography or pressure. they are given a heat treatment of 3-4 hours at 19002050°F (1038-1121°C) and either air cooled or furnace cooled. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. 3. 11 12 13 14 . Post-Weld Heat Treatment Welded castings of alloy types HH. Use the proper filler metal (2). Technique for Welding Machined Castings This process is not being used to weld machined castings. HE and HI usually are not given any post-weld heat treatment. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the wire size used are normally followed. undercutting or lack of penetration. dye penetrant. which should be removed after welding. Wire diameter range is from 0.094 inch. 10 Electrical Characteristics Welding is done using DC reverse polarity. 2. In some cases where welds are large or located in critical areas of geometrically complicated castings. take the following precautions: 1. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual.035 to 0.inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. Shielding gas is usually argon plus two percent (2%) oxygen at a flow rate of 30 to 50 cfh. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4) and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). The backing plate. is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions.

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . 0. Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical. If a defect penetrates through the casting. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. Subsequent passes are laid down by the shield metalarc process. 0. which should be removed after welding.50C) and HI (26-30Cr.50C) Filler Metal This process is used mainly for root passes which are welded by fusion of the base metal without the addition of any filler metal. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. 14-19Ni.1). The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 90° sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity. or by some combination of these operations. It is considered good practice to machine dry with no lubricant. and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. gouging. dye penetrant.50C) static and centrifugal castings. Where dye penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole. (See procedure for that process. is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further preparation (3. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat.20-0.20-0. a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place.20-0. chipping.2. 8-11Ni. Preheat Temperature No preheat is required for type HH alloy.Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type HH alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type HH (24-28CR. The backing plate. or radiography. grinding or machining. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. Also types HE (26-30Cr. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair.) Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. 11-14Ni. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. 0. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.

but argon is preferred with a flow of 20 to 50 cfh. dye penetrant. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the electrode size used are normally followed. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4) and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). A non-consumable electrode made of thoriated tungsten (EWTh-2) is used. 2. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. Either helium or argon may be used for the inert shielding gas.10 Electrical Characteristics Welding normally is done using DC straight polarity. Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. A high frequency method of starting the arc is preferred over a "scratch start" to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. The arc should not be struck on a carbon block. 11 12 13 14 . undercutting or lack of penetration. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. take the following precautions: 1. Post-Weld Heat Treatment Usually no postweld heat treatment is required. radiography or pressure. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements.

HP 3 Position All welding usually is done in the "flat" position. 18-22Ni.60C) static and centrifugal castings. or radiography.20-0. high carbon electrode is used for AC welding and may be used for DC. 0.1). Where dye penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole. 0. 18-22Ni. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground.2. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. chipping. if the section size is over 3/4 inch in thickness. or by some combination of these operations. Also types HL (28-32Cr. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 2 4 5 6 7 8 . gouging.Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type HK alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type HK (24-28CR. the alloy may be preheated to 200-400°F (93-204°C). Section Size Section size usually is considered important in welding this alloy.HN (19-23Cr. however. Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical. acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further preparation (3. 23-27Ni. 0. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. Prior solution annealing at 1800-2100°F (982-1149°C) followed by furnace or air cooling is often used before welding of aged castings. and the extent of the weld substantial. Changes in welding technique sometimes are made when section thickness exceeds one inch (8 and 9). Preheat Temperature Normally this alloy is not preheated. high carbon electrode is preferred for DC welding. AWS E330-15HC Lime coated electrode is used for welding alloy type HN. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. It is considered good practice to machine dry with no lubricant.20-0. The carbon content of the electrode used is matched to that of the base metal as closely as possible.60C). dye penetrant.50C) and HP Filler Metal AWS E310-15HC Lime coated. grinding or machining.20-0. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air. (Should not be used for AC) AWS E310-16HC Titania coated. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat (8).

and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. If a defect penetrates through the casting. Electrical Characteristics Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. Tack welding should be performed after the casting has been preheated in order to minimize the possibility of initiating a crack at the tack weld. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel. 3. use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. 2. however. or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly. For large defects. castings may be preheated (6) and a vertical uphill welding position is sometimes used. Any undercuts or rough spots in beads are faired in by grinding before next pass. On heavy sections. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. Use the proper filler metal (2). is limited to three times the electrode wire diameter. a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. 9 Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4) and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).90° sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity. Electrode sizes from 1/8 to 3/16 inch may be used with the current and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular size rod. take the following precautions: 1. For large welds and heavy sections it is sometimes desirable to give a stress relief treatment of one hour at 1600°F (871°C) minimum and either air cool or furnace cool. dye penetrant. Weaving. Very little peening is done. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. 10 11 12 13 14 . A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or porosity. the sides of the cavity or groove are "buttered" with stringer beads before the central portion of the weld is completed. Successful welds can be made. which should be removed after welding. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. using AC. Post-Weld Heat Treatment Welded castings of alloy types HK usually are not given any post-weld heat treatment. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. if any. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. undercutting or lack of penetration. Arc length should be maintained as short as possible. the burn-off rate of the electrode is much higher than for carbon steel. The backing plate. radiography or pressure. Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. Residual slag is very corrosive to the alloy at high temperature. All slag is removed between passes and from finished weld with a hammer and/or stainless steel wire brush. however.

60C).60C) static and centrifugal castings. is limited to filler passes after stringer bead root pass. and the extent of the weld substantial. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. 23-27Ni. Preheat Temperature Normally this alloy is not preheated. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. 18-22Ni. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground. Base Metal Preparation for Repair This process is not being used for repair of casting defects. Beads are carefully cleaned between passes with a stainless steel wire brush. 0. Prior solution annealing at 1800-2100°F (982-1149°C) followed by air or furnace cooling is often used before welding of aged castings. 18-22Ni.Gas Metal-Arc (GMAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type HK alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type HK (24-28CR. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. No peening is done. Weaving. Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 90° sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity. AWS ER330HC Bare wire is used for welding type HN.20-0. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. however. the alloy may be preheated to 200-400°F (93-204°C).50C).20-0. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant. HN (19-23Cr. if the section size is over 3/4 inch in thickness. 0. if any. Electrical Characteristics 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 . 0. and HP Filler Metal AWS ER310HC Bare wire with carbon content matched to that of the base metal as closely as possible.20-0. and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. Also types HL (28-32Cr. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. HP 3 Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together.

Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. Wire diameter range is from 0. Shielding gas is usually argon plus two percent (2%) oxygen at a flow rate of 30 to 50 cfh.035 to 0. 13 14 . Use the proper filler metal (2).Welding is done using DC reverse polarity. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. take the following precautions: 1. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the wire size used are normally followed. 11 12 Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. 2. radiography or pressure. dye penetrant. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. undercutting or lack of penetration.062 inch. 3. For large welds and heavy sections it is sometimes desirable to give a stress relief treatment of one hour at 1600°F (871°C) minimum. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4) and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). Post-Weld Heat Treatment Welded castings of type HK alloy usually are not given any post-weld heat treatment.

Where dye penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole. dye penetrant.1).60C) static and centrifugal castings. HP 3 Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. gouging. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further preparation(3. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. HN (19-23Cr. Root passes are usually made by fusion of the base metal without the addition of any filler metal. Subsequent passes are laid down by this or by the shielded metal-arc process (SMAW). 0. Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical. Also types HL (28-32Cr. or radiography.20-0. and HP Filler Metal AWS ER310HC Bare wire is used for filler passes on multipass welds.50C). Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 . or by some combination of these operations. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 90° sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground. chipping.Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type HK alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type HK (24-28CR. Preheat Temperature No preheat is required for type HK alloy. 18-22Ni.2. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.60C). A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. 23-27Ni. and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair. AWS ER330HC Bare wire is used for welding type HN. 0.20-0. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air. Carbon content of wire is matched to that of the base metal.20-0. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. grinding or machining. 18-22Ni. 0.

The arc should not be struck on a carbon block. if any. however. is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the electrode size used are normally followed. is limited to 3/8 inch. use low heat to avoid distortion. or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. dye penetrant. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4) and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. No peening is done. If a defect penetrates through the casting. Use the proper filler metal (2). a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place.weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. 2. which should be removed after welding. Weaving. Where filler metal is used. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. Post-Weld Heat Treatment Usually no postweld heat treatment is required. radiography or pressure. wire size is 1/16 inch. A high frequency method of starting the arc is preferred over a "scratch start" to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. 3. Either helium or argon may be used for the inert shielding gas. A non-consumable electrode made of thoriated tungsten (EWTh-2) is used. 11 12 13 14 . 10 Electrical Characteristics Welding is done using DC straight polarity. undercutting or lack of penetration. The backing plate. take the following precautions: 1. but argon is preferred with a flow of 20 to 50 cfh.

Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW)

Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type HT alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 2 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type HT (15-19CR, 33-37Ni, 0.35-0.75C) static and centrifugal castings. Filler Metal AWS E330-15 Lime coated electrodes is modified to deposit weld metal with carbon content approximately matching the composition of the base metal are preferred. Position Whenever possible, all welding is done in the "flat" position. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. (8) Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air, chipping, gouging, grinding or machining, or by some combination of these operations. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography. Where dye penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole, acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further preparation (3.2.1). Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. Preheat Temperature Normally this alloy is not preheated; however, if the section size is over 3/4 inch in thickness, and the extent of the weld substantial, the alloy may be preheated to 200-400°F (93-204°C). Prior solution annealing at 1800-2100°F (982-1149°C) followed by furnace cooling is often used before welding of aged castings. Section Size Section size usually is considered important in welding this alloy. When sections are under ½ inch in thickness, good practice is to use an electrode no larger than 1/8 inch diameter. For sections thicker than 3/4 inch, preheat may be helpful (6). Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 90° sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. For large defects, a vertical uphill welding position is sometimes used. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is

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limited to three times the electrode wire diameter. Sides of the cavities are sometimes "buttered" to minimize dilution of weld deposit by base metal. Any undercuts or rough spots in beads are faired in by grinding before next pass. No peening is done. All slag is removed between passes and from finished weld with a hammer and/or stainless steel wire brush. Residual slag is very corrosive to the alloy at high temperature. Interpass temperatures are held to 300°F (149°C). Inspection of weld quality during course of work is desirable (13). If a defect penetrates through the casting, or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly, a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. The backing plate, which should be removed after welding, is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. Tack welding should be performed after the casting has been preheated in order to minimize the possibility of initiating a crack at the tack weld. 10 Electrical Characteristics Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. Successful welds can be made, however, using AC. Electrode sizes from 3/32 to 1/4 inch may be used with the current and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular size rod. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel, the burn-off rate of the electrode is much higher than for carbon steel. Arc length should be maintained as short as possible. A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or porosity. Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; however, use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. Weld beads are peened to counteract contraction. Post-Weld Heat Treatment Welded castings of alloy types HT usually are not given any post-weld heat treatment. In some cases where welds are large or located in critical areas of geometrically complicated castings, they are heat treated for 3-4 hours at 1900-2100°F (1038-1149°C) and furnace cooled. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual, dye penetrant, radiography or pressure. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions: 1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4) and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). 2. Use the proper filler metal (2). 3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity, undercutting or lack of penetration.

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Gas Metal-Arc (GMAW)

Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type HT alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 2 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type HT (15-19CR, 33-37Ni, 0.35-0.75C) static and centrifugal castings. Filler Metal AWS ER330 Bare wire with composition modified to deposit weld metal approximately matching the carbon content of the base metal. Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. Base Metal Preparation for Repair This process is not being used for repair of casting defects. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. Preheat Temperature Normally this alloy is not preheated; however, if the section size is over 3/4 inch in thickness, and the extent of the weld substantial, the alloy may be preheated to 200-400°F (93-204°C). Prior solution annealing at 1800-2100°F (982-1149°C) is often used before welding of aged castings. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. In welding sections over ½ inch thick the type of weld bead is changed (9). Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 90° sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is limited to sections thicker than ½ inch. Parts to be welded are carefully tacked to maintain good fit and matching of groove lands. Electrical Characteristics Welding is done using DC reverse polarity. Wire diameter range is from 0.035 to 1/16 inch. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the wire size used are normally followed. Shielding gas is usually 100 percent argon at a flow rate of 30 to 35 cfh.

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they are heat treated for 3-4 hours at 1900-2100°F (1038-1149°C) and furnace cooled. In some cases where welds are large or located in critical areas of geometrically complicated castings.11 12 Technique for Welding Machined Castings This process is not being used for welding of machined castings. 13 14 . dye penetrant. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. Make sure that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. Post-Weld Heat Treatment Welded castings of type HT alloy usually are not given any post-weld heat treatment. take the following precautions: 1. 2. radiography or pressure. 3. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. undercutting or lack of penetration. Use the proper filler metal (2).

33-37Ni.Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type HT alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 2 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type HT (15-19CR. or radiography. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground. which should be removed after welding. Preheat Temperature No preheat is required for type HT alloy. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant.1).35-0. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 90° sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly. Filler Metal This process is used mainly for root passes which are welded by fusion of the base metal without the addition of any filler metal. gouging. or by some combination of these operations. Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. Where dye penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole. is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. grinding or machining. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air. dye penetrant. Subsequent passes are laid down by the shielded metal-arc process (SMAW). acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further preparation (3. 0. and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. If a defect penetrates through the casting. chipping. The backing plate.2.75C) static and centrifugal castings. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place.

Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. 3. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. but argon is preferred with a flow of 20 to 50 cfh.10 Electrical Characteristics Welding is done using DC straight polarity. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the electrode size used are normally followed. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4) and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). radiography or pressure. 11 12 13 14 . A high frequency method of starting the arc is preferred over a "scratch start" to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. Post-Weld Heat Treatment Usually no postweld heat treatment is required. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. take the following precautions: 1. Either helium or argon may be used for the inert shielding gas. The arc should not be struck on a carbon block. A non-consumable electrode made of thoriated tungsten (EWTh-2) is used. Use the proper filler metal (2). 2. undercutting or lack of penetration. dye penetrant.

Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant. acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further preparation (3. Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. chipping.75C) static and centrifugal castings. if the section size is over 3/4 inch in thickness. Weaving. or radiography. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat (8). and the extent of the weld substantial. good practice is to use an electrode no larger than 1/8 inch diameter. Filler Metal AWS E330-15 Lime coated electrodes modified to deposit weld metal with carbon content approximately matching the composition of the base metal.35-0. Preheat Temperature Normally this alloy is not preheated. if any. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 90° sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity. gouging. Where dye penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole. Prior solution annealing at 1800-2100°F (982-1149°C) is often used before welding. grinding or machining. 37-41Ni. Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical.Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type HU alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 2 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type HU (17-21CR. and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. When sections are under ½ inch in thickness. however. Sides of the cavities are sometimes "buttered" to 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . dye penetrant. or by some combination of these operations. preheat may be helpful (6). the alloy may be preheated to 200-400°F (93-204°C). Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. is limited to three times the electrode wire diameter. 0. Section Size Section size usually is considered important in welding this alloy. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground. For large defects. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds.1). For sections thicker than 3/4 inch. a vertical uphill welding position is sometimes used. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used.2. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air.

which should be removed after welding. however. stainless steel wire brush. Arc length should be maintained as short as possible. 11 12 13 14 . Tack welding should be performed after the casting has been preheated in order to minimize the possibility of initiating a crack at the tack weld. a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. the burn-off rate of the electrode is much higher than for carbon steel. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4) and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). Successful welds can be made. The backing plate. Residual slag may be corrosive to the alloy at high temperature. In some cases where welds are large or located in critical areas of geometrically complicated castings. 10 Electrical Characteristics Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. they are heat treated for 3-4 hours at 1900-2050°F (1038-1121°C) and furnace cooled. is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. 3. A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or porosity. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. 2. or needle gun using stainless steel needles. If a defect penetrates through the casting. Use the proper filler metal (2). or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly. Post-Weld Heat Treatment Welded castings of alloy types HU usually are not given any post-weld heat treatment. take the following precautions: 1. dye penetrant. use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. radiography or pressure. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel. using AC.minimize dilution of weld deposit by base metal. Interpass temperatures are held to 300°F (149°C). All slag is removed between passes and from finished weld with a hammer. Weld beads are peened to counteract contraction. No peening is done. Any undercuts or rough spots in beads are faired in by grinding before next pass. however. Inspection of weld quality during course of work is desirable (13). Electrode sizes from 3/32 to 3/16 inch may be used with the current and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular size rod. Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. undercutting or lack of penetration.

Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. Shielding gas is usually argon plus two percent (2%) oxygen at a flow rate of 30 to 50 cfh. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. is limited to sections thicker than ½ inch. Base Metal Preparation for Repair This process is not being used for repair of casting defects. 37-41Ni. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. Prior solution annealing at 1800-2100°F (982-1149°C) followed by furnace cooling is often used before welding. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 90° sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity. if the section size is over 3/4 inch in thickness. however. In welding sections over ½ inch thick the type of weld bead is changed (9). Preheat Temperature Normally this alloy is not preheated. A ±15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. 0. Parts to be welded are carefully tacked to maintain good fit and matching of groove lands. and the extent of the weld substantial. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the wire size used are normally followed. the alloy may be preheated to 200-400°F (93-204°C). 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 . Filler Metal AWS ER330 Bare wire with composition modified to deposit weld material approximately matching the carbon content of the base metal. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together.Gas Metal-Arc (GMAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type HU alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 2 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type HU (17-21CR. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Weaving.063 inch. if any. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical. Electrical Characteristics Welding is done using DC reverse polarity.75C) static and centrifugal castings. and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. Wire diameter range is from 0.35-0.035 to 0.

2. Use the proper filler metal (2).11 12 Technique for Welding Machined Castings This process is not being used for welding of machined castings. Post-Weld Heat Treatment Welded castings of type HU alloy usually are not given any post-weld heat treatment. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. take the following precautions: 1. dye penetrant. they are heat treated for 3-4 hours at 1900-2050°F (1038-1121°C) and furnace cooled. Make sure that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). In some cases where welds are large or located in critical areas of geometrically complicated castings. 13 14 . undercutting or lack of penetration. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. 3. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. radiography or pressure.

(See procedure for those processes. gouging. Where dye penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 90° sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity. a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. 0.2. The backing plate. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. or by some combination of these operations. grinding or machining.35-0. If a defect penetrates through the casting. Position All welding is done in the "flat" position. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further preparation (3. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air. Filler Metal This process is used mainly for root passes which are welded by fusion of the base metal without the addition of any filler metal. bare wire is used for filler metal. chipping.) When gas tungsten-arc process is used for entire weld AWS ER330(high carbon). Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant.1). which should be removed after welding. or radiography. Preheat Temperature No preheat is required for type HU alloy. Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical. and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root.Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type HU alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 2 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type HU (17-21CR. 37-41Ni.75C) static and centrifugal castings. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. dye penetrant. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. Subsequent passes are laid down by the shielded metal-arc or gas metal-arc processes.

A high frequency method of starting the arc is preferred over a "scratch start" to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. 11 12 13 14 . The arc should not be struck on a carbon block. Post-Weld Heat Treatment Welded castings of type HU alloy usually are not given any post-weld heat treatment. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the electrode size used are normally followed. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. wire sizes range from 1/16 to 3/16 inch. 10 Electrical Characteristics Welding is done using DC straight polarity. radiography or pressure. 2. Use the proper filler metal (2). undercutting or lack of penetration. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. take the following precautions: 1. Where filler metal is used. A non-consumable electrode made of thoriated tungsten (EWTh-2) is used. 3. Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4) and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). but argon is preferred with a flow of 20 to 50 cfh. Either helium or argon may be used for the inert shielding gas. dye penetrant.directions. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity.

Where dye penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole. All slag is removed between passes and from finished weld with a hammer and/or stainless steel wire brush. or by some combination of these operations. chipping. and the extent of the weld substantial. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations.75C) static and centrifugal castings. Section Size Section size usually is considered important in welding this alloy. Weaving. is limited to three times the electrode wire diameter. however. or radiography. 58-62Ni. 0. AWS E330-15 Lime coated electrode is also used. Position Welding is usually done in the "flat" position. grinding or machining. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds.1). Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical.2. if any. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. if the section size is over 3/4 inch in thickness. Preheat Temperature Normally this alloy is not preheated. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further preparation (3. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 90° sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Filler Metal AWS ENiCr-1 and AWS EniCrFe-1 Lime coated electrodes are preferred. and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. Successful welds can be made in all positions. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Prior solution annealing at 1800-2100°F (982-1149°C) followed by furnace cooling is often used before welding. gouging. dye penetrant. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air. the alloy may be preheated to 200-400°F (93-204°C).35-0. If a defect penetrates through the casting. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant.Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type HW alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 2 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type HW (10-14CR. Light peening of each pass before laying down next pass is sometimes helpful.

undercutting or lack of penetration. use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. 3. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. using AC. In some cases where welds are large or located in critical areas of the casting. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel. Successful welds can be made. Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. 10 Electrical Characteristics Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. 11 12 13 14 . Use the proper filler metal (2). take the following precautions: 1. Post-Weld Heat Treatment Welded castings of alloy types HW usually are not given any post-weld heat treatment. which should be removed after welding. A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or porosity. the burn-off rate of the electrode is much higher than for carbon steel. however. dye penetrant. 2.or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly. The backing plate. they are given a stress relief treatment of heating to 1750°F (955°C) for two hours. is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. Arc length should be maintained as short as possible. Electrode sizes from 1/8 to 1/4 inch may be used with the current and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular size rod. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4) and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). radiography or pressure. a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. however.

1). or radiography. AWS e330-15HC Lime coated electrode is also used. grinding or machining. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air. Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant. if any.2. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground. All slag is removed between passes and from finished weld with a hammer and/or stainless steel wire brush. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. Section Size Section size usually is considered important in welding this alloy. however.75C) static and centrifugal castings. is limited to three times the electrode wire diameter. or by some combination of these operations. and the extent of the weld substantial.Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type HX alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 2 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type HX (15-19CR.35-0. chipping. dye penetrant. acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further preparation (3. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. 64-68Ni. if the section size is over 3/4 inch in thickness. Weaving. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. 0. Residual slag may be corrosive to the alloy at high temperature. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. Prior solution annealing at 1800-2100°F (982-1149°C) followed by furnace cooling is often used before welding of aged castings. the alloy may be preheated to 200-400°F (93-204°C). Preheat Temperature Normally this alloy is not preheated. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Where dye penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole. Position Welding usually is done in the "flat" position. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Filler Metal AWS ENiCrFe-1 Lime coated electrode is preferred. and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. gouging. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 90° sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity. Interpass temperatures held to 200°F (93°C) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .

Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4) and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). radiography or pressure. 2.maximum is sometimes helpful. Post-Weld Heat Treatment Welded castings of alloy types HX usually are not given any post-weld heat treatment. Arc length should be maintained as short as possible. Successful welds can be made. however. 3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. dye penetrant. however. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel. undercutting or lack of penetration. 10 Electrical Characteristics Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. the burn-off rate of the electrode is much higher than for carbon steel. is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. Use the proper filler metal (2). take the following precautions: 1. Electrode sizes from 1/8 to 3/16 inch may be used with the current and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular size rod. using AC. Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or porosity. a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. Light peening of each pass before laying down next pass is sometimes desirable. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly. If a defect penetrates through the casting. The backing plate. 11 12 13 14 . which should be removed after welding.

If a defect penetrates through the casting.Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW) Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding of type HX alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members Section 1 2 Subject/Procedure Base Metal Alloy type HX (15-19CR. Welding Technique Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly. or ground or machined so that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Base Metal Preparation for Repair Defects are removed before attempting any repair. chipping. Subsequent passes are laid down by the shielded metal-arc process (SMAW).1). acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further preparation (3. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant. is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions.2. or by some combination of these operations. Section Size Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . dye penetrant. a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place.35-0. Preheat Temperature No preheat is required for type HX alloy. 0. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air. gouging. A ± 15° angle of the groove with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. Where dye penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole. which should be removed after welding. Lack of attention to this may result in defective welds. or radiography. The backing plate. 64-68Ni. grinding or machining. A minimum included angle of 30° (included angles up to 90° sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity. Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground. and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual. Position All welding is done in the "flat" position.75C) static and centrifugal castings. Cavity Dimensions Cavity dimensions are not critical. Filler Metal This process is used mainly for root passes which are welded by fusion of the base metal without the addition of any filler metal.

Technique for Welding Machined Castings No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings. 11 12 13 14 . 3. Post-Weld Heat Treatment Welded castings of type HX alloy usually are not given any post-weld heat treatment. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the electrode size used are normally followed. but argon is preferred with a flow of 20 to 50 cfh. radiography or pressure. The arc should not be struck on a carbon block. Summary To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements. Use the proper filler metal (2). A high frequency method of starting the arc is preferred over a "scratch start" to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity. dye penetrant. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4) and that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9). undercutting or lack of penetration. take the following precautions: 1. A non-consumable electrode made of thoriated tungsten (EWTh-2) is used.10 Electrical Characteristics Welding is done using DC straight polarity. Non-Destructive Tests Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual. 2. Either helium or argon may be used for the inert shielding gas.

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