Passive Optical Networks

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A passive optical network (PON) is a point-to-multipoint, fiber to the premises network architecture in which unpowered optical splitters are used to enable a single optical fiber to serve multiple premises, typically 32-128. A PON consists of an Optical Line Termination (OLT) at the service provider's central office and a number of Optical Network Units (ONUs) near end users. A PON configuration reduces the amount of fiber and central office equipment required compared with point to point architectures. Downstream signals are broadcast to each premises sharing a fiber. Encryption is used to prevent eavesdropping. Upstream signals are combined using a multiple access protocol, invariably time division multiple access (TDMA). The OLTs "range" the ONUs in order to provide time slot assignments for upstream communication. A PON is a shared network, in that the OLT sends a single stream of downstream traffic that is seen by all ONTs. Each ONT only reads the content of those packets that are addressed to it.

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10G. in terms of bit rate. . The OLT consists of three major parts:      service port Interface Function. etc. These typically include:  Internet Protocol (IP) traffic over Gigabit.Optical Line Terminal (OLT)  The OLT provides the interface between the PON and the backbone network. power budget. jitter. On the distribution side. it presents optical access interfaces according to this and other G-PON standards. Optical Distribution Network (ODN) interface. cross-connect function. or 100 Mbit/s Ethernet  standard time division multiplexed (TDM) interfaces such as SONET/SDH or PDH at various rates  ATM UNI at 155-622 Mbit/s The OLT is connected to the switched network via standardized interfaces.

OLT functional block diagram .

GEM and Dual. media access control.   2) Cross-connect shell The Cross-connect shell provides a communication path between the PON core shell and the Service shell.  1) PON core shell This block consists of two parts. the ODN interface function and the PON TC function. OLT provides cross-connect functionality according to selected modes. and ONU management. ATM or Dual. internal architecture in OLT and other factors. and delineation of Protocol Data Unit (PDU) for the cross-connect function.   . DBA. such as GEM. Technologies for connecting this path depends on services. PON TC function includes framing. Each PON TC selects one mode of ATM. 3) Service shell This shell provides translation between service interfaces and TC frame interface of the PON section. OAM.

). These services can include voice (plain old telephone service (POTS) or voice over IP (VoIP)). Since the ONT operates with only a single PON Interface (or maximum 2 interfaces for protection purposes). service MUX and DMUX function is specified to handle traffic. the ONT functions are separated into two parts:  the ONU. which provides the separate. ECL. Often. data (typically Ethernet or V. the cross-connect function can be omitted. etc. RS530. which terminates the PON and presents a converged interface – such as xDSL or multiservice Ethernet – toward the user. and  network termination equipment (NTE). However. Each PON TC selects one mode of ATM.35). and/or telemetry (TTL.Optical Network Terminals (ONT)  The ONT terminates the PON and presents the native service interfaces to the user. instead of this function.  . native service interfaces directly to the user The functional building blocks of the G-PON ONT are mostly similar to the functional building blocks of the OLT. GEM and Dual. video.

ONT functional block diagram .

  . But much data traffic – internet surfing.Upstream bandwidth allocation  The OLT is responsible for allocating upstream bandwidth to the ONTs. for example – require essentially constant upstream bandwidth. A grant is permission to use a defined interval of time for upstream transmission. and the OLT may provide a fixed bandwidth allocation to each such service that has been provisioned. ONT upstream transmissions could collide if they were transmitted at random times. Once the delay of all ONTs has been set. Some services – POTS. The grant map is dynamically re-calculated every few milliseconds. The map allocates bandwidth to all ONTs. meaning that the transmission delay from each ONT is unique. ONTs can lie at varying distances from the OLT. such that each ONT receives timely bandwidth for its service needs. The OLT measures delay and sets a register in each ONT via PLOAM (physical layer operations and maintenance) messages to equalize its delay with respect to all of the other ONTs on the PON. Because the optical distribution network (ODN) is shared. DS1 and some classes of data service may also require constant upstream bit rate. the OLT transmits so-called grants to the individual ONTs. for example – is burst and highly variable.

the OLT continuously allocates a small amount of extra bandwidth to each ONT. it transmits idle frames during its excess allocation. in the same way that any LAN can be oversubscribed. NSR DBA has the advantage that it imposes no requirements on the ONT. The only special feature in the PON architecture for downstream oversubscription is the fact that the ONT must be able to accept completely arbitrary downstream time slots. a PON can be oversubscribed for upstream traffic. Through dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA). If the OLT observes that a given ONT is not sending idle frames. Once the ONT's burst has been transferred.   . both in time and in size. the OLT observes a large number of idle frames from the given ONT. status-reporting (SR) and non-status reporting (NSR). (Downstream traffic can also be oversubscribed. and the disadvantage that there is no way for the OLT to know how best to assign bandwidth across several ONTs that need more. it increases the bandwidth allocation to that ONT. and reduces its allocation accordingly.) There are basically two forms of DBA. If the ONT has no traffic to send. according to the traffic engineering concepts of statistical multiplexing. In NSR DBA.

the OLT can optimize allocation of the spare bandwidth on the PON. The ONT reports each T-CONT separately to the OLT. A given ONT may have several so-called traffic containers (T-CONTs). By knowledge of the service level agreement for each T-CONT across the entire PON. . as well as the size of each T-CONT's backlog. In SR DBA. each with its own priority or traffic class. The report message contains a logarithmic measure of the backlog in the T-CONT queue. the OLT polls ONTs for their backlogs.

It was used primarily for business applications. and choice of Layer 2 protocol (ATM.PON classification and Standards     ITU-T G.983  APON (ATM Passive Optical Network). 10GigEPON will likely multi-lamda downstream and continue to use a single lamda with ATDMA for upstream. IEEE 802. and survivability.3ah EPON.3av  10GEPON (10 Gigabit Ethernet PON) is an IEEE Task Force for 10Gbit/s backwards compatible with 802. GEM. enhanced security.  BPON (Broadband PON) is a standard based on APON. It adds support for WDM. called OMCI. between the OLT and ONU/ONT. Ethernet). Verizon is in the process of installing millions of lines. It supports higher rates. and was based on ATM. enabling mixed-vendor networks. It also created a standard management interface.3ah  EPON or GEPON (Ethernet PON) is an IEEE/EFM standard for using Ethernet for packet data. dynamic and higher upstream bandwidth allocation. This was the first Passive optical network standard. . IEEE 802. In early 2008. ITU-T G.984  GPON (Gigabit PON) is an evolution of the BPON standard. while British Telecom and AT&T are in advanced trials. It will also be WDM-PON compatible.

variable-length packets. The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) did further work. although the standard accommodates higher rates. Further improvements to the original APON standard – as well as the gradual falling out of favor of ATM as a protocol – led to the full. final version of ITU-T G.  . with frame segmentation to allow for higher Quality of Service (QoS) for delay-sensitive traffic such as voice and video communications. the standards permit several choices of bit rate. but the industry has converged on 2. Again. and 1.983 being referred to more often as broadband PON. or BPON. The older ITU-T G. The ITU-T G.983 standard is based on asynchronous transfer mode (ATM). GPON Encapsulation Method (GEM) allows very efficient packaging of user traffic.984 (GPON) standard represents a boost in both the total bandwidth and bandwidth efficiency through the use of larger. A typical APON/BPON provides 622 megabits per second (Mbit/s) of downstream bandwidth and 155 Mbit/s of upstream traffic. and has since standardized on two generations of PON.488 gigabits per second (Gbit/s) of downstream bandwidth.History of PON  Early work on efficient fiber to the home architectures was done in the 1990s by the Full Service Access Network (FSAN) working group.244 Gbit/s of upstream bandwidth. formed by major telecommunications service providers and system vendors. and has therefore been referred to as APON (ATM PON).

as well as full-service voice. as part of the Ethernet First Mile project.652). EPON uses standard 802.3 Ethernet PON (EPON or GEPON) standard was completed in 2004 (http://www. The 1550 nm band is allocated for optional overlay services.org/3/av/). typically RF (analog) video.ieee802.org/3/).3 Ethernet frames with symmetric 1 gigabit per second upstream and downstream rates. The specification calls for downstream traffic to be transmitted on the 1490 nanometer (nm) wavelength and upstream traffic to be transmitted at 1310 nm. EPON is applicable for data-centric networks.  . using one wavelength for downstream traffic and another for upstream traffic on a single Nonzero dispersion shifted fiber (ITU-T G. work began on a very high-speed 10 Gbit/s EPON (XEPON or 10-GEPON) standard (http://www. starting in early 2006. The IEEE 802. data and video networks.ieee802. Recently. A PON takes advantage of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM).

 . Ethernet data. A PON consists of a central office node. one or more user nodes. An ONU is the PON-side half of the ONT. and may present one or more converged interfaces. and either term is used generically to refer to both classes of equipment. the difference between an ONT and ONU is frequently ignored. most common is 28 dB of loss budget for both BPON and GPONm but products have been announced using less expensive optics as well. called optical network units (ONUs) or optical network terminals (ONTs). An ONT is a single integrated electronics unit that terminates the PON and presents native service interfaces to the user. terminating the PON. called an optical line terminal (OLT). The GPON address space accommodates service to up to 128 ONUs on a single fiber. or video. the standards describe several optical budgets. An ONU typically requires a separate subscriber unit to provide native user services such as telephony. Forward error correction (FEC) may provide another 2-3 dB of loss budget on GPON systems. at speeds up to 100 megabits. the 28 dB budget will likely increase. As optics improve. In practice. In apartment buildings. As with bit rate. 28 dB corresponds to about 20 km with a 32-way split. called the optical distribution network (ODN). such as xDSL or Ethernet. the ONT often separately connects via VDSL or Ethernet to the apartments. toward the user. and the fibers and splitters between them.

Gigabit PON offers greater bandwidth and functionality. In china. APON. The currently deployed PON (e. in which the bandwidth is shared among the users in the manner of time domain multiplexing. but most networks designed in 2008 use GPON or GEPON. GPON) is named as TDM-PON. e.  .g. Carriers looking to deliver the latest broadband services over fiber access have a choice of PON technologies.g. WDM-PON..Current Status of PON   TDM-PON Both APON/BPON and EPON/GEPON have been deployed widely. but Ethernet PON benefits from maturity. This is different from the multiplexing manner discussed below. GPON is most common in the West.. GEPON more common in Asia.

WDM-PON can provide more bandwidth over longer distances by devoting more raw optical bandwidth to each user. has introduced first products. Alternatively the wavelengths can be used collectively through statistical multiplexing to provide efficient wavelength utilization and lower delays experienced by the ONUs. This technology looks forward to a day when optical technology is cheaper and easier to deploy. being pioneered by several companies. Novera Optics Inc. and by increasing the link loss budget of each wavelength. is a type of passive optical networking. or WDM-PON.  . that uses multiple optical wavelengths to increase the upstream and/or downstream bandwidth available to end users.  WDM-PON Wavelength Division Multiplexing PON. which supports the WDM PON deployment in Korea. making it less sensitive to the optical losses incurred at each optical splitter. and end users demand higher bandwidth. The multiple wavelengths of a WDM PON can be used to separate Optical Network Units (ONUs) into several virtual PONs co-existing on the same physical infrastructure. Corecess and Korea Telecom have done important research.

. and point to point Ethernet Transport (ELINE) services. is a type of passive optical networking. being proposed by several companies.  DOCSIS-PON Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) PON. In these instances the DPON system also acts as an IP/MPLS Provider Edge (PE) Router. It makes the EPON OLT look and act like a DOCSIS Cable Modem Termination Systems (CMTS) platform. Some DPON systems may optionally support the Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF) 9 and 14 specifications for the delivery of Ethernet Transport services including Ethernet LANs (ELAN). Ethernet Virtual Private Line (EVPL). In short it implements the DOCSIS Operations Administration Maintenance and Provisioning (OAMP) functionality on existing EPON equipment. that implements the DOCSIS service layer interface on existing Ethernet PON (EPON or GEPON) Media Access Control (MAC) and Physical layer (PHY) standards. or DPON/DPON.

The overlay for RF-PON works in the same way that some CWDM PON or potential WDM-PON overlays work. In the forward direction RF-PON is an optical overlay for existing PON such as GPON or GEPON/EPON. or by the use a of a CWDM overlay. . It offers a means to support RF technologies in locations where only fiber is available or where copper is not permitted or feasible. Reverse RF support may be provided by digitizing and transporting the upstream or return RF into the digital PON upstream overhead. but offers no additional bandwidth for RF based services. RF-PON offers backwards compatibility with existing RF modulation technology. is a type of passive optical networking. Implementations vary by vendor and there are no standards for the return portion of the RF overlay for PONs.  RF-PON or RFOG Radio Frequency PON (RF-PON) or Radio Frequency over Glass (RFOG) or Hybrid-Fiber-Coax PON (HFC-PON) or Cable PON. that proposes to transport RF signals that are now transported over copper (principally over a hybrid fiber and coaxial cable) over PON.

is a little more stringent in meeting [service level agreements]. Two standards bodies are working on 10G: The IEEE is working on an Ethernet or EPON flavor. and [Full Service Access Network] has started on a successor to 2. because of the way it was standardized by FSAN and the ITU. even if the framing mechanisms and protocols are different. It’s still early. both in the standards bodies and among most vendors: the higher line rate. depending on how many wavelengths you want to run and the performance [you need]. the other is to run multiple wavelengths on the same fiber and use wavelength-specific filters at the [optical network terminals]. Right now at least the optics or lasers used could be used for both technologies. similar to current GPON but run at faster speeds like 10 Gb/s. but that hasn’t progressed very far.  . That could be either using DWDM or CWDM wavelengths.The Future of PON  On paths to next-gen PON: There are two general approaches.5G GPON at 10 Gb/s. There’s an expectation that GPON. but one general trend we see is more interest in 10 Gb/s GPON for business or enterprise services. There’s been some talk about trying to unify those standards.

 . reduce split ratios. There’s going to be varying points of view from technology companies: increase power. We see the 10G flavor of EPON [more among] CLECs or [in] developing countries like China. shorten distances. If you want to maintain 20 km and 32-way splits. A lot of different approaches will be suggested. On 10G PON: There’s a number of alternatives on how to do 10G. Also. have really good receiver designs (or combinations of those things) or go to parallel modulations. where the service provider may not have lots of existing infrastructure or their main target is to get high-speed Internet to as many customers as possible. It depends on your confidence level in your optics and your assumptions about span design. and it will boil down to: What’s your assumption of [outside plant] span design? Do you still think you have to meet 20 km and 32-way splits? That was driven very much by a North American model — typical suburbia. GPON can support an embedded synchronization mechanism if you want to do something that requires synchronization like TDM-type emulation. If you think your main markets are going to be high-density big cities in Asia or Europe. you’ve got to increase your launch power on 10G or have very good receiver designs that can handle signals with low receive levels. 32-way splits with 20 km may not make sense.

but it’s four times 2. running 2.5 Gb/s PON on. You’d need to put wavelength filters at the ONTs.5. four CWDM wavelengths on the same fiber at the same time — technically there’s 10 Gb/s running on the fiber. NG PON is either 10G or DWDM PON. say. On hybrids: For example. Whether you can add a filter to your current ONTs or will need to replace them depends on the design of your current ONTs. It’s a hybrid. Most people in the standards bodies wouldn’t consider that true next-gen PON.5G on four wavelengths an interim step between current GPON and NG GPON. A lot of people consider running 2. .

If your solution to 10G is to increase the transmission power at the [optical line terminal]. Will RF overlay still be needed at the point 10G GPON comes on the scene? I don’t know. RF overlay impacts the ONT and splitter designs. The IEEE is not considering [RF video] at all for 10G EPON. . Verizon is still not very comfortable with IP video. How quickly will that change over time is the crystal-ball question. In a hybrid approach. Getting a customer to say. ‘I’ll never do another RF wavelength’ — customers tend not to be telling us that. On RF video: That’s one of the issues being debated in FSAN as they look at 10G. one of the wavelengths has to be reserved for RF. you run into interference issues with [radio frequency] wavelengths. But it has major implications for how you approach the cost of the technology. Customers like to have options.

0 might drive a move to WDM.5 Gb/s gear is theoretically feasible now.0 and NG GPON: I don’t think 3. Hybrid 2. WDM PON will probably be the same. and that’s debatable. On the timing of commercial NG PON gear: In 2010 you might start to see early products.5G hybrid approaches in the next year or two for niche applications — business parks or residential high-rises.   . if not further out. You might see 2.0 creates at best parity with GPON. On upstream bandwidth: There’s no clear consensus yet on what you do upstream but lots of discussion on the trade-offs and costs. On DOCSIS 3. 3. What comes after 3.0 is really driving interest in NG PON. with mass deployment in 2011 or later.

The End. .

Thank you! .

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