DOE-HDBK-1011/4-92

JUNE 1992

DOE FUNDAMENTALS HANDBOOK ELECTRICAL SCIENCE Volume 4 of 4

U.S. Department of Energy Washington, D.C. 20585

FSC-6910

Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

This document has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. P. O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, TN 37831; (615) 576-8401. Available to the public from the National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161. Order No. DE92019788

ELECTRICAL SCIENCE

ABSTRACT
The Electrical Science Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of electrical theory, terminology, and application. The handbook includes information on alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) theory, circuits, motors, and generators; AC power and reactive components; batteries; AC and DC voltage regulators; transformers; and electrical test instruments and measuring devices. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility electrical equipment.

Key Words: Training Material, Magnetism, DC Theory, DC Circuits, Batteries, DC
Generators, DC Motors, AC Theory, AC Power, AC Generators, Voltage Regulators, AC Motors, Transformers, Test Instruments, Electrical Distribution

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DOE Category A reactor training managers determined which materials should be included. Prints. and is divided into modules so that content and order may be modified by individual DOE contractors to suit their specific training needs. The DOE Fundamentals Handbooks represent the needs of various DOE nuclear facilities' fundamental training requirements. Thermodynamics. This program is managed by EG&G Idaho. Classical Physics. Material Science.ELECTRICAL SCIENCE FOREWORD The Department of Energy (DOE) Fundamentals Handbooks consist of ten academic subjects. and Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory. The final draft of each of the handbooks was then reviewed by these two groups. To increase their applicability to nonreactor nuclear facilities. results of job and task analyses. a foreword. learning objectives. This approach has resulted in revised modular handbooks that contain sufficient detail such that each facility may adjust the content to fit their specific needs. Rev. DOE Category A reactor training managers also reviewed and commented on the content. subject matter content. Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards. Heat Transfer. Mechanical Science. information that applied to two or more DOE nuclear facilities was considered generic and was included. Each subject area is supported by a separate examination bank with an answer key. and text material. The subject areas. 0 ES . Each handbook contains an abstract. On the basis of feedback from these sources. and Drawings. The DOE Fundamentals Handbooks have been prepared for the Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy. Inc. Chemistry. Electrical Science. which include Mathematics. and level of detail of the Reactor Operator Fundamentals Manuals were determined from several sources. To update their reactor-specific content. and served as a primary reference in the initial development phase. Engineering Symbology. by the DOE Training Coordination Program. and independent input from contractors and operations-oriented personnel were all considered and included to some degree in developing the text material and learning objectives. These handbooks were first published as Reactor Operator Fundamentals Manuals in 1985 for use by DOE category A reactors. Instrumentation and Control. an overview. the Reactor Operator Fundamentals Manual learning objectives were distributed to the Nuclear Facility Training Coordination Program Steering Committee for review and comment. The handbooks are provided as an aid to DOE nuclear facility contractors. and Fluid Flow. Training guidelines from the commercial nuclear power industry.

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ELECTRICAL SCIENCE OVERVIEW The Department of Energy Fundamentals Handbook entitled Electrical Science was prepared as an information resource for personnel who are responsible for the operation of the Department's nuclear facilities.Basic DC Theory This module describes the basic concepts of direct current (DC) electrical circuits and discusses the associated terminology.Basic Electrical Theory This module describes basic electrical concepts and introduces electrical terminology. The following is a brief description of the information presented in each module of the handbook. circuit arrangements. and associated hazards. maintenance personnel. 0 ES . Module 2 . The Electrical Science handbook consists of fifteen modules that are contained in four volumes. and the technical staff to safely operate and maintain the facility and facility support systems.DC Circuits This module introduces the rules associated with the reactive components of inductance and capacitance and how they affect DC circuits. This knowledge will help personnel more fully understand the impact that their actions may have on the safe and reliable operation of facility components and systems.Batteries This module introduces batteries and describes the types of cells used. The information in the handbook is presented to provide a foundation for applying engineering concepts to the job. Volume 2 of 4 Module 3 . A basic understanding of electricity and electrical systems is necessary for DOE nuclear facility operators. Rev. Volume 1 of 4 Module 1 . Module 4 .

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Module 9 .ELECTRICAL SCIENCE Module 5 . Module 10 . 0 ES .Basic AC Theory This module describes the basic concepts of alternating current (AC) electrical circuits and discusses the associated terminology. Module 11 .DC Motors This module describes the types of DC motors and includes discussions of speed control. applications.AC Motors This module explains the theory of operation of AC motors and discusses the various types of AC motors and their application. Module 6 .DC Generators This module describes the types of DC generators and their application in terms of voltage production and load characteristics. Volume 4 of 4 Module 12 .AC Power This module presents power calculations for single-phase and three-phase AC circuits and includes the power triangle concept. and load characteristics.AC Generators This module describes the operating characteristics of AC generators and includes terminology.Voltage Regulators This module describes the basic operation and application of voltage regulators. and methods of paralleling AC generation sources.AC Reactive Components This module describes inductance and capacitance and their effects on AC circuits. Volume 3 of 4 Module 7 . Rev. methods of voltage production. Module 8 .

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Test Instruments and Measuring Devices This module describes electrical measuring and test equipment and includes the parameters measured and the principles of operation of common instruments.Electrical Distribution Systems This module describes basic electrical distribution systems and includes characteristics of system design to ensure personnel and equipment safety. and to better understand basic system and equipment operations. and application. the Electrical Science handbook does present enough information to provide the reader with a fundamental knowledge level sufficient to understand the advanced theoretical concepts presented in other subject areas. However. voltage/current relationships. An attempt to present the entire subject of electrical science would be impractical. 0 ES .ELECTRICAL SCIENCE Module 13 .Transformers This module introduces transformer theory and includes the types of transformers. The information contained in this handbook is by no means all encompassing. Module 14 . Module 15 . Rev.

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Department of Energy Fundamentals Handbook ELECTRICAL SCIENCE Module 12 AC Motors .

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 Page i ES-12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . ii LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Single-Phase AC Induction Motors Synchronous Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Slip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Induction Motor . . . . . . . . . . . iii REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Field Excitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 11 12 12 14 15 Rev. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Torque Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Starting a Synchronous Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 5 5 7 8 AC MOTOR TYPES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Torque . . . . . . v AC MOTOR THEORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AC Motors TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv OBJECTIVES . 1 Principles of Operation Rotating Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

LIST OF FIGURES

AC Motors

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Three-Phase Stator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Rotating Magnetic Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Induction Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Torque vs Slip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Squirrel-Cage Induction Rotor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Split-Phase Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Wound Rotor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Torque Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Synchronous Motor Field Excitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

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AC Motors

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF TABLES
NONE

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REFERENCES

AC Motors

REFERENCES
Gussow, Milton, Schaum’s Outline Series, Basic Electricity, McGraw-Hill. Academic Program for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel, Volume IV, Columbia, MD: General Physics Corporation, Library of Congress Card #A 326517, 1982. Academic Program for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel, Volume II, Columbia, MD: General Physics Corporation, Library of Congress Card #A 326517, 1982. Nasar and Unnewehr, Electromechanics and Electric Machines, John Wiley and Sons. Van Valkenburgh, Nooger, and Neville, Basic Electricity, Vol. 5, Hayden Book Company. Lister, Eugene C., Electric Circuits and Machines, 5th Edition, McGraw-Hill. Croft, Carr, Watt, and Summers, American Electricians Handbook, 10th Edition, McGrawHill. Mason, C. Russel, The Art and Science of Protective Relaying, John Wiley and Sons. Mileaf, Harry, Electricity One - Seven, Revised 2nd Edition, Hayden Book Company. Buban and Schmitt, Understanding Electricity and Electronics, 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill. Kidwell, Walter, Electrical Instruments and Measurements, McGraw-Hill.

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5 1.0 Given the type and application of an AC motor.7 1.6 1. DESCRIBE how an AC synchronous motor is started.8 1.1 1. CALCULATE percent slip in an AC motor.AC Motors OBJECTIVES TERMINAL OBJECTIVE 1. Induction b. ENABLING OBJECTIVES 1.4 1. DESCRIBE how torque is produced in an AC motor. DESCRIBE the operating characteristics of that motor including methods of torque production and advantages of that type. 0 Page v ES-12 . DESCRIBE the effects of over and under-exciting an AC synchronous motor. EXPLAIN why an AC synchronous motor does not have starting torque. Given field speed and rotor speed. STATE the applications of the following types of AC motors: a.3 1.2 1. DESCRIBE how torque is produced in a single-phase AC motor. Synchronous Rev. Single-phase c.9 DESCRIBE how a rotating magnetic field is produced in an AC motor. EXPLAIN the relationship between speed and torque in an AC induction motor.

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EO 1. At any instant in time. which can be coupled to desired loads throughout the facility in a convenient manner.AC Motors AC MOTOR THEORY AC MOTOR THEORY AC motors are widely used to drive machinery for a wide variety of applications. a knowledge of the basic theory of operation of AC motors is necessary. The windings are connected in wye. we must first find out how a rotating magnetic field is produced. DESCRIBE how torque is produced in an AC motor. the magnetic field generated by one particular phase will depend on the current through that phase. the resulting magnetic field is zero. Rotating Field Before discussing how a rotating magnetic field will cause a motor rotor to turn. the magnetic fields produced will also be 120° out of phase.4 Principles of Operation The principle of operation for all AC motors relies on the interaction of a revolving magnetic field created in the stator by AC current. Given field speed and rotor speed. which will act upon the rotor. EXPLAIN the relationship between slip and torque in an AC induction motor. EO 1.3 EO 1. Since the currents in the three windings are 120° out of phase. Figure 1 illustrates a three-phase stator to which a three-phase AC current is supplied.1 DESCRIBE how a rotating magnetic field is produced in an AC motor. The three magnetic fields will combine to produce one field. The resulting interaction produces usable torque. the resulting field is at a maximum value. the rotor also rotates to maintain its alignment with the stator’s magnetic field. Prior to the discussion of specific types of AC motors. The two windings in each phase are wound in the same direction. 0 Page 1 ES-12 . If the current is at a maximum value. a magnetic field is induced in the rotor opposite in polarity of the magnetic field in the stator. In an AC induction motor.2 EO 1. Rev. some common terms and principles must be introduced. The remainder of this chapter’s discussion deals with AC induction motors. If the current through that phase is zero. with an opposing magnetic field either induced on the rotor or provided by a separate DC current source. To understand how these motors operate. CALCULATE percent slip in an AC motor. as the magnetic field rotates in the stator. Therefore.

At the end of one cycle of alternating current. the magnetic fields of each phase combine to produce a magnetic field whose position shifts through a certain angle. Since the rotor has an opposing magnetic field induced upon it.AC MOTOR THEORY AC Motors Figure 1 Three-Phase Stator From one instant to the next. 0 . it will also rotate through one revolution. or one revolution (Figure 2). the magnetic field will have shifted through 360°. ES-12 Page 2 Rev.

When the current flow in a phase is negative. B. 0 Page 3 ES-12 . rotation of the magnetic field is developed in Figure 2 by "stopping" the field at six selected positions.AC Motors AC MOTOR THEORY For purpose of explanation. Figure 2 Rotating Magnetic Field Rev. and C. A. For the following discussion. B. and C’. These instances are marked off at 60° intervals on the sine waves representing the current flowing in the three phases. when the current flow in a phase is positive. the magnetic field will develop a north pole at the poles labeled A’. or instances. the magnetic field will develop a north pole at the poles labeled A. B’. and C.

the current sine waves have again rotated 60 electrical degrees from the previous point for a total rotation of 120 electrical degrees. At this point. the current in phase C has decreased to half of the maximum positive value. the magnetic field established at this instance will be identical to that established at Point T1. at Point T7. As can be seen. The magnetic field has again rotated 60° from Point T5 for a total rotation of 300°. with poles A’ and B’ being north poles and poles A and B being south poles. the current sine waves have rotated 180 electrical degrees from Point T1 so that the relationship of the phase currents is identical to Point T1 except that the polarity has reversed. Thus. with current flow reversed in phase C the magnetic field is established vertically upward between poles C’ (north) and C (south). it can be seen that the magnetic field on the stator has rotated another 60° for a total rotation of 120°. However. with poles A’ and C’ being north poles and poles A and C being south poles. This magnetic field is aided by the weaker fields developed across phases A and B. while the current in phase C has reversed direction and is at half of its maximum negative value also. This magnetic field is aided by the weaker fields developed across phases B and C.AC MOTOR THEORY AC Motors At point T1. which establishes a magnetic field upward to the right. it can be seen that the magnetic field within the stator of the motor has physically rotated 60°. phase B is at its maximum negative value. From this discussion it can be seen that for one complete revolution of the electrical sine wave (360°). the resulting magnetic field developed across phase C will be of maximum field strength. the magnetic field has now physically rotated a total of 180° from the start. At Point T2. with poles B and C being north poles and poles B’ and C’ being south poles. between pole C (north) and pole C’ (south). the current sine waves have rotated through 60 electrical degrees. the current in phase A has increased to its maximum negative value. the currents in phases A and B are at half of the maximum negative value. 0 . the magnetic field has physically rotated 60° from the previous point for a total rotation of 240°. At this point. the current is returned to the same polarity and values as that of Point T1. The resulting magnetic field is established downward to the left. with the maximum field strength developed across phase B. the current in phase B has increased to its maximum positive value. phase A is at its maximum positive value. with the maximum field strength developed across the C phase. This magnetic field is aided by the weaker fields developed across phases A and C. The resulting magnetic field is established vertically downward. which will establish a magnetic field downward to the right. Since phase C is again at a maximum value. At Point T6. The current in phase A has decreased to half of its maximum negative value. ES-12 Page 4 Rev. Thus. Finally. Likewise. with the maximum field strength developed across the A phase. a rotating magnetic field is generated. between poles B (north) and B’ (south). The current in phase B has reversed direction and is at half of the maximum positive value. At the same instance. At Point T4. Again. At Point T5. Thus. the magnetic field developed in the stator of a motor has also rotated one complete revolution (360°). you can see that by applying three-phase AC to three windings symmetrically spaced around a stator. between poles A’ (north) and A (south). At Point T3. The resulting magnetic field is established upward to the left. the current in phase C is at its maximum positive value. Therefore.

AC Motors

AC MOTOR THEORY

Torque Production
When alternating current is applied to the stator windings of an AC induction motor, a rotating magnetic field is developed. The rotating magnetic field cuts the bars of the rotor and induces a current in them due to generator action. The direction of this current flow can be found using the left-hand rule for generators. This induced current will produce a magnetic field, opposite in polarity of the stator field, around the conductors of the rotor, which will try to line up with the magnetic field of the stator. Since the stator field is rotating continuously, the rotor cannot line up with, or lock onto, the stator field and, therefore, must follow behind it (Figure 3).
Figure 3 Induction Motor

Slip
It is virtually impossible for the rotor of an AC induction motor to turn at the same speed as that of the rotating magnetic field. If the speed of the rotor were the same as that of the stator, no relative motion between them would exist, and there would be no induced EMF in the rotor. (Recall from earlier modules that relative motion between a conductor and a magnetic field is needed to induce a current.) Without this induced EMF, there would be no interaction of fields to produce motion. The rotor must, therefore, rotate at some speed less than that of the stator if relative motion is to exist between the two. The percentage difference between the speed of the rotor and the speed of the rotating magnetic field is called slip. The smaller the percentage, the closer the rotor speed is to the rotating magnetic field speed. Percent slip can be found by using Equation (12-1). SLIP NS NS NR x 100% (12-1)

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AC MOTOR THEORY

AC Motors

where NS = synchronous speed (rpm) NR = rotor speed (rpm) The speed of the rotating magnetic field or synchronous speed of a motor can be found by using Equation (12-2). NS where Ns = f = P = Example: speed of rotating field (rpm) frequency of rotor current (Hz) total number of poles A two pole, 60 Hz AC induction motor has a full load speed of 3554 rpm. What is the percent slip at full load? 120 f P (12-2)

Solution: Synchronous speed: NS NS NS Slip: SLIP NS NS NR x 100% 120 f P 120 (60 Hz) 2 3600 rpm

SLIP

3600 3554 rpm x 100% 3600 rpm

1.3%

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AC Motors

AC MOTOR THEORY

Torque
The torque of an AC induction motor is dependent upon the strength of the interacting rotor and stator fields and the phase relationship between them. Torque can be calculated by using Equation (12-3). T = K Φ IR cos θR where Τ K Φ IR cos θR = = = = = torque (lb-ft) constant stator magnetic flux rotor current (A) power factor of rotor (12-3)

During normal operation, K, Φ, and cos θR are, for all intents and purposes, constant, so that torque is directly proportional to the rotor current. Rotor current increases in almost direct proportion to slip. The change in torque with respect to slip (Figure 4) shows that, as slip increases from zero to ~10%, the torque increases linearly. As the load and slip are increased beyond full-load torque, the torque will reach a maximum value at about 25% slip. The maximum value of torque is called the breakdown torque of the motor. If load is increased beyond this point, the motor will stall and come to a rapid stop. The typical induction motor breakdown torque varies from 200 Figure 4 Torque vs Slip to 300% of full load torque. Starting torque is the value of torque at 100% slip and is normally 150 to 200% of full-load torque. As the rotor accelerates, torque will increase to breakdown torque and then decrease to the value required to carry the load on the motor at a constant speed, usually between 0-10%.

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the motor will stall and come to a rapid stop. The typical induction motor breakdown torque varies from 200 to 300% of full-load torque. or one revolution. the magnetic fields combine to produce a magnetic field whose position shifts through a certain angle. AC Motor Theory Summary A magnetic field is produced in an AC motor through the action of the threephase voltage that is applied. the magnetic field will have shifted through 360°. From one instant to the next. Torque in an AC motor is developed through interactions with the rotor and the rotating magnetic field. This induced current will produce a magnetic field around the conductors of the rotor. Slip is the percentage difference between the speed of the rotor and the speed of the rotating magnetic field.AC MOTOR THEORY AC Motors Summary The important information covered in this chapter is summarized below. In an AC induction motor. which will try to line up with the magnetic field of the stator. the torque will reach a maximum value at about 25% slip. At the end of one cycle of alternating current. If load is increased beyond this point. 0 . The rotating magnetic field cuts the bars of the rotor and induces a current in them due to generator action. as slip increases from zero to ~10%. the torque increases linearly. Each of the three phases is 120° from the other phases. As the load and slip are increased beyond full-load torque. ES-12 Page 8 Rev. Starting torque is the value of torque at 100% slip and is normally 150 to 200% of full-load torque.

7 EO 1.9 Induction Motor Previous explanations of the operation of an AC motor dealt with induction motors. Induction b. and relatively low manufacturing costs. This rotor is made of heavy copper bars that are connected at each end by a metal ring made of copper or brass. rugged construction. STATE the applications of the following types of AC motors: a. By matching the type of motor to the appropriate application. The reason that the induction motor has these characteristics is because the rotor is a self-contained unit. EXPLAIN why an AC synchronous motor does not have starting torque.5 DESCRIBE how torque is produced in a single-phase AC motor. DESCRIBE how an AC synchronous motor is started. increased equipment performance can be obtained. Single-phase c. 0 Page 9 ES-12 . The size of the air gap between the rotor bars and stator windings necessary to obtain the maximum field strength is small.6 EO 1. The induction motor rotor (Figure 5) is made of a laminated cylinder with slots in its surface.8 EO 1. The windings in the slots are one of two types. EO 1. No insulation is required between the core and the bars because of the low voltages induced into the rotor bars. This type of motor derives its name from the fact that AC currents are induced into the rotor by a rotating magnetic field. The induction motor is the most commonly used AC motor in industrial applications because of its simplicity. The most commonly used is the "squirrel-cage" rotor. with no external connections.AC Motors AC MOTOR TYPES AC MOTOR TYPES Various types of AC motors are used for specific applications. Synchronous EO 1. Rev. DESCRIBE the effects of over and under-exciting an AC synchronous motor.

AC MOTOR TYPES

AC Motors

Figure 5

Squirrel-Cage Induction Rotor

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AC Motors

AC MOTOR TYPES

Figure 6

Split-Phase Motor

Single-Phase AC Induction Motors
If two stator windings of unequal impedance are spaced 90 electrical degrees apart and connected in parallel to a single-phase source, the field produced will appear to rotate. This is called phase splitting. In a split-phase motor, a starting winding is utilized. This winding has a higher resistance and lower reactance than the main winding (Figure 6). When the same voltage VT is applied to the starting and main windings, the current in the main winding (IM) lags behind the current of the starting winding IS (Figure 6). The angle between the two windings is enough phase difference to provide a rotating magnetic field to produce a starting torque. When the motor reaches 70 to 80% of synchronous speed, a centrifugal switch on the motor shaft opens and disconnects the starting winding. Single-phase motors are used for very small commercial applications such as household appliances and buffers.

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AC MOTOR TYPES

AC Motors

Figure 7

Wound Rotor

Synchronous Motors
Synchronous motors are like induction motors in that they both have stator windings that produce a rotating magnetic field. Unlike an induction motor, the synchronous motor is excited by an external DC source and, therefore, requires slip rings and brushes to provide current to the rotor. In the synchronous motor, the rotor locks into step with the rotating magnetic field and rotates at synchronous speed. If the synchronous motor is loaded to the point where the rotor is pulled out of step with the rotating magnetic field, no torque is developed, and the motor will stop. A synchronous motor is not a self-starting motor because torque is only developed when running at synchronous speed; therefore, the motor needs some type of device to bring the rotor to synchronous speed. Synchronous motors use a wound rotor. This type of rotor contains coils of wire placed in the rotor slots. Slip rings and brushes are used to supply current to the rotor. (Figure 7).

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0 Page 13 ES-12 . As load is applied to the motor. The DC motor now acts as a DC generator and supplies DC field excitation to the rotor of the synchronous motor. As we already know. the motor will stop. relative to the stator pole (Figure 8b). and the motor begins to pull into synchronism. Rev. There is no change in speed. The maximum value of torque that a motor can develop without losing synchronism is called its pull-out torque. Synchronous motors are more often started by means of a squirrel-cage winding embedded in the face of the rotor poles. there is a backward shift of the rotor pole. The torque required to pull the motor into synchronism is called the pull-in torque. The load may now be placed on the synchronous motor. When the motor is brought to synchronous speed. The motor is then started as an induction motor and brought to ~95% of synchronous speed. During no-load conditions. the synchronous motor rotor is locked into step with the rotating magnetic field and must continue to operate at synchronous speed for all loads. Figure 8 Torque Angle If the mechanical load on the motor is increased to the point where the rotor is pulled out of synchronism (α≅90o). AC current is applied to the stator windings. at which time direct current is applied.AC Motors AC MOTOR TYPES Starting a Synchronous Motor A synchronous motor may be started by a DC motor on a common shaft. The angle between the rotor and stator poles is called the torque angle (α). the center lines of a pole of the rotating magnetic field and the DC field pole coincide (Figure 8a).

the counter EMF (VG) increases. when the field excitation is increased. Field excitation can be adjusted so that PF = 1 (Figure 9a). The result is a change in phase between stator current (I) and terminal voltage (Vt). With a constant load on the motor.AC MOTOR TYPES AC Motors Field Excitation For a constant load. Figure 9 Synchronous Motor Field Excitation Synchronous motors are used to accommodate large loads and to improve the power factor of transformers in large industrial complexes. also varies as field excitation is adjusted to change power factor. the motor will operate at a lagging power factor (Figure 9c). the power factor of a synchronous motor can be varied from a leading value to a lagging value by adjusting the DC field excitation (Figure 9). Vp in Figure 9 is the voltage drop in the stator winding’s due to the impedance of the windings and is 90o out of phase with the stator current. so that the motor operates at a leading power factor (Figure 9b). Note that torque angle. ES-12 Page 14 Rev. If we reduce field excitation. 0 . α.

Keeping the same load. 0 Page 15 ES-12 . a starting winding is utilized. The induction motor is the most commonly used AC motor in industrial applications because of its simplicity.AC Motors AC MOTOR TYPES Summary The important information in this chapter is summarized below. The angle between the two windings is enough phase difference to provide a rotating magnetic field to produce a starting torque. rugged construction. A synchronous motor is not a self-starting motor because torque is only developed when running at synchronous speed. the motor will operate at a lagging power factor. A synchronous motor may be started by a DC motor on a common shaft or by a squirrel-cage winding imbedded in the face of the rotor poles. This winding has a higher resistance and lower reactance than the main winding. Single-phase motors are used for very small commercial applications such as household appliances and buffers. the motor operates at a leading power factor. AC Motor Types Summary In a split-phase motor. When the same voltage (VT) is applied to the starting and main windings. and relatively low manufacturing costs. when the field excitation is increased on a synchronous motor. the current in the main winding lags behind the current of the starting winding. Rev. If we reduce field excitation. Synchronous motors are used to accommodate large loads and to improve the power factor of transformers in large industrial complexes.

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Department of Energy Fundamentals Handbook ELECTRICAL SCIENCE Module 13 Transformers .

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . Auto Transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Voltage Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control Transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . 0 Page i ES-13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Turns Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Theory of Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impedance Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . 17 17 17 18 18 18 19 19 20 Rev. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 2 3 3 5 7 8 8 8 9 11 13 14 16 TRANSFORMER TYPES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Three-Phase Transformer Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Transformers TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . Distribution Transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Mutual Induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power Transformer . . . Isolation Transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transformer Operation Under No-Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coil Polarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v TRANSFORMER THEORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Instrument Potential Transformer Instrument Current Transformer Summary . . . . Combinations of Delta and Wye Transformer Connections Transformer Losses and Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wye Connection . . . . . . . Delta Connection . . . . . . . . . 17 Types of Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Delta Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Auto Transformer Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Polarity of Transformer Coils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Example 1 Transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Wye Connection . . .LIST OF FIGURES Transformers LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Core-Type Transformer . 9 3φ Transformer Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Open Circuit Secondary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 ES-13 Page ii Rev. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . 0 Page iii ES-13 . . . . . . 10 Rev. . .Transformers LIST OF TABLES LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Voltage and Current Ratings of Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . .

and Summers. 1982. and Neville. ES-13 Page iv Rev. Hayden Book Company. McGraw-Hill. Buban and Schmitt. Revised 2nd Edition. 5.Seven. John Wiley and Sons. Milton.REFERENCES Transformers REFERENCES Gussow. Hayden Book Company. Academic Program for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel. American Electricians Handbook. 3rd Edition. MD: General Physics Corporation. Library of Congress Card #A 326517. Van Valkenburgh. Carr. 10th Edition. Volume IV. Basic Electricity. Electromechanics and Electric Machines. McGraw-Hill. Croft. Harry. Nasar and Unnewehr. Schaum’s Outline Series. Watt. Vol. Basic Electricity. Mileaf. Electricity One . 0 . Nooger. Understanding Electricity and Electronics. McGrawHill. Columbia.

current. Instrument current 1. Power c. DESCRIBE the operating characteristics and applications for that transformer type. ∆-Y c.2 1. Given the type of connection and turns ratios for the primary and secondary of a transformer. Instrument potential g.Transformers OBJECTIVES TERMINAL OBJECTIVE 1. Control d. Impedance ratio d. ENABLING OBJECTIVES 1. CALCULATE voltage. Mutual induction b. Turns ratio c.3 1. Auto e. Distribution b. Y-∆ d. Isolation f.1 DEFINE the following terms as they pertain to transformers: a. Efficiency DESCRIBE the differences between a wye-connected and delta-connected transformer.4 Rev. 0 Page v ES-13 . Y-Y STATE the applications of each of the following types of transformers: a.0 Given the type of a transformer. and power for each of the following types: a. ∆-∆ b.

0 .Transformers Intentionally Left Blank ES-13 Page vi Rev.

Y-Y EO 1. Turns ratio c. 0 Page 1 ES-13 .3 Mutual Induction If flux lines from the expanding and contracting magnetic field of one coil cut the windings of another nearby coil.Transformers TRANSFORMER THEORY TRANSFORMER THEORY Transformers are used extensively for AC power transmissions and for various control and indication circuits. Mutual induction b. The amount of electromotive force (EMF) that is induced depends on the relative positions of the two coils.1 DEFINE the following terms as they pertain to transformers: a. CALCULATE voltage. a voltage will be induced in that coil. Given the type of connection and turns ratios for the primary and secondary of a transformer. Y-∆ d.2 EO 1. EO 1. and power for each of the following types: a. Knowledge of the basic theory of how these components operate is necessary to understand the role transformers play in today’s nuclear facilities. ∆-∆ b. Rev. current. ∆-Y c. Efficiency DESCRIBE the differences between a wye-connected and delta-connected transformer. Impedance ratio d. The inducing of an EMF in a coil by magnetic flux lines generated in another coil is called mutual induction.

TRANSFORMER THEORY Transformers Turns Ratio Each winding of a transformer contains a certain number of turns of wire. The turns ratio is defined as the ratio of turns of wire in the primary winding to the number of turns of wire in the secondary winding. and the coil that delivers this AC to the load is called the secondary winding (coil) (Figure 1). Turns ratio where NP = number of turns on the primary coil NS = number of turns on the secondary coil The coil of a transformer that is energized from an AC source is called the primary winding (coil). NP NS (13-1) Impedance Ratio Maximum power is transferred from one circuit to another through a transformer when the impedances are equal. 0 where NP NS ZP ZS = = = = number of turns in the primary number of turns in the secondary impedance of primary impedance of secondary ES-13 Page 2 Rev. which is always given for a transformer. N  2  P N   S ZP ZS (13-2) Another way to express the impedance ratio is to take the square root of both sides of Equation (13-2). 0 . The ratio between the two impedances is referred to as the impedance ratio and is expressed by using Equation (13-2). A transformer winding constructed with a definite turns ratio can perform an impedance matching function. This puts the ratio in terms of the turns ratio. The turns ratio will establish the proper relationship between the primary and secondary winding impedances. or matched. Turns ratio can be expressed using Equation (13-1).

In Figure 1. The larger the distance between the primary and secondary windings. Magnetic leakage is the part of the magnetic flux that passes through either one of the coils. with sufficient insulation between the two coils and the core to properly insulate the windings from one another and the core. A transformer wound. The coil of a transformer that is energized from an AC source is called the primary winding (coil). as illustrated by Equation (13-3). the longer the magnetic circuit and the greater the leakage. and the coil that delivers this AC to the load is called the secondary winding (coil) (Figure 1). Efficiency where PS = power of secondary PP = power of primary Power Output Power Input PS PP x 100 (13-3) Theory of Operation A transformer works on the principle that energy can be transferred by magnetic induction from one set of coils to another set by means of a varying magnetic flux. 0 Page 3 ES-13 . Actually. the primary and secondary coils are shown on separate legs of the magnetic circuit so that we can easily understand how the transformer works. will operate at a greatly reduced efficiency due to the magnetic leakage. half of the primary and secondary coils are wound on each of the two legs. The magnetic flux is produced by an AC source.Transformers TRANSFORMER THEORY Efficiency Efficiency of a transformer is the ratio of the power output to the power input. Rev. but not through both. such as in Figure 1.

ES-13 Page 4 Rev. This alternating flux flowing around the entire length of the magnetic circuit induces a voltage in both the primary and secondary windings. the voltage induced per turn of the primary and secondary windings must be the same value and same direction. an alternating current will flow that will magnetize the magnetic core. This voltage opposes the voltage applied to the primary winding and is called counter-electromotive force (CEMF). first in one direction and then in the other direction.TRANSFORMER THEORY Transformers Figure 1 Core-Type Transformer When alternating voltage is applied to the primary winding. Since both windings are linked by the same flux. 0 .

If the primary winding has 300 turns and the secondary has 15 turns. As mentioned previously. A ratio of 5:1 means that for every 5 volts on the primary. there will only be 1 volt on the secondary. the transformer is referred to as a "step-down" transformer. When secondary voltage is less than primary voltage. If the secondary voltage of a transformer is greater than the primary voltage. VP VS where VP VS NP NS = = = = voltage on primary coil voltage on secondary coil number of turns on the primary coil number of turns on the secondary coil NP NS (13-4) The ratio of primary voltage to secondary voltage is known as the voltage ratio (VR).Transformers TRANSFORMER THEORY Voltage Ratio The voltage of the windings in a transformer is directly proportional to the number of turns on the coils. By substituting into the Equation (13-4). the ratio of primary turns of wire to secondary turns of wire is known as the turns ratio (TR). VR = TR A voltage ratio of 1:5 means that for each volt on the primary. the transformer is referred to as a "step-up" transformer. Example 1: A transformer (Figure 2) reduces voltage from 120 volts in the primary to 6 volts in the secondary. find the voltage and turns ratio. This relationship is expressed in Equation (13-4). we find that the voltage ratio is equal to the turns ratio. there will be 5 volts on the secondary. Solution: VR VP VS NP NS 120 60 300 15 20 1 20 1 20:1 TR 20:1 Figure 2 Example 1 Transformer Rev. 0 Page 5 ES-13 .

VS NS NP VP VS VS Example 3: 50 240 volts 250 48 volts A power transformer has a turns ratio of 1:4. find the voltage ratio. If the secondary coil has 5000 turns and secondary voltage is 60 volts. solve for VS. Solution: VR VR VP VS VP TR 1:4 VR 1 V 4 S NP NS 1 N 4 S 1 4 5000 4 1250 turns 1:4 60 4 1 4 15 volts TR NP ES-13 Page 6 Rev. and NP. 0 . Solution: VP VS NP NS Next.TRANSFORMER THEORY Transformers Example 2: An iron core transformer with a primary voltage of 240 volts has 250 turns in the primary and 50 turns in the secondary. VP. Find the secondary voltage.

96 amps A transformer with 480 turns on the primary and 60 turns on the secondary draws 0.Transformers TRANSFORMER THEORY Current Ratio The current in the windings of a transformer is inversely proportional to the voltage in the windings. Find IS. IS VP VS IP IS IS Example 2: Solution: NP NS 120 4 amps 500 0. 0 Page 7 ES-13 . Find the current in the secondary if the voltage is stepped up to 500 V. VP VS where IP = primary coil current IS = secondary coil current Since the voltage ratio is equal to the turns ratio. NP NS Example 1: IS IP (13-6) IS IP (13-5) When operated at 120 V in the primary of an iron core transformer. This relationship is expressed in Equation (13-5). as in Equation (13-6).6 amps from a 120 V line. we solve for IS. IS IP Rev. the current in the primary is 4 amps. we can express the current ratio in terms of the turns ratio. Solution: VP VS IS IP Next.

6 amps 60 4. Delta Connection In the delta connection.TRANSFORMER THEORY Transformers Next. we solve for IS. These windings may be connected in wye. our discussion has dealt with the operation of single-phase transformers. (Figure Figure 3 Delta Connection Wye Connection In the wye connection. Three-phase transformer operation is identical except that three single-phase windings are used. delta. "steps-down" the current proportionally. and the other three ends are connected to a three-phase line (Figure 4). IS NP NS IP IS IS 480 0.8 amps The student should note from the previous examples that a transformer that "steps-up" voltage. Three-Phase Transformer Connections So far. three common ends of each phase are connected together at a common terminal (marked "N" for neutral). ES-13 Page 8 Rev. 0 . all three phases are connected in series to form a closed loop 3). or any combination of the two.

where the turns ratio (a) is equal to one. 0 Page 9 ES-13 . The transformer windings may be connected to form a 3φ bank in any of four different ways (Figure 5). Rev. Voltage and current ratings of the individual transformers depend on the connections (Figure 5) and are indicated by Table 1 for convenience of calculations. Figure 5 3φ Transformer Connections Figure 5 shows the voltages and currents in terms of applied line voltage (V) and line current (I).Transformers TRANSFORMER THEORY Figure 4 Wye Connection Combinations of Delta and Wye Transformer Connections A three-phase transformer may have three separate but identical single-phase (1φ) transformers or a single 3φ unit containing three-phase windings.

find the voltage across each primary winding for all four types of transformer connections. Example 1: 3 V I 3 V I I V I 3 I 3 Volt.TRANSFORMER THEORY Transformers TABLE 1: Voltage and Current Ratings of Transformers Primary Transformer Connection (Primary to Secondary) ∆-∆ Y-Y Line Volt.4 1. V a V aI 3a V 3a V a aI aI 3 aI Secondary Phase Current aI 3 aI 1.73 254. ∆-∆: primary phase current = I 3 10. ∆-∆: primary voltage = V = 440 volts Y-Y: primary voltage = V 3 Y-∆: primary voltage = V 3 440 1. find the primary phase current.4 amps ES-13 Page 10 Rev.73 440 1.3 volts ∆-Y: primary voltage = V = 440 volts Example 2: If line current is 10. * V a V a V 3a 3V a 3 aI aI 3 Line Current Volt. Phase Current I V I V V V I 3 V Y-∆ ∆-Y *a = N1/N2.4 A in a 3φ transformer connection.73 If line voltage is 440 V to a 3φ transformer bank.4 amps Y-∆: primary phase current = I = 10.3 volts 254. 0 .73 6 amps Y-Y: primary phase current = I = 10. Current Volt.

73)(4)(20) = 138.73 46. 0 Page 11 ES-13 .4 amps secondary phase current = aI = 4(20) = 80 amps ∆-Y: secondary line current = aI 3 secondary phase current = aI 3 4 (20) 1.73 4 (20) 1. Copper loss is power lost in the primary and secondary windings of a transformer due to the ohmic resistance of the windings. Copper loss.2 amps Transformer Losses and Efficiency All transformers have copper and core losses. and the turns ratio is 4:1.4 1. can be found using Equation (13-7).2 amps 46.73 6 amps Find the secondary line current and phase current for each type of transformer connection. if primary line current is 20 amps.Transformers TRANSFORMER THEORY ∆-Y: primary phase current = Example 3: I 3 10. in watts. ∆-∆: secondary line current = 4(20) = 80 amps secondary phase current = aI 3 4 (20) 1.73 46.2 amps Y-Y: second line current = aI = 4(20) = 80 amps second phase current = aI = 4(20) = 80 amps Y-∆: secondary line current = 3 aI = (1. Copper Loss where IP IS RP RS = = = = primary current secondary current primary winding resistance secondary winding resistance IP RP 2 IS RS 2 (13-7) Rev.

If RP = 0.24 ES-13 Page 12 Rev.TRANSFORMER THEORY Transformers Core losses are caused by two factors: hysteresis and eddy current losses. Efficiency Power Output Power Input PS PP x 100 (13-8) Efficiency Power Output Power Output Copper Loss VS IS x PF (VS IS x PF) Copper Loss Core Loss x 100 (13-9) Efficiency where Core Loss x 100 (13-10) PF = power factor of the load Example 1: A 5:1 step-down transformer has a full-load secondary current of 20 amps. A short circuit test for copper loss at full load gives a wattmeter reading of 100 W. 0 . The efficiency of a transformer can be calculated using Equations (13-8). Hysteresis loss is that energy lost by reversing the magnetic field in the core as the magnetizing AC rises and falls and reverses direction.3Ω. Eddy current loss is a result of induced currents circulating in the core. (13-9). and (13-10).3 (4) 2 202 0. Solution: Copper Loss To find IP: NP NS IP To find RS: IS RS RS 2 IP RP 2 IS RS 2 100 W IS IP NS NP IS 1 20 5 4 amps 100 100 IP RP IP RP IS 2 2 2 100 0. find RS and power loss in the secondary.

find efficiency at full load. VSIS PF Eff = VS IS x PF (VS IS x PF) Copper Loss Core Loss x 100 An open circuit test for core losses in a 10 kVA transformer [Example (1)] gives a reading of 70 W.000 (0.2% 70 Transformer Operation Under No-Load If the secondary of a transformer is left open-circuited (Figure 6). Core loss = 70 W = 10.24) = 96 W Example 2: Solution: Eff. Copper loss = 100 W.000 (0. 0 Page 13 ES-13 . = transformer rating = 10 kVA = 10.Transformers TRANSFORMER THEORY Power loss in secondary = IS2 RS = (20)2 (0. If the PF of the load is 90%.90. Figure 6 Open-Circuit Secondary Rev.000 VA = 0.90) 100 x 100 9000 x 100 9170 98. IE. No-load current. The no-load current (IE) consists of two components: the magnetizing current (Im) and the core loss (IH). primary current is very low and is called the no-load current. IH is very small in comparison with Im. VP and VS are shown 180° out of phase. Magnetizing current lags applied voltage by 90°.90) 10. and Im is nearly equal to IE. is also referred to as exciting current. No-load current produces the magnetic flux and supplies the hysteresis and eddy current losses in the core. while core loss is in phase with the applied voltage (Figure 6b).

ES-13 Page 14 Rev. primary current is 0. (b) IE.19 amps Coil Polarity The symbol for a transformer gives no indication of the phase of the voltage across the secondary. kVA Rating VP (a) Full load current (b) IP at no load is equal to IE IE = 0. 0 . (c) IH. The phase of that voltage depends on the direction of the windings around the core.2 amp (c) IH IE cos θ IE x PF 0.5° (0.3 72. and (d) Im. In order to solve this problem.TRANSFORMER THEORY Transformers Example: When the secondary of a 120/440 V transformer is open.2 amps at a PF of . Find: (a) IP.2 (0.5° IM 0. The voltages are either in phase (Figure 7a) or 180° out of phase with respect to primary voltage (Figure 7b).3) IH (d) IM θ IE sin θ arccos 0.95) 0. polarity dots are used to show the phase of primary and secondary signals.3.06 amps (0. The transformer is a 5 kVA transformer.2) (0.2) sin 72.

0 Page 15 ES-13 .Transformers TRANSFORMER THEORY Figure 7 Polarity of Transformer Coils Rev.

and the other three ends are connected to a three-phase line. The turns ratio is defined as the ratio of turns of wire in the primary winding to the number of turns of wire in the secondary winding.TRANSFORMER THEORY Transformers Summary The important information covered in this chapter is summarized below. 0 . Efficiency of a transformer is the ratio of the power output to the power input. In a ∆ connected transformer: VL IL Vφ 3 Iφ In a Y connected transformer: IL IL 3 Vφ Iφ ES-13 Page 16 Rev. In a delta connection. all three phases are connected in series to form a closed loop. three common ends of each phase are connected together at a common terminal. The ratio between the primary and secondary impedances is referred to as the impedance ratio. Transformer Theory Summary The induction of an EMF in a coil by magnetic flux lines generated in another coil is called mutual induction. In a wye connection.

This class of transformer has the highest power. Electronics or power transformers are sometimes considered to be those with ratings of 300 volt-amperes and below. Ampere rating is increased in a distribution transformer by increasing the size of the primary and secondary windings. and the highest continuous voltage rating. 0 Page 17 ES-13 . Isolation f. EO 1. Power c. or volt-ampere ratings. A basic understanding of the various types of transformers is necessary to understand the role transformers play in today’s nuclear facilities. Instrument potential g. such as an isolation transformer. These transformers normally provide power to the power supply of an electronic device.4 STATE the applications of each of the following types of transformers: a. The power rating is normally determined by the type of cooling methods the transformer may use. Control d. Distribution b. Rev. Some commonly-used methods of cooling are by using oil or some other heat-conducting material.Transformers TRANSFORMER TYPES TRANSFORMER TYPES Transformers can be constructed so that they are designed to perform a specific function. Transformer types are also designated by the function the transformer serves in a circuit. The differences in construction may involve the size of the windings or the relationship between the primary and secondary windings. Instrument current Types of Transformers Transformers are constructed so that their characteristics match the application for which they are intended. Auto e. such as in power amplifiers in audio receivers. Distribution Transformer Distribution transformers are generally used in electrical power distribution and transmission systems. voltage ratings are increased by increasing the voltage rating of the insulation used in making the transformer. Power Transformer Power transformers are used in electronic circuits and come in many different types and applications.

Since a transformer cannot pass DC voltage from primary to secondary. The auto transformer is a special type of power transformer. By tapping or connecting at certain points along the winding. Figure 8 Auto Transformer Schematic Isolation Transformer Isolation transformers are normally low power transformers used to isolate noise from or to ground electronic circuits. and the transformer acts to isolate this noise. 0 . ES-13 Page 18 Rev. are used to minimize the variations in the output. different voltages can be obtained (Figure 8). such as capacitors.TRANSFORMER TYPES Transformers Control Transformer Control transformers are generally used in electronic circuits that require constant voltage or constant current with a low power or volt-amp rating. any DC voltage (such as noise) cannot be passed. This results in a more constant voltage or current. It consists of only one winding. Various filtering devices. Auto Transformer The auto transformer is generally used in low power applications where a variable voltage is required.

Because the magnetic circuit of a current transformer is designed for low magnetizing current when under load. inducing an excessively high voltage in the secondary when under no load. This is done by constructing the secondary coil consisting of many turns of wire. and relays used for various protective purposes. 0 Page 19 ES-13 . Instrument Current Transformer The instrument current transformer (CT) steps down the current of a circuit to a lower value and is used in the same types of equipment as a potential transformer. around the primary coil. which contains only a few turns of wire. voltmeters. Rev. watt meters. A current transformer should always be short-circuited when not connected to an external load. this large increase in magnetizing current will build up a large flux in the magnetic circuit and cause the transformer to act as a step-up transformer. measurements of high values of current can be obtained. In this manner.Transformers TRANSFORMER TYPES Instrument Potential Transformer The instrument potential transformer (PT) steps down voltage of a circuit to a low value that can be effectively and safely used for operation of instruments such as ammeters.

watt meters. voltmeters.TRANSFORMER TYPES Transformers Summary The important information covered in this chapter is summarized below. ES-13 Page 20 Rev. Auto transformers are generally used in low power applications where a variable voltage is required. Isolation transformers are normally low power transformers used to isolate noise from or to ground electronic circuits. and relays used for various protective purposes. Control transformers are generally used in circuits that require constant voltage or constant current with a low power or volt-amp rating. Power transformers are used in electronic circuits and come in many different types and applications. Instrument potential and instrument current transformers are used for operation of instruments such as ammeters. Transformer Types Summary Distribution transformers are generally used in power distribution and transmission systems. 0 .

Department of Energy Fundamentals Handbook ELECTRICAL SCIENCE Module 14 Test Instruments & Measuring Devices .

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Summary . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Rev. . . . . . . 1 D’Arsonval Movement . 5 Summary . 20 Wattmeters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Ohm Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 OHM METERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Voltmeters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 AMMETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 Page i ES-14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Ammeters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi METER MOVEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electrodynamometer Movement Moving Iron Vane Movement . . 19 WATTMETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Three-Phase Wattmeter . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 3 4 VOLTMETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Test Instruments & Measuring Devices TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Ampere-Hour Meter Power Factor Meter Ground Detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 ES-14 Page ii Rev. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . .) OTHER ELECTRICAL MEASURING DEVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 24 24 26 27 TEST EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Synchroscope . . . . . . . . . . . . .TABLE OF CONTENTS Test Instruments & Measuring Devices TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Megger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Multimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Ammeter . . 22 3φ Power Factor Meter Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Two Wattmeters to Measure 3φ Power . .Test Instruments & Measuring Devices LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 D’Arsonval Meter Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Wattmeters in Each Phase . . 29 Rev. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Ammeter Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Ohm Meter Scale . 3 Simple DC Voltmeter . . . . . . 2 Moving Iron Vane Meter Movement . . . . . . . 0 Page iii ES-14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Wattmeter Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Simple Ohm Meter Ground Detector . . . 1 Electrodynamometer Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Ammeter with Shunt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Ground Detector Lamp Circuit . . 26 Simple Megger Circuit Diagram . . . . . . . . . . 13 Simple Ohm Meter Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Measuring Circuit Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

0 .LIST OF TABLES Test Instruments & Measuring Devices LIST OF TABLES NONE ES-14 Page iv Rev.

McGraw-Hill. Basic Electricity. MD: General Physics Corporation. Buban and Schmitt. Nasar and Unnewehr. Hayden Book Company. 5. Croft. Columbia. McGraw-Hill. and Neville. 10th Edition. Library of Congress Card #A 326517. Academic Program for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel. 0 Page v ES-14 . 1982. Lister. C. Basic Electricity. Kidwell. Understanding Electricity and Electronics. Columbia. Electric Circuits and Machines. Eugene C. 1982. Revised 2nd Edition. Nooger. Harry. Mason. Volume II.Test Instruments & Measuring Devices REFERENCES REFERENCES Gussow. Carr. and Summers. Watt. Walter. Library of Congress Card #A 326517. McGraw-Hill. Van Valkenburgh. Schaum’s Outline Series. John Wiley and Sons. Russel. 3rd Edition.. Rev. Milton. McGrawHill. Vol. MD: General Physics Corporation. Electrical Instruments and Measurements. Academic Program for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel. Electricity One . Mileaf. John Wiley and Sons. Electromechanics and Electric Machines. McGraw-Hill. American Electricians Handbook. Volume IV. The Art and Science of Protective Relaying. 5th Edition. Hayden Book Company.Seven.

Ohm meter d.OBJECTIVES Test Instruments & Measuring Devices TERMINAL OBJECTIVE 1. Ground detector h.4 ES-14 Page vi Rev. Synchroscope i. Ampere-hour meter f.0 Given a piece of test equipment or measuring device. Megger STATE the electrical parameters measured by each of the following test instruments: a. 0 . Megger 1. D’Arsonval b.1 EXPLAIN the following meter movements: a. Moving iron vane STATE the electrical parameters measured by each of the following in-place measuring devices: a.3 1. Multimeter b. and connection of the device to a circuit. Ammeter c. Synchroscope EXPLAIN how the following electrical test equipment and measuring devices are connected to a circuit: a. Wattmeter e. Ground detector h. Power factor meter g. Voltmeter b. Wattmeter e. Ammeter c. DESCRIBE the use of that piece of electrical equipment. Ampere-hour meter f. to include the meter movement.2 1. Ohm meter d. electrical parameter measurement. Power factor meter g. Voltmeter b. ENABLING OBJECTIVES 1. Electrodynamometer c.

voltmeters. and the larger the deflection. The core is restrained by springs so that the needle will deflect or move in proportion to the current intensity. EO 1. Electrodynamometer c. The current measured is directed through the coils of the electromagnet so that the magnetic field produced by the current opposes the field of the permanent magnet and causes rotation of the core. but in general. up to the limit of the current capacity of the coil. and ohm meters is a current-sensing device called a D’Arsonval meter movement (Figure 1). and the needle is returned to zero by the restraining springs. Figure 1 D’Arsonval Meter Movement Rev. the stronger the opposing field. each meter movement is best suited for a particular type. The D’Arsonval movement is a DC moving coil-type movement in which an electromagnetic core is suspended between the poles of a permanent magnet. The limit of the current that can be applied to this type movement is usually less than one milliampere. D’Arsonval b. and the moving iron vane. 0 Page 1 ES-14 . electrodynamometer. The more current applied to the core. Moving iron vane D’Arsonval Movement The most commonly used sensing mechanism used in DC ammeters. Some meter movements can be used for both AC or DC measurements.1 EXPLAIN the following meter movements: a. the opposing field collapses.Test Instruments & Measuring Devices METER MOVEMENTS METER MOVEMENTS There are three basic meter movements utilized in electrical meters: D’Arsonval. When the current is interrupted.

However. ES-14 Page 2 Rev. which will be discussed later in this module. which uses essentially the same principle built to a more rugged construction by employing jeweled supports for the core and employing a heavier winding in the electromagnet. Remember that the D’Arsonval movement is a DC device and can only measure DC current or AC current rectified to DC. are suspended between and connected in series with the two field coils. and the force continues in the same direction. Due to this characteristic of the electrodynamometer movement. 0 . Some voltmeters and ammeters use the electrodynamometer. If the current is reversed. its most important use is in the wattmeter. The moving coil and pointer. Figure 2 Electrodynamometer Movement Current flow through the three coils in either direction causes a magnetic field to be produced between the field coils.METER MOVEMENTS Test Instruments & Measuring Devices A common variation of the D’Arsonval movement is the Weston movement. The two field coils and moving coil are connected in series such that the same current flows through each coil. The same current flow through the moving coil causes it to act as a magnet exerting a force against the spring. except that the permanent magnet is replaced by fixed coils. which are attached to the coil. it can be used in both AC and DC systems to measure current. Electrodynamometer Movement The electrodynamometer movement (Figure 2) has the same basic operating principle as the D’Arsonval meter movement. the field polarity and the polarity of the moving coil reverse.

the moving iron vane pulls away from the fixed vane and moves the meter pointer. Suspended in this field are two iron vanes attached to a pointer. Since like poles repel one another. Figure 3 Moving Iron Vane Meter Movement As stated previously. the field coil consists of many turns of fine wire used to generate a strong magnetic field with only a small current flow. Rev. When this type of movement is used to measure voltage. The measured current flows through a field coil which produces a magnetic field proportional to the magnitude of current. The two iron vanes consist of one fixed and one moveable vane. The moving iron vane meter operates on the principle of magnetic repulsion between like poles.Test Instruments & Measuring Devices METER MOVEMENTS Moving Iron Vane Movement The moving iron vane movement (Figure 3) can be used to measure both AC current and voltage. the movement can be used to measure DC current and voltage. By changing the meter scale calibration. The magnetic field produced by the current flow magnetizes the two iron vanes with the same polarity regardless of the direction of current through the coil. this type of meter movement may also be used to measure voltage. The strength of the magnetic field depends on the magnitude of current flow. This motion exerts a force against a spring. 0 Page 3 ES-14 . The distance the moving iron vane will travel against the spring depends on the strength of the magnetic field.

Moving iron vane . 0 . The magnetic repulsion exerts a force against the spring and provides a measurement of either DC or AC current. ES-14 Page 4 Rev.The moving iron vane meter operates on the principle of magnetic repulsion between like poles. Meter Movement Summary D’Arsonval . A measured current flowing through the three coils in either direction causes a magnetic repulsion between the field coils and the moving coil. The measured current flows through a field coil which induces a like magnetic field into a fixed and moving vane causing the moving vane to deflect a pointer in proportion to the current or voltage applied to the coil.METER MOVEMENTS Test Instruments & Measuring Devices Summary Meter movements are summarized below.A DC moving coil movement where the moving coil is suspended between the poles of a permanent magnet restrained by helical springs. and the measured current flowing through the moving coil produces a torque on the attached pointer proportional to the current. Electrodynamometer .The moving coil and attached pointer are suspended between and connected in series with the two stationary field coils so that the same current flows through each.

Voltmeters are connected in parallel with the load (RL) being measured. Voltmeter EXPLAIN how the following electrical test equipment and measuring devices are connected to a circuit: a.Test Instruments & Measuring Devices VOLTMETERS VOLTMETERS Voltmeters are used extensively in industry where the surveillance of input and/or output voltages is vital for plant operation. 0 Page 5 ES-14 .2 STATE the electrical parameters measured by each of the following in-place measuring devices: a. EO 1. Voltmeter EO 1. the resistance of the multiplier must be determined to measure the desired voltage. and marking the meter face to read voltage (Figure 4). Rev. in series with the ammeter meter movement. called a multiplier.3 Voltmeter A simple DC voltmeter can be constructed by placing a resistor (RS). Figure 4 Simple DC Voltmeter When constructing a voltmeter. Equation (14-1) is a mathematical representation of the voltmeter’s multiplier resistance.

ES-14 Page 6 Rev.VOLTMETERS Test Instruments & Measuring Devices V = ImRs + ImRm ImRs = V . especially for low current circuits. This reduction in voltage is known as the loading effect and can have a serious effect on measurement accuracy.ImRm Rs = where V Im Rm Rs Example: = = = = voltage range desired meter current meter resistance multiplier resistance or series resistance V Im Rm (14-1) A 2 mA meter movement with internal resistance of 25 ohms is to be constructed as a voltmeter. 0 . then: Rs V Im 100 2 x 10 Rs 50 kΩ 3 When a voltmeter is connected in a circuit. This current causes a voltage drop across the resistance of the meter. What value must the series resistance be to measure full scale voltage of 100 volts? Solution: Rs V Im Rm Since Rm is negligibly low. which is subtracted from the voltage being measured by the meter. the voltmeter will draw current from that circuit.

Kv Vw Vo (14-2) Meter accuracy can also be determined by comparing the relationship between the input and circuit resistances using Ohm’s Law as described below. or true voltage (Vo). Kv Vw Vo ImRin Vo V  o R  o Vo Kv where Im Vo Ro Rin Kw Kv = = = = = = meter current true voltage circuit resistance input resistance of the voltmeter indicated voltage meter accuracy Rin Ro Rin Vw ImRin Vo Ro Rin Im Rin   Rin   Rev. Equation (14-2) is a mathematical representation of the accuracy of a voltmeter. 0 Page 7 ES-14 .Test Instruments & Measuring Devices VOLTMETERS The accuracy of a voltmeter (Kv) is defined as the ratio of measured voltage when the meter is in the circuit (Vw) to the voltage measured with the meter out of the circuit.

Vo Vw Kv Figure 5 Measuring Circuit Voltage Solution: 1. 0 . 2.VOLTMETERS Test Instruments & Measuring Devices Example: A voltmeter in the 100 volt range with a sensitivity of 40 KΩ/V is to measure the voltage across terminals ab (Figure 5). Vo Vo 100 KΩ x 220 V 100 KΩ 100 KΩ 110 volts ES-14 Page 8 Rev. 3. Find: 1.

Voltmeter Summary Measures voltage Connected in parallel with the load being measured Rev. Kv 108. Ro (100)(100) 100 100 Rin Ro Rin Vo 50 KΩ Rin SV (40 KΩ/V)(100 V) 4.4 x 10   50 x 10 (0.9 volts Vw Vo 108. 0 Page 9 ES-14 .9 110 Kv 0.99)(110) Vw 3.Test Instruments & Measuring Devices VOLTMETERS 2.4 x 106   (110)  3 6 4.4 MΩ Vw   4.99 or 99% Summary Voltmeters are summarized below.

0 .2 STATE the electrical parameters measured by each of the following in-place measuring devices: b.AMMETERS Test Instruments & Measuring Devices AMMETERS Measurement of current being supplied to or from a component is measured by an ammeter. Io V Ro (14-3) ES-14 Page 10 Rev. Ammeter EXPLAIN how the following electrical test equipment and measuring devices are connected to a circuit: b. It may be calibrated in amperes. Equation (14-3) is the mathematical representation of the current without the meter installed. Figure 6 Ammeter When an ammeter is placed in series with a circuit. it will increase the resistance of that circuit by an amount equal to the internal resistance of the meter Rm. milliamperes.3 Ammeter The ammeter measures electric current. EO 1. the ammeter must be placed in series with the circuit to be tested (Figure 6). Ammeter EO 1. In order to measure current. or microamperes.

  V   R Rm   o     Ro    V Ro Ro Rm KA (14-6) The percent loading error is that percent of error due to loading effects that result from the added resistance of the meter. (14-7) Figure 7 Ammeter Accuracy Rev. Io. Equation (14-5) is the mathematical representation for solving for the accuracy of the ammeter (KA). Iw. KA Iw Io (14-5) By substitution laws. 0 Page 11 ES-14 . Calibration error is an error that occurs due to inaccurately marked meter faces. Example: An ammeter.KA)(100 %) A second error which occurs in an ammeter is calibration error. % loading error = (1 . Iw V Ro Rm (14-4) The accuracy of the ammeter KA is the ratio of the current when the meter is in the circuit. to the current with the meter out of the circuit. with a 10 mA full scale deflection and an internal resistance of 400 Ω. Equation (14-7) is a mathematical representation of the percent loading error. Typical values of calibration error in terms of full scale current are about 3 percent. Equation (14-6) is a mathematical representation of the accuracy using circuit resistance.Test Instruments & Measuring Devices AMMETERS Equation (14-4) is the mathematical representation of the current with the meter installed in the circuit. is placed in a circuit with a 20 V power source and a 2 KΩ resistor (Figure 7).

0 . measure currents higher than the original full scale value. 4.7% 3.833) (100%) % loading error % loading error % loading error 16. The reason for shunting an ammeter is to extend the range of the ammeter and.33 x 10 3 A or 8. accuracy %loading error true current measured current KA R Ro Rm KA KA 2. 2. Iw 0. 3. 2000 2000 400 0.33 mA An ammeter with a full scale Im can be shunted with a resistor RSH in order to measure currents in excess of Im (Figure 8).833 or 83. 1. ES-14 Page 12 Rev.AMMETERS Test Instruments & Measuring Devices Find: 1. thereby.3% (1 (1 KA) (100%) 0. Io V Ro 20 2000 Io 4.01 A or 10 mA V Ro Rm 20 2000 400 Iw 8.

Rm 1 1 Rm RSH Rm RSH (14-8) Equation (14-9) is a mathematical representation of the relationship between input voltage and current to the ammeter and the value of input resistance. ISH IT Im Since the voltage across the shunt must be equal to the voltage across the ammeter. Find: 1. 2. 0 Page 13 ES-14 . NOTE: When computing accuracy for a shunted ammeter. with a 100 Ω meter resistance and a full scale deflection current of 4 mA. shunt resistance is calculated as follows: ISHRSH RSH ImRm ImRm ISH Figure 8 Ammeter with Shunt RSH ImRm IT Im Therefore. use Rm in place of Rm . Rm 1 Vi n Ii n Im Rm IT (14-9) Example: An ammeter. Equation (14-8) is a mathematical representation of this relationship. is to be shunted to measure currents from 1 to 20 mA. RSH R1m Rev.Test Instruments & Measuring Devices AMMETERS By Kirchhoff’s current law. the input resistance of a shunted ammeter is related to the meter and shunt resistance.

AMMETERS Test Instruments & Measuring Devices Solution: 1. Ammeter Summary Measure circuit current flow Connected in series with the circuit ES-14 Page 14 Rev. 0 . RSH ImRm IT Im (4)(100) 20 4 RSH 2. Rm 1 25 Ω ImRm IT (4)(100) 20 Rm 1 20 Ω Summary Ammeters are summarized below.

Rev. Zeroing the ohm meter is accomplished by shorting the ohm meter terminals ab and adjusting Ro to give full-scale deflection. and a variable resistor. EO 1.3 Ohm Meter The ohm meter is an instrument used to determine resistance. Ro. and a parallel path exists in the circuit. A simple ohm meter (Figure 9) consists of a battery. It is also a current-limiting resistor which includes the meter resistance Rm. in Figure 9. Ohm meter EO 1. If the Figure 9 Simple Ohm Meter Circuit component remains in the circuit. 0 Page 15 ES-14 . An ohm meter aids the troubleshooter in determining if a ground or a short exists in a circuit. The reason for removing the component is that measurement of current through the component determines the resistance. the current will flow in the path of least resistance and give an erroneous reading. is an adjustable resistor whose purpose is to zero the ohm meter and correct for battery aging.Test Instruments & Measuring Devices OHM METERS OHM METERS The resistance of a wire or a circuit is measured by an ohm meter.2 STATE the electrical parameters measured by each of the following in-place measuring devices: c. Ohm meter EXPLAIN how the following electrical test equipment and measuring devices are connected to a circuit: c. Ohm meters are connected to a component which is removed from the circuit as illustrated in Figure 9. a meter movement calibrated in ohms.

ES-14 Page 16 Rev. I V Ro Rx (14-11) An easy way to determine ohm meter deflection is by use of a deflection factor (D). 0 . I D Im (14-13) To solve for Rx using Equations (14-10) through (14-13). Equation (14-13) is the mathematical representation of this relationship. Deflection factor is the ratio of circuit current to meter current. V D I Im Ro V Ro Rx Ro Ro Rx (14-12) The current through the circuit can be determined by solving for I. Rx 1 D D Ro (14-14) If half-scale deflection occurs. Equation (14-11) is the mathematical representation of this concept. the relationship between deflection factor and the meter resistance to the unknown resistance can be shown. so that the value of Ro is marked at mid-scale on the ohm meter face. Im V Ro (14-10) When the unknown resistance Rx is connected across the ohm meter terminals. the current is measured by calculating the total series resistance and applying Equation (14-10). then Rx = Ro. Equation (14-14) is the mathematical representation of this relationship.OHM METERS Test Instruments & Measuring Devices Equation (14-10) is the mathematical representation for determining full-scale deflection meter current. Equation (14-12) is the mathematical representation of the deflection factor.

An ohm meter with Ro = 30 Ω. the deflection factor for each resistor must be found. The ohm meter is zeroed and then an unknown resistance Rx is measured. The open circuit voltage at terminals ab is 24 V. 4) 15 Ω. 3) 10 Ω. quarter scale deflection of this ohm meter face would read 720 KΩ. 2) 5 Ω. which produces quarter-scale deflection. Find I with: 1) 0 Ω. Ro D Ro Rx Rev. and full scale current Im = 300 µA.Test Instruments & Measuring Devices OHM METERS Example 1: An ohm meter has a meter movement with a 100 µA full-scale deflection. Find Rx. Ro V Im 24 1 x 10 Ro 6 2. Example 2: Solution: First. and 5) 1 MΩ resistors across the meter terminal. 0 Page 17 ES-14 .4 x 105 Ω or 240 KΩ Then solve for Rx: Rx 1 D D Ro  1 1   4   (240)  1     4  (3)(240) Rx 720 KΩ Therefore. Solution: First find Ro.

0. 0 .000001 approximately 0 Then find I by using: I = D Im 1. 0 µA zero deflection ES-14 Page 18 Rev. 1 x 10 6 0. 258 µA 3.75 ) ( 300 x 10 6 ) Rx = 15Ω I = ( 0. Rx = 0 Ω 30 D = 30 1 2.75 4.86 ) ( 300 x 10 6 ) Rx = 10Ω I = ( 0. 225 µA 4.67 ) ( 300 x 10 6 ) Rx = 1 MΩ I = ( 0 ) (300 x 10 6 ) 300 µA full scale deflection 2. 201 µA 5. 0. Rx = 5 Ω 30 D = 30 5 Rx = 10 Ω 30 D = 30 10 Rx = 15 Ω 30 D = 30 15 Rx = 1 MΩ 30 D = 1 x 106 0.86 3. Rx = 0 Ω I = ( 1 ) ( 300 x 10 6 ) Rx = 5Ω I = ( 0.OHM METERS Test Instruments & Measuring Devices 1.67 5.

Ohm Meter Summary Measures circuit resistance Connected to a component removed from the circuit Rev. meter current decreased by 42 µA. 0 Page 19 ES-14 . the zero resistance (Rx = 0) is at the right end of the scale and infinite resistance (Rx = 1 MΩ) is at the left end of the scale. Similarly. an ammeter scale used to measure resistance is nonlinear (Figure 10). the current decreased by 33 µA. Thus. The ohm meter scale is a reversal of the ammeter and voltmeter scales. Figure 10 Ohm Meter Scale Summary Ohm meters are summarized below. In other words.Test Instruments & Measuring Devices OHM METERS NOTE: As the resistance was increased from 0 to 5Ω. when resistance was increased from 5 to 10Ω.

P VI or P I2R (14-15) ES-14 Page 20 Rev. EO 1. and its multiplier resistor Rs. All of these ratings must be observed to prevent damage to the meter. with the V terminals connected in parallel with the load. 0 . Figure 11 Wattmeter Schematic Wattmeters are rated in terms of their maximum current. The two I terminals are connected in series with the load. Coils LI1 and LI2 are the fixed coils in series with one another and serve as an ammeter. voltage. The movable coil Lv.3 Wattmeter The wattmeter is an instrument which measures DC power or true AC power.2 STATE the electrical parameters measured by each of the following in-place measuring devices: d. are used as a voltmeter. The wattmeter uses fixed coils to indicate current. Equation (14-15) is the mathematical representation of calculating power in a DC circuit.WATTMETERS Test Instruments & Measuring Devices WATTMETERS Wattmeters are used to determine DC power or real AC power delivered to the load. Wattmeter EO 1. The meter deflection is proportional to the VI. and power. which is power. while the movable coil indicates voltage (Figure 11). Wattmeter EXPLAIN how the following electrical test equipment and measuring devices are connected to a circuit: d.

It also may not be feasible for the Y load. total power is calculated by adding the A and B phase powers. only two wattmeters are used in making 3φ power measurements (Figure 13). P VRms IRms cos θ o r P I2R (14-16) Three-Phase Wattmeter Total power in a 3φ circuit is the sum of the powers of the separate phases. The total power could be measured by placing a wattmeter in each phase (Figure 12). In balanced 3φ systems. this method is not feasible since it is often impossible to break into the phases of a delta load. with any power factor. since the neutral point to which the wattmeters must be connected is not always accessible. however.Test Instruments & Measuring Devices WATTMETERS Equation (14-16) is the mathematical representation for calculating power in an AC circuit. 0 Page 21 ES-14 . PT where WA and WB are the power readings in Phase A and Phase B WA WB (14-17) Rev. Equation (14-17) is the mathematical representation for calculating total power (PT). Figure 12 Wattmeters in Each Phase Normally.

0 . Wattmeter Summary Measures real power delivered to the load Single-phase AC or DC .voltage component (movable coil) connected in parallel with the load and the current component (fixed coil) connected in series with the load Three-phase AC .summation of Phase A and B powers ES-14 Page 22 Rev.WATTMETERS Test Instruments & Measuring Devices Figure 13 Two Wattmeters to Measure 3φ Power Summary Wattmeters are summarized below.

Ground detector h.Test Instruments & Measuring Devices OTHER ELECTRICAL MEASURING DEVICES OTHER ELECTRICAL MEASURING DEVICES Other measuring devices are used to aid operators in determining the electric plant conditions at a facility. Similar to an ammeter. Ampere-hour meter f. Typical ampere-hour meters are digital indicators similar to the odometer used in automobiles. when the battery is placed on charge. 0 Page 23 ES-14 . When this point is reached. They attempt to follow the charge and discharge. returning once again to its starting point. It is normally desired to give a battery a 10% overcharge. such as the ampere-hour meter. it will register the amount of discharge of a battery. but inherently do not indicate the correct state of charge. Ground detector h. These meters are subject to inaccuracies and cannot record the internal losses of a battery. they have been largely superseded by the voltage-time method of control. starting from a given reading. This is accomplished by designing the ampere-hour meter to run 10% slow in the charge direction. Although the ampere-hour meters were used quite extensively in the past. Power factor meter g.3 Ampere-Hour Meter The ampere-hour meter registers ampere-hours and is an integrating meter similar to the watt-hour meter used to measure electricity usage in a home.2 STATE the electrical parameters measured by each of the following in-place measuring devices: e. and synchroscope. the battery has received a charge equal to the discharge. Power factor meter g. Synchroscope EO 1. the ampere-hour meter is connected in series. Rev. Synchroscope EXPLAIN how the following electrical test equipment and measuring devices are connected to a circuit: e. For example. power factor meter. and the charge is stopped. ground detector. The ampere-hour meter is a direct current meter that will register in either direction depending on the direction of current flow. Ampere-hour meter f. EO 1. it will operate in the opposite direction.

Figure 14 3φ Power Factor Meter Schematic Ground Detector The ground detector is an instrument which is used to detect conductor insulation resistance to ground. so that the moving element and pointer take a new position of balance to show the new power factor. 0 . S and S 1. one potential coil current leads and one lags the current in Phase B by 30°. An ohm meter. thus. Coils M and M1 are mounted on a common shaft. are connected in series in Phase B. or a series of lights. the coils are balanced in the position shown in Figure 14. The method of connection of this type of power factor meter. ES-14 Page 24 Rev. can be used to detect the insulation strength of an ungrounded distribution system. some ungrounded systems still exist. The two stationary coils. however. These coils are connected with their series resistors from Phase B to Phase A and from Phase B to Phase C. Most power distribution systems in use today are of the grounded variety. A change in power factor will cause the current of one potential coil to become more in phase and the other potential coil to be more out of phase with the current in Phase B.OTHER ELECTRICAL MEASURING DEVICES Test Instruments & Measuring Devices Power Factor Meter A power factor meter is a type of electrodynamometer movement when it is made with two movable coils set at right angles to each other. which is free to move without restraint or control springs. in a 3φ circuit. At a power factor of unity. is shown in Figure 14.

the phase in which the darkened lamp is in is grounded. a set of three lamps connected through transformers to the system is used. and the other two lamps are brighter. If any one lamp is dark. the primary winding of the transformer is shorted to ground and receives no voltage. In this case. If a leakage path exists between the conductor insulator and ground. Figure 15 Simple Ohm Meter Ground Detector In the ground detector lamp method (Figure 16). 0 Page 25 ES-14 . no ground exists and all the lamps receive the same voltage. a DC voltage is applied to the conductor. If the lamps are equally bright. To check for grounds.Test Instruments & Measuring Devices OTHER ELECTRICAL MEASURING DEVICES In the ohm meter method (Figure 15). a current will flow through the ground to the ohm meter proportional to the insulation resistance of the conductor. Rev. the switch is closed and the brilliance of the lamps is observed.

The stator windings are connected to the incoming generator. 0 . ES-14 Page 26 Rev. and a polarizing coil is connected to the running generator. and by means of a phase-splitting network. the synchroscope will rotate at a speed corresponding to the difference. The two stator windings are at right angles to one another. one at the top and one at the bottom. If the frequencies of the incoming and running generators are different. The synchroscope consists of a two-phase stator. the pointer is at the "12 o’clock" position and the two AC generators are in phase. When the synchroscope indicates 0o phase difference. It consists of two iron vanes mounted in opposite directions on a shaft. The rotating element is unrestrained and is free to rotate through 360°. thereby generating a rotating magnetic field.OTHER ELECTRICAL MEASURING DEVICES Test Instruments & Measuring Devices Figure 16 Ground Detector Lamp Circuit Synchroscope A synchroscope indicates when two AC generators are in the correct phase relation for connecting in parallel and shows whether the incoming generator is running faster or slower than the on-line generator. and magnetized by the polarizing coil. the current in one phase leads the current of the other phase by 90°. it will rotate in the counterclockwise direction. if incoming frequency is less than running frequency. it will rotate in the clockwise direction. It is designed so that if incoming frequency is higher than running frequency.

Measuring Devices Summary Ampere-hour Meter Measures current flow (either direction) through a given point Connected in series Power Factor Meter Measures power factor between phases in a 3-phase circuit Connected in series with one phase Ground Detector Measures conductor insulation Connected out of circuit to ground Synchroscope Measures relationship between generator frequencies Connected by a two-phase stator at right angles Rev.Test Instruments & Measuring Devices OTHER ELECTRICAL MEASURING DEVICES Summary The important information contained in this chapter is summarized below. 0 Page 27 ES-14 .

or a sensitivity of 20 KΩ/V. 0-10V. Multimeter b. no current flows in Coil A. AC and DC voltage.4 Multimeter The multimeter is a portable single instrument capable of measuring various electrical values including voltage. etc). when used as a DC voltmeter. causing it to move to the extreme counter-clockwise position. The volt-ohm-milliammeter (VOM) is the most commonly used multimeter. 0-1V. The typical VOM has a meter movement with a full scale current of 50 µA. giving an infinite resistance. Megger The megger is a portable instrument used to measure insulation resistance. EO 1. A simplified circuit diagram of the instrument is shown in Figure 17. the coil will tend to set itself at right angles to the field of the permanent magnet. Coil B will govern the motion of the rotating element. A single meter movement is used to measure current. which are rigidly mounted to a pivoted central shaft and are free to rotate over a C-shaped core (C on Figure 17). The moving element of the ohm meter consists of two coils.g. The moving element may point in any meter position when the generator is not in operation. and current. A and B. or a voltmeter. ES-14 Page 28 Rev. Thereby. These coils are connected by means of flexible leads. and resistance..3 EXPLAIN how the following electrical test equipment and measuring devices are connected to a circuit: i. an ohm meter. 0 . Megger STATE the electrical parameters measured by each of the following test instruments: a. which is marked as infinite resistance. The megger consists of a hand-driven DC generator and a direct reading ohm meter. Range switches are usually provided for scale selection (e. resistance. With the test terminals open. Meggers are used to measure insulation resistance.TEST EQUIPMENT Test Instruments & Measuring Devices TEST EQUIPMENT The multimeter can be used as an ammeter. As current provided by the hand-driven generator flows through Coil B. Megger EO 1.

When an unknown resistance is connected across the test terminals. the opposing torques of Coils A and B balance each other so that the instrument pointer comes to rest at some point on the scale. Resistance (R1) will protect Coil A from excessive current flow in this condition. With the terminals marked "line" and "earth" shorted. the current flow through the Coil A is sufficient to produce enough torque to overcome the torque of Coil B. Rev.Test Instruments & Measuring Devices TEST EQUIPMENT Figure 17 Simple Megger Circuit Diagram Coil A is wound in a manner to produce a clockwise torque on the moving element. 0 Page 29 ES-14 . The scale is calibrated such that the pointer directly indicates the value of resistance being measured. line and earth. The pointer then moves to the extreme clockwise position. giving a zero resistance. which is marked as zero resistance.

TEST EQUIPMENT Test Instruments & Measuring Devices Summary Test equipment is summarized below. and Meggers measure insulation resistance. voltage. Meggers are connected out of circuit. ES-14 Page 30 Rev. 0 . Test Equipment Summary Multimeters resistance. measure current.

Department of Energy Fundamentals Handbook ELECTRICAL SCIENCE Module 15 Electrical Distribution Systems .

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 11 11 14 MOTOR CONTROLLERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 4 5 6 CIRCUIT BREAKERS . . . . . . . . Low-Voltage Air Circuit Breakers High-Voltage Circuit Breakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Single (One-Line) Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnetic Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neutral Grounding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commercial or Utility Power Diesel Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manual Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Motor Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Electrical Distribution Systems TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Circuit Breaker Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overlapping Protective Zones Fuses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Failure-Free Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND PROTECTION DEVICES . . . . . . . Motor Controller Types and Operation Summary . . . . . . . . . . . Protective Relays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 15 16 18 20 Rev. . . 0 Page i ES-15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Voltage Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Three-Phase Wye System Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-Wire. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .) WIRING SCHEMES AND GROUNDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Three-Phase Delta System 4-Wire. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Three-Phase Delta System 4-Wire. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 22 22 24 24 25 26 27 ES-15 Page ii Rev. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Terminology . . . . . . . . . . Three-Phase Wiring Schemes . . . 21 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Single-Phase Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TABLE OF CONTENTS Electrical Distribution Systems TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Three-Phase Delta Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4-Wire. . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Three-Phase to Single-Phase Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Types of Fuses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4-Wire Delta System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Simple Circuit Breaker Control Circuit .Electrical Distribution Systems LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 One-Line Distribution Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 Page iii ES-15 . . . . .Breaker Open . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 3-Wire. . . 27 Rev. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Breaker Closed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Typical Three-Phase Magnetic Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Magnetic Contactor Assembly . . . . . 10 Simple Circuit Breaker Control Circuit . . 8 Large Air Circuit Breaker . . 18 LVP Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Three Phase Wye System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 LVRE Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 LVR Controller . . . . . . . 2 Protective Relaying Zones . . . 7 Cutaway View of Molded Case Circuit Breaker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 3-Wire Edison Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Molded Case Circuit Breaker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Single Phase Manual Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

LIST OF TABLES Electrical Distribution Systems LIST OF TABLES NONE ES-15 Page iv Rev. 0 .

Electrical Distribution Systems REFERENCES REFERENCES Gussow.Seven.. Vol. Academic Program for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel. Eugene C. Harry. McGraw-Hill. 0 Page v ES-15 . MA: National Fire Protection Association. Nasar and Unnewehr. Van Valkenburgh. Hayden Book Company. Lister. C. Electromechanics and Electric Machines. 10th Edition. Rev. and Neville. 5th Edition. Batterymarch Park. The Art and Science of Protective Relaying. 5. Library of Congress Card #A 326517. Electrical Instruments and Measurements. Hayden Book Company. McGraw-Hill. Volume II. Kidwell. McGraw-Hill. MD: General Physics Corporation. Schaum’s Outline Series. Milton. Croft. John Wiley and Sons. National Electrical Code. John Wiley and Sons. Mason. Watt. McGrawHill. Columbia. Walter. Basic Electricity. Nooger. American Electricians Handbook. Mileaf. and Summers. 1982. Russel. Electric Circuits and Machines. Basic Electricity. Revised 2nd Edition. Electricity One . Carr. Quincy.

0 Given the functional characteristics of an AC power source and the intended load. STATE the function of motor controllers. DESCRIBE the operation of that breaker during remote operation and automatic tripping. DESCRIBE the necessary components and the wiring scheme to provide a safe Electrical Distribution System. LIST the three most widely-used protective features that may be incorporated into a circuit breaker control circuit. Given a simplified drawing of a motor controller. 0 . ENABLING OBJECTIVES 1. Neutral grounding f.1 EXPLAIN the following terms as they apply to Electrical Distribution Systems: a.3 1. Given a simple schematic of a circuit breaker control circuit. Protective relays h. Protective relays STATE the purpose of circuit breakers. Single (one-line) diagram b. Voltage class g.4 1. 1.6 1.2 1. STATE three protective features (overloads) that may be incorporated into a motor controller. Fuses b.OBJECTIVES Electrical Distribution Systems TERMINAL OBJECTIVE 1.7 1. Failure-free power e. Diesel power d.8 ES-15 Page vi Rev. Commercial or utility power c.5 1. DESCRIBE the operation of that motor controller. Overlapping protective zones DESCRIBE the protection provided by each of the following: a.

9 DEFINE the following terms as they apply to wiring schemes used in power distribution systems: a. Conductor d. three-phase Delta system d.Electrical Distribution Systems OBJECTIVES ENABLING OBJECTIVES (Cont. Ampacity b. DESCRIBE the purpose of the following power distribution schemes. three-phase Delta system c. 4-wire. Leg g. Ground voltage f. Ground e. Neutral h. 3-wire.11 Rev. Bond c. single-phase Edison system b.) 1. a. 4-wire. 3-wire.10 1. Phase voltage DESCRIBE the two methods of connecting single-phase loads to a three-phase power source. 0 Page vii ES-15 . three-phase Wye system 1.

0 .Electrical Distribution Systems Intentionally Left Blank ES-15 Page viii Rev.

Electrical Distribution Systems SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND PROTECTION DEVICES SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND PROTECTION DEVICES Nuclear facilities rely on dependable electrical distribution systems to provide power to key vital equipment. Neutral grounding f. Commercial or utility power c. Protective relays EO 1. Diesel Power Diesel power is power generated by a diesel-driven generator. Overlapping protective zones DESCRIBE the protection provided by each of the following: a.2 Single (One-Line) Diagram A single. Fuses b. Protective relays h. Single (one-line) diagram b.1 EXPLAIN the following terms as they apply to Electrical Distribution Systems: a. Failure-free power e. EO 1. Commercial or Utility Power Commercial or utility power is electrical power that is provided by commercial generating systems to the facility. Diesel-driven generators are the most economical and practical source of "standby power. 0 Page 1 ES-15 . and major components in the distribution system (Figure 1). loads." Rev. Voltage class g. Knowledge of the basic electrical power distribution system and its components will help the operator understand the importance of electrical power distribution systems. Diesel power d. or one-line diagram of a distribution system is a simple and easy-to-read diagram showing power supplies.

SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND PROTECTION DEVICES Electrical Distribution Systems Figure 1 One-Line Distribution Diagram ES-15 Page 2 Rev. 0 .

There are only two operating principles for protective relays: (1) electromagnetic attraction and (2) electromagnetic induction. Voltage Class Voltage in distribution systems is classified into three groups: high voltage. Another advantage of neutral grounding is that it reduces the amount of insulation required for high-voltage transmission lines. and low voltage is voltage at 600 volts or less. Protective Relays Protective relays are designed to cause the prompt removal of any part of a power system that might cause damage or interfere with the effective and continuous operation of the rest of the system. This type of relay can be used only in AC circuits. This type of relay can be actuated by either DC or AC systems. intermediate voltage. underfrequency.Electrical Distribution Systems SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND PROTECTION DEVICES Failure-Free Power Failure-free power is accomplished by providing vital equipment with automatic switching between two or more power supplies so that interruption of power is minimized. High voltage is voltage that is above 15. a breakdown between primary and secondary windings of transformers. The relays can be designed to protect generating equipment and electrical circuits from any undesirable condition. and breakdown between the primary and secondary windings of a transformer will cause the primary transformer fuses to blow. Neutral Grounding Neutral grounding in electrical distribution systems helps prevent accidents to personnel and damage to property caused by: fire in case of lightning. Protective relays are aided in this task by circuit breakers that are capable of disconnecting faulty components or subsystems. and low voltage. Protective relays can be used for types of protection other than short circuit or overcurrent.000 volts. 0 Page 3 ES-15 . lightning striking the wires will be conducted into the ground.voltage wires. intermediate voltage is voltage between 15. If some point on the circuit is grounded (in this case neutral ground). Rev. Electromagnetic induction relays operate on the induction motor principle whereby torque is developed by induction in a rotor. or accidental contact of high-voltage wires and low.000 volts and 600 volts. or interlocking system lineups. such as undervoltage. Electromagnetic attraction relays operate by a plunger being drawn up into a solenoid or an armature that is attracted to the poles of an electromagnet.

Any failure that may occur within a given zone will cause the tripping or opening of all circuit breakers within that zone. Figure 2 Protective Relaying Zones ES-15 Page 4 Rev. 0 . it is desirable for protective zone overlap to ensure the maximum system protection. a fault in a region between the two zones would result in no protective action at all.SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND PROTECTION DEVICES Electrical Distribution Systems Overlapping Protective Zones A separate zone of protection is provided around each system element (Figure 2). For failures that occur within a region where two protective zones overlap. if there were no overlap of protective zones. more breakers will be tripped than are necessary to disconnect the faulty component. Therefore. however.

Rev. This type of fuse is normally used on circuits rated at either 250 volts or 600 volts and has a maximum continuous current-carrying capacity of 600 amps. It has a fusible link directly heated and destroyed by the current passing through it. The cartridge fuse is constructed with a zinc or alloy fusible element enclosed in a cylindrical fiber tube with the element ends attached to a metallic contact piece at the ends of the tube.Electrical Distribution Systems SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND PROTECTION DEVICES Fuses A fuse is a device that protects a circuit from an overcurrent condition only. the fusible link will melt and open the circuit. 0 Page 5 ES-15 . Figure 3 Types of Fuses The plug fuse is a fuse that consists of a zinc or alloy strip. This type of fuse is normally used on circuits rated at 125 V or less to ground and has a maximum continuous current-carrying capacity of 30 amps. There are several types of fuses in use (Figure 3). A fuse contains a currentcarrying element sized so that the heat generated by the flow of normal current through it does not cause it to melt the element. and a screw base. however. a fusible element enclosed in porcelain or pyrex housing. when an overcurrent or short-circuit current flows through the fuse.

SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND PROTECTION DEVICES Electrical Distribution Systems Summary The important information contained in this chapter is summarized below. System Components and Protection Devices Summary Single (one-line) diagram .cause prompt removal of any part of a power system that suffers a short circuit Overlapping protective zones .economical/practical source of standby power Failure-free power .high voltage > 15.electric power supplied to the facility Diesel power . low voltage ≤ 600 volts Protective relays . 0 .helps prevent accidents to personnel and damage to property by fire Voltage class .simple and easy to read diagram showing power supplies.000 volts. loads.power supplied to vital equipment with automatic switching so that interruption of power is minimized Neutral grounding .disconnect component from the power system Fuse .protects component from overcurrent ES-15 Page 6 Rev.created around each element of the power system to prevent element failure from interrupting the whole system operation Breakers . and major components in the distribution system Commercial or utility power . intermediate voltage is 600-15.000 volts.

3 EO 1. LIST the three most widely-used protective features that may be incorporated into a circuit breaker control circuit.5 Introduction The purpose of a circuit breaker is to break the circuit and stop the current flow when the current exceeds a predetermined value without causing damage to the circuit or the circuit breaker. EO 1. Oil circuit breakers (OCBs) use oil to quench the arc when the breaker contacts open. One of the most commonly used low-voltage air circuit breakers is the molded case circuit breaker (Figure 4). The circuit breaker can be designed to actuate under any undesirable condition. EO 1. Figure 4 Molded Case Circuit Breaker Rev.Electrical Distribution Systems CIRCUIT BREAKERS CIRCUIT BREAKERS A circuit breaker is a device that is used to completely disconnect a circuit when any abnormal condition exists. Circuit breakers are commonly used in place of fuses and sometimes eliminate the need for a switch. A circuit breaker differs from a fuse in that it "trips" to break the circuit and may be reset. 0 Page 7 ES-15 .4 STATE the purpose of circuit breakers. while a fuse melts and must be replaced. DESCRIBE the operation of that breaker during remote operation and automatic tripping. Air circuit breakers (ACBs) are breakers where the interruption of the breaker contacts takes place in an air environment. Low-Voltage Air Circuit Breakers A low-voltage circuit breaker is one which is suited for circuits rated at 600 volts or lower. Given a simple schematic of a circuit breaker control circuit.

This bimetallic element. Figure 5 Cutaway View of Molded Case Circuit Breaker A circuit can be connected or disconnected using a circuit breaker by manually moving the operating handle to the ON or OFF position. have a linkage between the operating handle and contacts that allows a quick make (quick break contact action) regardless of how fast the operating handle is moved. the handle will go to the trip-free position. In lower current ratings. automatic tripping of the circuit breaker is accomplished by use of thermal tripping devices. 0 . The circuit breaker will then be opened by spring action. An abnormally high current. A circuit breaker will automatically trip when the current through it exceeds a pre-determined value. ES-15 Page 8 Rev. which is responsive to the heat produced by current flowing through it. If the circuit breaker opens under one of these conditions. If an extremely high current is developed. The handle is also designed so that it cannot be held shut on a short circuit or overload condition. The trip-free position is midway between the ON and OFF positions and cannot be re-shut until the handle is pushed to the OFF position and reset. Thermal trip elements consist of a bimetallic element that can be calibrated so that the heat from normal current through it does not cause it to deflect. has an inverse-time characteristic. All breakers. will cause the element to deflect and trip the linkage that holds the circuit breaker shut.CIRCUIT BREAKERS Electrical Distribution Systems A cutaway view of the molded case circuit breaker is shown in Figure 5. the circuit breaker will be tripped very rapidly. with the exception of very small ones. which could be caused by a short circuit or overload condition.

Rev. 600. which minimizes the chance of a fire and also minimizes damage to the breaker contacts.or electrically-operated circuit breaker.000 amps. When the separable contacts of an air circuit breaker are opened. the operating mechanism is latched. 225. The construction of this arc chute allows the arc formed as the contacts open to draw out into the arc chute. Once these springs are compressed. and interrupting ratings as high as 150. Molded case breakers with much larger current ratings also have a magnetic trip element to supplement the thermal trip element. the latch may be operated to release the springs. and current interrupting ratings are the same for all circuit breakers of a given frame size. and 2. Circuit breaker closing springs may be compressed manually or by means of a small electric motor.000 amps.000 amps. 400. The most common design places the moving contacts inside of an arc chute. The magnetic unit utilizes the magnetic force that surrounds the conductor to operate the circuit breaker tripping linkage. and the circuit breaker may then be tripped by means of a trip latch. and spring pressure will shut the circuit breaker. Energy is stored by compressing large powerful coil springs that are attached to the contact assembly of a circuit breaker. The range of voltage available is from 120 to 600 volts. When a large air circuit breaker is closed.Electrical Distribution Systems CIRCUIT BREAKERS For moderate overload currents. Molded case circuit breakers come in a wide range of sizes and current ratings. or coils. Much larger air circuit breakers are used in large commercial and industrial distribution systems. 0 Page 9 ES-15 . As the circuit breaker is closed. This action extinguishes the arc rapidly. it will operate more slowly. positive closing action. Breakers of this type have current ratings as high as 4. There are six frame sizes available: 100. These circuit breakers are available in much higher continuous current and interrupting ratings than the molded case circuit breaker.000 amps." for fast. circuit breakers may be operated either manually or electrically. known as a "stored energy mechanism. The continuous current rating of a breaker is governed by the trip element rating. and interrupting capacity ranges as high as 100. a set of tripping springs. are compressed. Different manufacturers use many designs and arrangements of contacts and their surrounding chambers. contact rating. an arc develops between the two contacts. Most large air circuit breakers use a closing device. Electrically-operated circuit breakers are used when circuit breakers are to be operated at frequent intervals or when remote operation is required. This type of circuit breaker can be classified as either a manually. 800. As previously stated. When the arc is drawn into the arc chute. it is divided into small segments and quenched. The trip latch mechanism may be operated either manually or remotely by means of a solenoid trip coil. The size.

The manually-operated circuit breaker closing springs are normally compressed by a hand crank just prior to operation of the breaker. Figure 6 shows a large air circuit breaker which is classified as a manually-operated stored energy circuit breaker. located at the bottom front of the breaker. Figure 6 Large Air Circuit Breaker ES-15 Page 10 Rev. The closing springs are compressed by pulling downward on the large operating handle on the front of the breaker. 0 .CIRCUIT BREAKERS Electrical Distribution Systems When the electrically-operated stored energy circuit breaker is tripped. Closing this circuit breaker is accomplished manually by depressing the small closing lever. the spring is recharged by the spring charging motor so that the breaker is ready for the next closing operation. Tripping this circuit breaker is done by means of the tripping lever.

The arc. The major components of a simple control circuit are: the rectifier unit. The magnetic air circuit breaker is rated up to 750. the closing coil. The electrical connections between the contacts and external circuits are made through porcelain bushings. Current interruption takes place in oil which cools the arc developed and thereby quenches the arc. the closing relay. As the current-carrying contacts separate during a fault condition. the auxiliary contacts. Air-blast circuit breakers have recently been developed for use in extra high-voltage applications with standard ratings up to 765.000 volts and three-phase interrupting ratings of 50. Figure 7 shows a simple control circuit for a remotely-operated breaker. however. accelerates upward into the arc chute. aided by the blowout coil magnetic field and thermal effects. depend on a stream of compressed air directed toward the separable contacts of the breaker to interrupt the arc formed when the breaker is opened. In order to operate the breakers from a remote location.160 to 765. the blowout coil provides a magnetic field to draw the arc upward into the arc chutes. In the early stages of electrical system development. Compressed-air circuit breakers. Simultaneously. The oil tanks in oil circuit breakers are normally sealed. Oil circuit breakers (OCBs) are circuit breakers that have their contacts immersed in oil. Control power is supplied by an AC source and then rectified to DC. 0 Page 11 ES-15 . and the circuit breaker control switch. the large high-voltage circuit breakers have each pole in a separate oil tank. the tripping coil.000 kVA.000 to 50. However. This type of circuit breaker interrupts in air between two separable contacts with the aid of magnetic blowout coils. the arc is drawn out horizontally and transferred to a set of arcing contacts. circuit breakers may be remotely operated.800 volts. the major portion of high-voltage circuit breakers were oil circuit breakers. Circuit Breaker Control As we have discussed. where it is elongated and divided into many small segments.000.000 volts. or air-blast circuit breakers. The construction of this type of circuit breaker is similar to that of a large air circuit breaker used for low-voltage applications. Rev. there must be an electrical control circuit incorporated. except that they are all electrically operated. magnetic and compressed-air type air circuit breakers have been developed and are in use today.Electrical Distribution Systems CIRCUIT BREAKERS High-Voltage Circuit Breakers High-voltage circuit breakers (including breakers rated at intermediate voltage) are used for service on circuits with voltage ratings higher than 600 volts.000 kVA at 13. Standard voltage ratings for these circuit breakers are from 4. The poles of small oil circuit breakers can be placed in one oil tank.

as shown in Figure 8. To open the circuit breaker. which enables the trip circuit for manual or automatic trips of the breaker. shuts the circuit breaker. de-energizing the closing relay and. This provides a complete path through the closing relay (CR) and energizes the closing relay. ES-15 Page 12 Rev. 0 . This action energizes the trip coil (TC).CIRCUIT BREAKERS Electrical Distribution Systems Figure 7 Simple Circuit Breaker Control Circuit Breaker Open To close the remotely-operated circuit breaker. The closing relay shuts an auxiliary contact. in turn. which. The circuit breaker control switch may now be released and will automatically return to the neutral position. the "a" contact also closes. the closing coil. turn the circuit breaker control switch to the close position. The breaker latches in the closed position. When the breaker closes. Once the breaker is shut. which acts directly on the circuit breaker to release the latching mechanism that holds the circuit breaker closed. turn the circuit breaker control switch to the trip position. which energizes the closing coil (CC). the "b" contact associated with the closing relay opens. thereby.

will trip the circuit breaker. in turn. The circuit breaker control switch may now be released. when the circuit breaker opens. Rev. thereby setting up the circuit breaker to be remotely closed using the closing relay. underfrequency. the "b" contact will close.Electrical Distribution Systems CIRCUIT BREAKERS When the latching mechanism is released. and undervoltage. which. The three most commonly-used automatic trip features for a circuit breaker are overcurrent (as discussed previously). the circuit breaker will open. the circuit breaker control circuit can be designed so that any one of a number of protective features may be incorporated. opening the "a" contact for the tripping coil and de-energizing the tripping coil. Figure 8 Simple Circuit Breaker Control Circuit . 0 Page 13 ES-15 . If any one of the conditions exists while the circuit breaker is closed. Also. when desired. it will close its associated contact and energize the tripping coil.Breaker Closed As you can see from Figure 7 or 8.

ES-15 Page 14 Rev. The three most commonly-used automatic trip features for a circuit breaker are overcurrent. Circuit Breaker Summary The purpose of a circuit breaker is to provide a means for connecting and disconnecting circuits of relatively high capacities without causing damage to them. 0 . and undervoltage. underfrequency.CIRCUIT BREAKERS Electrical Distribution Systems Summary The important information covered in this chapter is summarized below.

Electrical Distribution Systems MOTOR CONTROLLERS MOTOR CONTROLLERS Motor controllers range from a simple toggle switch to a complex system using solenoids. Manual Controllers A manual controller. it is undesirable for larger loads because it could cause a hazard to equipment and personnel.6 EO 1. This includes starting and stopping the motor. The controller is operated by hand. relays. however. Rev. Manual controllers do NOT provide low voltage protection or low voltage release.8 Motor Controllers Motor controllers range from a simple toggle switch to a complex system using solenoids. the manual controller contacts remain closed. EO 1. The manual controller is provided with thermal and direct-acting overload units to protect the motor from overload conditions. illustrated by Figure 9. These types of controllers are simple.7 STATE the function of motor controllers. The contacts will also open if the thermal overload trips. relays. fans. There are two basic categories of motor controllers: the manual controller and the magnetic controller. This feature is highly desirable for small loads because operator action is not needed to restart the small loads in a facility. and the motor will restart when power is restored. They will remain closed until the handle is moved to the "OFF" position or the STOP button is pushed. blowers. EO 1. STATE three protective features (overloads) that may be incorporated into a motor controller. 0 Page 15 ES-15 . Manual controllers are normally used on small loads such as machine tools. When power fails. is a controller whose contact assembly is operated by mechanical linkage from a toggle-type handle or a pushbutton arrangement. pumps. The manual controller is basically an "ON-OFF" switch with overload protection. and protecting the motor from overcurrent. Given a simplified drawing of a motor controller. The basic functions of a motor controller are to control and protect the operation of a motor. and timers. and timers. and they provide quiet operation. The contacts are closed simply by moving the handle to the "ON" position or pushing the START button. The basic functions of a motor controller are to control and protect the operation of a motor. and compressors. undervoltage. and overheating conditions that would cause damage to the motor. DESCRIBE the operation of that motor controller.

0 . or knife switches. The master switch (for example. Figure 10 shows a typical magnetic controller and its component parts. pressure switch. ES-15 Page 16 Rev.MOTOR CONTROLLERS Electrical Distribution Systems Figure 9 Single Phase Manual Controller Magnetic Controller A large percentage of controller applications require that the controller be operated from a remote location or operate automatically in response to control signals. the master switch is manually operated. are performed by magnetic contactors. A magnetic controller is one that will automatically perform all operations in the proper sequence after the closure of a master switch. But in some cases. magnetic controllers are necessary. float switch. As discussed. drum switches. Basic operations using a magnetic controller. or thermostat) is frequently operated automatically. manual controllers cannot provide this type of control. such as pushbuttons. therefore. such as the closing of switches or contacts.

There are many types and forms of overload devices. 0 Page 17 ES-15 . Overload devices are incorporated into magnetic controllers. the electromagnet attracts the armature and closes the electrical contacts. When the coil is energized.Electrical Distribution Systems MOTOR CONTROLLERS Figure 10 Typical Three-Phase Magnetic Controller A magnetic contactor (Figure 11) is a device operated by an electromagnet. The following types of overload devices are commonly used in motor-control equipment. The magnetic contactor consists of an electromagnet and a movable iron armature on which movable and stationary contacts are mounted. Rev. When there is no current flow through the electromagnetic coil. Fuses Thermal overloads Magnetic overloads The thermal overload device is shown in Figure 10. the armature is held away by a spring. These overload devices protect the motor from overcurrent conditions that would be extremely harmful.

closing the M and Ma contacts. Figure 12 LVP Controller ES-15 Page 18 Rev. low-voltage release (LVR). LVP Controller Operation: 1. shunting the open start switch. because the Ma contact remains closed.MOTOR CONTROLLERS Electrical Distribution Systems Figure 11 Magnetic Contactor Assembly Motor Controller Types and Operation Within the two basic categories of motor controllers. the circuit will remain complete. there are three major types of AC acrossthe-line controllers in use today. Push the START button. and low-voltage release effect (LVRE) controllers. There are low-voltage protection (LVP). When the START button is released. 0 . which energizes contactor coil M. The main purpose of an LVP controller is to de-energize the motor in a low voltage condition and keep it from re-starting automatically upon return of normal voltage (Figure 12).

When normal voltage is restored. The START button must then be pushed to restart the motor. This type of controller is of the manual variety and is found mostly on small loads that must start automatically upon restoration of voltage (Figure 14). The purpose of the LVR controller is to de-energize the motor in a low voltage condition and restart the motor when Figure 13 LVR Controller normal voltage is restored. closing the M contacts and starting the motor. There are many automatic control functions that can be incorporated into these types of controllers. An LVRE controller may or may not contain overloads. which then opens the M and Ma contacts. If overloads are used. The LVRE controller maintains the motor across the line at all times. LVR Controller Operation: 1. closing the M contacts and restarting the motor.Electrical Distribution Systems MOTOR CONTROLLERS 2. 2.. Figure 14 LVRE Controller The motor controllers that have been discussed are very basic. but they are beyond the scope of this text. This type of controller (Figure 13) is used primarily on small and/or critical loads (e. When a low voltage condition occurs. Depressing the STOP button deenergizes the M coil. the M coil will drop out at some pre-determined value of voltage. they will be placed in the lines to the load. the M coil drops out.g. 3. Rev. the M coil is again energized. cooling water pumps required for safety-related equipment). Place the START switch in Run which energizes coil M. 0 Page 19 ES-15 . opening the M contacts and de-energizing the motor. and the M and Ma contacts will open. When a low voltage condition occurs.

MOTOR CONTROLLERS Electrical Distribution Systems Summary The important information contained in this chapter is summarized below.fuses. Motor Controllers Summary Motor controller .controls and protects the operation of a motor Controller’s protective features . and magnetic overloads LVP .maintains motor across the line at all times ES-15 Page 20 Rev. 0 .de-energizes motor on low voltage and restarts when the voltage is restored to normal LVRE .de-energizes motor on low voltage and keeps it from automatically restarting LVR . thermal overloads.

Neutral h. Ground e. The NEC Handbook is the primary source of much of the material presented in this chapter and may serve as a ready reference for specific questions not covered in this fundamental discussion. Ground voltage f. the recognized guide is the National Electrical Code Handbook (NEC). Rev. for a day-to-day practical guide for noncritical installations. 3-wire. Ampacity b. EO 1. DESCRIBE the purpose of the following power distribution schemes. 4-wire. three-phase Delta system c.Electrical Distribution Systems WIRING SCHEMES AND GROUNDING WIRING SCHEMES AND GROUNDING Nuclear facilities rely on standardized wiring schemes to provide both singlephase and three-phase power distribution systems and protective grounds to insure safe operation. 3-wire. Conductor d.9 DEFINE the following terms as they apply to wiring schemes used in power distribution systems: a. Leg g. 0 Page 21 ES-15 . 4-wire.11 Introduction Many advisory boards exist to insure the standardization of electrical installations in accordance with accepted designs and safe practices. These standards are utilized by the Department of Energy and the nuclear industry. Bond c. Phase voltage DESCRIBE the two methods of connecting singlephase loads to a three-phase power source. three-phase Delta system d. However.10 EO 1. a. three-phase Wye system EO 1. published by the National Fire Protection Association and endorsed by ANSI. single-phase Edison system b. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) are two advisory boards that have published numerous standards.

a current-carrying conductor normally tied to ground so that the electrical potential is zero. cable. Bond .WIRING SCHEMES AND GROUNDING Electrical Distribution Systems Terminology To understand wiring schemes used in power distribution systems.the voltage between any given conductor and any point at ground potential. or substance capable of carrying an electrical current. Basically. between a circuit or piece of equipment and the earth. The diagram shown in Figure 15 illustrates these connections. Conductor . Ground .a current-carrying conductor intended to deliver power to or from a load normally at an electrical potential other than ground.the permanent joining of metallic parts or circuits assuring electrical continuity and capacity to safely conduct any current likely to be imposed. Single-Phase Power The source of single-phase (1φ) power in all facilities is by generation from a single-phase generator or by utilization of one phase of a three-phase (3φ) power source. Ground voltage . a place of zero electrical potential. therefore. or some body serving as earth. Neutral .a conducting connection.any wire. a 3φ power source is convenient and practical to use as a source of single-phase power. Ampacity . whether intentional or accidental. Phase voltage . ES-15 Page 22 Rev. Leg .the greatest root mean square (effective) difference of potential between any two legs of the circuit. 0 .the current in amperes that a conductor can carry continuously under the conditions of use without exceeding its temperature rating. Single-phase loads can be connected to three-phase systems utilizing two methods. you must be familiar with the following terms. each phase of the 3φ distribution system is a single-phase generator electrically spaced 120 degrees from the other two.

single-phase Edison system. The only approved method of wiring single-phase power is the scheme commonly referred to as the 3-wire. allows several voltage options depending on whether the source three-phase system is a delta or wye configuration. The remaining scheme (Figure 15B) connects the single-phase load between any two legs of the three-phase source and is referred to as a phase-to-phase connection. The illustration in Figure 16 depicts the use of a centertapped transformer. The choice of schemes. providing half voltage (120 V) connections on either side or full voltage (240 V) across both sides. with the center tap grounded. This will be discussed in the three-phase segment of this chapter. Rev. 0 Page 23 ES-15 .Electrical Distribution Systems WIRING SCHEMES AND GROUNDING Figure 15 Three-Phase To Single-Phase Connections The first scheme (Figure 15A) provides for the connection of the load from a phase leg to any ground point and is referred to as a phase-to-ground scheme. phase-to phase or phase-toground.

only the secondary side of the transformer and its connected load need to be studied. and the grounded neutral will carry no current. and the uninsulated conductor is again bonded to the grounded center tap. Three-Phase Wiring Schemes Unlike the single-phase wiring scheme that must make a provision for a neutral leg and separate ground. The diagram in Figure 17 depicts the two methods of connecting the Delta secondary. the insulated conductors are connected across the full winding of the transformer. 3-Wire. The remaining uninsulated conductor will serve as a safety ground and will be bonded to the ground point of the system. 0 . ES-15 Page 24 Rev. all 3. or device. If the conductor is a current-carrying leg or neutral leg. No current would be carried on the ground unless a fault occurred in the system. In a balanced system. However. In the case of either an unbalanced load or a fault in the system. in the distribution system. in which case the current would flow safely to ground.WIRING SCHEMES AND GROUNDING Electrical Distribution Systems Figure 16 3-Wire Edison Scheme The physical connections to the transformer secondary involve two insulated conductors and one bare conductor. Three-Phase Delta System The simplest three-phase system is the 3-wire Delta configuration.and 4-wire. In the full voltage system (240 V). In the case of half voltage (120 V) use. all currents will flow on the insulated conductors. the uninsulated conductor will be bonded to each device in the system for safety. the bare conductor will carry current. but the potential will remain at zero volts because it is tied to the ground point. As in the case of the half voltage system. acting only in a ground capacity. and the safety ground will be bonded to each junction box. As with the previous single-phase discussion. the three-phase system needs neither a separate neutral nor a ground to operate safely. to prevent any unsafe condition. In all cases. three-phase systems can include an effective ground path. normally used for transmission of power in the intermediate voltage class from approximately 15. the intended path of the current is from the supply leg through the load and back to the source on the neutral leg. 3 wires will be presented to the load terminals.000 volts to 600 volts. the conductor will be insulated.

The corner-grounded phase acts in much the same way as the grounded neutral of the singlephase Edison system. but retains a phase-tophase voltage potential. This system is rarely used for low voltage (under 600 V).Electrical Distribution Systems WIRING SCHEMES AND GROUNDING The upper diagram depicts the ungrounded Delta. because of the absence of a safety ground required by many facilities for circuits involving potential worker contact. three-phase Delta system combines the ungrounded Delta discussed above for threephase loads with the convenience of the Edison system for single-phase loads. Each conductor’s ground voltage is equal to the full phase voltage of the system. Rev. 4-Wire. however. 0 Page 25 ES-15 . which effectively lowers one phase’s voltage reference to ground to zero. one side of the Delta has a grounded-neutral conductor connected to a center tap winding on one phase. Three-Phase Delta Scheme used to physically protect the other two phases from accidental grounding or lightning strikes in outdoor settings. The lower diagram shows a ground point affixed to one corner of the Delta. The corner-grounded Delta system has an obvious economy in wiring costs. normally confined to protected environments such as fully enclosed ducts or overhead transmission lines that cannot be reached without extraordinary means. and the grounded phase can be Figure 17 3-Wire. carrying current and maintaining ground potential. As depicted in the example illustration in Figure 18. Three-Phase Delta System The 4-wire.

Notice also that the legs coming from the corners of the Delta would have a normal ungrounded appearance if it were not for the center tap of one phase. In the Wye system. the voltage." Last. This provides the same half. 4-Wire. However. all loads must be carefully balanced on both the single-phase and three-phase legs. Second.WIRING SCHEMES AND GROUNDING Electrical Distribution Systems Figure 18 4-Wire Delta System The single-phase voltage on each side of the half-tap is one-half the voltage available in the normal phase-to-phase relationship. the ground voltage or voltage available from phase to ground is the phase voltage divided by 1.or full-voltage arrangement seen in the normal Edison scheme with a grounded neutral. First. the "high leg" is never used as a single-phase source because no ground or grounded neutral exists for this circuit. 0 . at any given location in the system. there are several strict precautions that must be observed in the operation of this system. the phase voltage." or "bastard voltage.73. with the one exception of one phase of the corner-grounded Delta. and the ground voltage of the three-phase systems have been equal. Thus. either three-phase power at full voltage or single-phase power with half or full voltage is equally possible. because the voltage between one leg and the grounded neutral is considerably higher than the rest of the single-phase system. ES-15 Page 26 Rev. Three-Phase Wye System Until now. a measurement between the neutral and the phase must be taken to identify the "high leg. The Wye system has completely different voltage characteristics from the Delta system.

This is done to avoid either an over-current condition if a fault is present or the operation of single-phase loads at reduced voltage if the loads become severely unbalanced by accidental interruption. a full-voltage single-phase circuit between any two phase legs. some precautions must be taken when balancing the single-phase loads in the system. 0 Page 27 ES-15 . one of the following is available: a reducedvoltage single phase between a phase leg and the neutral. Summary The important information in this chapter is summarized on the following page. Three-Phase Wye System As with all other grounded systems. Figure 19 4-Wire. bonds are established between the grounded neutral and all components of the system. This system is recognized as the safest possible multi-purpose distribution system for low voltage and is commonly seen in the 208/120-volt range in many facilities. Rev. extends three current-carrying insulated conductors and an insulated grounded neutral to the loads. or a full-voltage three-phase power. Depending on the selection of conductors. or center-grounded Wye as it is commonly referred to. an example of the Wye system. Again.Electrical Distribution Systems WIRING SCHEMES AND GROUNDING In Figure 19.73 times the highest phase ampacity. The full load ampacity of the neutral must be sized to 1.

000 volts to 600 volts 4-wire.a current-carrying conductor intended to deliver power to or from a load normally at an electrical potential other than ground Phase voltage .the safest possible multi-purpose distribution system for low voltage ES-15 Page 28 Rev. three-phase Delta system . single-phase Edison system .combines the ungrounded Delta for threephase loads with the convenience of the Edison system for single-phase loads 4-wire. cable.a conducting connection between a circuit or piece of equipment and the earth.the greatest root mean square (effective) difference of potential between any two legs of the circuit Two methods to connect single-phase loads to a three-phase system are: Phase-to-phase Phase-to-ground The purposes of the following wiring schemes are: 3-wire.WIRING SCHEMES AND GROUNDING Electrical Distribution Systems Wiring Schemes And Grounding Summary Terminology Ampacity . or some body serving as earth Ground voltage .a current-carrying conductor intended to deliver power to or from a load Neutral . 0 .the only approved method of wiring singlephase power 3-wire. three-phase Wye system .permanent joining of metallic parts or circuits assuring electrical continuity Conductor .normally used for transmission of power in the intermediate voltage class from approximately 15.current-carrying capacity of a conductor in amperes Bond .any wire.the voltage between any given conductor and any point at ground potential Leg . three-phase Delta system . or substance capable of carrying an electrical current Ground .

and WSRC. Preparing activity: DOE .NE-73 Project Number 6910-0017/4 Rev. ORAU. REECo.Electrical Distribution Systems WIRING SCHEMES AND GROUNDING end of text. CONCLUDING MATERIAL Review activities: DOE . EG&G Idaho. LANL.ANL-W. LLNL. EG&G Mound. WHC. MMES. EG&G Rocky Flats. BNL. WEMCO. 0 Page 29 ES-15 . WINCO.

WIRING SCHEMES AND GROUNDING Electrical Distribution Systems Intentionally Left Blank ES-15 Page 30 Rev. 0 .