ABSTRACT/ SUMMARY

The purposes of this experiment are to determine the percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar by titration with standardized sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Vinegar is a dilute solution of acetic acid. Since vinegar is an acid, it can be titrated with a base. In this experiment, the titration comprised of two stages. The first stage is to standardize NaOH solution with KHP. 0.6 M NaOH was used in this standardization. The second stage is the titration between NaOH and commercial vinegar sample. The purpose of titration is to determine the equivalence point of the reaction. At the equivalence point is occurs when an equal number of moles of acid and base are mixed, the pH of the solution will change drastically, as the solution is being flooded with excess base (NaOH). The percent of acetic acid in vinegar and the percentage error for the experiment are 5.6983 % and 42.457 % error. The conclusion is the experimental percentage of CH3COOH in the vinegar sample is higher than the true value which is 4.00%.

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Two of these terms are molarity and percent by mass: Molarity is the number of moles of solutes per liter of solution. 2007). dilute solution contains relatively little solute in a given amount of solvent. 2009. the more accurately the concentration of the unknown solution can be determined.S.. The rest of the solution is primarily water. The concentration of unknown solution will be determined by knowing the volume of known solution needed to complete the titration. for a manufacturer of vinegar to use the word “vinegar” in its labeling of the product. 2 .0 grams of acetic acid per 100 mL of solution. and glycerol present. 2010). it must contain a minimum of 4. The purpose of titration is to determine the equivalence point of the reaction.67 M. The molecular formula for acetic acid is CH3COOH. al. phosphoric acid. A concentrated solution contains a relatively great quantity of solute in a given amount of solvent. The equivalence point of a titration is the point at which the acid has completely reacted with or been neutralized by the base. it can be titrated with a base to determine the molarity and percent by mass of acetic acid in a vinegar solution.INTRODUCTION According to Stanton et. The more accurately the concentration of the solution of known concentration is known. The smell of vinegar attributed to acetic acid (an organic acid). Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Percent solute = × 100% (Equation 1-2) Vinegar or French for sour wine is formed by aerobic bacteria oxidizing grain alcohol to acetic acid and water (Scharf and Malerich. Molarity (M) = (Equation 1-1) Percent by mass is the mass in grams of solute per 100 grams of solution. At this point. Titration is the process of adding a known amount of a solution of known concentration to a known amount of solution of unknown concentration. According to the U. the pH changes rapidly with a small addition of acid or base (Chang. with trace amounts of alcohol. In another hand. sugar. concentration of solution is the amount of solute (species dissolved) in a given amount solvent (dissolving agent). which corresponds to a concentration of 0. Chemist uses specific terms to express the concentration of solution. Since vinegar is an acid.

There are a couple of methods that can be used to monitor the pH change in a solution. is incrementally added to the acid solution. When sufficient NaOH is added to completely neutralize the acid (most of the H3O+ ions are removed from the solution).374 and is acidic. as the solution is being flooded with excess strong base or strong acid (depending on what is being added). For example. THEORY In this experiment. the next drop of NaOH added will cause sudden change in pH (increase sharply). some of the hydrogen ions will be neutralized. the equivalence point is reach when the added quantity of base is the exact amount necessary for stoichiometric reaction with acid (Stanton et. This shows that the equivalence point of titration is reached. For convenience. therefore the pH of a solution is defined as the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration (Brown et. As sodium hydroxide. The molar concentration of hydrogen ions in aqueous solution is frequently very small. pH = 7 are neutral and pH > 7 are basic. pH = -log10 [H3O+] (Equation 1-4) pH scale is used to express the acidity or basicity of solution. sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The titration is initiated by using a pH electrode to measure the pH of acid solution (pH within 3-5).. Solutions with pH < 7 are acidic. The pH of the solution will gradually increase as the hydrogen ion concentration decreases.OBJECTIVES The purpose of this experiment was to determine the molarity of a solution and percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar by titration with standardized sodium hydroxide solution. pH in an aqueous solution is related to its hydrogen ion concentration. al.. the pH of the solution will change drastically. For example a solution having [H3O+] concentration of 4. is necessary to neutralize 1 mole of the weak acid. pH electrodes will be used to constantly measure and record the pH of the solution. 2009). NaOH. In this experiment. Symbolically. al. acetic acid (CH3CO2H). the stoichiometric amount of 1 mole of the strong base. 2009). as shown in Equation 1-3: NaOH(aq) + CH3CO2H(aq)  NaCH3CO2(aq) + H2O(l) (Equation 1-3) At the equivalence point of titration. The volume of based needed to completely neutralized the acid is 3 .23 × 10-3 would have a pH of 2. the hydrogen ion concentration is written as [H3O+].

the equivalence point is the middle of the vertical part of the curve (Chang. Titration of vinegar sample with a standardized sodium hydroxide solution will be performed in this experiment. The acid chosen for this experiment is a monoprotic acid called potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP).0 mL aliquots of vinegar. To standardize the sodium hydroxide solution. its solution react with carbon dioxide and often appears wet. The sodium hydroxide solution can be standardized by titrating it against an acid solution of accurately known concentration. 2007). a solution of sodium hydroxide must be standardized before it can be used in accurate analytical work. it is difficult to obtain solid sodium hydroxide in a pure form because it has tendency to absorb moisture from air. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is one of the bases commonly uses in laboratory. primary standard solutions are produce by dissolving a weighed quantity of pure acid or base in a known volume of solution. The equation for the reaction of potassium hydrogen phthalate with sodium hydroxide is: KHC8H4O4(aq) + NaOH(aq)  KNaC8H4O4 + H2O(l) (Equation 1-5) Once the sodium hydroxide solution has been standardized. a primary standard acid solution is initially prepared. The equation for the reaction between vinegar and sodium hydroxide is: CH3COOH(aq) + NaOH(aq)  NaCH3COO(aq) + H2O(l) (Equation 1-6) By knowing the standardized NaOH concentration and using Equation 1-6. For these reasons. However.obtained from the equivalence point of titration. In general. the molarity and mass percentage of acetic acid in the vinegar solution can be determined. 2007). 4 . for which the molecular formula is KHC8H4O4 (Chang. it will then used to titrate 10. From the graph of pH versus the volume of base added plotted.

5 g potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) Diagram of titration .APPARATUS/ MATERIALS              pH meter Vinegar Magnetic stirrer Weighing balance Stir bar Burette and burette clamp Beaker (100. 5 . 250 mL) Measuring cylinder Conical flask Retort stand 10 mL volumetric pipette 0.6 M NaOH solution 1.

2 and 3 were calculated. the volume of NaOH required to neutralize the KHP solution in each titration was determined. 75 to 100 mL was added to cover the pH electrode tip during the titration. The average molarity of the sodium hydroxide solution was calculated. The volume of NaOH required to neutralize the vinegar in each titration was determined from the plotted graph and the data was recorded. The result of sodium hydroxide concentration was used in part B of the experiment. The solution was stirred until the KHP had dissolved completely. A beaker was placed on the balance and tare. A 10 mL volumetric pipette was used to transfer 10. 2. 250 mL of approximately 0. The molarity of acetic acid in vinegar for titrations 1. This solution was titrated with NaOH and the pH with 1 mL additions of NaOH solution was recorded. 2 and 3 was calculated. The solution was initially prepared in a beaker to make it easier to transfer into the burette for titration.5 grams of KHP was added to the beaker. 1 mL of NaOH was added to the vinegar solution and the pH was recorded. The percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar for titrations 1. 6. 4. 6 . 4. 7.PROCEDURES Standardization of sodium hydroxide solution 1. The molarity of sodium hydroxide for titrations 1. 5.6 M sodium hydroxide solution was prepared from NaOH solid. 3. Molarity of acetic acid and mass percent in vinegar 1. 2. The mass of KHP to the nearest 0. The percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar was calculated. Steps 1 to 3 were repeated and two more solutions for NaOH standardization were prepared.0 mL of vinegar to a clean. 2 and 3 were calculated. 3. The graph of pH versus NaOH volume added was plotted. The above steps were repeated twice more. 5. 8. 6. dry 100 mL beaker. Sufficient water. 7.001 g was recorded and 30 mL of distilled water was added to the beaker. The average molarity of acetic acid for each titration was calculated. From the plotted graph. The graph of pH versus NaOH was plotted. 1.

6234 M 0.6102 M 12.7081 % 5.5047 TITRATION 2 1.9488 M 5.7045 % 15.9504 M 0.6823 % 5.82 12.48 15.55 0.529 TITRATION 2 1.54 TITRATION 2 TITRATION 3 15.457 % error 7 .29 0.6000 M 0.6983 % 42.6112 M Molarity of acetic acid and mass percent in vinegar TITRATION 1 Volume of NaOH to neutarlize the vinegar solution (mL) Molarity of acetic acid in vinegar Average molarity of acetic acid for each titration % by mass of acetic acid in vinegar Average percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar % error 5.9461 M 0.27 1.5057 11.RESULTS Standardization of sodium hydroxide solution TITRATION 1 Mass of KHP (g) Volume of NaOH to neutralize the KHP solution (mL) Molarity of NaOH Average molarity of NaOH for each titration 0.9498 M 0.

82 mL 8 .27 mL KHP TITRATED WITH NaOH (TITRATION 2) 14 12 10 8 pH 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 VOLUME OF NaOH (mL) 11.Standardization of sodium hydroxide solution KHP TITRATED WITH NaOH (TITRATION 1) 14 12 10 8 pH 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 VOLUME OF NaOH (mL) 12.

KHP TITRATED WITH NaOH (TITRATION 3) 16 14 12 10 pH 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 VOLUME OF NaOH (mL) 12.54 mL 9 .29 mL Molarity of acetic acid and mass percent in vinegar VINEGAR TITRATED WIYH NaOH (TITRATION1) 14 12 10 pH 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 VOLUME OF NaOH (mL) 15.

VINEGAR TITRATED WITH NaOH (TITRATION 2) 14 12 10 8 pH 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 VOLUME OF NaOH (mL) 15.55 mL 10 .48 mL VINEGAR TITRATED WITH NaOH (TITRATION 3) 14 12 10 8 pH 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 VOLUME OF NaOH (mL) 15.

Mav = = = 0.CALCULATION TO PREPARE 0. 1.007488 mol NaOH  Calculate the molarity of NaOH solution.6 M NaOH × 250 mL × × = 6 g NaOH solid SAMPLE OF CALCULATION FOR STANDARDIZING BASED WITH KHP Titration 1  Calculate the moles of KHP used in the titration.529 g KHC8H4O4 × = 0. 0.01227 L NaOH M1 = = = 0.007488 mol KHC8H4O4 × = 0.007488 mol KHC8H4O4  Calculate the moles of NaOH required neutralizing the moles of KHP. 12.27 mL NaOH × = 0. Calculate average molarity of sodium hydroxide for each titration.6102 M NaOH * The same calculation was used for titrations 2 and 3 to find the molarity of NaOH solution (Appendix 1).6112 M NaOH 11 .

SAMPLE OF CALCULATIONS FOR DETERMINING THE ACETIC ACID CONCENTRATION IN VINEGAR BY TITRATION WITH STANDARD BASE Titration 1  Calculate the moles of NaOH that reacted.01554 L NaOH = 0.009498 mol NaOH 15.9498 M CH3COOH 10 mL CH3COOH × M1 =  Calculate the mass of acetic acid in the solution.010 L CH3COOH × CH3COOH  Calculate the mass of acetic acid solution.010 L CH3COOH solution × = 0.009498 mol NaOH ×  Calculate the molarity of the CH3COOH solution.01554 L NaOH ×  Calculate the moles of CH3COOH neutralized by the moles of NaOH.0 g CH3COOH solution 10 mL CH3COOH solution ×  Calculate the percent by mass of acetic acid in the solution. = 0.010 L CH3COOH solution = = 0.57045 g 10 mL CH3COOH × 0. = 10. = 0.54 mL NaOH × 0. × 100% Percent mass CH3COOH = Percent mass CH3COOH = × 100% = 5. = 0.7045 % CH3COOH 12 . = 0.009498 mol CH3COOH 0.

* The same calculation was used for titrations 2 and 3 to find the molarity of NaOH solution (Appendix 1). Percent mass CH3COOH av = % CH3COOH = = 5.6983 SAMPLE ERROR CALCULATIOS % error = = × 100% = 42. Mav = = = 0.457 % error 13 .9488 M CH3COOH Calculate average molarity of acetic acid for each titration. Calculate average molarity of acetic acid for each titration.

06 to 6. Besides that. In this experiment pH was used to determine the equivalence point of the solutions. KHP also must be dissolved completely and carefully at the beginning of the titration to get the accurate concentration of NaOH.16. 14 . Potassium hydrogen phthalate is a white. For this experiment the titration of KHP with NaOH was repeated for 3 times to get the average.27 mL for the first titration. At first titration.DISCUSSION The objectives of this experiment are to determine the molarity of a solution and the percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar by titration with a standardization sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. the pH sharply increases to 12. The average molarity of NaOH for these three titrations is 0. On another hand.6000 M. the pH was slowly increase from 1 to 12 mL NaOH added which are from pH 4. Sodium hydroxide was needed to standardize because it can easily contaminated by the absorption of carbon dioxide or water from the air as it absorbs moisture from the air and usually appears wet.77. After 0. Potassium hydrogen phthalate is a primary standard.6 M NaOH. Solution with pH<7 are acidic. the purposes are to standardize the sodium hydroxide solution and to determine the molarity of sodium hydroxide.5 mL of NaOH was added.82 mL for the second titration and 12. At this point. the more accurately the concentration of the unknown solution can be determined (NaOH).6234 M and lastly third titration. 6 g of NaOH was diluted with 250 mL of distilled water in order to get 0.6102 M. 11.6112 M. The molarity of NaOH for first titration is 0. This means that more accurately the concentration of the solution of known concentration is known (KHP). the pH will rapidly increase with a small addition of NaOH. second titration. soluble solid that is commercially available in highly pure form. 0. pH is a method of expressing the acidity or basicity of a solution. In the first experiment. the concentration for the solution may be not the approximately the desired concentration. pH=7 are neutral and pH>7 are basic. For the first experiment.29 mL for the third titration. 0. The same goes to the titration 2 and 3 at which the pH sudden change after 12 mL of NaOH was added to the KHP solution. The equivalence points are 12. This means that equivalence point in this experiment is the point at which the volume of NaOH required to neutralize the acid solution. potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) has a lesser tendency to absorb water from the air and when dried will remain dry for a reasonable period of time. This means that the pH of the solution had changed from acid to base. Equivalence point occurs when chemically equivalent amounts of acid and base are present. Thus if a solution of sodium hydroxide is prepared by weighing the sodium hydroxide.

the pH of the solution was slowly increased when NaOH was added from 1 to 15 mL which are from pH 3. 15 .54mL for the first titration. Using the true value and experimental value. The same goes to the titration 2 and 3 at which the pH sudden change after 15 mL of NaOH was added to the vinegar solution.00 % of CH3COOH.09 to 6. 10 mL of vinegar was used as acid.9498 M.00 % from the label on the commercial vinegar sample.6983. The percentage of CH3COOH was found to be 5. in a commercial vinegar sample by titration with a standardized sodium hydroxide solution.55mL for the third titration. The percent error was found to be 42. The deviation of the experimental value from the true value was calculated to be 1.48mL for the second titration and 15. The molarity of acetic acid in vinegar for first titration is 0.457 %. the pH drastically increases to 11. we can conclude that the experimental percentage of CH3COOH in the vinegar sample is higher than the true value.6983 %. The equivalence points for each titration is 15.9461 M and lastly third titration. This shown that the objective was achieved because for a manufacturer of vinegar to use the word “vinegar” in its labeling of the product. The exact value was 4. After 1 mL of NaOH was added. 0. An error in the molarity of NaOH used would result in a larger value for the number of moles of CH3COOH in the sample.6983 %. For the first titration.9504 M.9488 M and 5. it must contain a minimum of 4. a percent error was calculated. 0.457 %. Based on this experiment. One possible source of error to account for this different could be the titration past the true equivalence point of the reaction.In second experiment.06. The percentage error for the experiment is 42. CH3COOH. The titration of vinegar with NaOH solution was also repeated for three times in this experiment. The average molarity and percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar for these three titrations is 0. A larger number for the moles of CH3COOH would result in a larger mass of CH3COOH in the sample. 15. CONCLUSION The purpose of this experiment was to determine the molarity of a solution and the percent by mass of acetic acid.89. second titration. This means that the pH of the solution had changed from acid to base. Addition of more NaOH than desired volume to reach the end point would give a larger value for the number of moles of NaOH used. The larger mass of acetic acid would result in a higher percentage of acid in the sample.

An indicator such as phenolphthalein must be used to monitor the pH change. 5. So. they will able to compare and study the efficiency of each weak acid. Thus. 3. Potassium hydrogen phthalate solutions must be carefully prepared to get the accurate concentration of NaOH. 4. Student should be given more than one weak acid. The wet burette must be rinsed with NaOH before filling to make sure that the concentration of the NaOH was not contaminated with other particles. 2. 16 . An indicator changes color when the pH reaches a certain point. we will be aware with the pH changes and when it reaches the equivalence point. The tip of the burette must be filled with NaOH before initial volume was recorded in order to get the accurate volume that required neutralizing the acid solution.RECOMMENDATIONS 1.

B. (2009). W.REFERENCES Brown. L. L.. C. "Chemistry.. 155 ." 9th edition/Ed.675. Determination of Acetic Acid Content of Vinegar.. (2010). Chang. H. Baruch College. (2009).709.and Malerich. "CHEMISTRY: the central science. 17 ..Bursten. Scharf." 2nd edition/Ed. Prentice Hall. C. C. "EXPERIMENTS IN GENERAL CHEMISTRY: measureNet. 673 . McGraw-Hill.. T.and Atwood." 11th edition/Ed. R. E. J.LeMay. Cengage Learning.Zhu. E. B. H.and Murphy. Stanton. 150 .157. (2007).

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