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STEAM TURBINE: GENERAL
DESCRIPTION The 210 MW KWU turbine is condensing, tandem compounded, reheat type and single shaft machine. In has separate high pressure, intermediate and low-pressure parts. The HP part is a single cylinder and IP & LP parts are double flow cylinders. The turbine rotors are rigidly coupled with each other and with generator rotor. HP turbine has throttle control. The steam is admitted through two combined stop and control valves. The lines leading from HPT exhaust to reheater have got two cold reheat swing check NRVs. The steam from reheater has got two cold reheat swing check NRVs. The steam from reheater is admitted to IP turbine through two combined stop and control valves. Two crossover pipes connect IP and LP cylinder. Blading The entire turbine is provided with reaction blading. The moving blades of HPT, LPT and front rows of LPT have inverted T roots and are shrouded. The last stages of LPT are twisted; drop forged moving blades with fir-tree roots. Highly stressed guide blades of HPT and IPT have inverted T roots. The other guide blades have inverted L-roots with riveted shrouding. Bearings The TG unit is mounted on six bearings HPT rotor is mounted on two bearings, a double wedged journal bearing at the front and combined thrust/journal bearing adjacent to front IP rotor coupling. IP and LP rotors have self-adjusting circular journal bearings. The bearing pedestals of LPT are fixed on base plates where as HPT front and rear bearing pedestals are free to move axially. Pedestals at machine level support the brackets at the sides of HPT. In axial direction, HP & IP parts are connected with the pedestals by means of a casing guide. Radial expansion is not restricted. HP & IP casings with their bearing pedestals move forward from LPT front pedestal on thermal expansion. HP TURBINE HP Turbine is of double cylinder construction. Outer casing is barrel type without any axial/radial flanges. This kind of design prevents any mass accumulation and thermal stresses. Also perfect rotational symmetry permits moderate wall thickness of nearly equal strength at all sections. The inner casing is axially split and kinematically supported by outer casing. It carries the guide blades. The space between casings is filled with the main steam. Because of low differential pressure, flanges and connecting bolts are smaller in size. Barrel design facilitates flexibility of operation in the form of short start-up times and higher rate of load changes even at high steam temperature conditions. IP TURBINEIP Turbine is of double flow construction. Attached to axially split out casing is an inner casing axially split, kinematically supported and carrying the guide blades. The hot reheat steam enters the inner casing through top and bottom centre. Arrangement of inner casing confines high inlet steam condition to admission breach of the casing. The joint of outer casing is subjected to lower pressure/temperature at the exhaust. Refer to Figure. LP TURBINE Double flow LP turbine is of three-shell design. All shells are axially split and are of rigid welded construction. The inner shell taking the first rows of guide blades is attached kinematically in the middle shell. Independent of outer shell, middle shell is supported at four points on longitudinal beams. Two rings carrying the last guide blade rows are also attached to the middle shell. Refer to Figur Fixed Points (Turbine Expansions) a. Bearing housing between IP and LP b. Rear bearing housing of LP turbine c. Longitudinal beam of LP turbine d. Thrust bearing. Front/rear housing of HPT can slide on base plates. Any lateral movements perpendicular to machine axis are prevented by fitted keys. Bearing housings are connected to HP-IP casings by guides, which ensure central position of casings while axially expanding and moving. The LPT casing is located in centre area of longitudinal beam by fitted keys cast in the foundation cross beams. Axial movements are not restricted. The outer casing of LP
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turbine expands from its fixed points towards generator. Bellows expansion couplings take the differences in expansion between the outer casing and fixed bearing housing. Hence HPT rotor & casing expands towards bearing no (1) while IPT rotor expands towards generator. The LPT rotor expands towards generator. The magnitude of this expansion is reduced by the amount by which the thrust bearing is moved in the opposite direction due to IPT casing expansion. Front/rear housing of HPT can slide on base plates. Any lateral movements perpendicular to machine axis are prevented by fitted keys. Bearing housings are connected to HP-IP casings by guides, which ensure central position of casings while axially expanding and moving. The LPT casing is located in centre area of longitudinal beam by fitted keys cast in the foundation cross beams. Axial movements are not restricted. The outer casing of LP turbine expands from its fixed points towards generator. Bellows expansion couplings take the differences in expansion between the outer casing and fixed bearing housing. Hence HPT rotor & casing expands towards bearing no (1) while IPT rotor expands towards generator. The LPT rotor expands towards generator. The magnitude of this expansion is reduced by the amount by which the thrust bearing is moved in the opposite direction due to IPT casing expansion. Turbine Oil Supply In the 200MW KWU turbines, single oil is used for lubrication of bearings, control oil for governing and hydraulic turbine turning gear. During start-ups, auxiliary oil pump (2 Nos.) supplies the control oil. Once the turbine speed crosses 90% of rated speed, the main oil pump (MOP) takes over. It draws oil from main oil tank. The lubricating oil passes through oil cooler (2 nos.) before can be supplied to the bearing. Under emergency, a DC oil pump can supply lub oil. Before the turbine is turned or barred, the Jacking Oil Pump (2 nos.) supplies high-pressure oil to jack-up the TG shaft to prevent boundary lubrication in bearing. Refer to the figure The oil systems and related sub-loop controls (SLCs) can be started or stopped automatically by means of SGC oil sub-group of automatic control system. The various logics and SLCs under SGC oil are given in the ATRS section. MAIN OIL PUMP The main oil pump is situated in the front bearing pedestal and supplies the entire turbine with lubricating oil and control oil, which is connected to the governing rack. TURBINE TURNING GEAR The turbine is equipped with a hydraulic turning gear assembly comprising two rows of moving blades mounted on the coupling between IP and LP rotors. The oil under pressure supplied by the AOP strikes against the hydraulic turbine blades and rotates the shaft at 110 rpm (220 rpm under full vacuum condition). In addition, provisions for manual barring in the event of failure of hydraulic turning gear, have also been made. A gear, machined of the turning gear wheel, engages with a Ratchet & Pawl arrangement operated by a lever and bar attachment. TURBINE GLAND SEALING Turbine shaft glands are sealed with auxiliary steam supplied by an electrohydraulically controlled seal steam pressure control valve. A pressure of 0.01 Kg/cm2 (g) is maintained in the seals. Above a load of 80 MW the turbine becomes self-sealing. The leak off steam from HPT/IPT glands is used for sealing LPT glands. The steam pressure in the header is then maintained constant by means of a leak-off control valve, which is also controlled by the same electro-hydraulic controller, controlling seal steam pressure control valve. The last stage leak-off of all shaft seals is sent to the gland steam cooler for regenerative feed heating. Refer the Figure.
Type: Three cylinders reheat condensing turbine having: i. Single flow HP turbine with 25 reaction stages. ii. Double flow IP turbine with 20 reaction stages per flow. iii. Double flow LP turbines with 8 reaction stages per flow. Rated Parameters Nominal rating : 210 MW Peak loading (without HP heaters) : 229 MW Rated speed.: 3000 RPM Main steam flow at full load
The Auxiliary Trip Oil flows in a closed loop formed by main trip valves and turbine hydraulic protective devices (Over Speed trip device. • Oil shutoff valve. Auxiliary Secondary Oil circuit and Secondary Oil circuits. 15 min in individual case) Condenser pressure:76 mm Hg with CW inlet temp 33oC. :549oC. (Long time value but keeping within annual mean 535oC. dynamic stability and simple representation of complicated functional systems. Under normal conditions. • Starting and Load limit device. called as the Trip Oil and Auxiliary Trip Oil. The construction of main trip valves is such that when aux. fully backed-up by a hydraulic governor. 543oC.1 kg/cm2. • Adjustment of droop in fine steps. the KWU turbine supplied by BHEL at NTPC Korba is equipped with electro-hydraulic governor. it holds the valves' spools in open condition against the spring force. 535oC. In this condition. Sequence trimming device. even during on-load operation. (80 hours per annum & max. TURBINE GOVERNING SYSTEM In order to maintain the synchronous speed under changing load/grid or steam conditions. • Electro-Hydraulic Converter (EHC). The measuring and processing of electrical signal offer the advantages such as flexibility. MAIN TRIP VALVES The main trip valves (two in numbers) are the main trip gear of the turbine protective circuit. The control oil from remote trip solenoids is supplied to them. • Hydraulic amplifier. Low Vacuum trip device and Thrust Bearing trip device). The solenoids gets energised whenever any electrical trip command is initiated or turbine is tripped manually from local or UCB. Refer to Figure.:34. :147. these solenoids can be reset. The integration of electrical and hydraulic system is an excellent combination with following advantages: • Exact load-frequency droop with high sensitivity. follow-up piston valves.Page 3 of 22 (With HP heaters in service). : 630 tons/hr. • Main trip valves (Turbine trip gear). Under energised condition the down stream oil supply after the remote trip solenoids gets connected to drain and the upstream will be blocked. trip oil pressure is adequate. HRH pressure/ temp at full load. • Follow-up piston valves. • Extraction valve relay. • Test valve. 535oC. All turbine tripping take place through these valves. The Trip Oil is supplied to the Stop Valves (of HP Turbine and IP Turbine). • Avoids over speeding of turbine during load throw offs. By resetting Unit Trip Relays (UTR) from UCB. this oil flows into two different circuits. • Speeder Gear (Hydraulic Governor). REMOTE TRIP SOLENOIDS (RTS) The remote trip solenoid operated valves are two in number and form a part of turbine protection circuit. these solenoids remain de-energised. (400 hours per annum) Permissible SH / RH temp variations : 536oC. Elements of Governing System The main elements of the governing system and the brief description of their functions are as follows: • Remote trip solenoids (RTS). the control oil from the governing rack is free to pass through them to the main trip valves. • Solenoids for load shedding relay. • Aux. • Hydraulic protective devices. During the normal operation of the turbine. Whenever control oil pressure drops or any of the hydraulic protective devices are . Main steam pressure/ temperature at full load.23 kg/cm2.
A build-up of oil pressure in these circuits can be observed. Accordingly the trip oil pressure downstream of these valves changes. the tension of which can be adjusted manually from UCB by an electric motor or locally by a hand wheel. which alters the spring tension on the top of the bellow. closing the aux. closing turbine stop and control valves. The position of the sleeve determines the draining rate of trip oil through the ports. The starting device can mechanically act upon the hydraulic governor bellows by means of a lever and link arrangement. for opening the stop valves and releasing the control valves for opening. The bellow and spring assembly is rigidly linked to the sleeves of the auxiliary follow-up piston valves.e. HYDRAULIC SPEED TRANSMITTER The hydraulic speed transmitter runs in the MOP bearing and operates on the principle of a centrifugal pump. Further raising of the starting device release hydraulic governor bellows which is in equilibrium with hydraulic governor's spring tension and primary oil pressure (turbine speed). while bringing the starting device to zero position. An annular groove in the speed transmitter ensures that its inside is always covered with a thin of oil to maintain a uniform initial pressure. which is the feedback signal for actual turbine speed. start-up oil and auxiliary start-up oil circuits. The zero position of speeder gear corresponds to 2800 rpm i. ESVs open at 42% and IVs open at 56% positions of the starting device. trip oil pressure is drained rapidly through the main valves. follow-up piston valves can be said to control auxiliary secondary oil pressure SEQUENCE TRIMMING DEVICE The function of the sequence trimming device or HP/IP TRIM DEVICE is to prevent any excessive HP turbine exhaust temperature due to churning. The position of the sleeve changes with the equilibrium position of the bellow. The control valves of HPT open more to maintain flow of steam. Oil downstream of auxiliary follow-up pistons circuit is termed as AUXILIARY SECONDARY OIL. reducing the HPT exhaust temperature. The trim device operates at this moment trimming the IP turbine control valve. oil pressure. the starting device position is raised. The bellow is also subjected to the primary oil pressure. Refer to the figure below. When the pilot valve i. STARTING AND LOAD LIMIT DEVICE The starting and load limit device is used for resetting the turbine after tripping. This opens the stop valves. The variation of pressure in the discharge line is proportional to the square of the machine speed. Excess oil drains into the bearing pedestal AUXILIARY FOLLOW-UP PISTON VALVES Two Auxiliary Follow-up pistons are connected in parallel and the trip oil is supplied to them through orifice. the pilot valve is brought to its bottom limit position by reducing the starting device to 0% position. This primary oil pressure acts as the control impulse for the hydraulic speed governor. sec. The bellow compression depends upon the position of the starting device and the speeder gear position. which is supported by control oil . The transmitter is supplied with control oil via an oil reservoir. the start-up oil and auxiliary start-up oil circuits are drained.Page 4 of 22 actuated. Before start-up. The starting device consists of a pilot valve that can be operated either manually by means of a hand wheel or by means of a motor from remote. This causes the hydraulic governor bellows to be compressed thus blocking the build-up of secondary oil pressure. It has got port connections with the control oil. follow-up drains of hydraulic governor SPEEDER GEAR The speeder gear is an assembly of a bellow and a spring. The sleeves of these valves are attached to the speeder gear bellow link. The steam flow through HP turbine tends to fall to very minimum. aux. When the reheat pressure is more than 32 Kg/cm2 and load less than 20% the IP turbine tends to get loaded more than HP turbine. It changes response of main and reheat control valves. Hence. the main trip valves are tripped. causing a lot of churning and excessive exhaust temperature. and raises the aux. hydraulic governor comes into action after 2800 RPM. It consists of a spring-loaded piston assembly.e. With the valve in the bottom limit position (starting device = 0%) control oil flows into the auxiliary start-up circuit (to reset trip gear and protective devices) and into the start-up oil circuit (to reset turbine stop valves). This is known as control valve close position. Under tripped condition.
The test valves facilitate supply of trip oil pressure beneath the servomotor disc. HYDRAULIC AMPLIFIER Hydraulic Amplifier consists of a pilot valve and an amplifier piston. There are in all twelve follow-up piston valves. This is also termed as HYDRAULIC MINIMUM SELECTION of governors. upstream of aux. under normal conditions. which determines the amount of drainage of trip oil. the control oil is admitted either to the top or the bottom of the amplifier piston. When start-up oil pressure is reduced the test valve moves up draining trip oil above the servomotor piston building the trip oil pressure below the disc.VS AND EXTRACTION VALVE RELAY Four pair of swing check valves are provided in the extraction lines to the feed heaters (LP Heaters No: 2. however the first valve is equipped with an actuator.3. secondary oil pressure. which moves their spool downwards against the spring force. Six of them are associated with hydraulic amplifier and six of them with EHC in the governing system. (Stop valve open condition. The movements of the amplifier piston are transformed into rotation of a Camshaft through a piston rod and a lever assembly. The trim device trips under spring pressure. The . under normal operation).up oil pressure is supplied to the associated test valves. There are two NRVs provided in each of these extraction lines and is force closing type. draining the secondary oil. oil line. Depending upon the pilot spool position. both the valves are closed automatically. on the piston of pilot spool valve of the elector-hydraulic converter (i. The HP control valves are closed due to draining of aux. is effectively in control. secondary oil before the hydraulic amplifier. The extraction stops valves controlled by IP secondary oil acting through extraction valves relays also get closed. Deaerator and HPH No: 5) to prevent back flow of condensed steam into the turbine from heaters on account of high levels in the heaters. Direct draining of IP Sec oil circuit causes the reheat valves to close without any significant delay. The solenoid drains the IPCV secondary oil directly. The position of the pilot valve spool depends upon the aux. secondary oil pressure. Both these valves are free-swinging check type. the trim device alters the spring tension of follow-up pistons of IP pistons control valves. follow-up pistons. EHC output) TEST VALVE Each of the HP and IP stop valves' servomotors receives trip oil through their associated test valves. The control oil is supplied via an energised solenoid valve. thus opening the stop valve. The control valves are operated (closed) by the load-shedding relay when the rate of load reduction exceeds a certain value. The other side of amplifier is connected to the drain. by the second solenoid valve. In their bottom most position the trip oil pressure starts building up above the stop valve servomotor piston while the trip oil beneath the disc gets connected to drain.R. The follow-up piston valves constitute a minimum value gate for both the governors. and that of electro hydraulic converter. SOLENOIDS FOR LOAD SHEDDING RELAY A pair of solenoid valves has been incorporated in the IP Sec oil line on control valves and Aux Sec. After an adjustable time delay (approx. The drain port openings of follow-up pistons of hydraulic amplifier depends on auxiliary secondary oil pressure.Page 5 of 22 pressure from beneath. This means the governor with lower reference set point. A feedback linkage mechanism stabilises the system for one particular aux. The trim device is connected to the followup piston valves of IP control valves by means of a lever. The secondary oil pressure depends upon position of sleeves of follow-up piston valves. 2 seconds) the solenoid valves are re-closed and secondary oil pressure corresponding to reduce load builds-up in the HP and IP turbine secondary oil lines. The test valves have got port openings for trip oil as well as start-up oil. When the turbine loads is less then 40 MW and hot reheat pressure is more than 32 kg/cm2 the solenoid valve gets de-energised cutting out the control oil supply to the trim device. The IP control valves openings are trimmed down.e. FOLLOW-UP PISTON VALVES The trip oil is supplied to the follow up piston valves through orifices and flows in the secondary oil piping to control valves. Upon tripping. A hand wheel is also provided for manual operation of test valvesEXTRACTION N. In case of flow reversals. in order to prevent the turbine from reaching high speed in the event of sudden turbine load throw-off. start. For the purpose of resetting stop valves after a tripping.
the NRVs return into steam flow by the hydraulic actuator. If the trip oil pressure falls. Basically. The purpose of the governor is to sense the instantaneous speed of the turbine in revolutions per minute. so that when the steam flow ceases in the normal direction. by energising the associated solenoid valve. The extraction valve relay. As load is increased on the generator. The mechanical design of force-closed valves is such that they are brought into freeswinging position by means of trip oil. which causes the turboset to slow down so that the running down time of the turboset and the time needed for passing through critical speeds are shortened. All turbines are equipped with speed governors. When a Turbo-generator is connected to grid. However. and to transmit a signal to the turbine control valves to open or close and maintain the desired speed. They are open as soon as differential pressure is sufficient. which results in the control mechanism in increasing steam flow to the turbine (control valve opens). the ventilation of the turbine balding is increased. frequency. In the paragraphs that follow.Page 6 of 22 actuator assists the fast closing of the first valve. The governors therefore control the steam supply to the turbine as well as ensure maximum safety of the machine and to the operating people when the turbine is on load. the turbine governing has been explained using theoretical information. Most governors do not hold absolutely constant speed as load changes. Extraction valve relay actuates the FCNRVs in proportion to secondary oil pressure. the governors perform functions such as: • Parallel operation/working of machines with other turbine-generators connected together in a grid. Even when the pressure of secondary oil has not built up sufficiently. they are closed by the torque of rotary servomotor. figures and descriptions of governing systems. the turbine speed tends to slow down. Control of system frequency on the grid or interconnected grid/pool is a major responsibility of load dispatchers. In case of turbine trip or sudden load reduction. Only when the control valves are closed to this threshold again. But in this case the pressure loss shall be more leading to loss of efficiency. NRVs can be opened up like safety valves when the upstream pressure rises above the downstream side pressure by one bar. swing check FCNRVs will also open without the release action. When the pressure in the condenser increases. . the speed of each machine in the grid remains same to all other machines connected to the grid. system voltages etc. VACUUM BREAKERThe function of the vacuum breakers is to cause an increase in condenser pressure by conducting atmospheric air into the condenser together with the steam flowing from the LP Bypass. Their pilot valves via their rotary servomotor in proportion to secondary oil pressure operate the CRH NRVs. its changeover valve and its solenoid valve control the trip oil to each of the actuators of force closing type valves. the secondary oil pressure at which the FCNRVs will be released for opening can be set. When an increase of load is required. load. HYDRAULIC AND ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC GOVERNING OF TURBINES Power produced by any power plant is sent out on utility grid (Transmission line and control equipments) together with power from other plants through process of synchronization with the grid and to distribution systems and then to the consumer. the spring force closes the valve when steam pressure either falls or is lowered (reduced load). By suitable adjustment of its spring. They open out fully when main control valves open up corresponding to 5-10% of maximum turbine out-put. but are designed to permit the speed to drop as the load is increased. more steam is admitted by opening/controlling the steam control valves. also if the steam pressure is more than the spring force. draining of trip oil pressure through extraction valve relay assists closing movements of FCNRVs. The speed governor spins slower (control arm moves toward “LOW” position). In both the cases the actuator is devoid of trip oil and its spring force closes the NRV. A basic understanding of turbine speed governors is necessary to maintain the central control of system parameters like speed. COLD REHEAT SWING CHECK VALVE Two numbers of swing check valves are provided on the CRH lines from which the steam is drawn for HPH-6. Extraction (4) FCNRV solenoid is also energised additionally by lower differential pressure in the extraction line.
If the turbine shaft speed increases. The hydraulic oil used in the governor system is at a pressure up to 20 Bar. this forms the speeder gear runback as the feedback also. At the same time port (I) in the pilot valve. the governor springs are adjusted periodically. The system frequency decreases. The governor usually takes the form of spring-loaded weights mounted on a shaft assembly that is driven by a worm & worm wheel from end of the H. tend to move outwards due to centrifugal force and this movement is dependent upon the speed of the turbine shaft. Loading on the machine is done/carried out by operating the hand wheel (K) thus opening the steam valve. For detailed working of Governor. affects the hydraulic relay and also. the electro-hydraulic converter. During installation and also afterwards. When an increase of load is required. as more electrical load is required. Mechanical –Hydraulic System Block Diagram: The speed acts on the radial spring governor. • The governor controls the rise in speed of all turbines irrespective of duty. this also tilts floating lever (D). • The governor enables the electrical grid system to be to some extent selfcompensating to changes in load demand.P. Simple turbine governor type-2 The governor (A) is driven from the turbine shaft. allows oil to drain from the bottom (J) of the power piston. Since with more customer load on the system. Such governors do not use the electro-hydraulic governors. (Before synchronisation). the anticipatory derivative system (acceleration component). more steam is admitted to the turbine by opening the steam valves. the amount of fuel fed to the steam generator is increased adequately.P control valves’ position are derived for valve offset adjustments.P control valves and the pressure switching & relaying that effects to operate the release and bled steam check valve. in a grid.G. Better . this in turn. minimum signal thus obtained from here is acted upon the Auxiliary and main relays of governor valves of H. and in turn the entire system at the same speed (frequency). The weights. thus admitting less steam to the machine. which are held by springs. passes through a minimum selector that has been provided with another signal of locally/remotely controlled load limiting device. run as single unit. These movements uncover the port (G) of the pilot valve thereby allowing oil pressure to act on the top of the power piston (H). Turbine Governors of the turbines basically control the steam flow to the turbine. the steam valve will move towards the closed position. The figure below shows the block diagram of mechanical-hydraulic system. in instances of losing its’ electrical loads. The hand wheel (K) is normally on remote operation from the control panel by means of a reversible motor known as the “speeder motor”. The movement of the weights is arranged to operate on oil relay valve and this valve through an oil pressure relay system. • The governor enables the turbine-generators not connected together. the drawing as shown below should be referred The percentage of control valve opening on each turbine depends upon the electrical output from that individual T.V pressure.e.P and I. Sleeve (C) is connected to a floating lever (D) to which is attached the spindle (E) of the pilot relay valve and the spindle (F) of the main steam valve. so as to keep the range at which the governor operates between limits. H. Due to this operation. opens or closes valves that admit steam to the turbine.Page 7 of 22 • Output of each individual unit is controllable due to governing actions. Local or remote adjustment on the speeder gear output is algebraically summed to act with the speed component.P and I. vacuum unloading gear and anti-motoring device act on check valve and also for differential pressure switching (it compares the minimum selector O/P as explained above). the frequency tends to decrease then the governors on all the system turbines need to operate (to open) the control valves to admit more steam to Turbine and allow the system to supply the extra load. the governor weight will move outwards causing sleeve C to lift. To regain the previous frequency/speed. The feedback signal of S. kept under control. shaft. which control the operation by electrical interfacing units i. the governor weights and a moveable sleeve (C). An arm pivoted at (B) has attached to it. and also enables speed of turbine. thus the gain that is also regulated by local adjustment of governor reputation through the pilot oil regulating valve.
A sliding bolt or an eccentric ring is attached to the shaft.e. at a speed of 3075 rpm. In KWU turbine (of SSTPS droop is set at 5%.R. The droop setting in electronic system of EHG has been incorporated in a module connected in series which receives input as the load controller/comparator forming the error (MV-DV). The Droop is necessary in the control system in order to sense a change in speed and thus to reposition the valves.F) system and thus the pressures can be increased without the risk of fires. The bolt or the ring flies out of the normal position . which is holding the emergency. In order to view the economical loading on the sets connected in parallel an example of a single unit can be considered for understanding the cost controlled situation. droop.m to 3075 rpm. the droop is set such that a biased zone is maintained from 3000 r. A high-pressure oil pump normally supplies this oil and then pressure of oil is reduced as above. is defined as the amount of speed change from no load to full load divided by the rated speed. valve open.In doing so.p. If the cost of generation at given moment on the grid is such that a load of 100 MW should be generated by that unit. This device. or 2½ % above 3000 rpm. Turbine bearings are lubricated with oil at between 0. (or the proportional band). And likewise in other side of 50 Hz frequencies. Emergency governors are normally set to operate instantaneously if turbine speed reaches 110% of rated (3300 rpm on a two pole turbine generator) or higher speeds.4 bar pressure depending upon the make and type of machine.Page 8 of 22 control can be achieved by increasing this pressure (more than 35 Kg/cm2 pressure) but this leads to leaks and fires. = ±2. The emergency valve then shuts off the steam supply The emergency governor is tested at periods by deliberately over-speeding the machine when the load has been taken off. Each of the twin bolts or rings is operated in turn. Emergency governors (often referred as the Over speed Governor): The emergency governor is the final line of defense to protect the turbine from dangerous over speeds. i. or 50 Hz frequency).0% and to match the grid frequency. For this reason some turbines in use today utilize the Fire Resistant Fluid (F.5% to 8.5% from 3000 rpm. and the droop corrected/incorporated signal is fed to the final load controller module of the load control loop. when actuated rapidly closes all valves associated with steam supply to the turbine. that is the load that the automatic control will attempt to maintain The frequency bias of all controlling turbine generators on the grid is added up to determine the system frequency bias. the control valves will be fully closed. These are held in position by means of a retaining spring. The emergency governor shuts off the steam supply in the event of rotor speed increasing by more than 10% above its normal speed. it operates a trip and releases the relay oil pressure. Turbine Droop can be set in turbines either mechanically or electrically (In KWU turbines the provision of droop is made to range from 2. The amount of the inherent decrease in speed from no load to full load is called speed regulation. If the cost of generation at given moment on the grid is such that a load of 100MW should be generated by that unit is the load that the automatic control will attempt to maintain.3 and l. or proportional band. to sense a change in system frequency as load goes up or down and to provide continuous signal to the controlled generating units in order to maintain the desired 50 Hz system frequencies. chosen setting is 5%). The one not being tested is made inoperative by a selector lever Droop of Turbo-generators: Speed regulations of turbine also called the Droop. . the control valves will be open wide at a speed of 2925 rpm or 2½ % below 3000 rpm. If the governor speed regulation is required to be set at 5% then for a 3000 rpm turbine. Beyond this speed until 3225 rMost grids operate automatically.
the stop valve & control valve (one set) share a common body. if no automatic load frequency control is being used. the cost signal representing desired generation from this unit changes from 100 MW to 104 MW. under the added influence of frequency bias. to determine the system frequency bias. the cost control is acting to oppose frequency correction back to 50 Hz. Transient speed rise (TSR): When load rejection takes place. The piston of the servomotor is subjected to disc spring force in the close direction and . it shows the single turbogenerator system supplying an isolated load. as soon as the load increased to 104MW. in order to restore system frequency to 50 Hz. if it has been set to 4 MW per 0. Linkage Mechanism 4. If we can again assume that the turbine governor would again have picked up 4 MW. This phenomenon is particularly important for controlling system frequency specially in view of controlling power generation with ABT. This is usually done fairly close to midnight of each day. Fly ball Speed governor system 2. As soon as the system frequency drops to 49. In this case. With a 0 bias setting. 1. Of course. the cost control would close the control valves to restore 100MW. At this point. In KWU turbines. the dispatcher can then order more or less load to be generated for a given period in order to restore system frequency to an average of 50 Hz for the past 24 hours.Page 9 of 22 The frequency bias of all controlling turbine generators on the grid is added up. Hydraulic Amplifier 3.yD= k3yC + k4yE. Instrumentation will advice him how far above or below 50 Hz the system has been operating for the past 24 hours. then the dispatcher must manually direct an increase or decrease in generation from the units under his control.1 Hz deviations. the dispatcher “corrects” system frequency in order to provide the correct frequency on a 24-hour basis. let us review the frequency effects and the frequency bias on a particular unit. Our single unit example was being cost controlled to provide 100MW and it went to 104MW when system frequency dropped 1/10th of a cycle. no control action occurs to reduce generation back to 100 MW and system frequency should return to 50 Hz. %Regulation=100x(nmax–mi n)/nnom Load Frequency Control is shown in the figure below. The net movement of C is thereforeyC = k1 kCPC + k2f and movement D. Main component are. Knowing his system frequency bias. Further. Speed changer Increase in frequencyf causes the fly balls to move outwards so that B moves downwards by a proportional amount k2’f.9 Hz. The movementyD depending upon its sign opens one of the ports of the pilot valve admitting highpressure oil into the cylinder thus moving the main piston & opening the steam valve byyE. speed shoots up temporarily before settling down to steady state value TSR gives the % speed rise on full load throw-off 8642OSteady state Time Steady State Regulation: It is defined as the Ratio of % speed change (from no load to Full load) to the nominal rated speed.
• Speed Control mode. this is controlled by pilot valve of the turbine governor & the secondary fluid oil system. considerably smaller. Under steady state condition pilot is at central position. In such situations the Tracking Device provides a revised set point of 5-10% above the EHG set point and it causes increase in small load when the control is transferred to Hydraulic-Governor. The speed. The figure below gives various connections and modules used in EHG. • Load Control mode • Pressure Control mode. Basically the Electro-Hydraulic Converter (EHC) is the connecting element between the electrical and hydraulic parts of the turbine governing control system for carrying out the Electro-Hydraulic Governing of the turbine. The Position controller loop uses a PID control mode for processing outputs that provide the driving current signal to the plunger and regulate the oil drains of HP/IP control valves (CV) . Electro Hydraulic Converter details: Electro Hydraulic Converter converts the electrical signal in to the hydraulic signals and large positioning forces are generated in control valves. affected is that of Hydraulic Governor. Electro-Hydraulic Governing has been achieved through various electronic / selector modules configured in four modes of controls: • Admission Control mode. The electrical signal from governor control circuit operates the sleeve and pilot valve spool. The fluid pressure under the piston determines the position of the valve. • Operating the turbo-generator safely in conjunction with TSE. dynamic stability. • Providing reliable operation at times of grid isolation conditions. By using two Nos of differential transformer (housed in EHC). load. this regulates the trip fluid drain. In cases. feedback signal from the valve lift is derived to ensure proper stationing of plunger spool. the reference value of the Hydraulic controller determines the actual valve position. in deflected position. Whenever current through the plunger coil gets interrupted or the electrical feedback circuit gets faulted. In KWU turbines. the set point of the Hydraulic Governor must be set above that of the Electro-Hydraulic Governor when EHG is effective. and it supplies the operating current for driving the plunger coil. Hydraulic Governor controls the steam supply by operating the control valves. the control oil is admitted above or below the amplifier piston. The motion of the amplifier piston is transmitted via a lever to a camshaft. dependability. the tracking device is switched off automatically thus tracking under faulted operation mode is prevented or prohibited. the set point that is. and pressure signals are measured and converted into conditioned signal in electronic modules Admission Valve (spool) Controller =Admission Valve (spool) Controller also referred as the position controller is Common for all three modes of EHG. Although the force to the plunger coil and to the control sleeve is. The tracking device is either switched on or off manually but when EHG failure or turbine trip occurs. Low transients and steady-state speed deviations at all instances. • Maintaining exact load frequency droop with high sensitivity. which actuates the sleeves of follow-up piston valves. The Electro-Hydraulic Governor (EHG) is beneficial in:• Offering the flexibility.Page 10 of 22 Hydraulic pressure in the opening direction. causing secondary oil pressure to change. The reference signal therefore works in reverse manner (rise in the coil current for low reference condition). The current in the plunger coil is increased for closing the HP /IP CV and vice versa for opening of the HP /IP Control Valve. More details on tracking actions are covered in the follow-up circuits of the speed/load control modes. Electro-Hydraulic Governor (EHG) Electro-Hydraulic Governor (EHG) works in parallel with Hydraulic governor at all times of requirements. when EHG fails to cause shut-off. The Hydraulic governor and the EHG system have been designed such that the governor with lower set point takes over or assumes the system control. as such normally. thereby it controls steam supply into the turbine. but the regulating signal to the secondary auxiliary oil flow as transformed is quite large. . excellent operational reliability.
the speed controller assumes control and returns turbine back to the set reference speed. The speed controller then remains in standby mode only and stands ready to provide station load in of load shading. Operation of EHG in various modes Start-up Switching the supplies ON and setting the speed/load setter to zero puts the EHG in Operational condition. the control signal connects the Admission Valve (spool) Controller loop which outputs the driving current for the EHC plunger coil. Frequency change is selected via the integral action load controller to corresponding droop values and a sensitivity of 5 Milli-Hz is obtained which meets the operational requirements of the present day large grid. Finally through the last minimum selector: MIN– 2:. After the speed controller has assumed control of TG set. The Time-dependent speed reference signal ( nRTD ) . (During sudden load throw-off. the load controller is set to zero value. the output signal of the load controller is immediately reduced to value below that of speed controller. sudden separation of the generator. Two indicators have been provided in UCB panel for monitoring speeds. • By the synchronizer (when selected) or • By follow up signal (explained separately). This reference speed practically coincides with the rated speed. This provision improves the dynamic response of the closing of the main steam stop Speed reference signal (nR) is varied (In the range of 0-3600 rpm): • Manually by Raise/Lower push buttons (using motorized potentiometer. over speeding of turbine is effected and since 10.Page 11 of 22 Control Transfer of various controllers: Three selectors have been used for specific functioning Speed controller output (hrnc) and the load controller output (hrpc ) are passed through a Maximum selector (MAX-1) and the selected signal passes to a minimum selector (MIN-1) in such a fashion that at times of over-speeding of turbine (during load throw-off situations). The referencenR is varied in the range of 0-3600 rpm and for minute operation during synchronizing. the turbine speed is then brought up situation for synchronising TG with grid using speed controller. Consequently due to minimum selection. the input to the minimum selector: MIN–1: takes care of transient condition of the load throw-off and is sufficient to check the turbine from over speeding. above the speed of 2800 rpm.5 V is generated by a potentiometer that gets algebraically summated with hrnc then it outputs voltage which is less than that of the speed/load signal as selected from the MAX-1:) The signal from the Minimum selector: MIN–1: passes through another Minimum selector: MIN–2: that receives the Pressure Controller output (hrPrc) signal as explained in pressure controller loop. from the grid. Load shedding In case of load shedding i. Shutdown During normal shut down operation. since the speed controller is set to provide the station load during the start of operation under load. The hydraulic speed control eqpt and the start up eqpt of the hydraulic controller are set in upper end position. Operation under load Load controller can be taken in service after turbine is synchronised to control load in quick response and high linearity either as per LDC/AFDC or using various modes/sub loops explained in Load control. The output signal of the speed controllers is automatically matched to the output signal of load controller from rated power on down to station load.e. the unit can be disconnected from the grid. The speed reference (nR) cannot be raised when follow-up condition exists anddn/d t is less than monitoring rather in this condition raising or lowering phenomena ofnR gets slowed down when the speed reference (nR) is less than 2800. of narrow range (2700-3300) and wide range (0-3600). The actual speed is sensed since turbine already is in barring gear and by slow rising of speed reference the speed controller works /is in service. a reducing gear lowers the speed of the motorized potentiometer to ¼ rate for exact speed adjustment. The speed reference (nR) can not be raised when follow-up condition exists and dn/dt is less than monitoring (in this situation lowering of nR gets slowed down.
for details. electronically switching ensures no affect in channel in service and also a full . .03 sec–2 ). This Block signal stops the integration (further) function of time dependent speed reference integrator. v) Generator breaker is not on and a feedback signal ofdn/d t <108 rpm per rpm (0. TSE influence gets faulted (goes out of order or switched off) or EHC fault condition appears AND turbine speed is more than 2950rpm. ii)nR is more thannRTD by 300 rpm and iii) an OR ed output of many conditions as given below:1. (nR -nact ) < 50 rpm.e.Page 12 of 22 The Time-dependent speed reference signal (nRTD) also referred asnR lim. The outputnRTD of the integrator module. During follow up. Actual speed (nact) Measurement: Actual speednact is acquired by three digital speed pickups (Hall probes) in the form of pulses /frequency. Due to proportional control a control error (off-set) is obvious in the speed reference but it does not matter much. Channel-2 is utilized while other two-channel pick-up remains redundant. During start-up of turbine thisnRTD allows rising of the turbine speed at the highest permissible rate consistent with the conservative operation as decided by the TSE computed margin signal introduced between a DC amplifiers. . it also blocks any further rise in speed and brings back the speed reference to 600 rpm. The Integrator module performs this function rising with time like a ramp.. ‘Blocking ‘ or the ‘Stop nRTD ‘ of the speed signal is generated by an AND module in conditions i) speed >2850rpm. the quantum of the follow-up signal is derived from the actual less the off-set (60-120 rpm) speed reference (nR) and difference is further added or subtracted as per the magnitude to cause change in speed reference (nR ). Thedn/d t is less than monitoring is derived from an AND gate module. Quantum of Follow-up signal is the difference between actual speed (nact) and offset of 120 rpm and is effected (switched automatically) if load controller is operative. The slope of the integrator ramp can be adjusted over a wide range and is optimized during commissioning. its conditions arei) nR is more than 600 rpm. The selected sensed speed channel signal is further divided into three measuring signals (f/v of 0-60 Hz. An identical speed at synchronising point is possible to be achieved due to a Pre-feed function of pressure. low range 0-6 Hz & full range 0-60 Hz and a quartz frequency standard) for various other applications in the EHG and other circuits. pressure controller is in action OR Generator breaker not ON. of turbo-generators connected in the grid as compared with purely mechanical and Hydraulic Governor run T-G sets. influences the speed referencenR considerably. During steady-state condition. Fast mode or the stop action facility.iii) MSV is open (>0%). Refer block diag. is transmitted to the speed controller and displayed on the desk in the range 0-3600 rpm. with sloping characteristics. During rolling of the turbine. it blocks the already generatednRTD . the speed reference signal becomes less than actual speed and if is more than 50 rpm. The difference of actual speed and time dependent speed signals (nact . final load reference (hrpc) is more than final speed reference (hrnc) by 10% and frequency is between 49-51 Hz OR if turbine is tripped (time elapsed) and speed reference (nr) is equal to actual speed (nact) minus 60 rpm. During the transition of control from electric to Hydraulic. 3. then thedn/d t is less than monitoring signal appears to alarm the operator. and thus the speed controller input signal remains stay-put during stop action. IfnR >nRTD. 2. if between the speeds of 600-2820 rpm the rate of speed rise is very low i. modify the finalnR . vi) speed controller is selected & in action. less than 100 rpm per minute.dn/d t less than monitoring alarms the operator and takes care of low acceleration rate in turbine during rolling by suitable output from the speed reference setting module. the speed controller outputs for better load sharing by more nos.proof monitoring.e.ii) nact is less than 2850 rpm. i.‘nRTD) form the input error of the Speed controller which outputs control signal (in the path as explained in selection section) through the selection modules for driving the EHC and finally establishing the EHG The speed controller is poportional+derivative (P-D) action controller. and at the critical speeds (between 600-2829 rpm) of the turbine.
then tracking gets released as soon as (pr) = (nr) and When load shedding is less than station auxiliary power (p act < station load) and Mw error reaches to more than 5 % or the generator circuit breaker is not made on. Stop signal in load control: A ‘Blocking’ or STOP command gets initiated at conditions shown below then the integrator stops further integrating andpRLIM (the load demand) remains steady until the blocking signals are cleared or restored.). power error (Pr-Pact) signal governs the follow-up /tracking as explained below. at this situation.. ThepRLIM module is continuously allowing matching of the actual power output as long as the generator breaker is open (not synchronized) and ensures smooth transition of speed (during start-up) to load controller (after synchronization).Page 13 of 22 No load correction of speed is achieved by a feed forward signal that is obtained from Boiler pressure controller during synchronising the T.G. Time dependent reference signal also referred as ‘pRLIM’’: The Time dependent reference signal also referred as ‘pRLIM’’ is generated through a high gain amplifier and an integrator functioning in fast. Load controller is switched ON for bringing load controller in service. the upper/lower load margins are computed by TSE. set Load Control Mode Load reference valuepR is generated by means of a reference value setter module as described in speed control mode and is derived manually by the operator adjusted (lower/raise) values by means of a remote driven motorized potentiometer. It follows the ramp characteristic. and at this situation the proportional channel is switched off. is fed to the high gain amplifier whose gain is adjusted by the rate of loading dp/dt or the load margins (In order to load the turbo-generator at highest possible rate consistent to permissible level of thermal stress. • The load reference signal has been raised and the pressure controller goes/switches to limit pressure mode of operation. • The STOP set point binary condition is/gets introduced. explained separately. is on but the speed controller has taken over (due to conditions of follow-up) and speed controller remains in action until load controller signal (pr) < (nr) of speed controller. Upper release margin can result reduction of generated power and lower release margin can result unloading. A highly and sensitive linear response with respect to power grid frequency is effected . Tracking or the follow-up conditions in the load controller: When the generator C. The response of thepRLIM is purely integral. it is automatically switched OFF. The block conditions are met at conditions as given below: • TSE switch is ON (selected) and it goes out of order (got faulted). ADC influence ‘ON’ appears when there is NO ADC fault if is selected. ThispRLIM rises during start-up at a rate (Mw/min) selected through load gradient setter until final value. And it (pRLIM) acts directly on the load controller without any intermediate control device. The characteristic ofpRLIM is linear 0-10v rising in 04 minutes. for inclusion and it either modifies the high gain amplifier slope in both negative and positive sides of the amplifier or the TSE computed margins as explained above modify the high gain amplifier through minimum selector. The load demand signal is restricted within upper and lower MW loading limits as detailed in CMC loop description. it can also be varied by the Automatic dispatch control (When switched ON ) . In case if. it is enabled again after the TSE is reset and it becomes O.and is basically the MW demand generated by the Coordinated Master Control loop(CMC). matching or the follow up is automatically taking place and loading of the TG set is subsequently made in standby basis.k. if the rate of rise of thepRLIM is limited to the load gradient selected. the load controller output. CMC or ADC gets faulted. The proportional leg of the response of thepRLIM can be adjusted between 0-20% of MCR power of the TG Set.. tracks to speed signal. Load reference pR as obtained from the potentiometer in voltage signal. normal and stop modes. At conditions when TG is not synchronised. The Load gradient (load rate dp/dt.B. it is also termed aspR ADS .) is selected either by On/Off push button or by follow-up command.
Pressure Control Mode The pressure controller controls the turbine load with respect to the main steam throttle pressure and prevents the large pressure drop during fast loading (Quick load increase). Load Controller is a proportional (P) + integral (I) controller to take care of small changes of load in Proportional mode and large changes in Integral mode operation. turbine not synchronised with grid)pR is compared continuously withpact and control signal is matched ensuring bump less switching. The Pressure Controller functions in two modes of operation: • Initial pressure mode • Limit pressure mode Initial Pressure Mode: In Initial pressure mode of operation.Page 14 of 22 by having the additional load reference componentpR∆ ∆ ∆ ∆f (this can be set as low as possibly up to 5 milli Hz). it can be included for operating the load controller with frequency influence included in the system. the response of the controller is proportional for small changes of the load reference value but for the large changes of reference value proportional plus integral mode refines the system operation.5 Hz at peak load hours. In order to effect smooth transition from speed controller to Load Controller (Generator breaker open condition i. In order to restrict loading. Load Controller consists of two plug-in modules first one to accommodate isolated grid detection and the second to accommodate dynamic loading of the generators & to housing the tracking module. because it is connected to a minimum selector. constant initial pressure (turbine inlet throttle pressure) is maintained and acts in proportional to pressure setting by minimizing the pressure error (Actual-Ref) even up to zero value. Due to this addition. The power delivered by the TG set is determined by the boiler capability up to a maximum of power level as set by load controller. This is being referred as FGMO operation of units. that is the sum of all reference values acting on the load controller as reference signal or the desired value. the transfer functions of generator and the power grid become of vital importance for controller optimisation. But now due to insistence by Load Dispatch Center (LDC) to regulate the grid frequency at very tight margin and in order to run systems on ABT mode. the frequency influence inclusion have become mandatory. The load reference thus derived is fed to a minimum selector. the Load limit value (due to plant conditions) can be adjusted by the load limiter potentiometers and can also be seen on control desk. This frequency influence was being excluded in the system sometimes in nineties. Actual Load signal is acquired threefold by means of the load measuring device and transmitted to the controller comparator module but in case the signals of the three parallel cannels deviate by more than 5% an alarm ‘ACTUAL LOAD SIGNAL FAULTY’ along with group alarm of ‘Turbine Controller Faulty’ appears. The output signal from the load limiter at the minimum selector in the form of thepR . The difference of the actual measured power signal (pact) and thepR form the input of the load controller that outputs control signal and passes through a selection module for driving the EHC as explained in the admission control and selection diagram. after comparison the deviated control signal (hRprc) is fed to the Proportional +Integral (PI) action type Pressure controller and its final output is fed to the minimum selector-2 as described earlier in speed controller and load controller loops. Load limiter is preselected. the starting time constant of the TG set remains in dominating whereas during synchronised operation. The actual steam throttle pressure is measured in turbine area and pressure reference is derived from CMC loop. increase of load above this is blocked thus. During the time the speed controller is in control for start-up. which also is fed with the load limiter output. because the units were been operated at very high differentials of frequencies when frequency used to rise to approx 52 Hz at off-peak hours (in night hours) or reduce/decline as low as 47. The difference pressure∆ . Even the reduction in grid frequency cannot cause the TG set to exceed the preset power level due to load limiting. shut-down or no load operation of TG set.e.
through which the CMC is ensured. of coal feeders or any other causes.G is ensured full proof and speeding or loading of the T. A GNI computer/SPCM is provided with the system to decide target value Z0. Standard turbine protection system comprises the following: Mechanical/hydraulic turbine protection. Introducing the Limit Pressure Operation is therefore possible to regulate boiler pressure beyond a pre-set pressure of main steam and load in small or quick variations. Electrical turbine protections Mechanical Hydraulic Turbine Protection . vacuum drop. Protection of turbine from inadmissible operating conditions. It restricts occurring failures to minimum. Boiler master controller. When Limit pressure engaged alarm appears. At this situation due to equating/reducing of differential pressure∆ ∆ ∆ ∆p . it therefore ensures natural differential pressure of the steam flowing from boiler to the turbine. we find that the Unit master receives load demand signal from load dispatcher (ALC). In case of plant failures. the stop signal in the load control loop is also generated for blocking thepRLIM signal from increasing/reducing All the three controllers are operative in such a manner that the governing of T.G. ACS section TURBINE PROTECTION SYSTEM Turbine protection system performs to cover the following functions: a. The load demand signal as generated in CMC. extractions’ closure etc or due to pressure drop in boiler side by nonavailability/reduced loading of mills.Page 15 of 22 ∆ ∆ ∆p between the reference and actual value is controlled up to a value of 10 Kg/cm2 which is equal to the pressure drop of steam flow from boiler to the turbine control valve. Run Back load limits & load rate required for proper generation. b. The Co-ordinated Master Control (500 Mw) block diagram has been given below. Turbine load set-point etc. Co-ordinated Master Control (CMC) ensures co-ordination between Boiler & Turbine. protection against subsequent damages. Limit pressure mode: Limit pressure mode uses the boiler storage capacity and is effected either by push button or gets automatically selected as soon as the pressure deviates to 10 Kg/cm2 from normal running pressure to operate the controller in Limit pressure mode. This deviation of 10 kg/cm2 pressure signal already subtracted in the in the input of Pressure controller. is best maintained as per the pressure in the system and Boiler or turbine follow mode is achieved with full reliability and safety. In fact the normal∆ ∆ ∆ ∆p from boiler to turbine (as explained in initial pressure mode) is not persisting either due to increase in pressure at turbine side due to load throw. as described in the initial pressure mode. Boiler Follow or Turbine follow modes are decided by switching suitably and loaded TG operation is achieved as explained in details of CMC mode of integrated control in C&I . A preset potentiometer equivalent to this pressure generates negative voltage to the controller input and it biases the pressure differential∆ ∆ ∆ ∆p thus in the controller. for turbine control reaches to point ‘D’ of EHG block diagram (refer the load control mode) and is switched for inclusion to operate the EHG in coordination with grid dispatch ADC demand. an alarm is generated so as to warn/alarm the operator of the discrepancy. c. and is controlled until pre-set pressure is reached that is not possible in normal frequency based load control.. gets neutralized by automatic switching.
One substitute channel to ensure uninterrupted transmission of eventual turbine trip signals during testing by ATT . Manual turbine tripping (electrical UCB switch) Protection criteria from other areas are as follows: • Boiler trip (MFR) • Boiler drum level very high ( > + 225 mm wcl ) • . The remote trip solenoids (RTS) have already been described.Emergency trip contactor cabinet containing trip channels 1 and 2 . Transmitters that cause a trip in the case of any electrical tripping signal are conditioned and monitored via binary signal conditioning of the ATT system or via the central analog/binary signal conditioning. Electrical Hydraulic Turbine Protection Electrical turbine trip equipments comprise two-channel redundancy and function on operating current principle. Hydraulic low vacuum trip device 5. . Protective circuits for the standard turbine protection equipments or criteria. Two manual trip devices (main trip valves) b. the solenoids get energised and close the valves. b. The main trip valves allow rapid draining of trip oil in case they are operated either manually or automatically by the reduction of aux. Fire protection 8. The principle of functioning of individual hydraulic trip devices is explained in details under the chapter of Automatic Turbine Testing System.. Protective criteria from other areas. trip oil pressure. turbine stop and control valves are tripped to close position if the trip oil pressure is reduced below the minimum value. One hydraulic low vacuum device d. Speed monitors (over speed trip devices) 3.Monitors with signal conditioning . Two solenoid valves for trip initiation (remote solenoid valves) As explained earlier. Two speed monitors (over speed trip device) c. Electrical low vacuum trip device 6. Remote trip solenoids act as interfaces between mechanical hydraulic and electrohydraulic protection equipment of turbine. Lub oil pressure protection 7. over speed trip device or thrust bearing trip device. Thrust bearing trip device 4.. trip oil pressure can be drained because of actuation of hydraulic low vacuum trip device. The electro-hydraulic turbine protection equipment features . which are: 1.. All electrical trip criteria act on the two remote trip solenoid valves to energise the solenoids. Aux. Manual tripping devices (Turbine trip gear local operating lever) 2. Upon receiving the electrical trip command.Two solenoid operated valves for trip initiation (Remote trip solenoids).Page 16 of 22 The design of mechanical hydraulic protection equipment is in accordance with hydraulic break current principle and consists of following: a. Turbine Trip Actuation Circuits The turbine protection system is sub divided into two parts: a. Thus control oil supply to main trip values is cut off leading to their closure. Standard criteria are specified by the turbine manufacturer and are responsible for full protection of turbine under various specific conditions. Operation of any one channel causes energising both solenoid-operated valves leading to turbine trip eventually.
which might result in loss of generation or damage to machine components. When the preset over speed is reached. Electrical tripping of turbine is achieved by fire protection along with closure/stoppage of total control oil supply to turbine governing system by tripping the emergency stop valve on the control oil line. If the vacuum is too weak to counteract the spring tension. The electrical tripping on low vacuum occurs through a pressure switch on the vacuum line to mechanical hydraulic low vacuum trip device also at the same condenser pressure. Also fire protection-1 (automatic actuation) gets bypassed if the barring gear valve is 'not closed'. Please refer to the associated logics at the end of this chapter.150 mm below the normal working level 'O'). under low main steam temperature conditions. Also. If the axial displacement of the shaft exceeds the permissible limit. The pressure beneath valve is thereby dispersed and the auxiliary trip medium circuit is connected to drain. These disadvantages are fully avoided with the Automatic Turbine Test. This connects the auxiliary trip oil to drain thereby depressurising it. this pressure switch is interlocked against a second pressure switch. The steam stop valves and control valves along with all the protective devices on the turbine must be always maintained in serviceable condition for the safety and reliability. the spring moves valve 6 downwards. relative to pawl of the thrust-bearing trip. When turbine is started up again. The resultant depressurisation of the auxiliary trip oil actuates main trip valves MAX51 AA 005 and MAX51 AA 006 thereby closing all turbine valves. manual testing always poses a risk of mal-operation on the part of the operator.Page 17 of 22 Main steam temperature trip ( < 480o C ) • Trip from functional group control (ATRS shut-down programme) • Generator trip Like low vacuum tripping (electrical) the low steam temperature protection also comprises 'Arming' and 'Disarming' features to facilitate re-start of turbine. have a specific clearance. which are arranged on opposite sides of turbine shaft. Thrust Bearing Trip Device The function of the thrust bearing trip is to monitor the shaft position in the bearing pedestal and. which monitors this condition and prevents continuation of tripping initiation when condenser pressure is high. The stop and control valves can be tested manually from the location but this test does not cover all components involved in a tripping. This warrants testing of equipments and protection devices at regular intervals. the topside of which is subject to the vacuum. the cams engage pawl. AUTOMATIC TURBINE TESTING (ATT) INTRODUCTION Under the present crunch of power crisis. the economy dictates long intervals between turbine overhauls and less frequent shutdowns. A fully automatic sequence for testing all the safety devices has been incorporated which ensures that the testing does not cause any unintentional shutdown and also provides full protection to turbine during testing. The fire protection trip is achieved by manual Pushbutton in UCB or automatically by very low MOT level (. to depressurize the auxiliary trip medium and thus the trip oil in The two rows of tripping cams. which in turn causes the trip oil pressure to collapse Low Vacuum Trip Device=In the hydraulic low vacuum trip device. a compression spring set to a specific tension pushes downwards against diaphragm. The loss of auxiliary trip medium pressure causes the main trip valve to drop. equivalent to the permissible shaft displacement. the eccentric fly bolt activates the piston and limit switch via a pawl. SALIENT FEATURES . which releases a piston to depressurise the auxiliary trip oil and at the same time to actuate limit switch. Over Speed Trip Device Two hydraulically operated over speed trips are provided to protect the turbine against over speeding in the event of load coincident with failure of speed governor. if a fault occurs. during normal operation.
Monitoring of all programme steps for execution within a predefined time.e. 4. Thrust bearing trip device. ATT for protective devices broadly incorporates the following sub programmes: a. The testing system or ATT is sub divided in two functional sub-groups. during testing. Remote trip solenoid-1. the substitute circuit elements and the circuit are tested for their healthiness. 3. is the criteria for the satisfactory functioning of devices. Only its pretest is carried out without any faults i. During testing. trip oil. closing the main trip valves. During testing. c. Build-up of control oil pressure upstream of changeover valve is monitored. It drains the control/aux. further testing is inhibited. trip oil circuit is isolated and changed over to control oil by means of test solenoid valves and the changeover valve. Preliminary Test In preliminary test programme. Each sub-group contains the device and all associated transmission elements for initiation of a trip. Main test programme. Hydraulic test circuit establishment. the turbine is fully protected against any inadvertent tripping during ATT. the protective device concerned is actuated. 1. AUTOMATIC TESTING OF PROTECTIVE DEVICES ATT sub group for protective devices covers the following devices. Test solenoids de-energised one by one & drop of control oil pressure is monitored. However. the main test begins. During preliminary test. Refer Fig. if the substitute circuit is healthy. two electrically formed values of 3300 rpm take over protection of turbine against over speed. Also. causing stop/control valves to close. Automatic functional protective substitute devices that protect turbine during ATT. During normal operation. general alarm or the cause of tripping is also initiated so that this part of alarm annunciation system also gets tested. b. If all steps are executed within a specified time period pre-test is said to be . Reset programme. Interruption if the running time of any programme step is exceeded or if tripping is initiated. Over speed trip device. Automatic re-setting of test programme after a fault Full protection of turbine provided by special test safety devices. d. Whenever any tripping condition (hydraulic/electrical) occurs. The closure of main Trip Gear drains the trip oil. all alarm/annunciation are activates as in case of an actual tripping. If any fault is present. Hydraulic low vacuum trip device. following steps are performed Test solenoids (TSX) become energised. 2. 5. Automatic Turbine Testing extends into trip oil piping network where total reduction of trip oil pressure due to actuation of any protective device. Preliminary test programme. This control oil in trip circuit prevents any actual tripping of the machine.Page 18 of 22 The Automatic Turbine Tester is distinguishable by following features: Individual testing of each protective device and stop/control valve assembly. protective devices act on the stop/control valves via the main trip valves. Remote trip solenoid-2.
trip oil pressure drains. During ATT. Over speed Trip Device Trip consists of two eccentric bolts fitted on the shaft with centre of gravity displaced from the shaft axis. Valves spool moves up draining aux. bringing in the associated alarm. command is automatically given to establish hydraulic test circuit (substitute circuit). During ATT. Thrust Bearing Trip Device This device operates in case of excessive axial shift ( >0. bringing in the associated alarms. If oil pressure is satisfactory. During resetting. the associated hydraulic test signal transmitter with the exception of remote trip solenoids provides the necessary signal to actuate protective devices. spool moves-up and when test oil pressure is fully drained aux. control oil flows in the trip oil piping. trip oil pressure and tripping the turbine HYDRAULIC TEST SIGNAL TRANSMITTER (HTT) FOR OVER SPEED TRIP DEVICE During ATT. Hydraulic Test Circuit Establishment If no fault is present during preliminary test. HTT is de-energised and aux. trip oil and tripping the trip gear and turbine. During ATT of stop/control valves. hence the remaining ones will be taken up here. trip oil and aux. spool valve slowly moves down to gradually build-up test oil (control) pressure beneath the flyweights. The aux. trip oil pressure can be built-up and monitored.Page 19 of 22 successfully. For re. They are held in position against centrifugal force by springs whose tensions can be adjusted corresponding to 110% . the HTT (Hydraulic Test signal Transmitter) gets energised and connects the space above diaphragm to atmospheric pressure through an orifice. which have tripped from their normal positions. In order to prevent large . The device operates. deactivating hydraulic test circuit and resetting circuit. pressure builds-up over the diaphragm. The reset solenoid valves energise and supply control oil in aux. the spool valve move down. At pre-defined test oil pressure fly weight one and two operate to actuate individual pawl and spool arrangements bringing in the associated alarm. tripping main trip valves and the turbine stop/control valves. Once they return to their normal position. start up oil (control oil from 'reset' solenoids) pressure resets the devices to their normal Low Vacuum Trip Device With deterioration of vacuum. The test solenoids valves are again energised building up the control oil pressure upstream of changeover valve. the associated hydraulic test signal transmitter (HTT) becomes 'on'. draining aux. TESTING OF PROTECTIVE DEVICES The main trip valves and remote trip solenoid valves have already been discussed in previous chapters. Field adjustment facilities and checks have been provided when turbine is stationary and there is no vacuum in the condenser. The hydraulic test circuit is responsible for the supply of control oil in trip oil circuits. Reset Programme The resetting programme automatically starts after the main test is over. reset solenoids along with test solenoid valves and SVX get de-energised. HTT is de-energised and vacuum trip device is automatically reset. At this moment another solenoid (SVX) gets energised. the fly weights (bolts) fly out due to centrifugal force and strike against the pawl and valves.setting. The protective device under test operates and drains the aux. After successful establishment of hydraulic test circuit command goes to initiate the main test. The piston rod actuates the pawl and spool valve assembly. As soon as reset programme starts. they are actually closed.111% over speed. Two rows of tripping cams on the shaft engage with the pawl) under high axial shift condition. With changeover valve in its test position. draining control oil and creating differential pressure across the changeover valve. Turbine trip gear (main trip valves) is closed after trip oil pressure drains and associated alarms flash. start-up oil (control oil) resets the device back into normal position. after hydraulic test circuit is established. When over speed occurs.6 mm) or excessive thrust pad wear. start-up oil circuit to reset main trip valves and protective devices. trip oil. in which individual devices can be checked Main Test During main test programme. it assumes upper (test) position and annunciation is flashed to this effect. associated ATT solenoid is energised and test oil pressure is supplied to test piston valve. causing valve also to move toward lower position.
the test valve moves up to admit trip oil beneath the disc and connecting the space on top of the piston to drain. The control of LP bypass system is hooked up by the same control. the positioner motor of control valve servomotor's pilot starts. As soon as piston sits on the disc. Testing Interval V After or during overhauls Testing Interval Category 0 applies to devices. the effective set point under any set of operating conditions being the greater of the two. automatically a command goes to energise another solenoid (2). After the stop valve is closed. The tables show the allocation of the Testing Interval Categories to the test LOW PRESSURE (LP) BYPASS SYSTEM Low Pressure bypass system enables to establish an alternative pass for dumping the steam from reheater outlet directly into condenser at suitable steam parameters. Testing Interval II Six-monthly 4. Testing Interval III Annually 5. all solenoids are de-energised and tripping takes place in the usual manner. This pressure difference causes the stop valve to open. which can be tested automatically without interrupting operation. This supplies trip oil to the test valve such that test valve moves down gradually to admit trip oil pressure above the servomotor piston. there is a sudden rise in trip oil pressure. which is sensed by pressure switches. After these solenoids (1) & (2) de-energise. The control oil supply pressure beneath the servomotor piston drops and control valve starts closing. Testing Interval IV After operation interruptions more than 12 month 6. The LP bypass valves are two in number. four injection water valves are provided for de-superheating purposes. Once the stop valve is opened. TESTING SCHEDULE All important turbine components must be tested at regular intervals. so as to keep the load and pressure reasonably constant. After the control valve is fully closed. In addition to these. next command goes to the positioner motor to move in reverse direction. Should any turbine trip occur during the test. The double shut-off arrangement separates the reheater from the condenser during normal operation. command goes to energise solenoid valve (1). The trip oil pressure drains beneath the disc of stop valve servomotor piston. This injection water is taken from condensate extraction pump discharge Set Point Formation Two set points. The controls for LP BYPASS system are essentially a combination of electrical and hydraulic system. Testing Interval 0 Fortnightly 2.Page 20 of 22 fluctuations of initial pressure or load on the machine. All along this test. 1. two steam pressure control valves. which is used for turbine governing system. the fixed set point and the variable set point are formed for the LP Bypass controller. as recommended below. The stop valve closes. it is essential that Electro Hydraulic Governor is in service and machine load is less than 160 MW and load controller is 'ACTIVE' As soon as test programme is initiated. Electro-hydraulic converter provides the necessary link between hydraulic actuators and the electrical system. Testing Intervals Tests are scheduled according to the following Testing Interval Categories. Testing Interval I Quarterly 3. The operating reliability and availability can only meet the high requirements if testing is undertaken at the scheduled times. the other control valves are operated by the governor. The fixed set point can be set manually from the control panel to a point between 0 120 % of the maximum LP Bypass pressure with the aid of a motorised set point adjuster. It can also be regulated automatically by means of the 'Automatic Control . opening the control valve.
4 Kg/cm2 abs) • Spray water pressure is low (< 10 Kg/cm2 or both condensate pumps off). When the Automatic Control Interface is switched ON. Any change in the reheat pressure can now be brought only by manually varying the fixed set point to the desired value. AUTOMATIC CONTROL INTERFACE DEVICE (ACI) During the start-up. it gets automatically switched off. But when charging over from 'MANUAL' to 'AUTO' care must be taken for matching the set point and actual value. it must be switched on by means of the ON/OFF push button provided on the control panel. 2) open up with a slight time delay after injection valves are opened. This arrangement opens the injection valves (INV-2. otherwise. • Condenser wall temperature is high (> 90oC). between the modes. For this purpose. • The steam pressure downstream of LP BP is greater than 19 Kg/cm2. the fixed set point tracks the actual reheat pressure so that the output of LP Bypass "auto" Controller is zero. it is intended to avoid a very high level of set point. a jerk in the system will be felt due to the error present (which the AUTO controller tries to bring to zero). it brings the fixed set point down to 3 Kg/cm2. there by opening them. The pressure upstream of the H. in the beginning of control operation LP bypass stop valves (LPSV-1. In the 'auto' mode. throttle pressure PRESSURE CONTROL FOR LP BYPASS SYSTEM The reheat steam pressure before interceptor valve is the controlling variable for the LP bypass system. • Condenser vacuum is low (> 0. the controller matches the hot reheat pressure with the effective set point (either FIXED or VARIABLE) by modulating the LP Bypass control valves as necessary. The fixed set point remains static at 12 Kg/cm2 and the LP Bypass controller modulates the control valve to maintain this set pressure.Page 21 of 22 Interface' during the start-up phase and is normally used to set the lower limit for pressure set point. LP Bypass Control (Hydraulic) Due to difference between set and actual HRH pressure the electro-hydraulic LP bypass governor generates a proportional signal voltage in the moving coil of the converter (EHC). This facilitates bump less changeover. blading i. Also the Bypass controller must be in auto mode. the 'RESET BYPASS TRIP'-Pushbutton for solenoids SV-1 and SV-2 are to be depressed to reset the TRIP command. A tracking controller is provided so that the control mode (manual or auto) not in service automatically follows the effective controller. 4) via the pressure switch (LPPS).P. Once the ACI has brought the fixed set point 12 Kg/cm2. the injection water demanded from CEPs is staggered in two stages. the Automatic Control Interface Device has been introduced. In case of condenser wall temperature protection operation. required for reference variable set point formation. due to rising oil pressure in follow-up pistons KA02 (assuming piston KA07 .P. Control of this parameter can be done in the 'MANUAL' mode by changing the electro-hydraulic controller (EHC) output as required by means of the OPEN/CLOSE push buttons located on the control module. During this time. With increasing signal voltage. solenoid valve (SVV) & slide valve SV-2/4 when the steam pressure upstream at the expansion orifice exceeds value corresponding to 45% of maximum bypass flow Protective Closing of LP Bypass System (Condenser Back-up Protection) The LP Bypass valves will close automatically under the following conditions to prevent damage to the condenser. For the Automatic Control Interface to come in action. is measured by a pressure transducer and transmitted to a matching amplifier which sets the characteristic for the reference variable as a function of the pressure upstream of H. Two Stage Water Injection To prevent undue overloading of condensate pumps under normal shutdown/start-up conditions. the jet pipe of the converter moves towards right and the amplifier piston (KA-08) moves down. The sleeves (KA04) of follow-up piston valves (KA02/KA03) also move down increasing the signal oil Pressure of water injection Valves.e. in case the actual reheat pressure is below 3 Kg/cm2. High exhaust hood temperature will automatically switch on the exhaust hood spray water. When the actual reheat pressure exceeds 3 Kg/cm2 the ACI opens the LP Bypass control valves + 25% and they remain locked in 25% position up to a reheat pressure of 12 Kg/cm2. A feedback mechanism stabilises the amplifier piston for a given voltage change. blading.
The bypass valves can be opened from the control room manually only after the solenoids are manually reset after the temperature has become normal . As vacuum increases. This increases the signal oil pressure in KA02 (follow-up pistons). As soon as condensate at required pressure is available with sufficient vacuum in condenser. 2 LP bypass limiting regulator (LPLR) has priority over (EHC).4) If vacuum drops below a preset value. Refer to Figure A low vacuum safety device is installed in the signal oil line from follow-up piston KA02 to bypass valves' pilots (PV-1. If the injection water pressure drops below a preset value. Low Injection Water Pressure Protection A pressure switch (WPS) is installed in the signal oil line from KA02 to PV-1. In case of condensate water pressure low and condenser pressure high the reverse action takes place and the spring of KA02 is de-tensioned to such an extent that LP bypass valves are unable to open. due to low condensate water pressure. The LP bypass valves are thus closed. High Condenser Wall Temperature Protection At a preset condenser wall temperature the two thermocouples mounted in steam dome opposite bypass steam inlet transmit a switching pulse to the associated solenoid valves (SOLV-1. releasing steam Stop Valves and Control Valves to open. 2). closing the LP bypass stop and control valves. 2) and (PV-3. 2) open up due to hydraulic feedback between actuator pistons and pilot valves (PV-1. 2 & PV-3. bypass operation is restored in reverse sequence when the preset vacuum has built up. its jet pipe swings to right and its piston KA07 moves to upper position. The solenoid valves block off the depressive signal oil and close bypass valves in the event of high condenser wall temperatures. to protect the condenser in the event of water injection failing.4 of bypass valves. the valve of the safety device moves downwards due to increasing pressure above it. the valve of the pressure switch (WPS) moves down.Page 22 of 22 of bypass limiting regulator is in upper position). LPBP Steam control valves (LPCV-1. blocking off the signal oil line and de-pressuring the oil between itself and PV-1. 4. The valve thus blocks off the signal oil line and opens the oil between itself and PV-1. 4 to drain. 2 & PV 3. Bypass operation is restored in the reverse sequence when injection water pressure becomes normal. 2 & 3.
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