Jean-Claude VEILHAN

The Rules of Musical Interpretation in the Baroque Era
(1 7th - i8th centuries)
common to all instruments

According to BACH, BROSSARD, COUPERIN, ,, HOTTE TERRE, MONTÉCLAIR, QUANTZ, RAMEAU -d'ALEMBERT, ROUSSEAU, etc.

E1

ALPHONSE LEDUC - PARIS _1 75 , rue Saint- Honoré
Réf.: UN

VI

Contents
PREFACE
IX

METRICAL SIGNS AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS Metres of four beats Metres of two beats Metres of three beats Lesson on every variety of metre (Montéclair) PHRASING Articulatory silences Detached notes Slurs
Complete indication of slurs, 15; Complete or partial absence of slurs: should they be added, 16 11 13 1

^i
1 3 6
10

^
C

o


e

e^

F.

i.^
Unequal notes
Different degrees of inequality, 22; Reversed inequality, 23; Table for unequalising values in the principal metres, according to Cajon and Hotteterre, 24; Exceptions to the rule of inequality, 25 20

Dbuble-dotted notes
Different instances of double-dotted notes, 27; Exceptions to the rule of double-dotted notes, 31

-

27

Rubato

32

EMBELLISHMENT GRACE NOTES
Accent, 34; Chute (Fall), 34; Coulade (Run), 35; Coulé (Passing appoggiatura), 35; Flattement (Finger vibrato), 36; Pincé (Mordent, Schneller), 37; Port-de-voix (Appoggiatura), 38; Son enflé (Messa di voce), 42; Tour de gosier (Turn, Gruppetto, Doublé, Circolo mezzo, Double cadence), 43; Trill (Shake, Cadence, Battement), 44; Vibrato, 47 33

Two examples of pieces with grace notes added by their composers ORNAMENTS French ornamentation
A.L. - 25.732

47 49

50
L,,

^=c

VII German ornamentation Italian ornamentation The cadenza (improvised on a pedal-point) 51 55 58

THE VARIOUS TYPES OF ADAGIO AND ALLEGRO CLASSIFICATION — TEMPO — CHARACTER Classification of tempo indications according to Marpurg Classification of tempo indications with their metronomic values according to Quantz Characteristics of the various tempi according to Brossard and Rousseau 60 60 61 62/63

OF THE MANNER IN WHICH THE ADAGIO SHOULD BE PLAYED (Quantz) ...... 64 OF THE MANNER IN WHICH THE ALLEGRO SHOULD BE PLAYED (Quanti) ..... 67 CHARACTER AND TEMPO OF THE VARIOUS MOVEMENTS AIRS AND DANCES
A llemande, 70; Aria, 71; Ariette, 72; Bourrée, 72; Branle, 72; Canaries, 73; Chaconne, 74; Contredanse, 75; Cotillon, 75; Courante, 75; Entrée, 76; Forlane, 76; Furie, 77; Gaillarde, 77; Gavotte, 78; Gigue, 79; Loure, 80; March, 81; Minuet, 81; Musette, 83; Overture, 84; Passacaglia, 85; Passepied, 86; Pastorale, 87; Pav an e, 88; Polonaise, 88; Prelude, 89; Rigaudon, 90; Rondeau, 91; Saltarello, 91; Sarabande, 92; Siciliana, 92; Tambourin, 93; Villane ll e, 94

70

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS CITED INDEX OF TERMS, SUBJECTS AND AUTHORITIES CITED INDEX OF MUSIC EXAMPLES (by subject and composer)

95 96 99

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But in fact. there was not always unanimity over ce rt ain points of interpretation: where there is disagreement I cite the general prevailing opinion in an objective way. used in its most flexible an d general sense. for the musical era known as the Baroque. however. the date of their works is not restated at each quotation. In 1775 Haydn was forty-three.L. and it is this same good taste that in the long run remains the sole criterion for expressing a musical discourse that is at once both alive and sensitive. Corelli. it is the job of the musician to create his own interpretation. only a few years or decades after their graves had been freshly dug? Indeed since 1 750 (the year of J. and especially over the past few years. Mozart nineteen. See the Bibliography. There is not just one possible interpretation. All quotations in this work are printed in italics. Bach's death). the divergent views put forward at the time. Even within the period itself. not an exhumation! Theoreticians and musicians of the period often tried to lay down these rules in treatises so as to convey them more easily to students and music lovers. 95. must be taken to indicate and encompass. conventions an d inventions which make up `good taste'. the Baroque era had been in decline. Freedom of choice. For it is essential to speak about rules. adding. confined ourselves to the principal rules (common to singers an d instrumentalists of all kinds) which constitute a set of clues enabling us to decipher and complete the outline that a score of this period generally represents.IX PREFACE What would Lully. knowing full well that a book of the present size cannot hope to be complete (a totally comprehensive study would take up dozens of volumes!). Nowadays. Beethoven five years old: another musical world had decisively eclipsed the preceding one. Veilhan A.13. We are witnessing a true return to the sources. if the performance of their works could already be described as "appalling" in 1775. This book is simply a compilation from the p ri ncipal contemporary treatises (chiefly those published in French) in which the most significant definitions and opinions have been selected in such a way as to present today's reader—as far as is possible—with a synthesis of this famous `good taste' in interpretation. indeed. they constituted the very musical and social air they breathed. effects. The dawn of Classicism was beginning to be clearly visible. concepts and instruments had undergone a radical development. what we are concerned with is a body of traditions. however. Couperin and Rameau be saying today.732 . It is this state of awareness we must seek if we want to make the music of our predecessors live again in the present with a true sense of continuity: a resurrection. where necessary. the old forms. And it is all this that the qualificative term rules.25. p. S. In the last reso rt . Formerly rules were passed on from master to pupil. C. J. principles. . must always remain within the limits of the style and practice of the time. Certain writers being quoted more than once. but many. The word may seem didactic and suggestive of fixed precepts. research into specific periods can guarantee greater fidelity to authentic interpretation. Even though certain traditions persisted. N. the instruments and the rules of the past. then. and thus to help them in avoiding inconsistencies of style. We have.

.1r1111111•1111.• RIM rrlr11MM.+rrlrM•rrlrrOMrr .---. • .11s MIMI OM ---r .25.•„ AM:AMII= MI MN NM 1..rlNBNIN• sss ./s rrlrrlMINIM= —. _ . sum rw•••••s SW' V rrr^^l>♦or rrrrr^^ r MOM ea sour .IIIrO1s>L •rrr* •iMMIE= 11/.1 Metrical Signs and Their CharacteristicsThe most perplexing thing when one starts beating time is the number of signs which distinguish its different species.^^. normally. Allemandes..rs=111111r s rrrr•WI/O! ^rr^. .. ) For instrumental music it is suitable in Preludes or first movements of Sonatas.rr^ r^^ Hotteterre: The metre of four slow beats is indicated by a C (.__ 111/71M ISM_. since the same species is sometimes very fast and sometimes very slaw.11 -AI IIIIIIIIIIIMIrIMI. BARSANTI (1724) . Fuguc etc. See the table of `unequal' values in the principal metres on p.. but not really in `Airs de ballet': A. (Marpurg) Allegro: F.) It is taken in 4 and..../MO IMMa WM NM NM 411•1111. very slowly ( .a MIMI MN MOMS r D L'Affilard: The measure of four slow beats is shown by a C: ./11P"111_ MIP"./ •-a NMr•••s rILA rs •sI ^ ILlrt MOM • ^I rll s•=rM.^rrr^^^ . . This metre is used only in fugues and counterpoint.. In these definitions one often finds the terms `slow' and `light' which correspond roughly to the tempo indications `lento' and `allegro'.I AMINO 011 NMI MIMI JIM r . (Hotteterre) This chapter gives some of the p ri ncipal contemporary definitions of the various metrical signs used. .. METRES OF FOUR BEATS This relatively little used metre has four beats to the bar.. 24.B..rrrrLt a. In all metres it would be a very good idea to indicate the tempo as the Italians nearly always do. the unit is the half note. ) It is used both in vocal and instrumental music (.1L.732 . Adagios.l=r11/M 1111111111-NIMrr113rr 1. -=MOW ---. N. . along with the characteristics of each.. — —s— l !— 1111r71.L.

parallel to the preceding (4) metre (.. but lion) half as fast again.L.4 eighth note triplet groups to the bar. each beat having three crotchets or the equivalent: t I-011s 11111111••• NM1111•111=111111MMI.R V '10•11111•1111M^^ ^^^^. ) is similarly taken in 4. or the equivalent.70•1 ^ . but of a very light character: 'S. _^^^^^s— t 12 8 The metre 8 . (Brossard) ^ ^ L'Affilard: This metre (. The sign 4 was hardly in use at this time. However. it is often used by the Italians for tender and affectionate feelings though it will then carry the words adagio affettuoso or some other verbal indication.a~emme w— _. (2) That is to say. (Choquel) flag Z^r tig L'Affilard: This metre is shown by a 12 and a 4 and is performed with four beats to the bar. people used the expedient of beating in 4. 1. P • A.. .. ) has four beats. each with` six subdivisions. ( This compound metre ) is exactly right for spirited and lively kinds of expression. which the 16 Italians describe with the word prestissimo.. but gravely.a •t1IIMMIINNI • =Y s ••. There are three quavers.r . op. since on its own it denotes gaiety. (Brossard) 5101 (1) That is to say.2 Prelude from a Sonata b y Signor CORELLI. affectionate kinds of expression.^^^ M ^I^^^^^^^1^t /.B. but as this was found too complicated..1111111B ^ MIN IBM =1111•••• ^^^^^^^^^I 5D—_ a — arm.r1111•11••••• .732 i• `^ • x• ^ ^-^ '~ -K $^ ^- ^ ^ - -' a^. __`'111 .25. .._^IIMS 4•11. (This metre) is suitable for tender.iINNIIIII'f IfXIMINIM WM JINN MI . and sometimes for lively and animated kinds.. . N.111r »MIAOW 1•1/ .. (Brossard) In former times this sort of metre was performed with two beats to the bar. to each beat.111 /^^^ 12 This compound metre (2) is suitable for extremely lively and rapid music. 4 sixteenth note triplet groups to the bar. it Thus the sign C alone does not suffice to indicate the tempo: the real determining factor is the character of the piece at the head of which it is placed. 5 Allemande from the same Largo Allegro 15.

s•s••••s iii•MINI .25. and has 4 beats to the bar: s••/. by Sign' CORELLI.. this last having two light beats. op. and should be performed twice as fast as when the C has no line. ) This should change absolutely nothing. I. hence 12 semiquavers. .••s • • •IMINII0 MOM MIS 1=III MOO '. 5 Tempo di Cappella Tempo di Gavotta ( han .11s a--•••s MU= IN JOB MIMI •ss••••••s••• ow.. This sort of time is called: alla breve or alla cappella. p..< U' .732 . when the C has a line through it one must be sure to observe that this line means the notes will be given a different value. The Italians only use it in what they call tempo di gavotta. de Lulli used it in his operas pretty well as the equivalent of plain duple time.L.. 1st book. ^ ••s••••••s. by Sign' STUK..••••• •1•1•.tons. and tempo di cappella or tempo alla breve.3 Hotteterre: A famous composer of our times has introduced a metre of 16. either in the pulse of the metre or in the manner of playing the quavers.•IIM• . or a metre of two beats. It is made up of (the value of) 4 dotted quavers. (Quantz) — (See also note (1) . WNW . 29) It must be noted that this metre (which the author calls quadruple time with a light beat) may equally well be taken in a slow duple time (.. poursui . % which is taken in two spirited beats (Denis) In a four-beat metre. chan -tons les doux trans-ports Ist extract from the opera Alceste (Lully) 2nd extract from the opera Armide (Lully) 2 slow beats 4 light beats Quickly Poursuivons. as it were.UMW METRES OF TWO BEATS The metre of 2 beats comprises: 1) 2 slow beats shown by Q' 2) 2 light beats shown by a 2 3) 2 lively beats shown by a 4) 2 very fast beats shown by a 8 5) 2 extremely fast beats shown by a ló 6) 4 which is taken in two slow beats 7) finally.. we are referring to a harpsichord piece by Mr. Couperin.MIMI. (Cajon) Hotteterre: Normally the pulse is 4 light beats or 2 slow ones. since the different ways of beating do not change its nature. Mr. ^ « s•• .eons jusqu'au trépas A.s V• 1E= a v ." Ma M.

.. MOM s -AM Min •11 SI -. Gavottes. .11NWII•.' >^as OM .. an exceedingly fast tempo is indicated ( 1 ).s.. If it is used in slow pieces. in the Entrées of ballets. It is found at the beginnings of Opera overtures.^ s -••••. 1 . Rigaudons.. I•11.. metre is in reality that of C divided into two. ... If you think about it.732 i ^ E Ÿ.r II -Alls t1INIIINI. •a MAW La rtar AM MENDE-MO /MI .. ) The metre is taken in 2 beats.a..25.^ ^^l V%i: >11•11La/r s Qu'à vo -tre gloi -------tout cons . Marches. Alm= 1111ss •••••• ss•s Or •M• a From a Sonata by Sig r Masciti -F/Mil ED MIME ME S.411 r>•••1 aa\.NNI. It is suited to light and `piqué' (spiccato) airs. (. A.a.. (Marpurg) There are two sorts of tempo in duple time: sometimes slow. it is really no more than light quadruple time cut in half: From the 1st Cantata by Mr. which we are about to look at. there should be a clear indication of the fact.. Cotillons.4 It may be concluded that this metre is mid-way between quadruple time shown by a C and duple time shown by a plain 2. A= 11•7IMINMOI' NI= + . (Hotteterre) 2 or 2 I The sign for this metre is 2..^^. Bourrées. etc. but should be moderately paced. WINN • •M1E1E1 4111•11•10 NMI ^a^a^ March from the same Bourrée from the same Gavotte from the opera Roland (Lully) Rigaudon from L'Europe Galante (Campra) + The speed of this type of metre is neither too slow nor too fast. Clérambault IAA sMION/1111•11t . .L. (Choquel) cP* p Hotteterre: This metre (.a t/.W-. . with the quavers changed into crotchets: Overture from the opera Phaéton (Lully) Entrée from the same opera 2 rG rr r .'>./M• MINIM .••11 .1•IMI.W. MI ^I t^. MIN .. Branles. .re (1) Marpurg applies this same rule to the 4 metre. (Câjon) When the words alla cappella or alla breve appear alongside the time signature.11118s . sometimes extremely fast.t ••••-•11•1ft. It is found more in cantatas and sonatas than in motets or operas. (Choquel) Hotteterre: This metre has two light beats. .•1=• AM =II MI NM MIN ^ ^•. ) is normally lively and `piqué' (spiccato).pi .Mr •1•11 MI MEE INN WI VIM OM MIN. .-4=1t. Commonly it is indicated merely by a plain 2 ( . !MIR Da. Moreover it can be said that th.at01111atat.^^ . ) It is not known in Italian music.WON An .i."\ i-I -t:i.a.a< ^. ^r ^.

.^. .1• •A.25.^. Marais.•.MEZIN•l•^^^r•7f•^^r_J_•_r^^r•^^^••^fa.. from Roland (Lully) Forlane. adding: this metre is shown by a 4 and an 8 and is taken in 2 very fast beats.•• rra t•• 2 8 One might also use 8 metre which ( ./+/•^r••.••_ •••s .••••.•.1. A. buoyant airs are so written ( . and on the.. .1111•11M-.. ) would be taken in one very light beat. = rAt/IBr••rrwAIMIIr•I= •r•r•••J^Srf• t !7r•1•t•11•r. It is rarely found in Italian music: Reprise from the Overture to Armide (Lully) Loure: this is from Thétis (Lully) ^ M 11s . 1•1•1..iratrar MII•raa .s I MS/NMI •s = NEE r•. however one seldom sees a slow air composed in this metre.•••'. ) It is used in the reprises of Opera overtures. ) Some call it 'the metre of six slow beats' (1) . de Lulli.r 5 4 8 Hotteterre: Some composers have indicated it (4 metre) in this way: Sailors'air: Mr. from Le Triomphe de l'Amour (Lully) (1) As.•• /fa r/•. from L Europe Galante (Campra) IMI •^ .. r•^ r•rr. •..t•.Jr••0•1r.11I •I•••• .-ta•__ MIMI .11I.ra OM •••• MEN r•^r•••^ts .— ..i ^r•r.. =SIM r... NO 6 Hotteterre: 4 This metre is nearly always taken in two beats ( .L...rna .111111•• ^^.•v.I•I•• ^ ... This metre would be suitable for certain Tambourins or other tunes of a similar character.. in Loures.. Gigues.••s •s•• s f• MD IN Y ^^^^ ^ ^.__+•—__—S_ _. ./ ..00••. r•^ ^^.•.\•^'t/fa/• Y Y r.^.. from Roland L'Affilard calls this metre: a metre of two rapid beats..••••1t•.rr• ^ •_• .••rMOWS __ NMI SINIMNP71•.^ I/ta+Ct•.•••IIM• "It•\•M^• r•.. L'Affilard...w ^'f^---^• . in some Airs from 'ballets de caractères etc.Jr•^•1111.r. Forlanes. r' ^tr.•rra.111.....rGJr.732 . iY••••••• • al tL^/'11111. atvaIMMa:s.r•rr• 'r•• -AMU rr.^. for example. so that each beat is occupied by a crotchet or its equivalent: •ION•11111.^ -.I i • ^ Air of the zeph yrs. .••••111•1111.. from Alcionne Shepherds' air: Mr.___•. . . •a•••ta Gigue. . ^ f 1 •I ts C^7 I.•I^•='••J_+_ s MN. ^•^^trs1•tr v+. .•r•.. (Hotteterre) Tambourin DENIS ^•el._^. contrary many lively..

and in France quite often. ..r ^. fast pieces. extremely lively. being the second. being the first. it appears in swift... it is particularly suitable for Gigues etc. A. in consequence. (Choquel) (1) That is to say. it is taken at a tolerably fast speed...^± • a.^^.^.^:ras ^i^s..u^ s . L'Affilard tells us that it may be taken in 7ix light i i ^ beats: 4 . plain 3. (2) That is to say.^. (Denis) g Nevertheless.•. but a 6 over 8 suggests a movement twice as fast.- t< >ga -^"^vas 6 Normally this compound time (1) is used for tender. especially when the metre is taken in 2... Denis adds the metres .rs^^.. a weak beat. This compound time (2) is suitable for modes of expression that are lively. . ^..^ s^a^^^^^. . . whether old or new. 4 and . (Saint-Lambert) 6 8 According to the above definition by Saint-Lambert it is clear that normally a 68 indicates a faster speed than a .s¢Ys ^^ ^.. amongst all composers.. two quarter note tri p let groups to the bar.^.... and it is composed with a strong beat. two eighth note triplet groups to the bar. yet it is the one in which indication of the various kinds of pulses by special signs or characters has been the most neglected. and $ which were not in widespread use in 4 France.. only four characters or signs are found—namely 2.. . or again major triple..^^ ^^^ r.^. but chiefly in Cantatas and Sonatas...nr ^..^ ^ ^r s ^r.L. Hotteterre: It is taken in 2 beats ( .. This metre is very much used.Z.s^s^wsrrs^^^.^sq.^ ^^^srsrs^ .^: .. sometimes.rr^^ ^s . NM ..^. and a final 'idle' beat.:.. s^s.^s^.25.^.. because its pulse should be twice as slow as that of ordinary triple time (4). it is cálled double t riple.si^^. (Brossard) r6 16 i^ • METRES OF THREE BEATS I 16 This metre is shown by a 3. ) It is in fairly general use. that is..^. but more commonly it is in two.::^^^ '^.732 ! ..^t .. s ^ O .^.^. The metre in three beats is the most varied..s.:^. . animated and spirited... though very incorrectly.^.r==. affectionate movements.^^^. (Brossard) The sign 6 over 4 decrees a very spirited speed...^.

.111111• I= NMI WIN ALJr1101. the pulse is normally a trifle brisk. . in Sonatas and in Courantes intended for dancing. tender pieces such as Lullabies. Italian Courantes.bics On this particular way of notating 2 Choquel has this to say: Sometimes in this sort of metre.--- Courante by Sig+' Corelli Allegro A. from Phaéton (Lully) Another lullaby. so one should expect to find these (white) quavers elsewhere. 4 3 or 31 1 When triple tizne is written with a 4. this is what Mr. Chaconnes. Plaints. from the opera Persée (Lully) s 111111•111 s11. etc. in France it commonly serves for Chaconnes. Minuets. etc. Graves. affectionate kinds of expression and the pulse should be moderate: neither too fast nor too slow. ) It is used for moving.25.. When it is written with a simple 3. `Airs de bù llet'. white quavers are used so as not to use black quavers when the minims are to be divided in the vocal line. It is taken in 3. (Brossard) Hotteterre: Titis metre is indicated by a 3 or sometimes 4. MINIM * nl Air from the Cantata by Mr.L. Clérambault has done in his Cantata A lphée et Aréthuse .7 Hotteterre: Titis metre is normally taken in three slow beats (. Cantatas. It is used for Passacaglias.732 . Sometimes it is very slow and sometimes very fast.sf• OM MI MINN IMIN•M1••••••=1r1•11/111•111111• s •111 ^^1 Mal 11••=111•01111I I\• t)111s11a11111. it is suitable for tender. Bernier It is also noted in this way: qui tant dc mi sé - ra . Minuets and other spirited and animated dances.: The Sleep of Protée. Passacaglia from the opera Armide (Lully) Sarabande from Issé (Destouches) Slow tempo Solemn tempo Chaconne from Phaéton (Lully) Spirited tempo Demons' Air from Thésée (Lully) Lively Minuet from Roland (Lully) Spirited --. Sarabandes.

parallel to the preceding one (4) ( ) is similarly taken in 3. on account of this great speed and of the difficulty of making three such hurried movements with the hand. It is suitable for buoyant A i rs such as Canaries. three eighth note triplet groups to the bar. as it were. (Denis) This compound time (1) is suitable for tender and affectionate kinds of expression and should be taken at a moderate tempo: neither too slow nor too fast. the metre is again taken in 3. etc. Some composers. op. (Saint-Lambert) Hotteterre: This metre. but more often (1) That is to say. in the same way as the ordinary triple (4) or even the major triple (2). (Brossard) Montéclair: Slow on the second beat The metre 8. etc.25. (Cájon) This compound time (2) is suitable for lively. from op.8 3 8 In pieces having the sign g. have used it for very slow Airs. . . is made up of a dotted crotchet. A. or their equivalent. spirited kinds of expression and should be taken at a lively. . It is taken in one when up to speed. (2) That is to say.. but half as fast again. the metre is customarily taken. spirited pace. however.L. ) is taken in 3 slow beats. three quarter note triplet groups to the bar. Each beat is made up of three quavers.732 . 5 Adagio by the same. with but one to place on each beat. (Brossard) Hotteterre: This metre is taken in 3 beats ( . ) Sometimes it is used in Cantatas. that is to say. Canaries from Isis (Lully) (in one) Passepied from Le Temple de la Paix (Lully) (in one) Vivace by Sig' Corelli. it is then taken in three beats. in one beat only. Passepieds. but since the bar contains only three quavers. it should go twice as fast as the (previous) triple sign (4 metre). which should be fast. !alled minor triple.. very fast: however. 3 (in three) (in one) 9 4 The metre 4 (.

il1 n ^ ^•^^•ii^^ t. _ JIMMINEMII1 1MUM.1/r1MIIIVAiiIT It 1.1/~ MIME 1t •1• tiN1i. 16 (Brossard) Passage-work Hotteterre Briskly (in three) -+ tI I_ ^11iÌ• . i•1-^^^— i.WNi11<)1• ^^i^ ^ i•1^./•t•1^ _a — i-1 RIM Briskly (in three) .7111111• JIM OW t`7 >•i s111s111111M111I•/ GsINIV'1•11s!!i l tJ•INIV AIM= Ilia M11.IIl^ I W 1.. In France it has only been in general use for a short time. and above all in Gigues.1^11•` ^I^iiitA^ -^i--^l^^^Ì^• I1IIIIIIIIr i NM MP • /^. 1st Cantata by Mr. equal semiquavers (in three.=. /NM ^^ ^•=^/^1•^^r•^ NM ^1^ MUM 6 This compound time (2) is for varieties of movement and expression of the greatest 16 rapidity: what the Italians describe with the word prestissimo.per-tons l'A .I f. INN ANNI •i<) MINIM Nt1 ^1^•N a•^1iN 1^^1•s •1111M irN1•1 1111Y1•111•111111i.iIIIIIP7 .1=0 mil /1J• ../ .. (3) That is to say.01e116.7S7 a. ai /^111fi AS•• /M^li••i M /r^A•^•r 1^^i^1i^^1^li•i s t^•Ir^^i —1 V:+ N ii^ ^ •=r^^1•^i^^^^i^•i^ti^i^li^^-.25.: f:/1IIMMr7 7IIIMMINMI i^ MS _ ^ /.111•11-4s 111rIMI11•1tiM1111•r 1111101•1s1111s1 111s WM./if. 9 This compound time (3) is really for very fast and very swift kinds of expression.r•i^1^^ a a (1) That is to say.r./ s1^/N1i. ^^// • .)1t11•tIJ /Il /J• ./ 1J^r/1^II lt♦ l7r1^I ^)^* + AII[/1 _ ./ D INNS /Jr^.• ^' I W en" t á••••• ^ Jr.101111•1 =M This air may also be sung at a slow and tender pace. Finally let us mention three rarer metres given by Hotteterre and Brossard: 3 This compound time (1) is suitable for extremely lively and exceedingly rapid music.9 in Sonatas. (2) That is to say. 11•1111i1I/ .•=UMNP.1.. 16 (Brossard) Passage-work Hotteterre Jestingly (in one) ^ V— . three sixteenth note triplet groups to the bar./•/i.4•111.111111111P••.111/7J1=11 NMI MIS EMU •J•'bi•41•111s1•1•110•J111•1.•MINIi SOINIM \t• i.mour (Hotteterre) Montéclair: Light ^ '/' 1^r. Bernier Gigue by Sigr Masciti Res ._.732 .. one sixteenth note triplet group to the bar. (Brossard) Passage-work Hotteterre Spirited. a a ^^ A.411111tLA=111111111•1111^/^^^i1t /111111 /. .I A lil/ ^ ^/^ /^l^i / ri / 1`^ ti is i lï VI^\ Ir^^^^^i^t.r1/NI•^N ^1t r..1111110.i•illttelr Ls I r11111II.01.i. or better still in one) /• i st ASO 1/7J•IMIir1. two sixteenth note triplet groups to the bar.^^ I...1•11111•111111t1 >!^ MUM./ .L.J /If -.w^.i111iINiJ M •^•^U1/^.-. .^tr^.

r r • • d aalrc Ion. il•aral•ti pm* wommisa1•al J71r.011111sssss ^!C srssmi AM IR7 r • f .---. imm'm••s•sef•mrss. Principes de musique (1736) rPe't'Il stir 'll^tcS tt . s #.m.4•40 a ir^^^lpl •.41•••sias. ../ a s all.^^ IOWA d aItur lent j t cri 1• :•a•11 ammo.1 a'aPaa ^ ' a^aa -•/ A I ra^rlsaa.L rc a7l D•^]IÓ r + a[^7a*: 1.. /.wa^r1 aAilrs.l•r.r. rr^i•^. lf.rNr •allil. MU 10.. . .srlrir^s^ wr^^f•ls^4^-! WET l^rratal•^msa# se/as .if/s1a^•^`. Sotr...r7r =NO a•^ I rt^^ ^= a r^^aa^^..r v s &hers va/e.t l. e.nnjp.•NaA arsarllrLrr... •. It 11 •a.•1r•.r^11••staa•rrs^Ri^^s•0 s r..rt•1 afar:ilmsr s:: at• NIP l4  riDrYs WIN aatu OLJNalaaiv asasr.t •r.^s1. . Ma W111111101qf ism I:fom1111111q•r a.fclnt" A tl/Mir~ Mina ring slam.•s.^ltMm^mr a Mrs t•!amaa•arspTam^:U 1a/'+roa =Mom arli^ti•a rla a sttE ar^ 7l111 s•lwlq••aq ••1 • s^^ri>iÌ11^•1as^^•^ sarws •:wr. ^^^a^. •'^naar•rsar ^J7irlt ^aa la•a•l•a••al•^•r^Te7•r^1• 1.s.. ^^r^ ^> •1 sa A iro & itnta • a^s .f.:11•r 1•81:711•11•111111r Saws worm or= M ss r1•••••1114/111MINI •Ii :7 Jaltal.i^^^"I ^ asafaal SIM IMO loam.afa. -.e^rcf•O^t .. ^sm s^ ^.a••ar 1. 1 .10 LESSON ON EVER Y VARIETY OF METRE Montéclair. r ^ \V Iron aMaa..•r .T Lan Imo sal. J' • t.11^j 7e ••••••0•• APR* ••••••••/'^tra^s0tow/••s•a^. •In ••s.aP.s . ar 11 ^^ s r• ^^rti•^rrt7ar aps••a•laila•:•lt-. .^al•^ o.^ts. 11. • a • ----^ d c>ras á^tnr • trs al♦ IBM ai. A aamaYaa..lÌ.a^ A.11111•1111•81 I laa _1•11WI•8•IS WM.als4sa• 'mamas aaaafsslh•ass••.'^^ 1. It .r.^•l wrr^u /a^c.4.l••r•1a•i C...tN•11 _r711111s01.^. ^fl aa/a• m aw •^^^fl a1 •i• ra>ra.r r arET Aim s•a...rf rt ^l• as ITV as a••••111 t`..ti7r MANI ^irlwc^-Y •aarota••a••aa•t^•^aCUMMINS= Sawr a.^ ^`i•lalarmualsrYar.+ • aas•7•7•wII7•INGII•t s1•a•7 f/ alVIINr eaa•ael•'alc.0".^ . aR• Yi"1_:1 a...^aas• 1111• ••••-: 1tNI•r• 11t . A uabr In.•aaaas •••sarlsl•lrlr.Y411•111s .faLd.a 5 ^ e íir É^..•ll••. •••ra•a•a••a1a••alla•1•an MINI mMy^• l•r••• ia•• s1••• ••M•a lb •:i • Am ^ ^^í.1^aaaar• IMP A main. -AM.>A f atalleMH11•MliatrtnleaAS ensIMÏri now I r e a Alma ssírr aIr/MIIINl••••t.IIiYs1ss••s1an•• f•.11r art I aU L•.r.^7 AIst• -I^aa7•r7t axt71 r a.Y^• ^aa1 sdt' 1aMr/ a•1r^••A•^f• ^^a>.wa• s•sma^mmo J Amax arnr 017 s •!^ a ltt yt a ts a••••• mow 11114111sM•1r•11•11111111.ga _ 1 A 111I ' V r a1 *! . • NO.aa '! 0^an•••ll^.. axa^a a e^r... a4sltrr :OM1P0JtG rsuux ra7AipOJet .71M •..Arm ^ áruarfsn>. ^ ime ^^ rvrawrof ^ a+rr s ^ rra s^^ aAi^ rN ^r-s^a>♦.u. t Jlaell•w11••.^^s/^•f^1^^^•^s• t ra^••^•i 117•Aa^•l^r...^rw s•sa í twrl*ma.7.rw.alr•a•• 6 ....- ^aa!•raf•^ • a••' a w.la ^ ILar'u^im ^s alaT• r.7•a^afA maim a+. ^ d 1lMrJ s'77G^ 1111^!' d MN /3.efJf• a1._^ une fors 1t[^ in: vit*.err..^l a^ . /Carla I as• ^•laY r•l/a amp ass r. tal =UMW NM MI hamorlF t IN ì e i/at/ ONS mom r sa. ammo Iils Isams.^'^t/at .^ de/flexure.4 IRAN' r.^rl^k^lr^^f.:^ (. a -.•roas^•s^L f.a. emu r i J /'i^ .`:a••s >tsr afta..a^ ^s^ srara•l^ f^'7t< aal SIM= ^ Ole :.•/am. s•1 1/.ttt C •..1111111:msm`r i8. A! A .r.rrtlQz .^wtlr^.lr.r S •J6N>/'Q . _ -.r -+wsa. sr• al are asrlrMI Wee s• a+ wir . E.25. allo.alaa/ a•rl1••••at••^aaa•la[ •sa•saar.a y.r.L. • err • A al •.ar r a+Ll ari ^. . .i•aa••^I ^isf• -^ -... &rrs • ntivrs..artll ^wlrr. ` . SOW= sfsssolums•••• ss rI/Daodemlls&arAril wc I7a1a111al..aa.l^^ eta=•^all . 1.^i•a1• ..a a•=n •l•al a \M ..L.40r as L7a 'aOl • aAraq 7.r r r atr.01••••• ••/htkl ia m : ríi NM ' aY't a:^aa•^l•••ra fa•l^ _.iaw^^a ter.a' .732 ^^^ .111.. ill* .f a'.^nh'tpcprt : r .111. ia/1•• t! a^a1a a•s• s /• •sa•7r•^a•t..u lA^^l♦•l•lts••ü . .. emir alrl• s^ sr_asf•imlr•.^ mil r11• a! s11171.•• ar .nvt i O •!MA Il•aCaRa+r:ltrmr2141< 3^ 90111^a111•• +.`f:r mums .m••sa• UMW .^^^ a oseL . -on ." 01.sr a •INMP•P71Or1 1Asrt a aY allali•rJ12111ax ^^ 4111allb Ammar.a=.uac. e.s r a A bcis tans & crr.e.r♦ .^tilaref sfa•r ^ O s •sasl.al•aarA•ssll•t^tlit.t a^t^aa f a.^ .c.: 1•aa .7stralrs í ma sis rill a••a1•1a1m1••l• t•. -r -im/ eitre eenrPoaer • tn a...a sa.^rs^^G^^nmlár^•^ tt Italft tLi Y V.a•^a.rs^.-.woman!.rutlr .ípi s r s r./ •lIP'mmer.^flRTraa t •r•^r ^.1142111111•111$161•1•30 .r• . (s^srr^a7^t^^r^ i rsi •l•••••t 1•r a••1a•a.•^..e♦.al•s^11^I11 —r. I7trt .+' sé7I ti.'+ aarna•.!•n••a••ISatl/• .r Sr m^rrsY^._: =Se 11r1a(•Mar ar i••ruaaaimw !p _ `.^ ^^iwiiá a^a^ iliiia r ^^^ * iri %i^al^7lt^i^ir^ i^i.l^ WOW a..••• 1i^1•a1•^ ^ ir^ ^•i sa•la••r-'a r • s a••C7a^^a^^r•`...rr i m s^ ss^l '^:Aíl.•la•w sfa+.t%. ^•••1slisr•11 11•!!•1fE• _^^• S ..a• wtrrrl• a.1 ^•.? ^•r! MIaa1•lati :^li•• lam•••R• slara•aaa•a•ra esa. a•^ a••tsp ss^er !^•^ •1s.•rlsfs s• •1•ar ^^n.fs a>ra!.l•:/^^N^^ u^s^mattm^/mrSi ^ limm/ f s /.a.s•im -"mra•aarraras1sw^.1•111.•wlas^I^swsagar>tis.•Ym♦ sLlomo1i<tM. s••rs.

its articulation and are as important as the sounds themselves. As Engramelle makes clear. and a piece of music. depending on the character of the note. ) These silences at the end of each note define. That part which I call sustained or sounding is always at the beginning ofa note. my use of the term articulatory silences in music refers to every such hiatus.L. This is a general principle in old music. In the Sarabande. French or otherwise.. is partly sustained and partl y silent.25. it has a given duration of silence which. or less long. Sustaining will be more. that is practised in performance but is difficult to notate (as are most other rules of interpretation). as it were. unarticulated sounds. these latter apply equally to faster pieces. that is to say. each note should be rounded: for this. j\'otes must not appear to be glued together. from which no note is exempt. gives the total value. but their true lengths and the value of their silences which are integral to them and serve to detach them from one another are not shown by any sign ( ) However in performance they are not all realised in the same manner. Again. broken notes on the other hand are those in which the sustaining is very short. with mordent or without. no matter how beautiful.732 . On the contrary. as a general rule. avoiding any sharp cut-off. ) There are not even strokes ofa trill that are not separated by very short tiny gaps between the rise and fall of the fingers upon the keys. without them these could not be detached from one another.e. it is necessary to soften the attack and release. we give an approximate transcription of the articulatory silences as they ought to be (it will be seen how complicated the notation becomes' In the subsequent Allemande. one distinguishes between sustained notes and those called broken (`tacté'): sustained notes sound for the greater part of their value and their silences are cbnsequently extremely short. A. but without playing in too dry or `piqué' (spiccato) a manner. great or small. . tivithout articulatory silences would have no more grace than a folksong from Poitou played on insipid musettes which produce only blusterous.. so that only the touch (`tact') of the notes is indicated. when added to the sustained sound. the part which I call silent is always at the end. whether trilled. This `aeration' between the notes is called an articulatory silence. notation) indicate very precisely the total value of each note. ) In performance every note... . notes were not held for as long as their notation would subggest.fi 11 Phrasing ARTICULATORY SILENCES — DETACHED NOTES — SLURS — UNEQUAL NOTES — DOUBLE-DOTTED NOTES — RUBATO ARTICULA TOR Y SILENCES In Baroque music. and they are consequently concluded by a considerable silence ( . each note should be shortened by a silence whose length will vary according to the duration of the note and the character of the piece. . To sum up what Engramelle says in another way. and are then shortened in proportion to the duration of the notes. • In the following two pieces one must try to respect an articulatory silence after each note. and the length of the silence will depend on the duration of the sound ( . the player will have the task of determining the silences for himself. (Quantz) Engramelle explains this practice in detail: Notes in the music (i. and even those of equal value are in some cases to be interpreted in quite different ways ( .

p.^Q s !'^t1^a t r17/^^[=.s•1118r ANII•11rt1= ia7r ^.t••. I /W 7V •^1I^Issr 5^^a1^if^I^ls 'IIItM!— WV.war ^^/ • t^.•NU •. =NI'"" •• t• 41•1111 I•1I• s••••s MO I • • • E (1) See double-dotted notes.i•t^^[7 ^ tca^.•s:1t•••• NMI._•—.:=tS^.7O^ .^ 1 MI• dll (3) arm •rrioloww MO= ^70•11:11 11r1MI t: s meow lV.a.25.• sv^t^tt^ s REM WM:.••••R••I• ^ ^ .t .7 • 11111•Irat•• r. .wir7t• s .1 ^ ^ ^ tr r/.. Van HEERDE (1st half of the 18th Century) (Played) (1) ^^s 7tt^^^t•1^ta OEM NMIt IM1* MUMa•^t•t W.1111•7••s •III7=1111•11•ta1 •••• ••••s •••• ^ WWII.12 Sarabande: A. .732 . = M•1111..^^•tt^lr^t••••t• s a^t•^•••••s •^^^1 • IN s rrs^t7 MINI MANI •p.^^s^ t^c•ttr /a ^ •1^^ • a ^ ^ ^^••♦ tt^^ 1•111~as•tr•tl'•tL:^^ IL.••s MOM t^lr^ttt^ MI/NMI a>•1=11 1111s •••••• a..s ls ^t•tt.^ ^^ ^.raa^at/^-^..11•I. 20 (3) See double-dotted notes.•••••s•/ 7•tat^^ vtt^t 7r7^• 1^ •^^•^ n.. MIMI= II•-s• 111.•..110•M ♦7t 1. 3 and 4) A..t^s! \t .L.. MOM 11=1••••1••7••s MI= __+•••• •1=111••• MN NM M MIMI =MINIM __ J1•M•11-s••••t1••ss• s .• c ^ s ^^: ^ ^s •11••s•11•• ^ ••c• •• wv ^rts^ltr^trl•t^7^tt^ ^ r^^crer^c^a^ r=-^:•/aa^^twc-sw^^ ^^t^r:-rti^ ^ cMMI•a•s ^^•1^^ s IVY a••c^Itl1•1•7ss=7s 1/.7t^t. DEMOIVRE (1st half of the 18th Century) =11111•111MM•..7••1NIIIs •INNIIIIIMIIII/M1111•=111116./ •rs =1•21•1 1 M NM II l::s11.0 /^t:•^t<7ttW^:Y/r•a:t71 t1 .1 S^ i•I•tt^ s 1 •11=111.^ •s^s•••11• .^ 1//^^ ^ ^.4...11•/.^+e•r a ^I^tts .tY^tt ^t^ •ts1L=^lr!♦t ÌttV E R:•tttttttts..11111111•1• ^ /1•/•=1•1• ia r l/••••• ^r• WAN= attr7^ t^. p.. rs ININ••lML ^^^%^! IMINIMr •1=P111=1 I. ^^ill^^lt t•♦ :1 s7IIIIa•s t•...tif•i^a•^^^ ^^ttiattt^ti'a•7•tstttttt• ^ttt7^7tts^tlill ^ ^a tttr r im ^ OMEN/MO IIIMt•:r tit /NM /r MO MIMI f NM MO • MEN — 1 Allemande: D.•L't'lmasimmea..^. 27 (2) See unequal notes..:^ r.^s^tt^ aJttt[-^ts ^S.w=r•^t^s tt^tiaal^ar •aa^ J^rsa^a NEVI ^V • s••=111^ (2) t tr.4•1M111—attr.t:s ^^ A^tt:1 s.AININNO r — ^—tttrJritlt•ts^t^^^^t . O7•INI •w•• .111^^i7ts . p. 28 (ex..ws• ar .

and not detach them. however many there are. For all that. Detaching the notes is when one divides a note into two others of equal value and pitch. In this case they would spell it out in words or indicate it with short dashes (or sometimes dots (1) ) over the note-heads. strokes). When this detached articulation is not expressed by rests as in the preceding example. (Quantz) Quantz adds: If there is also an arch (slur) above the dots.25.732 . Bordet explains: One must use a sharp attack (piquer) and cut off the sound of each note regardless of its value. however.13 In a group of slurred notes. 1755) A. be really detached. See paragraph 'unequal notes'. all the notes must be taken in one bow. (Marpurg) In the following example. 20. of which only the first is made to sound: Here the rest takes the place of the second note.L. as Dom Bédos points out: Two notes slurred Three notes slurred DETACHED NOTES Beyond the customary use of articulatory silences. it is indicated by dots or little dashes (2) above those notes which should only be half heard. the final one is not exempt from the rule concerning articulatory silences. (Méthode raisonnée pour apprendre la musique. composers might ask for more markedly detached notes in certain pieces. . (2) Marpurg does not seem to establish any distinction between dots and dashes (short lines. For notes with dashes. the word detach implies a dot or dash on each note: (1) The dots signifying 'detached notes' should not be confused with similar dots signifying 'equal notes'. as has been said above. dashes sometimes indicate a more marked articulation than dots: When there are dots above the notes oYe must play them with a very short pressure or bow-stroke which should not. and each one marked with a pressure on the bow: Bordet defines the latter as pearled notes: one must simply increase the sound of each dotted note under the sign (slur). p.

. ^ / Z r r AL __••_ —••_--__ -^^^--^. = MNP77WUMMO WW ISM MEMO= MIN NW WW....r.^7 ^^.1111P4M1 e11WN.. BACH — Cantata BWV 127 (1725) .732 4Qg . e I .^7 f^^ ^^el^^ ^^^^^r^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ . / AWI77WW^^e^^^ .. ) It is customary to put dashes above the notes to be played staccato (. :^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^-. ^:v^." IMIEW.INWaNEMrL/5.^o—^--^^^^^^^^^^^----s ^ ^r^^ WNW — ^-2115•1111WMII^IWW^^^^^^ -.IWINGW . .^ .ä ^ ^ 14 Gracefully: A.. •t. ^e_ —^^ ^...8•0111s AMP Mill _s e^ :WNW o^irWW..1/ a.1IIIWII MI AM T When the word staccato is found alongside a piece.as ...WIN WINIIMrIs 111.1. ^r^ .. / IN IIMIIMIWIWI 1111WW•111WINIEWIIW ^ . WM—.^— -. ^^^^^^' ^ !•W1 —^ .eIMI. S.MISSIIIMMINIIIIIIISIMMIIII s111M1 ..^e e e =wee ^ r^r7e^^7^^ 7W ^1•^^ ^ ... every note is played with a short.^^^^^^^^^^^ R a .11W1WI1.s11 WW1/s11111111117s 1=1. (Quantz) Aria: J. ^^MM^e^^^^t^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^^^^^^—^--M' ^ = a ^ r. . ) Thus crotchets become quavers. DANICAN-PHILIDOR (1712) Equal notes (1)...^W^^r^^ s^^^^^^^^^^1^^ ^ ^ --^ .es .AWa. detached bow ( .e^^^— Vo^.^...L..UM ../WILAWIWEWaJEW •WIIIWIWINEN W=._--1=^^^^— ^ ^ (1) See unequal notes.-^ II r -SOS > •1 _NM WM > ZW.ASMISMIASI.. staccato • simile _________ _________ _________ _ '^1•^^^^^^M^^^7^^..1111 yr. ^ L_. .r -. v^^ — •ANW.1^.. p.25..11•• ir .. 20 A. •^^^^^^^7e^M^ ^1 . and detach .-WA. ) They must only sound for half the time they last according to their (written) value ( ....MININ WISINWfasaWs1 Me — PW.fl^..b ___ • w. • 7.IMISa1.•^^^—__777 ea 1=1".-- I Pia iaWWISWWWWWWWWWW111WININ=Is WWIWIIWINWrtl^5^7^^^^S7waa. ^^ V... .J^. s7WIMP MIMI WIIII7ININ WW. -. quavers semiquavers and so on. ..^^JJ^a^r^i7 = ^^^^ ^ 1•^^^ .

`aerated' manner of performance (we have seen the importance of articulatory silences) that is characteristic of music of this pe ri od.11111J1 J1 1/Y7l=P7IM 1 Y Y1 Y YIJI r 1^s 1Jt ^ ^' Y Y^/Y^^1^YYI1^ ^Y11^1Y^Y^^^lYlY1^_^ .^^^^^ ^^--- SLURS In this highly articulated. .. the use of slurs is much more restricted than it was to be in the Classical and more especially the Romantic periods.111 1. partially. ' I I ^li 1 Y1 ^Y-Y1Y^Ti1^1^ ^S-w^1 Y^rYr^r^^^1 ^^^ . FASCH (1688-1758) ^ I I I I I fff ^ r^11___L. or not at all: Complete slurs. to add any further ones: A. making it unnecessary.25. F. Different instances may be cited according to whether the composer indicates the slurs completely.lYJ111/6l L71J1 1111111/411=11•11 s Y 71• 1•1•11 Y1111•11•0111111ESJJ1111Y1•MILJMMINI J1 YY1=MOM =MUM 1•ti 11.15 Grave: J. Sometimes the composer himself writes in all the slurs he wants. therefore.--a r 'Ir Urfl • Ull'JJ111•10 1ti24J.732 .L.

it is as well to recall Quàntz's warning: Notes must not appear to be glued together. BACH (1721) MINI rN= MOMS MINIM amnia •111 NIrsIIMIMININI •sss• 01•1 .16 Andante: J. Thus.L. in the following example. . S. however. •11111^ r1111111111 -•••••011•10 Complete or partial absence of slurs: should they be added? Very often. leaving it to the performer to decide whether or not the musical text needs them.=MIM. In this case. any slurs would seem superfluous: Andante: A.25.. VIVALDI (1678-1741) Cantabile A.732 . composers do not write in the slurs.

.i._ ral`^^r^ffi^/ff^•flalaf•^^fafLffi fla^ ffl•f•1••^r^ ....` a^7ifa^.Mi.1f ...r _ •'p ` •^ 7^7^a1•^ urIIID.1♦f••• Mai iJAr 1111• _^^ IM\^ ^li!MMIMMAJ••• ^I i. •1 MI M•f_i••f•...^•^f. NAM ff:1.732 ..r r^ 1•11 I . in the Allegro movement below... in the following example. main f•sM^t -^^ ".ifl^ ^a>r afa•_ +••al^^./11• i s Maiff•ifffAJi 1 !l^:l^tY1^7Arf/^^f/ffA^7tl/7 ••s ill .-.i.I rIlraL••••••1afll•Mrlfli UM J . 11011á•ffii Mil MI AIllAi••••I v •••f•l MnillA^.^a•ffl —`^^^ m.)( .4•11111U--- •Mat =J 1oimi fiJ ^ ^^ = f• t•— ff af! • •r•af a^fJirarl.I 1•7N• •IAt!•lliO.L. Telemann only indicates a few ligatures_ Aside from these. i• (b) • •1 •ilfifaJff.. ^s•s 'aA.^]•ra•••'J^ ill vrl^A^•r•^ .. In the following extract. the rapidity and a rt iculation of the phrases may permit the sort of slurs suggested here uy means of_ dotted lines (all other ligatures are original): Allegro non molto: A.r Jral.. the choice is left to the performer: A..^1 Vr^•fa—'^ ^i -.a•y• ^i ^^i^C^^ . /••f/-!'irilla• MN AI UMW Jilin •••• Will //. ff =.r•ar•^ara.sMIIIMi. .^f• -1^ ••r^r^..^.25.— I ^^) . i •_.M•11A1••• I .-^ ^ ^^..f/^•^i^f• J•^/ffi•id•/ ••J•^./ f/ rv__+ J•^^. expression and rapidity of the phrases.^ •AfaMOfflfif• r•r• llifi .• AIM JI ^_•^^^^^1Alfaa^ffalJ•f•^^ ^JfflJ• r _A MMJ AI^Afffr Eli ^^^^^Af^fi^MMMAlM MUM ff^^^ M ^ ar7 Similarly. one can choose between an interpretation entirely in detached notes and one that is enhanced by a number of slurs to be determined by the articulation.••_.r!•r1^••.\•I.. .1•^f/J•I /J1ra•miOr• .. .•^•nri — r>•._. ')( (.f/7t•J I7.17 ..••••JA v Milli MI • W IA fiAfAJftrf !Mil no By contrast.. El 1 .a•Ma•f l•A^^A^7faA' —_ —^` aff^r^—J/ alral---_= f^^ --__+af^ a^ ^a fi ^ . VIVALDI (1678-1741) • • Mr •AfraA•ANEV r__—.LJ.a•^^f•_ ..a^. •• ....i.J Milli i^^^^.M1AiAfiiir 41IMralir!♦ Mai afif•a/1An.flf•/a1i MA MAIM' a/ M l MI^•^ MOM= ff NM :1]!S ---1111=1111L` ----1111=11111— .f^^^ M^ ^f•f•f• fIii_`^ ^^^^^^.

+-ár/^^ ^ = ^^ _ *w^^^^^ 1^^•. a succession of rapid notes may require to be performed as detached notes: .1•1M . N . ut ^^aJF ^ ^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^ MINIM . Ph..L:r. • .seaux vo . one must give to each of these fast notes its own distinct bow-stroke (3) and hardly anything may be slurred. Entrées and Furies.^^ -' _ i ^/ r.. TELEMANN (c1716) !.Icz.dJ JJ^^^1 ^^1 ^^. p. as this definition of the tirata by Montéclair suggests: The tirata requires separate bowing or. in particular the flute. 27 (3) What Quantz says here for the strings can equally apply to the wind.t)^^.111 .41.. (1736) tiratas ^^^^.^f :i:^w^rr •11111111•1111110M.25. (Quantz) (1) See also the `coulade' (run).r^^ —/_—. I /^1'Jr1^7^^r^^^. . and the 'coulade' (run) takes all the notes under a single bow. . petits of .._ g- 18 (Allegro): G.. t MI MINI ^ .•r=1 ^ ^ 1/^ 1• The tirata (detached) and the coulade' (run) (1) However. tonguing for each note.. .lez. ) they are then played at the fastest possible speed (2). vo . on wind instruments. or r the same syllable: MONTÉCLAIR. as often happens in Overtures. However. ^ ^^ =^^^ -.. . the detached notes being produced by very rapid double-tonguing. s.732 .^ ^^ _^ ^.^11s1.. 35 (2) See paragraph `double-dotted notes'.^/^..1^ 1. p.^^ ^_`^__ + ^^ .^ _ . then. when there are three or more demkemiquavers after a dot or rest ( .J^^J /AMU t. or in a single tongue stroke.I. vo .lez pe-tits Oi - seaux According to the character of the piece.^r•. A. lJ. the absence of slurs may also indicate the composer's wish for an interpretation entirely in detached notes.^..

. Atir. (1) (Translator's note) Pardessus de viole —a member of the viol family.1:I ^.732 . since a particular expression is often sought thereby.-^^^^^^. one must not slur those which should be stressed.•=)>i weir >I..MU t .•- ^_^^^ Arpeggio • (simile) I allIIIIJ•1JIIIIIMWM IIIMMINt 1111•11111/ff .^^ ^^' •MM. The performer. A.. the composer often indicates the slurs at the beginning only. This liberty.7^J^ ^^J^^^^/^^/^^_^^^_^^^^r^ _ ^^r^^^^^^^_^_—_^_-_^_J /^I • s—m^^.7. In that case it seems logical to observe what he has written: Notes which must be slurred should be played as they are written..M IN 5.B.L.lJI /D = is•ammon. as with Hotteterre for example.^.. O ^^ ^^. should be taken only rarely and with great care. .-^^.. and should be exclusively reserved for cases in which there are special instrumental difficulties. so as to facilitate the bowing ('Six Sonatas for 2 transverse flutes. or group them in twos..=^ . especially in the pardessus (1) and the violin.19 Filling in slurs according to a given opening When the nature of the passage-work is constant.__ i= . ^ ^ ^^^ 1^ JMMMM^ ^ 1 r.25.^ ^A^.. then. V.^. pardessus de violes and all similar instruments). however. one is at liberty to detach all of them.111sI1s111Y011111M. however.s^^^^^ ^^^^^^^.571 MII1.maw _á NNW ss MOM ^^:D^:D^: ^?^ ^^_^ ?..^^ ^^ ^C ^. .1^^^^^i^^ 11111MIM WOW IIINIMINI11J .— _ JONI M =7 _ I7 JO WM ^^ _ MI _ + • 111111W1 WM 1 1J11W • WWI t.J. It may be seen. always bearing in mind Quantz's warning—which it is worth recalling yet again: The notes must not appear to be glued together.^'^ r :^ :^ ^^CM=^:d . but that as a general rule the performer should introduce them only with the greatest discrimination.^ .. .^1 /19^•1^ ^V-m _ ow./1IIIMMIMIWJMIrtJ WM OM MAIMS WM OW OM MIMI J • MOMMIMIJ7JIW _ „mi.^^—^ _^^t—^+^ -- ^ Alternation of slurred and detached passages It may happen that the composer. ÌI'lUMWW>'1>•MO MMIW MOW' a / OM 011J w-s11111 Iw^1 MMMMM .^-.s 1011 N.111 .^—_— ^^_^^ —_. But equally.^^^ s •••_. (Quantz) Prelude: HOTTETERRE (1719) Moderately 1. >r^^^ ^. is allowed a certain amount of freedom to modify the articulation shown by the composer.^^ _—` . It is then correct to apply the given phrasing to the whole section: Passage-work: HOTTETERRE (1719) • MN -.-_ J WM Vr 1M---. marks slurs over certain passages and not over others. that the possibility of adding slurs (where they are not indicated by the composer) depends on the musical context..r C:^ ^C^ ^C.. smaller than the treble and tuned a fourth above it.WIOMIIIIr. . we have this on Bordet's authority: Although I have almost always slurred the first two quavers of each bar or beat./ ...

and in various present-day forms of music (Pop music. fifth and seventh. It is to be seen in older music (1). in such a way that in each figure there should be a stress on the strong notes. was pretty well systematic in its use of it. . etc. Loys Bourgeois mentions this in his treatise 'Le droict chemin de musicque (2) See also Câjon's observation on this point. 21) This definition sums up the principal points on unequal playing made by musicians of the 17th and 18th centuries. sixth and eii h. The Baroque era. the fastest notes must be played with some inequality. (2) If for example one wished to play the (following) semiquavers slowly with equal values. giving the sound a little more strength than on Le second and fourth notes: (.20 UNEQUAL NOTES Inequality of notes is a manner of playing which bestows on them a sort of swinging motion.) (>) (›-) (>) But exempt from this rule are. more than on those which come between them. in France. for then it is these la tter which should be played in the manner just described.) (y) (') (.). however. although one should not sustain them for as long as if they were dot:cd.25. (Choquel) This inequality is not only found in Baroque music. this would not be so agreeable as when one leans a l'-tle on the first and third of the four notes. and where one cannot lean or apply a stress except on the first of the four notes ( . namely the second. or shorter notes in the same metre. .L. or even in an Adagio. third. Here is Quantz's definition: In pieces in a moderate tempo. 24. fourth. primarily. In very schematic and general terms it can be roughly transcribed as follows: (1) As early as 1550. designed to give then more grace (Saint-Lambert).) (. fast passages in Q very rapid pulse where the speed does not allow unequal playing. (See the second example from Naudot on p. the first. although they appear to be of equal value. ). namely: — Inequality consists in prolonging and leaning on notes to make up pairs of one long and one short. both Western and Eastern. But this is c re only if these notes are not mixed with figures of even faster. jazz. A. viz. This inequality cannot easily be notated. . p. it gives a flow to the melody and makes it more supple.732 .

they can be rendered as follows: Allegro (_) I .MIN NM MIs ME NMI MMIL— „.11MINMI ^...L. ^^^.^. NAUDOT (c1741) Allegro . for we must not forget Montéclair's caution: Whatever the metre may be..W. In this case only the first note of each group is lengthened and stressed.M1/ s^^r MEMO NMI NM MINN ^A^^^a. those of a given passage) which are made unequal (1 ) (with the exception of notes considered as gracenotes.WI'IMMII _ =rMU ^^. except for those of too fast a speed to make it practicable (see p. The two examples below are extracts from the first movement of a concerto by J. • .._ wa: MINIIMIM MOM IMMJIM Mil ^ MUM 1111111111 RE_` 7. prevent the sixteenth notes from being played in unequal twos. See p.^.R ^ 3 I MIMPAIMM s11010" MEN NW IMAM= roaromeri r.. therefore. 27)..732 .^^^^^ ».^^^ • _^^^. Only a considerable rapidity of execution can.21 i. 25 for other exceptions)..B. within a movement.A111 1111 M MMMM..s r71 . (1) Again on this point./W '. . .A1 NM/ WV! w^^^^MMM J^ . 1) i^-^.= M .011M IMIN. •11111=M1 -AM= ^^ — It is the smallest values of any single movement (or. ^^ ^ l r^ __ V = ^^.r.— ^^^•^^ ^^^^^ ^L ^ ^^ M^^^^ ^ _ (-) N.• ^^^i ' r Allegro 2) :t7>• ! ^^ \Vi =1 NM Min ME MN MOr . r ^ .M^o.25.ili/s77»— m• =EMU s ^^^^^^^t 5^^^^ — ^-------_` s MIME= M ..^I / rMM ^^^ — MI MI ME MI =MIMI M. where there are four notes to fill up a beat.^ WM/BM MAI MM. —M=M • ^— MIMI MI 111 IMI. Thus in the previous extract from Naudot's concerto._ ._—_-_--tJ^s WM/ Ar 12/. (^) (=) (y) •t:ANUO1---_^ —__—_ 1+ _^—.^ AU s7^7 ^=^. C. ^^^ ^^^ ^ . ^^^. ^. consult Cajon's remark on p.. these should always be unequal.IIMIMIMMIS MI/r-. C.. if the speed chosen does not allow the sixteenth notes to be played unequally.MIMr110 MOM ' MOM Mom ^^ — Inequality is applied to every movement permitting notes to be unequalised in twos.40 .011P. 24 A. Naudot: the eighth notes in the first example and the sixteenth notes in the second are unequal: J.710sAW a^^ ^^^^M ^^^ vr^. f^'a ^^^^---MAO— ^—^ —I I iisI•wilms UMw •MNs1s=11MON1 NI .

Written scores do not tell us what the value of this difference is..=1111 I) l.INIJMNII MJIrra1MINP. .^^^^^I^^r^/r^^=^>•i1^^^J^^ ^J^ -"MOM =MN AIM rarrra rr ^r111111 NE r I/ ^^^ `.. .. finally there are others where this difference. I'M . yet it would seem essential to define it.•rINI IJrrJrrr MINuacr171MIIIIIIIIM11 V OM' /MAIM V MINNr=^=raaJr M rlrr^i/1• Va WiaIIIPrara..iN/I WW1 .1111i/-aMMrraMIJlIN/ wrrt =MEMO= VIM • 1M.r^s ^^. ^ ^ ^ s /l^li .. a less palpable one.fi 22 Different degrees of inequality When notes are to be unequalised. . Engramelle says: It is as if the first notes were dotted quavers and the second semiquavers.^: ».^. ..rrrtrrrrr /1rr••Jf /MINN IIINIA>•M OM MI arT rrJ MEMO ENNMI/ IJMMMJM / ONN MINN rJrar a. ) is shorter: but what is the difference between the longer and the shorter? In some cases the difference is a half..^Il^^/'^^ L1d^1M^^J^^/^ ^^^^^MIIMrlNN / V._. aJ0OINrrrrrMIIF MM.L. a third or a quarter. so that the first notes are to be played as if dotted quavers and the second notes semiquavers.^.__„ . .rl• . and the second ( . if it is a half. w^ In/7. Here are two examples of inequality cited by Engramelle which relate respectively to the first case (marked inequality) and to the third case (slight inequality): Marked inequality: The King's March NO rt ar7 Ma/ 17•111110 • MIINI M / /WIN aa. sustaining and silence. ) is longer.s Lot r. •. and this is rarely heard in performance (.-71♦ Min ... they would all be equal in duration.^^ a^ll^^rrr^r^^r^^^^a^ar^71 Speaking of the eighth notes. as with pulse... in others the difference is of a third. ) Unequal quavers are marked in twos ( .^ II/r^r Y +_rI_-^-. (+)^ (+) MINI-NI MINI I1 MN 01. taste must decide whether they should be unequal by little or by much: there are some pieces where it is appropriate to make them very unequal. . so that the first note is worth two thirds of a crotchet and the second its remaining third... 11111111110111M11 rt>•MI .1s11.. As to the triplet quavers.732 .+ rJ• t ^1 .. .^.1 ) • :1IINIs ^tr. . .MMr^ .111 . ) of which the first ( .^ ^.25. they will be made equal.. ..INNIMIN MN NM• MINIM i^ 11111 V t^^^^^=rr1 ^r• . and others where they require to be less so.1111•11111. (Saint-Lambert) Engramelle defines the different degrees of inequality thus: There is an essential observation to be made concerning quavers that are often played unequally in twos. for if the notated value of the quavers were to be observed exactly as they are written on the music paper.`v x. 'MIMI if. ^. this too is decided by taste. should be in the proportion of 3 to 2 as if the first note were 3/5 of a crotchet and the second 2/5. This gives us: A..

T etc. Thus it can be seen that inequality may assume different forms.B. There again..t ♦^1 i.. as Engramelle specifies...L./ N MIMI IN MI / Air • 1171: /7 / :IOW 1 11/... and that it may vary according to the character and speed of a piece. The same applies in the following example. MIMI= IMP 11 r• JIM / NE ^l1^•• ^1^^ ^^^ ^^ r>t'^^r•r1^^II IMI1SIM111. 11011111/.. 34).-=Yr1/=_=====J1/^1 V.iss. .11— A/1/ra/T 1 A 1 M NI ^\ / MOM IRE JItJ MOW 1rr7/1 1 I /I /7J /= al Illr= /T IJ1r1 IIINr/•1 ^ .I s 1/7/ //1/ I r1111= 011111•1•1=J1=_1IMMIlJ //J1t 1/I/_11/J 1IIIIIIII/1^1/f 1111/ MIMI • .t I011IIMI•s1I1111W ^SJ^11r1NIr^rI11^Jr1/I sr11Jr^1J= WI = s7IM..4•111 RV 1^ -. t•1 ^^^t♦• t♦1 L^1^ 111111 MIN Ell ^1 I The semiquavers are unequal in the proportion of 3 to 2. is not without resemblance to the `chute' (fglling appo ggiatura.1 1 Q=misosrI•asso1 MN. • aJIMEr/Jr1111111•11. .1 AIM11/4111=/ tsr1W1 ^ — /1^11//•1J1 /Y /a1^/1/.811•11111111111111 ^ simmwmpossossala NM USN ^^^^^^1_^^^^^^^ s••/^ r^ ^^ — — s _ aNS/ ^1 1J/^1 1• IOW SI.•^_taJr^/I^t•Jf ^^^^t.tlt♦ ^t: IIMPW 1 ^ 1 •J•r1^. .eC alh'Z ` .s r1'1r•_11 s11J ar7 INI 7•1. Slight inequality: The Fountain of Youth 7 1♦ 17 1..23 aIM• .. Reversed inequality: Sometimes inequality can be reversed by making the first (half beat) shorter than the second: LOU LIÉ This type of inequality.^ . t. — .. ^_^•1111^11/^1— S/ Yrlrrr^rlt•1^1^ a==`1N^^^ 1 ^a^ó ^ ii •1^ s s L^^ ^ etc.. In the following table.J0110•r1MINI•J1r/ MON IN MI SW Is1 =MIMI MSS /1. which would make a performance as dull as if the notes were being played with strict equality..• MINI t• SIM memr-wwww 1 a^ 1 ..732 .. good taste and musicality remain the only touchstones. .INII IJI^^rlrlrrr r^ i « n MN =. we set out the note values which should be unequalised (dotted) according to the principal metres in which they are found along with the definitions by Cajon and Hotteterre which epitomise contemporary practice: A. The performer will determine the articulatory silences for himself. 11.a1^1I11' ^ IMI ^ 1♦^r1sr^1^^^l1Jt r/ u r^1/1^I/r1/ Mr•INE_ '''IMI/t• ^^1^1^^1sJ^^L^ . This can be realised as follows: ^ r^ /1 1/r MI•A^^ r. and is particularly applicable in fast movements. As a result one must be careful not to interpret this inequality in a systematic or monotonous way. N.a1^ .111M-. sec p.111•111P.25.. w/i.SIMNS I[ as Ma ^ I . less common than the first. 8 1I•mMI 1..../1111111W^ L•^ ^^r/•r111=1 r IM= -1 rrMS IM11 ^111111 1JrI••J /7•1•11 ^1 ..

^^^^m-3._ . as the notes of lesser value should be unequal. they will become equal if the melody has demisemiquavers.r ^-:. in every metre in which semiquavers ought to be unequal. Thus.^--_- •^ :^ = 24 Table for unequalising values in the principal metres according to Cdjon and Hotteterre Metres in 4: C 12 4 12 8 Metres in 2: s*. For the same reason.L. then. and when these are not used in `his metre then it is the crotchets that are played unequally (Câjon) Quavers are unequal (Câjon) Quavers are equal and semiquavers dotted (Hotteterre) Quavers are unequal (Câjon) Quavers are equal and semiquavers unequal (Câjon) When in a melody there are notes of lesser value than those which are prescribed as unequal by the kind of metre in which they are found.732 • . if semiquavers have been used in a melody whose metre is 2. This rule would even extend to demisemiquavers if a melody made regular use of hemidemisemiquavers. -25. (Câjon) A. it is the same for every metre in' which quavers are declared to be unequal. then the quavers become equal.. those which the nature of the metre ought to render unequal will become equal. 2 and 4 and 8 Quavers are equal and semiquavers unequal (Câjon) Quavers are unequal (Câjon) Quavers are equal and semiquavers unequal (Câjon) Quavers are played unequally (Câjon) Normally quavers are equal and semiquavers dotted (Hotteterre) One might also use a which would be composed of 2 equal quavers or 4 unequal semiquavers (Hotteterre) Quavers are unequal (Câjon) Quavers are equal and semiquavers unequal (Câjon) 8 6 4 6 8 Metres in 3: 3 2 3 and 4 3 8 9 4 9 8 (Observation): Here quavers are played unequally.

^^^^ ^^ ^ _../^M. DALL'ABACO (1675-1742) a W •a•11M•411111111 _^^ .^^_ ^^^_^ ^^ . ••1111 ^^ s-s•11rr1111•111111111.1• s••••111111111111MM111•111•M MINN ^^^^^^^^^^^ MO ^^^^^^. that is. which does not allow unequalisation in twos: All notes.^^ ^rrrrrrrr_^^ MI ^ ^^^ 1111111.^^^ ^ ^^^ — when the tempo is too fast for inequality in groups of two to be performed or perceived (see p.11111V11111 • • r / INI NE ).. that are played in groups of three are always equal. — repeated notes: One must also make the same exception when several notes of the same pitch follow one another. groups of 4. C.111Pt.^^.^^^M. except in the following cases: —contrary instructions from the composer (`equal quavers'./^. 21).^1^f= ^^^^^^ s ^=M^^^^^^Y^^J^^^. 6 or 8.) —when the notes are played in groups of three.732 • C L* — • i[. (Quantz) Passage-work: HOTTETERRE Spirited • ^ V • . (Quantz) Allemande: J. (Cájon) Gigue: E.. etc.L.^.^7• _ I •• 1s I I MIN-.. (Quantz) When one finds quavers or semiquavers with dots above or below.25.41. whether these be natural or incidental to the type of metre present.25 Exceptions to the rule of inequality The rule of inequality is of general application../ MIPt 1111111 = 1s7 s r71s ^ ^ •/ ^ • MI •/I^1^^.alls111•111•7•11111 MNI/S-71M-41•11MINNIO sIIMM MIN ^^^^^^^^^^ • w11$111111/7» :0•7. . r=1/11111111111111•1111=100r MEN --^ IMM ra. SCHICKHARDT (1670?-1740) Allegro MNIMII ^^. A.^^ LIC_r= ^ • =a^ ^^ r^ V^ .. one must then make them equal and detached. ^ i- — note-heads which have dots or dashes: an exception should be made for notes on which there are dashes or dots. ) when there is an arch (slur) over notes in groups of more than two. of whatever value. (Denis): Passage-work: HOTTETERRE Briskly and with equal quavers ^^:. F.-1=111 ^^ — rIN10rr0111 ^^^^^^^^^ MO ^= ^^ ^^• ^^` spiccato — slurred notes: (.. { ..

B.. . however.J^^lJ^^rM •^ ^=^^ ^ ^^^ MU ^..... s ^^ 1^ ^ ^^f^^f ?i r /m^/'7r^^^ ..L.. It may happen..s^.I Mrs^^rs+..^ — A.^ R:S]=^ . sequence of disjunct intervals: Fugue: HOTTETERRE Spirited..732 .^ wr^•^^ ^^j^^:^.:^^. .^fífl'ssss. m ^= ran. (Hotteterre) ^ ^^ ^ r. D. that a number of slurred notes greater than two will not always preclude a certain inequality. PHILIDOR (1712) equal notes .m.111M.r^^ ^s . equal quavers %maim ^uJ^I.^/rl/t.Iu^^^^^ • . the fact that they are intermired with semiquavers. such as that required by Hotteterre in the following example: Musette: HOTTETERRE Gently. and further...25. this time in Italian music: Courante by SigrCORELLI Allegro (Hotteterre) — the basses of Sarabandes when the y arc entirely in quavers: Sarabande: A. (Hotteterre) Another example of equal quavers.^. 1111111..ILAMM+.^ ^^^.IM. .. ^^^^ v^^•w=M^rMMMM^^:== ^ ^r :::^^.fl^^ W/ ^ Couplet from the Passacaglia in Armide (Lully) l. Mr/^^^^^^^^I= mamma =Mir ^^^^ :! }_^_•_iss^^^^ .. with the quavers dotted I Go t —a o.I7 J^17 ^a^s..26 c í^ N.r.^ What makes the quavers equal on this occasion is firstly their intervallic leaps.

Bach) This would be transcribed as follows: or rather.. The note which follows the dot is always extremely short. .732 r it I a. it is therefore superfluous to add dots (to dotted notes) or hooks (to short notes).1/IU IrIIMIIsM -. rr . P. with the articulatory silences which L'Affilard does not neglect to mention (To make the dots into their value.7 7J. mumg WIWI. According to J.M^^. unless they are shown as dotted....Mt1 =1111111=1111 :7.25. E. J.^T r (equa» . (1) Hence it is necessary to double -d ot the dotted notes.M MMI ^^^^MM[ :M M1MMlIMIMMIMM14/11' WM= 111s1( 74E1 AION 7•INV /rMmilt.NMI r . (equal) --. one must hold the dotted crotchet and play the subsequent quaver quickly): h • IN _ ^^- Different instances of double-dotted notes Quantz is very explicit about these different cases: The dotted notes in example 1 (see below) require almost the full value of a crotchet.wry 1^^^^i7^^^r^Mj r1•^^ L7•.7•••••s11111110 s1s1^ ^^^ ^1 m Obse rvation: The Italians make less use of inequality. -___ ^ ' (equal) . and those in ex..^^ 1 ^ • .27 — notes of small value which correspond to ornaments: Passage-work: HOTTETERRE Solemnly . Rousseau: In Italian music the quavers are always equal. Y :.M^^. DOUBLE-DOTTED NOTES This is the name for a type of inequality which is very pronounced.7^M>•rM^M^.L. 2 that of a quaver (1). applying to dotted notes followed by notes of small value: in performance the dotted note is double-dotted and the small value shortened.•+ -a- ^s ^^ ^--.(equal) -1 ^ NM 7 • 'IMINf' UNIM .. t.•M>>I =NI -• s••7=11J•• ^>•^^^ 1+^'^^^M^MI. (Quantz) The short notes which follow dotted notes are always shorter in performance than their value suggests. (C. A.

.nmm. To form a clearer idea of it ( .---r.... -:-^-e .•s••s=rsi sI/eummummamor sow imaw mallowm^••=lreescs imuot/— ass 1.^ ^sa^^^^a V ^^^ ^ s 11111111•1•11M/MEW MMININW~ a1•••111111111-11111s11r111 MN L should be performed: N ^ ^r ^^i'a ^ ^áw ^^^.^•^rrs^^^^ ^t ^^^ ^ r^^r8üi^ ^1^irMí^r^.= /01111111•111s71^^^•s^r .-^-^ -^-' ^^. -.-. ) play the upper notes (of ex... MIrIIMIis s'..womr1. lb Ex.'.:^:>. . lb and 2b).s AIM/Wits MIMI n^^^^^^^ ^ ^ ^^^^^^s.ss•s ••s •-aJssummoomiw/wniar/seum. 2b (Quantz) Dotted notes followed by more than one short note In this case the short notes must likewise be played more rapidly than they are shown: The more one prolongs the dots after the notes (examples 3 and 4). —x-_ =^^ .25.^^^^ ^w ^^ító• ^ i^. 1 Ex.^INI i `^ 1. ^ita^ s^^... . .__. 28 One cannot determine precisely the value of the short note after the dot. ^ .__^.•r cosiLarossus•r I/wwwwwe. the more caressing and agreeable will be the expression: Thus this extract from a Prelude: HOTTETERRE Solemnly Ex..i.-. 2 Ex.111= OW E E s: É %1 ^ ^^ (1) By `dotted notes' Quantz here means the notes a/ter the dots. that is to say the sixteenth notes and thirty-second notes in the upper line which would be played as sixty-fourth notes (see ex..^-r?=^ r .. 4 (Quantz) .732 .. Ex.. s ?^ _ r --= •.í irr^^r•i^c^áií^r ^i^^^ lAM as. A.. 3 Ex.^. lb and 2b) and hold the dotted notes until the time required for the lower dotted notes has elapsed.^•^^^ v r.^. .as s V• •. The dotted notes( 1 ) will only last as long as the lower hemidemisemiquavers. .L._ -°--- – — " .— _.

it indicates. the Courante. the same rule still applies to the short note and it must again be shortened. Quantz specifically tells us: If in a slow Allabreve (1) or in a full bar of four beats one finds a semiquaver rest on the beat with dotted notes following it (example 8). Gavottes. the same rule must be applied. in this metre as well as in crotchet triple time (3/4) which is used for the Loure. the rest must be performed as if there were a dot or a rest of half its value after it and the following note had an extra hook. the latter should always be played very quickly. even at the price of hurrying the group which follows. Ex.29 Reversed dotted rhythm When the rhythm dotted note—sho rt note fl is reversed ^•. Before playing them. Ex. whether in an Adagio or an Allegro. 6 Silence replacing the dot When the dot is replaced by a short rest. 8 to be performed: A A A (1) When the Italians modify the metre whose sign is a large C by drawing a line through this sign (4). but one waits for the very end of the beat to which they are allocated and plays them as fast as possible. and at the same time avoid getting out of time. as often happens in Overtures. sharp manner (. there are demisemiquavers (example 7). whether the tempo is slow or fast: Ex.732 . but in a very short. (Quantz) As C. E. as we know. When. Entrées and Furies. instead of the ¢ they put a large 2 which likewise indicates that the notes are to be played twice as fast as in other metres. one must wait until the very end of the beat to which they are allocated.. P. and the Chaconne. the Allabreve metre. ). The notes D and C (in example 5) should not last longer than those (in example 6).. All dotted notes are treated in the same way if the tempo permits. Rondeaux. therefore. Moreover. Entrées. Bach confirms: When there is a short rest. However. 5 Ex. Rigaudons. the Sarabande. especially in slow pieces. (Quantz) A. 7 to be performed: It is the same for a brief rest followed by a group of notes in dotted rhythm. etc. -25. the quavers which follow the dotted crotchets are not expressed according to their true value. and when there are three or more demisemiquavers after a dot or rest they are not always performed according to their true value. it must be prolonged. after a long note and a short rest. as for Bourrées. The French use this metre for different types (of movement).L.

) If one were to play the dotted notes appearing beneath the triplets in such a way as to give them their normal value.11111111P r.1111M. ANN All=111s9•1=1111 Ex./s^^^ ININI^lIg-. the notation r 77 not being in use at this time..^.. this may be further shortened: A single quaver is always short. when a short note (anacrusis) begins a movement. the effect.732 . The short note following the dot must not be sounded until after the third note of the triplet rather than at the same time as it. Thus the third movement of the Fifth Brandenburg Concerto should be performed in the rhythm shown above the stave: Allegro: J.imillirMa. the dotted notes are then interpreted as in the lower part in example 2... Quantz writes: This rule (of double-dotting) should also be observed when one of the parts has triplets against which the other part has dotted notes (example 1).á+ 111111111111•1111111 VW — W. and the two types of note must be treated very differently from each other ( . irrl^r iniirsmw^=r^ —i — ^^^ l s^^-^o^^^ ^r^ ` ut.^•^ .1 • According to Quantz.s-7.lMa7//ralr ^lr^^r^ IV ^^ i^Ilr^'^t ^^^^ ^r/^r ^ . 1 should be interpreted in this way: r which thus differentiates clearly between the two rhythms.r 30 A nacrusis: Similarly. 2 ^ 1 !' U. Unless this is done the metre could be confused with 6/8 or 12/8 (example 2).1111M ^t.1. would merely be deformed and insipid: Ex. (Saint-Lambert) Allemande (J) .L.sas • ^^^ ^rr^ ^^Iworrl^^^^r1IPAIl. . then.: ^^ ^t A•. 1 Mai MEIN INN arr III II.-25. instead of being brilliant. Observation: Quantz's rule only applies when triplets are added to a rhythm which is initially dotted..^^IA♦^ a^ --— a1r 11111 rrlaa ^r 'M ar ^ 3 3 - M R1110140I /1 Ilegg.illl 11111111•11M1NIM4// Mad= ^^rrlI^^rr^^^ /l•^ rl. S. the rhythm is essentially composed of triplets. on the contrary. ex. If.- 1":71 Of"7"") il i ti r^rr11^1^^lr^It^ r^t.MI•11•• ^ Superimposition and succession of different rhythms: On this subject. A. BACH (1721) r— s –I J oh 171 r0ttrW111..rr^^^^ Ir ^—^ t t Mr s L... ..

. F.am= 11111•11111=1111 ^a^^ Sonata: J.25. S. for there are exceptions. Bach) Thus the short notes in the examples below do not appear to need double-dotting: 2nd Brandenburg Concerto: J. (C.732 .NNW ^. Melodies in which they occur should be examined carefully.• ^^ 1s1111111111/ sow mu witm allow ••s• -.^^^^^^^^^^ s ^iMI MIMI =^^ ^^^-^-Vr^^^^^ s ^^ . It is only in the generality of cases that short notes should be played quickly.L.t ='7 _ EMI MI . FASCH (1688-1758) Allegro Passage-work: HOTTETERRE Spirited _^S.t^1^^S. and one should distinguish between melodic passages and those cases where the short values following a dotted note are simply the opening of a rhythm which does not lend itself as a whole to double-dotting. E.Exceptions to the rule of double-dotted notes Naturally.=M .MO OM /11/7M-AM _-. ^^^^ A. ^7^^^s a^r^^^^^^= ^^^^ ^^ =Ell ^^_ m /. double-dotted notes should be used knowingly. BACH (1721) Andante 11111111111111•11•11111111 ogimmol Mir OEM s•.. P./N1 . .

732 . ) For if Italian music draws its energy from slavery to a strict beat. and to an adequately affective r^ rendering of the accents marked with a mordent: Double of the Nightingale in love (1722) MÌL.25.4 it there may be no four bars that are of exactly the same length (.d.1Ma.-t•MIIIIMIIIMMIIIME M=MIMINIMI•1110r .f 4.r a.rr1Pra•18-ININIIIINNINIZIMrsir11141 . The beat—whether in two or in three—is changed a number of times to make a given piece of music sing.1rI/MINNIa:aaIN/aINO r. (Mersenne. T ^wv . .rlS-as•s /NM •1M011sr NM! ^r S. Li .IM•1M0 MlIIII•r MTIMII/•PIM =IMPIP"INE MIMI r 111/111•Mo1 lrAr MI IMI 1Ei. to the neatness of the passage-work. ..Mina MOM= ^• .r11•rfr101L7l'I 11.M1 1111•71.M. .. AP7MIIIIM111•1111117 .. 1636) Perhaps in an . /M \ I.^.I .n^r^ ^^Mr^ NI....M11111 IM1^ .d111110 111•111 h11/211/. hurrying it and retarding it. •--.. everything must be sacrificed to taste.. the French put all theirs into subjecting this same beat to their will.O s •' s-a1 /7 .L.. `Harmonie Universelle'../11111 ^^ _ WWI s I>•••• s. • !s _11• NM I } = (F.V11NMt PI MrMEIIIIMMrM-74S1111•1MINIM7 11. •J111INK.••s•••s• [0: NNW ••• _ -^^ i -^ . and it was to become a characteristic feature of musical interpretation in the 17th and 18th centuries./M^r tn^^ ' .32 RUBATO tWhat we call rubato—that sort of elasticity in playing and of suppleness brought to a rigid beat—is not an invention of the Romantics: far from it! Already in 1601 Caccini alludes to it (Nuove Musiche). COUPERIN) A.•~~ My ^ AO 1.^ 1f 1'1-1•NIF • /Mr .s ••_••a.T.. hurrying or retarding the downbeat or tale upbeat according to the text and words. (Rousseau) tr• Ohs 1001 d One must not adhere too precisely to the beat in the Double below.. —'r.^_rI/1trrs^—=ICs^^e^ _^^^^^^ M r_^_ s /\ ^M^^^^^^^—l^^M1^^II^ IIINs11111111•a-als a/•111111MINNI1111116. or to the differing passions of the subject. according as the savour of the song and the agility of the singer's organs dictate..

(1) Let us say that ornaments are variations. by excess and by want of skill. indeed to adorn the skeleton of the musical text (we shall return to this later). However. added by the composer or (more often) the performer to embellish. By excess. in alphabetical order. ). (Montéclair) When. Sometimes two authors will give the same grace note different names. and much dexterity in expressing them well (. one must never hurry in making a grace note. (Saint-Lambert) GRACE NOTES It is almost impossible by using the written word to teach the manner of forming these grace notes well. one must take one's time to prepare the fingers. where and how to apply grace notes It is easy to err in any of four ways over this important aspect of melody (the subject here is grace notes) ( .. since the manner of expressing them changes according to the pieces in which they are used. the appoggiaturas and arpeggios should be quicker than when the movement is slow. even though these two terms were frequently confused in the past (as they are today). and it would be better not to play them at all than to play them badly. . ) Good taste is the only criterion. It is from such models that one's taste must be formed while doing one's own practising at the same time.732 . (Marpurg) It is impossible ever to fully understand how all these grace notes must be expressed.25.. (1) `Ornaments (ornements) were often termed optional ornaments or grace notes. For it is impossible to give rules for the placing of grace notes that will apply in every case.. and that grace notes (or `notes de goût')—more sober an d more concise—are the little notes. (Muffat) Where can one learn to distinguish those notes which should be coloured and those places in the melody where one kind of grace note is more suitable than another? One must study pieces in which all the grace notes are written out and in which there are neither too many nor too few of them (see examples at the end of this chapter). ). the playing becomes crude and uncouth. and 'grace notes' (agréments) essential ornaments oi grace notes. By omission.. (Saint- Lambert) Here. Afterwards one must listen to people who have a reputation for playing well. to wit: by omission. is a list of the p ri ncipal grace notes... the trills. a clear distinction should first of all be made between grace and ornaments. because it is not possible to explain it completely in writing. since even the living voice of an experienced master barely suffices for that. with a summary of contemporary definitions. the vibratos etc.. or grace.33 Embellishment notes For greater convenience. A. much circumspection is required in knowing where to place them correctly. heavy and constrained. for pieces in a spirited tempo. This is why great care must be taken over these invaluable adornments of music every time there is need of them. the melody and harmony become naked and unadorned. the musical text and increase its beauty. and perform it with boldness and freedom (. by inappropriateness. By inappropriateness. for otherwise they will disfigure pieces instead ofincreasing their beauty. thus.L. embellishments designed to vary. In such cases the more usual terminology is adopted. it is very important to know how to perform grace notes well. And by want of skill. And here I can only say in a general way: grace notes should never alter the melody nor the metre of a piece. it becomes confused and ridiculous. however quickly it has to be played.

__ v . .. .411•111INOI riiIIIIIIIMMII. ) The little quaver must be felt as if it were indeed a note. on the pitch of the note above. or `son coupé' (interrupted sound).L.^^•v^.11MM IMiNN/WZA.^^^^n fall AB • fall AB fall AB a ^^car. tables of grace notes given by writers of the past are only schemes for realisation..a.^..^^^r. . s • Ir i1= MN OIIIIIIirui .e. gently. where the quavers are unequal: (Hotteterre) (1st book for the transverse flute. 1708) strong note accent Strong note accent r (Montéclair) lam CHiJTE (Fall) The fall is an inflection of the yoke which. that is to say. leaning heavily on its vowel. (Denis) ( .11ris1111111 i port de voix ^^^ (Montéclair) (1) i. aromm..MMIa. 34 Observation: In the majority of cases. . ACCENT The accent. (Choquel) The accent is an aspiration or sorrowful lifting of the voice which is practised more often in plaintive Airs than in tender ones.IIritar. since otherwise the performance of this grace note would not be in good taste.-_. -_ __ -P . . it never appears in spirited Airs nor in those expressing anger: One can hardly determine all the places where the accent should be placed.. after having leant on a note for some time (A).AM.r1/1111•MisIBMVAIIIMM INIOr^^u.MON/fi0.^^uw.: -1. according to the expression (of the piece). . ..ass. fall 111•1•1•111111 WI= 111ria • ^^ri ^ ^•^it:.IMraa. . it is expressed by a broken inflection of the voice: ILO ^ A ü a i •7 ^ ^ ^ i7 I 1A^ ^ ^^ 1^ [l (David) The accent is marked by a small perpendicular dash above the note and is only made upwards or at the end of a held note. also called aspiration. .IIII s 1-21MINi. ) The fall brings much grace to songs of pathos: sar.mWEIINIOI NIMMr_^11•=1 • MI i 1w11111.ua. 1 'r • 1111•rn.732 E' ta 0 . . its name in solfège (translator's note). These grace notes should therefore be interpreted flexibly and in accordance with the context in which they appear. in metres... normally it appears at the very end of a dotted crotchet when it is followed by a quaver on the same degree.. -. is terminated by means of an imaginary note above the one on which the sound is. and as if dying. and the accent must be felt at the end of the name (I) of this note.^^.a^..25.s-:.. the sound of the first note must therefore be lengthened. falls onto a lower degree (B) without lingering there ( .^_^w• ^. but with a very weak sound.^. A.. --< .

rn ^a x . ) small notes in stepwise motion. rid= VM III NM 'MIMI MI MI IA OM :AIM • r ^^ 1i ^ ^^^ ^C^ ^ rï ^^^ i-^ii si ^^^' iii . which can be made without interrupting the flow. 18 COULÉ (Passing appoggiatura) The coulé' is a grace note that softens the line. It is used on various occasions.35 The fall has a totally different effect from the `coulé' (see below). making it smoother by binding the notes together.MI NM WI =II _^^ T ♦ ha. falling from a strong note.í^i Ól (Montéclair) N. See also p. ) or simply by means of a slur: :t^f/11UNINI1111/2•111 .s 11 MIL I/lt.. and this depends on the words. that is to say. (Loulié) The run is shown by a number of little additional notes following one another in rising or falling conjunct motion. . It is an inflection of the voice which. There is not normally any sign to identify it. particularly where the melody falls by a third. however. following directly on one another. inserted between two disjunct notes to make a more graceful link between the one and the other. less strong one..tJ ir-u. .5•11111mm/1•mma t/m =Iw/ tA :aMIIli. / / • ^^S!•^^^i MIN •s ^^ i (Montéclair) `Coulés' are performed by means of one or more notes interposed between the 'backbone' or essential notes of the melody where the interval is a descending third or fourth: 41 r J J I _(r^^^J^ I o (David) It will be observed that a coulé' should be made between nearly every interval of a falling third: A (Hotteterre) A.%/111111111MIN ♦ coulé coulé .25. the smoothness or the beauty of the melody: run fall run run run flatté >~^^^7^ri^irA^^^^^7a.A M Jt• a< t111/711«I -`^ NMI fJf. .1111=11 t1M1/7 111111111111 1111IIff.f/AINIIMUMMI. Iffl•r/..L. ' i _ _ ^ / 1 6 :^ ^^f/I!•1:^ ^7:` ^ UI1• ^^^ ^ ^ ♦ / ^ _ //J• _ ^_^/^O ^_^/^ ^_ Miff MIMI IMP IN 0 I^^^^^ • ^^^^^^ •5l1^^^^^r11d^^^^ i. for to judge by the note alone this would not show the slightest difference from the `coulé'. there are some masters who show it by means of a small note linked by a slur to the strong note onto which it must flow (. and tastetkìvill decide on the places where it should be inserted. ..^ ^!• VI ^ coulé coulé • Wen. AM )1l7 Mff.. reaches a lower.732 • t+ ::r^ .. (Choquel) COULADE (Run) The run is two or more ( ..B.

Fais tom . ' lattetnent' or flatté' can also mean a lower mordent or a shake. the terms `flattement' and `vibrato' did not always have distinct meanings.MIIIIII^ ^^ 1^1^iN 1I If utr/tl^It• /1^ M^ M ^all• s•••111•tl c>s 11111t 111111•• .re. and that. or on a note of repose. for example. short aspirations.^r^^^ II 1=INIPIIIIM1111111111•t•INIILIMO. the `flattement' is a sort of finger vibrato produced by rapidly tapping the finger (or fingers) on the edge of one or more holes.fais tom -ber ton ton .Iia *41s1s1IW111I411111111111 S7=_•= M etc. others tap it over the whole aperture and even over two at the same time depending on the force and expression they wish to achieve. On wind instruments.ber. Formerly." `S. at this period.1•11 NMI MNIIIMMINNE•111r __&_$_I__.L.ber ton ton .732 . It can also be achieved with the bow. fais torn . There is at present no sign to identify it with. without raising or lowering the pitch. (1st book for the transverse flute) Montéclair: The ' latté'isa sort of rocking which the voice makes with many soft. (Montéclair) FLATTEMENT (1) (Finger vibrato) The `flattement' is a characteristic embellishment whose effect falls roughly between the shake (trill) and what is today meant by vibrato. (Mahaut) Hotteterre adds: One will observe that flattements' must be made on almost all long notes.ncr . (2) See also under Vibrato. this embellishment is most often added where one is swelling or diminishing the sound of a long note. it might be shown by a wavy line ^•^: mordent accent flatté coulé quasi shake fall sudden shake complete shake cadence (1) Sometimes this term leads to confusion. p. 47 (3) Pla inte can also mean accent. where the holes are stopped by the fingers. and is made with a lower note that does not form the interval of a semitone.36 When the words express anger. s. Some tap it on the extremity or edge of the apertures by stretching out the finger which is to effect the throbbing. 34 A.____ O MIN ^^I^I^ ttlllllr.flattement' is a slower throbbing than the `tremblement' (shake). by pressure on the hair.r^t^^1sIW . The finger which makes the throbbing should remain in the raised position to finish with. they must be made slower or faster accordifi • to the tempo and character of the piece. the descending thirds are not joined up by a `coulé': good .^1^ ^ If Mat n43sNOININI IMI. the `verre cassé' (2) or plainte' (3) is usually effected by the little finger.25.1111 s1 NMI . This embellishment produces the same effect as the vibration of a taut string set in motion by the finger. or when the melody is in a precipitate tempo. Marais. especially for stringed instruments. . and sometimes over the centre of one or two complete holes.re.ner . On the viol. with a wavering motion of the hand (M. see p. The .ber. 1st book of pieces for the viol). just like shakes and short trills.MILD poor . on a note of long duration. Fais tom .

=1•1•1111•••011M. p. `Schneller'): pincé (lower mordent) pincé renversé (martellement. ) The term Schneller' serves to describe it in German: i • NIIIMINIII ri1111111 swr mn sI sii~. 44) nor a pause (`point d'arrêt'. Schneller.732 . 42 PINCÉ (Mordent.1 /MMININIMt.. It can be performed with the lower note (this is the usual `pincé') or the note above (this is often called `pincé renversé'. (F.). Generally it comprises a single alternation (`pincé simple').../MINI. Couperin) It was frequently identified by the term martellement in France.MINIMINII—JMINI. sometimes two or more (`pincé double'. the voice must first of all be carried onto the pitch of the strong note (principal note) and then descend to the next degree after which the voice reascends promptly to the strong note and stays there: P pince note of repose (Montéclair) Upper mordent: When one uses the pincé' by contrary motion. It is somewhat like our present-day mordent. it is called the `pincé renversé' (. see p. Schneller) (Montéclair) The `pincé' is one of those shakes so short that they have neither a preparation note (`appui'.: : ^^ /' W. or Schneller in Germany.25. `pincé triple'.4MI.. it would become unbearable in that it would make the melody tremulous and too uniform: mordent poor mordent poor mordent accent complete shake preparation cadence note tr. . according to Choquel's directions. s rr.37 Were the ' latté' to be used on every strong note. `martellement'. 46). upper mordent) Lower mordent: To form this well.. flatté flatté flatté flatté flatté MESSA DI VOCE: see SON ENFLÉ..s91111Cs IIMMINININEWw 011•ao. etc.Ns ^^ •t ir 1.4111.4111.^_= (Marpurg) The `martellement' is a very short trill which one makes after having sustained the sound of a note (Choquel): martellement ntartellemen t which. would be performed as follows: A.L. see p.MMII s3MINO.".IN•11111/= --MIIII .

One should never play two in a row. .4. MI MM. (Freillon-Poncein) PORT-DE-VOIX (Appoggiatura) (V) The port-de-voix is sometimes marked by a little added note (. When it is made on a third. that it serves to express all that the soul can feel. and the same applies proportionately to the other values.. such as the minim. The port-de-voix is the inverse of the coulé' I think that this sign / would be more suitable than the sign V to identify it: The port-de-voix is not marked at every place where it must be made. so long as it is in the minor . 42. and must first rise. There are three varieties: 1) The prepared and sustained port-de-voix is played upwards and it originates on the note beneath that on which the sound will settle. and few singers have succeeded in making it as touching and sensitive as it should be. Lia ^ ^. taste and experience provide this knowledge (. whether a tone or a semitone beneath.. 'inflated sound'). ^ N= BIN Ng 'W// . ). Short trills or mordents are made on notes which begin the air or melody. and when the sound has been lodged it must be softly threaded through the first of the three segments into which the duration of the note must be divided. crotchet and quaver. .. ). it adorns it in so graceful a manner.. In metres which are solemn. it must be emphasised like an appoggiatura. ) It is also shown by this sign: V .. that is ( .. there must generally be a mordent on the last notes of each piece. S • AMP =NINO aJIM L! WIN.b 38 ^. a fourth or a sixth.^ ^ MUM /^ ^ •-•1111.. One should only make one mordent in each bar when there are only crotchets. by which I mean on the first of the last two notes. ): one must tap the finger on the aperture. All quavers that are preceded by a dotted crotchet or its equivalent should be played with a mordent. and all those in three beats. such as some in four and in two. therefore it is very difficult to give a good written definition of the manner in which one must set about forming it well. but they are taken abruptly. Only through the feelings of a mind thoroughly imbued with what it is saying can one attain perfection in this embellishment. so long as the metre or pulse is not too precipitate.^ `1 A. with the finger curled rapidly just once or twice. imperceptibly swelled (1) (I) See 'son en fl é' (lit. which should be done rapidly.732 . p.25. . note that one can play more of them in lively airs.= MI MNIO. ••s MN Ms •s MN IMMs11s111111sss••••MI ' W/ AEI + . The portde-voix is always accompanied by a mordent: Port de voix Port de voix (Montéclair) David: The port-de-voix is one of the most essential of the melody's appurtenances. a/ WWI IMIIIIWOI i rlIM ri IMMEsIMIs M How and where to perform the mordent Short trills or mordents are a sort of appoggiatura. because they make the melody more brilliant.L.

^l ^ second. this is too o 1 1 R^ `Gothic' and unbearable to make general use of. ) Dissonances should sometimes excite and arouse (the ear). ) When the preceding note is one or two degrees higher than the following one. But if the preceding note is lower than the following one. the melody would often be dry and extremely simple (. ) oñ the beat.. Ports-de-voix are a slowing-up of the preceding note (..L.. ).. 2 (example 2): There are two kinds of port-de-voix.732 .. To that end ports-de-voix have much to contribute (. ) on the previous upbeat. ): Z r1° ^ V 2) The double port-de-voix originates on the third below the note on which the voice will come to rest: ?) 2 t ti 0 3) The disjunct port-de-voix. . One could call the first accented and the others passing appoggiaturas. on the third segment. in front of which the port-de-voix is found. but it can be tolerated and practised in certain cases: 1r . and made to die. in place of the principal notes. . originates on the note preceding that on which one will come to rest. this is what characterises the port-de-voix (. (David) Quantz: Without them (ports-de-voix).. Passing appoggiaturas (before the beat) are found when a number of notes of the same value descend by leaps of a third: A. 1 Ex. it should be taken from below Ex. the latter should be taken from above (example 1). The other kind ( . both descending and ascending. . borrowing the sound of the first to slur it onto that of the . They are sounded on the beat.25. . One kind should be sounded ( ... just as it has been given birth.39 on the second segment.

and even longer (DJ./ !NallI V tal. ./ t A= NM WII11IIMII•111 WARM II /tJ1aO1alI s11♦ a l•a^^= ^^^^^-^1^. one should make all ports-de-voix preceding these . . namely the length of the dot: When. the first being indicated by a small note and the second by a note which counts within the metre: Accented appoggiaturas (on the beat) are found in front of a long downbeat that follows a short upbeat. 1 11 ..4•If. The appoggiatura must be sustained for half of the following principal note (1): Where the port-de-voix ornaments a dotted note. ... I. 1• ^at I^I^I/O/a^ ^i VA AN `=^^J•^rs^. •s ^t•S r^^••1•Is ^1 ^ÌI . the first being followed by a dot..s :Nit mare/ 11111aP•maleIaaia. two note s are tied. making a small shake after it. (1) In Adagio movements the Italians sometimes make the port-de-voix (C) as long as the note which follows it.732 .a a/ (a JO . When there are shakes on notes which form dissonances against the principal harmony (.t• M ^t^^a^r^^•al^. 1 I When there is a port-de-voix before a note and a rest after it. aIMP"7111111•11.7 MY .I —a a /tt7111111•111l shakes exceedingly short.1 '411111•111 s Is1Y. a WM71111E1 INI.. own am/ ai If 1111.25. . UM MSS 111114111111111111M1 r • r11~ M1111110.I • 1 .. ).40 The appoggiaturas we are dealing with here require a caressing expression. Often there are two appoggiaturas before a note.. C D (M. in a metre of 6/4 or 6/8.—a1M11/ NM IIE s ALI MI n.. the latter is divided into three equal segments of which the port-de-voix is given two and the note itself only one.•^ i^/V^a^ a11111MIlMININIIIII.• M. one should hold the port-de-voix for the entire value of the first note with the dot: •.M111I11=11111111a11111s1•11&. so as • 11/711 Mi.L.•a s I N rSatMIN•tM14 i•s 111111tss t.. CORRETTE: Méthode raisonnée .III? s l =IIIIIIMM-1111 s1 a. unless it is absolutely necessary to take a breath.111•11M11 1 • aIIIIMr1•111I•It♦• iN IIIMI sra1IIIaIIIIIIII OM al .. the port-devoix is given the value of the note and the note the value of the rest: (Quantz) .MB =I NM 10111•1 MI MN l:li1111111111•11la MIN ^^ not to change the dissonances into consonances: me sr r. as may happen in a Gigue. 1750) A.w i MI . MINI MIS LI.

3 turn (Quantz) N. ^1^^^ .1•1111 i 11M= INMEJ L1/" IIINSIMr• /. this may be done on the notes over which the corresponding figures appear: Moderato 3 ! JJ1Jn./• = ^ ^ ^ / ^ V^—\t/^^ ^ 2A I Ira I ^ir v^^.t/^^ OPM11^_-1111.ONNIM =GIFT>. y --^ v -^ • • •1•01•Mo^I^. ^ Il 1.NINISIMr/ /•11111111~SI/ AllsMr MINIM A•11110'. a port-de-voix must be placed before the long note. (1) These examples should be adapted to the pitch of the relevant passages. 42 for Quantz's observation on how to make ports-de-voix on the transverse flute: 'If there is a held semibreve or minim .^—^^^= ^ ^ JIJ r aJlll^^^ i M"./ /IMMIONNII• =WM J . i..^^.. 1.7 1J^1^ ^^^0_^^^_^W^^ Jl . 2 A Ex.732 .L..7JMiY Mam / TM /if 1./ /1111111. in order that a pleasing line should be constantly maintained. 1 half shakes Ex.s MI • . B. _ Matz_ .25.am 11.^^/^^ M ^i—^ ^ L^/^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^M.^ >•a ñ a^0 ^^. The (following) brief sample contains most of the ports-de-voix (.^^^ wil^t r:I^r—^ 1. s•^ s .. .^^iI11s1 MUM (I) Ex.s ws BM sIMIIsIMMI _ /^ ^s/^^s —JL^^ M ^l/' 1^^^ . ) It is not enough to be able to perform ports-de-voix according to their characteristics and individual differences when they are marked in the score..^i/ I^ sIIMIN ^— . .. _ • • ^L^^^ J^ —^ ^^^^^J^__^ MIME ^^^J_^^^^^^^ M.^^ t --a^1111^ .^ ^ ...i7JMMI ss• s J 1MILIM/ /TI/^ I^^ ^^ /^—/^^^^r ll7i^ MM W MI WWI IML MN /IMJ^ .^ i^. ^—^^ ^^^^^^^ . ) It will be seen from this example that ports-de-voix are most often placed in front of notes that are preceded or followed by faster notes and that there must also be ports-de-voix with most shakes...011111111— 1••tJV71 s 1•11s111/Itl 4•111111. ."'°- 11.-:-a^^^r...I MI NM . 2 mordents Ex. 2 and 3 with ports-de-voix and use them in the following example.IMMI— ... Here is a rule that may be of use in learning this: Wizen after one or more short notes on the downbeat or upbeat of a bar there comes a long note which remains consonant to the harmony. 2 ^..1 /IMM IMsP ^^^I^LMNIMIIIIIINiNILa MO= ^^^^ ^^/ !I s /^^^^ ^ l• 4/NOSHOMM J ..WW JrPINIMMI^^^ :^_^ INE•1111ss••s1.^^'/. A. one must also know how to insert them in an appropriate way when they are not written. .^ NM MOM St•.• 41 ( . ¡ ^` . ^ 1^ ^iJll^. If one wishes to mix the grace notes of examples 1.. Jos .. .IN /111111 s01•11111111111114— ^ 11••s /11•111iMtM1111111111111M11/. 1 A Ex. the preceding note will show whether the port-de-voix should be taken from above or below. See also p.^ i so7 IN= ^ ^^ i R2•11M=t..

Unlike `threaded sound'. thereafter one starts to diminish the sound until the end of the note. increasing its strength). (Quantz) `Inflated sound' was a stylistic feature much in use at this period (particularly in Germany) and was practised on all instruments with the exception of keyboard instruments.. ) There is no symbol by which to identify inflated and diminished sounds. (F. moreover: Piano and forte must never be exaggerated. the transition from one to the other should be made imperceptibly: (1) Quantz here refers to the technique of embouchure on the transverse flute which makes it possible to maintain correct intonation when the dynamic level varies. ) the transverse flute and the recorder. gives special attention to intonation and moderation in `inflating' the sound. ).. `inflated sound' arises from the vocal procedure which consists in attacking the sound softly. (Quantz) Quantz.. one will find that.. whether one is blowing strongly or weakly. Here are some comments referring to the `son enflé' taken from composers of the 18th century: How to inflate a sound: . however—and to increase the volume of sound until half-way through the note. where the embouchure by itself (fixed wind-way) does not allow so great a correction of tuning as on the transverse flute. . ). and end with the same softness as one began with.. (2) Though th e harpsichord cannot swell its sounds (. then diminishing it during the final part: If there is a held semibreve or minim. it must first be sounded softly (. by prolonging the voice without any wavering whatsoever.To inflate a sound well. (Montéclair) Montéclair here shows it by wedges: inflated sound diminished sound inflated sound diminished sound full voice .. On the recorder. In this way the sound will always be in tune with the accompanying instruments. nor must instruments be forced beyond what their nature allows: for that is exceedingly disagreeable to the car. then. the rule which we have given (1) must be applied here. so to speak. `inflating' it mid-way through its duration (that is. ( .. Quantz adds. it is therefore advisable to execute the `son enflé' with circumspection: Reflecting on the difference between (. after which one starts to breathe out—quietly. ) But in order that the sound should neither rise nor fall in pitch as it is being reinforced or weakened (a defect which might arise from the nature of the flute). each requires to be treated in its own particular way.. it must first go forth from the breast.L. as smooth as a mirror throughout the entire duration of the note. thrusting out and éxtending the voice until it reaches its greatest fullness ( . Couperin) A.This sign: -411111 ^ means that one must begin softly. strengthen the bow mid-way through the value of the note on which the sign is found.fit has other advantages (. The voice should be. and strengthened bit by bit. .. beginning with a tiny fraction of the voice: it is threaded.732 .. where it was not possible (2) (apart from the clavichord and the bowed harpsichord). — 25.42 SON ENFLÉ (Messa di voce) Inflated sound (`son enflé') and threaded sound (`son filé'): `Inflated sound' is the opposite of `threaded sound' which Montéclair defines as follows: 'Threaded sound' is executed on a note of long duration. despite the resemblance between these instruments.

. ) To execute it well. See p.L. 38-39 the example and the quotation from David concerning the `son enflé' which accompanies a port-de-voix. ) the tongue should begin ports-de-voix softly.25. Circolo mezzo. ) After having paused on the stressed note... Desplanes. See also on pp. Gruppetto. 59. also the 'Messa di voce' on the first note of a Fermata. that is to say.732 . A. the five notes which serve to make it are taken in a single breath ( . a quaver or a semiquaver. and the speed does not allow one to swell each note's sound. Doublé. if the speed allows it.B. But if a number of notes follow one another. And this change in the strength of the sound should be made from the chest. as far as speed allows. 1111' n^ o (Montéclair) N. should have its own piano and forte. by exhaling.. (. TOUR DE GOSIER (Turn. and move on to the following note slightly more softly. The turn can also be the termination of a trill. 46. (.B.43 Prelude Grave e affettuoso i Ply f ^ * (J. ) each note. the throat (`gosier') must make its turn by moving lightly from the first note to the fifth. . whether a crotchet. making a kind of very sudden shake on the second small note (o): r . .. Double cadence) The turn is indicated by the sign 419 . make them swell.. 1712) Where to inflate the sound Long notes should be sustained in a manner distinguished by swelling and diminishing the strength of the tone. the voice must emphasize the strong note (M) where the sign cv appears (. Sonatas for solo violin and violoncello with harpsichord. (Quantz) N. p.-A.mm/ i/ P P ar7mt Lawssiissdmormi ^i =^. one could still increase or lessen the force of breathing during these notes in such a way that some notes will be louder and others softer.

chief among which were `tremblement' (shake). mordent. it may start on the note below the main note of the trill. `cadence' and `battement'. This is the preparation note. Rules for the trill The trill obeys the following general rules: — A shake should occupy only the space of a tone or a semitone. what we call the trill (derived from the Italian 'Trillo') was given various names. +..25. or long. Signs for the trill These are numerous and their interpretation often varies from one composer to another. gruppetto._ 44 When a slur precedes the turn (`doublé'). ..-. then the first note of that turn should not be reiterated: eka s . `battement').^^ (Marpurg) TRILL (Shake. —This termination is always rapid. The trill can be illustrated roughly as follows: preparation note ^ strokes 10111•71111 ^ r e^ • e7 I7 'point ^ d árret mï^r 17 r1 iii^N ^^^^^ ^^^r-^ s 111s11s111s The beginning of the trill (preparation note) With which note should one begin a trill? The preparation note... —The termination is preceded by a `point d'arrêt' (a rest or a pause on the principal note). according to the requirements of the mode and the note from which the shake originates. but it may equally well mean a different embellishment of the performer's choosing (mordent. depending on the note that precedes the trill. (Quantz) — It always starts on the beat and generally on the note above (except when it is preceded by a port-de-voix from below).732 . mr Tr —. 37. the speed of the strokes will increase.. The latter sign (+).^. see under 'Pined' on p.^_ v! . Here we will deal with the usual. probably derived from t.. However.. Every shake begins with a A.L.^^^ ^. Cadence. often indicates a trill. •. _. Couperin) This is the general rule. .' _.. Battement) In 17th. (F. — If the duration of the preparation note permits.and 18th-century France. t ri ll. tr. which should be formed on the note above the principal note. etc. For the short trill (`martellement'. `flattement'. The most frequent are t. .). :. _ ^ — r ^'-F• v .

and one can then lift the finger once or twice more (hence making two or four more notes) during the time of a pulse. . a somewhat slow shake will make a better effect than a fast one (..L.. One should adjust not only to the place in which one is playing. (Quantz) Duration of the preparation note The preparation note of a shake should be longer or shorter in proportion to the value of the note on which the shake is made.+ rr. . they should nonetheless begin more slowly than they end: but this gradation should be imperceptible. it underlines the importance of the preparation note.1•1111 ^ ^ C^ ^^ •.. which should always be perfectly perceptible..::+. .. (Quantz) A. This must be regarded merely as a simplification of notation: Although the strokes are shown equal in the table of embellishments in my first book.. and then humming (trilling) for the other half of this duration: becomes ^^..MINI (Choquel) Choquel's advice is.. (F. the finger made hardly more than four movements.: a ' . It would be rather difficult to indicate precisely the correct speed of a good shake. .45 port-de-voix which is in front of the note and is taken either from above or below.. :. However. (Van der Hagen) Quantz: One does not have to play every shake at the same speed.25. ). ) In sad pieces the shakes are played slowly. If the place in which one plays is large and reverberant. . ) If. (Loulié) One should mark it (the trill) by leaning on the note which immediately precedes that which carries the trill...//. '.^IME. during the space of a pulse ( = 80). . strokes in trills are most often represented as equal. . that the speed of a long shake in preparation for the end of a piece would be neither too fast nor too slow if.732 . . . and end it (the trill) as fast as possible. . but in spirited pieces they must be played faster ( . i:ti:^^_L:.. ^ :^t:"^ . but also to the piece itself that is to be performed. . . Couperin) To succeed in making a good trill. one must begin by moving the fingers very slowly. .. and consequently eight notes: ^s In fast. rigidly schematic.. which is a meritorious achievement on any instrument.IIIN IM. a rapid shake will be more suitable than a slow one. .r•. lively pieces the short shakes can be a little faster.. it is a small place or a room hung with tapestries. and that for half the value of the note. I would imagine. Beyond that one must be able to distinguish what kind of piece one is playing ( . strike progressively faster while swelling the sound. where the listeners are quite close. of course.. however... The strokes In tables of embellishments of the period. on the other hand.

^ J^J^J^^ • . lower) note of the trill in a sort of pause. (F. because otherwise the shake would be neither complete nor brilliant enough: ^^. (pause) The length of the pause is included in the value of the trilled note: The strokes and the note where one stops should both be included in the value of the essential note (i. but when Ex. the note carrying the trill). the strokes are interrupted on the principal (i. The termination of the trill is always rapid. it was called the `point d'arrét' (halting point).^/ sounding Those who find it awkward to make certain shakes. p. The terminations in the above examples by Montéclair and Hotteterre.-J. .732 G . Quantz).e.^ ^^1^ ^^I both a port-de-voix and an after-stroke.44. Lebèguc. ^ .25. may pass over them. 1676) A. just as in the example opposite by Rousseau. First organ book. 1 and 2). but it is always greater than that generally indicated. Sometimes these two little notes are written out (ex.46 The `point d' arrêt' (pause) ^ Just before the termina. but rather for tempi to be observed very precisely. Couperin) (See the first example under `Trill'. whatever the speed of the piece in which it appears (the note which follows the dot should always he extremel y short. where they appear too difficult to play. J. I. ROUSSEAU: ari r^^. (N.L.MU.•^^ ^^^^^ ^^/ ^^ \w^^ MMrMM • ^^1 { NI AW.^^. 3) one should assume there will be ¡ ^'. 1). and sometimes with a turn: stroke fall turn (Montéclair) This turn is called `after-stroke' by Quantz: The ending of each shake consists of two little notes which follow the (principal) note of the shake and which are added at the same speed (as the strokes).HOTTETERRE: Prelude tion. 1 Ex. This rapidity can vary according to the character of the piece. • . :.3 only the principal note itself is given ir (ex.^^. In those days. which merely represents a systematic way of notating it.e. In German they are given a name meaning 'after-stroke' (ex. are explicit in this respect.. not wishing their hands to be constrained in any way..2 Ex.) The termination Sometimes one ends the shake with a fall (`chûte ).

) On a long note. ).if 11•111•110M1ss•11r1IIMINIIPUINIMMI rWO= 1•1111a-s111111t• ONOMINI ANNIMvirs IMMIMIN =NMI 1•t. ^ ^^^^í^iu^^^áYi á ^ / . In former times. 'rocking' must be preceded by a messa di voce ('inflated sound').. De Lusse writes: There is yet another kind of flexible shake which the Italians call 'tremolo'.^J^^s •I t=^^ • _ • ww NW 0 11M1 a:i^• ^• •. 36.wr ^ RIM UM VANNES !I. ./_^. ) This embellishment produces a very good effect on the final note of a musical phrase.. hu. hu.MTE>•NIIIMIs1111111•111WaMINMI1 . whatever the metre ( . is nothing other than the repetition of a note on the same pitch. It is made simply by an active movement of the lungs breathing out these syllables: Hu..f l>• WI • MIIMi. or `tremblement' in French) is never used on half-bodied sounds (`threaded sounds') (. Mersenne puts it precisely: Whilst the bow is in motion on the strings.-25. when the note is a long one ( . (1636) Marpurg adds: 'Rocking'. . with the difference that the repetition is not made by fresh articulations (. A. WIWI IMO •LANIM1 01st:TEMIMINNW _ ow JIM/ S. It is known that in the 17th century. ) It is not possible to represent it in notation. etc.. since in 1545 Agricola recommended flautists to use it in imitation of the Polish viol players.41s1111Js1 1•1•5... the finger should be rapidly rocked on the fingerboard. this oscillation of the sound was very diversified and was consciously used as an embellishment..111111=11111..732 .1•js ^•^ IMO/ ^^ ^^^ AINNIIMMINN MN NSW NW Mw I . 1761) TWO EXAMPLES OF PIECES WITH GRACE NOTES ADDED BY THEIR COMPOSERS C. French lutenists and viol players termed this effect the 'verre cassé' (lit.^. • ^^ .^^^^^^•^+ M.minor-Irmo.. . hu.~ZIP71 OMNI NBLIINIMrMINIIIII> /9M !t/1•^i^T^^^^&M . especially among string players. It appears to have been particularly highly valued in Poland. ^ MI /MI 1alM1111 ^^^ i i II (1) See also p... m =cm .s11t VIM ^^Y^^^ I^Y I^ I ^M^^y^^ ^ ^Y . It is an imitation of the Tremulant organ stop ( ..1. `broken glass') ( 1 ). . MIMI= s aJMIlli. DIEUPART: Overture (c1710) • . Concerning the tremolo. Tartini writes: This embellishment (tremolo..^. The vibrato seems to take its origin from the rocking motion of the finger on the string of a viol or lute or on a clavichord key.. (L'Art de la flûte traversière.^ .r 11 IMO 1MIN11•r•ta .. obligatory embellishment. I. in fact. . ) It also makes an extremely good effect on the long notes of any melody at all..47 VIBRATO Today vibrato has become an almost systematic. in Italian 'tremolo'. which lends a great deal to the melody when used appropriately..[.

vibrato. _ •MOMINIIIW7 1 0/ ^ _^_7^^^__^^^^^_^.732 ..Extract from Dieupart's table of grace notes: Explanation of signs shake .•110r .11111^^ •1•7•Ir MINIM •• WNW r•••••s•••/^^^^^L^1•11s1 J11•• •• IIM•1•11rNMI MOE I= MI IN••s l••••t1 ARUM.7^ _r_^^^^s^ ^^^ ^ _ ^I -.1•1/M•11•1111•11INMAIi\f RUE ^ ^••••- ..L.25. _^^.11111/ SS L••sIMP fall port-de -voix and mordent J.. One may add to these pieces embellishments which it was not customary to notate. A.ii/^^^^.. B. ^ . Amme Y MPì=1NY M. 1731) These pieces are embellished with all their grace notes: Courante • . 'flattements'. etc. .^^^^^ mordent (lower) double 'cadence' shake with mordent a.WM 111•111••s •• MIMI MUM M•11•1111•111. such as `threaded' and `inflated' sound.M..A•••17 '-s•s .f 17/11 s.s IMMINI 1•MMIII . de BOISMORTIER (Six suites of pieces for the transverse flute..s1•1 AM:7 I ICII•E-1111111.Iis•• s .11••. B.« Nrs11111. t^ r^M-//UNIMII =NI IN •11111111 mar I •rs• I•• =al s 1=IMIMI•10•1••ss•111M•r IMI MINN a sI•NIMI s IMO=1•a -•••11111111111111 N.•^^^^ a^^^ M sLL^ I...

it must always be possible in the midst of these decorations to recognize the heart of the air. .L.732 -F3•77:-F-- (1) See the chapter on Grace Notes. These 'passages' are commonly called doubles (va ri ants). Examples of `passages' or doubles (Montéclair): 'simple' 'passages' or variants Examples of diminution (Montéclair): 'simple' 'diminished' r lr r n-7 A. 33. whether by diminution or by 'passages' or other embellishments to adorn and embroider it. of which Loulié gives the following definitions: Passages' are many little sounds that are interwoven amongst the simple grace notes. p. consists of several measured notes put in place of a single one. etc. î _? . which is a sort of embellishment of the melody. trills. called the `simple'. which is how we have described the little discretionary notes. appoggiaturas. Diminution. thus distinguishing them from grace notes.49 ORNAMENTS Let us recall (1) that by ornaments we are here referring to variations and embellishments designed to diversify and decorate the bare bones of the musical text. Rousseau defines variations thus: Under this name one designates every manner of decorating and varying an air. and at the same time the character of each variation must be marked by differences which sustain the attention and prevent boredom.25. diminutions and passages. However much one multiplies and crams the variations. The word variations encompasses the terms doubles. Ornaments are therefore the variations added (by the composer or the performer) to the melodic line.

.. above all.4111•1111 SWIM L :. lack of affectation and.11111MWMII/ -/ /\ -." = a^i \V r<^^ a ^ •^ ^i^ir•^^^^ fff/fa^ •as arT••r^iilrt=ai^a7tl •^ u AIM raL..4/1/1. noble simplicity to the absurdity of doubles and irregular kinds of music ( . M. his `good taste' persuades him to do so with discretion and poise (later we shall see examples of Italian `extravagance'): An important point.. secondl y according to that of the Italians. 25-732 .1111i. 1738).11•1111al . and a style always combined with the essential grace notes. nor a lot of arbitrary grace notes. and one which cannot be stressed enough. short trills.••••"---s I. mordents. (J. ).fi^ : ^^^ s i ^J = ^ MEN Li^ 7 s '/:' ^^ ^^ ^>.fi•fi IIIIIIaAafINILt AMP' --• r ^ f•s7f^^ar^ aia^in•f /7 •T^•^•s ai•••arai•i•ralaft'a....MEN r^^^rir^rf s ^^^.11i JrNIIIIMMI a IIIIII•t __fi1Mt♦ ai111•ai1MINIIMI MOM I. ) preferred melody (.. aWi4I1•1J LI'1/V'l.a•aff>♦ ^ira/ i^•alai^^a^iJaif♦•i BMW /7J^^I♦ Nfif. (Montéclair) If the French musician uses ornaments. Leclair.^^__^^ ^J^_ BMW ^ ft MOW= AO. which are added to melodic and expressive pieces and which only serve to disfigure them.^^^^w ^^uut ^a^/^^^^^^rr i/'r ^V•—^ S.nme<•frfif al' 1• rip) f/fifafsffifaifflf/lutiffur I.. . the second in sixteenth notes.." ^ ^itfa^ .•i/ s ai1•i•ia•11 s11rdEll ••. and everyone can play them more or less to taste and inclination.^fifa^^ffafafa/r^^^i -^ ^ M •^ i•^ I .L. 4th Book of Sonatas for the Violin. the first in triplets. ..aatf^^^^ •^^•/^ r• l3tsi^ri'm (Double 1) or L.. ) Passages are arbitrary.m:ai.= afa•i1.1111s. lastly.50 FRENCH ORNAMENTATION The French musician of the 17th and 18th centuries was inclined to make more use of grace notes than of ornamentation such as we have defined it on p.m.... ar 1111. LECLAIR) 1738 Allegro non troppo . M.. turns. (1) The incomparable Lulli (. etc.... and.* MSS s ^ t♦ Omfiss rffit♦=eamt•fi... here is the beginning of a Minuet which Leclair follows with two successive doubles (on the sanie bass). r ^^ ft♦ s^>i ^r 3 -..111•<.-ar I Mims mama NMI r a ./••11s1111P11111•1111=1. with respect to the manner in which it must be played and decorated.ew•afÌ/' v7i /r •w1lA1fafl111M1iii/.t /111171111aal1•11aiIIMIiWa • u•110•lANIia• LAM •1111111•111MfY •/S AV^M1111 s r11 ILA fa1i1•i •^•^a•^ r1111111111.--. in contrast to his German. (Quantz) A. 49.•11111•111a•iJ•1• L// /11111/al•A111M1aaaalitaa/ia. single and double shakes..aJ.. firstl y according to French taste. From this 4th book..afaat MINf•i ft111 r 1M1 Am•-.^ ^^^^ =11J MNP.r /1/11•15 MP" a^Vfa al . fitness of expression.6^11•a/ \r ^ ^a/". such as appoggiaturas. For greater clarity we have here set them out vertically under the theme of the minuet: Minuet (J.s•s•111f12 ^ (Double 2) WM: araa•l•11•ifi11M MO I aaali tt//1. his Italian neighbours. The first manner calls for a clear and sustained expression throughout the melod y. but in addition there must be no extensive passage-work. finger vibrato. is to avoid this confusion of notes.•arif M ts • sanfif = s f ai "Sa111111 s1=i•O1S =YIP' ^i (1) One can consider the Adagio in two ways.

A. whatever its value.^. especially outside France.L. ) Likewise. It is not enough to play a long succession of quick notes (.51 Here is an example from Michel Blavet of the ornameï iation of a phrase upon its being immediately repeated (as before. Variations should only be made when the unadorned melody has already been heard (. It is in this respect that the greatest abuses are perpetrated.25...--. W--IIII---1J =I -1111Ms-s11MI Mr MVO --mmll GERMAN ORNAMENTATION Amongst the numerous precepts given by Quantz. and the same must be done for every variety of note.-M-ENIM--MNI– \V. ).^–•^^7 l./ r'7••^-^ ^^^^= ^^^^^ MINIM I. this is why I would advise against becoming too involved in variations instead of rather applying oneself to playing a simple melody in a noble.limi arm n a-a. in the main they wish also to follow their own taste. melodies which are already well written and which already have enough grace notes must not be varied. . appropriate and clean manner.7 . ) In general. is not content to play solely the essential grace notes. . .. we have set out the simple form above the ornamented one): Adagio (M. )... whether greater or smaller than a crotchet. When variations are made on crotchets. One can also choose another note in harmony with the bass. and seek to perform the melody with different arbitrary variations ( .. the first of one's added notes must usually be the same as that of the simple form.....•s-I •rC•. let us cite the following: Almost every person who applies himself to the art of music. care must always be taken in variations that the principal notes on which these variations are based are not obscured..i 1t Bah •s ONS–wrM •-/-•1am-rI • ••••• .^^^•^-^^-!' -r1111 _ I7I a•..t •'• u L•s••— scL/rl-sorJ---rms-am-arJIaI-1=1. provided that the principal note is heard again immediately afterwards ( .732 sf 4.. unless one is sure of making them better still ( . ). BLAVET) 1732 = ss ^-.

^r/ •/ :vta_^ =r•^ r•rrr•-r)rrt• t^ ^^^-!.a^ ^^^^^ •^ .= ID = r ^t ^ r ^r r ♦ ^ris•r•a^^-rrrrs t• • ): mow •' r.^^.rrr. P..<tt•^^t•^ ^ w / t•t♦<I --. •rrrr•^ r^^ u...L•^ ^ ^^^ ^ • MIN INN r•W ^ NW 11.11^ NIP" rr/ `^ rr/.imo -r... the first more specifically French (mainly grace notes). • ^^^ t/^ min)f tL7^ r.s ^^ m _ Ì .732 } • ^ l^ ^•: :.40 J110•11 srr.d<s 411•111al1'». . and Couperin les goûts réunis' (conjoined tastes).25.. A.^r^-•t• • ^ ^+^ .•^.. Al 411.^•: ^• r• . .a^rrr.1=1 •^ • ^•^^^=t•t•^^^^^-• •. /P'". from Telemann. .^Irri•'rr rrsrr^r^ 1._ ^: • ^^^ <t!•t•^I^t• I.i=7^ JON= v•-rr•N^r ^•^I a•^•. 111==1.111..r V 9 l >• ..•t<^^a•^ ^i ^•^^ ^^oi•4r^i i=ii^á ^^i ^ i •^i ^^^ 1\•.__ .11. rt r• Jt••M .AMNI r^^t••^r^^ .1. ^^ r .^ ^t. _ (1) Resulting in what Quantz called 'style mêlé' (mixed style). I /` .i.ïi r^ ^^ /1111. 52 QUANTZ: different ways of varying a single phrase: 7x i "NV 1110111ININP7 <117:011/71 •/ -MINN _^ ^ ^t.^ + 1)+ /' -i-^.^r^~••r • ^ ^•rrrr•rr•.I].. t•`.41M.r• \\Ì OM MIN /. ^sil .r<f/^ .7 .4/f ^^^^^^^^ =M r ^ ^_ 11111111::: .//1sP'77•11.----..11111t• •411111111t• 10=1•111•1•12ts t-•I^O•r^l^^r^t<t^^^r^^^ • ^ii ^. are two examples of ornamentation.I7 ^--^^^^ .^-zs^'a _ ^ .)/ r.v n+w+ r __ í/t••I•••L•s<tt•r!•t♦^•1^.r• ^^^ ^r ear ^ ^^^ ..^ ^ ^ ^=ó^ r i^ = . ^ •í • i ^^••^r• r•ttr^ ION r.•r^ ® . 4.Art.^•.L.-on^imeMamoso•verr ama14 0.—- — _^ -_ ^ ._r ^`i/.r• rJ.....PMMIMa. ^•^.•PW rr•••••t• ^•` —•^— I VW .. TELEMANN) 1732 /MOM ^.^r._ t••tr•t•) asl^= / rr•^• r•r/\J•^ ^t ^s ./ 8 íiií •^ ^ r ii^ 7^^ ^^ ^ av.•r ` .r^ _ \^'Ir7^7M / '^»1 •.^ ^^r^ .-rr.^ e^ .4/•s/=11111/Ir =It i^C: s^i/„.^ ^^t•t• •• LJ1IM•I<!t•rrtl.It•t• 'r^-^ t• _t•iiit•_Ÿtrrt•t•^ .1...s1r•r.. mt . WNW _^ rl AMMO IMMUNE ^^^^^ IMI )l1111 ^ -.I M ^ ^.SS is ^s^ w ^=isss• ^^.a•-.^ ^áe Lr^^1r_r" . (1) Here.^^ii^^^ r•• rt•tr •t..r••.MOM an^ ^ ^I ^ ^r<rl ^.r•^r^1^n^rr ^I^.ìes.t•t_t• In the matter of ornamentation Germany underwent French and Italian influen. IMI IM í lV•^t♦ rim mil r -_/' _ w-^-J+M-_)^--•_-)_+_^^/r••+•.t•^rrrr. J 1J^^r••r^\t^ r as ^ ^ t• •"/:._ .!111111111•V _ ^ NW _ ^_: ^^ .a ^^^ ^^^r •a•. `' ^ .IIMrt•.1=1 1r^t•-It /.^_ ^^ -^r^r/r^o d) .4^-r^-rrrrrr-r^rrllL-_==.•.1111t<r•• sMININLrI AIM Ial111.Ai &a r•-.n^r-••r-rrrr•mr+c•ca..r•.rA^^! 1=i .. the second more Italian in the style of its ornaments: Example 1 Sicilienne (G.

1MS. _^MMI ^ SI _ ^— .• MM/M s' MS/-Y^. M M.53 Example 2 Adagio (G.IIMJMJM MEIN M.../M1IMMMMMNMI. ^MM INS -M. -IMM -IME1111 In the example below..MMMMMMM-.. .^ ^ . 1 MI ^ M... Jr 1 rw I JJMIM AI 1M J1 rs rvsMMMI•s .^ -• ^M^M .^MM M.MM=ME l.I • ^M.M!•. .7f ^^ ^ /' ^a^M..^M-c>r-^MMM/ \. .MNI ^.I7 N_.!•YrLr... " MI' .MMM MIN MMMI .CM= .MM-.a. S.I 7 M M MM ^I M^ J----M-^ I..^. •11111 M MN../..61s11Yi41.1 a ^-III-II.^^.61111111s-ME NOMIP711I/t-I / .611-11.ME1!-7i./ AlMr1 I.MMMMM^.M...MM-MI••=M.^^^^ ..IIM-MMMJM I.MMMMI.61M I .1•NM -EINS =II MMMMMM71111M^-ANNIENIMAINIEN MMMIMMM MM1=11=.MIMMMMMMMMM .6IMi /II.r 7s MM.MYMIMMIMMMM. 1 .MMYIaI. 1J-RMMMM1111•111. I.♦1=1=11 I ININIMPsII s MMMM.= = =MEIN= =111/41sINNI lt.01•111MINa.0MMM IMI-..•111I111=i1J1Ns-III IMO ENS =NM.MJ MMIIIM/TM1/gat I'1 II /JMM. —II ^r^_ tMM f^ ^ ^ — ^^^ • • MEMO MIN ^ • -.Jtt I 1T Man= =...732 .L.^.M— I -••=1• M-MENIP ^ (^) ^^^i I• ••1 I= 1 .._M - M tM../ .=NM IME= MMI7 -MMI IMM-1111111M^7 17i.i.M1M-MI-r• 16..-7-IsI I I JMI MO MMM-I 1. -••••••.^^J DYA 1 IN ^ .1••st^•••'". ss•I4JMMEI-M-II a • 1^MM^_M _MM` MMMMMMMr-^MN-MMM--^-MMSuMMM^ —I—I—i .I/.. 1 1 1 IMMf.M..•t]M•MVJ-.IMMM ¡roam =SIM II NI MIIMIMMMIMMIIMMEMEINISnMr7r 1r111MM.A.^^MM NO IN MI... M^./11-IaMrM ^—s -M ISM INI ill =FM -MM.^^ISI0.M^ MMM •MEMM I IME MIM . P. _ ^ .' • o.MI^ ^t^^s^ J.J1>a 7M. It will be especially noted how Bach varies his ornamentation at different repetitions of the same motifs: Adagio (MARCELLO-BACH) Alessandro Marcello (1684-1750) (oboe) I soy ^ - M^^^^MIMMMI.IJI /•.^^..-..S.M-MCMMMMI-M-M-I^MM-MIII^I MM-1 ._ MMN.^ >_.. .^^ ••11M.iM _. 7JMM=^MMIMMI-I•IIMM1-MMI-IMM JMM IM MOVIE= EMMA EE I 7lM-IM0MMMM/•.I MS 7MINN M=J. o^ ..=^ ._ -MI./ Ml EINMPIIIMIIIIIIIIIIMM-MMr/ 1 /7..^..-I M MMMM I••• M. Min I MIR MIN MON= -MMMM^ I ..1%/I IIIJ•IMEM=.E^.. —`M M-I^I I sos-1M..M MiMM• s M ^MMyIMMMMMMM M--M .IM7MM MM—ll . Bach has ornamented (for the harpsichord) a theme taken from tarcello. /.•1111111 .i..IIIIIIMr111111111I I --M.^/ J.J ! 1^N/.4 • IZa .BIM MMMMr MINI= -II.17. iIME• MMMM_IMMMMM -^ • Emir . J.JI /MV/JM^MIM=^I.0 M^^.J.MIM .4sI ..I... M MM/..^V _ ^ ./'M^t M rf .MiI. / . NM I= _ ^MM^ • MI.I -MI-MrMI WNW =.t I.. .Irmer7 -.^I^IMt/ .^ ^ •••••-10•E.^ M-MM^-IM^M-MMM=1..JMMM MI s ^_ \•I MMM.t7=/.f ILMIY^MM^.. •^^-. + ^/MMEINSI! M— MMME IEIMMr7MMM.1MMEM/ !A M-117311111s 1 1 1 1 J.•r • M I'1•I WS.MEM-M EMI MM^MMI s A. ...M -MM.1 l»i^r.•{MNIS./ JI...I7<7 -AND -..aMM.• I_ W•I7^7 w^.ls..• Jai/ /.I^I/_lE1MM MI MI._MI MM-M.• 1J61Mr7f II -.. Bach (harpsichord) ..t.7I•.I./ /W7^".^^MI^.M.0 J716 =7 M^1// -IMMI I •.JMM .. TELEMANN) 1732 I•M.W.-^MMMM -^MM MI-.sMI.^^^^ . I ..M-=MN! •Ali iM--MMM-M MMIM MSS INN M ME.25. . .I711 —/I M OEM MM EMI MMM7t l.MI M1^^MIM^-MI M^^-^ ^.MIEN Im. ..•=1=NI MS= MM-MINIMNIS -* _ =. s-M.IN= MIMM-MMIME= .

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. but one tries to find such larger ornaments as are elaborate and refined. Knowledge (of figured bass and the art of composition) is essential in Italian music.55 ITALIAN ORNAMENTATION Quantz: In music composed in the Italian taste.^^^^^ ^•^. . . leaving t'e player free. Here the (following) example may be taken as a model where these optional ornaments are fully written out in notation: Adagio (QUANTZ) a.^^ _^^^_^^^^^w^^^^r^..i. ) One cannot deny that for a piece to make its full effect in Italian music.of certain passages written in an extremely simple. one does not content oneself with these little French grace notes. . ./7 r^s r r.... much is left to the caprice and capacity of the player (.^ ^_. within the limits of his capacity and judgment. . this is because . dry manner..1. yet always consonant with the harmony... Wizen perfori p ing in the manner of the Italian taste (in playing and decorating the Adagio).r /^^ •^^^a_^ s ^^^---^ +--r-^i-^^ ^ s--^^^^'w ^^ u .s-NE =NNW NMI ^ s=r01111111 =MI =IN ^ SLAM N ^. _^ _. s) + ^r ^^^ I li III.^rrl/ /^^J/^^^^rRilJ^J^^^ ^^ s^1^^^^iM1^ ^.^^r MU =Y:a^^^a^^^^^ ^'_^ W. the performers contribute as much as the composers. o.. 1 i M ^:a/ ta^^:3^sM. ). to vary them repeatedly so as constantly to surprise the listener with new inventions ( .

-' _ 7. moreover...^^ .^. ^ ^r _^^i^ll^l•. _^Ji^ r^ ^ _ -^^ ^. imaginative freedom and virtuosity. •101.^ {{ . wanting to imitate the Italian taste.• _ — ./D/J/MEMO . .. ornaments) are practised less in vocal than in instrumental music..rs . especially now. . ^ s^st /- - I I.56 : ....r-. he leaves it to the performer to invent others as he pleases .-_ .. ^^.s ^ . -. (Montéclair) Here is how Tartini decorates the melody of an Adagio./C^{ -Jr{...41Is --_ . .T1^^ s •• ^..^1• ^ ^^^7`^7^•^ ^ 1^1 I•_^^• I^ .^^ lfJ 1 l<: Js 11•^=^^=i^{^ ^ ^• ^. ^^ r SIM MIMI MM ^^.•••••s . .1.L.^.25. . i11^ ^ ^^ __ -MY I ^^ If•.^1Ar.... : A..J^^^^ ^:Jr^ ^-^^•^ ^^r^^^^ ^^ 1^1/•J/ .rI..r :^^•s ^ .. ^^. t ^..ss•.rJ•^^ ^^^^A ^ ^l tL ai^—. . which is not always to the taste of the French: They (the `passages'..t 1^t 1^•i -^ OL1 ^ 1^^^rss ^ !^_^ I!•H ^^lr^^^^^•^ ^J. .m•^. NIMI.^{^ .•Y^L^ ^-^•1^ A/.^^ _ r I • I Aasoritir^^ r •^=>v.^.732 -7.r^^. . disfigure the nobility of simple melodies by variations which are often ridiculous. This constitutes only one suggestion among some fifteen different variations offered by him._^I^J.^ J^^1A •.. when instrumentalists... the line of which is already over-written in the first place. .""..The Italians often decorate melodies with even greater . ^ ^7// 1//f lr^ sssr^^^^As^•1^^•V7^^= 1.

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^. (Quantz) It is rare for pedal-points to be made in our Latin music. Cadenzas should be invented virtually on the spot. they require not so much knowledge as a lively mind. .. rh the Italians.-----.il111s MIN ways blend together . and in fast pieces which are serious at the same time. there is then no better solution than to choose one of the most pleasing passages. he stands to gain more from appropriate brevity than from tedious length (. It was only in the period roughly between 1710 and 1716 that cadenzas such as we now have.. . They only occur in sad. and to fashion the cadenza ^ ^ from that ( .. at least until now (1759). The aim of cadenzas is to surprise the listener yet again unexpectedly at the end of the piece.. ^^:^ * NB •L' :r ^ ^ ^^^r^w^ w /^al.^ Therefore one must al^ I 'II MN OM MI MINI M r 41/7 AN . nor to confuse the one with the other. iNI. ). Cadenzas for the voice or for a wind instrument should be such as can be completed in a single breath.25. ). ). ) A. )..732 .1•1111=1111•1 ^^^^^^^_— NM MN ISM s•••1111•1J ! .. ......i..rr >7. ). (Choquel) Quantz devotes a whole chapter to the manner of performing the cadenza. Cadenzas should always partake of the principal sentiment that prevails throughout the course of a piece.irrr ...41111111111111 s w. and elevate to their highest point the passions one is aiming for ( . the fifth of the key in which the piece is written. and they have n-ver been used in French music.. However. ..L.58 THE CADENZA (improvised on a pedal-point) Here we refer to that optional ornament which. for this reason it is sufficient to make only one cadenza in a piece ( . slow pieces. r.y . A lively cadenza will consist of large disjoint leaps and of spirited passages with an admixture of triplets and shakes: (.. _______ —_ ^^ ^^_ ^ ^^i ^^' \ •^ -^^ ^^:^-^^^ ^ ` s figures of different kinds: ^t pi/ :. ). with a pause in the bass. the French have abstained ( . .. . and the Italians excel in this sort of decoration. -7 MUM-NI . I do not know whether tastes migra change.. who have been imitated by the Germans and by other nations who are intent on singing and playing in the Italian style. Their greatest beauty is in that they arouse the listener to a new.... Up to now. and to leave a singular impression on his mind. _ _ Care must be taken here not to mix the spirited with the sad in an absurd manner. to wit. touching admiration through something unexpected. the more pleasure one gives.^ r^s 1^^^^^^^1 A ^J^^^^^_^-^^ ^ prises the ear with new s inventions.. on the penultimate bass note. / air NM /ta Kra_ Wear NMI r-••The more one surv:^.. A string player may make them as long as he wishes. became fashionable ( . It sometimes happens that other preoccupations may prevent one from inventing something new on the spot. depending on the performer's wishes and imagination.^. provided that they are sufficiently rich in invention. is added in the principal (solo) part at the end of a piece. Here are some important extracts: It is perhaps not yet fifty years since these cadenzas became fashionable 1. They must contain a short repetition or imitation of the most agreeable passages found therein.^.

25..T. in the Adagio of a concerto... but for instruments. (messa di voce) (1) for as long as one's breath permits.a/IN/MINt11111. However.^ .) But since it is not possible to write out cadenzas just as they should be played. intermingled with distances: I should make some further comments on fermatas.NNW /111s1..1111Jr /1111711•1111111JI MOrINNINWIlf MI ^^^^..RIM I ^ ^^^^^^.=1111M1.^ ^ bass. The example du (opposite) may serve as a model: One may stay on the first note under the arch with the dot.. they are much rarer. decreasing and increasing the strength of the sound. This embellishment should consist only of such principal va Va do notes as are found in the chord of the figured ^ ....^.rs:. one must have enough breath left over to complete the subsequent decoration in the same breath. as passing into 11101111 lMIMIMM7 .. at the beginning of an air..= mom other keys is not permitted.. for instance. 1J1^W s JIt^^^M^t:..59 •^f^^.^ . ^^^ w r • t:11111111. 42. ^ t^r r^!!t 1.....111M111 . and it is used to give the singers an opportunity for making an embellishment at this point (.MO MIMI IIM MIN =MI MIMI sI MNr MINI tMOW" Vf -.. Thus it is only by paying great attention to cadenzas played by several able people that one will learn to perform good ones too.732 ... forming an interval of a descending fifth. (Quantz) (1) Messa di voce (`inflated sound'): see p. The fermata usually consists of two notes.7 /Jtt^_^^^t=_ t^^^^^ V•^ ^^ i^^^^ .. t/ MOti t 11MSL A melancholy cadenza is almost entirely made up of intervals which are very close together..^.t1IIMII OM^^^J•^^^^ 1J s =a^v^.. Sometimes they are encountered in vocal pieces. .4111/ . ON "..L. where a pause is made ad libitum. over the first of which there is an arch with a dot inside it. (.. any number of examples of well-wrought cadenzas would not be enough to give a complete idea._.1111•1111M4W . they may be found. ).-1•111 r^^r^ EL: (ii) 41) .IIIIMIrs 11•111s 11111111•110 EMI JIM/ tJt11•11t11•1111Ms /IN/ 1rINIII• WI MI !NW s•1•11111/ O111111 s •••••t1•11•1 ^/^ =NM /IV=. A.. ss1111sIr >..t amor.. ^./ /•111•1111171J ^^ s JM^t^ ^1^t0^^ ^^1 1111•11 Y >•MMI. though even so.

6/8. ranging from slow to fast. The three gradations of fast tempo are: Very fast Fast Allegro Veloce Less fast Allegretto Poco Allegro Poco vivace Poco veloce Allegro ma non troppo (non tanto.B. Con brio. were marked. such as Larghetto. non presto) etc.. A. 61. Furioso. .Pt •. etc. The French of today still. .. and thirty-second notes or sixteenth notes in bars of 3/8. Allegretto or Prestissimo.. Presto. . 12/8 etc. Where the words Allegro assai ( 1 ).. 9 Largo} ( i ) or di molto. Concerning rapid tempi. then.. the music was written in the same manner and played barely faster than . etc. N. Andante. etc. Gustoso.fin Allegretto is written and performed today. and these words are rendered in French (with much less precision and in a much looser sense than in Italian music) by the following: Lent (slow). for each of these different tempi has two principal kinds of pulse. namely one which is fast and one which is moderate (in the ratio of 2 to 1). Less slowly Andante Poco adagio Andantino Poco largo arghetto Poco lento etc... ^< . etc. for the most part.. Andantino..-. Gracieux (graceful). 1 . (Rousseau) IMPORTANCE OF THE TEMPO No-one can doubt ( ) the importance of seizing upon the tempo required by each piece. Adagio.) • ^ ^ G CLASSIFICATION OF TEMPO INDICATIONS ACCORDING TO MARPURG The three gradations of slow tempo are: Very slowly Adagio assai ( 1 ) Adagio di molto Slowly Adagio Largo Lento etc.(Let us remember that Quantz is writing this in 1752. Quantz remarks: In the past. such as Agitato. etc. 3/4. of which one must distinguish those which indicate only the degree of rapidity or slowness. a great many pieces that are at present completely ruined by an ill-chosen tempo would make a better effect and bring more honour to their composers. what was said to be played exceedingly fast was performed almost twice as slowly as today.. Each of these degrees is further modified and subdivided into others.The Various Types of Adagio and Allegro CLASSIFICATION — TEMPO — CHARACTER There are five principal modifications of tempo which. Gai (spirited) and Vite (fast). C. or the major errors that can be committed in this regard. Vivace. Allegro and Presto.. (Quantz) To do this. depending on whether there are sixteenth notes or eighth notes in bars of 2/4. there were certain rules about this and they were to be observed as they ought to be. Quantz goes on to say: It must be observed that above all else it is necessar y to give as much consideration to the word written at the beginning of a piece to indicate the tempo as to the quickest notes that make up the (rapid) passagework. are expressed by the words Largo. Quantz suggests a pulse beat (at 80 to the minute) as a standard which could se rv e to give one an idea of each tempo in question. (1) See note (2) on p.. Thus the great number of fast notes formerly found in instrumental pieces by German composers were much more difficult and perilous in appearance than they proved in performance. and those which additionally indicate the character and expression of the Air. Modéré (moderate). observe this moderate speed in fast pieces. If.25332 Presto or Prestissimo Allegro assai (1) Allegro di molto Velocissimo Vivacissimo Vivace Poco presto etc..L.

732 . Mesto J=40 CJ = 40 Adagio cantabile Adagio spiritoso Arioso Larghetto Soave ¢J=80 CJ=80 Allegretto Allegro ma non Allegro ma non Allegro ma non presto etc. as we can see. A.61 CLASSIFICATION OF TEMPO INDICATIONS WITH THEIR METRONOMIC VALUES ACCORDING TO QUANTZ 4. = 80 when the speed is extremely fast and there are only 6 quick notes (sixteenth notes) to the . (2) According to Brossard. = 160 when this metre contains no semiquavers =40 when the bass moves in quavers J = 160 when there are semiquavers and quaver triplets 3/4 J = 40 (Adagio assai. Affettuoso Pomposo 4/8_(2/4) J = 160 when these metres are taken fast 6/8 J. troppo tanto CJ= 120(1) Allegro Poco allegro Vivace 4a=160CJ =160 Alleg ro assai (2) Allegro di molto Presto etc. Quantz. which should be performed in twenty seconds.bar 3/8 J. but should remain within a prudently moderate slow or fast speed depending on the different characteristics that have to be expressed.L. = 160 when these metres are taken fast (Alla 12/8 J1 = 160 siciliana) 12/8 J.25. . here takes 'assai' to mean 'a great deal'. Lento and Mesto if the bass only moves in crotchets 3/4 (Adagio cantabile) =80 if the bass only moves in crotchets and the melody is arioso rather than sad 314 3/4 J• = 107 (Presto) when the speed is extremely fast and there are only 6–. that is to say: 2/4 J = 120 or ( J = 120 etc. = 80 when the speed is extremely fast and there are only 6 quick notes (eighth notes) to the bar 3/8 J1 = 80 3/8 J. = 107 (Presto) when the speed is extremely fast and there are only 6 quick notes (sixteenth notes) to the bar (Arioso) (the metronomic signs for all these metres refer to the Allegro tempo) (1) Note that this tempo is the same as that indicated by Engramelle for an Allegro of twenty bars in duple time. Dolce Poco andante Maestoso Alla siciliana etc. the adverb 'assai' for some means 'a great deal' and for others means that the metre and the tempo should be in no way exaggerated. which is its usual sense. quick notes (eighth notes) to the bar J. J = 40 Oh= 40 Adagio assai 12) Adagio pesante Lento Largo assai 121 Grave etc.

most graceful manner possible means in a majestic. vivacity. etc. etc. sedately. etc. means a little spirited. pompous. means. or at a bold. blithely. frenzy or swiftness. . that is to say the metre must be hurried along or its beati made extremely short. playful. . to walk with even paces. j as an adverb to show that one must sing or play with fire. brisk. comfortably. etc. -25. pretty. spirit. though with vivid and well-marked expression agreeable. in a leisurely way.L. It roughly the same as Allegro means fast.732 ^a . and consequently almost invariably slowly Andante from the verb andare': to go. tenderly etc. Presto Prestissimo Arioso Dolce Maestoso Soave Légèrement (lightly) means in the saine tempo as if one were singing an Air means that the voice must be made tender and the melody rendered in the softest. This normally indicates liveliness. consequently almost invariably slowly and drawing out the metre a little lovingly. without hurrying. that all the notes must be made equal and the sounds well separated Allegretto Allegro diminutive of Allegro. very often quick and nimble but also sometimes at a moderate speed. animated. spiritedly A. way always means lively and really animated. pace. graceful etc. as if broadening the metre and emphasizing main beats that are often unequal Larghetto Crave Adagio Affettuoso (or affetto) Andantino means that one must beat time and sing and play gravely. rapture.62 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SÉBASTIEN DE BROSSARD Largo means extremely slowly. with majesty. but in a graceful. Often it also means to sing or play quickly. and consequently gravely and slowly. and consequently almost invariably slowly means smoothly. etc. especially for the continuo bass. emphatic manner. sweet. bordering on the lively and animated Vivace Italian adjective often taken ( .

e() Very fast adjective taken as an adverb (..-. 7.1 1..^^ tali . ^ îít^ I^.t^ ^^ ái l^ tllh -%4 u ^ q ^ ^ ' trill t ^^1 t±.s .^f ^ 4111. and very close to Andantino adverb which indicates slowness in tempo.. It corresponds almost to the Italian Vivace (1) See note (2) on page 61.. ^ .-fi ^ ^^. . 114^ III.BI ^ .f'/^/. to be performed with boldness and fire. .^¡^r s ^ r• ^" r ^ ^`111 ^ s^. 1 11^.^!.. 11C11^ ^r t 1 : Ï^^ 5 . ^ zs till ^.s c iii ^ i ii` ` ^. a slightly less slow tempo than Largo.. i s:1^1^ ^ ^ ^ti!' . i i^111 s . But ( .12 ^ r ^Il 1 f♦ lr ^^. a pulse halfway between the spirited and the fast.^ orr..41i1^ ` If^ 't J 1.63 VARIOUS TEMPI ACCORDING TO JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU a tempo slower than Adagio. It shows that the long sounds should be 'threaded'. 25-732 .^ ^11 . . the most lively of all after Presto.' to go. 1 iM i d ^ ^i ^ . quickly) (see below: Légèrement) means fast s•". s1^i^^ ^ __ tl/ ^ ^ ::: 1^^ 7. . s 1l `74. s i ^ ^ _ ^s . i. frenzy and despair. ' ^.L.`7^ 'l'-`: w 4. ) means lively. and an affectionate and sweet expression in the character of the melody the metre slightly less spirited (in relation to Andante): it should be particularly noted that the diminutive Larghetto has quite the opposite meaning (in relation to Largo) present participle of the Italian verb andare'.^ ^ ¿ ^ %ÌÌ ! C 1 /ir ^J `ÿ ^ IìGI^ •Z ^^• ^. the beats and the metre drawn out.r^ s . a certain gravity in performance adverb which suggests leisurely. 61 this word indicates a tempo still faster than 'Gai' (spirited). ^ L -= ^ ^ III— ^ . • s1 _^ñ ^ ^^^ ^is . animated tempo. RBI R ti ^^ v this word Dolce (sweet) is the opposite not only of strong (`Fort') but of harsh (`Rude') ^ •r iw ^b ` ^. ^ °é r ' ^^.t..1.1I ^ _::^ ^ • 1 n!!! ^ i ^ loi s ^a^ ..' ^ • v ^ . `ia1 i rr ^ ^ . and it is also the indication for a spirited tempo..r . slower than Andante.-^^. Vivement' (quick. quick..^. etc. . and in addition.^ ^ in t :to. ' ^^ •\ [Ili L J F' ^^i /s . It describes a tempo that is decided without being lively. In French: 'Vif. steady performance adjective taken as an adverb (.. . ' ^^ ^ . ^ 11. which are anything but sprightly spirited. ^ ^1 ^ ^ ^ ^i ^ sometimes an even more precipitate t mpo is indicated by the superlative Prestissimo or Presto assai.) indicates a tempo halfway between Andante and Adagio. ) it is often applied to transports of fury.1^ ^ ^^ ^ •u r ^ ^. the metre being slightly less vivacious adjective taken as an adverb ( ..^^I . s t ^^^i. corresponding almost to what in French is denoted by the word 'Gracieusement' (gracefully) indicates a more moderate liveliness (than Allegro).. - ^^ 4.) indicates a style of melody that is sustained.. ^. ... .^ ^_ A.: ^ ^` ^^'I. and the very ultimate in slowness. ir : ^`''= 11'^ . elaborate and appropriate for important Airs t:.

it is better to sustain the last note a little longer than its value calls for ( . one must also be governed by the principal sentiment intended by the composer in Iris piece. etc. In order then to play an Adagio well. so to speak. . . The Adagio affords more occasion than the Allegro for both exciting and subduing the passions.25. the key and the metre—knowing whether it is equal (duple) or unequal (triple)—also provide some elucidation. an excellent effect is produced. Andantino. Arioso. a lyrical Adagio too slowly.. . the sound gradually diminishing to piano (see Quantz's chapter on the Violin): (1) Subheads by J. each note should be caressed and soothed. As regards the two ways of playing and decorating the Adagio. . Andante. and rough tonguing must not be used. the sound must not be cut off at once. it must be judged in the total context of the piece. Larghetto. on the other hand.) An Adagio can be compared with a flattering supplication ( . A.-C. DOTTED NOTES When in the Adagio there are slurs over dotted notes (see example). N.732 . Affettuoso. In playing. the mind must as far as possible be in a tranqur almost sad state (. the note after the dot must not be stressed. The right method of playing an Adagio requires the soloist to allow himself to be held back by the accompanying parts rather than to go ahead of them.L. An extremely sad Adagio is normall y shown by the words Adagio di molto or Lento assai. As to the tempo required by each particular piece. 50 (now (1)) and p..53 (Telemann). see the chapter on Ornaments.64 OF THE MANNER IN WHICH THE ADAGIO SHOULD BE PLAYED (1) (extracts): J. secondly according to that of the Italians. it must be slurred with the preceding note. TONGUING In the Adagio. ) letting it die away gradually. p. A pathetic Adagio should be clearly distinguished from these other kinds of slow piece: Cantabile.B. QUANTZ DIFFERENT SORTS OF ADAGIO—THEIR CHARACTER AND TEMPO Thé principal mood of the Adagio is one of tenderness and sadness. J. thereby putting light and shade into his expression. so as not to play a very sad Adagio too fast or. V. SWELLING THE SOUND When in an Adagio the soloist alternately swells and diminishes the strength of the sound. NOTES FOLLOWED BY A SILENCE Especially when rests are encountered. firstly according to French taste. . Largo. except when the composer requires some notes to be cut short in order to waken the listener who may have been languishing.

65

A A A
A

If there t a dot after the second note, in an Adagio the first note must be played as shortly as in an Allegro, but without as much force:

A A A A
A

THE EXPRESSION OF ASCENDING CHROMATIC SEMITONES When in a slow movement there are semitones intermingled with the melody, those which are raised by a sharp or natural sign should be l^^ °...^ :^ perceived as louder than the others; this is produced 'V7^^^ sot 1•q -^I N3•ININMM.^'^^,".MOI when, on wind instruments, the wind is increased: (')

s (>)

^^

A
A

GRAVE A Sostenuto, which is the opposite of Staccato and which consists simply in a well sustained, serious and harmonious melody, in which there are many dotted notes which must be slurred in twos, is normally headed with the word Grave; for this reason it must be played with a long, weighty bow-stroke. A Grave, in which the melody consists of dotted notes, should be played in an elevated, lively manner (... ) The dotted notes must be swelled as far as the dot, and they must be softly and briefly slurred onto the following notes, unless the interval is too large. For very distant leaps, each note must be stressed separately. If such notes rise or fall by step, the long notes, which are most often consonances and cduld ultimately displease the ear, may be preceded by a port-de-voix. (1)

A A

A

A A
A

o
A

i

ADAGIO SPIRITOSO An Adagio Spiritoso is most often composed in triple time with dotted notes, its melody being often interrupted; and the expression requires even more vivacity than we have requested (for the Grave). For this reason the notes should be stressed more than slurred, and fewer grace notes should be used. Above all, ports-de-voix which finish with half-shakes may be used (2) ; but when some cantabile ideas are found amongst the rest one must adapt one's performance to these as well, mingling the serious' with the charming in alternation.

A A

(... ),

*fl ow'

If many conjunctly rising or falling semiquavers are found in a Cantabile or Arioso in ), one must strive to express these sorts of notes in a simple triple quaver metre (3/8) ( and charming way, sotnetimes using `piano' and sometimes 'forte'. If leaping quavers are interspersed, rendering the melody dry and failing to sustain it, leaps of a third can be filled up with ports-de-voix or triplets. But when tize bass has notes of the same value for the same harmony throughout a bar, then the principal part is free to make more grace notes. Nevertheless, grace notes slzould never deviate from the general manner of playing in which one is directed to perform such a piece.

4 A

(1) See paragraph 'Port-de -vo ix', p. 41 ('When after one or more short notes ... J. (2) See paragraph 'Port-de -vo ix, p. 38, example by Montéclair.

A A

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A

4 47

ANDANTE, LARGHETTO In an Andante or Larghetto written in triple crotchet metre (3/4), where the melody consists of leaping crotchets accompanied by the bass in quavers, with six often remaining on the same pitch and in the same harmony, one can play with more seriousness and with more grace notes than in an Arioso. But if the bass goes hither and thither by step, one must be carejtrl with the grace notes to avoid making forbidden fifths and octaves with the principal voice.

As regards the interpretation of the Adagio on the violin (for wind instruments substitute `tonguing ' for `bowing'), Quantz says:
An Arioso. Cantabile, Soave, Dolce or Poco andante is played with calm expression and with a light bow-stroke. Even if the Arioso is mixed with different kinds of quick notes, it still requires light, tranquil bowing. A Maestoso, Pomposo, Affettuoso or Adagio spiritoso should be played seriously and with somewhat weighty and pointed bowing. A slow. sad piece, which is indicated by the words: Adagio assai, Pesante, Lento, Largo assai or Mesto, requires the greatest moderation of tone and the longest, most tranquil and weightiest of bowing.

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67

OF THE MANNER IN WHICH THE ALLEGRO SHOULD BE PLAYED (1 ) (extracts): J. J. QUANTZ

THE ALLEGRO AND ITS VARIOUS APPELLATIONS Firstly it must be noted that, of the various names given to pieces of music, the word Allegro, unlike the word Adagio, has a very broad meaning, and under the term Allegro are included several kinds of pieces in fast tempo, for example: Allegro, Allegro assai, Allegro non presto, Allegro ma non tanto, Allegro moderato, Vivace, Allegretto, Presto, Prestissimo etc. Here we are using the word Allegro in this broader sense, referring to all kinds of lively and fast pieces, and paying no attention to the special meaning of the word when it describes a particular sort of fast movement. Since many composers use the words assembled above more from habit than to give a good description of the true tempo of pieces (... ), many cases are found ( . . . ) in which the composer's intention must be guessed at from the content of the piece rather than from the word found at the beginning to denote the tempo. CHARACTER AND TEMPO The chief characteristic of the Allegro is sprightliness and liveliness. The Allegro must not be begun faster than one is able to play the (fast) passage-work to be found in it ( . . . ) It is for this reason that the speed must be decided on in accordance with the most difficult passages of the piece. However much vivacity the Allegro calls for, one should never deviate from a controlled and reasonable speed. For everything that is hurried will cause the ear more discomfort than satisfaction. One must always have as one's aim the sentiment that is to be expressed, and not set out merely to play rapidly ( . . . ) Hence, if in an Allegro one wishes to affect and charm the ear, each piece must in fact be played with suitably fiery expression; but one must never hurry the tempo, as the piece would thereby lose all its grace. TO AVOID HURRYING The tempo is hurried when the fingers are lifted too quickly, especially for leaping notes. To avoid this fault one must give a little emphasis to the first note of fast figures; in this way the important notes should always be heard for a little longer than those which are merely passing notes. As for triplets, one must take great care to make them very full and even, and not to hurry the first two notes too much ( . . . ) To give this effect one may stress the first note of a triplet since it is the most important note of the chord. TONGUING (See also p. 68, `To set off the theme', `To express different sentiments') The fault of hurrying too much also very often results from lack of attention to tonguing. The fast passages of the Allegro are those which must above all be played roundly, cleanly, with vivacity, with articulation and distinctly. To this end, liveliness of tonguing contributes much (... ) The tongue must sometimes be applied robustly, sometimes gently, according to the requirements of the kind of notes in question.
(1) Subheads by J.-C. V.
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one must then play it in a spirited.68 HOW TO BREATHE Breath must be taken at a suitable time and carefully husbanded so as not to separate the parts of a melody which belong together by taking a breath at the wrong time.. where the first half can be played softly. The dots are sustained and the following note is passed over very briefly. majestic.. there are more spirited than majestic and charming ideas. in an Allegro. ).732 . 27. then more tranquility should prevail in it. because on the one hand they become essential harmony notes. it can always be made perceptible by vivacity or moderation in the movements of the tongue (. lively or bold. it must always be well differentiated from the less important ideas in its expression. Bold sentiment is represented by notes in which the second or third are dotted. p. the alternation of piano' and forte' will lend much grace to one's playing. A majestic sentiment does not allow much to be added. THE LOW NOTES IN LARGE INTERVALS In passage-work. as much in the Allegro as in the Adagio. CANTABILE PASSAGES When fast notes are followed by some slow. it must again be noted that it is principally vivacity of tonguing that expresses a spirited sentiment. A. Spirited sentiment is imitated and represented by short notes ( . likewise with syncopated notes. lively fashion.. TO EXPRESS DIFFERENT SENTIMENTS (spirited. and on the other hand the low notes of the flute are neither as strong nor as penetrating as its high notes. and the first ones consequently hurried. Charming sentiment is expressed with slurred notes which rise or fall by step. If charm is the piece's dominant sentiment. so that the listener will not experience any boredom.L. as also by piano' and forte' And for reprises in general. These last should be firmly stressed and played with animation. Majestic sentiment makes itself felt in long notes ( . Whether majestic or charming. bold. cantabile notes. . (1) See paragraph 'Double-dotted notes'. )..25. the wider the leaps. (1) One can also sometimes use shakes on the dots. ORNAMENTATION In the Allegro as in the Adagio the plain melody should be decorated and made more pleasing by ports-de-voix and other small essential grace notes. charming) Sentiments change frequently. the piece must as a whole be performed more seriously. TO SET OFF THE THEME AND COLOUR IT When in an Allegro the subject comes back several times. the more strength must be given to the low notes.. according to the requirements of the sentiment it contains. one must immediately moderate one's fiery expression and play the slow notes with the sentiment they require. ) and in dotted notes. and more force given to the second. and anything appropriate to it should always be performed in a sublime manner. If.. But if majestic sentiment makes up the character of the principal ideas.

A charming sentiment requires ports-de-voix, slurred notes, and a tender expression. On the other hand, a spirited sentiment demands cleanly finished shakes, mordents, and a playful expression. As regards the interpretation of the Allegro on the violin (for wind instruments substitute `tonguing' for `bowing'), Quantz says: The Allegro, Allegro assai, Allegro di molto, Presto and Vivace require lively, very light, short and well detached bowing, particularly in the accompaniment where the manner must be playful rather than serious. However a certain moderation of tone must be observed. An Allegretto or an Allegro that is qualified by the words: non presto, non tanto, non troppo, moderato etc. (... ) should be performed a little more seriously, and with bowing which may in fact be somewhat weighty, but nonetheless lively and vigorous. In particular, semiquavers in an Allegretto, as with quavers in an Allegro, will require a very short bowstroke (... ): but fast passage-work should be played with a light bow-stroke.

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^

70

Character and Tempo of the Various Movements (Airs and Dances)
The various movements (airs and dances) in use during the 17th and 18th centuries will here be listed in alphabetical order. For each we have selected the principal definitions given by writers of the period, citing more than one when they complement or sometimes even contradict each other: in such cases, the date of the definition must be taken into account, the character of movements having often been subtly modified from one period to another. Whenever a precise speed is given for the tempo, it will be translated into a metronomic figure. (The patent for the metronome only dates from 1816. Before then, theoreticians used different means of indicating the tempo, such as chronometers—pendulums—, pulse beats, the number of seconds required for a given number of bars, and so forth.) AIR: see ARIA ALLEMANDE At first simply a dance, at the end of the 17th century the Allemande became the first or second piece in instrumental Suites. Its tempo was generally moderate, except in the second half of the 18th century when it often required a fast, sometimes even very fast tempo (Dom Bédos: Fast Allemandes of thirty-two bars in twenty seconds, that is J = 184!).
A sort of tune or piece in which the music is in quadruple time, taken gravely ( . . . ) The Allemande in a Sonata is now universally obsolete (... ); those who still use it give it a more spirited tempo. The Allemande is also the tune of a dance extremely common in Switzerland and Germany. This tune, as well as the dance, has much spirit: it is taken in duple time.

(Rousseau) Allemande (HOTTETERRE) 1708
Gravely

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71 Allemande (HOTTETERRE) 1708 Gracefully
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1

Allemande (ENGRAMELLE) 1775 J= 184 (from Dom BEDOS)

ARIA Aria means Air or Chanson, that is, a melody whose pace is precise and even, and whose beats, especially the first of each bar, are well marked; its tempo is nearly always somewhat fast and sprightly, provided there is no term such as Aria larga or affettuosa etc. to render it otherwise. (Brossard) Air (J. B. DE BOISMORTIER) 1731 With spirit
L..N/r. Am" mart -.a rr Ir.t M •.•11s 71r7. ••=111111s1./7 1=1•r r••./tj /WV .111•111 •f•IIM1•1•.s••,1111111•11. /'I•tA./ •.s .M.I111111•1111111.1.JI.MEMIIIIIN•=•11111'I• ISM MUM 1•11•7/ I .•1•tt •1• /I•^•/ 1^^.^^^•^•.••^r1^^^ MO' . A1'.4113/i 1-_•__^l"^R^.11^^11 1[ .: ^•!r•^.^^Ir.i ^' ^^^^•^^ 1•___ •=.111111M •^^^^11• •• I1•111111111M11 I

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Tender air (L'AFFILARD) 1694

= 80

Aria (J. M. LECLAIR) 1738
Affettuoso
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25.732

.. .. INNI1... with the same refrain at the end of each couplet. 1762) Sweetly and `spiccato' a .. S..^^ ^ 11M MEN'...1. light bow-stroke. (Quantz) Bourrée (J. /. or is repeated da capo in the manner of a rondeau.01^^I111^.. . 1II •1111111=1MIr. 11111.7[^^^ .^. =MIL-1111111111•111 1 MINI111111.^... i^ ^^ ^^^_^^^^^^^^ a ^ ..7.MP B.72 ARIETTE (ARIETTA) The word Ariette implies a spirited Air.732 ^ .^....^_^^ a^. and begins with a crotchet before the downbeat..111111111111111111 s =1111111i. means a short Air or Chansonnette.^ L7 /^\^^ If^^^/M..IM MLA! i.'r1111.^ -__ 1 BRANLE = 112 (L'Affilard) Very spirited kind of dance which is danced in a circle to a short tune in rondeau form.11=1=11.MI + + BOURRÉE = 120 (L'Affilard) 01= 160 (Quantz) Sort of tune associated with a dance of the same name..^. r0 (Rameau-D'Alembert) JP ^ Bourrée and Rigaudon are played with spirit and with a short.' .f JIIMIP7MM111111=111•11111.5^.. MAIM ..11/111107...111111•--^— ---•__. CLERAMBAULT) 1713 J = 87 (Choquel. BACH) c1720 144: • Bourrée (L'AFFILARD) 1694 V.. lf.1..^-=.a/ . 1762) .-t)t•^^^^J^^ a^ —r WIC .^. (Rousseau) The Bourrée is virtually the same thing as the Rigaudon.^ .i.^..= INNE/MsI . Jr.1111...1^^ ... .111111111s1M1.r iJl^ ..=1111111M ^.11111111 11111.•1111 11.-av^c^aMINIIIIIIIlal• WIN 11:1111M-MIIIN.•. 1.11111111=1 NI= MN SIM a. ^I^.u.^ Vi NME• 1•rJ•111•1141111111•111ra /Mr N MIAMI sS MINI AMMO .^.7.^. (Brossard) Ariette `Cruel vainqueur' (L.. CAMPRA) 1710 = 96 (Choquel. which is believed to have come from the Auvergne ( . (Villeneuve) Arietta: diminutive of Aria.-N./J. ^ Ariette `Ce n'est plus la mode' (A.1... MitilHarlIMINCI...L..—/s-1111•1111s. An Arietta normally has two reprises..^ = t..=M1a/// AMAMI r1111../OEM n 11M = 120 ..... that is. [>•^.25.. in the Italian taste..1.7..^ 1^•^^^^/^. (Rousseau) A.7. ) The Bourrée is in brisk duple time..^ ^lj^^^r^.^.

= 160 (Quantz) Whatever kind of metre is indicated.I`ION. s1a. ir ARNE ill–I–_.111s11/t•fi ^I<•f•^^^^^^^I^^<i^lf^I^ f^ • !^ -••• s• px.t. :^ -^--.sW a^^l^^^. .-11111111Ia11•11s•11:11 I r ..L.s/Z1 laall•t L » IS /f• ^^1 I . = 106 (L'Affilard) J. 6/8 metre is more suitable to the Canarie and the Passepied than 318.r IIIMI:4111111=I1111fa. •f^^rff= . .^^t . (Rousseau) Cana ries (MONTÉCLAIR) 1736 Quickly '_] 1/•••//!'fI t>•.f >•.^I. (Montéclair) Canaries en rondeau (L'AFFILARD) 1694 J.vIAIMBIA'/If<•= f.i .s7 =.I^^^ . .73 Branle en rondeau (L'AFFILARD) 1694 d = 106 END I .f^^fr•– ^Ia^^I^Ii^^I^ ^^^r^^>•1 II . because of the speelof the tempo required by these two tunes.. »1/. Gigues and Canaries must be played extremely (Muffat) Sort of Gigue whose tune is even faster in tempo than that of the ordinary Gigue ( .l♦ l In IMlIIIIf11111I111•1•= I \_I IlINIfr••1•INIIt _^^^^Il^i^l e\.= 106 A.25.-^. >_. ) This dance is no longer in use today./ ^s^^^^^^^ 11117J11111tJ M Ilf ill 1!1M1 A'IllIM NMI ^^^^^^^I•f^^^^l l• Ill ^ft tlf^^7 Vi^^ ^^ –••1tif• M l Ill (1st couplet) MS ^^^ IMMMIIIIIIIIMIt Ma a/ f^ I I I (2nd couplet) MAI //.732 . • •IIIslfls/ MI1111•111f•11 t 111/ ^ T CANARIES fast...as ^:^^..I AIf/'f/ fIIMINA /.

or in one and a half slow (beats).25.. . (Freillon-Poncein) It is known that the Chaconne. ^ ' ?lnïr•^— Chaconne (L'AFFILARD) 1694 j= 156 A. MIA ^^^ s . the Entrée. whose tempo is moderate and whose metre well marked. not on the downbeat. ).. (Rameau-D'Alembert) One may alternate at will between major and minor (.) which are spirited (.J^^^. It is composed of a number of couplets which are varied as much as possible ( . (Rousseau) A Chaconne is played as majestically (as the Sarabande.^.74 Cana ries (DENIS) 1747 CHACONNE J = 156 (L'Affilard) = 160 (Quantz) The Chaconne is a long piece of music in triple time. s ^.732 . .T r7 J^Rs iw.. the Loure and the Courante).t^^^ ^^^^ s^sr^r^/s ^s^ . (Denis) Chaconne (M. s^^^ .^.. . (Quantz) The metre is shown by a 3 which is taken in three light beats.sr•ItF_• ^:^^f ^i^M^tl. without ever hurrying or slowing down the metre.> 111•1r111.L. ) Normally the Chaconne begins... CORRETTE) 1738 Met ^^• • 11•11•11ra s s i s r•1111 -NM 10•111rwis. ) and between grave and sprightly or tender and lively.-^ V^!Ç4^14'@P.. - .... the Villanelle ( . but on the second beat.. .

♦ Ls.1._-. they should be very rhythmical.. . a^ + COURANTE j= 90 in 3/2 (L'Affilard) j= 80 in 3/4 (Quantz) The Sarabande is really a slow Minuet.11 w 1131171 vIIII WO' r zs^^>r1 .s s . a s!11s111111=111 s I v %•111s ` s•ss r1Yr1 s!••1111tl!• MIaall•IIIM•• IMMrrJ♦1r!•tlria1l 1 — MIMI —.wstiss 1 3 + •11•^ ^ .r 75 CONTREDANSE j= 132 (Choquel) Tune for a sort of dance of the same name ( . . and the bow is detached at each crotchet..s Wt. ) The tunes of Contredanses are most often in duple time.1J^^ 111 ._••--^_wr Z2/"Ur — s -.732 . they would become intolerable if overladen (with figurations)..IV1^^rla•1r)1^^ ^. (Quantz) Those who did the Courante put two steps in each bar.! s 111MMII.013///L1 IMP I la^^^^•^^^a s ^1. the Loure and the Courante are performed majestically. P.L. 1696-1762) -4y ^ . since they are repeated with great frequency.111.25.11 MM11111/71111 rNI MI MI ri111/1MINI1s1t MIIIIIII•1111•1111111•1•1131 1. and the Courante a very slow Sarabande.•r11•1•••111 sr>.. Cotillon (E.111 I. CHEDEVILLE. (Rameau -D'Alembert) The Entrée. .MEN NM W1111111u s /11111=1111111//11111=11111111111121111 tl!•—. whether it has a dot or not. 1696-1762) ^ MIME sI .r/lbi S=11•11111111111111•1"/ s / /•/1•• 111111t/ JO MIMI ^ s 1 a A. ) that at balls is normally danced after the Minuets.^Z1^. (Bacquoy-Guédon) Courante in the French manner (MONTECLAIR) 1736 Slow •AL1>_•1111111•111111 wIMc.. as being more spirited ( . ^ ! • • • Contredanse (CHOQUEL) 1762 ej= 132 COTILLON This is a sort of Contredanse which was later to become the Quad ri lle.aMirt MIS r>rsMINO MI I= war 1111111•11 sIf ///s^1•11nr• MINII5. (Rousseau) Contredanse (E. CHEDEVILLE. while still possessing much simplicity.11MONII s s Ill /UMW. the second gccupying the third beat only. P.11111•11 sr71111111=1. brilliant and sprightly.

_ _ ".^ ^ ^^^a^ss. Further. (Rousseau) The Entrée.^ ^.L.^ar•^ ^ w^ ^^a^^ ^^ ^ ^^ ^^ ^ . half-way between the Loure and the Gigue.. (Quantz) Entrée de ballet in two slow beats (MONTÉCLAIR) 1736 First part of the air • 4- 6 • ^ e FORLANE The Forlane is in a moderate tempo. the term is used for an entire act of an Opéra Ballet where each act makes a separate subject.^^ r a^^^ ^^^^ a_^r s.a ^^^i^s^ ^.732 . the Loure and the Courante are performed majestically. .25.^-^^w11=11•1••=11 MUM % . and the bow is detached at each crotchet.^ ^ ^^ ENTRÉE J = 80 (Quantz) These are normally Preludes or Sinfonias which serve to introduce or prepare for the movements to follow. (Brossard) Tune for the Sinfonia with which a ballet begins. BITTI) c1712 Allegro a.^ ^^^^ a .^^: ^. whether it has a dot or not..=:^^_"^r..^^^a^r^^ ^^^a ^ ^. at the Opera. the Italian Courante is fast and in 3/4 time: Corrente (M. (Rameau -D'Alembert) A.`3•:i - ::s-L'A 76 Courante (L'AFFILARD) 1694 J = 92 Unlike the French Courante.

./ .Mtl1:i1LLL I AMIBolm• =nit MUM A=r-.1f ANI'' MI milINIOINIW LLL^^INI•sin^ Li s MN InLL^^L^ _ AMU_ ___ __ _ r: ^ !I^I^i v^v^ MI ^ ^ //2 Vr^LLLf / LV^^/^^LM^^^^^ "'LL ^ -^ILf1Lt 1'L•/NI '__- i. ' •L. ) long out of use ( . i1•1s11•Lt4111111r...•1••M1/11• > ♦ ^^=1L1111111111101 i rLW/•11111111t11111111/ Llr s11=31 I O/1 • Forlane (DENIS) 1747 FURIE J = 160 in C and in 3/4 (Quantz) A Furie is performed in a very fiery manner. in a fast. (Rousseau) Forlane (J.••sf S1111s1Ln1•••••^1rrn111111lr111 t: 111 I •41111111L AMIN= IM111Y. /:1111111. .. violent and very fiery tempo.r/LSY1.. and the dance is very spirited too. It is called Forlane because it originated in the Friuli.) Formerly it was called Romanesque because it was said to have come to us from Rome.1WTf a^L^7 L.1111MrSIE.111111LLI OJM11L11111= NI =IN AP..IIMIIIIIM NMI L•IIIMILLLL/NM IMINr1•1•111WW• 1 s=1f LM •LN ^^ ./M11111.s L♦ L♦ MI 111•1 s1r71 L.LnL<'7IIMr ANI/f AP. (Rousseau) Gaillarde (MONTÉCLAIR) 1736 . ^L^L^LLL^. UM _ GAILLARDE (GALLIARD) Tune in a spirited (duple or) triple metre from a dance of the same name (. (Quantz) Con furia: furiously. S. (Brossard) Furies tune (DENIS) 1747 I.25. where the inhabitants are called Forlani..s 22M/».LL1.77 It is taken cheerfully.f 11KiJANIs 1 I = A.-.•11•111•11•1•1 .I i7Laf.JAI7 NV.M1.=11M111111•11..L._./a<^^^^ M^^^^IJ ^i r•^^^^/^ s 11111...1=1 L^^1 11L.732 . BACH) c1720 • NA= MAMA 11 /aL/ ...

. (Freillon-Poncein) The Gavotte is almost the same as the Rigaudon..i • ^ • Tempo di gavotta: this is when it is only the tempo of a Gavotte that is being observed.11. s11•11111111•41=1 111111. = 1 L^ 1^^^ : ^.^^.11111... (Rousseau) Gavotte (HOTTETERRE) 1722 With gravity V r ^ r r LJ Gavotte (Jean-Baptiste LCEILLET) cl 715 Presto .r — •11V rlmomor s . (1) (Quantz—who gives j = 160 for the Rigaudon in (V) Its phrases and cadential paints are articulated in groups of two bars.M11111//f .rr^^ —ww--. Choquel)(1) The Gavotte is in duple time.78 GAVO TT E d = 120 (in (V.^.•11W. sometimes sprightly.•111.^ ^ ..•111 ^^^ i.rrrgm .. ) The metre is shown as 2 and should be taken very slowly.. MEIN í ^ii^•^^` r^ • (1) Choquel gives the same tempo for both the Gavotte and the Rigaudon.11111.^^.:. (Rameau-D'Alembe rt ) These are graver and more serious tunes (than Rigaudons and Bourrées) and a more touching kind of expression is found in them ( .~ 111s11 =NB _-. L'Affilard) = 132 (in (V.L..a....41111=111•.^ ..1111M1111M1111 MN s.=11. .s... A.111M.111Mr1s1 J^^ ^ MAW M..'•111=1 NM .1111.732 L.^. without deferring to the Gavotte's normal number of bars or reprises.me ow .r 77-1^ ..IIIM. the pace of the Gavotte is sometimes slow. AL+. (Brossard) Allegro tempo di gavotta (attrib.11111..^ NM 1NNIIIMIN ^^^^i .=.-25.11111s11 MO AI.... .r..A/ NI . it has a more moderate tempo. and is made up of two repeated sections having four... but never extremely fast nor excessively slow.^. VIVALDI) 1737 . however.7^ = r ^ ^^1^ ^s ^ Gavotte (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 61 = 120 va11. .^^.11= ^^m^. eight or twelve bars each.m. NM M.MIIIMB.

MN ^. MIMI/ r rs+t 111111i ." ^ .111J'f 1. s 171••f I111. (Freillon- Poncein) Whatever kind of metre is indicated.c s11=11s-aJNO.^^^ r 1LIN % iw•rw9I /!1S:aJ 1. PAISIBLE. L'Affilard) J..r a ENE ^l ri rf' /1•11/s =1. 2/4.IIIM -- MN t1•1 l Gigue (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 J.• a IC 1111 rC^ ^ me • !♦ awirmint.s•s••Lniu. Gigues and Canaries must be played extremely fast. r^^^^^ ^^^^r^^^^^^^Y W.1•1•11111M 7 INL Mira/NM AEI= MONIAEMBOINI•11•1. = 116 (in 3/8.s•••h.WMIIIIV.=mosamemiespimmi. which applies to the older and slower Gigue in 6/4...MI IAMB MIMS MI/ L101 II III.0.11 1 Gigue (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 el./ NM III I '^•s1111.s•V aAIN/Mr•1111111116YMINIIMI NI= 1111.. 1650?-1721) MUMS. (Quantz) Thus the majority of writers of the period endow the Gigue with a rapid tempo. even an extremely rapid one (as Quantz's tempo indication shows). = 116 a•La) av A ilff 111111s11••t MMIIIP•917111•1•11 IIMI a WIN= 4/WIIM7ItnfalsW 1111•111111atar Li.IM 1171MINNIPa7 t. Gigue (J.= 100 PAY MIN .^ (I) Gigues in 4/4. it/w•al a^ ••••• LTV !•U1NO.411=1 MIN AI= Mo.0111111•• ^ L7wMSC 1.2.s • = /JIM MI MIMS MIIIIIMr ^^^i : . L'Affilard) J.ir Lary. and (6/4) and is taken in slow duple time.ts I= MN r11•11111111.V.. Ms MI ^^^11 1 NNW.= 100 (in 6/8. s•s t 11J^f ./M BM NB ^.111. 3/4 and 3/2 also exist. 4/2.a.L. s •s•• IM M Mr cMIPIMMININII NMI ••• rn111 /PT CI •a11•11• MN IMP • 1. • • • A111110••••••saININ M11a911•r a-411•IIIIN. • Sa. of 918 or of 1218 very buoyantly.4•MIPS• 1111111111••• MIMI /1/M-4111•uIIIIIIM.t AIIsMIM NM MUM III l•71111•1 Mall= JIM •110•1111•1111••• .41aM •a N= MIMI= MI .r Air 41• IN IIMI :11ANI61111111I11 NM •11111-JA_____-+1/.211M •7s11111011J MIMEO_ MI OMNI WIIMIIII ZS 111IM ON MPS NI NB Millrl7=WW1 ^ Vr/NM=•!_MI MI M1111^'IMI^^^^^i^V^^1^ ^^ a ^^t . s111110 MIN MI MIMI MI NM.! 11111•11/ AM AM MI MO IIM. The Gigue is played by means of a short.10s11 IIIMI SIM II MINI NM 1 NMI • IN NMI =111•11=1.•s•111111= ME/". (David) The metre is shown by a 4 and a 6 (1) . WW1. light bow-stroke. ` I= .4MIN= MIMI INN I.1s 10 WIN NM PANNE-II I MI •:. This contrasts with the contrary indication of Freillon-Poncein quoted above.732 ....s CM= MP.1111 AIM= ^a^^ MI INII 1•01 r IMO S-4•01.i. (Muffat) The Gigue is really only a very lively Loure._aIIN.11M =V/ A11»L•111110 =WINO =IN NM OEM Is11 .AMINUM. EMI MIMI. ' •./AIIIII NO EOM =AMINE/ MN r AJ NM MP ^^ /.t^OM Ms NM NUM MI OM Ili•111. whose tempo is far more rapid. (Rameau-D'Alembe rt ) The Gigue and the Canarie have the same tempo. .: Mr:1•I•1•• INN EMI /7 1/1. . Quantz) The Gigue requires the metre or pulse of 318.. = 160 (in 6/8. A. of 618.-JW ^ s _ iJ•^^ MN WHIM IN VIM •1111•1s31 MIIIIIIIIMI.Ami ring/ =maw = a/1•S 1311111111 =11MIl 1 MI 1111••••••1 I amomamo.1•••_ al .79 GIGUE J.25.M117• sIIIIIMEN11•11/ Ar.^.

two quavers etc.1i. I + .11r. 1=1 Ir MFEN AIM • i-aUa. ^ .ri sr s• r.aMI1 MOW LAM ~MN a EMI• V II. is shown (as) 6/4. it usually begins on the upbeat.. Al.-25. L11II1ENN rlarrarIMMMEE +/'r s!•IIs 41111 OM ENEMA= EN EIME•DOMMIEN• W I NNE • mOmM.ME ON...732 . such as two crotchets.1" WIENS ^^I^^ w r1EO1MErI1•S.M. the Loure and the Courante are performed majestically.'IN= MEMO IED•Waar•IEM•Et • la/ar • MEIIr.r MIEN . ^ `.^^^ENEN^rra^lrr uENM^a^Er•rWrMENaMMsw^Ma^i^^^EN•^Mr r •aa• alINN1^••^..MEIMMr.— / Loure (DENIS) •at.a•v:a/r 1747 -f.41111E MEMO SIO-DIMMENEEIMMININNIIMIE as 'DENIM.Ill• ^ rENOWINDErrIEN1EENNrINW ru. 1 l. on which the tune of the dance in question was played.W MIS NM rENIMrlrla NOIONra/I W a MO./ Lourer (lit. M•NIEMIOEN1J.MENEWNIEENnow MN MO rENI>..Gigue (J.rrl.^^^E-NIJ 17WMEIMIE r>•Irr rarriMENraENNOr>tr•rIENNEMME77 —1• r .. (Brossard) (1) Loure is the name of an old instrument similar to a musette.NIN 11111ti.NEN/INM IMMIN'A ENNEAD' /-4MOMMIEWMEMI NE MIN riMMII.N. CORRETTE) 1738 r•.-B..MIPr rINIF. t1=/^w•rW 11r rtt lr7l=1111 MMrriMMrllalr.411111s11•111•sMERrr•sIIIIMEINiaalm_ in AMMIIMMIMErUNO ^^ =WWI& .^^ • 7^r>• rll^ -.1•NIEr'NOMM _^^1_r1M1^t'Jtsrrl/r 1 1^ 7/ 1Y 21M11/. M1111111111111/f J•raIII I^IIrLMMEN ANEM/EEDNENI•4/ ! M / Nall/ • 77111. (Rameau -D'Alembert) The Entrée.Y.10_.MINV. IMENLa1•••ME•r^ 11EMO MOM MAIMED/NM ENO AMMER I . and the bow is detached at each crotchet. UMW •4111EEN ••* sNI ND' INEI• EMY•l7M/ WWII! MOM /rrlEIt MUM I MI ••s1 MIN W M I i•^ ' LOURE (1) j= 80 (Quantz) (2) The Loure is a tune whose pulse is slow. whether it has a dot or not.41rrlrlrl /MIMI /rrr N r•rl1/r1 .•tENDEMINrMINrut... >. which here he must be assuming to be 2/4.sINIMME .411EN =MI EN NIA M . (Rousseau) (2) Quantz does not indicate the metre. Mr/r1♦ MEM ^^rarir NM ^ arar>. Normally the note in the middle of each beat is dotted (i.1 MIMIWIMEMEN-IEWIMEMEMOMIEMENIMI MEO MIME . a..I • ^^I/^^ ^r _ ^! J.tM M• NMOM= . than to the second.a aMrNIa•ENaEN. without however dotting or sharply accenting it.sOMEMIr 11W-MINEMI EN •s^^a>. ^ /'rlrl• • Mo.4111f. (Brossard) Loure (M. LCEILLET) c1710 Gigue (DENIS) 1747 ^i •r=I^ -^ MEMO .s 1111111•11las1_411. `to Loure'): ' this is a manner of singing which consists of giving a little more time and force to the first of two notes of equal value. (Quantz) The first beat of each bar (is stressed) more perceptibly than the second.e.m1rI_I /W a•rr'rlraal/ NIVltllr MIN r. and is taken in duple time.411. shortened).

-111•11 1 s•01 1 Marche en rondeau (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 J = 150 s•1111. . /I ^ •^^11/l/1^^/^^I^1. MP' MI 1i. 11•11•111M /NE r%Iái I MIN IMMIF.7111•M _•. MIN.ir•=s lr-. (Quantz) The tunes of Marches should have different characters depending on the occasions at which they are used.ol••••I 1 ^ • a . while once again noting only the most significant definitions. but the practice of marking it with a simple 3 ( .11=11111/l1111111. mlIN111 IIII/Tf . 1f/ !1•1.•LL.111. .. . . (Brossard) (1) In the 1705 edition L'Affilard gives ei = 96.••^1^1 .tY7 i7.1.732 .1111r^ .11ra. which is always very spirited and fast.1 • !'7• ..^1f^ •r1 ^ MINUET J = 160 (Quantz) = 76 (Engramelle) JI .1=•. (Rousseau) March (L'AFFILARD) 1717 J = 120(1) + (3) . the sign 3/8 or 6/8 ought to be used to show the pulse.1 .t••s•-s•1 s111 VIP" t1♦.•• NNW" mnii 111.n111111. 711E11 / rlrr2/1•111/I ^ iJl. (David) A March is played seriously.1 atfM1•••s•i March of the Shepherds from Jepthé (M.^1^•1^•1•: ^l^1 .L..1a/!•a•1••11•INE MO . • MEWAM•11• :S!^ /^ ^_^ 7 111•1•1•0111•1..^•^•^^\S•F r1r s I^1rt .^•lr. Very sprightly dance which originally came to us from Poitou.MN MI •r•l MN NM IMP— •W MI /.s= AMID 111s ..=••••••l. a tempo he increased to 120 in the 1717 edition.• s 1•111111 •^ •M . ) has prevailed.••1/..tl 11•1sLI1 SLIM a.. Quantz) Duple and triple time (. L'Affilard) ( 1 ) J = 150 (in 6/4..25..= 76 (L'Affilard) The importance of the Minuet and the large quantity of writings concerning it make it necessary to give it a fairly generous amount of space here./ ••!JIMI•111 1 s1•111111= ^.... In imitation of the Italians._ 1•!•. Vrft/•.^ tl•Il11s1110M 111111.811111s.. BLAVET) cl 737 Tenderly .1111••••s MOW! MEMOIR Ir111111•1sf i^ 1.s1P.i1111•1f11•••iisf/ MP 1 Mil ra Va MI[. L'Affilard) J = (in (t...) are both equally suitable metres for the March.11.1•1•.a1• ^L MINIM r•MNI All a•1 :o 1 JIM f a7♦/1/IL IN I NM 1• >f1. A.= 70 (L'Affilard) J.11111111•Il .11 •r r 1• MMININNEO.••11111J•1•ILaf 17r.81 MARCH J = (in .•.

because of this. the contrastingly lively character of the music where the tempo is either very rapid if taken in t riple time. and this is the only reason why 6/4 is used instead of twice 3/4. It is a different matter in the theatre. *Th. only the first of which bars.. all these inconveniences could be avoided. so that in taking the Minuet in 6/4 time._ _ _ ^^^.^^r.25. ) The number of bars in the tune should be four or a multiple of four for each of its repeated sections. L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 J. an d consequently the period in question and the musical context must both be taken into account in performance. on the one hand. The metre of the Minuet is of three light beats ( . because this number is required to complete the steps of the minuet. on the other h an d. as it were. being stressed. it was only in the second half of the 18th century that this tempo became palpably more ponderous. especially in the Minuet.82 It often happens that very good musicians do not dance in time. it is usual to take this metre ( . we even compare the metre of the Minuet for dancing with that of 614 in terms of its values. I say Minuets for dancing since there are harpsichord Minuets which are not normally played so fast. the slow character of the steps in the Minuet as it is danced and. and it can be said that the least spirited of all the types of dance in current use at our balls is the Minuet. . (Rameau-D'Alembert) According to him (Brossard). this dance is very spirited and its tempo very fast.732 ^•^--. = 70 r ^' ^ ^. which ought to be directed towards always taking two bars to execute the steps of the Minuet. and the consequent difficulty there would be in making three hand movements so hurriedly.. ) only in one ( ) Minuets for dancing are also taken in this way ( . Minuet (M. and the musician should take care to make this division evident with well marked cadential falls....L. the metre of simple triple time is so hurried for the true tempo of the Minuet that the hand has insufficient time to mark each beat when moving through the triangle formed by this kind of metre.. even though it is only ever marked in 3/4. and a genuine Minuet tempo could be found by using a pendulum. (Rousseau) The Minuet is played in a manner which carries along or.. lifts the dancer. and it is for this same reason that dancers take the Minuet in 6/4. and the crotchets are marked with a slightly weighty though short bow stroke. and this overriding habit sometimes distracts their attention. Finally.^ . (Quantz) It c an be seen that on the subject of how Minuets are written nearly every author of the period stresses (and often deplores) the difference between their notation in triple time and their beat in duple time.^ ^as w0 1 . ) because they are played in a very spirited manner.^ ^^ ^ ^. the tempo is moderate rather than fast. through the habit they have contracted of stressing each bar.L7. because in 3/4 this strong beat is not distinguishable from the weak beat. although the Minuet's tempo undeniably slowed down as soon as it was no longer danced..^ii^ ^ ^ ^^^^ ^^í ri^iwsii ^i ^ + x A. so as to assist-the dancer's ear and keep him in the correct rhythm. But on the contrary the character of the Minuet is one of elegant and noble simplicity. .. (Loulié) Moreover. which we call the strong one..^N I IO . It is therefore worth making a clear distinction between. (Saint-Lambert) The Minuet is a tune in triple time and in a moderate tempo. .^7.. (Bacquoy- Guédon) The downbeat in this metre (6/4) is called the strong beat (`bon temps') and the upbeat is called the weak beat (`temps faux'). or moderate if taken in duple time (6/4: two bars of t ri ple time)..^^ ... (Choquel) Because of this great speed.^^^.

4111 /MN •11.a V/^^•IL '^^ s •=1=1•1111•s1\1111•• IMO s^ ••1111•r••MMIMNAIIr. •aMIMr. as t te MUSETT E J(orJ) = 80 (in 3/4.••. r e • NIMMIIIIM•1•71 Jr♦♦• Bi•Nr• •J^7 •JEEI •.II7 ^T^1 1I 1• •. and normally featuring a held bass or pedal point such as a musette can play. .III•••/ I Mill MN LAMM' -./ •/ • 1• * lJ•••• J••• 11•I1•77•. ) = 80 (in 3/8. TELEMANN... s / 7••••••-7 .^_^\rr>I r•11•11rr11111111•1111\_ ---\_ • vvr•.s-s t ./ 1J MAINE •411•1\W•111•1••11•••N1M=MI MI s 011 s/s//\ --.=11•••10. P. Quantz) Kind of tune (./••__^.1••••11•11Wl^-•_r^—_\_===.••^^^^^r•r^^ ^^ •^ i11 •^1 l 1 •r^l Minuet (M. —•rrJ.MION/M•a /V >. .. and for this reason known as a musette bass. Quantz) J(or J..oppp - i 11. L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 = 76 -I+ r ^-^ =MIR 4C81YP7 • s V =11•MZEIIII /7 /• t •••••/•• ss •••••• ."•111•1•111•11 _•1•^J^J AIM ^ s^•^^ _^ ^_M^^=^•r•r•r• • ^ ^•^^ ^^ ^ _ ^^.r•JIII •M7•r__^7^^•^ 1.I^•r^^•^_ •^^^^ _ J••==pr1••^^ ^^•^^^^ `—s./INP111=1L .•^•a = ^ ^^^ ^•^^•^••_^^.‘••••••1•10./ Ar^M 1... (Rousseau) A Musette is to be played with great charm (.. naive and gentle in character.`1 •• 1•11•1•1•1•1•1. ♦ _ Vi—\•L< AIM= ^Ir r\ra . (Quantz) A.v WM.^7.ra•• . ). Minuet (G.•rI:!a/..• •/ AENEENE JMINI•MMIJ•/ 1* 1111•M•I 1sr.••• s ••ral r 1•• —.^_ VP 1111•11___11•11311•1 ^••rl^••IJ•••Irl s •••rw•I ..B. in triple time) to each bar.= J•/ 11I•• s •.411r /011••r•.L.MW _ MI 11s11/ NW s M.SII • 1•^^^^_/ i ^•MII • I N...1 .111 Minuet (John LŒILLET) c1725 • MIS/•V r•r••rJN •11Jr•JI•s \=111 • .1••11r! aar. 1 .^/ • + Minuet (CHOQUEL) 1759 W \' 11_J A/ v ANIMIIMP. whose metre is of duple or triple time with a somewhat slow tempo. IrW s JIMI1♦ r•._=1MIN•11.-^ ^•^^^^^ ^-^^ ^ s•ss ^ ^` O 1.25. the first Minuet by L'Affilard quoted on p.83 Minuet (ENGRAMELLE) 1775 J = 76 V • . but for playing only) necessitates a slower tempo than. ) Sometimes it is the whim of certain dancers to require it played so fast that there is only one pulse beat (80 to the minute.•J •r. MiNIN/WW I .101... for instance.732 .r•r n^^ ^I^IS •!^^•rJ•Jl^rra^•^•^^^^•r^ ^ ^^•^•t.J•I^•J••• r^ ^^ ss ^I I MOM. 1681-1767) IL e J•1•111. 82.7911.. It is clear that the elaborate writing of this last Minuet (no longer for dancing.

---=1. By extension. ) should have a majestic and solemn introduction (. (QuaiAz) A.•111.11 Mr 1 •.^1 ^1• ^1^'^1r s11^I^/^^ ^ 111111 s11 1 d1111•11114111.__••-..). ) It owes its origin to the French. etc. have far surpassed him.I1j s \ •I1. 1696-1762) Gracefully.11 = ..11•111111L1 1110.mm=1r u eJ. ^ 1^' ^^1•M• OVERTURE The Overture has its origins in Opera: it is an orchestral prelude designed to open (French `ouvrir') an opera.1<:D^^/^11•^1^1I^^^I^ME•1J111111/ ••••••1 ^^^^1 l.••••••. 1~111111111•IM I^1^ :I1^ V/^^ 11^ ^^ 1^ 1^11^^1.t'^ ^^1111 MIMI 1^1111^^1^1I:^ 11•1•^11111. especially Handel and Telemann.mu. an Overture may serve as an introduction to an instrumental suite (and sometimes the term Overture may even be stretched to cover the whole of a Suite as.t ^1111•^^ ^ 76^ . See also on p. B. Jbecoming J.A11111•11 ^i1•^ JIII111M •1•a••'9•1•1111 /111•11111. Telemann's Overtures. Lully established the French Overture form: slow — fast (— slow) which was to be notably successful. applies equally to the Musette.•••MM II . without being slow + .1•S•1•J1I^11^1/ LJIM1S 1 /J11I11•1•MM1J•ar L11JWI11111/. but a few German composers. An Overture (.S • =RIM I ARNI • Ll1111•s 411•11//111 •11•1•.\ /=^• ^^^1 ^. JEI ) as a necessary requirement of its majestic.^----._—_ _—. CHÉDEVILLE. 1•1`18•1111a11^JII/ W ^1 J^11 ^^..84 N.11s111 L411110t./^ ^I ^\1^A ^7♦/`•w=^r/ 'J••C^^tJJrl^/ A ^R/ /7♦I11111IILtI 1II =I • M 1111•1111•J11 M J 1LA III If LIIIIIIIMIItlllllll/11/11/11•11011111•1111111\J. Musette en Rondeau (M.1t11J 1^1^1J1•^^.-.. Lulli provided good models for it.+ Musette 'la Sincère' (E.B. The French Overture was to be adopted throughout all Europe.m••N11ENNIIIIM==IMIIIM1Ill s'''1._ — s^^.. . • . the four Overtures by Bach.-25. CHÉDEVILLE.^ No •M11s Musette (J.732 . de BOISMORTIER) 1731 Gracefully ^L'1•t1 .i11111111111111•111C s111111 I ^. + am ---^ y ^I^ ^ . solemn character. without being slow .L./ WW/M MINIM IM••41111. I• IMINI NM J14/1s1111M1/1 r1111^ •s•••••'s — FINN= MIL -...^. BLAVET) c1737 Gracefully. =le:- __ _ _ V . P. 1696-1762) With nonchalance ^__ -do ^--}^r-J1/^1—r: r^ Á t♦11^^J^ + + ^ ^^tÁ ^ ^ ^/ 1^.t •' 1111I1!•1J J• rR=]/ I11 V.11^•^•^= Musette `la Favorite' (E. he claims. for example.J••s1 NMI + . 92 the interpretation of the Alla siciliana according to Quanti which. The slow section of the French Overture calls for double-dotting (j.. P.I/I/I al 1•2•1•31 1111111111M• 1..

LAO A MM/MM...MI LM >•7=M•<Z..• I.-4111•11•1•1111111 'uMMl/MIM rain.AMi . I= MI– !•III ..77/1s4.a.A.1l MMMMI IMO M•MrM EMI MHNNI •T MM. 112..= MM/•lsINIWVIIIIIIIIIIEWIllMMM..JmiMMJMMMMMM•••J ===== =OM . (Rousseau) Here is a typical example of the French Overture: Overture (C.M•wumlMAMA AIA. ^ i.11M.M•.85 A Sinfonia which one strives to make brilliant.M^ MMMIA^.I.•.MMMMM Q MM IL ^11•11M A•AM • vimM•MMM memomI•dLammo MIMEO M. ) Overtures ( .. _^ a • <:aMMI/A•sZA7 W71MMM0MMM n1As111•IAM.r. before ending with a brilliant Allegro.MMIIM. 1I7M•Jsi0M /611W7111.1.r .A.MIMr MI MI _ .•10111•1 IV_ _HI AEU Ell 11J11•MIA.. -MM •/7•M• –i MM.I.Wl1 MCI 110.• AIMS .M^'MMMMMt^r I^MM^IMM^ ^MIM/M•MAMMM . s.1•M W AM In s. .M new / I •M•111111=1•11• 111.M:M^7Mr7 .MIAJ^MI Mr MMLri • .MIIMIMMMA10•M/M . normally in triple time.'^l•MIAMIMMtMMMIAIMMMMtMM^IM1\ IV= 1♦. =III ILA A7 ^ 1.1.^ ummMM-7MIAMM/'M AIM/ • L. 25 -732 .MMMMAMAMMMM.1•01•1M•M AM ..'IJ OM 11•11/71s M•MMIAWMWMA OM •• 1MMEMf MIMM/ •A^M1M.IAI I /MM•IL^. ^ M MINIIII=M/MLMW MM ^MW^. •I • .ntlF . They start with a leaping.1MM•II MIME MI WMI1s rMiAM MIAMI MMIMM.1 W.^MiMMMI.-.MIIN• • ! 0 M/MM•.I s !f 1^MM11MIMIA W MI 1Is7M M•711 •11s1 M 1•T s AMIMIM s1111M•111MI II111..'711 MA =I /MI M M IMI /1•1•11M^7MI . The Italians ( .M11MIaM/AM••111111MI MM M•t>I7A71•1Mr. T 1MMII[. lively piece in duple or quadruple time. .1•IAMrAM IM• r / MMMMMAMM• I= •M. s •IMM• 1:711s11•9•MMAMMRAM1. 1.1.1 s AMMAIMMMMM MMMr MN= s MMMMM 11=m– J^ . ./ . an M M • M. M SWIM= .•••••./Ar7 MOM s MM .U.^WM_M M .MMWM•M/•MMIM M P MIM.• V7 .rI !L. . then they slacken the pace by a half and provide an Andante in which they endeavour to deploy all the charms of bel canto.1111 .M/M1•••• WOW MM•A•• ! MNIOIMMMI.MMMMMMMMIAMM.^M/ ^!!M•:MM^^.. )../M•MM r• ^ s r^•r /AII MItMMINtMIMMM WM• ^MMIaA•t0M•J . VI AMMA>•M7MlMM• UMW • •AM7/. WI • .A• aM..^MA• T 17 In 1•MMI•MM. MM r= M••s••••s /M-s'. /M• MI M•MIIIa1•MISaM111M ..•MM. . M`MIM M ^ M •^'^^^^ M • -iiM7ArMWMMAM•rM JINN=A IMAMA•MMM . .aMlt .L..MMlMMM1^MMMM^MMMMMM I ^1 we PASSACAGLIA j= 106 (L'Affilard) a little faster than j= 160 (Quantz) The Passacaglia differs from the Chaconne (see the definition from the same A..MMMM LM AU Is7/71:711••1♦ . ) nowadays organize their Overtures in a different way.1 8 ILI ^7• M^1 . and a skipping repeated section styled `spirited' ( . imposing and harmonious ( .1 0 Ammo /oir. ^ (Slow) %S 'SIIIMI–M-r7 MIN MMM AM•. .s.111=111M•1=1.•MMM AA.^M 1^•MM M• MI ^MIMIMIMMMI M M.Ast•1111•1•11•MM FAO MMM.. WIN 1A •<^II^ umsaMM /1/ AMmmMtMWmer7 sTimr1 •nmA••IuTs7sw' s•1 .l. >•M f= Ar M^^^^1 t•' 1 • .•//•• I M.. ): a number of these repeated sections finish by returning to the slow tempo ( .AO. (Spirited) r LarMIMMMoI•T 1r= .V70•••MMM•MMII111.M1111MI II11110MMM.MM^ MI MM..wma. .. .M• AMMMMMat M MMI/1MAMM.M••111 A M. ) consist of a lingering section labelled `slow' which is normally played twice. M... .MMrMM.. O MM MA MMMMMM7M^MJMM•M^M 0 . DIEUPART) c1710 (Slow) •. . I 12.• lAIA. I AMIN.MI osM.I ~eV MI • It.^^M.MIA1•111111MMM INN= /AIA7 III Mr MIM-1 1 ^ I V.• M•AM.

writers on p..^r•^^^^^^!• wr ^ ^1^^^•^i•. but whose two repeated sections begin on the third beat.•r0r. Quantz) The Passepied is in reality a very fast Minuet which does not. the character of the melody almost similar.11111Mi •11111111•1111•11111•11AINIIMI • N! J.11 ir•lOWr1111111M11111rr•111111111rMINIIMIIM NM r111.111111114111•11•/ .111•i•M!– •r0•41111111 sIIIMM11111wMI =I••11111111111• OISE s•111011NI 1 • PASSEPIED J.. ....•.WsrMMAN•71 tT7f! /1•1•71•117 .. Choquel) J = 160 (in 3/4...a s s.. (Rameau-D'Alembe rt ) A Passacaglia is the same (as the Chaconne)..^i•ftrf• Vi^ i^^ l^ sl^1^t^•^^^ M L .^ • - Passacaglia (VILLENE UV E) 1733 Slow and tender M.Aw/i/MA111 111•101/r1111111•1./ WIN AA= ale i: aNIS. Passacaglia (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 j= 106 • Arosom sows.111111.4111 ilk /IMs NMI MINI WARM WWII 41•1=11•11. (Rameau-D'Alembert) The metre is triple. BRIM . Quantz's contrary view seems to refer to the Passacaglia for dancing.-rte (1) It is in this (double) bar that dancing-masters impose the step they call the 'contretemps' (syncopation). and normally begins on the downbeat.111111111•f 1fi. but it is played a little faster. (Quantz) Most writers of the period agree in giving the Passacaglia a slower tempo than that of the Chaconne (in instrumental suites).25.400/ •// lIIMMw11111.41111 •^.11•. and there are two vertical strokes over the central note: aura .rl r• arlr^ ..•.IN.. = 88 (in 3/8.II/a111110. a11.1 ^^^^r//1 ^ %^•s^•^•^r•^••^r•• ^.1i11111111s.. 1. • _ _ _ _ _ ^ ^^• _ s^lr.L.•A 1111•• •-• BMW r11111111MI 411111111..^r^•u•^nr ^•^ iiTr ^^a •••11111111. and is taken in one beat.IS •• 1. 74) only in that it is slower and more tender.111M1•11•1 .111111:•111111sr1111111••lIMIIi1•111.11111•1....l^rt^^^^i. (Choquel) A. (Rousseau) The Passepied is played both slightly more lightly and more quickly than the Minuet.. as the ordinary Minuet..^7^ 1:f1i•i .^^ ^^ ^•^•^ t1^ ^.1 MOM r A1ffr.111•711111.0'1rf D-4/01111>•.^ .s111 .rrw^•^r^.•I M 11 711111. = 96 (in 3/8. ar'Ir11.1M. . The tempo is faster than that of the Minuet. Often it is found that two bars are written as one (1). L'Affilard) J.^^a:•:I[ Ar^f^. begin on the down-beat.732 .11. is shown by a 318..7AR11•1•.

••11•111.s .••—IC1 • J•.—• .1•1•••••ss/ —711s1111=1— s ^^^^^^^^ I a^ 1•1•..11M•1/7.11t • >•I•1111111• ••—.r MN" •1. I. equal quavers V.01 11. ..MIII'.•^.^ .4111.= =••I• ss =s --- fast.1•11..1s1. equally sweet and less dull. Passepied (J.• ..^ .. -1f—^^1^•= '.^— ••--./ / AMM. •^•^ Iwo.. s ./ NW= •111..11= sI 111111s11[1• •IMIII • •1•11•11s •..—•••1111•11•WM —•—.17•.1111•11ft_^ ^ • /MU 1•1711111111111r•••111111•_ . ^-.•__ t11 minim —M••. detached bow-stroke for each of the two crotchets—and in the same tempo as for a triple crotchet metre (3/4).. 1 ..—J•—.732 .11 •111=1..1s1111I 11•INIIIIII••••••s ../•1M••—.t Mt•.• 1JY• AI .a .^^.4s1 ^ ]111s. _ -• ^ ^ ^ —.•111s•1111111.c71111•1_411__•_ ^. between which they insert the bar-line.• .—/•••MII•111/1 ^.^7 MANE._-111•1•.IIII =II — _INIII ••••I_ -111111111111 ••s '.4•11•—••—MININI•••s M.87 Some leave these two bars separate and instead of the crotchet and the strokes write in two quavers with an arch (tie) over them.• Wa••••IIMI•.25.I 1•^.M •I1=11•I— •— /.1._ .•••••ss11 s01 1=01111 •1•11111111•• •r• u Mil ••• =M I.• MII —S •.NMINIIMI—._ s•.•d--•—•—.-••-. BACH) c1720 ^ >./ i-••• a. (Quantz) E Passepied (MONTECLAIR) 1736 :/v'^11111••••./ I. French Airs called Pastorales are normally in duple time and have the character of a Musette. .1111•1••r.as/1111s.41.11•••••s••••11U•ANIMIIYAM •—•101..^• ••— _ .^—•• ^—.L.^ — • _-__ • !•...^—^f— 1 / V.^^- ----Ng equal / '— AM •.. —••—KI —•—IMIL--I•11111•11•1•t•• ^i •1111• s •M..i..• ^ _^.. sI ! Passepied (CHOQUEL) 1759 sl•a. ISM sIII•I•^•1•—. S.1 1•.. ••J /11•/1 ^ .1 .s 11/!^1 _^„!./ Ell•s .•..--.s ----1 — —IM MINN —S • •1 — ••••••—S WIEN_ /I 1•IIIIM1..I • "4•1r•••rs .S>1•J•^•J•—. r•••. l.—__^^•. In performance these notes are played in the same way—namely. . =IMO MIAMI 1. Italian Pastorales are more pointed._1•••/•. = 96 [TTI 1-271 • a ^1 ^•^^ •_••1.^7• MI= /1JW .—MMIIMMJ11 r ^^ PASTORALE (PASTOURELLE) Italian melody of the pastoral type. ^ •1111111111•1111•••••111111•1•111••••••••1111••• IN= I — ^ 111 I♦• —W7'[•1MIU>♦•s•1/•1 ^ 1s 11•.^ . (Rousseau) A. Their metre is always 618.11. with a short. 1s •s•I 1. more charming./ INII.

.0 IWW sal.JI..711MIN .r11•11MININII..1U+WV IPr..rr7111111111 +^.I !• NI L^.r.M1111=NI.A /rM11111111IM MON 111•111MMINIII•I ^1♦_^^^t ï.=Mr.IIIMIIIIWINII/..^^^ :a^.^^.41111s. 0•1111s711111•/1M111111•111 s.L..^y a/JJ^ J•^J .411s r.. Polonaise (TELEMANN) c1 716 A.88 Pastourelle from Jephté (MONTÉCLAIR) 1736 + '.^^^ • s1.. MIUMMISMAIIII!•IIIIIIIMI/rIUrMMINIF /.t MOM L» .^ !a _.ss••_ ._.111 I. IIIM... 'I•'A. subsequently fashionatlle in 18th-century Germany..1U ^ !• NM MINIM ^.110•11=1.I _/rJlf•.IMMEINIIa.. ^^/^J^ ^ ^.:.^r•rW^^^f a • ^^...MIIMMw..11111..1•1111•1111NJ111=^4111•1r/WW11111 /. (Brossard) Pavane (MONTÉCLAIR) 1736 Moderate '411111111•1. =•11•0.1. often followed by a Double..Mll.I nn. generally in triple rather than duple time. ..^___^^_^-I^^.11•11MIM : MIIM7/11111MMW .^a^ '"•••=11111•MMI. ^s a.IIIIIII 1•MIIIUw MI 11111.•1111.^^.1•. ^^^J..^^^^^..7♦•^sr J^ lma ! ¡♦ ^'fT•^.1111WII.r•^.^^ 1111•1•1...\^^ sJ = 1a^.^lr. rNINIa.I a f.J ^SI^/IMs^^M. r..111s1116. VIVALDI) 1737 . where it adopted the gait of a rather moderate movement. introduced in 1574 at the coronation in Cracow of Henry III of Anjou. ^..r/^I. /.^^.INENEr.732 .^^1111• s • • 7 011111MIIMMIIMEJ.4 MOM- INW/ =7111•111J{.IMI1♦.=OW 11s1/11M•111.1•WIIIMIBMINIBOI IrIIIMr_r• •s••. a . -m_ now. VII-7111M NMI MIU=MI.1~. . BLIMP-11 rJ^^^^^^^^^ ^ .NINIM ^/ .mow .AMMI/1/11111•01•11111•1111111•111 s ! ^ 1s11111•11011M1111•r._^•7 J•J^r^r1r^....^.rr. + + INNIMME IMIN.=J Ais11/ t•EMMINO NMI A1•1111s11IMIM l's•11•1111 'S^ .IIM_ t•INMI =MY" Mir-•111111r1=/111M/YMINNIMIIIIIIMMIMMIIIIMaOINIMIN 1+1 POLONAISE Court Dance....25. .11111> !•/J111111 s 11111111 NIMIIIMrMINI=1111111MINIIIIIIMlMES MILAN ^J ^•^^411MUNMINI /MOM .1//M. AIM )'.r^^.^ ^ ^ Pastorale ad libitum (attrib. • PAVANE = 92 (L'Affilard) A grave and serious piece which is generally taken in duple time.^.r^^ ^w^ . .

one can even pass through all sorts of modes provided one arrives and departs to some purpose. in other words in such a way as not to discomfort the ear. and this is really the true Prelude (. (1) This is normally done as a consequence of the power of the performers' imagination at the very moment when they wish to play without having written anything down beforehand. Hotteterre's intention was to show how an `impromptu' Prelude could be improvised. abrupt. each Prelude must begin on one of the three principal degrees of the mode one wishes to begin in and finish on any one of these three.25. it is worth while aiming for a very free interpretation that will as much as possible give an impression of improvisation: (1) and positioning the hand well on an instrument before beginning a piece of music. (Hotteterre) Here is how Freillon-Poncein defines the `impromptu' Prelude: It is quite simply an inclination to take the key of the mode (i. however.L. There is no special rule about the tempo or the length of Preludes. though it is always best to stop on the tonic. (Freillon-Poncein) In his `Art of playing Preludes' (L'Art de préluder). and which is a genuinely formal piece.732 .e. they are done in various ways as the player fancies–perhaps tender. (Double) PRELUDE Two different sorts of Prelude may be considered: one is the composed Prelude which is normally the first piece of what is called a Suite or a Sonata.. long or short–and in discontinuous metre. The other sort is the impromptu Prelude (Prelude de caprice'). . this sort includes Preludes put into Operas and Cantatas to precede and sometimes to herald what is to be sung. In the following written-out Prelude.89 H2. major or minor) wherever one wishes to play.. then.) (This) Prelude should be produced on the spot without any preparation. (Rousseau) A.

M00110000 ..1.111•11111MI MM.11:0100004•101010101 al OM =I UM. l• 1110M10011000 11101140•000150011111•01•0•100." Rams. normally made up of repeated sections of four-bar phrases. A kind of dance... (Rousseau) Bourrée and Rigaudon are played with spirit and with a short.amem — --. BONONCINI) c1700 •.s11s".. B.1•11111ilia • NO MIME IMINIMIIN4/ AlrIll Mg_ A /MI /11040111111110.. 010..•••..14117 s111•111101111•11rs INI•1111•111=111s7 JIM AMMO IN0101101..A. A.l• IMIL-711111. .••sss••// •s ••• Ammo . 10110100110 SIM MD*" •110110111 •00011010/..Nor 0701101111s01001101I-7 MO 01101s00010~.L.ON ".....1s11111111•11s: Mail W"lo 00101111100110010M.0101•0110111s7111=110101J010000181114/ ..mow .m. and beginning with the last note of the second beat...VW .1 OM MI!~ NIMINI•A MI MINIM= AM 1001 I Rigaudon (QUANTZ) 1752 j = 160 .. /14..71...04MM UM MINN Mr1011010•00110.e.' ex .. IMAM .. MO 11•0011100 'Miff 000 10W•dr ./~ ..90 'Impromptu' Prelude (HOTTETERRE) 1719 With gravity 40 Or..""•s• •=1 IIMB 00111010110111400M1s4101110100140001111 /Min SS MN — -.110.74.100111 ..1111101•01111011 ..•10 0101=1014-1=1Ms110111110. AN ss• .4•11 • MOM NIMMII I 003.70&440/M0 IN Igwom. •wMf 111LINIMMIFIN. •& ..11 ir-IMMINIO MINIM i III a I•71 4.. MN 010.0111101•01 1IM1...10/7.1..s A..11P11 MIMI UN ... 00. in a spirited tempo.4100.4010/111000101010011/110 •allEIMIEZ4111.10111MMII MOIR OE 00110101 4030MI 01.WIEL• 001111 .201101 101011 0.. :-..410/11 01/..1 3•4•111000 Er1111 MIMI IIIIIIIIIC In contrast.-..11300. 16.. .-....11•90101 0. a:istmsw.01 1010=01MI 0111 010•11001011101100•111110100 .1... 25-732 ...s--- ANNININW NAM . OM MINIIIMMIU -s. MINN Milli 01011011001101101•10 M•111•11. NI MI WINN MN OM 011401011/14MMPIMINIIMMI10 ZWL-714•1111 200111M 0111004..11P.•• • MN 1..01 00' MING wail.11100= 11114011100111 0•011110 • MUM NUM .-N A -40- • Er •• • re- RIGAUDON j= 120 (L'Affilard) ej= 132 (Choquel) 160 (Quantz).. the tune of which is taken in duple time...1111 .ME M11 s111.... the following Prelude corresponds to what Hotteterre calls a 'composed Prelude': 'Composed' Prelude Preludio (G.0/~/ ill I Mr 01101100 IMIIM ME ----.•••••• ss•• . s•s••••=1111•111M .4•0 IV dIffW s•06.. s.W1111111. 41.1•••s• ./111s 9111VILI VW 111141111•111•111. .010•NrINI JIM Wir r /1.1111011110101110..001101•1 .01110000010 Mall ILNIPMPTININI. light bow-stroke.110214/1...00010=10111011010111001 ...I' I1/ IINI MN IIIIIII MI ' — ft.--..11111111.-.1•14•111K.. (Quantz) Rigaudon (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 = 120 • ..4101100•400111101 I M.1•17a.. r.4•000•0•1070..111/9• 40 s110 /111/7111=111111010001/7 •lirrY 1•ILOMPOSNIEle .. 1011M OM 4001101•104.10s 4111110~011...I 00010101101011•110 I 20111101000•14s111000. 10110 1111111110 00110101110.10.110111MIE 441101 s.

.^1• ^ M ^^ 5!•^ta^^^^^_^ ^^^)♦ ^^ r1 1 I I I RONDEAU J = almost 160 (in or 3/4.11• 1111/1111I1 I= ANILJ MI/ t-=A..11111. 4th Book of Sonatas for the Violin.. finally ending with the Rondeau.WIMIMI WIWI.71 _.^. 1 (Rondeau) 0 (2nd couplet) b^9 (Rondeau) i ^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^A^^ r.011•11111111 _^_^^_I^..1•11Y1111111s MY1111111111/1111111111111s. NMI MN s AM = MM =WI -AIM.M1111111111 MIN 11111•111sMt_ NM MN NI •.M^^ J^.f /^\. This form could apply to all types of movement (`Gavotte en Rondeau'. Leclair.1111/111•1•1•11sU 1• _ /1111/11111.= .7•^^/ If IJ^ s =^.s 111 IMMIIIIM_IMINOILAIMMM s1•11•1111•111110 SALTARELLO This is a sort of movement that continually leaps along. When the first couplet has been played once.PWIIII/^ i^111••s11. MIMI s ^^^==r I7 ^. I L ^••••11111. NI /11. MIIIII IN I . (Rondeau) (END) (1st couplet) SalifiM .411IIII 1111111♦ = l'7 AN rVA^/^t^ M^_^^^1 . (Brossard) Saltarelle en Rondeau (DENIS) 1747 A. ^^ MM. AN ON II/711/ /11/711111111•111. f .7•sr1111WW II.ANNO ^^^^ '—. e^ . but this can be done without increasing the tempo. (Marpurg) A Rondeau is played with a certain tranquillity.).L. ^^^eJ_^^ ^ . before going on to the first couplet.91 ^L. Marpurg defines it thus: One begins by playing twice the first section.4NUMM1111111 s111111411/ 4•11•11/111111sa1111/ sa111ss Wail >•1111111MI IN •j=11•11i i IIIIIII MIN= EN NM MIMI IWI. w -^^ I M . (J. 1738) Marche en Rondeau (MONTÉCLAIR) 1736 Spirited -1^ r711111111 —^.IN AI ^." . playing the major one more quickly than the minor one: certainly it is a good idea to brighten up the major one by one's manner of playing it. W. M ^^ M ^ ^^^ 1 ^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^a^^MMMMM_— =I•• ./Q 1 = .. `Air en Rondeau' etc. =MI . a/MN_ /• s•s•11•111111111INI /111111111:4111•I I7aIIIIIIIII• MN IMIIII/ M/AMI1=115 a . the first section is also repeated once. I-AMINNI•J W . after which the second couplet is played.IZIIIIIMIMMI I IM r ._I^^•^^ ^^ ^s11 M^J^^^^^^^^i I W . (Quantz) Nor is it any less ridiculous to change the tempi of two Rondeaux that are intended to go together. /^ ^^7 v . doing so almost invariably by groups of three notes with the first note of each bar dotted.1•111111s 11•1111.:11111111r MI ^IIIIIIIIIi • NMI= w11/110. M. `Gigue en Rondeau'. Quantz) The Rondeau is a musical form which enjoyed a great vogue in the 17th and 18th centuries. which is actually called the Rondeau. = s s111/1111111111r7 MN .^^^^^/^ r = ^ m ^r M ^= MINIMS NB ^. 25-732 .111rr.

-4- + + Sarabande en Rondeau (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 J = 88 ++ + + it i 11111•111/7a/ Qa•rat nwat At /7^r t lilIrIla•t 17dga-=iK ^• 1 MOM/ a1.^a^alaa^^Iaa• ^aa. it is taken slowly in three equal beats ( .L. with hardly any shakes. The Sarabande.111•f^ )i.7[/A. L'Affilard) J = 80 (in 3/4.aew Nimble Sarabande (MONTÉCLAIR) 1736 In the tempo of a Chaconne +. the Loure and the Courante).^ar ^ar/^aa^ i aa -^aa^•a^^a^nars a•r Mal •a.aaa^ ^aa. ) is taken in 3 slow beats. . L'Affilard) J = 134 (in 6/4. etc.STa-ra•• Main .aaII MN NI 'ON/WIar l>•rwt i>•71!!!>•'O 1111r ^^ 11 • : ^^.r ^. Quantz) J = 88 (in 3/4.1s••01101111111111M.^ • aiiL^71 1I 1 MINIM •^. and not too slowly. WW1 . but more lightly.92 SARABANDE j= 72 (in 3/2. (Freillon-Poncein) A sarabande has the same tempo (as the Entrée. properly understood.:araa^l. but is played with slightly more agreeable expression. ). : . alai.^^^^ ^a^l^ari/ ^^ i '^í:ar^a-^a^^^a^^^ar^r^^^^^^^^^a^a^^^^. being only a Minuet with a grave. Grace notes can scarcely be used. (Rousseau) An Alla Siciliana. (L'Affilard) Sarabande in six slow beats (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 J= 134 '<.k•aa11•1a1110110 11111111•ana111•1rar. (Quantz) Tender Sarabande (L'AFFILARD) 1694-1717 ej= 72 • aUa•Iaa^aa^a•/A •^^a11. tempo. the Chaconne is taken in the same manner. L'Affilard) From being a quick dance in the 16th century.. ^ w^1•0111111•• •^ ^tá ^i ^r^^^^.J•••. 25-732 I . in 1218 metre with dotted notes interspersed.-^^al^aara• ^ r.. serious. but even more A kind of tune for dancing ( pronounced that that of the Gigue. ^ Ì i SICILIANA (SICILIENNE) ) having a tempo much slower. should be played very simply.//^rI. as for instance in the Sarabande and the Passacaglia.11a.1•^a•a•1ar ='. slow.• ^ ^^•a•\•' ^aa^ra^^ •^r^•••i I1 ••-ala\^ r• aiaa^ MINIM aar FM a/ •aa^a s^-• • When this metre is made to sing solemnly. the Sarabande became in the 17th and 18th centuries one of the (moderate or slow) movements of the instrumental Suite.. except for a few semiquaver passing appoggiaturas and some ports-de-voix: A.4•1•arra•a•aa•^aa•-••cW1a^.a•. .-.abata.a/'^^^I/^^ aas / •rawasora1•rwomma.S a•^_ •aaaa\a•>.+^^^ar^-•n1 1 -. Ammn^••^^/^ a^v^^t^r^^^ ^^^w^/a^^ s^ Sra^r/a^m^on^ 1 crusa^ Ii t>. + r r . (Brossard) The metre ( .

i w^•J^/•//1^.L.1 sE..^7^^^^== =.411=r1rrt• AA I= WES J. or] pipe (`flûtet') of the people of Provence.^. imitating the [`galoubet'..^^/ AM :i1I I MIIIIIr/L11•11.=11=J J. III MN.INI IIII/L!'./ sLMIII.\1111= . 25-732 .1 s _ It !<=.MU ..^^.JI1•11 I. TAMBOUR IN a little faster (than 80 bars to the minute.^^^ ^ =/.i !LM=11./IIMII. F...MINIM .` ^^ V•s•=11••1...11=:7I.=111111IJ// !7/ If .i..^^^1^.==s•^^^^^^ ==^. This rule applies equally to French Musettes and Bergeries.=^_ =NI . INI Siciliana (G. NI =I.^^.^ ^./.r 5•=1.^^^/^^^^^=. A.1•J1=J11111111tJ.1 l71^f 71.J.t 117r111111= . (Quantz) Sicilienne (John LŒILLET) c1725 Affettuoso ^^^ L.f L= .l.•111.=/•=A.11111111 /W.. HANDEL) c1722 'MN= 1) 1_17 1•Uwt AlIJ•r.^.^ 1lts•1•^J.....1•INIII _ /LA= AIM \`..IIIII MAI INIIIM/ MOM .a1=1••••={J.93 because this is an imitation of a Sicilian shepherds' dance. A =I =I .^ii 1=1• / _^^=.11••=lf Al= MI II IIAA'===J•. Its tune is very spirited and is taken in two quick beats..IIIMICfI I 1717 A all/01 1 -'=.=r181=..1s1 S!•111M1111 =.I )11111S _/ ===== J • ...A.vJIM. ^ •/ ^ _ ^ .J ^^.J /LI =.=•.. ar. and the bass should strike the same note over and over again to imitate the tabor (. • />L7=•/ial... M1^^.1111' Pd= rJ..^'^ :I.. !'77t L• =1 . ) with which the piper normally accompanies himself (Rousseau) The Tambourin is in two repeated sections (..1••AL ^^^^^.iINSI.7^\^/r.I..-P. RAMEAU) 1735 Nimbly Tambourin (DENIS) 1747 !LUSllt-^ / J/7^7=/I//^ s/=//. 451=.• s /I/'//i. . (Rameau-D'Alembert) A Tambourin is played like a Bourrée or a Rigaudon. ) It is taken in two very fast beats and each section normally begins on the second beat.^^ •. (Quantz) Tambourin (J.AN W._ =.. .Z71. It should skip along very rhythmically. 17J•..•==^I...A/f•1• ^^^ ^t-^^^^•^.^.1INI J•.11111 a4111=. ELM Ls /..^../^I/S 4.••••11 .. OEM ./^^•. •A/J..t =t .1lt 1 ^^ ^1• ^ A^rl.MIs . Quantz) A kind of dance much in fashion nowadays in French theatres./.s 1115I1=1 /L^/111=J...2.41/ =It s .. except a little faster.

(Rousseau) Villanelle (CAMPRA) i 710 • L. .94 VILLANELLE The Villanelle is a somewhat spirited Chaconne (see the definition by the same author). (Rameau-D'Alembert) A kind of rustic dance whose tune should be sprightly and articulated in a very clear metre._ a s- A.25.732 ..^^^ ^a1. MAIM u^^^^. (END) /1 j• ^^^^• WW1 III ^^j . The basis of the tune is normally a fairly simple couplet on which one then makes Doubles or Vari'tions.111sa.^ ^w^^^^^^^^^rar ^ r^ ^ ^ / -^__ ___ _1J_.1^r^J ^ t) _ ^• +^J'__` M__ ^_ . a little more lively in tempo than the ordinary Chaconne.L._1_+_1_+_=-^ / _=^^^r^ ^^^ ri ^.

Isolated references to other publications not listed above are given in full at the end of the quotations in question. RAMEAU. de la flû te et du flageolet. This bibliography lists the principal treatises from which are drawn the quotations in the present work. ou nouveau système pour apprendre facilement la musique soi-mime. 1719 L'AFFILARD Michel: Principes très faciles pour bien apprendre la musique. 1703 CAJON: Eléments de musique.L. 1766-1778 BROSSARD Sébastien de: Dictionnaire de musique. avec plusieurs remarques pour servir au bon goût dans la musique. 1694-1717 LOULIÉ Etienne: Eléments ou principes de musique. 1747 ENGRAMELLE Father Joseph: La tonotechnie ou l'art de noter les cylindres et tout ce qui est susceptible de notage dans les instruments de concerts mécaniques. 1759 MARPURG Friedrich Wilhelm: Anleitung zum Clavierspielen (Introduction to keyboard playing). 1696 MAHAUT Antoine: Nouvelle méthode pour apprendre en peu de temps à jouer de la flûte traversière. 1733 N.. sur la flûte à bec. 1737 DENIS Claude: Nouveau système de musique pratique. 1772 CHOQUEL Henri-Louis: La musique rendue sensible par la mécanique.25. 1771 VAN DER HAGEN Armand: Méthode nouvelle et raisonnée pour le hautbois.) pour apprendre la musique et les agréments du chant. 1717 DAVID François: Méthode nouvelle ou principes généraux pour apprendre facilement la musique et l'art de chanter. 1752 RAMEAU-D'ALEMBERT: Eléments de musique théorique et pratique suivant les principes de M. 1778 (Fétis) BÉDOS de CELLES Dom François: L'Art du facteur d'orgues. 1702 TARTINI Giuseppe: Traité des agréments de la musique.732 . 1753-1762 BACQUOY-GUÉDON Alexis: Méthode pour exercer l'oreille à la mesure dans l'art de la danse. B. éclaircis. 1755 MONTÉCLAIR Michel Pinolet de: Principes de musique.BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS CITED BACH Carl Philipp Em an uel: Versuch über die wahre Art das Klavier zu spielen (Essay on the true art of playing the keyboard). 1775 FREILLON-PONCEIN Jean-Pierre: La véritable manière d'apprendre à jouer en perfection du hautbois. A. 1700 HOTTETERRE Jacques called Le Romain: L'Art de préluder sur la flûte traversière. sur le hautbois et autres instruments de dessus. 1759 COUPERIN François: L'Art de toucher le clavecin. QUANTZ Joh an n Joachim: Essai d'une méthode pour apprendre à jouer de la flûte traversière. 1736 MUFFAT Georg: Suavioris harmoniae instrumentalis hyporchematicae florilegium. . développés et simplifiés par Jean le Rond D'ALEMBERT. 1695-1698. 1792 VILLENEUVE Josse de: Nouvelle Méthode (. 1752 ROUSSEAU Jean-Jacques: Dictionnaire de musique. 1767 SAINT-LAMBERT Michel de: Les principes de clavecin avec des remarques nécessaires pour l'intelligence de plusieurs difficultés de la musique.

75. 47 CLERA. 29. 79. 90 Improvisation 89 Inequality: see Unequal notes Inflated sound: see Son enflé Intervallic leaps 26. 27 Aspiration 34 Assai 61 BACH C.. 92 Goats réunis 52 Grace notes 21.-25. IX. 36 MARCELLO A.77. P.92. 78.45.-6-2/63. 49-52. 68 Keyboard instruments 42 L'AFFILARD M. 68. 29.61. 64. 66. 76. 64 Adagio pesante 61 Adagio spiritoso 61. 64 Appoggiatura: see Port-de-voix. Flattement 33.79.46 Circolo mezzo: see Turn Clavichord 42. 18. 9. 66. 7. 67. 20. 52 Couplet 74. 74. 76. 92 Fugue I Furie 18. 40. 47. 65. 50. IX. 62. 74. 14.94 CHOQUEL H. 66 Largo di molto 60. 32. 75 Coulade 18. 76. 92 DAVID F. 67. 75.96 INDEX OF TERMS. 3 66 Cantata . 75. 18. 27. 74 DESPLANES J. 38. 42/43 Detached notes 13-15. 35. 6. 59 Dolce 61. 68 Adagio affettuoso 2 Adagio assai 60. 6. 62/63.72. 29. 66. 65. 61. 61. 74.50 Flute.35/36. 66.29. 50. 91 MARAIS M. 80 Diminution 49 Disjunct intervals: see Intervallic leaps Dissonance 39. 64.87. 92 Larghetto 60-63. 66 LEBEGUE N. 7 Con brio 60 Con furia 77 Conjoined tastes: see Goats réunis Consonance 40.75. 73. 85 Allegro assai 60. 82.76. 68. 4-0. 34. 33-48. 84 MAHAUT A. 38. 92 COUPERIN F. L. 43. 29. 66 Adagio cantabile 61 Adagio di molto 60. 47. 94 Courante 7. E. Recorder) Flatet: see Pipe and Tabor Forlane 5. 84 ENGRAMELLE J. 27. 68 (see also: Transverse flute. 4. 79 Cantabile 64. VIII.35 Coulé. 92 Equal notes 13. 6. 36 Major 74. 62/63. 35. 48. 65. 91 Lento 60. 74. majestic 61. 19. 6.MBAULT L. 7-69. 77 Furioso 60 Gaillard 77 Gavotte 4. 62. 62/63. 62/63. 55-57 59. 45.82. S. 80. B. 53. I. 60-63. 34. B. 78.36 Adagio 1. 79.L. 84 Harpsichord 3.80. 72 Aria larga 71 Arietta 72 Arioso 61. 34. 8:8-9 Chaconne 7.61.74. A. 94 Doublé: see Turn Double cadence: see Turn Double-dotted notes 27-31. 67. 76.22-24. 58. 26. N.34/35. 75. VIII. 66 Dots (over notes) 13. 7. 59 Finger vibrato: see Flatté. bowed 42 HOTTETERRE J. 61.72. 36/37. 66. 70/71 Allegretto 60. 66.69 Allegro moderato 67. 69. 29. 84 BACQUOY-GUEDON A. de 48 BORDET 13. /$0. 64.65 Contredanse 75 Contre-temps 86 CORELLI A. 85 Andantino 60. 31 BACH J. 84. 6.l notes Double 32. 25 Canaries 8. 69 Allegro ma non troppo 60. 78. 36. 53/54 A.4. F. 23/24.74 Lento di molto 60.88. 80.7.78.82 Loure 5.. 14. 42. 85 Arpeggio 3r Articulatory silence 11-13. 76/77 Forte: see Piano and Forte FREILLON-PONCEIN J. 1. 8. 91 Gigue 5. 64. 67. Un equ. 62.6-9. 50. 2527. 29. 84 LUSSE C. 81. 74. 72/73 BROSSARD S. M. 90. 68. 78. 69 Allegro 1. 19. 92 LULLY J. 7 Air en Rondeau 91 D'ALEMBERT: see RAMEAU-D'ALEMBERT Alla breve: see Metres in Alla cappella: see Metres in Alla siciliana 61. Coulement 33. 69 Anacrusis 30 Andante 60.46. 72.66 Lento assai 60. 34. 42.86 Chronometer 70 Chute 23. SUBJECTS AND AUTHORITIES CITED Accent 34. 5. 37.61. 3. 75. 84. 82 Harpsichord. 69 Allegro ma non presto 60. 15. 66 Largo 60-64 Largo assai 60. 4. 5. 65. 91. 64 LOULIE E. flautists 18. 80. 40 Cotillon 4. bow-stroke 13. 92/93 Allemande 1. 82 Ballet 76 (see also: Air de ballet) Balls 75. 46 LECLAIR J. 25 Dotted notes: see Double-dotted notes. 2. 3. 22. 42. 1-9. 83. 25.18. IX CORRETTE M. de 47 Lute. 36. 32 Cadence: see Trill Cadenza (improvised on a pedal-point) 58/59 CAJON 2.81. 25. 71 After-stroke 46 Agitato 60 AGRICOLA M. 60-66. 19 BOURGEOIS L. lutenists 47 Maestoso. 38/39. 66 Affettuoso (Affetto) 61. 81 DENIS C. 61. 93 Bowing. 23.76.49. P. 20 Bourrée 4.85/86. 88/89. 34. 73/74. 80. de 2. b2/63. 61 Entrée 4.71. 8. 61. 69 Allegro di molto 60.92 CACCINI G. 55. 23. 92 Gruppetto: see Turn Gustoso 60 HANDEL G. 29.732 . 87 Fall: see Chute Fermata 43. VIII. 40. 29. 50.91.82 BEDOS Dom 70 Bergerie 93 BOISMORTIER J. 14. 49. 37. 68. Flattement Flatté.90 Branle 4. 75/76. 67. 69 Allegro ma non tanto 60. 91. 3. 24. Coulé Aria 71.82. 76. 11. 35.62. 79. . 29. 53/54. 61. 61. 89. 89. 44. 44 .35. 47 Air de ballet 1. 86. 80.

74. 29. 30. 50.81. 55.43.88. J.24.73. 74.27-30.68.6.46. 60. 90. 79 "171 3.29. 8.68.4.49.10. 29.5/6.83. J.60.. 85. Pastourelle 87/88 Pause (trill): see Point d'arrêt Pavane 88 Pedal-point 58/59.52.65. 78. 66.39.68. P.68/69 Overture 4.33.83/84. 24 186. 24. 94 A.87.42.85.72. 64.52.82. 8. gavotta 3. VIII.92 Passages.60.21 ROUSSEAU J.24. expression of different 68 Shake: see Trill Sicilian a 92/93 (see also: Alla sicili an a) Sinfonia 76.24 12/8 2.13.68 Pincé.732 . 45 Variation 33. 56.5. .68.56/57 TELEMANN G.90 2or2/2 3.37.72-78.81.15-19.25.38-41.10. 74. 32.f1ó Sonata 1/2. tongue-stroke 18.4346.50. IX RAMEAU-D'ALEMBERT 72.4.14. OM.62.61. 1.68. 79. P.67 Presto 60.44.61.41. 36.78.19.47.55.16.65.37.84 Tempo 60.81. 85.69. 47.37/38. 10. . 47.4446.10.24. 61.83 Musette (movement) 80.81-83.48 Tremolo 47 Tremulant stop: see Organ Trill 11.94 Rubato 32 Run: see Coulade SAINT-LAMBERT M.4.44.91 Martellement 37 MERSENNE M. 87. ornamentation 27.80 VAN DER HAGEN A.79 6 96 6/16 9 9/16 9 Metronome 70 Minor 70 Minuet 7.0 Port-de-voix 37.79.83. 49. 45.86 9/4 6. 27. 40.6 10.70. 50.65.72.65. 84.70-94 Tempo c': cappella 3. 17. 20.93 Oboe 53 Opera 4. 19.85 4/4 4/8 5.13.92 6/8 3.67. 65 Son filé 38.49.25. 90-93 RAMEAU J.2 Pesante 66 Phrasing 11-32 Piano and Forte 42/.61 Poco Andante 61. 61. 60. 82.47.43.24.44/15 Prestissimo 2.69 Pipe (and tabor) 93 Piqué: see Detached notes Poco Adagio 60 Poco Allegro 60. 73.41.18.81.87 Soave 61. ^^.82.93 Prelude 1. 60.42.24.32. 3846. 56.26. _^^--- 97 IN DEX OF TERMS.60. 87.4. 76. 46 Polonaise 88/89 Pomposo 61.8/9. 44. 89. 58 Stroke (in trill): see Trill Stroke (over a note) _.36. 76.62/53.18.9.L.5.77.4 Tempo d.64.74-84.58.50. 3.24. 92 Swelled sound: see Son enflé Syncopation: see Contre-temps Tabor: see Pipe Tambourin 5.11.69.69 Passepied -K71786/87 Pastorale.83. 48. 61.78-80.60.50. 40. 26.34.24.25.22. 84.20.92 3/2 6/7.18. passage-work 18. chromatic ascending 65 Sentiments. 33. 75.29. 82.93 TARTINI G.64-69.92.W.80. 84 Slurs and ties 13.L.87.65.7. etc.80. 47.33-38.85/86.51.61 12/4 2.61.87 3 or 3/4 6 7.30.60.50 Unequal notes 20-27.10.93 Rocking (in vibrato.61.64.10.66 Metres in 4/2 1. 32.86.92 12/16 2/3 3/j.72.66 Poco Largo 60 Poco Lento 60 Poco Presto 60 Poco Veloce 60 Poco Vivace 60 Point d'arrêt (trill) 37.58-61.80-87.8 10.75-78.92 Schneller 37 Semitones.89. 83 Pendulum 7a.10. 43.65.93.29.90/21.9.63. 25 Style mêlé 52 Suite 70.84/85 Pardessus de viole 19 Passacaglia 7.44. 86. . 85. 46.78.16W. 22. . 65. 39.43.81.60. 61.70.51/52.42/41. 81 MARPURG F. 73 Motet 4 Mordent: see Pincé MUFFAT G.24.93 2/16 3 6/4 3. 59. 84. SUBJECTS AND AUTHORITIES CITED (continued) March 4. 79.89 Son diminué: see Son enflé Son enflé 13.46 Theatre 82.92 Mixed style: see Style mêlé MONTECLAIR M.79. 93 2/8 3.24.23 Termination (trill) 43. de 6.10. 33. 36.33.49.35.67.9. 76. P.5. 10.73. 30. 86. 80. 49. 75. de 8.48.24.10.62.61.4.22 Presto assai 63 Quadrille 75 QUANTZ J.76.65 Stringed instruments 18. 89 Opéra-Ballet 76 Organ (tremulant stop) 47 Ornaments.93 Threaded sound: see Son filé Ties: see Slurs and ties Time signatures: see Metres Tirata 18 Tonguing.40. 93. 82 Saltarello 91 Sarabande 7.60.24. mordent 36.50. 24.69.47 Messa di voce: see Son enflé Mesto 61.63 Sostenuto 65 Staccato 14/15.49-59.79 Musette (instrument) 11.50.33.75.10. $2/9Q Preparation note (trill) 37.29. 94 Recorder 42 Repeated notes 25 Rigaudon 4.83.86.88.55.) 47 Romanesque 77 Rondeau 29.90 2/4 3. 67.66-69 Tour de gosier: see Turn Transverse flute 19.49.92 Turn 43/44.^ _-.92 3/8 6-8.79.42.10.

65. 47 Violin 19. 69 A. 69.732 . 48 (see also: Flatte. 67.25. Flattement) Villanelle 74. de 63.2/ó}. 58. 4T Vibrato 36.L. 50.Q4 VILLENEUVE J. 36..72 Viol 36.98 INDEX OF TERMS. 91 Vivace 60. 61.y. 43. 66. 42. Vivacissimo 60 Wind instruments 18. . SUBJECTS AND AUTHORITIES CITED (continued) Veloce 60 Velocissimo 60 Vene cassd 36. 66.

with gravity 2. 25. 81.93 After-stroke 46 Air. S.65.9.84 Grave 15.81 MARPURG F. 26 CORRETTE M. Pastourelle 88 Pavane 88 Pearled notes 13 PHILIDOR A.76.91. 59 Dotted notes 64/65 Double 32. 84 NAUDOT J.92 Mordent: see Pincé Musette 26.77 Furie.19. 34. 25.8.9 BITTI M.9 Minuet 7.86.53/54.43.90 Rondeau (form) 73. 19. 93 LŒILLET J.87 Equal notes and detach 14 FASCH J.77.10.80 Grace notes 41.84 BONONCINI G.78 QUANTZ J.22/23. 2. 70. 48 Point d'arrdt: see Trill Polonaise 88/89 Port-de-voix 34. 3. 12 Demons' Air.85 PAISIBLE J. 92 ROUSSEAU J. 51.74.36. F. 1 BEDOS Dom 13 BERNIER N. B.64. 48.55/56.12.77.28. 46 Rubato 32 Saltarello 91 Sarabande 7. 12. A.38.71.83 MONTÉCLAIR M. N.48. P.80 LOULIÉ E.71.84 CHOQUEL H. 78 Allegro non molto 17 Allegro non troppo 50 Allemande 2. 27.48 Circolo mezzo: see Turn CLÉRAMBAULT L. 43 DESTOUCHES A.51. 90.L. 86. 8. 93 Canaries 8. 73. 37.25. 71 Anacrusis 30 Andante 16.63 Andante (un poco) 63 Appoggiatura: see Port-de-voix Aria 71 Ariette 72 Arpeggio 19 Ascending chromatic semitones 65 Aspiration: see Accent BACH J.4.93 Ornamentation (French) 50/51 Ornamentation (German) 52-54 Ornamentation (Italian) 55-57 Ornaments 27 Overture 4. 26.76.72 Branle 73 Cadenza (improvised on a pedal-point) 58/59 CAMPRA A. 30. Coulement 35.31 Fast 87 Flatté. 30. 93 HOTTETERRE J.82.9.19.34-38.84 BOISMORTIER J.76 Equal notes 22.75. 31. 79 Passacaglia 7. 84. F. 58. 4. 4. B.78. 83.35.72.732 .72 Consonance 40 Contredanse 75 CORELLI A.7.26.82. 7 DENIS C. 76.63 Adagio (of the manner in which the . 86. 3. 75. 85 Diminutiein 49 Dissonance 40.46.93 Rhythm (reversed dotted) 29 Rhythms (superimposition and succession of different) 30 Rigaudon 4. 44 Martellement: see Pincé MASCITI M.53/54.77. 21. 77. 80. P. C. 4.70. 91. 78.59. should be played) 64/65 Affettuoso 71.39.89 Doublé: see Turn Double cadence: see Turn Double-dotted notes 27-30 Double-dotted notes.25. exceptions 31 ENGRAMELLE J. 22.18.5.2.80 Lullaby 7 LULLY J. 53/54 March 4.88.46. L. .34. 7.16. 47.43. 76 BLAVET M. 45. 23 Loure 5.9. de 8.79.72.26 MARAIS M. 32 Couplet 91 Courante 7. D.40.71-74. Flattement 35-37 Forlane 5.81.90/91 Quickly 73 RAMEAU J. de 48.30. 15.90 Presto 63. 47. 87 Pastorale. 3. 5. 73. 74 Cantabile 16/17 Chaconne 7.26.80 Cotillon 75 Coulade 18. F. 48 Gracefully 71. 14/15. W.25-28.46. 25 A.26. B. 77. J. 50.6.46. 7. Con furia 77 Furies Tune 77 Gaillarde (Gaillard) 77 Gavotte 4.29.50..5. 14. 25 DAVID F.75.35 Coulé. 83 Entrée 4.17. 1. M.50. 23.45.92 SCHICKHARDT J. 37.42.5. 93 DESPLANES J.47. 92 Largo 2 LECLAIR J.40.76 DALL'ABACO E. 26 Pincé 36.90 L'AFFILARD M. 20. 86 Passages (Doubles) 49 Passage-work 9.41. 40. 7 Detached notes 13 DIEUPART C. 87 Chûte 34.2.31.55/56.39 DEMOIVRE D. 83. 36.35. B. 31 Passepied 8. 91.78 Gigue 5. C. 37 Adagio 8. 41. 37.74 Chaconne (in the tempo of a) 92 CHEDEVILLE L. 5 MARCELLO A.38/39.36 COUPERIN F.63 Grave e affettuoso 43 Gravely. 21 Nimbly 92. 90 Bourrée 4.31.81. 25.25.31. aria 71 Air of the zephyrs 5 Allegro 1.35.79.52.74.48 Prelude 2.5.99 IN DEX OF MUSIC EXAMPLES by subject and composer Accent 34..87.30. 70. 38.71 LCEILLET J.87 BARSANTI F. 3. C. 78 Gruppetto: see Turn Half shakes 41 HANDEL G. J.57.49.49.41. P.

88 t^F ^^.L. 90. 85. 40. 52.63 VIVALDI A. 19 (alternation) 19 Solemnly 27. 48 Unequal notes 20-23 VAN HEERDE A. 48 Turn (Tourde gosier) 41. 78 Tender Air. 16/17.A2a3 'Spiccato' notes 25 Spirited (Gay) 10. 43. 85. 43. 41. 83. 14. (Messa di voce) 39. 93 S il ences (Articulatory) 12/13 Slow (grave) 75. 26. 46. 88. 18. B. 7. 28 Son coupé (interrupted sound): see Accent Son enfl t. 86 Vivace 8. 57 TELEMANN G. 3 Table of grace notes 48 Tambourin 5.732 . 76. 8 Slow and tender 86 Slurs (complete indication of) 16 (absence of) 16/17 (filling in) 17. 18.100 IN DEX OF MUSIC EXAMPLES (continued) Schneller: see Pincé Shake: see Trill Shake with mordent 48 Siciliana 52. 31. 89 Tempo di cappella 3. 44-46.91 Staccato 13. 44. 25. 15 STUK J. 53. 78. 10 Tempo di gavotta 3. 12 Vill anelle 94 VILLENEUVE J. I. i* 10 Li A.92 Slow (lent) 3. 86 Tirata 18 Trill 36. 93 TARTINI G. 71 Tenderly 81. 37. . F.25. de 63.