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or her biographical information, is reflected in the work. You research all facets of his background and find traces of his or her experiences shown in the text. Question how the work shows pieces of the author’s past, his/her interests, biases, etc. Sociological Criticism This type of criticism can include discussions of society, of social relationships, and of historical events which might affect society during the time period of the work. In Sociological criticism, you should examine all types of politics--for example Marxism, feminism, totalitarianism, primitivism--not just conservatism and liberalism. Concentrate on how society in the various political "isms" distinguish between members of various races, social classes, sexes, or cultures. The sociological critic looks for themes of oppression and liberation; such themes may concern an individual, a family, a small group, or an entire society. Below is a list of a few questions--but certainly not all--that you might want to consider as sociological critics: --What world events play a role in the plot. In other words, what was occurring during this time period, in general society or in the political realm, that is developed in the work? --What does it say about North American society? What do individual characters say? How does the opinion of the individuals differ from that of the author? --What does it say about primitive societies? --Who is actually "civilized" in the book? Who are the most primitive? --What different society groups are in the book? What is the relationship between each of them? How is it reflected? Why do they behave towards each other the way they do? How do the different groups affect the political "ism" in society? --How does this work comment on war, hunger, sex, religion, education, ethics? --What view of the family is given? Do the relationships of the family members change in the work?
character situations. Colors red: blood. conflicts. Belief in power of nature--Mother Nature. death.. violence green: hope. An archetype is a motif (theme) or image which is found in myths of peoples widely separated by time or place..) --What images are used 1. life cycle. Adorno). sacrifice..No longer the preserve of a special elite. four seasons. male four: life cycle. resurrection.. etc... Because of this. etc... innocence.. decay black: the unknown. fate 2. anthropology.Literature the only place where totalitarian society can be resisted... conflicts.--How different is the society of the novel from our society? How similar is it? Marxism * (cover under sociological) •The 'Frankfurt School' and Walter Benjamin:(Horkheimer.. and cultural history. For Mythological/Archetypal Criticism you might want to ask yourselves--among other questions--the following: --Are there any strong Communal Beliefs: 1. magical places (holy wells.New media destroy the "religious" feeling toward art.Popular art an expression of the economic system which shapes it. Situations. female seven: powerful because it unites three and four. judge. perfect 4. death. four elements. eternity 2. Mary 3. deep chords in human nature that are touched by certain types of events. unspoiled beauty .. death. mythology is affiliated with religion. Garden: paradise. natural disasters. Belief in Supreme Being(s) creator.Detachment gives significance and power.. fertility. Based on communal beliefs. prime mover. religion. and characters can be archetypal. evil blue: virginal. Modern technology has profoundly altered the status of art. Numbers three: spiritual unity.Art more open to politics Mythological/Archetypal Criticism Mythological criticism deals with instinctual. Water: birth. sacred rocks. it has universal significance.Art becomes designed for "reproducibility".
Creation 2. the critic then describes how they work together. In preparing your presentation. whore. and then you will discuss the craft of putting these parts together. Tree: immorality. conflicts. witch. Wise Old Man (Woman) [savior. danger 5.5. the characters. transformation. phases: separation. --When exploring a work using Formalist Criticism. you will look at the parts. and characters do you see? Formalist Criticism --This type of criticism concerns itself with the parts of a text and how the parts fit together to make a whole. the fictional world in which the characters live. After analyzing each part of the text. Immortality 3. and return --Sacrificial scapegoat: the hero must die to save his/her people --Victim --What archetypal situations. the diction. mythological patterns. the settings. Hero archetypes --the quest: hero undertakes journey and performs impossible task to save his/her people --Initiation: hero undergoes ordeals to achieve maturity. inexhaustible life --What Motifs are used: 1. or is one setting given more space? Why would the author do this? •What point of view is used? Does this help or hinder the reader's understanding of the novel? Who do you think the . historical or literary allusions. the point of view. or the psychoanalytical traits of the characters (except those traits specifically described in the text. you might want to ask yourself--among many other questions the following: •Do you see each part (or chapter) as "a novel in miniature)? Does each chapter (part) describe only one major event? •How much time is devoted to each setting? Is the book evenly divided between the different settings. the 15 parts. protection. guru]: appears when hero is desperate 4. Because of this.) --The formalist critic examines each part of the text: the 46 chapters. the tone. Woman: birth. it does not bring in any information outside of the text: biography of the author.
choose one character who might be a good narrator of the story. Discuss the implications and results. for example. This is usually accompanied by hostility and aggression toward the father. the police. Therein often lies the main conflict in a novel. etc. it may be a boss. •Aggresive phase: urges rebellion against those in authority. The Oedipus complex is to a boy's relationship toward his mother and father as the Electra complex is to a girl and her relationship toward her father and mother. the narration of events. for the father is seen as a rival. or another character's comments? Or is it a combination of methods? Is this effective? Why? •Does the fictional world mirror the actual world. .author chose this point of view? Is the narrator reliable? •Imagine if the author chose another character to narrate the story. that contribute to the total effect of the work? Psychoanalytic Criticism Since this type of criticism is based on Freudian principles. it often causes a conflict between a person's desires and duty and can result in severe guilt. for the mature. or is there just a series of unrelated incidents? •Does the ending give you a sense of closure? What is the significance of the ending? •Is the title appropriate? Why or why not? •How do all these parts fit together? What literary devices does the author use to unite the parts into a whole? What are the symbols and allusions. For the young. it is best explained by briefly discussing--and simplifying--some terminology used. or is it total fantasy? Could it happen? Why? •Are there too many coincidences? Are there recognizable links between causes and effects. this authority may be the father. •Oedipus complex: an attachment (usually in early childhood) of a boy to his mother. What would not get told? What would be told in greater detail? Would anything be changed? Would that character be a reliable narrator? Spend a few minutes rewriting a section of the text from another point of view. •How are the characters developed? How do you learn about them-through direct description. Because such aggressiveness must be controlled. a government official.
--What truth(s) do each of the main characters have to endure? Do they indeed endure the truth? Or do they ignore it? Are their reactions true to their characters? If you were the characters would you react in the same way? Why? Investigate Jung’s dream state.exclusion of the female voice from literature. therefore. cruelty. constructed. Hate is replaced by love. diction. Ask yourself. concentrates on basic human drives and the confusion they can produce. Examine how the work is built. theory •Stereotypes of women . “How is the work put together to develop meaning? •To be a skilled reader means that one knows the conventions of meaning which allow a person to make sense of it Feminist Criticism •Women readers bring different perceptions/expectations to literary experience •Challenge to the "canon"--the whole body of texts that make up the tradition •Concerned with literary representations of the female. criticism. •Projection: attributing a desire or feeling to another person. •Denial: the refusal to admit an unpleasant reality. Look at exposition. foreshadowing. syntax. stubbornness. but this can narrow our interpretation of a text.. •Psychic zones: id: insistent. values gleaned from parents and society ego: the resolution between the the id and the superego. the conventions that enable readers to make sense of them. flashbacks. pleasure-seeking ego: rational. by gentleness. a balancing force --This approach. Structuralist •Emphasis: How works can be understood. •There are "rules" that govern interpretation of texts. helps regulate the id. particularly in the individual's relation to his/her society and with its members superego:the conscience. selfish.•Reaction formation: an undesirable attitude is suppressed and replaced by an extreme form of its opposite. amoral. and the ambiguous.. shadow imagery. Psychoanalytic critics often see all imagery as having sexual implications. by compliance. lustful.
connection between social and literary mistreatment of women....Search for the "female imagination.. • Females obscured by "patriarchal” values.exclusion of women from literary history in patriarchal societies....•Images of women in literature.." the "female plot" •Challenging of the most basic assumptions .
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