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Bernard L. Cohen
Professor of Physics Director, Scaife Nuclear Physics Laboratory University oj Pittsburgh
McGraw~Hill Book Company
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Concepts of Nuclear Physics
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1971 by McGrawBiB,
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This hook was set in Bodoni Book and Xews Gothic by The Maple Press Company, and printed on permanent paper and bound by The Maple Press Company. The drawings were done by John Cordes, J. &H. Technical Services, Inc. The editors were Bradford Bayne and Barry Benjamin. Stuart. Levine supervised production.
to my parents
Mollie Friedman Cohen
and
Samuel Cohen on their seventyfifth and eightieth birt.hduys and their fiftieth wedding unni versary
.
Whenever matters are discussed which would not be understandahlc to students with thai preparation. Thus while atomic structure is familiar in outline to hundreds of millions of people. Atomic structure is taught for the first time in the fourth or fifth grade of elementary schoo]. and this book represents an effort to introduce similar logic into the teaching of an advanced undergraduate or firstyear graduate course in nuclear physics. Atomic physics is taught in a much more logical way. Often an elective advanced undergraduate or firstyear graduate course in nuclear physics is otTered.. and only briefly near the end by. but it is reviewed for these students in Chapter 2 with a further extension in Section lO1. Quantum theory is widely used. this is clearly indicated in the text and these discussions can be omitted without loss of continuity. nuclear structure is not even familiar to many with Ph. includes more details of atomic structure. is not taught at all in elementary and secondary schools and is essentially ignored even in the education of physics majors up to the advanced graduate level.Preface electronic structure of atoms. ~very physicist has his own 110\'" TIle structure of nuclei is alJout as wellunderstood as tile vii . The structure of nuclei. but it usually devotes a large block of time to experimental aspects of the subject and gives highly phenomenological treatments of decay and reaction processes. This would be the equivalent of teaching atomic physics by spending the majority of time on such subjects as the nature of light. in which the impression is given that we are stiB digging in the dark in our etTorts to understand nuclear structure. on the other hand. The only absolute prerequisite is an elementary course in modern physics such as the one usually taught as part of the elementary physics sequence. A course all quantum mechanics. and more advanced treatments are presented at least twice more hefore the end of secondary school. but there is a tremendous difference in the extent to which this understanding has been diffused. heavily influenced by the historical order in which things were discovered. \Iodernphysics courses covering atomic structure are taken hy nearly all scientists and engineers on an eiementary ievei and by all physics majors at the senior level.presenting a brief discussion 011 Inodels of atomic structure . Only near the end does it present a short discussion of nuclear models.D.s ill physics. required of all physics graduate students. and atomic collisions. optical spectroscopy.
. A. and H.. .. concepts which can best he understood hv t. 011 the other hand. I have not included authors' names Oil figures from our data.arcb iiig.1 .: in the spring of 1969.\ special apology is in order for the use of our old data in Figllre 131 when so much newer a ud better data arc available.. This has the advantages that the results are readily available and wellunderstood... Bromley. .... and many may not like my approach..1 . there was no indication that the course was too easy. Orisko. a P textbook to fall back on. they arc usually presented in a manner attuned to my .... I find it most difficult to write about subjects I do not thoroughly understand. 11 1·· 1 1· T 1 'I 1·' t fYIi' 1· or combining in different ways.... 1 am greatly muentert to .. I could fin d not hi iig tlla t give s {'overage to the full mass range.. 1 WOUIO uwe to otter aporogtes for weighting the material covered heavily toward areas ill which 1 have had... Aust eru.\11SS rsarnara n.. (..zar: K lor all ou tstannuig Jon or typing. Sanderson. \1... With all the advanced material included and nearly all the book being covered.... Sorenson for helpful discussions and suggestions. I also \vant to apologize for RO frequently USillg my O\V!l work in examples. for which I apologize to my collaborators. but after liOurs of st.way of introducing quantum mechanics. Cohen viii Preface . A.. "I""" 1 ..) To a void giving all unhalanccd impression."1.. 'Ir of advanced students. For this I can only apologize and encourage instructors to handle the subject ill accordance with their own tastes. The book originally developed out of courses for students with this minimal preparation given at the University of Pittsburgh during the fall terms of 1967 and 1968.1 . The book V\'aS used for a firstyear graduate courst. H.... research experience.he use of more advanced quantummechanical techniques are generally treated in that way for the benefit . IIr ~. F. to Drs. 1.. and most subjects on which I have had no research experience fall into that category. D.. althouah many sections were omitted or covered only briefly.. and to the studen ts who suffered through the developmental stages of this material " r ithou 1.. Tabak in.. x. . .. Bernard L. J a my coueagues wors mg III nuclear pnysics. E.
and Constituents of the :\ ucleus . Charge.r.ional Potential 'YellAccurate Treatment 25 Orbit 'Iodel 26 Vector 'lodel for Addition of Angular 'tomentum 27 Parity 28 ~leasurahlc Properties of Quantum Systems 14 15 19 24 26 26 27 29 32 32 Chapter 3 The Nuclear Force 31 32 ::\lethods of Approach Bound States of Two:\" ucleons +Conclusions from the Binding Energy and Size of the Deuteron 33 Spin States of the Twonucleon System 34 Effects of the Pauli Exclusion Principle 35 Magnet..ile Distribution of Nucleons Energies of N ucleons in t he ~ ucleus Is the Nucleus a Classical or a Quantum System ~ What Holels the Nucleus Together? Some Ot her Properties of N uclei 6 6 7 Chapter 2 Quantum Theory of a Particle in a Potential Well 21 Particle in a Onedimensional Square 'YellSimplified Treatment 22 Particle in a Onedimensional Potential WellAccurate Treatment 23 Particle in a Threedimensional Potentia! \Vel!Simplifle(l Treatment 2·1. 1 The Nuclear Force as \Ve Now Know It 1 312 Charge Independence of Nuclear Forces 313 Manybody Forces rTll. ~ 33 36 36 40 42 44 46 47 51 60 60 ix ..Particle in a Threedimen .Contents Preface Chapter 1 Introduction to the Nucleus 11 12 vii 1 1 2 13 14 15 16 Mass.Nuclear Size and t.ic Dipole and Electric Quadrupole Moments of the Deuteron1ne 1ensor r orce 36 General Properties of the Nuclear ForceStatic Forces 37 Exchange Forces 38 Velocitydependent Forces 39 Meson Theory of Nuclear Forces 310 N u cl eonNucleon Scattering 3....
.. .....00 Collective Vibrations and Other Stu t es in Spheroidal EvenEven Nuclei 67 Generalized Treatment of Xuclear Shapes 68 States of Spheroidal OddA Nuclei Chapter 7 Miscellaneous Aspects of Nuclear Structure 71 Masses ami Binding Energies of Xuclei 72 The Semiempirical\Jass Formula 73 HartreeFock Calculations and Nuclear Matter 74 Magnetic Dipole Moments 97 101 102 105 107 110 116 118 121 126 126 135 136 143 147 154 156 160 160 163 172 174 75 Elect.ric Quadrupole Moments 179 185 185 187 Chapter 8 Nuclear Decay and Reaction Processes 81 Electromagnetic Decay Processes 82 Beta Decay x Contents .\·_ll Introduction 58 Shape Oscillations of a Liquid Drop 59 510 Collective Vibrations of Spherical EvenEven X uclei Excited States of EvenEven Nuclei 511 Noncollective 512 Limitations of the Shell Approximation 513 Some Hesults from Angularmomen tum Coupling Chapter 6 The Structure of Complex Nuclei: Other Nuclei 61 OddA Spherical ~ uclei 62 Spherical OddOdd ~ uclei 63 Isobaric Spin and isobaric Analog States 64 Spheroidal "X udeiThe Shelltheory Potential States of EvenEven Spheroidal XucleieThe Groundslate Rotational Band 65 ...)~ Cases where Collisions Are Forbidden 53 An Important Example of CollisionsThe Pairing Interaction 54 Quantummechanical Treatment of the Energy Gap The Ground States of EvenEven Nuclei 64 64 65 69 72 75 76 78 80 84 84 86 88 94 56 57 Broken Pairs and Quasiparticle Number Occupation Numhers Lowenergy Excited States..7 Energy Spacings between Shells 48 Nonspherical Nuclei Chapter 5 The Structure of Complex Nuclei: Spherical EvenEven Nuclei Collisions .Chapter 4 Complex Nuclei: Shell Theory 41 Choice of an Appropriate Approximation 42 The Shelltheory Potential 43 Effective Mass .. 44 Allowed Orbits in the Shelltheory Potential 45 Filling of Allowed Orbits in the Shelltheory Potential 46 Separation Energies of Nucleons 4..
.·.nargea l"artlc1Cs Energy Measurements and Identification of Energetic Charged Particles Magnetic Instruments Detection... _ II< "1""""11 . tors Radiochemistry Nucleon Emission Chapter 10 247 247 1 0·1 102 103 Reflection and Transmission of \Va ves a t Interfaces Decay Rates in Nucleon Emission{ = 0 ~elliron Emission Deca y Rates in N ueleon EmissionPenetra tion of Angularmomentum Barriers 252 255 260 104 105 106 107 Decay Rates iii "\'ucleon EmissionPenetration of Coulomb Barriers Reduced Widths for Emission of Alpha Particles and Fission Barrier Barrier Penetration Penetration and Decay Hates in Alphaparticle and Decay Rates in Fission Emission 263 265 Chapter 11 Beta Decay 269 of Electrons Emitted in Beta Decay Considera tions 270 273 276 278 III 112 Energy Spectrum Angularmomentum Selection Rules II4 115 Matrix Elements in Beta Decay Decay Rate in Beta Decay Operation of Selection Rules Decay Rates in Electron Capture Gammaray Emission Systems 116 117 282 283 284 288 288 290 Chapter 12 12~1 122 12~3 124 125 126 127 Electric Multipole Radiation from Quantum Transitions between N uclea r Sta tes Magnetic l\lultipole Radiation Selection Rules Angularcorrelation Studies Isomerism internal Conversion 295 296 299 302 304 Contents xi . ccelera .83 84 85 86 N ueleon Emission Combinations of Decays Decay Laws N uclear Heactiona+Some 193 195 196 Basic Properties 199 87 Chart of Nuclides Experimeniai Methods of Nuciear Physics 201 204 204 206 Chapter 9 91 92 93 94 95 Unusual Ad vantages in Nuclear Experimentation Interaction of a Charged Particle with Matter Lretectors tor .... and Stopping of :\"eutrons and r. ••• 210 219 223 230 233 239 243 97 99 Gamma Rays Timing T echniq ues "A. Energy :r~Ieasurement.i'""'1t 1 T'II.nergetlc L.t.
... 1 T"I. 313 316 322 327 332 336 340 346 Chapter 14 Nuclear Reactions: Direct Reactions 141 Mechanisms in Direct Heactions 142 Angular Distributions of Particles Emitted in Direct Reactions 143 Nuclearstructure Studies with Onenucleon Transfer Reactions 144 Nuclearstructure Studies with Isobaric Analog States 145 Multinucleon Transfer Reactions 146 Other Types of Direct Reactions 147 Coulomb Excita tion Chapter 15 Applications of Nuclear Physics 151 Applications of Radioactivity 152 Energy Production and Thermonuclear Reactions Energy Production in Stars The Origin of Complex 1\ uclei Thermonuclear Reactions on the Earth 156 Fission as a Source of Energy Appendix General References Index 350 350 353 359 366 369 375 380 383 383 388 392 396 403 405 411 424 427 xii Contents .. ...!uamauve lJeSCflpUon 01 \.ompoununucleus rteacuons> 131 Classical Treatment 132 Qualitative Description of Compoundnucleus ReactionsQuantum Treatment 133 Elastic Scattering and Reaction Cross Sections 134 The Imaginary Potential W 135 Resonances in Nuclear Reactions 136 Nuclear Reactions in the Hesonance Region 137 Strength Functions 138 Nuclear Reactions Induced by Lowenergy Neutrons 139 Compoundnucleus ReactionsStatistical Region 1310 Nuclear Reactions Induced by Gamma Hays f'o....Chapter 13 Nuclear Reactions: Compoundnucleus Reactions \. • t 311 311 T'"\.. ..... ••• p . .....
1 . hence the number of neutrons is A . its mass. massive. surrounded by orbiting electrons.03 X 1026. however. The nucleus is made up of neutrons and protons. He found that tile scattering pattern could be explained if atoms COIlsist of a small. 11 Mass. 6. and Constituents of the Nucleus Let us begin by reviewing a few fundamental facts that are probably already familiar. Thus the nucleus of UNa23. a sodium atom which has atomic number l l and atomic weight very close to 23. The nucleus was first discovered in 1911 in experiments conducted by Lord Rutherford and his associates on scattering of alpha particles by atoms. size. a typical heavy nucleus is 79Au197. we must have more accurate size determinations. \Ve also consider some deeper questions such as the force that holds the nucleus together and the mechanical laws that are in effect. it is small enough to be negligible in practically all atomic problems. Since this is 10. positively charged core surrounded by orbiting electrons. deviations indicated that the nuclear size is of the order of 1014 m.Z. its structure. w The mass of the nucleus is very nearly equal to the mass of the atom. and other externally observable properties. its behavior under various conditions. Charge.Chapter 1 Introduction to the Nucleus An atom consists of a small. They are spoken of collectively as nucleonso The number of protons in a nucleus is just equal to its atomic number Z. shape. contains 11 protons and 12 neutrons. and its effect on nature and on mankind. While most of his results could be calculated on the basis of an infinitely small nucleus. two particles which are about 1.840 times more massive than electrons. and the total number of nucleons A is the integer closest to its atomic weight. It is the purpose of this book to explain all aspects of the nucleus. hich obviously contains 79 protons and 118 neutrons. in kilograms it is the atomic weight divided by Avogadro's number. For studies of the nucleus itself. but our purpose will he to layout a framework for later discussions.000 times smaller than the diameter of atoms. massive core called the nucleus. This is a relatively light nucleus. 'Ve shall introduce more problems than we solve. In this chapter we introduce some of its most basic characteristics.
protons.. and for each () measurements are made of the ratio between the number of scattered electrons it detects and the number of electrons in the beam as determined by the collector.6 X 1013 joule (J). however one wellknown limitation in this endeavor: the wavelength of the probing particles must be of the order of the size of the nuclei being studied or smaller. . so the most accurate results have been obtained with electrons as probes.! whereas for electrons over 100 11eV of energy is required. which is many orders of magnitude iarger than the nuclear size. There is.leV = 106 eV = FIGURE 11 Experimental arrangement for measuring the angular variation of electron scattering from nuclei. Since ordinary light..) Typical results of these rneasLijemaiits are shown iii Fig~ 1·2. all three of which have been used. practically all of the beam reaches the collector... The angle () is varied by moving the detector.e. which is much more difficult to obtain. gamma rays. for example. i. However. is also unsuitable because nuclei always occur in nature surrounded by electrons and electromagnetic waves interact more strongly with these electrons than with the nucleus. Neutrons and protons have the advantage that their wavelength is sufficiently short for energies of about 20 Mev. The detector is actually a very large and complex group of instruments capable of determining ihe energies of the eiectrons. has a wavelength of about 107 m. volts.~ . 1 "!'.. electrons have the advantage that their interaction with the nucleus is very well known (it is the familiar electromagnetic interaction). and neutrons as probes./ '< 'A/ <:J . It is therefore better to employ particles such as electrons. it is not suitable.1·2 Nuclear Size and the Distribution of Nucleons The straightforward approach to studying the size and shape of nuclei is to shoot probing particles at them and measure the effects produced. The experiments consist of shooting highenergy electrons at a thin target 1 MeV is minion electron 1. thin target of material beam /collector t< .(to be studied incident beam of electrons It II f U "".. Light of very short wavelength. the unit of energy we shall generally use. I movable detector for scattered electrons Z Introduction to the Nucleus . (Since very few electrons are deflected by large angles.
and R.1 l £. in concept. The curves through the data are theoretical fits. D. Hahn. it is very simiiar to the Hutheriord scattering experiments.. Ravenha!!. Ptws: Rev. If one assumes some density distribution per) for the nucleons in the nucleus and assumes that the neutrons have the same density distribution as the protons. II. as shown in Fig. 12.) v') Z 1. 101: 1131 (1956). Some typical results of these measurements are shown in Fig.&. G. the probability of various FIGURE lZ Angular distributions of lS5MeV electrons scattered from various nuclei.: 50° 700 900 110 l30° 0 ANGLE OF SCATTERING () Nuclear Size and the Distribution of Nucleons 3 . [From B. in which the nucleus was first discovered. Hofstadter.of the material under study and observing the probability of various angular defiections.
The exneriments have been nerformed and analyzed for a areat many nuclei and at several incident electron energies. All the results can be approximately explained by a charge distribution given by .. and a is a measure of the surface thickness such that the distance over which the density falls from 90 percent of Po to 10 percent of Po is 4.angular deflections can be calculated and compared with the experimental results.. These results are extremely simple. ..65 X 1044 nucleons /m" R ~ 1. but it is interesting to see what systematic information about nuclei can be obtained from these fits.. is expected FIGURE13 Plot of Eq. l4. The fits to the data obtained with (11) are shown by the solid lines in Fig. R is the radius at which the density has decreased by a factor of 2 below its central value. 14.. where the physical significance of the various parameters is illustrated. they indicate that the density of nucleons in the inner regions of all nuclei is about the same and that the surface thicknesses of all nuclei are very similar. These give us the answer to our questions about the size and density distributions in nuclei. a name frequently used for R. The A~lI variation of the nuclear radius. IV.. and the density distributions determined by these fits are illustrated by the curves in Fig. It turns out that the results for all nuclei are reasonably well approximated by (11) with Po ""' 1. as the unit of length. We see there that Po is the nucleon density near the center of the nucleus. t 0. The meaning of po. H they do not fit.l65 nucleous/F" (12) Note that we use the fermi (abbreviated F)..07 A~3 F a ~ 0. 13.. 1015 m. "" per) == 1 + exp [(r ... R. other p(r) can be tried until a fit is obtained.1 r p o 4 Introduction to the Nucleus .4a.R)/a] po A plot of (11) is shown in Fig. These facts are readily discernible from Fig. r. and a are illustrated... l2. (1·1) for p(r) YS.55 F = 0.
. u o. and the volume is. and R.! ...9 X 50(1... 1 f)II} rn .stadter.. A 120) is 1J 1 eV 1 N m 1. ......75 ~ 0 UJ _. ·"J' 1(7)( "" 1 ?MlI .25 ~ 0 10 FIGURE 14 r"'ucleun densitj in various nuclei as obtained fiom the fits to the data shown in Fig.6 X 1019)2 1 f)12) C2 IN C2 m 2 ... One approach to the problem is to calculate the electrostatic energy E. required to insert a proton into a nutlens. = i3 X 105 eV = 13 :MeV Energies of Nucleons in the Nucleus 5 ..6 X 1019 J (138) E~= 4r(8. .. but at this stage we require an orderofmagnitude estimate. z IJ...00 [ ~ I ~ u. iDi: 1i31 (l956). . This is approximately •1 '" 1 ....... Phys..50 ~ +=l ...('VtI • (13) which for a mediumweight nucleus (Z = 50. Ho. • 1 • A"I 1 ~ 1 ••• 1 .25 ~ 1. Hahn. Rev.. the actual nucleon energy should be much larger. .. 12.. [From 8. Ravenhafl.so ~ ___I nl v r 1 2 3 4 5 r. but these processes are transitions of nucleons from one state to anotner so tneir energies are nm erences netween nucieon energies III two cnn erent states. 1..J n Z 0... .. .. G.. v _ Y .j from the constancv of Or. 13 Eneigies of Nucleons in the Nucleus We shall eventually be treating the kinetic energies of nucleons in the nucleus in great detail. . F 6 7 8 9 z 0.1....!2 ..... proportional to U3• . since this rerruires that the volume of the nucleus be proportional to A.. of course. D. The energies of beta rays and gamma rays emitted from nuclei are typically of the order of 1 Me V.
2.. 1. T . we might guess that energies of nucleons in the nucleus arc of the general order of lOMe V. m = 9. so the wave nature of matter is indeed relevant. The motions of nucleons ill the nucleus are governed hy the laws of quantum physics. review of this subject is presented ill Chap. rlassical pictures in which nucleons are considered as little balls moving aroundapplied so successfully in describing gases or liquidsvare of limited usefulness.he nucieons together in a nucleus]' 6 Introduction to the Nucleus .3 F (. and kinetic energy may be used freely. The nonrelativistic relations between mass.where C is the abbreviation for coulomb and N that for newton.6 X 1019 _:!_ X 1 Kg r:r_l~/S~)'~ X eY 1J . From these simple arguments. \\'e shall therefore have to use and expand our knowledge of tile "rave nature of matter . As a general rule. This means that it is bound in the nucleus by even more energy. 1·4 Is the Nucleus a C!assical or a Quantum System? The next interesting question is whether the wave nature of matter is relevant in a nucleus. but it is the correct order of magnitude. as it is ill atoms.. velocity.1' I . so Jet us compare them.. 2X ~L .. _!As.. l' means that relativistic effects are not important in consiuermg tile motion 01 nucleons in the nucleus.4 This is clearly of the order of the size of a nucleus as given by (12). The wavelength of a nucleon with an energy of about 10 Me V is I\=~= lUi! h v'21HE 6. 1 Qo I fi\.. momentum. \Ve shall see later that this is something of an underestimate. 15 What Holds the Nucieus Together? The next question we have to face is perhaps the most difficult if we have only our previous experience to go on: What hoids t. or . this l I' .·Iletller tile Ilucleus is more like systems encountered in our everyday life. ff' .. Since the velocity of a 10Me V nucleon is only about 15 percent of the speed of light. but still it does not ordinarily come out. where classical mechanics is a sufficiently good approximation.. the wave nature of matter is relevant where the wavelength of the particles is of the order of the size of the system. ". 10 X 106 v 1..6 X 1034 Js X J 6 X 1026 X ~ 9. This much coulomb energy would be released if the proton were allowed to come out of the nucleus.3 X lOu.
Several other methods will be developed later in this book.. V.' and the principal electromagnetic force between protons is a strong coulomb repulsion.... so they do not experience the electromagnetic force at all.a.&' . molecular structure can be accurutely accounted for by the electromaeBetic force alone. <:l.. hut it is smaller by a factor of about 1039 than the electrical force between two protons. Thus.I. Neutrons have no electric charge. conserved quantities are represented by quantum numbers. ~ . On the other hand. It is therefore a slioriranqe force....lUIIIJ\.too small to matter here. so we may conclude that at distances of the order of the spacing between nuclei ill molecules (... .o .. we must learn more about the nuclear force. The only explanation is to recognize that there is a third force in nature. ''110..'\. 'v U. p..". its angular momentum is one of its constant properties.. f"h<:>.. but this is . since it must more than compensate the coulomh repulsion hetween protons...r. . and the only forces we have encountered in classical physics or in atomic physics have been the gravitational and electromaenetic.."torl \.... This will form the subject matter of It.~"'"....! ..cannot. Its effects q . 10 m) the nuclear force must be negli10gible.l..forces.. its angular momentum is conserved... tho lI.... falling off more rapidly with distance than 1/r2. 1·6 Some Other Properiies of Nuciei We learned in elementary physics that if there are no external torques acting on a system.. which tends to tear the nucleus apart... as we shall see in the next section. the neutron possesses a magnetic moment. the only two forces we have previously encountered cannot account for the existence of nuclei. The gravitational force is an attractive one between every pair of nucleons.do the iob? The electromagnetic force most certainly ~~o~ ..rO r£>. "e see immediately that this force must be very strong at distances of the order of the nuclear size.. tUTi"'" . Some Other Properties of Nuclei 7 . Before we can proceed very far in studying the structure of the nucleus... it experiences a force in a nonuniform magnetic field. The quantum number for the total angular momentum of a nucleus is I.. h"'r ~J Total angular momentum 1 = VI(I + 1) h Actually since.. In quantum physics.. known as the nuclear force. Methods of measuring angular momenta of nuclei by use of atomic beams in SternGerlach experiments and hy studying the hyperfine structure of atomic spectral lines with and without applied magnetic fields are generally discussed in modern physics courses...I. Can these.l. Since an isolated nucleus is such a system.Systems are held together by forces.r._.
.. L is a quantum number times h.. "7 ~ f. Measuremerrts corroborate this result.25 X 1034 J8) divided by 211". is _.where fi is Planck's constant (6. p. A compilation of directly measured values is given in Table A2 of the Appendix. 1. More generally p. Values of 1 will be given and explained in many connections throughout this book..t = 1. In accordance with the above derivation. For llucleoiis. . In courses on electromagnetism it is shown that a current loop enclosing an area a and carrying a current i has a magnetic dipole moment J. however. Mrr.L given by (15) For a circular orbit of radius r.7925 . g = 1 when the charge and. rneasut'ement s give 2.''' 2A1p eh (18) which corresponds These results.le = eh 2Jlc which. (17) The magnetic moment due to spin is a more complex problem which can be understood only in terms of relativistic quantum theory. In quantum theory._. ~. 0.iHp .~ _. from (15).1 Lg (16) where g is a factor called the gyromagnetic ratio. from 06). L"If _. lead one to to gs values t gi yen here lfr_" is no t quite accuru te: it is the maxim u til com ponen t of L in any direction tIm t is equal to 8 introduction to the Nucieus . t The sta temen equal to 2 t irnes tile numerical factors ill (18) . smce the spin quantum number is >2' corresponds to gs = 2. whence.. mass distributions coincide. and their contrast wit II t he results for an electron.~ M" = of. as is well known from atomic uhvsics. as when a particle traverses an orbit.. the result for an p)pctrnn.~ . = ~e 21\. = e 2 l'r ~L e T 2A1 where L is the angular momentum. ~~ 7 ~.9128. traversedf with velocity v times per second by a charge e moving = elJ i = ef whence..
he z direction. molecular hand spectroscopy. _ . V  . this is a rapidly converging series. New York.. netic moments are listed ill Table :\2 of' the Appendix." It will be SIIO"~li ill Sec.• • .. etc." it is shown t ha t any distrihut ion of electric charge produces an electrical potential which. Mass. Other methods involve microwave spcrtroscopv.. ..' _\Icasllred values of mag . = 0.. from meson exchange Electromagnetic currents. v . and the potential is the same as if all the charge were located at a point.ance R in t. : 'L: .. 71that a nur leus must I13. ~ ~ . for very large R. The integral in the second term is called the dipole moment. J t.." AddisonWesley. 4 moments.. at a large dist. Reading. The integral in the first term is the net charge. etc.&3(1969). Schwarz. nuclear maguet. this call he shown to Ill' a general q uauturnmechanical result. Efforts have been mad e to exp laiII this st ruct ure ill term s of ch a rged meson clouds surroundi ng IIucl eons (see Sec..J.] (19) where D is the charco densit v and the intceral is over the rezion containinz thp electric charge. o[ . In an cases. so the lowestorder deviation from the field due to a point charge arises from the quadrupole moment. nuclei with I = 0 have f. .. • • • • 1 • • ~. _. 1\1.~. Theory. 7!l. only this term is important.. A. The rnagnetic moment of a complex nucleus is the vector sum of contrihutions from the spins and orhital mot ion of its component nucleons. ~An understandi ng of this vector sum dearly requires an uuderstauding of the det... 1 Brief descriptions of these methods for determining HHlgnetic moments and electric quadrupole moments are given in II.believe tha t an electron is a very simple l'Il'IlIl'1I tar} particle but tha t neutrons and protons are complex structures IIlC Iurnng IIOIl t rrviai elect 1'1(' cllal'gc uistrtnutions. 3 For example..'"e a zero electric dipole moment. Wiley. 5: 4.ir. :~9). This problem will be discussed ill Sec.('r!ach atom iclieam experiments aud the hyperfine structure of atomic spectral [iues ill the Zeeman effect.. ! In addition there are small contributions W. These are not the most general definitions of the dipole and quadrupole depend on the choice of the coordina te axes. More complete descriptions are referred to in the Further Reading list at the end of this chapter. the integral in the third term is called the quadrupole moment. as they Some Other Properties of Nuclei . E • 1 . Methods of measuring magnet ir 1Il01lH'1I ts of nuclei are usually discussed ill modernphysics courses in COllnect ion 'Wit h Sterll( .. "Intermediate 1964. . .. and in Nucl. "Introduction to N uclear Physics. In most books on electromagnetism. each of whose contribu tious are given hy (l7) aud (l8). Enge." which we ignore here.a iled structure of nuclei. Data.. Because of' the increasing powers of R in the denominator.resonance ill solids and liquids.  . i9ti6. can be expanded as ..
. so we may conclude that a nucleus with a spherically symmetric charge distribution has no electric quadrupole moment or higher electric moments . nut ItS mpoie moment IS zero. note that its net charge and dipole moment are zero. 15. From this theorem it is clear that the field due to any nucleus with a spherically symmetric charge distributioll is tile same as if all the charge were located at the center of the nucleus. of course. This can.. ~ t T~ 11 It "" '1 _11 10 Introduction to the Nucleus . Two examples of charge distributions containing nonzero electric quadrupole moments are shown in Fig. The example in part (a) is the simplest case. also be easily derived from the expressions in (19). ItS cnarge QIStnDUtIQn can De weu approximated. (b) a uni..(a) (b) + + fiGURE 1~5 Two examples of systems having an electric quadrupole moment: (a) four point charges located as shown. as shown at the right in the figure. a uniformly charged ellipsoid. whence the entire field is produced by the quadrupole moment. form positively charged distribution of ellipsoidal shape (at the left) which is electrically equivalent to a uniform positively charged sphere plus extra positive and negative charges as showii at the iight. . This field can then be represented by the first term only of (19). it has both a net charge and a quadrupole I· 'I _ moment. by a spherical charge distribution plus an elementary quadrupole. Electric quadrupole moments of nuclei can be determined from hyperfine ~ 1 ••• . is more like what a nucleus might he. There is a weliknown theorem in eiectrostatics which states that the electric field due to a uniformly charged shell at all points outside of it is the same as if all the charge were concentrated at the center of the shell. and the fact that it consists of four charges is responsible for the name.. The example in part (b).
Problems 11 . 14 From the uncertainty principle fl. what can be concluded about the energies of nucleons in a nucleus il gra vita tional f orces bet ween two protons. I5b has the equation 1 See footnote It page 9.splitting of atomic spectral lines.he coulomb 311d 16 If the total angularmomentum quantum number of a nucleus with A = 100 is I = 1. in 12 From (11) and (1. etc. approximately how many rotations per second would it make and how much energy would be involved in this rotation according to classical mechanics? 17 _L. 75. The explanation of electric quadrupole moments from the nuclear structure standpoint is discussed ill Sec. I5a are due to single electrons and protons and they lie on the surface of a nucleus with A = 100. and if it is due to a rotation of the nucleus as a rigid body.p dX ~ h and the fact that a nucleon is confined within the nucleus. nucleus with A to this motion il = 25.2) calculate and pial. what is the quadrupole momeut in units of electron charge(fermi) 2 ~ 1~9 Show that the electric dipole moment of the charge distribution 18 zero. Problems 11 Calculate the mass of an Fe56 nucleus ill kilograms. what is the electric current and the magnetic moment due 18 If the charges shown in Fig. microwave absorption spectroscopy. calculate Pl if R is given by (12). compare with Po from (12). i A summary of the results is given in Tahie A2 of the Appendix. the nucieon density distribution Pb208• 1~3 III tile approximation that the nucleus has constant density Pi for r < R and zero density for r > R. molecular beam resonance methods. How does this ratio vary with the distance between them i' 15 Calcu la te tile ra lio of t. 110 in Fig. 150 If the surface of the nucleus shown in Fig.
1958. 12 Introduction to the Nucleus . Ramsey. R. Elton." Benjamin." Academic. H.where R is the radius of a nucleus with A = 200. N ew York. 1953. Further Reading See General References. following the Appendix. London. L. Hofstadter." Oxford University Press.: "Nuclear Sizes.: "N uclear Moments. R. Kupferman. 1961. N ew York. 1963. Assume that its total charge Ze is uniformly distributed through the voiume. calculate its quadrupole moment. B.: "Electron Scattering and Nuclear and N ucleon Structure.: "Nuclear Moments." 'Viley. N cw York. F. N.
Most students have already been introduced to these ideas in a modernphysics course. It includes nearly all the quantum mechanics needed for this book. in fact. . 'Ve concentrate here on the problem of a particle in a potential well. are among the central problems of nuclear physics.. 21 and of the elementary aspects of 800. The usefulnesa of this slow. and finally the results of an accurate treatment are presented in Sec.\'. i. 21 we even introduce an additional approximation to simplify the treatment further. since the content of such courses varies considerably.. Many sophisticated research physicists think in terms of these elementary solutions and consider everything . as we shall see.'0 " • .. the most important concepts can be understood in terms of a onedimensional well of rectilinear shape. However.. 23. multistage development transcends the avoidance of mathematical complexity. 4'1 ~. popularly known as a square well. These.. .. . 22. However. • ~ 1 •• "" .. . the problem is generalized to three dimensions with some simplifying approximations in Sec. Other simplifications are introduced f()r . trus corresponas to tne motion 01 a parncie unner the influence of a force. 14 we found that the wave nature of matter is relevant in considering the motions of neutrons and protons in nuclei... Since a potentiat represents a terce. we devote this chapter to a review of these concepts. 23 will serve the student weii in economy oi thought. . that the nucleus is a quantummechanical system. The mathematics is greatly simplified in this situation. economy of thought in Sees.Chapter 2 Quantum Theory of a Particle In a Potentiai • yAveii In Sec. 24.else to be minor modifications of them. ... so the potential well is a threedimensional one of complex shape. The results of Sec.. This simplification and then the rectilinear shape are dropped in Sec. Therefore we cannot proceed very far in our discussion without using quantum concepts. 25 and 26... in Sec. In general.e.. . . the forces are complicated functions of coordinates. The force exerted by one nucleon on another and the average force exerted on one nucleon by all the other nucleons in the nucleus are examples of situations in which this treatment is applicable. so we start by using it..
= + ( :1 cos kx or A si n kx L 2 <x<~ L 2 to k = 27r = V2Al(E A (22) elsewh ere where. . Based on the above ideas. z to z dz. i.. The physical interpretation of ~ is that 1/.2 dx dy dz is the probability that the particle will be found within the interval x to x dx.z). 21 Onedim. in accordance with (21). These ideas are most easily applied to a particle in a onedimensional square potential well (Fig.V) h (2·1) where we have used the familiar expression for the total energy. with V representing the potential energy.y. which behaves like a wave as a function of position. and the most interesting cases are when E < 0. we mean that a particle of matter is associated with a wave funtion ". 21). The wavelength associated with'" for a particle of mass M and velocity v is + + + A h . so that the particle is bound.ensional square I1 =1· / x ==L:===::·1 Vo <x< 11 I v = L 2 2 L v=o elsewhere 14 Quantum Theory of a Particle in a Potential Well .. + It l'o) FIGURE well.e. the simplest assumption would be 1/.1"1v  vi ~========= 2NJ(1!. not free to escape from the well.2·1 Particle in a OnedimensionalSquareWellSimplified Treatment When we say that matter has a wave nature. y to y dy. E = ~:!lvlv2 V.(x.
. 1. Since Yt is related to tile probahility .This has the classically expected property that the particle is confined to the inside of the wall.2. •• • '1"1 "'. where V2ME . n7rX n . The value of E a giveH n is designated En. Treatment ~..I. 5 l A n SIrl. it should be a continuous and singlevalued function of Xl which leads to the requirement at :r This requirement can be satisfied only if kL where n is an integer.= . (26) also has solutions. Outside the well. the total energy is quantized to values obtained from (25) for n. Particle in a Onedimensional 1 ... . the 1#n are ( I/In = . ! I An cos~ 117rJ: L L T n . ... and the corresponding wave function From (22) and (24). namely.. . imensional Potential WellAccurate Treatment d 15 . 3.. 22 I.." Potential WellAccurate . however. n + Vo) 1l7r L n = 1... 6 These functions are shown as dashed lines in Fig. n is therefore known as a quantum number.. Equating = = +  !=_ 2 nr the values of k from (23) and (24). 4. 22. we find 21r V2Al(E . which simplifies to This shows that integer values of corresponding to is designated ¥tn..h (27) Particle in a One. 1\_ more soprusucatec ana accurate treatment 01 ttus proniem puts tne reqUirement that". be a wave of wavelength given by (21) into the form of the differential equation (26) which is easily recognized to have the solutions (22) inside the well. 2..
x
I I ._,.. ..... I,~f~_r~~
! I
A
~I
I
.J;
'V
....r 7 __ ~r:"t''f'.;:;;;::: ,
I~ I
I I I
""r
,_ I
:3
311'x cos ~
L
I
4
~
'V
Sin
211'x
L
¥=G"'.,:.....
I I
__.........."
I I
.~,"''T. "".._
4 I 'V cos
1rLX
FiGURE 2.. t..nergies ana wave functions iar a 2 particle in the onedimensional square well shown in the upper figure. Dashed iines are the soiutions of the simplified treatment of Sec. 2·1,with energies given by (25) and wave functions given by (2·2a). Solid lines are the solutions from the accurate treatment of Sec. 22, with energies obtained from the solution of the first of (2~10)and wave functions given by (29) with the last two equations of (210).
(note that E is negative). Acceptance of these solutions goes beyond our simple picture of matter having a wave nature, but it turns out to he correct. Equation (26), with the substitution of (23) and (21), can be written  h2 d2if; , I Vif;  Eif; 2.,\1 dx?
_._ 
and is known as the timeindependent Schrodinger equation in one dimension. In addition, quantum theory imposes the requirements that I/t and dl/;/dx be finite and continuous everywhere. The requirement on if; is natural in view of the ph y sical ill terpreta t ion of if; 2 as a proha bility, aud tile req IIiremen tall dl/l/ dx arises from a relationship between that quantity and the velocity in more advanced treatments.
16 Quantum Theory of a Particle in a Potential Well
In our problem, then, some of the solutions are
r
1/;=
1
'. ..
J. !Olin
..;p.l.A&.
n."W
b"r'
2<X<2
X
L
L
1
l
f
Be=
> L
I
2
(29)
Ce
KX
X
<
L
2
Note that the solutions e= for x > L/2 and e~IU for .r ceptable since they become infinite. The requirement x = ±L/2 leads to
< L/2 arc physically unacOil
the continuity
of ..p at
and the requirement
of the continuity
of dl/liid:.c at x
=
± L/2 gives
Solving these simultaneously,
we find
kL ('ot 2 " k sin 
c B
/l
B=
,
. kl_. 2
e~L.I~
.,~
The first of (210) can be satisfied only hy certain values of E, so again energy is quantized. Another set of solutions hased Oil If = A ('os kl' inside the well can be obtained by analogous methods. The wave functions and energies for several states are shown by the solid lines in Fig. 22. It is readily seen that they correspond closely with the solutions by the approximate method of the last section except that since need not reach quite to zero at x = + L/2. the "wavelencths" :UI": o~ ~~ slightly longer and consequently from (21) the energies are slightly lower. Because of this close correspondence, it is often convenient to think of the actual solutions in terms of the approximate ones, For example, the wave function 1/13 may be referred to as the aneurulchaljuvuelenqih. solution. Once l/I is known, the probability p(x) dx, that the particle will be between
w
•
..

I
'
...
w
,.,. u.a.'A nn,1 ",. ....L drr ~'nn I ULl. "..Iu.a..L
t.l.
h",
~v
l'!lIr>lllot",,1 V".I. ..................
.I.IlA..\..i"''...I..
Ul.:)
p(x) dx = ";"2 dx
(211)
Particle in a Onedimensional Potential WellAccurate Treatment
17
The constant A is determined by reqmnng that the total probability particle to be at some vaiue of x is unity, whence
for the
(2U)
Next we consider a situation where V(x) is not as simple as in Fig. 21 but is a more general function of x, as in Fig. 23. This greatly complicates the mathematics in solving (28), and in general the solutions cannot be given in closed form; but qualitatively, they differ from those for a similar square well in that the wavelength varies with x in accordance with (21). The comparison is shown in Fig. 23 for the lowestenergy state EI, where the squarewell wave function is shown by dashed lines. The solid curve has a shorter wavelength near x = 0, where E  V is larger, and a longer wavelength at larger values of lxi, where E  V is smaller. (When we say a portion of a curve has a certain wavelength, we refer crudely to
FIGURE23 A onedimensional well of complicated shape (top) and the wave function for the lowest energy state in it. A similar square well and the wave function for the corresponding state in it are shown by the dashed lines. The difference betweeii the two wave functions is exaggerated.
v
x
18 Quantum Theory of a Particle in a Potential Well
making E .the wavelength of a sine wave approximately fitted to it. we find lh 2 L = Mr w = 211" = 1ft Thus the requirement that the wave function be a wave of wavelength hi MV6 in the 8 direction leads to the result that angular momentum is quantized.V negative. and a wave in the cp direction.) From (28). lh lh k1vB Mwr (213) where l is an integer and w = dB/dt. Inserting (2i3).VI is smaller tha n for the square well. a wave in the () direction. 2·3 Particle in a Threedimensional Potential WellSimplified Treatment While the onedimensional problem is very instructive. or else it will cancel itself in successive cycles. which is familiar in classical mechanics as L = trw = Ivir2w. Since systems like atoms and nuclei have basically spherical rather than rectangular symmetry. !/I changes from a "wave" (curving toward the x axis) to an "exponential" (curving away from the x axis) at the value of x where E becomes less than V. The exponential falls off less rapidly for the solid curve since IE . In a threedimensional problem the wave function must be a wave in each of the three dimensions. f1I/r (2I&) Particle in a Threedimensional Potential WellSimplified Treatment 19 . The waVe in the 8 direction must consist of an integral number of wavelengths around a cycle. is u(r).=  . defined as u\r) . Let us first concentrate on the () direction. Equation (213) gives an especially interesting result for the orbital angular momentum L. cos if) or sin i8 (215) Now let us focus our attention 011 the fact that the r dependence of the wave function !/IT must be a wave in the r direction. where 9 is the moment of inertia. actual physical systems sllch as an atom or a nucleus are threedimensional. Actually it turns out that a more convenient function than 1/1.• 1_\ = _. This requires that 2rr _ = LXB = . dependence of the wave functions in this simplified picture is 1/16 ex. must be a wave in the r direction. The accurate result obtained from solving the Schrodinger equation is L The (J = vt(l + 1) h (214. so we can say crudely that y. it is profitable to use spherical coordinates.
_"__. (2·18) :spel:LrU:SCU_lJIC The problem of calculating u(r) is now reduced to a onedimensional problem like those treated in the previous sections. we must take into account the fact that the motion in the o direction gives an effective force in the r direction. However. as shown in Table 21.2r2 sin fJdr dfJ d4> u2 d. It is conventional to use the ____ ' _ =_ ~. plus Vcr. we see that the differential equation must be solved separately for each l. namely.. it turns out. tllat must be a wave.. From the definition of Land (214) this is Fcl =  Mw2r = . is of the particle's being be per) dr a: 0: Jf8. the wavelength of the function u(r) is as given by (21)._=_~. There are two differences. III w UICIJ vaiues Ul L a re designated by letters. however: (1) r never becomes negative.lIUl1 HUl1l1H:U lrUIII H. The simplest solution of (218) is for the s states (l = 0). If the particle is in a potential well VCr). 1' :1: __ 1' "_ : __ 1. the probability tween rand r + dr. 22. but if we want to concentrate our attention on the r direction alone.~2 ~ = l(l tvtr» + 1)h lvir3 2 2 which can be expressed in potential form as c/ vcl = Ir F 00 d r = 1([ + 1)h 2l\rlr2 (2·17) The complete potential to be used in calculating the \vavelength from (21) is the sum of the potential arising from forces. in analogy with (28). lUlIlIC PH) SICS. : __ : I_:_L 1 1' 1 _ 11UU:l.p 1/.This has the property that per) dr.__1~1__i_1~1~1~1!J 20 Quantum Theory of a Particle in a Potential Well . which is analogous to (211)~ It is u(r). VCr). __ . so we have no region COf <R TABLE 2·1: SPECTROSCOPIC NOTATION FOR l VALUES Spectroscopic notation I s j p I d l_ _ . the centrifugal force. 1__!__1_1 fig I h I i I j I k 1__. whence the differential equation for u(r) is. since the centrifugal force term then vanishes. r r>R the problem becomes very similar to the one solved in Sec. If V(r) is taken to be a square well. Fo:I = Mw2r.
22. the first of (219) can be satisfied only for certain values of the energy E. the energies of the states (labeled Rh. V(r) and Vcj.responding to the third of (29). 22. we obtain as boundary conditions at r = R A sin kR = BeKR kA cos kR == . •••• It is readily seen that they correspond closely to the solutions for the onedimensional case shown in Fig. and call n a quantum number. imensional Potential WellSimplified d Treatment 21 . to find the wave functions we must employ the ideas discussed in the last part of Sec. and (2) we cannot have cosine solutions because they wouid make ~ infinite at r = 0 from (2i6).. are shown as solid lines. For l ¢ 0.il goes through zero n times counting the one at r = 0 (but not counting the one at r = 00). Its physical significance is that Enl is the nth lowest energy for orbital angular momentum l. we also see from Fig. The only acceptable solutions are therefore r < R r . As an aid in drawing them. ••• ) and their corresponding wave functions. We shall refer to the energies and wave functions as Enl and I/Inl' respectively. are plotted as dashed curves in the top row of Fig. "equiv Particle in a Three . 24 that U. Ul. E28. The two potentialenergy terms. These potentials are no longer square wells. and their sum. the (2198) The first column of Fig. The constant A can again be evaluated by the analog of (212) as When these integrals result is are evaluated and the second of (219) IS inserted. 24. the solution of (218) is more complicated. so again we find that energy is quantized." U28.» R where k and" are defined in (23) and (27). From the conditions that the wave function and its derivative must he continuous everywhere. the total effective potentials.«Be=" Solving these simultaneously gives cot kR B As was the case in connection = = " k Ae~R sin kR (219) with (210). 24 shows the effective potential well for I = 0 [just V(r)1.
The energies shown are not quantitatively correct for a square well. \ .(r) \1 I I "II f\1 i I u 3. as dashed lines and their sum.{ r i «. 2. Note th at th e wave functions have n half wavelengths in the range of r covered by the potential well with exponential tails going rapidly to zero in the region outside the potential well.\ \ ~ U ' ~ I I '( /' 3x41i 2 Mr2 2 _ ! II H ~\l E2/ E. shown in the top row. : \ I J \ ~+f I I I I I I i/ I I n. Vi \ I L I 1 Ii 3d (r) Il Ii r. and 3. V(r) and Vef.\ [~ 1~1 y.u2. . respectiYeiy. the effective potential. r \( I I I \ . U 2p (r) I I 1\ i I I \/\ I u_2d(r) in U\( I I I I I i i Vi ~ I I I 11\ 1\. 22 Quantum Theory of a Particle in a Potential Well . Square wells similar to these effective potentials are shown as dotdash Iines: th ey were used in drawin g th e wave function s wh ich are pi otted below. The energies of the states.1. as solid lines. I I I i uif{r) \ l!\. n " \r VI u2{(r) u3/ (r) l =0 (5) l = 1 i p) I I I I I I= 2 (d) 1=3 (f) FIGURE 24 Energies and wave functions obtained from the solution of (218) for a square well. The four coiumns are the soiutions for i = 0. are moved upward as the well becomes shallower and narrower. The top row shows the two contributors to the effective potential.' I I" (r) n \T r \T l .
Before closing our discussion of the solutions of (218). and. from (23). the potential well becomes both narrower and shallower..alent" square wells have been sketched in as dotdash lines in the top row of Fig. For both these reasons.28' Similarly /. the left side must be negative. Elp is pushed up so far that it coincides in energy with 1(. and ~38 coincide in energy. increase monotonically with increasing I. It is immediately evident that as I increases. The narrowing arises from the fact that a particle with high orbital angular momentum is strongly repelled from small radii by the centrifugal force.. This coincidence in energies is valid only for the liir potential. whence. These equivalent square wells are not dearly defined (they are just square wells which roughly approximate the actual potential wells shown by the solid lines).. the distance from the bottom of the equivalent square well to any given energy level. EZ1. thereby pushing the energy levels up even higher. it is interesting to point out that there are not necessarily any bound states of a system even though the forces are attractive. Ell. the maximum value of k is . but they will help in our discussion much as the square well in Fig. etc.:z Treatment 23 11'" Particle in a Threedimensional Potential WellSimplified . Eat. 23 was helpful. For a state to be bound. in accordance with (21). For the l/r well encountered in the hydrogen atom. say Ell. increases with I. so the shifting of Enl with increasing l is much less rapid. The wave functions arc simultaneously squeezed toward larger radii.}d. In addition.' + kmax =  V2MVo h In order to satisfy the first equation of (219). 24. a shorter wavelength leads to a higher value of E . the bottom of the well rises with increasing l. the wavelength of a wave which fits a given number of half wavelengths into the width of the well becomes smaller. As the well becomes narrower. the potentials applicable in nuclear physics do not deviate from a square well nearly as dramaticaliy as the l/r potential does. Thus. F7 must be less than zero. etc. 'Vith the above expression for kmax. which requires that kmaxR be greater than 1r/2. everything happens in a qualitatively similar way.V. T<~2p. For wells other than a square well. the condition that there be at least one bound state becomes V2MVO"T n ____==_ R >. This may be expressed as The n quantum number cornmonly used in atomic physics is n l in our notation.
Clearly this wave. ml. equations grves Lz ~ ~ 'HI'~ ... . like that in the (J direction. . there is no reason why the energy of a system should depend on its orientation in space.... must consist of an integral number of wavelengths around a cycie to avoid canceliation on successive cycles.1 r h·· ~OIn~"lIllrlg these t\VO (J  w . + + 24 Particle in a Threedimensional Potential WellAccurate Treatment We have said that the wave nature of matter has its mathematical manifestation in terms of t. . 0.1. l I..) with (221) we find (222) The allowed values of m. In classical mechanics. is a wave in the tP direction.. +l.. . ..he differential equation (28). respectively. so the energy is independent of the quantum number mi. experience has shown that where there is a discrepancy between ideas derived from the wave nature of matter 24 Quantum Theory of a Particle in a Potential Well .. must be a wave in both the 8 and r directions..... motion is r sin (J.. a total of 2l + 1 values. the system has 110 bound states even though the forces are attractive. so this condition requires . In fact. land n. whence from comparing (214. . \Ve have still to consider the consequences of the fact that". 24 are stili correct and complete if we realize that each level is actually 2l 1 separate levels corresponding to the various allowed values of mi.which simplifies to (220) "rherl this condition is not fulfilled. L.  ~ 21r ~ ~ ml'~ (221) We see that L: is quantized to integer values of h. _. < L.. the z component of orbital angular momentum L. Up to this point we have made use of the fact that". The applicable radius for q:. giving rise to a third quantum number. and this has led us to two quantum numbers. where ml is an integer and W<t> is the rP component of angular velocity. Hence the energylevel diagrams in Fig...". are therefore l. is L~ = Mr2 sin? . Since the z component of any vector must not be larger than the vector itself. Under ordinary circumstances. .
.\) ao + _ _!___ a2!/t lJ + IT'1/.. = %(sin (j P32 + 1) .and solutions of (28).2 = E' JI/I (224) Methods of solving (224) are discussed ill any textl)oo¥~ physics or quantum mechanics...... .sin 39) P4fJ = %4(35 cos 4fJ + 20 cos 2(} PSG = 1%(C08 8 = 1%(3 sin = + 5 sin 3(j) ~i28(63 cos 50 + 35 cos 3(j + 9) + 30 cos (j) Particle in a Threedimensional Potential WellAccurate Treatment 25 .. 1• I" 1 • ~ t• 1 1". = PI_m. The Pl ... T • _ . it is easily shown that the results (214). • 't . only values for positive m are listed Ps« = 1 PIU = cos (j PH = sin 0 P2U = %(3 cos 20 P21 = % sin 2(J Pzz = %(1 _ cos 29) P'40 = ~~(5 cos 38 + 3 cos 8) Ps.. of r.. (221). 1 ... f' \ ~ l' TABLE 2·2: SOME ASSOCIATED LEGENDRE POLY· NOMIALS Plm Since they have the property Pu. It is seen that the entries in Table 22 differ somewhat from the result (215) obtained from tne stmpnned picture.2 t imeindependenl ScI I rod i nger equal ion . When.. therefore constitute the accurate treatment of ail problems. r2 sin 0 a q. and (222) are valid. USlJIg quantummechanical operator techuiuues. the latter are to be considered correct.cos 38) Pas 0 . it becomes _ fl... I "" . the solutious may he written 011 advallced 1ll()derIl l' is a function only (225) where I and ml are integers with ImII < I and Ul is a solution of (218). • . called associated Legendre polynomials. are widely encountered in 1 many areas of physics. aunougn tuey are quantatrveiy sunuar. as is often the case..." • •• ~ .. In polar coordi 2M rl1 r2 dr d ~/r2 d!/t\) dr + r2 sin 1 (j dO a ~/S'lll (j dif. The threedimensional form of (28) is clearly These solutions (223) which is known as nates. Some of their values are listed ill Tallie 22.
the first problem one faccs is quantization of energy and angular momentum. to find the possible sums of two vectors.y principles. and rna ny collision properties. This last slatemen! ill. The orbit model for electrons in atoms is familiar to every student from high school or eVen elernentarv school studies.tment. and (3) the maximum value of the: component is itt.'s in quantum theory: (1) it is quantized. and the m. we rail use a simple technique. quantum Hum her determines its orientation ill space. vector angular momenta. hut no ball in our everyday experience has a wave nature and is subject to uucert aint. these being specified hy quantum numbers. However. which can be derived from the correct trea. it treats a particle as a very small ball. some of the most productive scientists employ these models constantly. N evertheiess. As with language translations.. except that we accopt only results ill which the sum is quantized. It faithfully portrays (. + 26 Quantum Theory of a Particle in a Potential Well .. 2·6 Vector Model for Addition of Angular '. we add angularmomentum quantum numbers just as we ordinarily add vectors. This is not oniy an artifice for instructing elementary students. to I. This is therefore taken int 0 accou ut hy say i IIg t hat onl y vcr y specific orb its an" allowed. and a great deal of scientific progress is due to them.10mentum \Ye ban> seen that orbital angular momentum is a vector with some very peculiar propprtil.. In this model.ay be understood from t hc fad that the ratio of L. [n the orbit model. I • I . axis. all U we SHaH use 1L wiuer y. ~o classical orbit problems ex hihit quantization. (2) all we can know about its direct ion ill spact' is its z componeut .1H'rgies. Clearly we can expect. and this is indeed such an involved matter that it is not usually considered in introductory courses. ~ 1 '" . the latter determines t he angular moment um of' the orhi t. known as the vector model. which is less than the total orbital angular momentum [l(l l)l'~h from (2j2). [from (221) and (222)].' the energy. but we must always keep in mind that some things are lost in translat. they are useful. This is all the iuformation OJ! directions ill space it is possible to havr for a quantum SYSh'Bl. 1 11 • L • 1 _1 particles.ion. lite orrin pict ure IS usci UI ror mall y purposes. and on all average it gives correct ideas for positions and momenta of 1_ II[ 1 l ..2·5 Orbit Model It is most helpful III discussing problems physically to have available a model that can be visualized in terms of things familiar in our daily lives. of course. Tile 11 a!l(1 I quantum llUITll1erS determini. It cannot.. be considered accurate. gives information 011 the angle between tilt' plane of the orbit and t he . difficulties ill the addition of two such vectors. which is itself quaut ized . These models may be considered as "translations" from the world of quantum physics into the world familiar in our everyday lives.
. This is all odd numlnr of particles.. including elect rons. which is represented by 1/12. and 1 + 1/2 call add to 3/'2 or 1/2.l1'nlC 'L '".y.!oA huJ .r (227a) (227b) if.Thus II 12 can ' grve any angular momentum het ween " + lz and I'l .f 1. electrons and protons. or 1.. ..1L.· J.....z))2 y. ".llto.... the total spin would he halfinteger...l. . That is.. nothing !. ~..../UII15'''...J ".( x.1.JIIJ' .. IJu ..y... 1 • I 1 ..::o.t'..I. nt 'V" ..1.. S/2 3/2 can add to ....1J.. so in view of our rule...1I'_...jll'. \.. JI. .1... 3... ."". UUI~ .Z) . 1 •• .. IJJ\''~b\_J. protons. On this basis.y. it was concluded that IlUC lpi ca 1I1l0t he made up of rlcct rons aud protons....1.. if we replace r.l.y..\.. ..n .Y.J with respect to a reflect ion about the origin."0 t 1.\_..:.u r".. Hut the total angular momentum of 7~ 14 was measured by optical spectroscopy and was found to hf' 1 = 1.. . Since this symmetry "' ._..lI . LU1...._..~ J~ ." ./ __ • __ \  \lI~ x..n(fLlr 1.. .I J_I\_.'" aUULu. t.c) odd parity 11 represents the vector whose length is mentum I.1J. . Ilt"l'l> L 1 .~J:...JIr::. \"hence we expect [iJt(X... nno.. 3 I call give Lt.. ~ ~ .. when it was postulated that the nucleus consists of the only two particles known at that time... ...'21......t. V Vl(l+l) Ii.~.. " f " v. From this. h••... we see that when an even lor + + + vuu.... . When halfinteger angular momenta an' involved (recall thal the spin quautum numbers of many part icks.....1a.JI f' ".. so tile total angular momentum must he halfinteger..0.n VII{.lU..'l.y....y.l llll>H ha .& cases. . its importance il! !!uc!ear st rur ture was t h eref arc im media tel y appreciated.. According to (zt o)..> 11.. . mea ning I (I + 1) n.. ~r.. 1"'1..6\..i. are ~(2).' This last rule played an important part ill the early days of nuclear physics. .1. I.. One such physical result is the probability for a particle to have certain coordinates../.(x..\ " even panty (226) is satisfied provided Y.1 .. including both the onedimensional An the potentials and threedimensional of the coordinates and z.. or I. there is a corollary to this rule that only results diff'ering from the maximum and minimum hy integers are allowed. Note that the maximum and minimum values an' the same as ill ordinary vector addit iou. all 7:\ 14 nut' leus made of seve II protons and seven neu trons clearly has an int eg('r t utal angu lar momen t um.: is also IJ. and = by x.'I'''''''' VI. •• 1 expect that the physical results should also he unaffected hy such a transformation. IJ\.11 .A. I...:. 3.tl It 'I~U~L H...... ~ • .. f . For example. When the neutron was discovered in 1932.. and neut rons.1. 'II 27 Parity we have used ill this chapter....o. oruuat angurar momentum call only 1)1' 1I1teger.... each having spin }~.oQ<.l \ \ . ...z))2 This requirement or if. have heeu symmetric is changed. respectively.. It is common to speak of angular fila Parity 27 .t.. ... Ill.l.... .1. ..IIJ\..lIJ.. ua.. 't...or t... 11'_. Lilt t!.z)  = [~(J'.·h'Llj .1'.1 I.0:. . L lU~1 property (<J . 2. 11a..: . '\. Since this is an integer.'.Z) .. JJJl.". the nucleus 7:\ 14 would COHtain 111 prot OilS and 7 electrons... . or 2.
apply + + + . 1 . It is unacceptable opposite parities. to have a wave function that is a sum of functions for it would not satisfy (226). 1.These are referred to as eoen.and oddparily u'ave [unctions. The function P1m((J) has the property that the transformation (228) introduces a multiplying factor (~l)!m. The former are symmetric and the latter antisymmetric about th origm.. as designated. if we take 0 1/I(x) we find 1/. ant examples of oddparity wave functions are the sin kx wave functions in tha same figure. Eve parity is aiso called posiiice parity. a reflection about the transformation ill a threedimensional well origin is equivalent to the The function eim<t> becomes eim<1>eim1r = (_l)meim¢. We therefore conclude that uare [unctions loifh ereti l hare even parity and ware functions with odd I luue odd pari/yo It is straightforward to show that a product of wave functions with il.2AB sin kx cos kx which does not satisfy (226).( x) A sin (kx) B sin (3kx) . and a great deal of spectacular attention was paid when certain interactions were found to lead to wave functions of mixed parity.~IIUS.(x) = A sin kx B sin :~kx we find 1/. 22.rus DOOK. this can easily be checked for the cases listed ill Table 2~2. This does not. For our . 1 1 I .( x) = A sin kx +B cos kx . if WI take if.. Exam pIes of evenparity wave functions are the cos kx wave functions in Fig. and odd parity is also called neqaiice.(J. it is permissible to have a wavi function which is the sum of functions with the same parity.A sin kx . The concept of parity has played an important part ill many areas of physics. This is all we shall have to Know aDOUt panty III t.. however.x) j2 = A 2 sin" kx + B2 cos" kx . 12. On the other hand. For example.""ave functions (225) for a particle using (r.A 2 sin" kx + B2 cos? kx + 2AB sin k» cos kI [f( . reflection about the origin of the wave function (225) multiplies that wave function by (_l)lm( l)m = (1)1.A sin kx + B cos kx [4(x)]2 ...(1') + + whence (226) is satisfied.. "'.B sin 3kx 1/..cp) coordinates.A sin (kx) + B cos (kx) . I . 28 Quantum Theory of a Particle in a Potential Well . For example.. f3' ••• has odd [even] parity if the sum II 12 13 is odd [even].
1  J ql/l2 J~2 dr dT (230) This is called the expectation value of q and is designated (q).. Let us see how this is done. if any property of a system q is measured a nurnber of times. if all space is divided up into volume elements dT1 this surll becomes all integral over aII spa(~e and we have (Z29) From Sec.2 d Using this in (229).\ _ \'. A more general form for (230) applicable when I/.*ql/. multiplying it by the prohahility p that the electron is at that point. so it is important to be able to calculate them from the quantum description of a system as embodied in the wave function. so all wave fuuctions used in this book will have a definite parity. These properties are experimentally measurable.1.in systems under the influence of the strong nuclear force. r. we consider the size of a hydrogen atom. As a simple example. and summing these products OYPI" all space. Problems 29 . 21 we know that p is proportional to l/I2• Normalizing it so that the probability of the electron's being somewhere in space is unity gives p dT = f 1/.2 dr 1/. If the wave function is chosen to satisfy (212) in its threedimensional form. dr Problems 21 What energies can a ikg ball have in a potential well 1 m deep and 1 m across? Treat the probiem onedimensionally and use (25). Yrom the resuit. cal! be found by taking the value of r at each point in space available to the electron. 28 Measurable Properties of Quantum Systems 1 we discussed such properties of nuclei as their size and magnet. The radius of a hydrogen atom is just the average value of r. as we know from the usual definition of average. The average value of r.ic In Chap. and electric moments. we obtain In analogy with this expression. the distance of the electron from the nucleus. is complex and q is an operator is (q) = J I/. the denominator in (230) is unity and need not be written. the average value obtained is 1.
what can be concluded scopic problemsf 22 about the importance of quantization of energy in macro Derive the equations analogous to (210) for the case where the first of (29) is A sin kx. 21 and 22. plot the total potent. Repeat Prob. 2.i? 211 Wha tare the pari lies of eae h of the states 30 Quantum Theory of a Particle in a Potential Well . Find the wave fUIlctions and energies by the methods of Sees..000 and 40 e V. the solution can be obtained by trying different values of k until the first of (210) is satisfied. 21 (if.] Compare the energies and plots of the wave functions obtained b:y the two methods. [In the latter. Compare the results obtained hy the approximation used ill Sec. Plot the wave functions. 29 Derive a formula of the shallowest square well of n 1014 m ill which analogous to (220) for the condition that the 28 state is bound. how does (212) limit the allowable velocities) Consider the same problem if an electron could be swung around on a string of length 10~tO III and if a proton could be swung around on a string of length 10"14 m. E2p. Calculate the kinetic energies in both cases. Not e that these leugths are roughly the sizes of atoms and nuclei respectively.ial including the centrifugalforce contribution for I = 1. 21 calculate the energies E1p. 23 An electron is in a onedimensional square well of depth 200 e V and width lO~lO rn. Approximate the results by square wells and with the approximation used in Sec. Discuss the result. 26 Find the energies of the Is and 2s states of a neutron ill a t hreedimeusioual square well of depth 50 \1 eV and radius 5 X 101:. E1d• and Elf. 23 for the lowest energy state when the depth of the potential well is 1.. TT\ Y). 24 2S If a Ikg hall is swung around Oil a string 1 ill long. m. Find what totai angular individual angular momenta: 210 momenta can be obtained by adding the following (a) 1/2 + 2 (b) 3/2 (c) 1 + 4 + 7 + 5/2 + + 3/2 + 5/2 7/2 shown in Fig. 28 Calculate the depth a neutron is hound. = 0 where ~ R <" .. and 3. 2. 27 For the potential in Prol» 26.
T ." vol.. Richards: "Introductory Atomic Physics. Reading. ~ 1..." Pergamon. C. lYleGrawIlill." Addison\Vesley. Englewood Cliffs. R. K.: "Fundamentals of ~lodern Physics...\Vesley. fa l Lannan. E.·. B. :\1. 'VeIn.. and J. R." HoldenDay. T L. I.Further Reading Elementary Treatments Blanchard. B. 1966. and ~L Sands: "The Feynman Lectures on Physics. Feynrnan. Addison. H. G. T. L.. R. 1965. P.: "Quantum M echa nics. R." 3d ed.\fass.1 . Sells: "Elementary Modern Physics. N.: "Quantum Mechanics. 1960." Allyn and Bacon... New York.. ~ 1.noox on quantum • ~ Il 1 I mecnamcs. Richtmyer.. R. Sproull. C." \Yiley..: "Quantum Mechanics. Wittke: "Introduction to Quantum Mechanics. Reading. Amsterdam. M.. Further Reading 31 . Mass. 1961. and J. Burnett.' uan turn 1\ If" 1\1ecna rues: l'\jonreia 1 • 1\.. 1969. New York.. 1959. 1961. III. n." 1\1cGrawHiIl. A. E. 1968.. ror example: _ . N .. New York. 1961..\Vesley. L. ~VL LUSHI tz : T""\. 1962. N ew York." 6th ed. Hill. R." NorthHolland. Weber: "Introduction to Modern Physics. A. Boston. Heading. Leighton. tlVIS (. L. U. 1956. ana t.: "Principles of Modern Physics. and R. Kennard. to Modern Complete Treatments Any rexr.: "lVIodern Physics: A Tex thook for Engineers. Weidner.IC I· Theory. P. Schiff. Stoner. H. 1960." Wile'y." Addison. McGraw Stehle. . New York.." PrenticeHall.. F.. R. Merzbacher. 1 y:"II . Cooper: "Introduction Physics. Intermed iate Treatments Dicke... L. and R. Eisberg. T" II'" 1 I I "'. Leighton. New Messiah. R. R. San York. R.rl. P. 1969....: "Quantum Mechanics. N ew York. 1\1 ass.J. Francisco.. ." Wiley. 1965. and J.
we review this development and outline our present understanding of the nuclear force. . 3i Methods of Approach under the simplest possible conditions.hods. things could have been the other way. w1I re e2 is a cons ta nt lila t could be eva! ua ted from the e measured value of the Hydberg constant. The ana log of tile first method would be to study the energy levels of the hydrogen atom._..e2 / r. we would calculate the energy levels ohtained from various potentials using the methods of Chap. as a deuteron. 'Vhen physicists first began to study the nuclear force ill the early 1930s.(ft/n2. let us assume that we did not know the coulomh force and tried to learn about it l))T analogous met. studies of the energy levels of the hydrogen atom led to the discovery of quantum theory. while the force was unknown. ~' .. and the simplest case in which the nuclear force is effective is when there are only two nucleons nresent and interacting. (2) in collisons between two nucleons. usually referred to as scalierinq processes. In this chapter.. we would find that they obey the wellknown relationship E = . 2 and would find that the only potential giving these energy levels is V = . .. . perhaps more manhours of work have been devoted to it than to any other scientific question in the history of mankind. 2.: (_)' _. But that was a historical accident. where (ft is he times the Rydberg constant and n = 1. quantum theory was already well established. I. 3. one that is not encountered in atomic physics or in everyday life. To appreciate how studying these call lead to an understanding of the nuclear force. .Chapter 3 The Nuclear Force In Sec..l· . It is best to study any phenomenon 32 . . Assuming that we understood quantum theory. . Of course the coulomb force was not found that way. There are two exnerimentallv achievable situations of this type: (1) when a neutron and a proton are bound together. 15 we concluded that the existence of nuclei can be explained only if a new type of force in nature is assumed. The investigation of this nuclear force has turned out to be a truly monumental task.. knowing the coulomb force..
i. the coulomb force was already known. so in the three possible systems of two nucleons there is only one bound state. Historically things did not happen that way. It was consequently reasonable to expect that by studying the energy levels of twonucleon systems and by measuring scattering of nucleons by nucleons... 310. leading to a summary of our present knowledge of the nuclear force in the last three sections. Calculations of scattering probabilities could be made for various forces between the nucleus and the scattered particle.. WhICh has an mnrute number 01 nound states. can be found from various experiments. The former studies are discussed in the next four sections... the nature of the nuclear force could be determined.. but even this information will be useful. and it would be found that this behavior is to be expected only if the force is of the form Zlz2e'/r'l. or He2) do not hold together. Perhaps the easiest way is to allow slow neutrons to be captured by protons in a material containing hydrogen such as paraffin or a plastic. and the experiments were used to unravel atomic structure. From the measured absolute scattering probability. and then after some theoretical developments nucleonnucleon scattering is considered in Sec. However let us see what we can learn from the single bound state of the deuteron.The analog of the second method would be to do Rutherford scattering experiments assuming thai the structure of atoms was understood." . I· I 1 • Bound States of Two Nucleons 33 . ("I . I . . But if the coulomb force had not been known and somehow it was known that the atom consists of a massive nucleus surrounded by electrons at a large distance.he scattered particles. the value of ZtZ2e2 could be deduced. By shooting energetic charged particles at thin foils and observing t. dozens 01 WhICh are Known expenmentally. and by repeating the experiments with various incident particles and various target materials. the scattering probability varies as 1/E2.e. 3·2 Bound States of Two NucleonsConclusions from the Binding Energy and Size of the Deuteron which The only bound system of two nucleons found in nature is the deuteron. the coulomb force could have been deduced. The energy of this state.. dineutron) and two protons (the diproton. it would have been found that the probability of scattering through an angle fJ varies as esc! (fJ/2) and that as the energy of the incident particle is changed. values of ZI and Z2 and hence of e2 could be obtained. the reaction is . the energy by which it is bound... Studies of the deuteron reveal that it has no excited states which do not break up very rapidly into a neutron and a proton.till "1! ~ ~"'I . and measure the energy of the gamma rays emerging. This situation is much less favorable than the analogous case of the hydrogen atom.
75. and we see from Fig41 24 that for U18' kR is between 11'"/2 and 7r. If we assume that the potential can be represented by a square weli with radius R. 2. U == ~4 Sill kr.p. 23.232 Fl = A very simple but crude approximation would be to take Ii = use the method of Sec. k = w/ R = 0.23 MeV. fJ. which is onehalf of the nucleon mass. or. whence r« is considerably larger than R" From (23l). The size of the deuteron has been determined by the experiments described in Sec. Moreover the solution leading to (219) is valid.75.23 = 0. E = 2. <p.23 Me V. In the notation of Sec. (  r« = 4. not much greater than 7r/2. 1~2. Using this estimate in the right side of (32). where the coordinates of the effective single particle.The experimental result is that the binding energy of the deuteron is 2.156 y'Vo(lVieV) . The root mean square (rms) distance between the neutron and proton rd was found to be 4·. which requires "'. the exponential tail represents an important part of the wave function. we see that cot kR ~ 0.4) The Nuclear Force .I. 24 it must have I = 0 and a wave function like the one designated Ul in that figure.2. = J. this is the square root of (r2). r« (which we recall is the rms value of r) can be calculated exactly as (1. 21. the problem becomes identical with that discussed in Sec. The wave function is therefore somewhat like the one shown in Fig. For r < R.2 F and "n __ '" This gives immediately.~_}ll and E p 2. in accordance with Fig.23 MeV. are actually the coordinates of the neutron relative to the proton (or vice versa) and the mass of the "single particle" is the reduced mass u = MpMn/(Mp + Mn). 31. whence kR is actually considerably less than 7r and is.2F. Since the energy level in question is the lowestenergy state of the system. whence we have j cot kR  j( k :c_  (32) From (23) and (27) with ill .23/0. The twobody problem of a neutron a nd a proton interacting with a force represented by a potential V(rp ~ rn) reduces by the wellknown centerormass transformation of classical mechanics to the problem of a single particle in a potential well VCr). we find Fi k K 0. r. to he consistent with our method of designating the energy in Chap. in fact. 28.
..a ...I.. .. indeed have a short range.. 2 . ~.... Their simultaneous solution gives n .I: _...:inO' thiq in r:{:n ~oivpq Vn = _ .6 MeV at 2..2 ....JR' _.. to some approximation......\f po V ?7 . .. a square well 27 l\ieV deep and with a width of 2. The squareweii potentiai is shown at the top with the energy of the state at the eXperimental position...}t ... k and R... The latter dimension gives ~.......4 F. as anticipated in Sec.23 MeV ( I I I I j / I 51 '/ I ~I/ II o «. . this equation and the first of (219) are two equations in the two unknowns.. the coulomb force between two protons corresponds to a potential of only 0..() 77..Lv.. in comparison with the depth of the well.4< F. ! 4 ~ 6 1/ ~ 8 F 2 FIGURE 31 Squarewell solution for the deuteron... as also anticipated there..... Moreover. F) 2 I With A 2 and 82 taken from (219a)....... .. .. the 2. ....... Finally we note that.... . rll" I. ..'l. H2 r« given above. .1"2 ~...._" '''' VI .L1IL .. ..... 15. "~l \r . With the wave function presented before (219) and the value of this becomes ( qin hI" . the 27:MeV potential depth is much larger than the coulomb force at these distances..... The lower plot Is the wave function u(r)...2... ll..? If..A~2 Jo R ..... r .... u The nuclear potential that binds the deuteron is thus..."<..23MeV binding energy of the deuteron is very small: the deuteron is just barely bound ... ~ . = r\ 4. (b R = 1(17°'\...aM . " '"'"I . r DC 1"2p'2Kr  dr _. Bound States of Two Nucleons 35 ... V b .
.."YII PVl<CllUO.l"..nII ... . ....... But the important point is that here we have a case where trn energy of a state is different if the spins arc parallel than if they are antiparallel ..... the total angular momentum IS the vector sum of the orbita and spin angular momenta.. and it turns out to be unbound by onlj about 60 keY... ~ UCC... which is derived from the force.r Ul.. 26... that these states should be unbound . The next question one naturally asks is: At what energies are the other state: of the neutronproton systern i' From Fig. rl ......... \Ve can therefore conclude that the foror bet..... . one must take into account the Pauli exclusion 36 The Nuclear Force .... 24....".... As we pointer out in Sec. I .....f l.:1H:::t5J VI 0.r .f. ".. ...:PCllU.. according to Sec....". Since the spins of both the neutror and the proton are 1/2.....r....:I VIllJ UIl . but this takes some explanation... ... • well....... The resuit found is l = 1. ('IIC 1.. 32........~ n nf... '1'0 understand the problem.. so it seems not unlikely. 34 Effects of the Pauii Exciusion Principie \Ve are now at a point where we might begin to wonder about why the twoneutron and twoproton systems do not have stable states...... S = 1........ ~l<(l{....f . which is familia from atomic physics.. the state which differs from the ground state only ir that the spins of the neutron and proton are antiparallel rather than paralleli Apparently it is also at a high enough energy to be unbound.... or I = 1+ S (35 where S is the total spin quantum number.... it depends on whether the spins are parallel or antiparallel..... .:......+ T'J''" 1>110..fl. ....... . .... s= 11/2 + 1/2j = 1 or 0 \Ve may for now think of these two possibilities as parallel or antiparallel spin although a mOie specific definition will be gi'venin the next section...... The nuclear force is not just a function of r like the coulomb and gravitational forces.ween a neutron and a proton is spindependent.... but it depends on other things.......tlui what about the is.... In genera!. l . in view of the fact tha the lowest state is barely bound.... From (35). 24... ''IJ\...... :". . ...her their total spin is S = I or S = 0...l'IUUI L.. the state in question is the lowestenergy state of the system which from Fig... then. Does this imply thai the nuclear force is also different between two neutrons and between a neutron and a proton. S = 0 state..... +l"n. . and worse is yet to come...33 Spin States of the Two~nucleonSystem The total angular momentum I for the deuteron can be measured by vanou techniques including hyperfine structure in optical spectroscopy. .....' The answer to this question is basically no... 2 '1 ""oJ ""~ lI'I[~""" AlIU\'Y JJ'' YIII .. the states of I > 0 and n > 1 art at a considerably higher energy. Actually this stat! is known from scattering experiments. implies that it is the 1s (I = 0) state. whet.. .....
22(r2) probabilities This is just the result we would get from (37)._ _ L t' __ . It is not only very difficult to tell any difference between them. etc. sin k1rl sin k2r2 to energies E.. cPlor2. ..)' lur eleCLrUI1 1 LV ue at rl and for electron 2 to be at r» is the product of the individual for 1 to be at rl and for 2 to be at r. The probability of electron 1 being at (rl. l' __ ~I _ ~ .. _.oou __] __ . any two neutrons. the wave function from Sec.lh. but it is just not true in the atomic and nuclear worlds. They are absolutely identical. as are any two electrons. Two hydrogen atoms are therefore indistinguishable in principle. (r1. __. fh. let us consider the situation for the two electrons in a helium atom._ _._~ _. But this is not possible just from their locations: from (36) either particle can easily be at almost any value of r ( < R). For the present application. Effects of the Pauli Exclusion Principle 37 .. with the exception of the last paragraph. In examining (36). which can be expressed as 1/12 = If 12 (rl) 1/. ¢z) is proportional to the square of the wave funct ion". if we take the potential as a square well (a poor approximation for a coUiOlnl) potential. cP2) . any two deuterons. However.: I: . This principle plays a very important part in atomic physics. as we all know.' It is commonly stated in elementary school science courses that "no two objects are exactly alike. but in most elementary modernphysics courses. it is introduced oniy in a limited form. but it is absolutely impossible. and E2• (3ij where kl and k2 are the solutions of (219) corresponding Notice that we have taken the wave function as a product '1"'1 • _ 1 nIS may _ L ue utruerat.1. for short we call this1f(l.. the wave function must give the same probability distribution for both particles. 82... and certainly the wave functions of all hydrogen atoms are exactly the same. we notice something very wrong: this wave function implies that we can distinguish between particles 1 and 2. L_ I.. where its results are summarized. not 1 Less advanced students may omit the remainder of this section.2). In many cases the fact that two particles or two systems of particles are identical presents no complication since they can be kept separate by their locations._. any two protons. 'Y  Li 1 J.1.. we must consider it more deeply. _ L_ i.." This gives a good account of the fact that no two snowflakes are exactly alike. It is a basic tenet of quantum physics that all the information one can have about a system is its wave function.4>!) and of electron 2 being at (r2' O2. 1. For example. ~ I rturu 1' . Since we cannot distinguish between particles 1 and 2.ue Htl:L lllaL Llle prUUaUllIL. 22 might be .principle. but it illustrates tile point) and xmsider the region r < R. _ _ __ ~ .
and all other spin>~ particles.1)F +1f(2. or it can he antisymmetric in spin and symmetric in space coord i 38 The Nuclear Force . of a spacewave function l/..2)P = [1f(2. in our example. for electrons.2 are the same functions or.2) = For reasons that are not clearly understood. example. is a product. the wave function remains the same t'xcept for a reversal ill sign. Thus form of the Pauli exclusion principle used ill more elementary applications. respectively. "Th' IS IS LIe most f Ii tundamental 1 statement of the Pauli exclusion principle.1 and 1/. . for our. protons. Equation (310) call then he made complete and satisfactory as (311) which indicates that both particles have spill up.4» and a spin wave function x(i) or x(l) iudicating spill up and spin down. L' .T e see that there are tuio way s of nlal~iug a wave function antisymmetric with respect to interchange of two particles ill order to satisfy the Pauli exclusion principle: it call be sy mmetric in spin and a ut is y mmetric in space coordinates as in (311).(r. = O. That is. neutrons.I c_lange 0_ any . our example (310) is really not complete. we must get the same or "'2. Actually. because a complete wave function must include spin: iu fact. another suitable wave function would he \.I . it.different probability distributions as in (36). the minus sign is chosen in (38). The Pauli exclusion principle is satisfied if (37) is modified to (39) which. when kl = k2• In these cases. This method breaks down. if we interchange particles in "'.8. when 1/. is "" = A (iiin k1'_1 _sin k2r2 \ rir« _ Sill k2r_1 ~in k lr2 'In ) I It is readily seen that if rl and r« are interchanged in either (39) or (310). our method gives I/. However.t~o Lelltlca_ I SPIIl72 particles. This is commonly stated "the wave function must be antisymmetric with respect to the interI f .1) This can be satisfied if 1f(1.. however. the two flf(1.d .
spin antisymmetrir) or odd l. whence the symmetry or antisymmetry of the space part of the wave functiou depends 011 whether the wave function changes sign under this transformation. Now let us return to systems of two nucleons. The spin wave function in (3~11) is one of the possible states of parallel Spill. 27./O particles corresponds to a reflection about the origin. and 8 = 0 states are antisymmetric in the spin coordin a tes. S = 0) of the deuteron is unbound. S = 1) is clearly a T = 0 state. 32. whereas for all eVC'1l values of I. m s = 1. The space part of their wave functions. so it is not surprising that the lowestenergy states of the dineutron or diproton. 'Ye therefore conclude that for even l the wave function is symmetric and for odd I It rs an tisymmetric in t he space coordinates. surh as the deuteron. \Ye see that T =. The ground state of the deuteron (I = 0. \Ve have already mentioned that the lowestenergy T = 1 state (I = 0. protonproton. spill symmetric) satisfy the Pauli exclusion principle for identical nucleons. it corresponds to ~~'= 1. l.I states are available to any of tIle tllree twonucleon systems. or S = O. those with even l. and the diproton. being T = 1. The spin wave function in (312) is what we have previously referred to loosely as a state of antiparallel spin. whereas the T = 0 states are available only to the protonneutron system because it does not consist of identical particles and hence need Bot satisfy the Pauli Exclusion principle. it does not. and neutronneutron. S = 0 are called T = O. The other states of the twonucleon system. These slates are called T = 1 states. we no longer have rl and r2 appearing explicitly: ill tillS case. The fact that there are no bound states of the dineutron or diproton therefore does not mean that the nudear force between a neutron and a proton is different from that between two Effects of the Pauli Exclusion Principle 39 . ill accordance with (225). a concept that will be discussed later. S = I (space antisymmetric. where T is the isobaric spin. so we have the following rule: S = 1 states are symmetric. are also symmetric with respect to interchange of the two particles. protonneutron. As we found in Sec. Combining the results of the last two paragraphs. S = 1 or odd. those with ms = 0 and 1. S = 0 (space symmetric. We may note that in (312) there is nothing wrong with ki = k2' so iwo identical particies may have t. we see that only wave functions with even I. are also unbound. the dineutron. for all odd values of I.he same spare wave function provided their spin wave function is antisymmetric.nates as III (312). is + Due to the centerormass transformation of Sec. all interchange of tile t\I. it does indeed reverse its sign. The other S = 1 wave functions. indeed this is the situation for the two electrons in a normal helium atom.
These results cannot be explained by assuming the state to hay€ some other value of I.J. It must therefore exhibit r:6 spnertcai syrnmet. wrucn was SHown III oec.8797~ . However.8574 eh 21\'1p \Vhile the difference between the measured and expected values is not very large and there are some (small) uncertainties in the theory. that our previous assumption that l ::: 0 in the deuteron ground state is not completely correct. from (35) l can only be 0. This indicates that the wave function is not a simple I = 0 one. no contribution from orbital motion is expected. derived from a measurement of the electric quadrupole moment of the deuteron. 1 . This suggests that the wave function contains a mixture of I values.ry. and 2. the quadrupole moment of the deuteron was measured and found to be Qd = 2. Since the deuteron is presumably in an I = 0 state.82e X 1027 crn2 .. _lO to rrnpry a zero quanrupoie moment. because of conservation of parity. 1 the discrepancy is difficult to explain. 40 The Nuclear Force .J.d = 0. we see from (225) and Table 22 that the wave function has no (O. 1 •_ I .neutrons or between two protons. There is even better evidence for this conclusion. in fact they are very much closer to the results for l = 0 than for any other I. whence from (18) and (19) we should find its magnetic moment to be equal to f. The simplest interpretation is that there is some orbital motion in the deuteron. L. in agreement with the conclusion from the magnetic moment. 27 even and odd values i See footnote 2.. However. one expects the total magnetic moment to be the vector sum of the magnetic moments due to spin and the magnetic moments due to orbital motion of charged particles. page 9..cP) dependence and hence is a function only of r.. 1. For I = 1 and a maximum value of S = 1. but it is not zero. If the deuteron is in an I = 0 state. It is only a manifestation principle.<::OiY1p was found to be f. 3·5 of the Pauli exclusion Magnetic Dipole and Electric Quadrupole Moments of the DeuteronThe Tensor Force In a structure made up of two particles.p = eh 0. _ _ l 1.J._ ..n + f. ~ _ . _ 1_~ _1 _. __ 1 _ srnall quadrupole moment ill comparison with the others listed in Table A2. F. as shown in Sec.
(a) (b) j .I' ~ '. the force is attractive . FIGURE 32 The tensor force as it acts in the deuteron.. When two nl1('lp.~ .rp. When the two are parallel as in (b)..rl. <p . _ in n n S ___.1 Magnetic Dipole and Electric Quadrupole of the Deuteron 41 .. can be no tensor force.p. just as linear momentum can be changed only by a force... Now let us consider the implica tiol!s of this viola tion. that for the deuteron it is repulsive in the former and attractive in the latter. and the torque acting on a body is r X F = rFo = aV/a9. juz)2 = 0. i~ no nrp. are consistent with this.L .. r.ion of S . though less certain.P. "tJ.2 can be present with l = O. angular momentum can be changed only by a torque. As we know from elementary mechanics.. \Ve therefore take the wave function to be A wave function written as a SUIn in this \\'''3)1 means tl13t tile system spends a fraction lao)2 of its time in an I = 0 state and a fraction la212 of its lime in an I = 2 state.. It turns out. 32a than in Fig. while the other 96 percent of the time it is in an I = 0 state. (35) requires S = 1." ~o fllPrp. ' L. in fact.('fion r _ . The deuteron is apparently in an I = 2 state about 4 percent of the time. the force is repulsive. _ :cup. as in (a). When the spin direction is perpendicular to the line joining the nucleons. the force is therefore a funct.04.rlirp. so only I . .on~ . It turns out that the results for the electric quadrupole moment can be explained with luol2 = 0. The only fixed direction in space that has any relevance in a deuteron is the direction of the spin vector S.ff'rrp.<P. the () upon which the tensor force depends must therefore be measured from this direction..I'" L in ~nJl(.. the tensor force must be different in Fig. Since a central force is defined as one for which l' is a function only of r.. the magnetic moment results.of I cannot both be present in the same wave function. thp. this is a noncenlral force.. it is called the tensor force. Note that for either I = 0 or l = 2. as we have been assuming previousl y. so that result is unchanged. 32b.~ changing orbital angular momentum therefore implies that the potential V is a function of 8 and not merely a function of r. III vector notation. = 0 RtJlt..96. we have violated the principle of conservation of orbital (though not of total) angular momentu m. In blithely allowing the wave function to include a mixture of l values. For the same separation distance.
These will be the topics of this and the following three sections. 36 that (S • r)2 is the only acceptable function of § ·r. P12 = P2 . and the second term in the bracket is added to make the value of S12 averaged over all angles equal to zero. nucleonnucleon scattering experiments.1·. with quantum number L. the sign is reversed twice in its definition as r12 X P12. Next let us list the requirements we might expect the potential representing the nuclear force to fulfill: 1. To these it is convenient (though not necessary) to add tile orbital angular momenturn? L = r12 X P12. uesirame property even 101' a rorce netween uomuenucat parnctes. . 1 1 1·" .1 ~ 'I. This would intuitively seem to be a most. r12)2 or to higher even powers of that scalar product. 31.f 1 T ~ 1 For students familiar with the (1 operntors.. • (:I . the tensor potential is some function of r times S12 where! S12 = 2 3 (5 L r r~ '"r)2 . can be shown that the latter reduce to (S .2 (ITI' r)(IT2' r)  ITl' IT2 lIereafter we shall use L. It. (313) can he writtenin a more widely used form 812 2 = ~{ . 5 1 J (313) It will be shown in Sec. Interchanging particles reverses the sign of r12 and P12 but not of Sand L. to designate orbital angular momentum in the twonucleon problem. First let us list the quantities available in a twonucleon system for the force to depend on. It. When done in this way. to learn further details we must use the other approach presented in Sec. tnereny enrrunatmg components 01 tile central rorce rrom this term. (In the latter case. It must be a scalar quantity since it.. the total spin. Since two neutrons or two protons are indistinguishable. before getting into that subject it will pay us to consider some of the properties we can reasonably expect of the force we are studying. it must remain unchanged if we interchange particles 1 and 2. The r2 in the denominator is to make the term dimensionless..) Hence we cannot have a term like S . 42 The Nuclear Force . However.The nuclear potential can be written as the sum of a central and a tensor potential. and two reverses is equivalent to no change. r12)2 by mathematical identities. 36 General Properties of the Nuclear ForceStatic Forces The previous four sections summarize the information on the nucleonnucleon force that we can obtain from the deuteron. the vector joining the position of particle 1 to that of particle 2. the tensor force discussed in the last section must therefore be proportional to (S . These are r12.Ph their relative momentum.. 2. and S. r12 or S .5 . (:I . is an energy. I l • 1" ~ I~ (1 1 I ·1 I" I . Pl2.
or r12 • L. r is ordinary r dependenCe which \\~e have assumed to he presellt ill all forces ..1.. S ~ S is tile spindependent force discussed in Sec. . If a potential is to he static. Sand (r· S)2 would be indistillguishable from the tensor force since that force is applicable only for S = 1. 33.LU... L IJ ... Gravitation is all example of a static force. a reasonable explanation will be given in the next section... reduce to linear combinations of these terms. or products of these... .. \\ e t herej'o!'c cannot have terms like r12 • 1112. the parity of the wave function describing the system.J~~~~~ leU1!iUL (F) ~ S= 1. The only scalars that can he formed from these are r . \~·"'''I "'"  1 T . Since the parity depends on whether L is even or odd.. is vaiid i It all wellunderstood laws in classical and Quantum nhvsics and is widely believed to be true in phenomena in which the nuclear force is effective. whence it must involve only rand S. .. L even. From its definition. f) L odd.. A. General Properties of the Nuclear ForceStatic Forces 43 ..II. ' / . C>VC>Tl .' In order to organize our discussion. it cannot depend all P (we drop subscripts hereafter) or L as these are vclocit ydependent. While this may seem strange at first..... In addition to these vectors. . this means that the force is different fur even L than for odd L.. H t lu. central even.. r12 • S.. T.'" . tensor each being a func The most general static potential tion of r. L ~ .. central UUU.. (r X S) . we have already seen that r S is Hot allowed but (r· S)2 is allowed and is.' S =  0. odd.. namely. S is determined. / . r elocit ydependcn t forces will be considered in the next section. we first consider forcl's that are independent of velocity.::ll '. l L .. but electromagnetic forces are 1I0t because the force on a charged particle in a magnetic fieid depends on its velocit y.. . as is the sum of these six terms. it.. S..... uv. . L S= 1. (r X S). then. the tensor force discussed in Sec..L L' ot..I v.. for example.. S.!i) ~ (D\ • S= 1. complete list of possible static forces therefore includes six members: > (A) : t . LJ centra I £'o:>ntr. r. S . This is known as the principle oj r imererersal inrorionce. A product of S . the socalled static forces.3.. it is easy to see that P12 and S would change sign but rl2 would not.I. 35. All other possible terms. Depcudeuce 011 r ."" .I. r .I4l1 . in fact.. t here is one other propert y t ha t a st at ic nucleonnucleon force can depend all.. the sign of L would he reversed.direct ion of time were reversed..I. (C): (D) : \t. ill which case the value of S . It must remam unchanged if the direction of the flow of time is reversed.l...
as will be discussed in Sec. 'Vc see that the Majorana force provides an explanation of the fact that the nuclear potential depends on whether L is even or odd. in the ground state of the deuteron. (316) fully takes into account the effects of P«. For example. In a twonucleon system. as it operates on a wave function 1/1. From (311) we see that interchanging spins does not affect the wave function if 8 = 1. There are three types of exchange forces: the spaceexchange. or Bartlett force.with the subsidiary condition that terms are zero unless Land S are as in (314). TIle Majorana potential V AI. Leven L odd In view of the fact that V appears in thc Schrodinger equation (223) followed by Ijt. and we have already seen in Sec. the spinexchange. 27 to depend only on the evenness or oddness of L. and meson exchange leads to exchange forces. and the spacespin exchange. and from (312) we see that if S = 0. Therefore we have s 1 S=0 = 44 The Nuclear Force . or Heisenberg. The Bartlett potential \iB is defined as where l'B(r) is an ordinary function of rand ps is an operator which interchanges the spins (but not the spatial positions) of the two particles in the wave function which follows. ali terms are zero except VD and VF• 37 Exchange Forces It may seem intuitively repulsive for the nuclear force to depend on whether S = 0 or 1 and on whether L is even or odd. interchanging spins merely changes the sign of the wave function. or Majorana force. may be defined as where vM(r) is an ordinary function of r and PI is an operator which exchanges the positions (but not the spins) of the two particies in the wave function which follows. This behavior is due to the fact the nuciear force arises from the exchange of mesons. Since the evenness or oddness or parity was shown ill Sec. 39. force. exchanging the two particles is a reflection about the origin. 27 that such a reflection changes the sign of Ijt if the parity is odd and leaves Ijt unchanged if the parity is even.
. there can also he an ordinary.(1 + at' ~2(1 + Tt • T2)VH (r)if.S (317) can he expressed = S(S + 1) = .e..ner ~' = U or S = 1.e... L"_'" S.A.  1 1.J")V" : / \. which bear the same relationship to and (316a) can be written (1' operators as T does to S. T=O (318) 7" 1.. Since.... '\...[(r)~ 1 / .' It can also be readily checked that (316) can be written' V'il~ ~I = ~ (S· .. Leven 1.' S S = = 0..e... Leven I.. out._. Exchange Forces 45 . For students familiar with (f operators. LJ . r"II . as required by (316).This fully takes into account the effects of the Pi operator and provides an expianation for why the nuclear potential is different for S = 0 and S = 1. it can he written • 1 ~ • I \ I~ T 'I 1 ms works r v w If' = ! Llw(r)if. f J 1 r...J even ana 1'_M~r)1/I tor L oaa lor ert. I. no exchange. .~ VHVt j . C':d(l + Tl • T2}vM(r).(T . T ~ Ih!. T  l)vII(r)¢. I (3·163) . ~ .. .. i..V = VM~ = ~ >4. In addition to the three exchange forces. whence (3l8) can be expressed more succinctly as2 VIl!jt = .. The isobaric spin T is a vector which has the same mathematical properties as S. 10 l)M ~r)1/I lor 1. (317a) can be written in its BiOi'C common form 2 In terms of T operators. force called a lVigner force. (II . from the familiar nronerties of anzular momentum in auantum mechanics.A.. we find r +l'H(r)l/t 8= 1.lrl '\... L odd 1 i.. (318a) VIl'.. ~ ') {~ S = s=o 1 more succinctly asl The Heisenberg potential lIl/ is defined as Combining the effects of pr and P».. S ~ 1)(T. where 'vH(r) is an ordinary function of r. l l'HI.J.. ."  () T V v..
. where I'WT.~. SlzL'MT(r). it call be discovered only by continuous studies of twonucleon systems at. Slzl'm·(r). 2).. this gives a physical. If. 46 The Nuciear Force . However. 1 I • t iars in j_. ' VB + + .. Similarly. Here again the two representations are completely equivalent._ the two tensor potentials VE and YF of (315) can be expressed in terms of tensor components of Vw.1)[rill(r) + Si21'MT(r)] + ~'tZt'UT(r)J . s .. which is not more t han a few hundred MeV. L odd: VA = 1Jw Vw 0. As a result of this equivalence. F. turns out not to he. everincreasing energies. \'jJ.. by using the exchange forces in the form (316a).) t . what we shall really be discussing is momentumdependen! po/entia/so \\'liy 'H' lise potentials instead of forces is obvious from the faet.... v ~ !'w(r) + Sn!'wT(r) + (S . tha t q uan t u III theory is form ula t cd iII terms of poten t ia Is (see Chap._j 38 Velocitydependent Forces While we might have hoped that tIH_~ nuclear force is static. .regardless of S or L.. 'Vhile this name is widely used.. we need understand only the nuclear force up to the energies of nucleons ill nuclei. L odd: CD) S = 1. if our prineipa! interest is in understanding nuclear structure..\f  VB + till Vl! Vw  VM + VB  VB  VH (319) VW+VM+VR+VH are four linearly independent equations in four unknowns. are simple functions of rand 812 is from (313). (318a).u.. the nuclear force has a very complex velocity dependence. and 8]21'BT(r).I . it.. ~. and l"II' which are proportional to S121'WT(r).. the experiments directly determine the six poten. Since the exchange forces have a physical basis in meson theory. we can write (315) as a single expression. as 1I0\\' seems probable.basis to the four central potentials in (315).l)[I'Jl(r) (S· S . One might hope that it is suffir ieut for this purpose to consider a lowenergy approxi . It is therefore useful to consider the simplest velocitydependent forces. SO it is more ('Oii veu t rona I to use tlia t expn'SSiOil....... (') 1~\ . •. one clea r reason for using momentum rather than velocity is that the latter behaves peculiarly in the reia t ivistic energy region and there is nothing leading us to believe that the nuclear force behaves that way.. Leven: 1. .. However. Leven: Since these VB = VC = VD = + VM V....l)(T· T . In terms of these four basic potentials. (317a). respectively. . . we see that expressing the central part of the nuclear force as a sum of the first four terms in (315) is completel y equ ivalent to expressing it as a sum of V w + V M V/i.(T· T .l)[vlI(r) + SIZVWl'(r)] (320) The form (:~20) is sometimes of value due to its formal simplicity in not requiring suhsidiary conditions.. the central in (3i4) can be written in accordance with (316) to (3i8) as (A) S (B) S (C) S potentials = = = 0.
36 require only that there he even powers of r and S.. satisfactory examples are p' p. If the vclocity dependence is giveJl by a p. . P X S or P .. (r X L) would satisfy these requirements.In . S = l~· S. so it was concluded that higherorder velocitydependent terms were needed. S)2.. [f there are t\yO powers of P or L... 3·9 Meson Theory of Nuclear Forces Forces in physics are derived from quantum field theories.a •_ _ _ . which ill most simple ex pres .i" _ .~. • II... sions can be converted to r X p = L. In any ease. If the. dpIWlHlellf'P is 0 .velocitv. if the ava ilahle data all twonucleon systems could have been fit wit h 110 other velocity dependence than an L· S term.... There is very good evidence for such a term in the potent ial .. terms of lowest order in p would be scalar products of P and L with rand S. the simplest.".. Let.lany more complicated scalars of the first order iii p can he formed from our four vectors.. ...l... rt owever. It can be shown quite gellPrally t ha t no ot her term of first order ill velocit y depend ence is possible.~ an L r11lp 2 rrivf'1I hv ... tile rules require all odd power of r.' = 0.. rule 2 requires that there also be an odd power of r and rule 3 requires that. but this reduces by a vector identity tu (r· r)(L· S) . (r X S) . if . Of the four possible combinations. and with these. In view of our discussion of the last section. in which the lowestorder terms ill the momentum p are the most important in momentumdependent potentials. These requirements would be sat isfied by r . The usual approach is to uSe only some of the simpler ones. the rules of Sec.. not even semiquantitative fits to the data could be obtained.I. • The obvious next step is to iHC iude terms of second order ill p. ~ ._ . us illustrate this with a few examples. 1.. '  requires that there he an even power of rand rule :~ requires that there be an odd power of S. w hence we aga in h a ve only the L· S t erm. but i\I hot h cases t hose are idcnt ira By eaual to r X~.(r· L)(r· S) alld the second term is zero from the defi IIit ion of L. there he all odd power of S (note that there can lw no L if it is to he of first order ill p).a 1 • ~ anu several ex teusrve a Llcmp rs ua vc nee Il mane 1O no Just r rus. .... the only one that has not already been eliminated hy our rules is L . w h ic h means that they contain two powers of' P or L or one power of each.. L· L. S. ____ 1 _ _ _1 r 1 _ . reasonably satisfactory fits to the experimental data on the twonucleon system have been obtained. Its magnitude obviously depends on t he angle brtwern the spin and orbital motion as well as on the magnitude of L.~ 1} .. the number of possihle terms with secondorder velocity dependence is so large that no one has yet tried to determine the importance of all of them. It is generally Meson Theory of Nuciear Forces 47 .L _ __ L i It would have heeu very pleasant l· .. I' X S.. or (I.. ~. but quantum field theory is among the most complex concepts of theoretical physics. but all turn out to he forbidden by the rules given ill t he last section or to he equivalent to the spinorbit term.. . If there is one power each of p and L.mation... it is called the spinorbit interact ion. it vanishes..
. pair production and annihilation. and: neutral (zero) electric charge. The nuclear force also derives from a quantum field theory. It explains why that force is not transmitter instantaneously but with the velocity of light. the familiar photon.idm. none of these probabilities can be calculated in any other been a userui ana successnu tneory.J. All in all. Electromagnetic field theorj thus explains the coulomb force without hypothesizing the philosophically dis tasteful idea of action at a distance. and in this case the principal field particle is the 11" meson.t._. it hai from a quantum field particle..not dealt with before secondyear graduate courses. namely. Note that a similar' 48 The Nuclear force .:.. namely.. In it.t.~ . i.' hptwPPTl nnrt. . unlike that for the electromagnetic and gravitational i forces. and studied extensively.. To see this. or lr Such a violation of energy conservation from the uncertainty principle...of ma t.. it has zero mass and travels with the 1 "1. this force is transmitted by the exchang of the field particle. st: h = 11. OW" c2 ~ 140 MeV) and occurs in three forms.. which.M . c J. the force is of short range. way..._ r. This is the range of the nuclear fore c. speed of light as it is ~". A somewhat familiar example of a quantum field theory is the one whicl treats the electromagnetic force. fortunately. '. It has a mass about 270 times that of the electron. with positive...er. '" AI . It has had great success in predict ing probabilities for such electromagnetic interactions as the photoelectric effect Compton scattering.4 F.. we note' that when a meson is sent from one nucleon to another (as it must be to transmit: the nuclear force).__ 0 . has a finite mass. has been observed. The gravitational field also is presumably derived theory. pVf'hnTlP'Po . is !ll =  cannot last longer than a time At which. negative. The force is assumed to be carried by a field Like the photon. M/rc2 c. P 1 11 bremsstrahlung.a. so we cannot go into it hen except in a most elementary way. . There is one immediate and simple consequence of the fact that the field: particle for the nuclear force. the graviton.t. Numerically it works out to be 1. the farthest (321) Even assuming that the meson travels with a velocity approaching it can go ill this time is h_1 . the creation of the meson violates conservation of energy by i an amount !lE of the order of the meson rest mass M». etc. which is in general agreement with our previous discussion.
.. ~ ....:U ""uUO:... The electromagnetic Maxwell's wave equation field is well known to be derivable from (323) This may be considered to be derived quantummechanically equation for photons from the energy (3Z4) with the usual operators .. _ ..... calculation for the electromagnetic or gravitational field yields an infinite range since the mass of the field particle is zero... 4}')\ ) IJld J ut' .... It was first obtained by H... rl C'lf .. f"l 1n. au nrl':". v...1 2 i r (F) _ ...".h... 3~3...~·u·.:h:I:"...h V substituted for P and ih a/at substituted The timeindependent field equation is obtained from (323) by taking for E.'Y 2 '::......... I ...' VL ''Iu.....n..:..... Eq.. r VI ~<J............... ........ and is commonly known as the Yukawa potential....... ... . c. is defined by (321). A very elementary calculation from meson field theory gives the potential energy of interaction between two nucleons as V pv. IIlVI 'I'¥II .. IIldUt: _ ....l ....'Y 2 r e w FiGURE 33 The Yukawa potentiai. (325) Meson Theory of Nuclear Forces 49 ..n.U''. .IIT v aUL... (322).... rl....... This potential is shown in Fig... Yukawa in 1937.. .I..... "lie pia UOIUII L J L .I.._ r (322) where 'Y is a constant and p... IlIun: evident as follows.....li .. .........r = .... _ 1.... . f....... /9..
.Lr 3 (J...lj) IS 01 me rorrn (ozu). 50 The Nuclear Force .p2C2 }\{. when two nucleons are close S12 11"'1. ~.      ~.. V .o::.. (327) Proceeding by analogy for the meson field.. 2T' T . (I •• P _ 10. In analogous expansions in meson theory. Using this in (327a) leads to (322). so as the potentia I energy in the latter case is V = e cp.. with the substitution of operators. nence we see from this example that the tensor force and the four exchange forces of Sec.Lr)2 I"} e=: 12 L (328) is the expression for the tensor force..L is as defined in (321). where no ..~~~'" r .L (323a) where J..3 = Tl • T2. and we see that th is gives a rapidly converging series .... Using (325). V24 _ c2 becomes 1 ij2<i> at2 + 24 = 0 J. t».. ~ I For students familiar with a operators.. (313).... In treating electromagnetic phenomena. _. This rrnn nt..c2 (' lW7r") 2 (2T· T .. an expansion is frequently made ill powers of e2/hc. Another way to state this problem is to point out that the potential (328) corresponds to the exchange of one 11" meson.L2q... 37 arise in a natural way from meson theory.v rilavs . the convergence is obviously much more questionable.. 1 11 _ TT ~   _ .\I .3)  {.. = 0 (326a) for which the solution is (J27a) The constant 'Y occupies a place in meson theory analogous to that of e in electromagnetic theory..~ role in meson fie Id theories analogous to e2 / he = 7137 ill electromagnetic field theory.. in the former it is 'Y¢. ~ I   . A more detailed calculation from meson theory gives an elaboration of (322).3) + 8 ~I 1 + ur + ..3 _J. .1.Using this in (323). \ '\ /\1p/ (2S· S . 2S· S . nn\. The constant g'l in (328) has been determined from experiments with mesons (mesonnucleon scattering). It is important to note that t..> tT2. the onepion exchange potential (OPEP). whereas. J. which leads to many serious difficulties. we find that cp obeys V'lcJ> =0 e r (326) wmcn nas tue wellKnown sorunon ~10 1• 1 1 11 .. .1. however. "11[1 .3.it..... which may be written as' V = 12 g2 l\1"... Its value is such that the dimensionless nuant it v a'l/hc is about 0. 1 1 cp =  .. the energy equation is . anu tn all nonzero.. the field equation becomes ~2q.2C4 + E2 = 0 (324a) which. J.. \YUH t'w..3 = a ..
the latter is about 2. In accordance with (321).. whereas all six potentials are operative in np scattering. The two experiments therefore give compiementary NucleonNucleon Scattering 51 . ctc.._ . C.. there arc other more massive mesons which contribute to the nuclear forte.... 31 we pointed out that there are two basic methods for studying the nuclear force. which [or present purposes means they have integer (or zero) spin. it is possible for two mesons to be exchanged simultaneously. \Ve have here two different experiments. . 310 NucleonNucleon Scattering In Sec. Unfortuuatcly.. The latter system is restricted by the Pauli exclusion principle to the T = 1 states so only potentials B.. and E of (315) are effective. by far the most powerful technique for investigating the nuclear force is nucleonnucleon scattering. np and pp scattering.. These are all bosons. say r > 3 F .. whence the range of the force is halved.. and Lhey have zero hy percharqe... the range of the forces due to heavier mesons and multiple meson exchange is considerably less thau that due to onepion exchange. This then contributes terms to the 2p. The best known of these are meson: p meson: T1 /\1.r.. In cornparison with the caicuiation leading to (32i). Similarly.. a classification used in elementaryparticle physics. A hydrogen target is equivalent to a target of protol]S./1 = 549 1fe V jHpc~ = 769 :McV w meson: A!". in both cases. _ . so (328) is valid at large distances...c2 = 783 :\le Y Each of these leads to terms of the form (322) with J:L given by (321) with the appropriate meson mass.. 11 consists of shooting a beam of neutrons or protons at a target of hydrogen and observing the probability for various angles of deflection.enough. since the electrons ill hydrogen cannot deflect an incident neutron or proton any more than a basketball can deflect an automobile. potential proportional to etriple meson exchange leads to terms proportional to e~3w.. whence Ai is halved. multiple meson exchange is a very complicated process which cannot be treated unambiguously hy current field theories. From the properties of the deuteron we learned a great deai about the nuclear potent ial .. we estimated its range and depth and found that it was spindependent and had a noucentral component.. t"E is twice as large.. However. A simple scattering experiment similar to the one shown in Fig. In addition to the 7r meson. by stud)" ing the bou nd sta tet he d eu tcron+ and by stud)' ing the scattering of nucleons by nucleons.000 times heavier than the former. on the nuclear force cannot Le reliably calculated.. so its effect.
I.. "The Two Nucleon Interaction.1"1 IV OV on 1.. 1963i by permission. ~ l\h C ~ <::..I. J..43 9. Cross sections for (a) pp and (b) tip scattering at various angles for various incident energies (numbers attached to curves. V ")1"1 LV JV ?n <tV An .n E In ci b '"tI '" <.:  52 The Nuclear Force .. A summary of some of the results of pp and np scattering experiments at energies above 9 1\1eV is shown in Fig. a scattering length and an effective range.01 n u An .. \\ Q\ \\.68 14 F ~ 18 ...0 I 1"1 u 11"1 .VV vv °CM . For example. l\'!uch of the analysis is now com pu terized.40 66 ci "'t:l <. in MeV). which is beyond the scope of this text. The scattering of neutrons by neutrons. there have been double + """  'L}~' I. 34. v kn V"' 1nl"'l an . all the lowenergy data can be described by just two parameters." Clarendon Press... (From M. I\ \\ \ ~ ~ F\ \ 100 t 2. Measurements at various enereies determine the enercv dcnendence of these phase shifts.000 ._ 100 .. F. E \\\_.c k ln~~ LV ::. Many shortcuts and tricks have been developed for the analysis.. tv < 10n .... v v 8CM (a) (b) FiGURE 34 Results from nucleonnucleon scattering experiments.7 ///400 7220 I lJ1n l ! ')1"'1 "'V ~ r1. Moravcsik. The data at lower energies would look less spectacular on plots of this type. The analysis of these data makes use of quantummechanical scattering theory.63 39. In addition to simple scattering experiments.as "'t::I .//III ~y:.1.:= oJO 27  /5t E 25.. It allows the measured cross sections to he transformed into a phase shijt for each Land J = I L SI in the incident beam. has not yet been studied experimentally because sufficiently concentrated targets of neutrons are not available..) information. ____ In . 10 t\\ \ \'.J l30~ ~ 147 380 <:///1 ). nn scattering..)V UV en en .. Oxford.. . F'\'" .... but they are remarkable for their extreme accuracy..
For simplicity let us assume that the only force operating is the spin FIGURE 35 Doublescattering experiment: (a) the experimenta' arrangement and (b) the two scatterings on a microscopic scale as discussed in the text. A complete analysis of these experiments determines 10 independent quantities. The cross section shown in Fig. Yr. in which the scattered particles are deflected agam by a second target. '"~b' c "' ~1 J '>. each being a function of angle and of energy. 34 is only one of these.scattering experiments.v A "'Q' A"" TARGET 2 1\ CO' \ left detector (L) \ / / // tf spin out bright detector (R) (b) N ucleonN ucleon SCattering 53 ..slit . TARGET 1 incident beam t. To illustrate the value of these more complex measurements.. polarized beams..__. and even triplescattering experiments. another will be shown in Fig. and polarized targets have been used. Consider the experimental arrangement in the upper part of Fig.e. 36. The Shaded circles are the target nucleons. beams of particles with their spins predominantly in the Same direction. let us give an example of how a double scattering experiment can reveal the existence of a spinorbit force.. In some cases. 35.. (a) /. i.
. the net spin is in and we have two possibilities to consider: (I) if it passes to the right of the nucleus. so there is no spinorbit force and no deflection. The polarization P is defined by ._ _ I .as under the assumption that the target spin is in. If the incident particle has spin out. . a similar argument shows that incident particles with spin in are not deflected and those with spin out are deflected to the left regardless of whether they pass to the left or right of tile target proton. the particles deflected to the right are polarized in that they all have spin in while those deflected to the left are polarized in having spin auf.. a detector which is insensitive to polarization must record the same number of particles at a given angle on each side of the beam.. . If the target spin is oui.. To look at things another way. we again expect that spinin particles will be deflected to the right and spinauf particles to the left. but still among the particles deflected to the right in the first scattering there will be more with spin in than with spin out. note that the 54 The Nuclear Force . But there are no spinout particles striking the target.. where the circle is a target . 11 35b. (129j where (R) and (L) are the number of particles reaching the detectors designated by those symbols. If the spin of the incident particle is in... and spinout particles are either not deflected or are deflected to the left. •I t' ..1.. the total spin is zero.I'III~ ".orbit force and that it is attractive if the spin S and orbital angular momentum L are in the same direction (parallel) and repulsive if they are in opposite direc t... L is out (a righthand screw would move out if rotated in the way the line joining the two particles is rotated).n. spin ...\Till be more particles detected at (R) than at (L). However. and the situation is more complex. Measured values of P are shown in Fig. ."J. 36. lZ) It It passes to the lett ot tile nucleus. if detectors are placed at positions (R) and (L) in Fig. ~ _ ~ .. the detector at (R) will record a great number of particles while the detector at (L) "rill record 110lle.n i particles are either not deflected or are deflected to the right... this polariza tion is Hot observed. . the motion is therefore repulsive.. Now consider the microscopic description shown in Fig. First let us assume that it is in.. 'L.. In an ordinary singlescattering experiment. if these particles undergo a second scattering ill target 2.: . In actual cases. proton. so no particles are deflected to the left. the force is attractive. there are other forces than the spinorbit force present... (R) + (L) (L) . III summary. uenecten to tile ngnt . • "J . 35a. of course. and there . All the above analysis .. and the incident particle is .... The spin of the target proton can be out of the page (out) or into the page (in). the spin is in and the particle is deflected to the right.#' F n'l r~ = (R) .ions (antiparallel). .. Note that in hoth cases. whence again the particle is deflected to the right. from the symmetry of the experimentai setup. whence Land S are narallel. so Land S are antiparallel.. Ute ormtai angular momentum is in. ('l ~ .. Hence.
) j determination of its sign requires a different type of experiment....05~ vu ~[ I 0.\ ~·~t '/! I ~. .5t I . ..:[ N\\ 0.. This is P. which we shall not describe here.. J.. .. by perm ission. The Nuciear Force as We Now Know it 55 .50 [ 315 0.J ._.~~V/~"\ o ItYJ: =::: ~ I o I ~ 310~~ v.30 r ~ p ~. 3~11 The Nuclear Force as We Now Know It \Ve are now. Oxford. The nrincipal reason for the 350:MeV limitation is that at higher energies the production of 7r mesons in nucleonnucleon scattering becomes important (the energy available in the centerormass system is sufficient to produce the rest mass of a 1( meson all .6 t 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 o I I I ! I I ! I I I j I I I I I 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 (b) (a) FIGURE36 Polarization in nucleonnucleon scattering experiments. From these data. at last.. They will explain all our information about the deuteron plus the information obtained from nucleonnucleon scattering experiments up to about 350 MeV. in a position to discuss the results of all the experiments and theoretical analyses referred to in the previous sections.~~[ // ~ ..~~ I I I ~ 0. as a function of the angle in the two scatterings..35 ~ P0 ~'~I 7 I ~. 1963. on the breakup of deuterons bv e:amma rays..~ [ I ~~\\ '\\ \ \£l/~ 4.140 ~:.·....l~ ~~:~ ~ 0. information on the spinorbit force can be deduced.6 O. for various energies of the incident particle as designated in MeV by the numbers on the curves: (a) np and (b) pp scattering... (From M.1..." Clarendon Press.. In addition..m ~. 11.. "'. I 0. These results should not be considered to be the nuclear jorce blit_a~_ approximation to it. as defined by (329)... Moravcsik "The Two Nucleon Interaction. there are some data of importance on the reaction (31). and on scattering of neutrons by hydrogen molecules. LJ .. 95/~O\ ~ ~ O.
.. The Nuclear Force . let us now consider the results. we run into the fundamental diffraction limitations mentioned in Sec.4· F.ion to th e six static po ten tials (314). so it is necessary to assume the existence of one or two additional mesons for which there is no direct experimental evidence.. and this fact greatly complicates the analysis. Nuc: Phys. One of the most widely used nucleonnucleon potentials is that due to Hamada and Jolmston. oil . meson theory is used as an aid in the analysis. ~ . it becomes very strongly repulsive at distances less than 015 F. so we cannot hope to determine a great deal of detail about the structure of the potential at radii much smaller than this. This a pproach is therefore not much more basic than the purely empirical approach.. Unfortunately. Since there are not nearly enough data to determine all these functions at all radii....e. Because of the diffraction limitation.above 270 MeV). dependent terms of lowest. This means that two nucleons cannot approach one another closer than this distance under any circumstances. much of the region of greatest interest is blurred by this limitation. 12. but these effects are presumed to be less important except at quite small distances. it is more widely used in applications to nuclear structure and we shall use it here. and one might hope that higher energies do not playa very important role in nuclear structure. Hamada and I. The wavelength of 3503ieY nucleons is about i.• ~. it includes • ~l • 1 I'll . and next lowest order. it is necessary to include velocity .. Other contributing reasons are that the velocity dependence becomes more important at higher energies so use of the lowestorder terms is not justified. rt. I T. so for simplicity it is often taken as a hard core. Even to explain the data up to 350 ~le V. A I!!Ir~~_y__ empirical approacJ.. 34: 382 (1962). \Yith these apologies and limitations in mind. Unfortunately. the detailed nature of this repulsion cannot be discerned. The most important qualitative feature of the results is that the nucleonnucleon force contains a repulsive core. so we have a potential with a great many terms.' J II ad dit. Johnston..l is to take the r dependence as a linear combination of terms like (322) wrtn vartous values at Il and 'Y aojusteu to Ut the experunentat data. This is done in either of two ways. D. 39 is treated in detail. i. • ~.. the OHRP approach does not fit the experimental data when only the known mesons arc included. In determining the detailed behavior of the potentials at small radii by scattering experiments.. which means that the potential goes to + cc at some value of r. this ignores multiple meson exchange.. there are fewer highquality experimental data available... Since the latter is more accurately developed. This is widely believed to he due to forces arising from WffieSOll exchange. each being an arbitrary function of r. . A more ambitious approach is to use a oneboson exchange potential (OBEP) in which single exchange of each of the mesons listed in Sec. 1.
spinorbit potentials for even L and odd L..'.0 0. MeV 1 \ 01 ioo ~ . F.0 2.__ t±_. which are different for even L and odd L and for S = 1 and S = O.. and secondorder veiocitydependent potentiais of the form [L .Q_l 100 ~ 200 1I I ~~~~ll 111 _. Fermi 2.. Me: I I/ _ Q_1 II ~ 111= \_~~___' II Q~l ~_____I II rl .50 ously to 00 at that distance. ___J ''' __ L_' """'__"____" __ ___'__J +100 rl v._:__' IL LL.~d_n~_.I I II( 1111 1 r=~_____.___L.. Johnston. \Ve should remember here that a positive potential is repulsive and a negative + FIGURE3·7 The components of the HamadaJohnston potential. All the central static potentials are taken to have a hard core at r . S)2]. Nucl.0 0.0 r.0 The Nuclear Force as We Now Know It 57 . that is....5 1.01 ~~i ___.r _ _ It ~~j I . 34: 382 (1962).(L .__... [From T. V.~_~. referred to as LS..200 's= 1 even L LL _ __'_ ___J If odd L If S= 1 If even L 8=0 LL LL _ 8=0 odd L LL I. Phys.. the hard core is effective in the total potential.1 +100 ~ . 37.5 1.5 1... The 12 components of the HamadaJohnston potential are shown in Fig.0 2... D.5 1. .0 0.0 2. L .__ """"'__'_ __ ..__' Q_l 8=1 central odd L 0.. Hamada and I. the potentials go discontinu0. Since one of these four is applicable in all situations and the addition of anything to 00 is still 00.!.
(This is obviously true of the L .. the latter is shown by a dashed lin e in Fig. and it of course varies as l/r. ..g. if plotted in Fig.. 1 • . the multiplicative factor is close to 1. 32b.1 2L(L + 1) + 1) potential is attractive.. t The Nuclear Force . there is. when the orientation is as in Fig. lis value is + 1. if their spins are parallel (8 = 1) and they are interacting in an L = 1 state. From the fact that all the potentials in Fig. 37. in addition. It is of interest to compare the potential that is most important in the ground state of the deuteron. \Ve sec that these factors are sometimes much greater than unity and sometimes change t.. 32. 37 VLS AND jL+Sl X VLS L+l Ll L (8 = 1) L (8 = 0) L (L 1) 1 + L (L 2L2 + 2L .. and the second in the top row. e. L themselves (note that we have avoided the promern 01 prouucts 01 anguiarmomentum vectors necause at its matnematicat complexity).. These factors depend on the relative orientation of the Land S vectors. they arise from the values of L· Sand L . S terrn. aside from a multiplicative factor close to unity are as shown in Fig. 1 "1 ~ .. the applicable potentials are the fourth in the bottom row. 37. It should be understood that the actual potential experienced by two interacting nucleons is the sum of all applicable potentials. 32a.. as may be deduced from the first column of that table.. This implies that space exchange forces are especially strong. evenL. Some degree of qualitative similarity is observed especially if it is noted that our square well extends to r = O.I. states. \Ye see that the direction of the tensor force indicated ill Fig. If the two interacting nucleons are both protons. the second and fourth in the middle row...... . 37 for the orientation of the particles relative to the spin as in Fig.) The tensor potentials. The LS and LL potentials shown are to be multiplied by the factors listed in Table 31.. 3~6 that this is the force tIl?t leads to a dependence all whether L is even or odd.TABLE VI.. with the square well obta ined in Sec. it would be too small to be distinguished from the V = 0 line..'1 l\'ie V at r = 1 F. central potential. the coulomb force. IN 31: FACTORS MULTIPLYING FIG. the S = I. \Ve may especially note that corresponding potentials for even L and odd L tend to be of opposite sign. 37 are different we may conclude that exchange forces play a very important role in the nuclear force. If' . 3=2 is valid only ill es enL. since we saw ill Sec.he potential from attractive to repulsive or vice versa.
In~~L~ rnn C~ r \l l ~t~ ! iI I 8=0 L=O I i \ t f I 400 aoo ~ ii ...~~~~~:~_.._.4 r.n \ \ \ 011 200 I ~!:~\r~~~~~~1~/~~'~a~ a It \ • .' Hamada::'. Ph. __ __ ~_=_. (From R.) The Nuclear Force as We Know It 59 ..8 1..2 1. I J f 0. !t core \\ .D. Cornell University. 1 f 800 I I II ·I ! I I I.!' I~ <.amadaJOhnston 'L_ I : Reid hard core t i . / /? I Reid hard core== l' /. Fermi 0... ~==::==~~==~ MeV Ir.MeV 75 ~ 50 ~ I ni\\ I I ~ hard 1\ \ VReid soft core S=l I ! !1Reid~>l~ 1 _2:~I ~lwi~__ 25 I.. Reid.2 FIGURE34 Comparison of the Reid hardcore and softcore potentials with the HamadaJohnston potential for various states of interaction.4 0. \.:.h~st..6 0.8 1. V.. 1968. '"" • Ii • \ ~ Hamada j.\\ J_Oh_n_s_to_n~. Thesis.: t !~ (1\ ~Re. ~ r I 400 L Ii: r !i I 600 ! I j' '! ~t ! : It l ~I / .d soft ~~ \ \ jid   soft core .
. several other potentials have been developed which fit ail available data on the nucleonnucleon systems.In addition to the HamadaJ oh nston potential illust.'1 r. The bestknown of these arc those developed by Breit and coworkers at Yale and by Reid at Cornell.. r.n.....ide the experimental uneertainty. one of the Heid potentials does not use a hard core but employs a repulsive potential at short distances with r dependence of the form (322) with JJ. • '" ~ lorces on A are Just PAIJ + rAe... since it does not go abruptly to infinity.ra ted in Fig. where l"AR IS the torce between A and. it is referred to as a soflcOie potential.: . . ..l'fI' . 1 60 The Nuclear Force . 1 nese rnnerences may De consiuereu to De a cruae measure of the degree of uncertainty in our knowledge of the nuclear force. depending on the (small) differences in 1111188 between charged and neutral mesons. 15 It C were not nresent and FAr... tI It l"l1I'" . but it is widely believed that they call be explained away by considerations from meson theory. witll the obvious exception of tile coulomb force between two protons. • • . as in Fig.n JI.auve rnnerences. It has many interesting and important consequences for nuclear structure (see Sec. they are not large enough to lead to serious difficulties in applications to nuclearstructure problems. = 4. and C close together. The Reid hardcore and softcore and HamadaJohnston potentials for a few typical states of interaction are compared in Fig.. .e..e. if we have nucleons A. 37. •• " • .. the . From our picture of forces arising from meson exchange.. i.~ ~ . but the latter handles the velocity dependence by using different potentials for each L value. we have been tacitly assuming that tlte nuclear force is a twobody force. is the force between A and C if B were not oresent.. In addition.. ~ "'... there is one complication that could very easily have been present but is not..tIII . this implies that meson ex...1. 39. that the force is the same whether the nucleons are charged (protons) or uncharged (neutrons). This is certainly the way electromagnetic and gravitational forces behave. ~.. 313 Manybody Forces Up to this point. The former is quite similar to the HamadaJohnston potential. 63)." This fact.. the potentials of the last section are the same whether the interaction is between two neutrons. there are clear quan". is referred to as charge independence of nuclear forces.9 F~ 1. While they are qualitatively similar. i.. 38.. 1 I I 1 312 Charge Independence of Nuclear Forces For all the complications that have been encountered with the nuclear force.. or two protons. a neutron and a proton..L Actually there are small differenees that are outt.. B. While they do appear to be substantial.
Moreover.. as was pointed out in Sec. or by scattering of neutro:ns or protons from deuterons..I' ManY"body Forces 51 . on an average. '. when only two nucleons are present and one nucleon emits two mesons..1'..07 F. ().. 3=9 Three mutually interacting changes operate only between pairs. _'_. ••• . • • • body forces. If they cannot. etc. One method of approach to the problem is then to study threenucleon systerns and see if their properties can be calculated from twobody forces. whence the average distance between nucleons in the nucleus is about 2. But it is immediately clear that other exchange patterns are present.~ ". and a great deal of information is available. fivebody forces. 07 F) 3. never annroach each other closer than about 0. both must be absorbed by the other nucleon. 1 10 CUJUUo.1 F... is 'Br(I... ~ ~ ~ ~ ....herefore the t.'7 v. . each nucleon occupies the volume of a sphere with radius 1.t.or I. one can be absorbed by each. but if two other nucleons are present.4 (\ '7 I. respectively.r.oJ .... 310. Threenucleon systems can be studied as bound states. l\ 'l t:::. '"a.. Since many meson masses must be created simultaneously in these processes. ~I J..o fiGURE nucleuns.lUI "'. which.. ..4 c: uo.')__ 'l . we note that the volume per nucleon is 1/ A times the nuclear volume. l·lIll'! : . this implies that. To estimate the distances between nucleons in a nucleus.. For example. This would give rise to a threebody force. . This is most easily studied in systems containing three nucleons.' li' f" .. The principal manybody force which need concern us is t.ll~e ~ +_ LV ue l. the discussion leading up to (321) requires that the range of the forces decrease as the number of "bodies" increases..5 F due to the verv strom! r . this will be evidence for threebody forces..I. .:. . v. If we take the ____ n::l. crudely we may estimate that the range of nbody forces is Ii/(n ~ 1) times the range of the twobody force. ~..t.. the H3 and He3 nuclei.hreebody force. .I. \Ve may therefore expect that the twobody force would be by far the most important one in determining nuclear structure and that four.. nucleons almost. v. from (12).. which are collectively referred to as manybody forces.or higherbody forces would be unimportant. repulsion experienced at these distances. uo... l.~ . one in which the above definition of a twobody force is not fuifiiied..~ 1 I. it is easy to see that the mesonexchange picture also predicts fourbody forces.
1.. ..on have rnacue tir.. The results seem to indicate that twobody forces give a binding of only about 7 Me V.~.The analysis is very difficult since the threebody problem cannot be solved exactly in classical mechanics and these same difficulties extend to quantum mechanics. 37. S) (e) (r' p)(L ' S) are Hot acceptable for 36 When a 10~1eV proton interacts with an electron which is initially at rest.48 MeV. s» 1 1 III· •.. there is a rliffer ence in their energy in the two arrangements shown in Fig. (Hint: ~ ote the development used to obtain (220).~ ~ .1. in more complex nuclei the estimates are about 15 percent. (r X S)](S . Since hot.. From this we infer that threebody forces are about 20 percent as important as twobody forces in nuclei.. 31? Plot the wave function and estimate fd' 32 Solve (32) and (3.0 . ~ . 33 and accurately without introducing From tile fact tl!at tIle S == 0 state of the deuteron is just barely unbound (E .h the neu troll and nrot.. However..] Compare the result with t he corresponding one for the S = 1._... p (c) (L' S)(L . . which is experimentally known to be 8. S) (b) (r X L) . a great effort has been expended on calculating the binding energy of H3 (the triton). which implies that about 1. .moments. II 62 The Nuclear Force . . 35 Explain why the following dependences for potentials use in this chapter: (a) [(r X S) . evenl potential... L) (d) (r' p)(r ._. . what would be the approximate depth of the potential in Fig. Problems 31 If the binding energy of the deuteron had been found to be 10 :MeV. ~ • _ . . what is the maximum angle by which the proton call be deflected? Treat both particres noureranvtsucauy...~. evenl potential. This is in agreement with estimates from other approaches to the problem. obtain a relationship between V(I and R for the squarewell approxima0) tion to the IS = 0.) siniultaneously the approximations used in the text.. . 34_. Estimatethis when they are separated by rs and when the r vector joining them is parallel to their spins and perpendicular to them.. 32a and b.__. Compare this with the tensor force from Fig.5 MeV of binding derives from threebody forces.
\Vilson. S = 0 state? In an L = 3. Brink.. Row." Benjamin." NorthHolland. Marshak.: "Meson Physics. New York. Evanston. Peterson." Interscience. "Nuclei and Particles. S. 1965.: "The N ucleonN ucleon Interaction. 1963. Segre. 1\'1. L. 1 IE. H. and F. E." JIcGrawHill.Vlesons and Fields/. Further Reading 63 . III Proh. 1955. Xew York. dc lloffman: ." Oxford University Press. following the Appendix. S = 0 state? in an L = 2." Ciarendon Press.5 F. 1952. Amsterdam. Ill. Schweber.: "Nuclear Forces. New York. ~L L: "The Two Nucleon interaction. 19 18. E. 32 if the potential IS a square well 39 Look up the Yale nucleonnucleon HamadaJ ohnston potential.37 Which of the potentials in Fig.. 1963. A. Rosenfeld. D. S = 1 state i' 38 Solve the deuteron problem with a hard core at r = 0. S. Bethe. Oxford. Moravesik. 37 are applicable when a neutron and a proton interact in an L = 1. : "Nuclear Forces. S = 0 state? \\hich are applicable when two neutrons interact in an L = 3. R. potential ' and compare it with the Further Reading See General References.. 1965. New York.
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