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The Art of Woodworking - Cabinets and Bookcases

The Art of Woodworking - Cabinets and Bookcases

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SAFETY TIPS Power tools
. Wearappropriate safetygear:safety glasses, faceshieldfor extraprotection a protection. therers no cust and hearing lf collection system, wear dustmask.For a exotrc woods suchas ebony, a respiuse rator; sawdust the maycausean allergic reaction. Wearworkgloves whenhand l i n gr o u g h u m b e r . l o Drape the powercord of a portable power tool overyourshoulder keep to it out of the way. . Concentrate thelob;do notrush. on Never workwhenyou aretired,stressed, o r h a v eb e e nd r i n k i n g l c o h oo r u s i n g a l medicationhatinduce rowsiness. ts d . A l w a y s e e py o u rw o r ka r e ac l e a n k a n d t i d y ; c l u t t e c a nl e a d o a c c i d e n t s , r t and sawdust woodscraps and can be a fie hazard. . K e e py o u rh a n d s e l l a w a y r o m a w f turning lade r bit. b o o Do not usea tool if any partis worn or damaged. Hand tools . Usethe appropriate for the toot lob: do not try to makea tool do something for whichit wasnot intended. . Clamp yourworkpiece freeboth to hands an operation. for o Cut away fromyourself rather than yourbody. toward . Do not forcea tool;if possible, try removing stockon eachpass. less . Keep edges cutting the of toolssharp

9kew chisel UeedLo ehape peaa6and Pommels on workpieceemounLed on ETne;ranqe7 beLween inchand /, 1l inchea wtdth tn Round-end earaPer 9moothe work mounLed lalthe on faceplaLe:typical blade widtheare , 1 ,l,a n d l i n c h Roughing-out gouge UeedLo turn cyltndere from oquare blankemounLed on lathe;available in '/-,1 /- and 1y'inch widthe 9pindle gouge Kound-noaed 1ouqefor qenerai turntnq;ran4e9 '/, from Lo 1 ',1 incheetn wtdl,h Parting tool Narrow,chiael-like tool ueed1ta aecLion workptece mountedon laLhe; avatlable in'/:.and /,-tnch widtha Veining chioel Fartrng Loolfor ouLliningaeparate areao and cuttin7 6harpqroovea; available 1-, l-, in

and ''/.-tnch wtdths

Eent gouge For ehap,inq holtowaana curvea: ranqeafrom'/ tnch t o 1rnchin widLh No.5 gouge For shaping ,ftne worK;ranqea from I inch Lo 1 inch in wtdth No.8 gouge For,rou4h ehaping worK; ran4e' rrom
inch to 1 inch in width Handlee '/

With a typical lenqth of 10 to 14 rnchee, handleo of turninq l;ooleare Lhicker and lonqer LhanLhoee of
carvinq Loola: the exl,ra

lenqth permiLsLwohanded operation

. Awl

. Carpenter's square
o Combination

sq uare o Compass
o Contour gauge o Cutting gauge o D i a lc a l i p e r

. Dovetail square r F l e x i b lc u r v e e r French curve o Inside allpers c . Marking gauge o Measuringpe ta o Miter quare s . Mortise gauge . Outside ca||pers

o Protractor o Sliding

o Steelruler . Straightedge

. Trammel points . Trysquare






THE ART OF WOODWORKING wasproduced by ST. REMYPRESS PUBLISHER KennethWinchester PR-ESIDENT PierreL6veill6 Series Editor Series Director Art SeniorEditors Art Directors Designers Research Editor PictureEditor Writers Research Assistant Cont r ibuting I IIustrators PierreHome-Douglas FrancineLemieux Marc Cassini(Text) HeatherMills (Research) Normand Boudreault,Luc Germain, Solange Laberge Doiron, Michel GiguEre, Jean-Guy H6ldneDion TimMcRae ChristopherJackson Andrew Jones, Rob Lutes BryanQuinn GillesBeauchemin, RollandBergera, Michel Blais,Jean-Pierre Bourgeois, RonaldDurepos,RobertPaquet, Th6rien James NatalieWatanabe MichelleTirrbide fean-LucRoy RobertChartier Iudith Yelon ChristineM. Iacobs

fon Arno is a consultant,cabinetmakerand freelancewriter who livesin Tioy, Michigan. He also conducts seminars wood identificationand on earlyAmericanfurniture design. Kam Ghaffari is a freelance writer and editor. He hashis own business RhodeIsland in designingand building one-of-a-kindand limited production furniture. Kam's background alsoincludesworking professionally furni in ture reproductionand fine carpentry,and studyingwith furniture patriarchsWendell Castleofthe U.S.and FredBaierofEngland. Giles Miller-Mead taught advanced cabinetmaking at Montreal technicalschools more for than ten years. nativeofNew Zealand, has A he worked asa restorerof antiquefurniture. fosephTruini is SeniorEditor of Hoze Mechanixmagazine. former Shopand Tools A Editor of PopularMechanics, hasworked as a he cabinetmaker, home improvementcontractor and carpenter.

Administrator Production Manager System Coordinator Photographer Proofreader Indexer

Time-Life Booksis a division of Time-Life Inc., a wholly ownedsubsidiaryof THE TIME INC. BOOK COMPANY

President Iohn D. Hall Vice-President NancyK. Jones Editor-in-Chief ThomasH. Flaherty Directorof Editorial Resources EliseD. Ritter-Clough MarketingDirector EditorialDirector Consulting Editor Production Manager ReginaHall LeeHassig fohn R. Sullivan MarleneZack

Cabinetsand bookcases p. cm.-(The Art of Woodworking) Includesindex. ISBN0-8094-99 45-2 (trade) l. Cabinetwork-Amateurs' manuals. 2. Bookcases-Amateurs'manuals. I. Time-Life Books.II. Series

TTr97.C23 684.1'6-dc20

93-20771 CIP

For information about any Time-Life book, please l-800-621-7026, write: call or Reader Information Time-Life CustomerService P.O. Box C-32068 fuchmond, Virginia 23261-2068 @ 1993 Time-LifeBooksInc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproducedin any form or by any electronicor mechanical means,including information storage and retrievaldevices systems, or without prior written permissionfrom the publisher,exceptthat briefpassages be quotedfor reviews. may First printing. Printed in U.S.A. Publishedsimultaneously Canada. in TIME-LIFE is a trademarkof Time WarnerInc. U.S.A. R 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


t2 T4 T6 L9 20 24 40 42 44 45 50 52 54 56 60 62 64 66 72 84 86 88 93 100 104

CABINETMAKING BASICS Wood movement and orderinglumber Selecting Lumber defects Preparing stock joinery Cabinetmaking BOOKCASE Anatomy of a bookcase Bookcase accessories Adjustableshelving Fixed shelves Edgetreatmentfor shelves Faceframes Bases feet and ARMOIRE Anatomv of an armoire Pilasters' Cornicemoldings Doors BLANKET CHEST Anatomy of a blanketchest Tops Bases feet and Hardware Inlays

106 108 110 Llz 116 118 I20 L24 L28 130 I34 136
I4O I42

HIGHBOY Anatomy of a highboy Assembling upper chest the Cabriolelegs Assembling lower chest the Cockbeading Drawers Crown moldings Rosettes Finials Quarter columns Applied sculptures



Nain Morcelandhis

was helibrary unit shownhere,madeout of Hondurasmahogany, oneof my Loeven, It I first big commissions. wasbuilt in the shopI co-ownwith Frdddric in We a fine cabinetmaker. hadbuilt a lot of singlepieces the past,but this wasour inteof with theplanningandconstruction a large, first opportunityto experiment wall unit. grated of measurements theroom that theunit would Our first stepwasto takeaccurate The straight. difwallsarenot always since This occupy. hadto bedoneverycarefidly, the between wallsat the corners ference be asmuch as%inch.Sowe measured can out. We only wantedto cut our stockonce! of the room andagaineveryfewinches Our clientwanted in the in With measurementshand,wedesigned piece theshop. The a look, which waswhy we chose dark mahogany. a traditionalEnglish-library ofthe unit. appearance to French doorsalsocontributed the classical would be was consideration to makesurethebookcases Themostcriticaldesign depth between height, the for of wellproportioned thesize theroom.Therelationship as with andwidth of the unit hadto be right. To provideourselves a visualreference plan of we of the we cut and assembled components the structure, drewa full-scale and trackofall thepieces us Thisenabled to keep theroomon thefloorofthe shop. as position themin theirproperlocations wewentalong. and for structure joinedthe fiberboard the basic We usedmahogany-veneered shelfsupports they are Mostof theshelves adjustable; sit on brass pieces biscuits. with panels. added We solidmahoganybanding, in into whicharescrewed sleeves theside to of of twicethe thickness the shelfstock,to the front edges the shelves givethem of cut sit morerigidity.Thebackpanels in rabbets into the backedges the unit. We jointswith usingmortise-and-tenon doorsout of solidmahogany madethepaneled pieces moldingis madeup of threeseparate Thecornice molding. a fineintegrated beforebeingappliedto the unit. and of wood individuallyshaped gluedtogether coats stainfollowedby several with Wefinishedthebookcases a darkredmahogany the stainto accentuate molding thenwipedon a glazing lacquer, of cellulose-based an appearance, andgivethepiece aged

Les Alain Morcel operates Rialisations Loeven-Morcel,a cabinetry shop in Montrdal, Qutbec, along with his partin ner, Fr,lddricLoeven.The shopspecializes architectural woodwork and reproductionsof antiquefurniture.


ChrisBecksvoort describes the

about them. contain element mystery, waiting beexplored. can All just an of to who resist openingsmall a doorwithatinyturned knobandspinner, lifting lid of oi the a dovetailed keepsake AskPandora. box?
pieces---<upboards, ase bureaus, bookcases, chests, sideboards, otherassortand ed cabinets-are bestmerely at glorified boxes. thereis something Yet special To thecabinetmaker, pieces a pleasure, well asa challenge build.The case are as to possible lay'out combinations endless: pull-out trays, are doors,drawers, shelves, dividers, pigeonholes, oneof my favorite and components, secret cbmpartmenls. Nothingthrillsa customer morethanto betold thattheirnewacquisition a hidden h,as compartment. And nothingaddsto the anticipation morethan to sayit is up to themto find it. Woodworkers specializing individuallybuilt in pieces thriveon variety. concentrate I on cases arenot available that commercially, asa special-size to fit a specific such piece spot,a l5-drawer camera cabinet, display for a watchcoll-ction, a tinware a case or cupboard theoneshownin thephotograph. wasinspired a shaker like It by original I sawat the Renwick Gallery theSmithsonian of Institution 1973.The in cupboard is oneof themostversatile pieces build,equally I suitable a hallway, in bedroom, bath, kitchen, livingroom-anlnvhere or space at a premium. is Each piece make I involves integiation functionanddesign. realchallenge the of The comes thebuildingprocess. in wood expands duringsummer's humidityandshrinks duringwinter's dryness. boardmoves A across width,whileits lengthremains its virtuallyconstant. constraint Any that physically limits this movementlnvites disaster. Moldings cannot glued be across cabinet a side; instead rideon dovetails. they Door frames cut from relatively are narrowquartersawn woodto minimize movement, while the wide panels freeto float in their grooves. frames are The between drawers must jointsto followthemovement the telescope andout of theirmortise-and-tenon in of case sides. Backs, doors, like consist quartersawn of frames floating and panels, mortisedand tenonedto providestrength and resist racking, Eventhe gapi above each drawermustbe figuredprecisely keepthem from swelling to shut. when the elements design, of wood,andjoinerycometogithercorrectly, case the will survive that futuregenerations become so will intriguedenough wantto turn to theknob,openthedoor,andsearch thesecret for compartment.

Chris Becksvoort buildsfine furniture at his workshop in New Gloucester, Maine. He is shown herewith his tinware cupboardin the Meeting House at the Shaker community of Sabbathday Lake,Maine.


about Mario RodriguLeztalks buildinghis

at we in house-hunting thecountry looked newcon1 A f henmy wifeandI started and styles, old houses. built in traditional newhouses homes, V V temporary plumbing. and systems, dependable heating like things layout, we Naturally, considered that wastheknowledge an old For But wewerestilldrawnto old houses. me,there rightup to thehand-split foundation was house built by hand-from thehand-dug and guided experience skill. by stren$h were roof.Oldhouses builtwith sheer shingle up Weended buyingan old house. and that you surfaces undulate ripplefrom hand thrbughour place see Walking with shirnbeams are ago. 200 planes thaipasedoverthemnearly years There chestnut studded cut mering,fatetedsurfaces by an adzeand thick, pine floorboards with wereproduced mantels, paneling and nails. thedoor-ways, Nl with hind-wrought base or pine.No flakeboard finger-jointed Valley Hudson from choice handplanes moldinehere. fireplace, stone for I waitedto builda specialpiece thediningroom.With itsmassire this around room.I decided In of it istheheart thehouJe. thel8th Centuryiiferevolved the it in shown thephotoandplace opposite fireplace. cupboard to buildthecorner ago. spotmanyyears the piece occupied same It'slikelythata similar handtools. antique made using muchof it was fromtigermaple; I built thecupboard The myself. hard some and the I shaped moldingwith planes scrapers, of whichI made of smallbits you and planed, sanded, up close cansee. not werJhand mapie surfaces The from wouldfind on cupboards the lBthCentury. interiorof tearout-justas.you of It aside straightforward, froma fewangles. is made pineandjoined isfairly thecase the and jointssecured srnall nails. mortised tenoned I cut with and with dadoes rab6et a I used dark,less-refined glass.even with oid,seeded and frames finedthesash cabinet with a mlxtureof Thenit wasrubbed to shellac givethewooda warmhoneycolor. as the satinfinish.I made cabinet pumice an finseed oilto achieve antique-like anld in and ago. built 200years Whenit wascompleted placed thecorner, been it wouldhave theytakeyou backto the lBth and the cupboard the room cameto life.Together match. It's Centurv. a perfect to the setting create rightmood the of a Likea painting, piece furnitureneeds proper but important, soisscale, period environment Xot andatmoiphere. onlyistheproper of the that These considerations willheighten impact thepiece are and color, iighting. but planted aq'where without my I wouldenjoy cupboard tolts success. andcontribute old diningroomof my beautiful horne. it a doubtI enjoy ntoreinthe Workjnps irt Cotuttry nt woodworking Warwick teoches MnrioRodriguez in of Institute Technology NewYork and NewYork, at theFttshion Warwick, ntngctzine. editor FineWoodworking of a City.He is also contributirtg


herearetwo kindsof skill a involved constructing in putting finecabinet bookcase: or of the skeleton the together basic piece thenembellishing it. and and of Thefinials rosettes the featured Annehighboy Queen on page106mustbe turned with care a latheandthen on the artfullvcarved: distinctive (page pilasters anarmoire 60) of attention proto require carefirl But on duce therouter. although adornments these distinctive a attention, maycapture viewer's together. edge-glued Panels oftenmadeof boards are a theyalsoreflect truism:No produce patternthat is visually a Thepieces should will amount decoration conof should run whilethegrain of all theboards of ceal defects a poorlybuilt interesting the A trianglewill help direction. marked looks in in thesame This structure. chapter you if you rearrange boards the correctly theyare moved skills will detail thebasic at glue before up. prepare it need select to stock,
professionally, then assemand ble it into a sturdyfoundationfor your cabinetor bookcase. with Thebasics cabinetmakingbegin an understanding of (page with woodmovement on of wood.Thesections dealing a 14),orderingwo od,(page16),andpreparing cuttinglist based

"raised"-that cut panels is,theyhave bevels aroundtheir are touch,but they lenda decorative Not edges. only do thebevels the and alsoallowthewoodto expand contractwhilepreserving panels shownstartingon page 36. is Raising worKsintegrity.

(page will help 18) on a sketch youpurchase right lumber the for yourproject. With your stockin hand, you canbeginthestep-by-step process buildinga carcase. of stock This begins preparing with (page andgluingup panels 20) 2a). of Qage A variety corner joinery handoptions, including (or andplate biscutdovetails are begincuit)joints, presented page Nextcomes 26. ningon jl) (page panel installingback a glue-up assembly. and andfinal method Theframe-and-panel isdescribed a ofbuilding cabinet on 32. starting page Thistechnot niqueispopular onlyfor its it allows butbecause appearance, In for woodmovement. many cabinets, the frame-and-panel

slivers waste of A skew chisel removes from the in dovetails a drawerside.Cuttingthejoint by handispainstakingbut it impartsa traditional of look and distinctive to a Diece furniture.


ood is a hygroscopic material, absorbing releasing and moisture astherelative humidityof thesurrounding air rises andfalls. And asthe moisturecontent piece ofa ofwoodchanges, sodo its dimensions weight.When and wood is assembled a piece furniinto of ture, the changes produceprobcan lems-somegreat, some small. cabinet A door that shuts smoothly December in may not closeat all in lune; a perfectly square bookcase literallypull itself can apartat thejointsashumiditychanges throughout the year. Knowing how moistureaffectswood will help vou avoid these problems. The waterin wood is measured as a percentage ofits oven-dry, wateror freeweight. example, a 4O-pound For if piece ofwooddrops 30pounds to when oven-dried, the weight of the shed water-10 pounds-divided by the wood's weight-30 pounds-is the dry moisture contentof the originalpiece: in thiscase, percent. 33 Woodholdswaterboth asvapor-like moisture called water itsiell cavfree in itiesandasboundwaterin thecellwalls. Whenwood is cut and exposed the to air,it sheds freewaterfirst. Whenall its freewateris expelled, wood is said the to beat its fibersaturation point (FSP), typicallybetween and 30 percent 23 moisture content. thispoint there To has been change thedimensions the no in of piece; simplyweighs it less. wood As driesfurther,however, wateris shedfrom the cellwalls,causing them-and the board-to shrink. Undernormalcircumstances, wood neverregains freewater;a dried its board's cavities always cell will remain emptyof moisture. the amountof But boundwatercontained thecellwalls in changes with shiftsin the humidity in the air.At 100percent relative humidity, wood reaches FSP. 0 percent its At humidity,woodis drainedof all water, Therelative moisture theatmosphere in normallyfallsbetween these values, and the moisturecontentof mostwoods ranges between and20 percent. 5 possible. Still, Remember makeallowances to the fluctuationin relative humidity for woodmovement theconstruction in between typicalNorth American winof your work. Usingframe-and-panel tersand summers cause can substan- joinery for example(page will pro32) tial wood movement overthe course vide space wood to expandand for of a year. contractwithout affecting overall the Youcancompensate thisin several condition thepiece. for of woods Some tend ways. Usea humidifier in winter and a to movemore than others; consulta dehumidifier summerto keepthe in lumberdealer find the mostdimento indoorlevelof humidity constint as as sionally stable species yourprojects. for

Moisture content above 30% (nochange)

(no Moisturd content atFSP-26% change)

Moisture content 17%(%" at shrinkage)

Moisture content 13%(%" at shrinkage)

('1" Moisture content 8o/o shrinkage) at

plain-sawn of softwood plank Asthemoisture of a 2-by-10 level lumber (FSP), wood point drops below fiber the saturation the shrinks. 17 perAt cent, board %inchnarrower it was its FSP; loses the is than at it another %inch width of when kiln-dried8 percent. to partly Shrinkage depends generally, onthedensity thewood; of a denser species shrinks swells and more than lighter Sapwood tends change size a one. also to in more quickly heartwood. than


and shrinkage Tangential radial uniformly; shown as does shrink not Wood red in bythedotted lines theillustration to shrinkage-tangent at right, tangential as rings-isabout twice great thegrowth across which asradial shrinkage, occurs boards This difference causes therings. or as shrink swell andpanels warp they to lt in humidity. can withchanges relative joints loosen tighten or from to also cause below. as excess Dressure, discussed of is along Shrinkage the length a board plank A 2-by-10 that insignificant. usually its might lose % across width shrinks inch length. along 8-foot an less thanXeinch



Tan4ential plane

grain 0ptimizing direction planes of Thelocation thetangential of willsignif icantly affect a mating boards joint's Intheidestrength stability. and in al situation-as shown theillustration joint of a mortise-and-tenonat left-the planes joined pieces are of tangential parallel. ensures the boards This that movement similar wood willexperience moisture direction their as in thesame Orienting boards this content changes. preventjointfromcoming a wayhelps prevents mating it the boards loose; also when they swell highwith from splitting er levels moisture. of

V ou canbuy the lumberfor your I woodworking projectfrom several with its own advantages sources, each and drawbacks. locallumberyard The is oftenthe most convenient supplier, but the selection maybelimitedto conwoods struction suchaspine,spruce, and other softwoods. Though you mayfind the occasional cache hardof wood at a lumberyard, will probyou ably have to venture farther afield, woodworkingmagazines consulting in to find dealers who soecialize the Prices for hardwoods usedin cabinetry. goodhardwood lumbercanbe high, you but asis oftenthe case, will generally getwhat you pay for. you Sometimes canbuy locallycut lumber from a smallsawmill,but the

woodwill oftenneed be seasoned to andsurfaced. Rerycled boards groware ingin popularity,result thescarcia of woods thegrowing and ty of certain responsibility sense environmental of felt bv manvwoodworkers. Whether removed anoldbarnor a piece from of timeworn furniture, woodmay such be relatively inexpensive because it and, from often originates oldgrowth timber, it canbevisually structurally and superior to thesmall billets younger of lumberavailable today. Before your consider ordering wood, yourrequirements carefully refer and to thefollowing to helpyougetwhat tips youneed a reasonable at cost. . Species: for thespecific Ask wood For species, a broad not family name.

example, orderWestern cedar, red not To simplycedar. beabsolutely learn sure, nameof the wood you the botanical want and askfor it. .Quantity: Let your supplier know whetheryou areorderingin boardfeet or linealfeet.A lineal foot refersto a length,regardless its width board's of andthickness. boardfoot is a meaThe sureof the volumeof woodtit is usualIy necessary referto board feetfor to orderinghardwoods, which areoften available randomsizes in only. .Size: Woodissoldin nominalrather thanactual sizes. makeallowances so for the difference whenorderingsurfaced lumber.A nominal 2-bv-4is actuallv l'/i'-by-31"The thickness wood ii . of oftenexpressed a fractionin quarters as

BOARD CATCUTATING FEET foot 0rdering lumber theboard by used Theboard is a unitof measurement foot commonly when with lumber. shown As below, standard the dealing hardwood 1 board is equivalent a piece wood inchthick,12 foot to of long. calculate number To of inches wide,and12 inches the piece wood, multiply three its board feet in a particular of dimensions, divide result I44 if thedimensions then the by areall in inches. bv 12 if one thedimensions feet. or of is in

-,iy6:[,::;#f, difterent, boardg size
1-by-3= 2 board feet i

for Theformula a standard board: I " x 1 2 "x 1 2 "+ I 4 4 = I ( o r1 "x 1 2 "x 1 ' : 1 2 = I ) you calculate the Soif youhada 6{ooflong1-by-4, would feet). board asfollows: x 4" x $' + 12 = 2 (or2 board feet 1" Other examoles shown theillustration, are in Remember that board arecalculated thebasis nominal feet on of rather than actual dimensions.

l-D!-O = + OOarATeeT ',


1"x 12"x 12"= 1 eLandardboardfoot 2-by-4=5%boardfeet

2-W-6 = B board feet i,



the primary difference between two board,for of an inch.A 2-inch-thick is the moisturecontent(MC) of the will as surfacing is example, expressed %; Wth unsurfaced wood.Kiln-driedwoodhasa moisture inches. it reduce to 1% it wood,the nominaland actual contentof about8 percent; will not or green drv anvfurtherwhenusedfor indoor are dimensions thesame. . Grade: The primary difference fuiniture.Air-driedwood hasan MC Thiswoodis often of 12to 15percent. of high and low grades hardbetween or by chosen carvers, by woodworkers ratherthan wood lumberis appearance ofa board who preferto dry their own wood. Because grade the strength. .Surfacing: refers how to Surfacing of by isdetermined theproportions clear at wood it contains,large high-grade wood is prepared the mill beforeit Hardwood to comes the lumberyard. than are boards far moreexpensive lowon surfaced both faces If boards. you needonly small- lumberis usually er-grade (S2S). and a Ifyou have planer ajointer, pieces cancut them you er high-grade board,at greatsav- buying rough lumber and surfacing out ofa lower-grade expensive. will it yourself proveless for ings.Consultyour localdealer a chart available. ofthe differentgrades . Seasoning: Lumberis soldeither (AD).The kiln-dried(KD) or air-dried

THE STAGES OF PRODUCTION CABINET the Likemost tasks, building can of of a oiece furniture be most accomplished smoothly if andefficiently youtakea Most approach. methodical projects listinvolve steps the be they ed below; should carshown, ried in thesequence out board at starting the drawing with andending a finalinspecefficiency, tion.Formaximum in layoutyour tools theshop wood follows a sothatyour route from direct relatively to rough stock f inalassembly. ing fordetermin Considerations yourneeds ordering wood and at arediscussedleftandonpage preparation joinand 18.Stock 20. on erybegin page rDesign plan piece and . Listandorder materials . Prepare stock .Joint face edge one and . Plane face other . Rip width to rGrosscut length to . Cut joints .Sand assembly before .Assemble components .Finish sand oMake install doors and anddrawers 'APPIY finish .Give final inspection



Making using cutting and a list A cutting records frnished list the sizes piece of lumber needed a particular of for furniture.oneis notincluded the lf with plans purchase, willhave make you you to your ownbased a sketch thedesign. on of U s e h ef o r m u l s h o w n n p a g e 6 t o t a o 1 totalthe number board foreach of feet component the prolect; 20 to 40 of add (depending thespecies) percent on to account waste defects thewood. for and in For bookcase the shown right, at which totals roughly board youshould 14 feet, purchase to 20 board of %lumber 17 feet in addition theplywood theback to for of thecase. shown As below, cutting a list s h o u l d c l u dte en a m e f t h ec o m p o in h o nent, quantity, dimensions the the of each piece, thewood and species selected for the project. convenience, each For assign piece kevletter later a for reference,


CUTTING tlST Piece A Top B Bottom C Side D Fixed shelf EAdjustable shelves F Back 1 Qtv. 1 I
a Z


10' 10' 10" 10' 10' 24',

L. 23Yo' 23Yo'

Material ash ash asn ash asn plywood

Board feet 1.6 1.6 5.8 1.6

1u 1u 1u Y"'






a may T umberdefects reduce board's or or L.i strength workability mar its Or, appearance. in the handsof a cremayin somedefects ativewoodworker, transforming visualassets, factbecome into a work of art. an ordinarypiece

however, undiminare Mostdefects, mayresult some Although ished trouble. tree to fromdamage thestanding or the number lumber fromit, thegreatest cut dryby are ofdefects produced irregular ingof thewood.

someof The chartbelowillustrates and details the most commondefects the wayin whichmostcanbe corrected;with diligentuseof the band saw boards cupped even mostseriously the (page 21). canbe salvaged


knots becutoutor used, can Formed as Tight tissue. by encircled sound as Appears a whorl dead dictates; or gradually Live asappearance branch. girth treeincreases, enveloping of mustberemoved loose knots in wood, with integrate surrounding resulting branches with working stock. with integrate surroundingbefore cannot stubs dead tightknots; knots. dead loose or forming tissue, if stock a quality or of on Anaccumulation thesurface the board in pockets Donotuse as finish required,gumwill is sufwhen develops a treehas Usually within board. the most finishes. bleed through attack. to exposurefire,or insect fered injury, an

usually in the or ruptures separations wood, Lengthwise and strength May drying. compromise caused rapid by board. appearance of

be Can cutoff'

caused by usually the curve Anend-to-end along face, internal stresses Introduces of storage lumber. improper to it in thewood make difficult cut. that in the Common curve Anedge-to-edge across face. to cut or cut tangentially stock, boards close thepith, with contact theairthan has of if oneface a board less theother. Crook by caused incorrect the curve End-to-end along edge, to close thepithof a tree. the or seasoningcutting board for making unsuitable weightit Weakens wood, the applications. bearing is when corner not one warping or Uneven irregular drying or from Results uneven with aligned theothers. pattern is notparallel theedge. to that a cross-grain

boards the on bowed Flatten jointer, cut intoshorter pieces, or the thenuse jointer. can Cupped boards besalvaged 21) saw onthe band (page or on flattened thejointer.




by Board besalvaged jointing can waste fromtheedges. andripping unstable, remain boards Crooked well. or not andmay stain finish jointer, on Board beflattened can boards. orcut intoshorter


but along Board beused, splitmay can as appeartngseparations the to Similar checks, of the shank. mar appearance wood, the grovuth Also check ring or as rings. known ring when more damage. becoming noticeable of or drying wood felling from Results improper is stain applied.


nceyouhave designedproject a and /l \-rl purchased lumber,you must the jointing and planing prepare stock, the it smoothand square, cuttingit to the properdimensions sanding surand any faces will be difficult to reach that when the work is assembled. The procedures follow depend board to makeit parallelto the first. you on how the wood wassurfaced before Whenthe stockisiquareand smooth, you boughtit. For rough,unsurfaced youarereadytorip it to widthandcrossIumber,first smoothone faceon the cut it to length. jointer,then one edge, producing two For S2S lumber,which hasalready adjoining surfaces areat 90o each hadboth faces that to you surfaced, needonlv other.Next,planethe other faceof the joint one edge across jointer,then the cut to width andlengh. S4S stock, with all four surfaces dressed, be ripped can andcrosscut immediately; surfaces only thatwill beglued together mustbejointed.Beforegluing up anypart ofyour project,remember sandanysurfaces to thatwillbe hardto reach after assembly.

A jointer produces smooth,even a edgeon a hardwood board. For best results,seta cutting depth between Vtaand t/einch.


lointing board a Slide fence the toward guard, necessary, the if to ensure thatno portion thecutter of knives beexposed the will as passes them.Laytheworkpiece workpiece over face-down on the infeed table fewinches a fromthe knives. its Butt edge against fence, the thenplace push two blocks squarely (Use on itsface, centered between edges. the push blocks withoffset handles prevent hands your to fromhitting the

fence.) Feed board the slowly steadily and across knives the (above) pressure the outfeed applying downward on sideof t h e k n i v e a n dl a t e r ap r e s s u r e a i n s t e f e n c e W h e n s l ag th . w o r k i nw i t hl o n g t o c kb r i n g o u rl e f th a n d o t h e b a c k g y s , t o f t h ew o r k p i e c eh e n o u rr i g h th a n d a s s ets e k n i v e s . y w p h W h e n n ef a c ei s d o n ej,o i n tt h e b o a r d d g e ss h o w nn o e a i the ohoto above.



stock Planing Stand to inch. depth %o Setthecutting and both theplaner use side of to one into carefully the to hands feed stock mechanism Once feed the themachine. o g r i p sh eb o a r d n db e g i nts p u l li t a t the support trailthe across cutterhead, i t f l a to n t h et a b l e i n ge n dt o k e e p to Thenmove the outfeed hbove). planer support workthe to of side the the prece both hands untilit clears with prevent stock from the To roller. outfeed planing one only avoid in warping use, plane same amount the face; instead, sides fromboth of wood

ilil llll llll l]ll lllllllll]ll lllllllllllllll1 illlltillll llllllllill lllj
)HO? TI?
galvaging ouppedotoak on lhe band eaw ueinq boardo cupped Youcanoalvage Nhebandsaw,radialarm eaw,or table narrower ehockinNo eawfo riVVinqNhe lf boarde. you are ueinqlhe bandeaw yourwideet' here, ineNall as ehown narrowbladeand a rip fence.The the er Nhewidlh of cuI,I'he flaNt'er g reeultin boarde.5 el Nheboard (hiqh)eideup on lhe Iable convex Lheboardaqainet and,bul5inq the fence,teed it eteadilyinbo wiNh a the Finish paee the blade, pueh any etick.Kemove remaininq hiqhopote on the jointer.





Rippingboard thetable a on saw posiSetthe blade height about inchabove workpiece. % the tiontheripfence thewidth cut,thenpush stock for of the into t h eb l a d eh o l d i nig f i r m l y g a i n sh ef e n c e i t hy o u r e f t , t a tt w l hand feeding board both and (above). the with thumbs SIand slightly one to side theworkpiece straddle fence of and the

your with right hand, makrng certain neither is in line that hand wrth blade. pushing board the Keep the until blade the cuts through completely. keep it your To fingers coming from closer than3 inches theblade, a push from use stick complete to the (Caution: pass. guard partially Blade retracted clarity.) for

Crosscutting stock W r t h h ew o r k p i e cle s h g a i n sh e t f u a tt gauge, miter align cutting the mark with theblade. Position ripfence away the well fromtheendof thestock prevent to the jamming piece cut-off from against the blade kicking toward Hook and you. back thethumbs bothhands themiter of over gauge hold stockirmly to the f against the g a u g a n df l a to n t h et a b l et,h e nf e e d e (right). (Caution: theboard the blade into guard partially Blade retracted clarity.) for




llll llllllllllllllllllllllllllllljl] lllllll iltlll llllllllIIlllllllt
Making repeat cuts with the lable eaw To cut, several Lo boarde Nhe on eamelenqNh t Nhe ablesaw, 6crewa boardLo lhe miler qauqe e a e a n e x t e n e i o n ,n o u r i n q Lhe beYond Nhat one ende>lvends Tueht'he miberqauqet'o sawblade. offthe cut,intol'heendof the e>l1ension.Turn eawand markf'helenqlhof cut on Ihe erteneion. t'he mark and clampiNin p.lace Aliqn awoodblockwi|h To ae-a olop block. lineup oachcul, bulN'lheend of cut' Nhe and make Nhe aqainet' block vhe workpiece

sander a Using belt to surface to a Clamp stopblock a work a Install frommoving. the keep stock cord the belt sanding anddrape power yourshoulder keepit outof the to over parallel direction the way. With sanding grain, onthetooland turn to thewood (above). it lower ontothesurface slowly prefer setthetool woodworkers to Some it. starting before f latontheworkpiece along move machine the case, In either strokes overlapping withlong, thegrain To is untilthesurface smooth. avold keep sander the gouging surface, the do moving; notletthe f lat andalways pause onespot. in machine


his section introduces somestan-

J. dardjoinery techniques common to thebuilding virtually style of any of cgline1 bookcase. are or Ifyou using solid lumber yourproject, will make for you upthewide panels thecarcase the for or panel aframe-and-panel of assemblyby gluing boards together edge-to-edge, as shown below. Thistechnique enables youto save money-wideboards are prohibitively expensive-without sacrificingstrength;glued-up a panel just is asstrong a single as piece lumber. of If youareworking with plywood panels, hardwood banding hideunsightly will (page edges 25). Of thedozens ofjoinery options, the joint remains throughdovetail the benchmark craftsmanship. joint of The

canbecut on a variety power of tools, but thehand-cutting technique shown starting page will give thedison 26 you tinctive associated finefurnilook with joint,shown ture. plate A beginning on page29,is a muchquicker option. Although lacks dovetail's it the esthetic appeal, platejoint is virtually the asstrong is anexcellent and choice if youareworking with p\nvood panels, whichcannot joined be with dovetails. joint Whichever youchoose, caryour

case needa back.Installation will details areprovided page on 31. Manytypes cabinets, of including the armoireshownon page60, are built around frame-and-panel assemblies ratherthancrcrses.Twojoinery options for buildingsucha cabinetarepresented:themortise-and-tenon (page and 33) joint the cope-and-stick (page 35).The panels a frame-and-panel for cabinet can be raisedon eitherthe tablesaw j6) (page or router (page 3S).


plate, biscuit, ffirs a strong The joint or and simple method connecting of carcase corners with a minimum of set-up time. The slots cut with a special are toolknownasa platejoiner. Once glue isadded the slots, biscuits comto oval of pressed beech inserted.When the are joint isgluedand assembled, biscuits the swell, creating durable a connection.

theglue 1 Applying r Settwobarclamps a work on surface laythe boards top.Adoas many and on clamps youneed support pieces 24-to 36-inch prop as to the at intervals. thecramos on notched wood blocks keep to them fromfalling over. Mark endgrain the orientation of each board a pencil, arrange pieces enhance appearance, with then the to their as shown thephoto page Tominimize in on 13. warping, sure endgrain adjamake the of centboards in opposite runs directions. youhave satisfactory once a arrangemenr, align pieces the edgeto-edge mark triangle thestock help assemble and a on you to the boards glueup.Next, twoprotective pads least long theboards. at cut wood at as as Leaving firstboard down, the face stand other pieces edge the on withthealignment marks facing you. away from Apply thinglue (above), use a bead each to board rnen a small, stiff-bristled to spread adhesive brush the eventv.



llll lllt lllllllllllllllllillfllllllllllllilllllllllllillllllllllllJ lll
Adding edge molding to plywood of edqee the vieible Coiceal panelewilh eolid' plywood Uoea I'onguewoodmoldin7. joint'lo )oinlhe and-groove inNo pieceo. CUI a qroove as lhe ed4eone-t'hird Nhick a a e N h eo a n e l . T h esn wa matchiiqlonyueon the edqe of lhe hardwoodboardthat' usedaslhe edqemoldwillbe t'he inq.(lNis besl'o make

r) Tightening clamps the making face boards down, L Setthe Tightalign. of the sure sides thetriangle u s e nt h ec l a m p u n d etrh eb o a r djs s t a Install together. them to enough press the across topof thestock, thirdclamp Gradually the it centeringbetween others. (above) there until all tighten theclamps and the between boards arenogaps out squeezes of the of a thinbead glue joints. a C clamp level adjacent to Use f lush that boards donotlieperfectly with with the Protecting boards a other. each pad, on the center clamp thejotnt wood i a n e a t h ee n d s n dt i g h t e nt u n t i lt h e r (inset), thenremove are boards level to knife a and theclamp pad.Use putty of as remove much thesqueezed-out the Once it glue possible before dries. as the remove clamps has adhesive cured, any to scraper remove andusea patnt glue thatremains.

and on Lhetonque. lhe 7roove gecure wilh in lhe moldinq 7lace clampo. Nhree-way




Waate Center

0utlining pins the I Mark outside of each the face board a bigX,thenset with gauge thethickness thestock scribe line a cutting to of and a around ends thefourpanels mark shoulderthe the of to the of pins tails. panels willform topandbottom and The that the of thecarcase bethepinboards. will Secure onein turnin each a vise use dovetail and a square oufline pins theends to the on of theboard thesequence (you in shown above. canalso a use sliding bevelto mark pins; anangle l:6 forsoftwood the set of o r 1 : 8f o rh a r d w o o d . ) T h e r e of i r mg u i d e l i n f o rs i z i n g es a r en a n ds p a c i ntg ep i n s f a d o v e t aj io i n t . n g e n e r a lh ep i n s h o l I t, r) Cutting pins the Z- Secure f irstpin board a vise the rn wrthits outside toward Use you. face a dovetail to cut along edges saiv the of thepins, working oneside the from of panel the other(right). to Some woodworkers it easier cut all the leftfind to hand edges first, thenmove to and on theright-hand edges. each align For cut, thesawblade withthewaste of the side cutting andusesmooth, strokes, line even taking to keep blade perpendiccare the ular thepanel asyoucutto the to end shoulder lines. Repeat procedure the at theopposite of theboard at both end and ends theother board. pin of


s h o u l b en ow i d etrh a n h et a i l se v e n ls p a c ep i n s t l e a s t d t ; y d a one{hird size thewaste the of sections around them make will j f o r a n a t t r a c t i v s t,r o n go i n t .B e g i n i t hh a l f - p i na t e a c h e w s edge, making certain thenarrow that sides thepins on of are theoutside of thepanel. face Outline waste the sections beside thehalf-pins mark center thepanel and the of end. Oufline a pinat thecenter mark, thenmark remaining (above, the pins right), indicating thewaste all sections Xs.Usea combiwith nation square extend marks to the down theshoulder on to line both faces yougo. as



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Cuttin7 awaywaole with a aoping saw sawworKe A copinq a s w e l la s a c h i e e l awayNhe for clearing bulkof the wast'ewood Nhepine.WiNh between
N h ep a n e le e c u r e du p r i 4 h l i n a v i e e ,s l a n d f a c i n q t h e o u N s i d e f a c e o f N h e V a n e la n d o l i d e the saw blade into t'he kerl beeide each pin, Kolale lhe frame wit'houL N e N r i k i n a h ee n d o f L h e b o a r d a n d c u No u t ' t a e m u c h w a e t ' ea o y o D c a n w h i l ek e e p i n qh e b l a d ea b o u l / , ai n c h a b o v et ' h e s h o u l d e rl i n e .C u l

out Q Chiseling thewaste the woodbetween r-J Mostof the waste s p i n sc a nb e r e m o v ew i t ha c o p i n g a w , d i a s s h o w nn t h e s h o pt i p b e l o wl,e a v i n g f . t h e f i n a lp a r i n go r a c h i s e l H o w e v e irt, l d i s n o t m u c hm o r e i f fi c u l tt o c h i s eo u t The keyis to workpatientall the waste. o h l y , r e m o v i ntg i n s l i v e r s f w o o dw i t h t a l e a c hc u t , u s i n g c h i s e n o w i d e r h a n Set section. sideof the waste the narrow up o t h e p i nb o a r d u t s i d e - f a c e o n a w o r k o b a s u r f a c e n dc l a m pa g u i d e l o c k n t o p w a w i t ht h e e d g e l i g n e d i t ht h e s h o u l d e r a l t l i n e .H o l d i n gh e c h i s e b e v e l - o u tg a i n s t o a b t h e g u i d e l o c k n d p e r p e n d i c u lta rt h e t s, f a c eo f t h e w o r k p i e c e t r i k e h e h a n d l e a m w i t ha w o o d e n a l l e t o s c o r e % - i n c h cut left).Then fromthe deepcut (above, off to end of the board shave a %-inch layerof wasle (above,rrght). Continue u h r e m o v i ntg e w a s t e n t i ly o ua r ea b o u t youhave Once the halfway through stock. fromonesideof all removed the waste the reposition edge turn it over, the board, d y t b o f t h eg u i d e l o c k i r e c t l o v e r h e s h o u l f e d e rl i n e ,a n dr e m o v t h e w a s t e r o mt h e s other ide.

o t u n N ylo ur e a c h l h e k e ro n L h ee d q e f t ' h ea d l a c e n t i wasLe. pin.Dsea chieel pareawayany remaininq lo


?in board


()utlining cutting tails and the M a r k h o u l d eirn e s n t h et a i lb o a r da sv o ud i do nt h e t o e x t e n t h e l i n e s n t o h ee n d s f t h eb o a r d s . a r k s l o s d o t o M a l lt h e p i n b o a r d s , e to n eo f t h et a i l b o a r do u t s i d e - f ad o w n n waste S s ce o sections Xs.Use dovetail to cutthetails with a saw the a w o r k u r f a c a n dc l a m p g u i d e l o c k l o n gh ee x p o s e d same youcut the pins(step Forsome s e a b a t way 2). woodworkers, s h o u l d eirn e . h e nu s i n g h a n d s c r e w dc l a m p s i,x o n e angling board(above, l T , a an f the right)rather thanthe sawmaKes pin board endagainst guide on the block withitsoutside face f o r e a s i ec u t t i n gI.n e i t h ec a s es a ws m o o t h la n de v e n l y r r , y a w a yr o m h et a i l b o a r dM a k e u r e h ee d g e s r ea l i g n e d , a l o n gh ee d g e f e a c h a i l ,s t o p p i na t t h e f t , s t a t o t g s h o u l d e irn e . l t h e no u t l i n eh et a i l s( a b o v e e f f ) . e p e a t e p r o c e d u r e O n c e l l t h e s a wc u t sh a v e e e n a d en b o t h a i lp a n e l s . t /, R th a b m i t o n t h e o p p o s i te n do f t h e b o a r d n do n t h eo t h e t a i l e a r remove waste a chisel a coping the with or saw. panel, remove clamps use combination then the and a square

up f, Gluing thecarcase r.,l Dry-assemblecarcase the glue before upto ensure the joints properly. each fit Press corner together hand far by as asit willgo, then thepieces final tap position the into with protecting wood a scrap mallet, the with board. a jointis lf tootrght, mark spot the where binds, it thendisassemore thecarcase pare and excess wood themark. at you Once aresatisfied thefit, take with care theother of requirements of thecarcase, asinstallingback such (page or panel a 3j) preparing sides shelving drawers. glueup, the for or For make wood four pads long thewidth thepanels as as of and cutsmall triangular notches thepads they in so only conract thetails. Spreadthin,even a layer glue alltheconof on tacting surfaces, assemble carcase install then the and two bar clamps across pin boards. the Tighten clamps the a little a time at until small a amount glue of squeezes of out thejoints(rghf).



the 1 Marking slotlocations a o h I l d e n t i fty eo u t s i dfe c e f e a c h location lines panel anX,then mark with of on fortheslots each thefourcorners. panel place side outside-face one Tostart, t s e o d o w n n a w o r k u r f a c a n dh o l d h e a to at top panel a 90' angle it. Use penpa l o c i lt o m a r ki n e s nt h ea d j o i n i n g n e l s make corner; in inches fromeach abou|2 (left). the midway along edge a thirdmark b ls ad W i d ep a n e w i l lr e q u i r e d i t i o n a li s r , s d i c u i t s ; n g e n e r atlh e r e h o u l b eo n e tt R b i s c u ie v e r4 t o 6 i n c h e s . e p e a h e t y on p r o c e d u t o m a r k l o tl o c a t i o n s re s c s r t h e o t h e t h r e e o r n e ro f t h ec a r c a s e . you to letters help identiAddreference fy thecorners.


r) Cutting slots the you for will above allow to cutalltheslots shown L m" setup Leaving a side moving panels. the without corner carcase one upon outside-face panel down, outside-face setthetoppiece making thickness, by the topof it. Offset toppanel thestock are marks thetwopanels peron slot the sure mating location n a p f e c t l a l i g n e C.l a m t h ep i e c eis p l a c e n ds e ta s u p p o r t y d of in as thickness thestock front thepanels. the board same of the for instructionssetting depth the Follow manufacturer's

butt board, Rest cutontheplate loiner, thetoolonthesupport the and the against endof thetoppanel, align guideitsfaceplate Then mark with line thefaceplate a slotlocation onthestock. on (above, in slots left).Iocutthemating a slotat eachmark cut the against toppanpanel, thejoiner's plate base butt side the g w a on a t t e l a n d h e n l i g nh ec e n t e ru i d e l i n e t h ep l a t e i t h s l o t rrght). mark(above, location



Inserting biscuits the Q r-,1 Onceall the slotshavebeencut, dryf i t t h e p a n e l s n dc u t a b a c kp a n e li f t h a t a (page31),or make is partof yourdesign r e a d yf o r s h e l v e s r d r a w e r sT h e ns e t o . l o n es i d ep a n e o u t s i d e - f a c e w no n t h e do w o r ks u r f a c e n ds p r e a d l u ei n t h e s l o t s g a l a n d a l o n g h e p a n e s u r f a c ei,n s e r t i n g t b r s c u i t a s y o ug o ( l e f ) . f o p r e v e ntth e s w o o d e n a f e r s r o me x p a n d i n g e f o r e w f b t h e p a n e l s r ea s s e m b l e d . o c e e t o a pr d s t e p4 a s q u i c k l y s p o s s i b l e . a

Gluing thecarcase up
p F i tt h e t o p a n d b o t t o m a n e l s n o l t h e s i d ep a n e a n d t h e na p p l ya d h e s i v e i n t h e s l o t sa n d a l o n g h e p a n e e n d s , l t i n s e r t i n b i s c u i t s s y o ug o .A d dt h e o t h g a e r s i d e p a n e l( r i g h t ) . u r n i n g h e c a r T t case end,usetwo barclamps press on to t h e t o p a n d b o t t o mp a n e l s o g e t h ea n d t r t i g h t e n h e c l a m p s x a c t l y s y o uw o u l d t e a g w h e n l u i n g p a c a r c a sw i t h d o v e t a i l u e 28),Ihistime using standard lotnIs(page woodpadsto protect stock. the



for a Routingrabbet thepanel suron and I Drv-assemble theoanels setthecarcase a work using together a the facing hold pieces up; withitsback face a bi I. l w s r b a r l a m p i t h u p p o bto a r d sn s t a al % - i n crh b b e t i n gt c o nl t w i t ha b a l l - b e a r ip i go a n da d j u stth ed e p t h f c u tt o m a k e sf d tr t tt w a r a b b e h a t i l lb e ' l oi n c h e e p e h a n h et h i c k n e o st h e o y at c p g b a c k a n e i o uw i l lb ei n s t a l l i nS t.a r t i n g o n e o r n e rf t h e board with on base rest carcase, therouter's plate thesupport firmly in Holding router the of thebitjustclear theworkpiece. 0nce the the and turn hands, onthetool guide bitinto panel. both pull the against direcmeets stock, therouter the bearing thepilot you platelat.When reach f the keeping base of tion bitrotation, board and the turn thecorner, off thetool,reposition support pa o t s a c u tr a b b e t sl o n gh ee d g eo f t h er e m a i n i n g n e lfs l l o w i n g (/eft). procedure thesame 'l




S q u a r i ntg e c o r n e l s h l te L t l s ea p e n c i a n da s t r a i g h t e d go a m a r ks q u a r e o r n e r s t t h e r o u n d e d c o U a 'l-inch r e n d so f t h e r a b b e t s . s i n g t w i d e r o o d h i s e ls t r i k e h e t o o lw i t h w c , mallel(above). cuttingto the a wooden . t o d e o t h f t h e r a b b e tB e s u r e h e c h i s e l o t b e v e fl a c e s h e i n s i d e f t h e c a r c a s e .

thepanel 2 Installing g t l e r J I n s t a l l i ntg e p a n e d u r i n g l u eu p o f t h e c a r c a sw i l l h e l pk e e p h e a s s e m b l y h d . i o s q u a r eC u t a p i e c e f p l y w o o t o f i t s n u g l y n t ot h e r a b b e t sG l u eu p t h e c a r c a s e . s t o a t a n d ,a t t h e s a m e i m e ,a p p l y t h i n b e a d f g l u ea l o n gh e r a b b e ta n do n t h ec o n and in set Spread glueevenly, the panel position, the of surfaces the plywood. tacting g s i s , g u s ef i n i s h i nn a i l s t o e c u r et a t 4 - t o 6 - i n c hi n t e r v a lb b o v e )Y o uc a na l s o l u eu p e e t h e c a r c a ss e p a r a t e lly ,tt h e a d h e s i vd r y ,a n dt h e ni n s t a ltlh e p a n e l . e



Frame-and-panel cabinets vary may cope-and-stickpage Whatever on 35. nerontheedges in themiddle. than widely their in details, allshare but sev- thejoint, generally cabinetmakers build Theshape such so-called of a raised eral features: assemblies comThe are frames fromstock panel achieved cutting thatis at least inch % is by away thickprised frames of made fromstiles and thickand2 inches wide. Larger stock ness theedges. at rails, panels fit intogrooves and that in canalso used suitthedimensions be to There several of making are ways a theframe. typical A frontandside project. secof a particular panel, raised depending thevisual on tionis shown below right. provide at To Thepanels fit inside frames that you the effect desire. common A method, access the inside thecabinet, to of the canbemade either plywood edge- shown of or beginning page involves on 36, front (page Toensure frequently a frame nopan- gluedboards has but 24). that beveling edges thepanel the of witha el.This featuresmedian with one a rail a panel fit snugly thegrooves will in of table or router. saw openings a door a drawer. for and The therails stiles, stillhave little and but a Thesteps gluing individual for up twomissing assemblies besimiwould room move thewood to as exoands and frame-and-panel iesandcabiassembl larto theside assembly shown; has each contracts, made it is substantially thinnets shown page are on 39. a frame a panel. thiscase, and In the sides would share stiles withthefront andback assemblies, allowing rails the AI{ATOMYA FRAME.AI{D.PANEL OF CABIT{ET to fit intoboth edges faces the and of thestiles. Bottoms typically are attached to the frame ledger by strips let into or Rail grooves in the inside cut edges the of Frovidea horizontal auppori at top and bottom frame. Tops beattached wood can with of cabinet buttons fit in grooves theframe, that in orwithmetal fasteners, ledger strips, or pocket Stile holes. Vertical compojoints Thetwomost common used in nent of frami,e frame-and-panel construction the are mortise-and-tenon in the illustrashown tionandthecope-and-stick. morThe providesrelatively tise-and-tenon a large gluing joint. area, making a very it strong Twovariations employed thetypiare in calcabinet: Blind mortise-and-tenons Panel Solid woodpiece joinmedian andstiles, rails while the that fits into haunched version used fill the is to qroove-typically groove eliminating need end, the for %inch deep-in inoide edqea of grooves. cope-and-stick stopped The is frame; aan be flat notquiteasstrong, offers addibut an with edqeorabbettional decorative touch. router The bit ed or beveledon thatcutsthegrooves thepanel for also four oifufn"raige" carves decorative a molding the on center ofthe panel inside edges theframe. of Step-by-step techniques producing for these loints areshown thissection: mortisein the and-tenons starting page andthe on 33



in cheeks therails the 1 Cutting tenon andhaunched tenons, by start I Forboth blind t s t i n s t a l l i n g a d o e a d ny o u r a b l e a w h a ti s ad h o of wider thanthe length thetenons-often slightly 3/oinch. attach auxiliary fence raise and the Then an notch to blades cuta clearance in it. Setthewidth length thecutting and to of cut equal thetenon Feed height one-third stock to the thtckness. the the face-down, butting endagainst the workpiece gauge. Turn against miter the fence theedge and side the therailover reoeat cut ontheother and (left).TesI tenon a scrap piece wood with in of the width those becut in the as to a mortise same the (page head the of stiles 34); adJust height thedado Cut andrepeat cuts,if necessary. theremaining the proceeding. cheeks before tenon

the shoulders O Cutting tenon and tenons be can Z m" shoulders both for blind haunched tenons, leave cutting the saw. the blind For cutonthetable of head about to and widthunchanged setthe height thedado against fence the miter the and With railf lush the Y,inch. gauge, theworkpiece edge theblades. the Turn into feed on (abovd. on sideof thetenon railover repeat the other and e C u tt h es h o u l d ea st h eo p p o s i te n do f t h er a i lt h es a m e rt

height use cutting For tenons, thesame way. the haunched t t, as a n dc u to n es h o u l d e r f o rt h eb l i n d e n o n s h e np o s i t i o n in to of to a equal width thedepth thefence leave haunch groove theother shoulder. thestock With on on the panel gauge feedit intcthe to and edge, thefence the miter use (insef). on end Repeat cut the haunch theother to blades of theboard.



Routing mortises the Clamp thestiles all together to face, face ends aligned, and use of theblind one tenons in step to outline mortises cut 2 the on thestiles. cuteach To mortise, secure stilein a vise. one Install commercial guide a plunge a edge on router, screw then a wood extension theguide. therouter onto Fit witha straight bit thesame widthasthe mortise setthecutting and depth. Center bitover mortise the the outline butttheextension and against stile. the Gripping router the firmly, it onandplunge turn the bit intothe stock(right). Move toolfromoneendof the the passes necessary mortise the other, to making many as as to complete cutto therequired the depth. Repeat rout other to the mortises, square ends thecavities a chisel. then the of with

Cutting grooves the Ontherails stiles each and of frame. mark location thegrooves will the of that hold panel. the Leave straight the mortisingbit in therouter, mount toolin the a table, adjust cutting and the depth to aboutYz Center edge a stile inch. the of on the bit andbuttthefence against thestock. Clamp featherboardthe a to table hold workpiece to the against the fence feed stock and the withboth hands, making to press stile sure the flush against (/eff). thefence Complete pass the with a push stick. cut grooves thestile To in posifaces, keep fence thesame the in tion,butreposition featherboard the as necessary. youcancut andraise Next, (page the panels 36).



Miter qauge extension

i /
Rail Copin4




- .-

the in 1 Cutting tongues therails I Begin constructing a cope-and-stick tongues theends all in of frame cutting by Afterthat,routgrooves the for the rails. panels edges theframe of along inside the pieces; grooves thestiles accomin will the at time. modate railtongues thesame the install piloted a coping Tocutthetongues, router mount and bit-the railcutter-in your by Set depth thetoolin a table. thecutting the the butting endof a railagainst bit and depth setting that so adjusting router's the cutteris slightly thetop of the uppermost parPosition fence the above workpiece. the gauge andin linewith slot allel themiter to gauge theedge thebit pilot.Fitthemiter of face withanextension laytheoutside and keep ends the of thestock onthetable; flat against of theworkpiece extension and butted thefence throughout cut (left). each

r) Cutting grooves the bit-also sticking Z Replace coping witha piloted the bit buttthe end To depth, known a stilecutter. setthecutting as the rail the of thecompleted against bit,andadjust bit until teeth withthe railtongue oneof its groove-cutting is level (above, withtheedge the pilotbearing. of left).Align fence the the the during cut: two to secure workpiece Use featherboards

the the one tableopposite bit andsecure Clamp to therouter (ln the side other the infeed of thefence. this illustration, on has removed clarity,) for Make each featherboard been second the outside-face pressing workpiece down, cut withthestock right).Usea pushstickto complete against fence(above, the and Repeat groove onall therails stiles. the cut thepass.



the grain 1 Cutting end I Test-fit rails stiles meathe and and sure opening the between them. Add Y ,i n c h o e a c h i m e n s i o%;i n c ho f t d n panel willfit into grooves each side the in theframe. Then thepanel size cut to onthetable saw. determine blade To the angle raising panel, for the draw %-inch a square thebottom at corner, mark then a linefromthefront face the panel of through inside the corner thesquare of to a point the bottom on edge inch % fromtheback face(inset). thepanHold el against auxiliary an wood fence and adjust blade the angle untilit aligns with themarked Adjust height the line. the of cutting edge until outside of one the trp tooth extends beyond face thepanthe of el,then clamp guide a block theworkto piece ride to along topof thefence. the Feed panel theblade, the into keeping it flush pushing against fence the while it (lef\.f esIforward theguide with block fit thecutendin a groove. less lf than %inch thepanel of enters groove, the move thefence little a closer theblade to and pass. make another Repeat cutat the the other of theoanel. end

r) Cutting thegrain with 1 Setthe panel edge feedit on and i n t o h eb l a d et,h e n u r nt h ep a n eo v e r l t t to cut the remaining (nghf). edge No guide block needed these is for cuts, but take care keep back to the flush against thefence. Cutting theendgrarn the into of panelirst-beveling topandbottom f the before sides-helps the reduce tearout.



PANETS RAISED FOR A JIG CUTTING j i g s h o w n t r i g h w i l le n a b l e a t The youto raise panel thetable saw on a saw blade. to without having tilt the for Refer the illustration suggestto eddimensions. the the Screw lip along bottom fence, making edge the angled of where to the certain position screws by will they notbestruck theblade Lean angled the when jig is used. the at fence the fence against auxiliary ltne angle thecutting as thesame (page (Use 36l marked thepanel on the bevel transfer angle.) to a sliding supports fit between to Cuttriangular themin and thetwofences fasten olace withscrews. Tn rrse iip set it on thesaw the between lip the withtheseam table fence theblade; over the and angled the are to check besure screws well


12" 30" x Auxrliary

9" x 30"



opening. Position clear thetable of against auxiliary the the rip fence the fence, thenscrew twotogether. up Turn thesawandcrank the on blade slowly thejigto cuta kerf into off seat through lip.Turn thesaw, the in the thepanel thejig andadjust tip blade height theoutside of until onetooth extends beyond front the face theoanel. of Make testcuton a a scrap board same the thickness as then the theoanel. test-fit cutend in a groove. Reposition blade the or fence, necessary. place if Then, the panel thejig andmake cuts, in the the first(/eff). beveling endgrain



up 1 Setting therouter I Install panel-raising your a bit in routerandmount toolin a table. ensure the To posithatthecutting depth uniform, is parallel themiter tionthefence gauge to s l o ta n di n l i n ew i t ht h eb i t p i l o t W i t h . therouter turned adjust fence off, the by placing scrap a board along fence the and across bit.Thebit pilotshould as the turn the board touches (right). it Startwith a %-inch-deepsothatyouwillreach cut your passes. finaldepth twoor more in

r) Raising panel the L Lower guard thebit andturn the over onthe router. minimize To tearout, cut theendgrain the panelirst.Work of f caref a panel-raisingis oneof ully; bit themore dangerous router because bits of the large amount stock of that it repass. moves each with Keep panel the flaton thetable outside-face and down flush against fence youfeedit the as across biI (left).Repeat cut at the the the other andalong end bothsides. Turn off therouter test-f oneendin a frame and it groove.thepanel less lf lies than%inch deep thegroove, in increase cutting the depth slightly make pass and another allaround. Continue thismanner in until thepanel properly. fits




Notched wood black

assembly up 1 Gluing a single t , (above, w h a b a rc l a m p s ,l i g n i ntg eb a r s i t ht h er a i l sT o k e e ph e left).ll a the I Test-assemble frame-and-panel p r o p h e m p i n n o t c h eb l o c k s . d t u o r c l a m pfs o mf a l l i n g v e r , s a tl , l o i n ti s t o ot i g h t d i s a s s e m bh e p i e c ea n du s e c h i s e l n tt o g U s r n c l a m p i nb l o c kts p r o t e c h es t o c kt,i g h t e e a c h g you with wood. Once aresatisfied thefit, some away to pare o f g l u e q u e e z o u to f t h e s es l i c l a m pn t u r nu n t i a t h i nb e a d w t to ts s a n d n ys u r f a c eh a tw i l lb ed i f f i c u l t r e a c h h e nh e a (above, are that right). Check the corners at 90oas g d o u h f r a m e a sb e e n l u e d p ,a n ds p r e ag l u e n a l lt h ec o n t a c t - loinIs g r,e m o va n yd r i e d l u e e y o ug o .O n c eh ea d h e s i v e s r i e d ha d t ie a of i n gs u r f a c e s t h el o i n t sD on o ta p p l y n ya d h e s i vn t h e . p a i n s c r a p ea , ds a n d h e t t rn w on r e m a i n i n g t h ew o o d i t ha the within panel grooves; panel mustbefreeto move the surfaces. outside on and the Reassemble frame setit facedown two frame. r) Gluing thecabinet up adjust ill-f any itit Z- Test-fthecabinet, of surfaces the and tingjoints, sand inside A y t a l lt h ep i e c e s .p p l g l u e o t h ej o i n t s the that the except grooves hold panelsThen, the with the andassemble cabinet. install barclamps four upright, cabinet over from to running front back therails, pads protect stock. the to wood using (/eft) until evenly Tighten clamps the out of a thinbead gluesqueezes of the joints. ts Check thecabinet square that tg e b y m e a s u r i nh ed i s t a n cb e t w e e n the corners; twomeasurements diagonal install extra an lf be should thesame. not, of the across longer thetwo barclamp on the setting clamp diagonals, .1aws those until Tighten clamp the in already place. t as . t h ed i a g o n a l r ee q u a lO n c eh eg l u e and the remove clamps scrape has cured, adhesive. anv awav dried


it of and size weight theitems is plywood itis hether asimple for to intended hold.Shelves, examor structure acustom-made to ple,must longenough dotheir be from fine hardwall unit crafted job,but not solongthattheywill two serves funcwood, bookcase a can in Shelves befixedin sag use. tions at once:It is an efficient Each its place adjustable. has own or accommodating system, storage shelving Adjustable advantages. booksandotheritemsthat accua5)permitsa moreflexible and in mulate mosthomes, a fine Qage interiof organizationabookcase's in piece furniture its ownright, of (page 50) but or space, fixedshelves as ashandsome thefreestanding rigidity. structural lendabookcase unit atleft. choice considerable of Youhave on illustrated bookcase Thebasic joinery methmaterials, building just to page can adapted store 42 be when on A lengthof moldingis shaped a routertable. ods, and ornamentation from boundvolaboutanything, The a building bookcase. chapter or Fixedto thebase the top ofthe carcase, toys, crystal, records, umes china, to details construction the touchto a bookcase. thatfollows a and discs, videocassettes. moldingprovides classic compact wishto add unit. of abasic Youmay specialof Withtheaddition some its and the frame strenghen piece soften lines(page to (page can transformed a face be bookcase izedhardware 44),asimple to a 56) allow bookcase and bases feet(page can and 54).Molded a to center house television into a homeenteitainment that of with gear. utilitarian harmonize otherpieces furniture will surround This and components computer VCR, stereo of a of method stringing series page for a simple 59 most it. See one makes bookcase of thewoodshop's the versatility into together awallunit. bookcases projects. popular to skill, Byputtingyourimagination, andpatience work, may of a the Although appearance bookcase varyfromone of a of the to remain constant. youwill beable reap rewards building finepiece of the unit to another, principles itsdesign furniture. and itssize the useful between a must Everybookcase strike balance

with bookcases and in come manyshapes sizes, Because books theyare built. retaintheirJlexibilitylongafter shelves adjustable at the movable, bookcase left can With all but oneof itsshelves of demands a growingcollection. the accommodate changing


refinements ascrown such |-\ espite Iul and. base molding,a faceframe andturnedfeet, bookcase right the at is basicallya carcase with shelves. Theprocedure buildinga carcase for canbe foundbeginning onpage24. Mostof theotherdetails thebookof case, from the shelves the feet,are to discussed this chapter. crown in The molding similar thetypeinstalled is to on thearmoire page on 66. Design bookcase suittheitems a to it will store. Standard bookshelves, for example, atleast inches and9 are 8 deep inches apart; allowanadditional or 4 3 inches depthandheightfor oversize of bools.Record albums need inches 13 in bothdepth height. and Televisions, video recorders, stereo and equipment may require apto24inches depth. of After you havesettledon dimensions,decide whichtype of shelving bestsuitsyour needs. bookcasi The on thispage features threeadjustable, or floating, shelves onefixedshelf. and Although the fixed shelfcannotbe moved installed,helps snengthonce it to enthepiece isless and likelytosag than adjustable shelves. loadtheshelves The will have bearshouldbeconsidered to whenchoosing (page materials 43).The thickerthe lumber,the stronger the shelf. Whilel-by-10pineor fir is economical,% hardwood will support greater loads. Alsoremember a shelfweakens that asit increases length. in Shelves are that too,long notlikelytobrealg they are but will almostalways Ifyou areplansag. ninga bookcase widerthan36inches, consider insallingcleats underthe middleoftheshelves theback avertiat or calpartitionbetween them.




MATERIATS SHETF COMMON u/o Hardwood for LJsed heavier loadoand ahelf epaneup to 4B inchba Temperedhardboard Conipooite,Ii7htwei7ht shelf for loadaand shelf medium-to-heavy features epaneup to 36 inchea; two layere of tempered hardof board oandwichinq Piecee 2by-2 etock. Front edgecan be rounded for decorative eFfeot %'inchplywood loadsand ahelf For meAium ePaneuP to 32 inchee;up to 42 incheo,if reinforced with aPPearlipa.For enhanced ance, front edqe ahould be concealedwith bandin4

ReinforcedoAhardwood for L)aed liqht-to-medium reinloade.gpan for ahelvee forced with 1-by-2lipe can be up to 42 inches:without reinforcement,epan ahould not exceed32 iiches

Hidden adjuat'able euPPott Woodatripe with dowelathat fit in holea drilled in eide panele;etripe are concealed in blind rabbets routed in the of underside the ahelf Dowel

?laetic aupport

Adjuatable auppotte Flaced in drilled holea in aidea of bookcaEe; holedepth ia one-halfthe lenqth of aupport

euppot+ Two-piece adjuetable eupport; threaded part is inaerted into holea drilledin eidepaneloand 6UPpOrt6 qcrewed are in to hold up ohelf

Threaded \fl,JS,

to hold ehelvinq rnPEce

r-_ri F-'s-$wr-1 Pa))tc-an)L*,*t.il-:j W e,eeve6uPPot-, Twopiecemetal-plated a uPPo rt; sl eevea are ineerfedinto holeadrilledin eidepaninto aleeves eleand paddleeare elipped at each ahelf location

Z ffi_'



Standards and alipa Track ehelvin4eyetem that featurea slotted verDical etripo Lhat 6it in grooveerouted in eidepanel; clipa lock into alote at ahelf locatione

ff ooksarenot the only itemscomI) monlystored a bookcase. in With thecommercial accessories shown below, you caneasily organize record albums, compact discs, audiotapes, videoand cassettes. Ifyou intendyour bookcase to housea stereo system, television or VCR,wire clipsandcord-hole plugscan tamethetangle wiresandconnectors of thataccompany them. Specialty itemslike runnerslet you slide shelves andout of thecarcase, in providingeasy access the contents, to whileswivel attachments beinstalled can on a slidingshelf thebookcase for or top a television set, Youcaneven illuminatethe insideof your bookcase with a cabinetlight or hideand protect contents the behind tintedglass acrylic or doorsheldclosed by magnetic latches.

()F A SAMPLING SHETF HARDWARE Cabinei light Uauallymounted out of aight inaidecarcaoe;moaet ehownia uaedto dieplavchina and qlaeewareaia ieaLureea 25-watt bulb

Glaaa door hinge )wivelinq hingea uaed for glaoadooro up to %inch thick; ocrewapreee eafety plate aqainet qlaoe to hold it in place.

Wire clip 9 elf-adheatve clipemo unted inaide bookcaae hold to wireaout of eiqht

Compact diac holder Conaiateof two tracks with adheaivebackingfor mounting to carcaee; modelahowncan hold up to 24 diace. )imilar holdera for videocasaetteaand audio tapea are available

fite eniqly-in hole in bookcaae back;holdeand feede wireoout of carcaae

Mag netic d oor Iatch -a nd -plate Uaedwith acrylic or 4laaa d'oora up to %ainch thick. Latch plate attachea to door and maqnetic latch ia mountedineidebookcase: latch holdoplate ma4netically, keepinqdoor cloeed

shelves not do adjustable I lthough of .{1. contribute the strength a to flexithey bookcase, do giveit greater you to biliry allowing to adapt changing mosteffispace needs organize and a It to ciently. isunwise make bookcase shelf at one withoutproviding least fixed rigidity. for structural shelves commonly are Adjustable plastic, metor with heldin place wood, (page thatfit in 43) al shelfsupports The sides. holes drilledin thecarcase of that certain therows trickisto make Use are aligned. a comholes perfectly jig or shelf-drilling (below) a mercial jig 46) shop-made (page to borethe include adjustable options holes. Other in whicharemounted shelf standards, panels, shop-made or grooves theside in (page These dadoed a8). are corner strips of to andattached theinteriorcorners to thebookcase holdup theshelving.

shelf these two-piece Madeof solidbrass, touchto a bookadd supports an elegant can into The case. supports bescrewed sleeves alongthe any of the threaded panels, permittingtheshelves be to side at mounted any heightin thebookcase.


holes 1 Drilling forthesleeves to rows requires parallel of holes two system I Thismounting jig panels thebookcase. commercial The of in bedrilled theside you intervals and holes 1-inch at allows to bore shown above aligned. Set holes ensures corresponding will be perfectly that panels the and ona surface clamp inside-face-up work theside jigto theedges onepanel; holes beany from distance the can of be for 2 in but the panel edges, about inches would best the panels diameter drill Fit electric witha bitthesame shown. your

depth collar mark drilling to the and a asthesleeves install stop at end length. Starting etther of oneof the equal thesleeve to jig's place appropriate of bushing thefirsthole the in the rails, (The to keeps bit perfectly the square bushing carrier. bushing Bore bore Holding drillandcarrier, thehole. the theworkpiece.) holes along both rails. Remove jig the spaced a series evenly of positioning jig carefully the for sidepanel, andrepeat theother with in will sothattheholes bealigned those thefirstpanel.



r) Mounting sleeves supports the and l to install threaded sleeves without d a m a g i n h e m , s ea s l e e v e - s e t t i n g tg u punch. Place sleeve theendof the a on punch push f irmly one the and it into of (above). holes a sidepanel in Insert a you sleeve each into hole drilled. Once youhave installed thesleeves, all screw shelf supports thesleeves each into at (inseil. shelflocation

ilu llllillt tjll fill ilIj tlll lll lll1 llllilt1 fiI] filt illt lll filt llt tlt
A shop-made ahelt drillingjig jiq TheI-ehaped ehown herewillallow youto borea rowof evenly epaced holee accuas jig. ral,ely a commercial as Makethe jig from 1-by-Z ebock, beinq carefullo ecrew lhe fence and arm Noqelher a pertecN aN 90" angle. Marka linedown Lhecenlerot Nhe arm and boreholee 2-inch atr inlervaloalonqit,wiLh lhe eamebil you would /,usetor threadedsleevee. uselhe jiq, To clampf i T . o a e t a e p a n e lw t l n t n e r c n c e ) c l a m Qit to eidepanel withlhe fence
b u | I e d a q a i n e N i l h e r e n d o f t h e p a n e la n d e

the marked cenNerlineinchee from ito edge. 2 in your drill bit wiLha stop collar, FiN boreNheholee, and repoeiLion ji7 for eachnewrow. the



and 1 Making installing I theshelf supports Use jig to bore a holes theshelf for supporls(page per 45). lfake twosupports shelf. Each is a thinwood one strip about 1 inchlonger thegapbetween than the rows holes; of make strip the wide enough (%-inch a at end. dowto hold dowel each for loads.) elsarelarge enough average youposition dowels the on To help the into supports, a dowel insert center each of twoparallel holes press strip and the against points. the indentations the Use points for fromthecenters starting as in drilling holes. the Make holes the the shelf supports same the depth the as panels. dowels holes theside in Glue into supports once adheand, the theshelf h d l o s i v e a s r i e di,n s t a t lh e m nt h es i d e panels the height youwant that the at shelfto resl(left).

r) Preparing installing shelves the and cut I to conceal shelfsupports, the Mark the out rabbets each in shelf. blind on rabbets positioning shelf the by the on and their supports outlining locations of Cut theunderside theshelf. theraba f bets using routerittedwitha rabbeting the witha chisel and bitandsquare ends mallet. rabbets The should be a wooden of supasdeep thethickness theshelf as ports. have cut, Once therabbets been all (right). test-fit shelfin the bookcase the the if Use chisel adjust rabbets, neca to fit essary, ensure perfect thatcomto a pletely hides supports. the



CIip Installing standards the Metal standards clips among and are the simplest accessories to install mountfor ingadjustable shelves a bookcase. in Two slotted standards,tracks, fastened or are panels to theinside faces theside of and shelf-support areinserted theslots clips in at thedesired height. Rather notchthan ingtheshelves accommodate stanto the dards, recess tracks grooves in the in cut thesidepanels. Install dado a blade on your grooves table andcuttwoparallel saw panel. grooves in each The should as be wide asdeep thestandards; the and as for position grooves width panel of shown, the about inches from 2 in each edge. the With panels inside-face-up work on a surface, setthestandards thegrooves fix in and them place, in driving screws through the (left).AtIach predrilled holes thetracks in clips thestandards to at each shelf location.

the strips 1 Making corner I Dadoed corner strios installed each in inside corner allow bookcase shelves be to adjusted. canmake You fourstrips from a s i n g l e - i n c h - w i d e a r dh a ti s l o n g 4 bo t enough extend topto bottom the to from of interior. Install dado a head your on table saw setthewidth and eoual thethickto you ness the shelf of supports planto use. Determine desired the spacing the of notches cuttwodadoes distance and that gauge apart a miter in extension board. Line theleft-hand withtheblade up dado gauge. andscrew extension your the to 0nedado should offset theright; be to piece shelf cuta 2-inch of support stock andpress iniothatdado, it where will it serve an indexing Buttoneendof as key. t h ew o r k p i e c e a i n s h e k e ya n dc u t ag tt your firstdado. thesecond subseCut and quent dadoes moving piece the by the to right fitting last and the dado thekey over (right). When dadoes all cut,rip the are theboard four1-inch into corner strios.




r) Installing corner the sttips I and shelf supports of Position stripin a corner thebookeach face case, making thatthedadoes sure and the to the interior, screw strips the at Place extra an sides topandbottom, fastener themiddle a tallbookcase. in on For shelf supports, measure disthe the between frontandback the the of tance to bookcase cut the supports fit. and a M a k e u r e h a tt h es u p p o r t sr ew i d e s t properly; testenough hold shelves to the f in f it them ensure they it snugly to that (/eft). thedadoes

llll llll llll iltt lllr lli lllilllllll1 lll lllr lllllllllllt llllllll rl1 iilt
T'? 1HO?
Jig for routinq evenly opaceddadoes jig tILachNhe ehown heretoNhebast e ol VlaNe your ..-\i'rouler fo cui ----lhe dadoesin the

of cornerotrripe a ehelf (Thie Nech' eupVort6yoNem. nique can aleobe ueedIo roul

----iiie tne baee for da'doee fixeder,elreo.) fromsolid from'/"-inch plywood and'thee?acer

-\--. ----\12

Preparing shelves the Allfourcorners each of shelf must o h b e n o t c h etd f i t a r o u n td ec o r n e r After measuring marking and strips. it andcut each shelfsecure in a vise , with outthecorners a backsaw hbove),

hole the wood. CUN bit clearance Lhrough baseand a --.-_-/ ecrewiI to the roufer.Makethe widlh of Ihe o?acerg,quu,l , biL NoNhe diameterof the ot raiqhN you willuseLo cul the dadoee. bedisf,ance to of 1crewlhe opacer NheboNlom Lhejiq baeeeo Nhe you the tweenil and Nhe equale opacinq wanN beNween dadoes. biI Nhe Cut, firet,dadowilh the 6?acerridinqalonqt'heendof the work' the in dado. Makeeubeequent Nhe eVacer t'heiuot'-cut' cuts wibh Viece.


bolster structural the f, ixedshelves I' integrity a bookcase, since of but they cannotbe movedoncethey are installed, you need to give careful thought to their location.You can mount fixed shelves quite simply by screwing them to cleats arefastened that to thebackandside panels. Yourbookcase will be strongerand more attractive,however, the shelves attached if are panels to theside usingoneof thejoinery methodsshownbelow. Ifyou do not intendto add a face frameto your bookcase, remember that jointswill conceal cut some these of the madein the sidepanelfor the shelf. panels oneof thequickest Cuningthroughdadoes theside in is waystojoin a fixed shelfto a bookcase. thephotoabove, side In panels clamped the are together with theirends aligned dadoes be to flush,allowingtwoperfectly jig cut at thesame time.A straightedge guides routerthroughthecut. the





panels the 1 Preparing side panels routed are in in dadoes theside I Thehalf-dovetail witha dovetail bit. bit, first twosteps: witha straight andthen in router. Clamp diameter your bit Install straight of thedesired a surto a edge-to-edge inside-face-up work and thesidepanels Clamp board a against ends aligned. are face; make their sure Also line tearout. at thestock theendof thecutting to prevent guide locate offset properly to across panels, the an clamp edge plate thebit.Starting one at and of base theedge therouter pressing the feed across stock, edge thepanels, therouter of guide plate the throughout cuI(above). against edge the thebase the cut the by Complete dado making second witha dovetail guide fromthefirsicut by away shifting edge the biI (inset), bit one-half dovetail diameter. the

r') Preparing shelf the on of mating half-dovetail tongues theends the L fo creale the bit and leave shelves, thedovetail in therouter mount tool cut. the for Position fence a shallow Feed shelf the in a table. withone it against fence the onendintothebit,keepingflush (/eff). pushing forward theother hand Testit with while hand dado. the fit thecutendin a half-dovetail Adtust fit, if necesrlu away fromthebit andmaking the sary, moving fence inch by end Reoeat cutat theother of theshelf. the another oass.


are of E dg. treatments strips solid I--i wood,veneer, commercial or banding appliedto the visibleedges plyof wood shelves; conceal panels' they the plies, creating illusionthattheshelvthe ing is madeof solidwood.Commercial edge bandingis available the roll in by a wide varietyof wood types, colors, and widths.To install,simply cut off thelength you need, it in place, set and heatit with a household iron to melt the adhesive bondsit to the edge that of the shelf. Althougha little morepainstaking to apply, shop-made wood stripsoffer several advantages store-bought over banding. Theyareoftenless costly, and you can finish your shelfedges with any available wood species, to cut whatever you thickness desire. variA ety of solidwoodedge treatments is shownbelow.

If your shelves made of solid wood,you can rout a are decorativedesignin their edges. plywood shelves For you will needto attach wood stripsor veneerto covertheplies.



Wood atrip

Molded wood atrip





tlll iltl lll1 lllllllllllJ llllfilt illllllllllljlllllll tllJ lltl {1lr ll11 llll
Tt? 9HO7
Springboard alamp for edgegluing ForIhick edge trrealmenls,you miqh| need threeor four clamVo to holdthe piece place in A while qlue Nhe driee. oinqle do clampwill rhe job jueNas wellif you ueea oprinqlhe eame board iLs cenLer-along oneedgeof a 2-inch-wide on of bar CenNer Vanel NoV Nhe the len7thand thickness lhe panel. as edge againeNNhe edqe oflhe oVringboard clamp and eet.Nhe concave lhe other edqeof lhe panel, material.Uoinq woodpad f,o ?roLect a ghten th e clamp unt il Ih e eprinqboard fl aLt ene againot th e edqe, Ni
, b o a r d . T om a k eL h e d e v i c ec u t a 4enLlecurve-'/o-inch-deepaL

piece Rabbeting edge the to A piece hardwood beglued the of can it. edge a shelf strengthenTorout of to piece, install %a in therabbet theedge inch bit in your router mount and straight for Set thetoolin a table. thefence a eoual thethickness the to of width cut of Tosecure workpiece the throughshelf. a to a outthecut,screw featherboard t h ea s s e m btlo t h e y s h i m n dc l a m p a w t t a b l eT h es h i m i l lr a i s eh ef e a t h e r . pressurethemiddle to of board apply to install featherboards theworkpiece. Also o s o t o t h ef e n c e n b o t h i d e s f t h eb i t . (For sake clarity, featherboard the of the has side ontheoutfeed of thefence been D.on o t r e m o v eid t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n ) n in to the attempt rout rabbet on€pass; passes, increasinstead, a series make of (abovd. ingthedepth cuteach of time i R e p e a tn t i t h es h e lffi t sf l u s h n t h e u l (inset). canround shape rabbet You or piece your to liking. theedge


they cover the |f ecause completely IJ edges sidepanels, frames of face ideally are suited plywood for bookcase construction. froma contrasting Made wood,theycanalso provide decoraa tivedetail. Cutting assembling and aface framedemands precision; joints the mustbetightandtheframe square it if is to fit properly provide and strength. Use assembled the carcasea reference as to measure rails stiles. frames the and Face areeither glued place attached in or with jointsasshown biscuit below.

A face A framestrengthenscArcase whilehidingpaneledges. also It jambsfor doorhinges. provides

slots 1 Gutting in the I carcase face and frame your Measure carcase cutthetworails and andstiles thefaceframe length; of to also cut median to cover fixed rails any shelves. Theframe should flushwiththeoutrest side thecarcase. therails stiles of Join and withdowels, biscuits, mortise-and-tenon or joints, thenglueupthefaceframe assembly,ensuring it is square. that Once the adhesivedry,sand andplace ontop is it it of thebookcase. the locations the Mark of joints both carcase the biscuit on the and faceframe-typically 4 to 6 inches. every joiner the biscuit Setthe plate you for areusing cuttheslots thecarcase and in (right), aligning guideline theface the on plate witheachpencil mark. Then cut mating slots theframe. in



frame the Installing face g t i A p p l y l u e o t h es l o t sn t h ec a r the frame along matand and case face in Insert biscuits the the ingsurfaces. carcAqe slots. thensetthefaceframe the since Work in place hbove). quickly g l u e i l lc a u s t h eb i s c u i t s e x p a n d o w e immediately. almost

the Clamping assembly
t t C l a m p h e f a c ef r a m e o t h e c a r c a s e

pressure To 12 about every inches. apply n t h ec e n t eo f t h em e d i a r a i l ,u s ea r to at piece stock to clamped thecarcase of (/efil. endwitha shimin themiddle either

t ':.,'ii



-,'tr, li qp*

'lq- .;,

Basentoldingand Jbetadd n firishing touchto a bookcase. nnlding cnn be The routed to rnatcltilrc crown rrrolditrg thestn'rounding or trint in the room.

molding often is to $.)"ase "anchor" added a bookS-J case to thepiece comand plement crowrr any nrolding installed at thetop.There twobasic are ways build to a base. The firstis to rnake rabbeted .r pieces mitered frameof molded from stock standing edgeseabclowl; on rhis f framewrapsaroundthe baseof the bookcase a skirtandhides joinlike the eryat thebottomofthecarcase. secThe ondn-rethod involves buildine mitered a fraure horizontal of rnolded stock; this provides flat surface attaching a for turned feet(page 5B).Both rnethods allowfor woodexpansion canalso and beadapted fit modularbookcases to or joinedtogether. bookcases


Assembling frame the I Theframeshown above made is fromthreepieces molded of s t o c k a b a c k , n df o u rc o r n e b r a c e s . r a b b e its c u t a l o n g h e , a r A t i n s i d e d g e f t h e m o l d e d i e c e sf,o r m i n g l i p t h a tt h e b o o k p e o a c a s ew i l l s i t o n . T o m a k et h e b a s em o l d i n gf,i r s t p r e p a r t h r e e e p i e c e s f s o l i ds t o c k n d r o u ta d e c o r a t i v e o l d i n s n t h e e c l s e o a m i


o f e a c h T h e ni n s t a la s t r a i g hb i t a n dc u t a r a b b e itn t h e o p p o . l t s i t ef a c eo f e a c hp i e c eC u tt h e m o l d i n go l e n g t h i t h m i t e r s t . t w a b o t hf r o n tc o r n e r s , e n c u t a p i e c e f s t o c k o r t h e b a c ka n d th o f j o i n i t t o t h e s i d e s i t h b i s c u i t s . l u et h e f r o n tt o t h e s i d e s n d w G a s c r e w o r n e r r a c e sn p l a c et o s e c u r e h e l o i n t ( a b o v e ) . c b i t



molding the lnstalling base
tg y a f O n c e o uh a v e i n i s h e d s s e m b l i nh e

of the attach unitto thebottom the frame, two screw the reinforce joint, To bookcase. the along inside midway brackets angle glue Spread on molding. frame thebase of of frontpiece theframe on therabbet the p o a n do nt h ef i r s ti n c h f t h es i d e i e c e s . ( T h i s i l lc a u s e n yw o o d o v e m etn t o m a w place of theback thecarcase, toward take joints thefront from preventrng miter at the on in frame place Then breaking.) setthe to thebrackets and thebookcase, screw of the bottom thecarcase.


brace lnstallingbottom a near is shelf located thebotand molding a f ixed no features base lf your bookshelf to you brace a bottom, caninstall bottom piece place a carcase in of tomof the (above, Simply thebrace size glue and to cut /eff). the below shelf hidethespace cut You shelf. canalso a and from ends thetopof thebottom the or nailit in place (above, glued (dotted center) molding A lines). base pattern the brace in decorative You optton. might is the frominside carcaseanother sides and to orscrewed thefront (seepage97 more (above, tnforfor right)' ogee bracketedleer choose attach to also andinstallation.) construction on mation their




the 1 Turning feet I C u tb l a n k fso rt h ef e e tf r o mt h e a p p r o p r i astie e t o c kT ot u r ne a c h z s . blank, determine center, its mount the block a faceplate, attach faceon and the plate thelathe. to Position toolrest the in line withthecenter theblank of and asclose thestock possible to as without touching thenuse round-end it, a scraper to shape foot(above). the Always work onthe"down" ofthespinning side block to prevent kickback. Periodically check theprof of thefootwitha pairof outile (rnset). youaresatisside calipers Once fiedwithitsprofile, thefootonthe sand lathe withprogressively sandpaper. finer

llilllfl lllt t]ll lltl t]ll tll] tltl illllltl tltl lll llll l]l1 llll lllj llt tlll
Routin6 deaorativedet ails lf youare building bookcaee a Lhatfeatureeboth base andcrown moldinq,you AV
can uoe lhese adorn-




or otrher detail in i] ;t Nheeideeofrheface il 11 f r a m e e , l n e t aa l l li pilobed decoralive li bit ti in your rouIer.WiNh the bi| clearof lhe work, bull the t ool'e baeeVlahe aqainsllhe crownmoldinq. Turn on Nhe roulerand easethe bit,into the work, Continue cuttina unlilthe baoeVlat louchesNhe e moldinq lhe opposite at end-.




r) Installing feet the all turned thefeet, L Once have vou of themto the bottom the base screw base the Unlike verttcal molding molding. at illustrated 56, on page thebase shown routrabbet with leftis horizontal, a wide piece accepts that of ed in theface each is a molding of bottom thebookcase; the (page 96) outer edge ontheframe's cut drilla counthe After assembling base, of the three-quarters way hole tersunk foot, thenbore of thecenter each through the pilothole rest theway through of the a (/eft). thefeetto the base wood. Screw


fijl filt llllllllljlllllllll lllllllllllllllllllllllll]ll lll illlllll llll
Anchorin1 bookaases to the wall OnceelackedwiLh and maqazineo, books, ae b of,h iLeme, ookc es er topcan be danqerouely e, heavy.Larq f reeeI'and' ar ingbookcaeesebeet' t a n c h o r e do t h e w a l l , Lo preterably a eIud.lf yourbookcaeis lall e enouqh, anglebracket an Or be on Nopw.ill invi.sible. you can locatelne anqle brackel underneaI'hlh e fixedshelfand hiqheot, Nhe it,Nhrou4h back ecrew and into the wall. panel connectors Using threaded youarebuilding more thanonebooklf c w m o d u l a r a l lu n i t , o n s i d e r o c a s e ra together bookcases adjacent attaching way and icient to A quick eff forstability. job is to use connectors threaded dothe (above). the With sides to joinadjacent sidebysideandproptwobookcases bore with other, a hole erlyaligned each p l. l s i d e a n e l s n s t a la h t h r o u gth et w o use for stability, connector; threaded along four sixconnectors thelength to p a n e l sf y o u r o o k c a s e s b l. o f t h es i d e youcaninstall interframes, have face hide gapbetween the stiles to mediate thetwobookcases.


an and closetto entercupboard adothes center. tainment Whatever use,the modernarits need for to the Centuries meet growing moireis usually built in thetraditionEurope's space Renaissance by storage style. Likeits ancestors, al,or period, city andacquisitive dwellers. wealthy with today's armoire begins anupright, provided uprightstorage Thearmoire typically to 80 74 rectangular cabinet, were finegoods; before, belongings of wide. For inches and36to 48inches tall packed large in chests. usually should be the useasa wardrobe, piece was thearmoire Fromthebeginning, a hangenough house clothes to deep as prized itsdecorative for attributes as er-about 22inches. is The for its practicality. piece essenon 60 Thebasic cabinet shown page one freestanding featuring closet tiallya put with was together frame-and-panproviding space hang to or two doors, a 32)toachievecombieljoinery@age drawers and and clothes, occasionally and nationof attractiveness strength. storage. to shelving furnishadditional (page and platejoints 26) Dovetails reached pinnacle the a in Thedesign (page areequally 29) sturdy alternatives. Parisian cabilate17thCenturywhen shows to addthe how Thischapter proBoulle netmaker Andrd-Charles to adornments an armoire a basic of several thecourtoflouis XIV. for duced (page cornice pilasters 64), and cabinet pieces wereundeniably Thoughhis moldings(page andframe66), cabinetwas base This glass curio,or display, in ornamentaBaroque theirelaborate 72).Theeledoors(page way and-panel in models for constructed muchthesame as as tion,theystillserve loose in ments thearmoire highlighted of are except on thearmoire thefacingpage, of thearmoires today. onpage 62. theanatomy shelves thesideand and isoften that thewooden the In America, termarmoire the Despite elaborate its appearance, with glass. equivadoorpanelswerereplaced with interchanged its English project a for is armoire a reasonable name, the Bywhatever lent,wardrobe. pieces carefi.rlly of skills. the woodworker average Buildthevarious since piece proven bepopularin NorthAmerica to has piece versatile of furniture. will from everything afood andtheresult beanattractive, as late18th Centuryandnowit serves
he armoire cameinto favor during the late 15th and early 16th

a Thearmoireat leftdisplays muted typicalof manymodBaroque design wardrob es. ernAmerican



Layered cornice moldinq ( 2 a q e6 6 )

'\ \



/ Top panel FlywcoC or aoltd jr;ccK ett.aahae fluslt tvt*ch eC4es of c;ebinel,uein4 rnrooci buLfone, met.al fastenert, (-1f ltoaKaTtlotea

Layered cornice molding



Stile YerTicat ir;eme aomFa)neni

to"t / (2aqe 3'; b

ncIizon"tei frame aornPOnent.

Door / (2aqe 2) 7

t / \
Eott.om r^,,-/ aZ
Bottom panel ,.'ii. a t l tr,: t.o f r :l tr e :l wi r.it 1cr14er t,l.rtp:' al ctat ,t: .et. inf.o a 4 i ' L ) a r ( ' , ; t . t i .t.n i . i i c in:t,it: ::ti4t::' of tht i:ctli,arr: r:|l:t





Pilaeter l.2aqe64'1

Muttion / t,'erfical member f,hat, a.peral,e. fronl, tnto fwo eur'face for parts. pro',,tCtnq d o c r L o o l o s ea 4 a t n e t a n d for mcunLtn4lock hardware


Decorative base moldinq rt.t.aclted t.h. aeffi. riet 'o.\' l ': .t


i:a?e../ inc.habovr,' bcl,t.om oi :srrnotret.c prcvenT. nol'7rnq ircrr i:carinq any wct4lit.. 0r'. tnst,alta rabberetl ba?t nttltitnq (2aqe 56'1




t ^



l\a/l - : :



f^-=----------e :


] l:t





I l:'



t - - -l/n f\|l - l


Double-ball catch Lo balleecrewed 9mall catch wiLhtwo eprinq-loaded mullionor rail. Dallaonap in placeovera keepermountfrom front or srdee. ed to door; catch can ehter'keeper

Adjuatable levelera UaedLo levela pieceoffurnrture; threaded bolt with plaatic baae aecuredin threaded T nut

Laaehinge Full-len7thhinqewith finialeat top and bottom; htnqete bolted to cabrnetand mortiaed into door

Rat-tail hinge Ftvotaon pin wtLhdecorative Lail natledto armoire:like ( clock-caee hinqe,allowe o door to be eaaily removed


Straight cupboard loak wrt Eack-mounteddoor lock wrtha through bolt extendtnglefLor riqht, ao required;key chamber centeredin lock case

-4 ^\ ---\./


Caeementbolt lock Eolta exLend the full len7thof Lhedoor and are aecuredin brackete faetened to the top and bottom ratla of Lhearmoire

hinge Cloak-aaee Tivots on a pin, which allowadoor to be lifLed off



Pilastersare narrow boardsfastened to thefront stilesof an armoire and Jluted with two or three blind grooves for decoration.

thegrooves 1 Cutting p I C u tt h ep i l a s t e ri e c ets s i z et,a k i n gn t o c c o u n h ew i d t h f t h es t i l e s n d o r a tt o a allowing enough space between door thepilaster thehinges plan the you and for to use. Then, install core bit in your a box router mount toolin a table. and the Adjust the cutting height a semicircular Mark location thegrooves theendof for cove. the of on theboard addmarks thefaceindicating and on where cutshould andend. the start AIign front the cutting withthebit,thenuse leading of thepiece mark line the end to a reference ontheoutfeed Iine fence, Repeat procedure theback the with cutting line andmake similar a reference ontheinfeed line fence. Adjust fence thefirst the for groove, install featherboardthetable hold pilaster then a on to the firmly against thefence. Round thetopedge thefeatherboard over of to prevent stock the from catching it is pivoted when down thecut.Tomake cuts, into the align leading the end of thepilaster thereference ontheoutfeed with line fence lower board and the face ontothe biI (above, Hold workpiece on thetableasyoumake topl. the your flat p a s sW h e nh eb a c k n do f t h ep i e c e l i g n w i t ht h er e f e r e n cie eo nt h ei n f e e d . t e a s l n pivotthe stock the Iable(above, fence, off bottom). Repeat cut on the other the p i l a s t etrh e na d j u stth ef e n c eo c u tt h er e m a i n i n g o o v e s . , gr t



llll llll illl llll l]l1 llll llllillt lll1 fill fill llllllill]ll llllllllfill llll
gHO? TI?
onthetable eaw thaping pilaetero jiq,youcan useNhe cove-cut'tin4 ohop-buill Wilh Lhehelpof a oimple For on ?aqe69 ro ehapeVilaohere. lhe iiq, cul a ehown Nechnique you f an7le or lhe cove al appropriahe b 6haped aee piece Nhe wedqea' neeA and ecrewil t d two tencee: lowfencealongonelonqeideand lhe oneon lhe adlacenleide,lhenscrew jiq t'o the eawe rip a hi4her end of fence.Io makeNhecule,lineup t'hemiddle the leadinq of a Nherip f enceuntilIhe anqled and adjueL IesI boardwith Nheblade on 4uidebuLIoaqainotthe pilaet'er,lurn t'heeawand feedlhe board adjuotI'hecultinq heiqhl inlo the bladeao shown; groove. aVVropriaNe untilyou creaNethe localionlineeand Markqroove fronN and backculLinqlineson workpiece you did in oNeV a6 Nhe 64,then eawIhe 1 on paqe qrooveg. exlremecare Use in lowerinq raieinq and EheworkaT, ?tec,e , eacnena of the troove.

r') Installing pilasters the with Z. Pilasters besecured glue can strength, some use alone, foradded but ine First, determ screws. wel l-concealed pilasters thestile. on of thelocatron the its between centered They typically are thin,even coat of Next, spread a edges. glue theback set thepilaster, face of on pads it, wood and it in place, clamp using protect stock. pilot holes into Drill the to and from the thepilaster inside cabinet bottom of into a drive screw thetopand (abovd. process pilaster Repeat the the pilaster. the to mount second


Created by the three separaterouter bits shown below, the three layersof molding that make up the typical cornice at right appear as one singlepiece when theyare installedcn an armoire. Besides providing a visual framework the armoire, the molding servesa for secondesthetic function, leading the eye into the center of the piece and keepingit focused there.



the 1 Routing molding I Cutthree boards longer wider and than youwill need thethree for layers moldof ing(above). Install panel-raisingin a bit your router mount toolin a table. and the Align bit bearing thefence the with and adjust cutter the height leave flat lip to a nomore than%inch thick theedge on of thestock above molding. the Mount two featherboards fence one the onthe and on table secure stock to the throughout the (ln cuts. thisillustration, featherboard the ontheoutfeed fence been has removed forclarity.) onthetoolandfeed Turn the (left). complete pass, stock To the move to theoutfeed of thetable oull side and thestock through endof thecut. the passes, Make several increasing width the of cut%inch stock a time.Form of at the second board thecove andthe with bit thirdpiece theRoman bit. with ogee



r) Mitering molding the moldmade three the L Wnen have vou (the innerrip to ingstrips, each width first, and should thewidest the be most oiece slightThen the third narrowest). cutstrips for ly longer youwillneed thefront than of The andsides theworkoiece. ends of at are strips mitered 45' to themolding The goaround corners pilasters. and the procedure each Hold is layer thesame: for its end in molding position, back theside Mark of flush withtheback thecabinet. on corner thecabinet thestrip. of thefront (For second thirdstrips, mark the and the layer of frontcorner the previous of moldre m t i n g . I n a d d i t i o n , a r kh ed i r e c t i o n ) saw quired themiter Tiltthetable cut. for the using the to blade 45" andfeed stock (Caution: guard (/eff). Blade mitergauge Repeat cutonthe the for removed clatity.) mark cut and Then, side second piece. of theends thefrontpieces.

of the 2 Installing firstlayer molding is to layer molding fastened of r-J Each strips The in thearmoire twosteps: longer first, forthesideandfrontareattached pieces the around followed thesmaller by pilasters. on of a Spreadthinlayer glue the then face thefirstsidepiece, set of back with the against armoire itstop it in place the above topof the with level or slightly on as brad shown Use cabinet. a cut-off p p a g e 2 3t o h e l p o s i t i otn em o l d i n g h 1 you it at and while clamp screw in place lf end either of thestrip. youareusing conrather frame-and-panel than carcase use the struction build armoire, a sliding to in moldings place the dovetailhold side to (page to Repeat procedureattach the 127). the then side theother molding, mount
, , v , , (

P ' v v v




Applying molding the around pilasters the
O n c e h e s i d e s n d m a i nf r o n tp i e c e f t h e f i r s t l a y e o f t a o r

molding installed, small pieces are the around pilasters the must cutto size mounted place. small be and in pieces Four need befitted to around pilaster; allthepieces each miter at 45'at both ends. Hold mitered of a strip the the end of f irst molding against mrtered ofthemain flush the end front piece, mark front then the corner thepilaster theedge of on o f t h em o l d i n g . a k e 4 5 " m i t e c u ta t t h i sp o i n tT h e n , M . a r hold molding place repeat procedure the in and the to mark a n dc u tt h en e x p i e c e . o n t i n u n t h i sm a n n e rn t i t h e t C ie u l fourpieces cutto surround pilaster. are each Dry-assemble thepieces ensure accurate then to an glue fit, spread onthe p i e c ea n df i t t h e mi n p l a c eS e c u rte ef r o n t i e c e n s . p h o t h ep i l a s t e ri t ha s c r e w . s e i n i s h i n g i l so rt h es m a l l w U f na f er pieces, driving heads the below surface a nail the with set (right). second The layer molding nowbeattached of can thesame asthefirs1. way

the layer in f, Clamping outside of molding place . - , 1S r n c t h eo u t s i dle y eo f m o l d i nw i l lb ee n t i r e l y s i b l e e a r g vi f r o m h ef r o n t f t h ea r m o i r et,s h o u l d es e c u r e di t ho n l y t o i b w g l u e A s b e f o r e ,p p l yh es i d e s n dm a j n r o n t i e c ei r s t , . a t p a f f t h e n d dt h es m a ls t r i p s r o u ntd ep i l a s t e rW.h e nn s t a l l a l s a h i p , i n gt h ef r o n t i e c es p r e ag l u e n i t a n da l i g n t st o pe d g e d o i w i t ht h et o po f t h ef i r s tt w ol a y e ro f m o l d i n g n s t a l l t h r e e s I. b a rc l a m p a c r o sts ea r m o i rte s e c u rte ep i e c en p l a c e , s h o h i y t r g h t e n rtn g c l a m pg r a d u a li ln t u r nu n t i a t h i nb e a d f he s l o

gluesqueezes fromthejoint;usewood out pads protect to thestock(above). necessary, cut-off (page lf use brads 123) t o h o l d h em o l d i nig p o s i t i ow h i l e o ua p p l yh ec l a m p s . n t y n t e R e p e ah ep r o c e d ufro rt h et w os i d e i e c e s .of i n i s hh e tt p T t l u m o l d i n g , u e p a n di n s t a t lh ep i e c ea r o u ntd ep i l a s t e r s . s l h C l a m t h es m a lflr o n t i e c ew i t hb a rc l a m p s . o r h es i d e s , p p s F t s e tt h ep i e c eis p l a c e n di n s t a l l o nce a m p c r o srs e n a l a n pilaster secure to thembothat once.




the and the 1 Setting width marking guidelines the twice arms equals of edges thetwolong the of with molding thehelp thecove-cutting between inside cornice I Fashion you Set part coved of molding willinstall. theblade of you mold- width the guide The above. jigwillenable to cuta cove shown the across blade the of depth cut,Lay guide at tw t i w c i n g , h i c h a nt h e nb er i p p e dn h a l f o p r o d u c e oc o r n i c e height thedesired just the by turned hand, touches init until blade, the 1-by-2s androtate two the fasten 18-inch-long To moldings. construct 1ig, edges the along inside run Then a pencil thearms. edges of bolts with 1-by-2s carriage andwingnuts, side to two9-inch-long (above). guidelines thetable insert on jig sothedistance of thelong to trace arms the Adjust arms. of two forming sets parallel
r) Cutting cove the the Z- Remove suideand lower blade the t b e n e a t hh e t a b i e .O u t l i n e h e d e s i r e d t e o c o v ep r o f i l e n t h e l e a d i n g n d o f t h e then workpiece, setthe stockon the saw w o t a b l e a l i g n i n t h e m a r k e d u t l i n e i t ht h e , g g u i d e l i n e s t h et a b l ei n s e r tB u t tg u i d e . on of the against edges the workpiece boards tl t a n dc l a m p h e mp a r a l l e o t h e g u i d e l i n e s ; t l u s eb o a r d so n ge n o u g ho s p a nt h e s a w t r l 3 D t a b l e . r a w i n e s i n c h e so e i t h e s i d eo f d b o t h e b l a d e n t h eg u i d e o a r d s ,e l i n e a t i n g s a d a n g e z o n et h a t y o u rh a n d s h o u l d r t % t a v o i dC r a n k h e b l a d e i n c ha b o v eh e . , T t a b l e . o m a k et h e f i r s tp a s s f e e dt h e w n w o r k p i e c e e a d i liy t ot h e b l a d e i t hy o u r st t w l e f t h a n d , h i l eh o l d i n gh e w o r k p i e c e a g a i n stth e t a b l ew i t h y o u rr i g h th a n d ( / e f f ) F i n i s h h e c u t u s i n g p u s hb l o c k . . a t s , M a k e s m a n yp a s s ea s n e c e s s a rrya i s a % i n gt h e b l a d e i n c ha t a t i m e .F o ra d e e p t b c o v e t a c ka b a c k u p o a r d o t h e t o p o f , t . o t h e w o r k p r e cte p r e v e ns p l i t t i n gF o ra v r t f s m o o t hi n i s h , a i s e h e b l a d e e r ys l i g h t ly for the lastpassand feedthe workpiece t i s l o w l yn t o r t . W h e n h e c u t i s c o m p l e t e d , t r i p t h e s t o c ki n h a l ft o f a s h i o nh e m o l d i n g ,t h e ns a n dt h e p t e c e s .



MITER JIG jig This you simple willallow to miter theends molding your of on radial armsaw withtheblade thenormal in position. to the 90'crosscutting Refer illustration suggested for dimensions. Tobuild jig,bevel ends the the of theguides 45". Next, thebase at cut andfence screw twopieces and the together, leaving enough thefence of extending below base sit in the the to slotbetween front the auxiliary table andthespacer. Then, remove the saw's fence position base and the of thejigonthesaw table, seating the fence thetable in slot. theblade Set in the90'crosscutting position and adjust cutting the depth make to a %-inch-deep in the base. kerf 0nce thecut is made, remove jig and the screw of theguides one edge-down onthebase itsbeveled flush with end just against fence its point the and touching kerfin thebase. the Positionthebeveled of thesecond end guide flush along kerf thebase. the in Use carpenter's a square ensure to guide square the thesecond is to firstone, thenscrew in place. it (There should enough be space between twoguides thestock the for youwillbecutting.) Install jigonthetable. the Holding t h es t r i p f m o l d i nfgr m l y g a i n s t o i a oneof theguides, theendof butt thestock against fence. the Turn on thesaw pulltheyoke and through the cuI (left), cut the mating To miter, secure second piece the against the guide, opposite thenpullthesaw through cut. the



saw a Using table s c D e n t im o l d i nig a c l a s s io r n a m e n t a l l l of d e t a ic o n s i s t i n gs m a l r e c t a n g u l a r l between with or blocks, dentils, spaces typicalfrom thinstock, lt them. is made t , % l y b e t w e e% a n d r n c h h i c k a n di s n placed the against cabinet directly either m g w i t ha n o t h e r o l d i no n t o p ,o r s a n d (inset). two between moldings wiched width. to rip First, thestock thedesired as head wide the as a install dado Then and you the between dentils, space want to height setthelength the adjust blade board an Screw extension of the blocks. gauge, feedit intothe then to themrter the Move extenhead cuta notch. to dado of by to sion theright thewidth thedena Make small notch. cut til,then a second in key wooden to f it snugly thenotches; u i s l i d e t i n t ot h ef i r s tn o t c h n t i li t p r o Butttheendof the 1 about inch. trudes the against keyandholdit f irmly stock gauge cut thef irst to the against miter t t d e n t i lF o r h en e x c u t ,p l a c eh ef i r s t . t the the over keyandrepeat procenotch u l ie d u r eC o n t i n un t h i sm a n n e rn t i t h e . is of length molding cuI (right).

levelers adjustable Installing install floor, for Tocompensatean uneven of on levelers the base your adjustable of consists a T nut The armorre. hardware foot. rod anda threaded witha plastic for holes the by the Install levelers boring them Drill of in T nuts thebottom thefeet. rods. than longer thethreaded Tap slightly then with into thenuts theholes a mallet, (/eff). Adjust feet the in thelevelers screw the to level cabinet.


he frame-and-panel doorsof an armoirearebuilt in muchthesame wayasthe sideassemblies a frameof and-panel cabinet(page32).However, therearedifferences. theinside Both and outside edges thestiles railscanbe of and moldedfor added decoration. addiIn joint tion,themortise-and-tenon used to connect frame the pieces incorporates a mitered molding, shownon page A 73. final difference involves stockused the to build doors.Because swingfree, they doorshavea tendency deform.To to counteract this, doorsareoften made from heavier stock.To avoidan excessively heavy appearance, backofthe the door framecanbe rabbeted allow a to portion of thedoor to remaininsidethe armoirewhenit is closed. resultins The lip alongthe outside edge ofeachdooi restson a verticalmullion dividins the cabinet opening on a false or mulTion, whichis a stripofwood attached the to edge ofthe left-hand door.

Theglass shown page is door on 73 essentially a frame-and-panel with door glass panels. glass in rabbets The sits cut along inside the edges theframe of and isheldin place strips molding. by of
Thedoorsof thearmoireabove harmonize with theframeand-panel construction thepiece. of Theirtip-rabbeted mountingpartly recesses doorsinto thecabinet, the makingthem appearthin and delicate despite theirsturdyconstruction.


Lip-rabbeted FIueh-mounted














Cutting tenons the your I Make armoire's frame-and-panel doors bycuttrng tenons theends alltherails, blind at of asshown here, then and shaping inside the edges o f a l l t h ef r a m e o m p o n e nas , l l u s t r a t en c t si id s t e p s t h r o u g4 . F i n a l l y ,r i l lm o r t i s en t h e 2 h d is (sfep andprepare frame a panstiles 5) each for el (step Tocutthetenons your 6). on table saw, install dado a head slightly wider than tenon the length. Install auxiliary fence notch an wood and it byraising dado the head it. Set width into the o f c u te q u atlo t h et e n o ne n g t a n da d j u s t e l h th cutting height about to one-third thickness the o f t h es t o c kH o l d i ntg er a i lf l u s h g a i n sh e . h a tt gauge thefence, miter and feed stock the faced o w n n t ot h eb l a d ets c u t o n et e n o n h e e k . i o c Turn board andmake same on the over the cut t h eo t h e s i d e C h e c fko rf i t i n a t e s tm o r t i s e , r . thenrepeat process theother of the the on end board on theother and rails hbovd.Tocutthe tenon shoulders, thecutting set height about at I tnch. Then, therailface lush with f against the gauge theendbutted miter and against fence, the feed workpiece theblades. therail the into Turn (right), over repeat cut onthe olher and the side Cuttherest thetenon of shoulders same the wav.




r) Shaping rails stiles and the on molding the integrated I to fashion f frame,it your of insrde edges thedoor bit molding andmount with router a piloted with Align fence the the thetoolin a table. the on bearing thebit,thenadjust cutting portion the of the to depth shape bottom pass, thestock feed For board. each it good-face-downthe bit, pressing into ; tt f i r m l y g a i n s h ef e n c ea d j u stth ec u t a Shape the if tingheight, necessary. only around and of interior edges therails stiles rail, perimeter. a median For thedoor's both shape edges. at liketheone right,

uP forglue the Q Preparing rails shoulders r.J Thecorners thetenon of properly with to mustbe mitered mate fence the Remove auxiliary from thestiles. a and saw thetable fence install crosscut angle blade. the orcombination Set blade board, a to 45', make testcut in a scrap t a n dc h e c kh ec u tw i t ha c o m b i n a t i o n position and the Adjust fence square. as so height thatthecut is exactly blade of as wide deep thewidth theedge and just (The teeth should promolding. blade To shoulder.) make the beyond tenon trude against the flush hold piece the thecuts, gauge thefence youfeedit as and miter the Repeat cuts into edge-down theblade. molded of the edge of ontheends each rails remaining (left).



Notching stiles the
L e a v eh e t a b l es a wb l a d ea n e l e d t t a

45o,measure width each and the of rail, mark line themolded of themata on edge i n gs t i l e c o r r e s p o n dd ns t a n c eo m a ii g fr theend. intothemolded at the Cut edge line, making certain thecutwillnot that martheface thestile. stiles of For matrng withmedian youneed make rails, to twoopposing cuts slice 45" and away the waste between them. Slice most off of thestrip molding of between 45" cut the andeach of thestile end witha band saw (above). Smooth cut edge the using the table saw. Leaving ripfence place, the in hold stile the flush against miter gauge the andslide stock the back forthacross and the blade(right). Repeat process the for a l lt h es t i l e s .



mortises thestiles in f, Cutting youcut in step r-,f Useoneof the tenons s t t i a s a g u i d e o o u t l i n i n gh e m o r t i s eo n , t h e e d g e s f t h e s t i l e s T o m a k et h e j o b o t e a s i e rc l a m pa l l t h e s t r l e so g e t h efra c e , l w t o - f a c e i t ht h e i re n d sa l i g n e dI.n s t a la o m o r t i s i n a t t a c h m e n tn y o u rd r i l l p r e s s g , t o a n dc l a m p n es t i l e o t h ef e n c ec e n t e r i n g u r l e t h e m o r t i s o u t l i n e n d e t h e c h i s ea n d X t d b i t ,M a k e h e d r i l l i n g e p t h i n c hm o r e a ; t h a nt h et e n o nl e n g t hm a k e c u t a t e a c h o b b e n do f t h e m o r t i s e e f o r e o r i n g u t t h e (/eff).Repeat procethe wastein between g d u r et o c u t t h e r e m a i n i nm o r t i s e s .

forpanels the 1i Preparing lrames grooves theframe router with edges your in \J Cutthepanel he a . g a n da t h r e e - w i s lg t t i nc u t t e rD r y - a s s e mtb ler a i l s n d n o on face-down a work the door clamp frame and stiles each of p . t tt w t a b l e u s i n g o o d a d so p r o t e c h es t o c kA d j u stth ec u t , between the midway router cuta groove to of tingdepth your W a o a b o t t o m f t h ef r a m e n dt h ee d g e f t h em o l d i n g . i t h f i r m o plate and onto surface the gripontherouter, lower base the Once of near corner theframe. one the suide bit into stock the

t c t h e b i t p i l o tb u t t sa g a i n stth e e d g eo f t h e s t o c k , o n t i n u eh e (above). for Repeat process the the direction cut in a clockwise p l M a o t h e rp a n e o p e n i n g s . a k e r a i s e d a n e fl o r e a c ho p e n i n g ( p a g e 6 ) a n d g l u e u p t h e d o o ra s y o u w o u l da n yf r a m e - a n d 3 a p a n e a s s e m b l y .o uc a n n o wr o u ta d e c o r a t i v e o l d i n g r o u n d l m Y t t a e o t h e o u t s i d e d g e s f t h e d o o r s n da r a b b ea r o u n dh e i rb a c k the stockbetween two to install enough faces;be sureto leave
ihp hinopc lnaop
\ F e b e '

' / '



Cutting rabbet holdgtass a to p I G l a s s a n e l si e r n r a b b e t r a t h etrh a n l s g r o o v ea n da r eh e l di n p l a c e yt h i n s t r i p s s b o f m o l d i n g . l a m ph eg l u e d - ufp a m e o C t r t a w o r ks u r f a c eu s i n g w o o dp a dt o p r o , a t e c ty o u rs t o c k T h e ni n s t a la % - i n c ha b . l r b e t i n g i t i n a r o u t e a n ds e tt h e d e p t ho f b r c u t t o t h e c o m b i n e t h i c k n e so f t h e g l a s s d s a n dt h e m o l d r n g . o l dt h e t o o lf i r m l yw i t h H b o t hh a n d s h i l er e s t i n gh e b a s e l a t e n p w t o t h e f r a m en e a r n ec o r n e rt,h e ng u i d e h e o t b i t i n t ot h e i n s i d e d g e f t h e d o o r .M o v e e o (far the router clockwise along the edges ieft)untilthe cut is completed. Square the c o r n e rw i t ha c h i s ea n da w o o d e n a l l e t s l m (near left).Makethe cutsacross grain the f i r s tt o a v o i d p l i t t i n gh e f r a m e . s t 'l

r ) M a k i n gh em o l d i n a n d t g L gluingupthe door Shapeboth edgesof a board(page66) t h a t i s l o n ge n o u g ho p r o d u c eh e l e n g t h t t o f m o l d i n y o un e e dT h e nr i pt h e m o l d g . i n gf r o mt h es t o c k n a t a b l es a w . u tt h e o C m o l d i n go l e n g t hm i t e r i n t h e e n d s t t . g a 4 5 ' . C u ta n df i t o n ep i e c e t a t i m e .0 n c e a t h e m o l d i n gs r e a d ys e ta d r o po f c l e a r i , g l a z t n g o m p o u ne v e r ye w i n c h e so c d f t p r e v e ntth e g l a s s r o m r a t t l i n g L a yt h e f . m o l d i n gn p l a c e n d ,s t a r t i n 2 i n c h e s i a g f r o m t h e c o r n e r sb o r ep i l o th o l e s t 6 , a i n c hi n t e r v a lts r o u g hh e m o l d i n g n d h t a r n t ot h e f r a m e T a c kd o w nt h e m o l d i n g . w i t h b r a d s u s i n g p i e c e f c a r d b o a rtd , a o o protectthe glassfrom the hammer(right).




on the 1 Installing hinges thedoors witha here attaches thedoor to shown I Thetypeof hinge The fasten assemblythearmoire. the to end;bolts leaf each at Begin securby into edge. mustbe mortised thedoor leaves on Position hinge theedge the in ingthedoor edge-up a vise. u a A o n a n dm a r k h e l o c a t i oo f t h el e a v e s .t e a c h u t l i n e , s e t h t n o c h i s etlo c u t a r e c e sis t h ec h e e k f t h er a b b ea r o u n td e t s t b a c k f t h ed o o r q u a il n d e p t h o t h el e a f h i c k n e ss t;o p o e c s r. f t h ec u ta t t h er a b b e th o u l d eT h e n i t a ne l e c t r id r i l lw i t h of a tr b a t w i s t i te q u ailn d i a m e t eo t h et h i c k n e s st h el e a f n d the down holes a of bore series overlapping to extend recesses

(above, Periodically theleaves /eff). test-fit intotheshoulder s d a h i n t h em o r t i s ets ,p p i ntg e mi n w i t ha m a l l e t ;t o p r i l l i n g withthe of rests flushon theedge thedoor once hinge the r o mt h ed o o r , f s h l e a v eis t h e i rm o r t i s e R.e m o vte eh i n g e n h f s e l a yt h ed o o r l a to n a w o r k u r f a ca n dp o s i t t otn e h i n g e Mark outside mortises. the leaving leaves the ontheedge, s a f o h o s c r e w o l e s n t h e b a c k a c e f t h ed o o r t i l ea n db o r e l s m . t c o u n t e r s uh o l e t e a c h a r kS l i d eh eh i n g ee a v eb a c k nk a the the to intothemortises, drive screws secure hinge and right). to the door(above, r) Installing door the L to mount hinpe the bolts the to its armoire, thepiecJon back. set if Working a helper, necessary, with and hold door position mark the in stile of on theboltlocatrons thefront hole Bore thearmoire. a clearance at mark. thenreposition door the each into slipping bolts the onthepiece, (left). thedoor place Fix in theholes withthenuts orovided.



the 1 Positioning hinges I Setthearmoire itsback. each on For door, strips masking across fix of tape the corners theopening. of Place small sandpaper shims beside pieces tape the of to prevent door the frominadvertently shifti n ga sy o uw o r kS e tt h ed o o r n p l a c e , . i c e n t e r i ni go v e t h eo p e n i n g . e a s u r e t r M fromboth sides make to certain door the you is parallel thestiles. to Once aresatisf withthepositioning, thecoried mark ners thedoor thetape of on witha pencil. Next, thehinges butt against edge the of thedoor; a tape use measure make to sure thatthey equally are spaced thetop from and bottom the door(right). of Holding theupper of thehinge place, half in slip pin offthebottom andthehinge and half usea pencil mark screw to the holes on (below). the dooredge

( ( t ( t t

Dottom half



r) Mounting hinges thedoor the on L Securethe edge-up a worK on door surface. bore then oilotholes each at point. marked Hold tophalfof each the hinge square thedoor to edge screw and (/eff). it in place

Hanging door the Place door back thearmoire on the the Check that andreassemble hinges. of are with thecorners thedoor aligned tape. Trace themarks themasking on with around bottom thehinges a the of p e n c i lr,e m o vte ed o o rd i s a s s e m b l e h , the hinges, reposrtion bottom and the halves thearmoire. on Mark screw the holes thecabinet, pilot on bore holes, and screw bottom of eachhinge the half to (below). thearmoire Remove shims the a n dt a p es t r i p si,n s e rtth e p i n i n t h e half bottom of thehinge, place and the door thearmoire. on



Mounting hinges the door the on I Measure distance the between top the e d g e f t h e h i n g e e a fa n dt h e s c r e w o l e s o l h i n t h e l e a;f t h e h o l e s i l l b e h i d d e n n c e w o the leafis ready be fastened the door. to to Makea mortise eachhingeleafas you for (page wouldfor lacehinges 79). Withthe d o o r d g e - u i n a v i s e , l i d e h e l e a fi n t o e p s t i t s m o r t i s e . h e ns l i pt h e r a t - t a ip i n i n t o T l its bracket setthe bracket the door and on edge with the tail pointing toward botthe tom of the door.Holding pin and brackthe e t i n p o s i t i o n a p t h e l e a fd e e p e irn t ot h e t, d o o r d g eu n t i lt h e h o l ei n t h e l e a fa l i g n s e with the pin (left).Measure fromthe top o f t h e l e a ft o m a r ki t s s c r e w o l e s n t h e h o doorand borecountersunk holes. Drive the screws f ix the leafto the door. to 'l

r) Mounting door the Z. Position door itsopening the the in in a r m o i ra n da s s e m btlh eh i n g e ,l i d i n g e e s pin therat{ail into hole theleaf the in . F a s t e n i nh eh i n g eo t h ea r m o i rie a tg t s t w o - s t eo p e r a t i ob e g i n n i n g t ht h e p n, wi bracket. Trace outline thearmoire, its on remove bracket oin.thenbore the and a clearance forthe bracket suphole bolt p l i e d i t ht h eh i n g eh r o u gth ec e n t e r w t h o f t h eo u t l i n e .h r e atd eb o l ti n t ot h e T h b r a c k es , i pt h eb o l ti n t o h ec l e a r a n c e tl t h o l ea n du s e h en u ts u p p l i etd f a s t e n , t o thebracket thearmoire. slide to Then the pinintothebracket, checking theratthat t a i ll i e s l a to nt h ec a b i n e b;e n dh et a i l f t t in a vise, necessary, if to make sit flat. it R e a s s e mtb l eh i n g e n e i n a t i m e n d h o f l a u s e f i n i s h i nn a i l o f a s t e t h er a t - t a i l a g t n (right). to Ihe armoire



the Cutting keyhole 1 I T o m a r kt h e k e v h o l eo c a t i o n n t h e l o b t d o o r ,m e a s u r t h e d i s t a n c e e t w e e nh e e o o u t s i d e d g e f t h e l o c ka n dt h e c e n t e r f e o o t h e k e yc h a m b eo n t h e i n s i d e f t h e l o c k . r ( T h el o c kb e i n g n s t a l l e d e r ei s i l l u s t r a t i h e d o n p a g e6 3 . ) T h e nt r a n s f ey o u rm e a r r s u r e m e n t t h e d o o r ,m e a s u r i nfgo mt h e to rabbet cheek the door's on backface.You f n e e dt o d r i l l t w o h o l e s o r t h e k e y :o n e f o r t h e s h a f ta n d a n a r r o w eo n ef o r t h e r k e yb i t ,w h i c hi s t h e s t r i po f m e t a lb e l o w e t h e f o r w a r d n d o f t h e s h a f t ,B o r et h e w i d e rh o l ef i r s t ,u s i n g n e l e c t r i c r i l lf i t a d l t e d w i t h a t w i s tb i t s l i g h t l y a r g e trh a n 'fhen f i t t h e d r i l lw i t h a b i t t h e k e ys h a f t . s l i g h t l ya r g etrh a nt h e t h i c k n e so f t h e l s h t k e yb i t a n d b o r ea s e c o n d o l eb e l o w h e shafthole(right); locale the holeto suit t h e k e y .H o l dt h e d o o rs t e a d y s y o ud r i l l a t h e h o l e s U s ea s m a l lf i l e o r a r i f fl e rt o . j o i n t h e t w o h o l e s n dc r e a t e c a v i t y a a w t h r o u g h h i c ht h e k e yf i t s e a s i l y .

r) Mounting lockand the L makingthe mortise bolt Position lock theback thedoor, the on of in in sliding key the chamber thehole the With door, fit thekeyintothe lock. and , t t h ek e yi n p l a c eh o l d h e l o c ks t e a d y fasteningto thedoor(/eff). it Make while sure thatthe lockis square theedge to of thedoor youdrive screws. as the To locate mortise the bolt, the for turnthe key extend boltandusea pencil the to withgraphite. to coat endof thebolt the Retract boltandclose door. the Extend the thebolt against edge the mullion the of its to mark location use drilland and the a c h i s e lo c u t a m o r t i sc e n t e r eo n t e d l t h e p e n c im a r k l.f d e s i r e dn s t a la n i, l escutcheon around kevhole. the




are Blanket chests all relatively is hechest oneof theearliest beginning a rectanguwith similar, with types furniture, along of top. larcarcase ahinged Dimenand tradition.Duringthe utilitarian guideline vary sions butasageneral served the as MiddleAges, chests a of considerlength 40to 45inchprimary of household receptacles and es, widthof i8 to 20inches, a a Theywere also goods andvaluables. The 25 height ofabout inches. cardouble duty to perform called upon is frompanels edgeof case made place, a timewhen at asa seating with glued and boards assembled people. were luxuryformost a chairs joindovetail frame-and-panel or earlychestdesigns Although wood routed ery.Thetop features artisans wereprimitive,medieval with strips are that attached sliding end Abiscuitjoiner cutsa slotin themitered themwith carved oftenadorned joint dovetail s (page 1 ; or amold9) The is moldedbase. base and of the blanketchest's chivalric arches elaborate and (page ing canbe cut into its edge and of to the DuringtheRenais- rabbeted accept carcase thechest scenes. battle prevent topfromwarpthe 92).To to periods, the thebracket arethenscrewed the base. Baroque and sance feet touch, wood ing,andasadecorative piece some began assume of the to (page Thetop can for 92). can frame-and-panel battens befastened stiffening including stillused today, that elements are (page (page orbuttbnges 89). hinge 88) with joinery, feet. beattached apiano bracket and molded topsandbases, patterned feet for base and Thetechniques making molding bracket such hardware added, asbrass was years, attractive Overthe on 93. might starting page You forablanket are chest discussed locks, handles, escutcheons. and make fitting feet; a ogee placed the choose instead install bracket these to at was America, chest usually the In Colonial box Installing blanket and as for quilts, linens-hence the base bookcases armoires well. and blankets, footof a bedto store provide 100. items on is starting page These every- hardware shown is to Today, piece used store the name chest. blanket to be carefully touchandshould chosen are Manychests built thefinaldecorative to thingfromtoysandclothing books. design ofyourproject. the complement particular for additional storaqe. with drawers

with itspatterned chest, Thistraditionaldovetailed feet importon top is and molded and bottom, based a design Europe the18thCentury. in ed toAmerica from eastern


Batten (pa1e92)


^8) 1p-tqe

Piano hin4e (paqe 88)



/ Cheotlock -/ (pale 1OO) \ \

Flap etay )creweC to tnatde of cheel: aiCeand lid: can be adjusLed lto suiL wide ran4e of lid wetqhLe and cloetn4epeede.ln fttlly open poeitton. collar enaps inLo retd cap to hold ltd oPen

Eacutaheon (paqe 101)

'Flush handle
ln;ne \ rulL tt]t7t tvu t

Baee -----.' ( i ) . , 1 E9 C ) . Dovetailed carcase (pa7e 26)

Bracket. foot. (tttqe 93.) ---\-_____





were oftenfurTraditional blanket chests with one or moredrawersto store nished anythingfrom papersand pens to sewing needles and thread. The top and bottom are panelsof rhedrawerassembly mountgroovesin thefront and ed in stopped with a divider to backpanelsof the chest, the separate openingfor the drawers.

Eutt hinge )ta nda rd rectangular braoe or eLeelhin4eeet fluah wtth aurfaceof cheaL: cannot pin eo be removed hingemuet top to be unscrewed rernove Cheat ahain Ltnkchainuaed ae a lid eLay

Decorative esautaheona A aelectionof fittin4a ineLalted on the front panelaround keyholeto prevent damageby key Threaded eacutcheon Key-eha ped fixtu re fita onuglyin elightlyoveretzed na kevhol proiecti eliahtlv e, fim cf,'eeifroni

Reaeesedhandle Featurea receee for finTera;handle etopo at 90" Elanket aheat hinge )trap-otyle cheet htn4ewith forqed finieh for anLtque appearance; lenqtha in available 9- to 14-inch Campai6n ahest corner fittinqe ortqinallyueed Corn'er for protectronon cheote car' ried on mtlrtarycampaiqne, nowugedto decorate
varioua cheat type6

Colonialchest handlea TraditionalAmerican cheet handlea

Large cheot- lifti ng ha ndlea Handlewith 90" atop cheeta for lrfttnqheavy

Marquetry banding lnlayetrip conaietin4of aaaembled aeveralveneerg into an attractive deaiqn



Since moldingstripsarefastenedaround its edges with slidingdovetails accommoto datewoodmovement, the chest shownat left does top not require battens keep to it thoughtwo havebeen flat, added decorative effect. for Thelid stayholds topopen the and allowsit to close slowly to avoiddamaging piece. the

Installing hinge the T h eh i n g e h o u l d ee q u atlo o r s l i g h t s b ly shorter the length thechest. than of Clamp topto a work the surface using pads protect stock. wood to the Hold the hinge position, in aligning center the of thepinwiththeback edge thetop,and of trace outline. its Next, install straight a bit in a router setthecutting and depth (Take to thethickness the hinge of leaf. care adjusting depth; therabbet the if is toodeep willcause hinge bind it the to when lid is closed.) thebitover the Align the inside edge theoutline, fasten of then guide an edge butted against router the plate. base Rout inside the edge the of plate pressed rabbet, keeping base the guide. against edge the Make repeat cuts, guide adjusting edge the each time, until the rabbet completed. is Then, the set h i n g en t h er a b b ea n dm a r k h e l o c a i t t tionof thescrew holes. youareadding lf (page (page molding 91)orbattens 92), doso now. pilotholes the Then bore at put marks, the hinge backin position (right), drive screws. thetop and the Set onthechest, thefreehinge flat with leaf onthetopedge theblanket of chest's back panel. Mark location thescrews, the for pilotholes, drive thescrews. bore and in



the outlines 1 Tracing hinge you hinge, canuse of a piano I Instead the hinges attach topto to butt twoorthree are Thehinges mortised chest. theblanket panel the of intoboth topandback the clamp topgood-side the To chest. begin, the surface place f irst and on down a work position inches from in one few in a hinge positioning pinjustofftheback the end, the to a of edge thetop.Use pencil trace (left). ltAark oththe outline the hinge of manner, on er hinges thetopin thesame positioning near other and end one the one
in tho eenter epcs:r , i,f n p-----v.

the 2 lnstalling hinges holes, in in mortisesthetop,drillpilot .J Set hinges their the (above). setthetoponthechest, Next, themin place andscrew on hinge for mark location thecorresponding mortises the the panel, chisel the them followtng out then r) Chiseling thewaste of topedge theback out on on procedure in 2, described step Nowlaythechest its back o e t e L ' l s e a c h i s e lo s c o r t h eh i n g e u t l i n a n dc u t i t t o t h e it. down and a work surface setthetopgood-face behind Place bevel pare up, holding chisel the Then, of thicknessthehinge. of the (abovd. than slightly thicker thetopunder back spacer to Repeat procedureclear a wood the from thewaste themortise with leaves theirmorthe hinge to chest line-up free no theblanket to mortises. careful cutthemortises Be outtheremaintng pilot in the holes screw hinges place. and Bore binding. tises. leaves prevent to of deeper thethicknessthehinge than



HINGE MORTISIl{G JIG A router an ideal is toolto cut mortises yourblanket for chest's butt hinges, do nottryto dothejob but freehand.jig liketheoneshown A at rightwill guarantee accurate fast, results. will need equip your You to router a straight anda temwith bit plate guide make cuts. to the Make template the froma piece plywood enough of %-inch wide to support router. the Outline hinge the leafonthetemplate, being to sure guide compensate thetemplate for andthethicknessthefence, of which plywood. is alsomade from%-inch Cutoutthe template, thenattach thefence withcountersunk screws. To usethejig, secure top of the thechest edge-up a vise. in Mark thehinge outline theworkpiece on andclamp template position, the in aligning cutout the withtheoutline

on the edge andbutting fence the against inner of thetop.Make the face the cut below),moving router the in small clockwise circles the until bottom the recess smooth, of is then

square corners a chisel. the with When youareusing jig to cut mortises the in thetopedge theblanket of chest, besureto secure carcase orethe to ventit frommoving.



the 1 Making molding and bit I lnstall moldinp in a router a Rout moldthe thetoolin a iable. mount h t i n gf r o ms t o c k h t c k etr a nt h et o ps o w h e n h e l i d i s s h u t h em o l d i n g t that panels and the willoverhang side front (The also stock should bewider slightly. so thanyouneed thatYou andlonger to the ripandcrosscut molding size can withthebearing thefence later.) Align into the andfeed board thebitto carve Mount in onehalfof anedge. thedesign of side thebit on either a featherboard d g h t o s e c u rte ep i e c e u r i n t h ec u t .( l n featherboard thefront the illustration, Flip for hasbeen removed clarity.) the creatpiece androut other half, the over Then of the Itrst(right). cut inga mirror to themolding thestze ripandcrosscut youneeo.

r') Installing molding the o h L Y o u a ns e c u rte em o l d i ntg t h e c alone. or dovetailsglue edge sliding with moldings attached are ln thiscase, side the for to slidrng dovetatlsallow withstopped the wood cross-grain movement; front an s l w m o l d i n w,h i c h i l l s h r i n k d w e lp a r g w a l l e t o t h et o pp a n e li ,s a t t a c h e di t h l glue. on dovetails theends Make stopped rnortises dovetail of thetop;cut stopped (see 127). in thesidemoldings page joints, you made dovetail the After have at of miter ends themolding 45".Then the shims. place topgood-face onwood up the two on of a Spreadthinlayer glue thelast and dovetail thedoveinches thesliding of into slide molding posithe tailslot, then paper towel thetop on lay tion.Next, some bar and scratches install clamps to prevent to the wood withprotective pads secure (left). molding place in



Routing edge the I I n s t e a d f a t t a c h i n s e p a r a ts t r i p s f o g e o m o l d i n gy o uc a n r o u ta d e c o r a t i v e a p e , sh i n t h e t o p i t s e l f S e c u r eh e t o p g o o d - f a c e . t u p o n a w o r ks u r f a c e r t h i t s e d g ep r o w j e c t i n g f f t h e s u r f a c eI.n s t a la p r l o t e d o l r o u n d i n g - o vb i r o r a n o t h em o l d i n g i t et r b i n y o u rr o u t e rt,h e ns e tt h e c u t t i n g e i g h t h t o m o l dt h e t o p p a r to f t h e e d g e T u r no n . t h e t o o la n dg u i d e h e b i t i n t ot h e s t o c k , t m o v i n g h e t o o l a g a i n stth e d i r e c t i o n f t o b i t r o t a t i o n n d k e e p i n t h e p i l o tb e a r i n g a g buttedagainst the stock (/eft).Oncethe t o p h a l fo f t h e e d g ei s m o l d e df,l i p t h e w o r k p i e co v e ra n d r o u tt h e b o t t o m a l f i f e h c a l l e d o r b y y o u rd e s i g n . f 'l

r) Adding battens L Wnen molding attached sliding is with dovetails, it serves stiffen top, to the eliminating need battens; the for molding that issimply routed theedge thetopdoes in of notoffer advantage. this In thiscase, to prevent warping changing from humidity levels, fasten or three two battens across theundersrde top.Cutthestrips of the of wood from same the stock thetop,makas ingthemaboul inches and3 inchlY, wide esshorter thewidth thetop.For than of visual appeal, round endof each one batt e no n t h eb a n d a w . e x ts e tt h et o p s N , good-face on a work down surface and h o l d h ef i r s tb a t t e nn p l a c e b o u 5 t i a t inches one ofthetop.Drrve from end three (right). allow (Io screws fasten in place to it thebatten expand contract, to and enlarge thecounterbored attheends the holes of wood strips ovals; center into the screw is t h eo n l y n e h a ts h o u l b ed r i v e i n o t d n tight.) Repeat process mount the to the other battens.



o.l'tlrc blorrTIrcltottottrttssurtltls, ol'brackct kct clrcst con,si-sr-s .lbct r ts t t t o t t r t t c t lv l r / r s c r c t vo a r o b tltat srtpprtrts Itctcdltascrrroldirtg Tltc ltrockct orc tlrc cttrcasc. .lccl joitrcdn,ith lttl.f blirtddttvctails.

I T h ef e e to f t h e b l a n k ec h e s a r em a d e t t c f r o mt w o i d e n t i c ab o a r d s u t w i t h a d e c l w o r a t i v e c r o l p a t t e r n n dl o i n e d r t hh a l f s l a d ts, l b l i n d o v e t a i l l o i nM a k e h el o i n e rc u t s y s f i r s t , h e ns a wo u tt h e p a t t e r na n da s s e m t b l et h e n i e c e s o n e s i nc u t b l a n k t o t h e T . s s i z eo f t h e f e e t ,t h e nm a r kt h e h a l f - b l t n d a I. h d o v e t a i l sn d i c a tte eo u t s r dfe c eo f e a c h w a b o a r d i t l ra n X . T h e na d l u s t c u t t i n g p a r r s t o t h e t h i c k n e so f t h e s t o c k n d e s a f s c r i b e l i n ea c r o s t h e i n s i d e a c eo f t h e a s p i n b o a r do m a r k h e s h o u l d e r n e . e x t , N t t l e s e c u r eh e b o a r d n d - u pI n a v i s e ,s e t t t h e c r r l l r np a r p e o a h o u o n e - t h i rtd e p t t n s t o c k ' sh i c k n e s s ,n d m a r ka l i n ea c r o s s t a f t t h e e n d c l o s e r o i t s o u t s i d ea c e .U s ea tr m t d o v e t a i l s q u a oe a r k h e p i n so n t h e e n d o f t h e b o a r d .F o rt h e s i z eo f b o a r d a s h o w na h a l f - p i n t e a c he d g ea n dt w o , e v e n l s n a . e d i n si n h e t w e ew i l l m a k e v n n ^ ^ f ,^ + r - ^ ^ r i , r r n t I n d r c a t e e ,^ . h d >LruilB dilu dLLrdLLrvc JL w a s t e e c t i o nw i t hX s ,t h e nu s ea c o m b i s s t d t n a t i o n q u a r eo e x t e n dh e l i n e s o w n h e s t . i i n s i d ea c et o t h e s h o u l d el r n e ( / e f f )R e f p e a t h em a r k s n a l lt h e p i n b o a r d s . o

the 1t Markins ninboard -



r) Cutting pins the Z- Secure pinboard a vise a in withits you, outside toward thencut down face along edges thepins the of witha dovetail saw, working oneedge the board from of to theother. each align saw For cut, the just blade to thewaste of thecutting side (left). smooth, strokes, lines Use even continuing cuts theshoulder Next, the to line. clamp board the outside-face on a down work surface use chisel mallet and a and to pare away waste the wood: Score line a about inch % deep along shoulder the line andthenshave a thin layer waste, off of withthechisel horizontally bevheld and e e l - u pR e p e a h e p r o c e d utro c u tt h e . tt pin remaining boards.

rhe Q Gutting rails gauge thethickness r.,l Seta cutting to o f t h ep i n st,h e nm a r kh es h o u l d eir e t l n on all thetail boards. Place firsttail the board outside-face onthework down surf a c e . o l d p i nb o a r d n d - d o w ni t h H a e w its inside aligned theshoulder face with lineof thetailboard, making certain the edges theboards flush. of are Outline the tails witha pencil, use trysquare then a to extend lines the onto endof theboard. the Mark thewaste all sections Xs. with Then usea dovetail to cut Ihelails(right). saw Angling board, the rather thanthesaw, makes easier for cutting. Then secure the b o a r d d g e - uip t h ev i s e n dc u tt h e e n a waste beside twooutside Remove the tails. thewaste between tailswrtha chisel the u s i n gh es a m ee c h n i q u e s c r i b en t t de id you step When have 2. chiseled half out thewaste, thepiece f inish job flip and the from other the side. Repeat process the to cuttheother boards. tail



Test-fitting joint the
M a k ea t e m p l a t e i t h t h e d e s i r e d w p a t t e r no r t h e f e e ta n d t r a c et h e s h a p e f t o n o n ef a c eo f e a c hb o a r dT h e n , e s t - f i t . joinl (right). Mark the half-blind dovetail l a n ys p o t s h a t b i n dw i t ha p e n c i a n d t c a r eu l l y p a r es o m ew o o da w a ya t e a c h f m a r ku n t i lt h e f i t i s s a t i s f a c t o r y .

Using band the saw i C u t t h e p a t t e r n n e a c ho f t h e f e e t f r e e h a n do n t h e b a n ds a w .T o k e e pt h e b l a d e f r o mb i n d i n gn t h e k e r fa t t h e t i g h tp a r t i o f t h e c u r v e ,m a k ea s e r i e s f s t r a i g h t o r e l e a s e u t s f r o m t h e e d g eo f t h e w o r k c p i e c e o t h e m a r k e di n e .T h e n , l i g nt h e t l a j b l a d e u s tt o t h e w a s t e i d eo f t h e c u t t i n g s l i n ea n df e e dt h ew o r k o i e ci e t ot h e b l a d e n w i t hb o t hh a n d sm a k i n g u r en e i t h eh a n d , s r is in linewith the cuttingedge(left).



pieces Making base the I T h ef o u rp i e c ets a tm a k e p t h e h u b a s e o l d i na r es h a p ea n dr a b b e t e d m g d i n d i v i d u a lW o r k i nw i t hs t o c ko n g e r ly. g l you than need, one rout edge thefront of pieces same youwould andside the way (page shape cornice molding 66).Next y r u s e o u t a b l e a w o c u tr a b b e tis a l l s t n fourpieces. rabbets sawn two The are in passes, theshoulders followed with f irst, bythecheeks. Adjust blade the height so thecheeks bewide will enough support to t h ec h e sw i t h o u te a c h i n h em o l d i n g t r tg position fence one-third the cuts; the so of stock thickness becutaway. two will Use featherboards to support workpiece; the attach table-mounted the featherboard to a s h i m ot h em i d d l o f t h ew o r k p i e icse s e p r e s s ea g a i n s h ef e n c eF e e d a c h d tt . e (left)until piece edge on intothe blade t h et r a i l i n e n dr e a c h e h et a b l eT h e n g ts . m o v eo t h eo t h e s i d e f t h et a b l e n d t r o a pullthestock theblade. oast 'l

r) Gluing thebase up pieces length, L Saw molding the to cutting miters both at piece at one ends thefront of and endof thesrdes. froni The joints; joints corners thebase assembled miter of are with butt are sufficient theback. connections bereinforced for The should joiner cutslots, spread withwood biscuits, a plate Use to then gluein theslots, pieces, insert biscuits thefront in andback (above) clamp andpress corners the together and them.

the to Q Fastening feet thebase r-,1Working a flatsurface, position base thefeetof on the on thechest, making alltheouter sure edges flush. each are At corner, four bore countersunk through base into holes the and (above). thefootandscrew twotogether the Place chest the piece drive in therabbets thebase of and screws underfrom neath through base into chest. the and the




It is easier sandthe to surfaces the of contoured ogee bracket before infeet stalling themon thebase.

the cove 1 Gutting ogee feet much I Ogee bracket arecreated likethe bracket shown page feet on 93, ogee ile butwithan S-shaped prof shaped Because their in theiroutside faces. of surfaces, twohalves each the of contoured joint footarejoined a miter-and-spline with (page thana half-blind dove98),rather profile cut in three is steps tail.Theogee Begin by onthetable andtherouter. saw of marking profile theendof a piece the on stock long enough make thefeet.Set to all cut up your tablesawto make cove in a for theface theboard youwould the of as (page cornice molding an armoire of 69). maka block feedthestock, to Use push passes cut a cove ingseveral shallow to depth(right). Onceyou of theappropriate fithave made cove usea router the cut, bit the tedwitha rounding-overto shape of to line. corner theboard themarked



r) Finishing ogee profile the L me ridee waste of between cove the cutand rounding-over sliced the cutis off bythetable To saw. setupthecut,hold theworkpiece edge thesaw on on table andadjust blade the angle align cutto the t i n g d g e i t ht h em a r k e d n eo n t h e w e li board end.Butttheripfence against the stock, it in place, settheblade lock and herght slice to away waste. three the Use featherboards to support workpiece the duringthecut:Clamp to thefence a two and third thetable; featherboard to this should bemounted a shim it willpress on so closerto themiddle thestock of against the fence. Feed workpiece both the with hands (right). Once board's the trailing reachend esthetable, move theother of the to side table oullthestock theblade. and oast


the cuts 1 Making bevel I Since osee the bracket will beassembled miter- B e f o r m a k i n t h ec u t ,c l a m p s t o p l o c ko t h ee x t e n s i o n feet with e g a b t joints, and-spline each theeight pieces have of foot will bevels t o e n a b ly o ut o l i n eu pt h ec u t s o rt h et h r e e t h e ird e n t i c a l e f o s o n a d j o i n i ne n d s F i r s tc u t a l l t h ep i e c es l i g h t lo v e r s i z e .pieces. g . , y Hold flatedge theboard the of against extension the Tocutthebevels, your set saw's blade angle 45" andattach andtheendagainst block youmake to the as each (above). cut g . a w o o d x t e n s i o o t h e m i t e r a u g eM a r k h e l e n g t h f a e tn t o To bevel ends thefourmatching pieces, the the of foot hold f o o tp i e c e n y o u r t o c k n d ,h o l d i ntg ef l a te d g e f t h e o s a h o contoured of thestock edge against extension you the as b o a r d g a i n s h ee x t e n s r oa l , g n h em a r k i t ht h eb l a d e . m a k eh ec u t s . a tt ni t w t



r) Gutting spline grooves the g r o o v e o rt h es p l i n eis t h e n fs 1ne of are beveled ends thefootDieces cut Install dado a head and onthetable saw. adjust thickness thatof thesplines its to youwill use. theangle the head at Set of to 45oandshift riofence theleft-hand the side theblades. of Holding footpiece one buttthe flat-face-downthesawtable, on of end the edges beveled against cutting head adjust fence and the and thedado groove be will blade height a %-inch so inchfromthe bottom of located aboul% against end the the piece. Buttthefence Feed of the stock andlockit in place. (left), eachpiecewith the miler gauge pressing endagainst fence throughthe the outthecut.

and Cutting patterns the gluing thefeet up grooves cut,design are Once thespline all of thescroll oatterns theflatfaces the on pieces cutthemoutontheband saw and (page Sand pieces smooth, then the 95). or wood to from cutsplines plywood solid should be fit into grooves. splines the The make aslong thegrooves; theirwidth as less the slightly thantwice combined (lf depth twogrooves. youusesolid of cut wood thesplines, themsothe for grain their rather than runs across width, in lengthwise.) Spread adhesive thegrooves thenattach andglueup thefeet (right), as standard themto the base youwould feet 96). bracket (page



A commonfeature of traditional campaign chests, solid brass flush handles add a touch ofclassto any blanketchest. The handlesstop at a 90" angle to the sidesof the chest, providing a convenient way to lift the piece.

the faceplate 1 0utlining lock I Lay chest itsfrontpanel position lock the on and the face-down midway between sides flush the and withthetopedge thepanel. of Trace outline the (above), extend lines of thefaceplale then the onto topedge thepanel. the of r) Routing lockmoftise the l mis is oneof therare instances in which router used make freethe is to a hand Care patience required. cut. and are Usea wood chisel firstcut a shallow to mortise thefaceplate in thetop for lip edge thefrontpanel. of Next, install a straight in your bit router, thecutting set depth thethickness thefaceplate, to of andcuta mortise inside marked the outline. Start guiding toolin a clockby the wise direction cuttheoutside to edges of themortise; outtheremaining clear waste byfeeding toolagainst direction the the of bit rotation. thechisel souare Use to the corners pare theline. and to Measure the distance between edges thefacethe of plate the lockhousing transfer and and the measurement mortise. to the Adjust therouter's cutting depth thethickness to of thehousing cutthef inalmortise and (left). thechisel square corners. Use to any Test-fit lockin thecavity use the and the chisel deepen widen of themorto or any tises, necessary. if



the Q Cutting keyhole and r-J Setthelockin themortise mark Cut of thelocation thekeyhole. theopenlock for ingasyouwould anarmoire (page for shaft and one B3), drilling hole thekey f a for another thekeybit.Use smallileto (nght) lointhetwoholes

Installing escutcheon the on Position escutcheonthefront the p a n eo f t h ec h e s ta l i g n i nigso p e n i n g l t , of Use over keyhole. a strip masking the w t e t a p e o h o l d h eh a r d w a irn p l a c e h i l e t youstart nails theirholes. proTo in the each nail f when driving tectyour ingers grip withneedle-nose flush, thenailshaft (/eff). pliers



the f, Mounting lock r-f Once keyhole cut,laythechest the is on itsfrontpanel again setthe lock and in itsmortise. thescrew Mark holes the on panel, pilot remove lock, the andbore holes. thelockin place Set again fasand tenit to thechest, driving screw the heads (/effl. flush withthefaceplate

Front panel



plate Installing strike the C o m p l e t e e l o c ki n s t a l l a t i o n h by plate thetopof mounting strike the to thechest. thescrews Slip through their holes the plate in andsetthe plate on topof the lock. Turnthe keyuntilthe plate, lockengages thestrike with then adda stripof masking to holdthe tape plate firmly place. in Slowly close top the of the chest(right)untilits underside touches screws. a pilothole the Bore at each markleft by the screw and tips plate thetop. attach strike the to



the 1 0utlining handles on I Laythechest onesideandPosimidway outside-face-down tiona handle panels a and and between front back the the below top.Trace outline the fewinches of the mountingplate tight).

/) Mounting handles the bit a L lnstall straight in yourrouter, of to depth thethickness setthecutting plate, cuta mortise inand mounting the for as outline youwould side marked the the measure disI a lock(page 00). Next, of the tance between edges themounting and plate the bowl-shaped housing and to the themeasurement mortise. transfer depth the to cutting the Adjust router's and of thehousing cutthedeepthickness in the Test-fit handle thecavity er mortise. any to a wood chisel pare remainanduse (far fromthe mortises left). wood ingwaste plate f with restslush mounting Once the mark faceof thesidepanel, theoutside and the holes, remove handle, thescrew pilotholeat each mark. the Set a bore it again fasten to the and handle place in (near for Repeat procedure the /eff). chest handle. theother


Contrrrcrcinl barding is at,nilaltleirr a variety oJ'desigrts conrplenterfi to works rarrgirrg a Welshtlresse r Ji"ortt to n boardroonrtnble.Here, it nddsa decorntivetortcltto the top ofn blanket chest. Inlay nurterinls ctm be nrctal, wood verteer, solid lurrdwood. or


Routing groove the I G r o o v efs r i n l a ya r ec u t w i t h a r o u t e f i t t e dw i t h a s t r a i g h t s u r et h e d i s t a n c e e t w e e nh e r o u t e r a s ep l a t ea n d t h e e d g e o r b t b b i t t h e s a m e i d t ha s t h e i n l a y . f y o ua r ei n s t a l l i ns h o p - m a d e o f t h e t o p , a n d c u t t h e e d g eg u i d ea n d s t o pb l o c k s o t h a t w l g t r n l a ys e tt h e c u t t i n g e p t hs l i g h t l y h a l l o w eh a nt h e t h i c k - w i d t h .S c r e w f e n c et o e a c hp i e c e o i t c a n b e p o s i t i o n e d , d s tr a s n e s so f t h e s t r i p s ; h e i n l a yw i l l b e s a n d e d l u s h ( s f e p3 ) . t f s q u a r eo t h e e d g e s f t h e t o p . F o re a c hc u t ,c l a m pt h e g u i d e t o F o rc o m m e r c i a la n d i n g , h i c hi s v e r y h i n ,m a k e h e c u t t i n g a l o n g h e e d g e o uw i l l b e c u t t i n g n df a s t e n s t o pb l o c k t b w t t y t a a a d e p t h q u atl o t h e i n l a y h i c k n e s o m i n i m i zs a n d i n g . u | i n e e a c he n d . H o l d r n gh e r o u t e r ' s a s ep l a t ea g a i n stth e e d g e e t ts e O t b e t h e g r o o v o n t h e t o p w i t ha p e n c i l i;t s h o u l d e e q u i d i s t a n t g u i d e n do n es t o pb l o c k t u r no n t h e t o o la n d p l u n g eh e b i t b a , t f r o mt h e e d g e sR o u tt h e f o u rs i d e s f t h e g r o o v en d i v i d u a l l y ,r n t ot h e s t o c k .F e e d h e b i t ( a b o v eu n t i lt h e b a s ep l a t ec o n . o i ) t g u r d i n gh e t o o lw i t h a n L - s h a p ee d g eg u i d ea n d s t o pb l o c k s . t a c t st h e o t h e rs t o pb l o c k ,O n c ea l l t h e c u t sa r e m a d e , t d square , T o s e t u p t h e g u i d e sa l i g nt h e b i t w i t ht h e c u t t i n g i n e ,m e a - t h e c o r n e rw i t ha c h i s e l s .




r) Setting inlay thegroove in the to to I Cutthe inlay length f it in the your groove, tablesawfor shopusing for chtsel commeror made inlay, a wood groove For cialbanding. therectangular cutsat theends 45" make miter shown, pieces. andtest-f one it Cut of the inlay glue piece a time, a thenspread little at it and of ontheundersidetheinlay insert the in theslot(right),tapping stripgently bandCommercial mallet. witha wooden with in be ingshould held place masking cures. the until adhesive tape

l r)l

the Trimming inlay the has sand toP Once glue dried, the and adhesive bring any to remove excess perfectly withthesurface f lush theinlay inlay, a For of thewood. shop-made use w t i b e l ts a n d efr t t e d i t ha 1 2 0 - g r ib e l t . along inlay one forward the Move sander piece back Ieft)andpullthesander when youreach endof thestrip, overlapping the of the by thefirstpass one-half width the of until belt. Continue thesurfacestheinon thenmove to layandthetopareflush, with the Repeat process a strips. theother the to finerbelt(150-or 18O-grit) smooth Sand surface. inlay thesurrounding and with by banding hand a sandcommercial modern bandSome Be ingblock. careful: inch Ihan%o thick. ingis less



shown reproduction Themodem in originated 17th hehighboy 106 on in thephotograph page disand Europe wasinI Century of elements plays manytt'aditional lacChinese by spired theornate the Centurydesign: gracethe18th for imported the quered cabinets pedilegs, frrl cabriole the scrolled of Because itssize, Endishnobilitv. the molding, flamementor crown the"highboy-or high chestof finials, flutedquarter the and-urn in constructed two drawers-was and carving andtheshell columns, that suPa sections:lowerchest the adorning scalmolding applied with four or porteda tallerchest chest. on loped apron thelower was moretiers.ThetoPlevel frehow showyou Thischapterwill quentlydividedinto threesmaller this and design construct classic to set by drawers side side. piece furniture, frombuildingthe of style fu theQueenAnne evolved to 110) sawing chest(page upper and into themoreornilmental claslegs less(page andshaoins cabriole (Dase the shaping sryle sicalChippendale duringthe 112) andthen assemblins lowthe and,thenassgmblinq cabinet, prevent fromenteringthe dust To futt.t p*ilf thersth Centu{ the (page.116). is Attention also thebot- er chest underneath areinstalled speciilframes tifihb"y found favorwith afflulike to the finer details, devoted nmdranerinthelowerchat.Thedustshield like cities .n?ro.i.ty in colonial the around cockbgl{ing installing construction isabasic Itritaaapiria, Boston,and New frame-and-panel (page crown r.outing 118), drawers sides. to scrsued theiarcase Towaing7 or 8 feethigh,the York. carvingthe molding (page124), i.foringhigliboy*miaeaiyiuit1j4)t quartel.glp": (page (2ag.el30), shaping the and of of .a'to in€.t."g.nt,lofty ceilihgs themanorhouses the frnals upperand thehtghboy't illustrate two The-foiiowing pagej for solution were perfect the time,anditsiumerousdraweis are of The Highboysbecame lowerchests. major{eatryeg thepiece identified; for rt"riititft.rttiJes needed entertaining'. and outhowto make install to indicated find to living rooirs aid ttreir prices refer thepages of the ha"llmark fashionable element. Today, each unabated. The rose dramatically. trendhascontinued and but is a cabi- -..Building highboy a challenging.task,with care Philadelphia by tft. ftigiib"yrpr6duced therenowned l.. ofthe 1700s rrnongthemostsought-after diligenceyoucangleateapieceoffurniturewiththegracean netm;kers ancestors. of appeal its200-year-old timeless furniture. pieces antique of

the at Thehighboy leftexempffies harmony typiand straightlines fluid curves between Anne-style calof Queen furniture.


Crown molding ilr:irl. l,-/ij \ // Roeette il).,1q.i2a')

Top rail (Y::.t;,1f i^i;t'1 aaa..,

\ \







Cockbeading (.pa4e 118)

\ ( \
thell carvinq (.paae137'1





|o t,|3q. t

Knee block (Fqe 117.) Cabriole leq 1 1;ta4e 12)




has lic highbol,'s uppcrchc'st tu'cr major conrponcnts: a largc carcase anclan claborate tranre lirce that tits 1,ithi1it. As shorvn 1.,.1sl1r,carcase tl.te bottour, sicle tl'o cor.rsistsir top ancl of panels, tu'cl ancl backpancls scparatecl 'l'he corbr.astile-ol mr-rntilt. carcasc luers joincdn'ith throLrgh are clovctail 26J, the parre ioints(prrgc ancl bacli. lssit in rabbets rror.rncl inside the cclgcs cr.rt (prrgc of thecarcase r.r.runtir.r i 1).Thc ancl n.r-rntir.r is attachecl thetop andbotto n'ith tonrofthe carcase nrortise-andjoints. teuon Thctracc fl'rrnrc, shorvn frrce-Lrp belorv aucl facc-clou'n page I 1,isbuiltfronr on I a top rail,tn'oL-shapccl posts, fi'ont ancl fl'anre cach of cil'arvcrs. fbr ticr r clrau,cr T l l e t o p t r t i li s t l t r t l ' . ' t lr ' . t 6 6 . ' 1 t1 1 . ' 11 (prrgc molcling 124)nd rosettes crorvn (ptrgc128), cl both of 1'hicharc aclcle latc'r. backtaceof the top rail is The qroovecl accept carcase ancl the top, to has tenon in each to flt in r.nora cut end posts. L shape Thc tises thetu,ofr-ont in the fbr ol'thefl'ontposts creates spacc (prrge The the quarter-colunrns 1,34). firnt posts in notches in thecarsit cLLt bottout. case aucl top The drrrrver's supporting fl'trnres irrc joined from ancl stiles assenrbled rails (prryc lx6l1 n'ithmortisr'-ancl-tenons -16J. franrehasan rrclclecl dovetailed slicle (pagc 122). anchor frames the Tir the to cArcase, braces scren'eclthc'top tn'o rrrc to of cach ancl thesiclc one to panels. The drau'er fl'aurcs notchcd thc front arc at to accou'uloclate front postsancl the scrcrveclthenr.'l'he to uppernrost clrarv er franrc sllpports thlecsmall drau'ers; it f'eatures cliviclers threeclrau,tu'o ancl fr-ame been has er slicles. Once frrce the bLrilt, is simpl,v it slipped thecarinto (.scc ctrse &c/orr') the scrervc'c'l aucl u to thc' sicle ofthe carcrsc tliroLrgh braces. the



Faca rrame

li,,-:ck, --....-_ cenai

r 'Carcaea

lll : )tf ! n --"-------,--'



Toppancl )

Stde Panet ol'tlrc lrighboy tlratt't'rs tlnt lit irtto lltc ltlrr c/ic-sl-s -s.rc11'('rl tltc sidt' to trc tvpictlly sttltportctlbv.litrrrrt's p a t tt' l s; t l o t't' t tt i l r:d t rttrrt t'-s ii i t l tt' t l raw c r b ott o tt ts t t to l c troiIt'd to tItt'.l)'orrrt'. tvitIr rrrott'Irirrs -s/lrfu'-s 'l'lrt'



Dtvider /

Drawer frame



\ { \,,.,,,,

DcvetatleC drawcr oltdc
iri.i I trtl ir,.r'fi a'i


Foat block

A distinctive Anne featureof Queen style,the tapering,curyedcabrioleleg haslongbeen considered challenge a cabinetmakers. itsgraceful But lines for canbecut easily thebandsawand on smoothed handtools. with

the 1 Designing leg I Make template a piece %-inch plywood hardboard to thesame a from of or cut length width your blanks. design and as leg The shown above topwillyield at an attractive, stable, well-proportioned youcanalter pattern suit and leg,but the to yourproject copy design an existing thatappeals you.Begin or the of leg to drawing thelegbyoutlining post the block. Make length its equal thewidth thelower to of railthatwillbeattached it, plus height thelower to the of chest's panels. side The width thepost of block should adequate accept railtenon. be to the Later, will be it (page notched 116) accept quarter to the columns the lower of chest. Next, sketch thepadandthetoe,thenthefront thelegfromthetoeto theankle of using french a point, diameter theankle curve; its narrowest at the of should about be two-fifths thestock width. Move to theknee, on sketchinggentle a curve fromthepostblock join to thefrontedge thetemplate of about to 3 inches 2 below block. the Then the knee theankle to witha relatively straight Complete outline theback line. the at of the leg,fromtheankle the bottom the postblock(above). to of Experiment you until have satisfactory a design.



r') Transferring design the I rcne legblanks s t e C u to u ty o u r e m p l a to n a b a n d a w , outto the thensand edges the marked l t l i n e .H o l d h et e m p l a tfea to n o n eo f making of faces thelegblank, theinside and of thattheends thetemplate sure a d t h eb l a n k r ea l i g n ea n dt h a t h eb a c k withtheinside is block f lush of theoost Trace along edges the of edge theblank. h . o o f t h et e m p l a t e o u t l i n te el e g T u r n the and theblank over repeat procedure inside facetight).At this on the other point, prefer woodworkers to prepare some before for the legs andrarls thejoinery (lt to and cutting leg. iseasier clamp the leg in cuta mortise a rectangular blank, out forexample, to carry thesame than p r o c e d u r o n a l e gw i t hp r o n o u n c e d es cut Other woodworkers the leg curves.) firstandthendotheloinery.

one Cutting face saw on Setthe leeblank the band facoutlines table withoneof themarked of ingupandthebottom thelegpointing Aligning sawblade the away fromyou. justto thewaste of themarked line side into feed stock the fortheback theleg, of about halfway Turn thesaw off theblade. the the through cutandremove workpiece. l t t T h e n u ta l o n gh es a m ei n ef r o m h e c the detaching waste opposite Toavord end. piece theblank losing marked from and the face, the outline theadjacent stop cut on a about% fromthefirstkerf,leaving inch the bridge between twocuts.Retract short for then the theworkpiece, cutalong line leaving again thefrontof the leg(left), from the wood to bridges prevent waste falling away.



Completing cuts the and severing bridges the Turn over blank thatthemarked the so o u t l i n o n i t sa d j a c e n itd e s f a c i n g p . e s i u C u ta l o n gh em a r k e ld n e sb e g i n n i n g t i , withthose along front theleg, the of then (above). time, theback This complete ihe cuts,letting waste away. the fall Then r o t a t t h eb l a n k n dc u tt h r o u gth e e a h your bridges during firstcuts(right). left

thepad 1 Forming I Use compass outline circular a to the padonthebottom theleg. of Then secure thelegin a vise, thebottom facwith end ingup,andusea backsaw cut away to t h eb u l ko f t h ew a s t e u r r o u n d itn g s he outline. Make series cuts, two of starting withfourcuts straight theendof the into l e ga t t h ec o r n e r t h e n a w i na r o u n d s, s g theendof the legto sever corners. the Next, secure legin a barclamp, the lock t h ec l a m pn a v i s ea n du s e p a t t e r n i , a maker's to round corners the rasp the of p a d C o n t i n u e t i l t h e a di s c i r c u l a r . p un (right), rotating legin theclamp the as necessary. a fileto smooth pad. Use the



r) Shaping foot the in so the Z- Reposition clamp thevise the Holding patfootistilted down. the of rasp ternmaker's at anangle approxbegin shaping by 45" to theleg, imately up from thecontour thebottom hbove). as thelegin theclamp necesRotate youcanshape footall the sary that so the Smooth surface thewayaround. file, flatbastard then using double-cut a j o bw i t hs a n d p a p e r ,i n g us f i n i s hh e t papers. progressively f iner-grit

the and Shaping smoothing knee leg shaping cabriole and the Tof inish left any to remove blemishes bytheband of the smooth surface theknee sawblade, with following a rasp witha spokeshave, Holding spokeshave the andsandpaper. of at withbothhands thebottom a curved away the edge the leg,push toolslowly of (left). you, Make cutting thinshaving a from passes, working of a series overlapping is until surface smooth. the withthegrain up to Turn legin thebarclamp clean the to edges. the rasp smooth Use theother reach. cannot an area thespokeshave that the Complete jobwithsandpaper.


ncethecabriole arecompletless ed and the cavitie-'s tl-re for cluart c r c o l L r r t t r lt r e r o u t e di n l l r e p o s t i s blocks, lou,er the chest beglued ctrn up. -sholvn in thephotoou page Thechest 107-is made of four legs, side up trvo panels, backpanels, trvo bottomrailsat the front and back,i'Lnd tu,o drau,er frames. bottomdrau,er The f}ante contains dustpanels isdivided secand into tionsfor three drau,ers. thedraler Like fiiules of theupperchest, top frante the (The features dovetailed a dralver slide. three smail lowerdr;ru,els rvell slide rvithout the aid of a s1ide.) fiarrestrre The screrved braces trreattached to that to theside panels. legs grooved The are to accept entire tl-re thickness theback of panels rabbets theside and in panels. Thelees fbature also nortises rnate that nith tenor.rs in thebottonr cut rails. As lr,ithtl-re upper chest, back the panels irre separated a nr.urtin. bv Oncethelou,er is chest glued knee up, blocks fashare (pngc 17). ioned attached thelegs and to I Cockbeading arround dralers and the the shell carvirlg applied and molding on the bottontrail areaddecl later. To complete chest, quarter the the colnrnns aretnmedandinstalled thelegnotchin esand,finall1,, moldedfl'ame ata is tached thetopeclee thechest. to of The f}amelvill conceirl seant the rvhen the upper chest setin place. is


( \ \
Frace /


tsack panel



Drane'---// raarrle
/'-t' --}

DoveLailed ---' Crawer altde

/ /

Cabriole leq


/.'* / Duet --'/

9ide panel

,/ /' /



DotLom ratl \nee

QuarLer aolumn



blocks the Oesigning knee which thecurves blocks, I Theknee loin are rails, designed and of thelegs bottom For themselves. like andcut much thelegs place prece stiffcardboard of a template, a the between legandadjoinin thecorner line a ingrailanddraw contour thatcontemplate The nects twopieces. same the Transblocks. for canbeused alltheknee b t f e rt h e l i n et o a w o o d l a n kh a ti s a s and wider larger slightly thick theleg, as f the it the than area must ill. Place blank face the against railandlegsoitsoutstde part withtheouter of thelegand is flush the using line a draw second ontheblank (right). grainof the The legas a guide to should parallel thatoftheleg. be block saw on out Saw the block the band asvou 113). did the legs(page 'l

r) Mounting knee blocks the have been blocks L Once theknee all glue cutandsmoothed, themup oneat of to Apply thinlayer adhesive a a time. surfaces, holdthe then thecontacting pieces place a clamp. wood Use with in pads protect stock direct and the to pressure shaping them to by clamping a the f it f lushagainst legs(left).Driue and block into through knee the screw reinforcement. thelegforadded


Cockbeading a rounded molding that extends is beyond thefront of the highboy and frames the drawer openings.It is set into rabbetscut along the inside edges the openings. addiof In tion to providing decoration, cockbeading protects the edgesof veneereddrawer fronts.

the openings 1 Preparing drawer I Use router a fitted witha %-inch oiloted rabbeting to cut therabbets bit around thedrawer openings. thedepth cut Set of piece %at%inch, thenattach square a of plate inchclear acrylic thetool's to base (inset). Make auxiliary this sub-base large enough keep toolflatandstable to the during operation. thechest its the Set on back a work on surface. Starting the at corner onedrawer of opening, the rest router thechest thebitlustclear on with of theworkpiece. thetoolfirmly Grip with both hands turnit on,guiding bit and the intothewood. Once pilotbearing the buttsagainst stock, the feedthe router toward adjacent the corner, keeping the sub-base (right). flal Continue around theopening youreach your until starting point. rabbets Cut around other the drawer openings same the way, thensquare thecorners a chisel. with



r) Making cockbeading the from cockbeading lenough L trttaie cut to stock fit in alltherabbets inchlhick is best cockbeading shaped 1. in step The (Do saw. on cutters thetable molding using cut instead, pieces stock; notusenarrow wide then and 4 thatareat least inches an Install from ripthecockbeading them.) and wood auxiliary fence f it themolding Raise saw. table on with head cutters your it. fence notch to into thehead thewood the to Usea featherboardsecure workpiece; it screw to a shimsothatpressure e tt d w i l lb ea p p l i ea g a i n sh em i d d l o f t h e with Make workpiece. a fewtestpasses the of stock setthewidth cut.For to scrao over edge a cutthe center board firstpass, the against face ter,thenbuttthefence flush against Hold board the of thestock. feed into it as and thefence thetable you (right). with Experiment differthe cutters o l s g e n tc u t t i n w i d t h u n t i t h ee d g e f t h e both then rounded, shape is stock properly Once workpiece. all your of edges each a install ripblade milled, has stock been from and onthesaw cutthecockbeading to it enough promaking wide theboards, openings the from drawer by trude I inch glued therabbets. into when

the Q Mounting cockbeading miterto length, .J Cutthecockbeading or saw a backwith ingtheends thetable to box. iseasiest cutand lt saw miter and p i e c e t a t i m e , a k i ns u r e o u m g y a fi t o n e of withthecorners ends the align mitered littleglueon the a Spread the rabbets. at one and surfaces insert strip contacting pieces place wtth in the securing a time, (/eff,). intervals at clamps 6-inch spring



Thehighboy's drawers exemplify classic cabinetmaking techniques. corners The are joinedwith through dovetails theend and grain of the tail boards thenhidden is with a falsefront. A dovetailed runner attached the bottomglidesalonga to matingslide to fastened theframe.

joints the 1 Cutting dovetail I Size drawer to fit theopenings thechests, parts the in then rout dovetails, the cutting pinsin thefront pieces the andback andthetailsin thesides. setof commercial A templates like theone shown thispage on makes jobsimple ensures the and accurate results. Attach pinandtailtemplates backup the to boards following manufacturer's the instructions. Secure one of thedrawer sides end-up a vise. in Clamp backup the board to thestock, making there halttails either sure are at end;the template backup and board should flush be against workthe piece. Protecting stock the witha wood pad,butta stopblock against drawer andclamp to thesupport the side it board to y h e l p o ua l i g n u b s e q u e n tt s . n s t a t h ed o v e t ab li t a n d s cu I ll i guide template supplied thejig andcutthetails, with feeding thetoolin andoutof thetemplate (above). theremainslots Cut i n gt a i l s h es a m e a y T h e n s eo n eo f t h ec o m p l e t e a i l t w . u td boards outline pinson onedrawer to the frontor back. Secure pinboard thevise clamp pintemplate the in and the to t h es t o c ka l i g n i ntg ej i g f i n g e rw i t ht h em a r k e o u i l i n e . , h s d I n s t a l lh es t r a i g h ti ts u p p l i ew i t ht h ej i g a n dr o u t u tt h e t b d o waste between pins(left).Repeat theother the at endandfor theremaining fronts backs. and



r) Preparing drawers the panels Z to,bottom and drawer clamp of it Dry-f theparts each o th , t h eu n i t a l i g n i n g eb a r s f t h ec l a m p s pieces; remember and withthefront back pads. Then withwood the to protect stock panel along for routa groove the bottom with Fit of theinside thedrawer. a router the and cutter mount slotting a three-wing to height the Adlust cutting toolin a table. runners of leave thickness thedrawer the the 3 youwillmake step below groove. in up right-side onthetable Setthedrawer of at starting themiddle onedrawer and, Keepinto feed stock thecutter. the side, tt a b g i n gt h ep i l o t e a r i nb u t t e d g a i n sh e r e t w o r k o i e cfe ,e d h ed r a w ec l o c k w i s e (right). pivoting drawer the on the Continue point. you starting to until return your table

and runners slides the Q Making drawer in the rJ Mounting drawers thehighboy for components two requires addrtional with a drawer: runner a dovetailed each and groove thedrawer bottom a matchon the Prepare runner for ingslide theframe. as be f irst;it should as long thedrawer as thickness thegap and sides thesame panel thebottom and the between bottom in To of edge thedrawer. cutthegroove the and bit install dovetail in a router a runner, Set mount toolin a table. thecutting the thickness. the at depth one-half runner's in the to the Adjust fence center groove to two and therunner make passes routit, (/eff). the to block feed stock using push a saw, slide Make matchtng onthetable the as as one-halfthick therunner. using stock as angle the to Adjust blade thesame the two then of sides thegroove, make passes positioning ripfence the to cuttheslide, so side ontheleft-hand of theblade the the away is edge angled from fence. cutting stick(insef). a using push the Feed stock



Gluing thedrawers up
F o rt h e b o t t o mp a n e lo f e a c hd r a w e r c u t a p i e c eo f % , i n c h p l y w o o do f i t t h e o p e n i n ga d d i n g h e d e p t ho f t h e t , t g r o o v ets i t s l e n g t h n dw i d t h .D r y - f i a n d c l a m pt h e d r a w e r o a t a g a i n p o s i t i o nh e r u n n e r c r o s t h e b o t t o m a n e l a n d m a r k , t p , a s t h e s i d e s f t h e r u n n e r ' s o v e t a i l eg r o o v e n t h e d r a w e r o d d o b a c k .D i s a s s e m btlh e d r a w ea n d u s ea c h i s e t o e x t e n dh e e r l t

gr d o v e t a i l e do o vte r o u gth ed r a w eb a c k l.f y o uw i s h o h h r t (page install drawer stops 123),prepare now. glue them Then upthedrawer youdidthechests, as adding some adhesive to attach runners thedrawer the to bottoms. Notched clamping p a d s i l le n s u rte a tp r e s s u r s o n l y p p l i e t o t h et a i l w h ie a d (above). boards

I n s t a l l i ntg ed r a w es l i d e s h r R r - , 1O n c et h e a d h e s i v e a sd r i e d .s l i o h e a c hd r a w es l i d ei n t oi t s r u n n e o n t h e r r d r a w e r o t t o m n d i n s t a l t h e d r a w e rn b a l i t h e h i g h b o yM a r kt h e l o c a t i o n f t h e . o s l i d eo n t h e f r o n ta n d b a c ko f t h e d r a w e r f r a m e t h e nr e m o v eh e d r a w e rR e m o v e , t . t h e s l i d ea n dc e n t e r t o n t h e f r a m eb e i t w e e n h e a l i g n m e n t a r k sA p p l y t h i n t m . a l a y e r f g l u eo n t h e c o n t a c t i n g u r f a c e s o s a n ds e c u r t h e s l i d e n p l a c e i t hc l a m p s e i w (right). Once clampshavebeentightthe e n e d , c r e w h e s l i d et o t h e f r o n ta n d s t b a c ko f t h e f r a m e .



llll lll llt Ill1 llllllllllllllllilllllllljlllllllllllllllllllllt lllllllt
Adjuotable \\ drawer otop I To keepa drawer from beinqpulled riqhN out, allach a Io 6No? trhe oimVle gluingup frame.Defore cul the drawer, a \-inchaquarenot'chin the mid' dlb of the tup edgeof the eIoP Nhe back.1aw drawer 1 Nhan inch.Mountt'he and narrower iN makinq lonqer from ecrap, of No etrop lhe boVt'om Nheframe or 7anelunderwhichNhedrawer Nhe in Ihe not'ch I'hedrawerback.)crew LineiNup wibh wll'elide. eo enou7h f'heeloV can be looee otop in place,leavinqNhefaotener long lto? 60 lhaL Nhe turn Nhe rot afed, When vou installthe drawer, Ihrou7h t'he Once oI'op'?ao6ee eides. ie ed,ae paralleliothe drawer Io iN r,hE nolch,Nurn 90" eo it'elonqedgeio ?arallel Nheback'

fronts the Installing false drawer front each to false a Attach of endgrain thedrawer the to conceal face Set sides. thedrawer upona work into twobrads the and surface drive protheir leaving heads front, drawer are sure brads not the Make truding. pull where drawer will be the located and offtheheads then installed, snip front Cutthefalse the reinstall drawer. position size, thencarefuly to theright Once front(above). the it over drawer youaresatisfied theplacement, with ends pressirmly; pointed of the the f punch into impressions the will brads the Remove drawfront. back thefalse of alignglue false front place, in the erand thebrads. with ingtheimpressions



The crown molding-or pediment-on eachsideof the highboyfront is actuallybuilt up front four separate pieces wood. The brokenswan-neck of face molding that curvesupwards from thefront corner to the rosetteis ntadefrom two piecesof molding glued together.With the hetp of a template cut on the band sow,the moldingpieces shaped a pin router (page 125). The moldingson both are on sidesofthe highboy,calledthe returns,also consist oftwo pieces glued together. They are installed with dovetailedslidesthat fit into matchinggrooves the upperchest (page 127). in


Triangular pediment

Latticed broken pediment

Eroken pediment

5arolled broken pediment



of the Shaping firstpiece molding I F o ra t e m o l a t et.r a c et h e c o n t o u r s o o f t h e u p p e r a i lo n t oa p i e c e f % - i n c h p l y w o o d . d d a c u t t i n gl i n et o r e p r e s e n t A of edgeof the f irstpiece moldthe bottom in then sawthe template two ing (inset), h f h t a l o n gh e l i n ea n dd i s c a rtd e b o t t o m a l . y o t O u t l i n eh e t e m p l a t e n t h e s t o c k o uw i l l and usefor the molding cut it to size.Next, blank atopthetemplate, screw molding the o w s t m a k i n g u r e h e f a s t e n e r si l l b e c l e a r f p l b t h e r o u t e r i t . I n s t a la p i l o t e d a n e l - r a i s r i n g b i t a n dm o u n t h e r o u t e i n a p i n r o u t t i n ga t t a c h m e nF.o l l o wh e m a n u f a c t u r e r ' s t the for directions setting depthof cut,then p p l a c e h e s t a r t e r i n i n t h e t a b l eo n t h e t the infeed sideof the bit.Asyoufeed moldt i i n gb l a n k n t ot h e b i t , b r a c e h e t e m p l a t e keeping moldthe the against pin (right), i n g b l a n ka g a i n stth e b i t ' sp i l o tb e a r i n g . p s a M a k el i g h tc u t s ,u s i n g s m a n y a s s ea s your Repeat finaldepth. to necessary reach to reversed with the template the process s g s h a p eh e m o l d i n f o rt h eo t h e r i d eo f t h e t t f T c h e s t r o n t . h e ns h a p eh e s t d em o l d i n g s a s u s i n g h e s a m e e t u p n da s t r a i g htte m t p l a t eo f t h e s a m e h i c k n e s s . t 'l


o d S h a p i ntg es e c o n p i e c e f m o l d i n g h t t o L m " p i e c e f m o l d i n gh a t i s g l u e d o t h e f i r s to n et o b u i l du p t h e f a c em o l d i n g u b i s s h a p e d y t h e s a m ep r o c e s s s e dI n f t s t e p l . U n s c r e wh e f i r s t p i e c e r o mt h e l th t e m p l a t e , e nd r a wa c u t t i n g i n ef o r t h e p , h s e c o n d i e c e o f f s e t t i ntg e l i n eb y t h e p w i d t ho f t h e f i r s to i e c e l u s%i n c h .B a n d sawalongthe mark (left).Cul and shape p a o t h e s e c o n d i e c e f m o l d i n g s y o ud i d t a t h e f i r s t :C u t i t t o w i d t h , t t a c h h e p i e c e i a t o t h e t e m p l a t e , n ds h a p e t o n t h e p i n a i r o u t i n g t t a c h m e n t - t h its m e ,u s i n g a h t r o u n d - o vb irt .O n c e h e m o l d i n g a sb e e n e it e u s h a p e d , n s c r e w f r o mt h et e m p l a t a n d s a wi t t o f i n a lw i d t h .



Preparing facemoldings the Q r-,f for installation Gluethe parts the facemolding of together a n dh o l dt h e ms e c u r e lw i t hc l a m p sO n c e y . the adhesive cured, has eachpiece face of m o l d i n g u s tb e c u t a t o n ee n dt o m e e t m t h e s i d em o l d i n g n da t t h e o t h e re n dt o a f it around rosette. the side moldthe For i n g - e n d ,e t u p y o u rt a b l es a wf o r a c o m s p o u n d u t b y a n g l i n t h e b l a d eo 4 5 ' a n d c g t t h e m i t e rg a u g e o t h e a n g l ef o r m e db e t t w e e nt h e s t r a i g h e d g eo f t h e m o l d i n g t a n d t h e s i d eo f t h e c a r c a s w h e nt h e e . m o l d i n gs h e l di n p l a c eC l a m ph ef a c e i t , m o l d i n go t h e m i t e rg a u g ep r o t e c t i n g t t h e s t o c k i t ha w o o dp a d .S i n c e h e t o p w t o f t h e m o l d i n gs s t r a i g ha n dt h e b o t t o m i t i s c u r v e dy o uw i l l h a v e o f e e dt h e s t o c k , t w i t hw h a tw o u l dn o r m a l lb e t h e t r a i l i n g y e n d f i r s t .H o l dt h e g a u g e n d m o l d i n g a securely, pushthe stockintothe cut, and y k e e p i n g o u rh a n d s e l l c l e a ro f t h e w blade (left).Then band saw the waste ( m a r k e d i t hX s ) . w

the molding 1 Installing face I O n c e l l t h em o l d i n g sa v e e e n a h b shaped cutto length, and install quarthe (page tercolumns 134).Then clamp the s i d em o l d i n ig p l a c e s i n g r o t e c t i v e p n u pads. wood Next, mount face the molding t o t h er a i la sy o ud i dt h ef a l s er o n t s f f o (page thedrawers 123),using brads to (right). mitered of align slock the The end theface molding should flush rest against t h ee n do f t h es i d e o l d i n g .l u e n d m G a c l a m ph ef a c e o l d i n g t h er a i l . t m to



r) Preparing upper chest the molding L tortheside to ts Thesidemolding attached thechest t g l w i t ha s l i d i n d o v e t aj io i n t o a l l o wh e because and carcase exoand contract to t is y o f c h a n g e n h u m i d i tw i t h o ub r e a k t n g joints thefront The corners, on themitered groove cut in thechest side is dovetailed bit, a Install dovetail then witha router. to edge attach commercial guide the a a extenand tool's base olate screw wood its fence increase to to sion theguide on Set surface. thechest itsside bearing the on the andplace router top.Adjust guide thatthegroove becut will so edge joint.Withthe bit the lustbelow corner and start the back at clear thechest, of paninto edges theside feed cutting the guide flush extension the el, pulling edge the Continue toward against toppanel. the the stopping cut frontof thechest(right), point. the a littlepast halfway

molding the Q Installing side the r-,1To produce slide match a to groove thechest, leave dovetail the bit in mount toolin a table, the in therouter, in along andshape slide twopasses the rip Then theslide theedge a board. of molding Position side the from board. the of and the against chest mark sides the of on thegroove theback themolding. in face-down a vise the Secure molding (inseil, the to andscrew slide theback glue the Spread it aligning between marks. and end onthemitered of themolding on face, then of thefirst2 inches itsback (left)and clamp securely. it slide in place


Rosettes an onnnterttalfeatw'e are cotl1tltot1 rttarty to ftu'ninre styles. Theycttrrtnkerrtanyslnpesarrd be producedin variottswttys.The concentric circleso.fthe rosette left ot h l e r eI r t n t ( do r rn l o t l r e ,c r c n t i r rn g pattem thnt flowsseanilessly f'orrt the graceftl cLn'ves the crown nnLlirg. o.f


Turning rosettes the C u tt h e r o s e t t e l a n k so f i t o n t h e e n do f t h e f a c em o l d i n g s .t b t A t a c ha b l a n k o t h e c e n t e r f a l a t h e a c e p l a t eh e nm o u n t h e t o f t, p l a t e n t h e m a c h i n e . d j u s t h e t o o lr e s ts o t h e t o p f a c eo f o A t h es c r a p e r y ow i l l u s ei s l e v ew i t ht h e c e n t e r otfh e b l a n kT h e u l . r e s ts h o u l d e a s c l o s e o t h e w o o d s p o s s i b lw i t h o utto u c h i n g e b t a r t . S w i t c h n t h e l a t h e . o l d i n gh e t i p o f a r o u n d - e ns c r a p e r o H t d

a g a i n stth e b l a n k , o u n d v e r h e r o s e t t e 'o u t s i d e d g e , n d r o t s e a . t h e n c u t t h e c o n c e n t r i r i n g so n i t s f a c e ( a b o v e )H o l dt h e c s c r a p eb l a d e n t h e t o o lr e s tt o k e e pi t s t e a d yC u to n t h e l e f t r o . h a n ds i d eo f t h e b l a n k o p r e v e n t e s c r a p efrr o mk i c k i n g p . t th u 0 n c e t h e r i n g sh a v eb e e nc a r v e d r e m o v eh e t o o l r e s ta n d , t s m o o t h h e f a c eo f t h e b l a n kw i t h f i n e - g r is a n d p a p e(ri n s e t ) . t t



the moldings 1 Preparing face I fortherosettes have turned, use Once bothrosettes been the end a gouge shape rounded of the to moldings thatthecontacting so surfaces fit snugly together. theupper Set chest face-up a work surface hold and the on gouge as wood upright youpareaway (left)untilit f its f lush fromthe molding against rosette. the

r) Gluing therosettes up Z. Position eachrosette turnon the in grain runsin the chesi that itswood so molding. This same direction theface as willcreate impression thetwo the that piece. parts onecontinuous Mark the are then rosette where touches molding, it the glue some to thecontacting surfaces apply Use to of bothpieces. oneclamp secure (right) therosette place asecond in and it forward backor to keep fromsliding ward. Protect stock the withwood oads.



Traditionally usedto decorate corthe nersoffurniture,Jiniak takea variety offor ms, including Jlame-and- urn, pineapple, plume.The acorn, and incorporates shapes, two finial above aflame-and-urn allutedpommel on base. Thisexample produced is from thebottomup: First,theflutesof the pommelaregrooved a routertable on (right),and thentheflameand urn areturnedon a lathe(pagel3l). FinalIy,thefinishedshape theJlameis of carved hand(page by 133).

Cutting flutes the Make blank each for a finialthat slightly is larger thefinished than dimensions. Mark thetopandbottom thepommel the blank useXsto indicate waste of on and the section below pommel. thedado the Use head a table to reduce blank's in saw the thickness between twomarks. thecutting the Set depth % inch.Feed blank at the gauge, passes each withthemiter cutting away waste overlapping the with on face (inseil. flutes cut witha coreboxbit in a table-mounted The are router. thecutSet tingdepth aI%inch. Align pommel thebitforthefirst of outside the over set flutes andlock fence the against blank. ensure alltheflutes bethesame To the that will length, clamp stop a block thefence each of theblank. to at end Turn therouter on andlower blank the onto bitwithitstrailing against stop the end the block closest to youanditsedge against fence. the Feed blank the untilit contacts other the stop block. theblank, Lift thenrotate andrepeat process onesetof outside it the until flutes finished. is Reposition fence the once rout middle to the flutes again and for thesecond of outside set fluleshbovd.



the 1 Turning cylinder beI Cutoff most thewaste of section leavingcouple inches a of low pommel, the Mount blank a the on fora round tenon. the to lathe adjust toolrestasclose and as without touching theworkpiece possible gouge the it. Usea roughing-out to round above pommel. the corners theblank of the Turnonthe lathe hold tio of the and gouge blank. Begin against rotating the e u w i t ht h et i p o f t h eg o u g t i l t e d p ,t h e n gradually thehandle thebevraise until tt g e l u n d etrh et i p i s r u b b i na g a i n sh e is into stock thecutting and edge slicing it. Work fromtheright-hand of the end the leavingsquare a blank toward pommel, (right). the Keep shoulder above pommel angle theworkto thetoolat thesame piece the until throughout cut.Continue is and theblank cylindrical smooth.

r) Shaping flame the you of rotating while mark bottom the ends L L"uu"the blank with Use chisel cuta to theurnand flame a oencil. a skew the and thenbegin shaping flame the notch separating flame urn, the (above). process thesame forthe gouge The is as witha spindle of tool angle cylinder step1, butinstead holdingthe at a fixed in while angling tip to the to theblank, sweep from it side side to has shaoe. cuta contour. Continue theflame thedesired until

Shaping urn the gouge youdidtheflame. as Shape urnwitha spindle the lower Then a skew use chisel cuta notch to definingthe end firmly hold of theurn.Pressing chisel the against toolrest, the point thetip against blank cuttheV-shaped to theshort of the rubbing notch; keep bevel theback theblade the on of against to the Thenusethe skew thestock helpcontrol cut (above). gouge shape and to beads below urn. the chisel spindle



Turning tenon the and smoothingfinial the
U s ea p a r t i n go o lt o t u r n a % - i n c h - l o n g t r o u n d e n o nb e l o wh e p o m m e ll,e a v i n a t t g d i s ko f w o o d g a i n s t e h e a d s t o c k a th of thin . e t h e l a t h e T h e nr e m o v t h e t o o lr e s ta n d s m o o t hh e s u r f a c e f t h ef i n i a lw i t hs a n d t o p a p e ru s i n g r o g r e s s i v f i n e rg r i t s . o l d , p ely F p a p e t o r e a c h r o u n dh e b e a d s n d r a t a the (lefil.Io f inishsmoothing intocrevices the p i e c e h o l da h a n d f uo f w o o ds h a v i n g s , l u n d e r h e r o t a t i n f i n i a la n d a l l o wi t t o t g r u ba g a i n s t e s h a v i n g C.o m b i n ew i t h th s d y o u rs k i no i l s , h e s h a v i n g si l l i m p a r a w t t i n i s ht o t h e s u r f a c e . n c e h e j o b smooth f O t . i s d o n e t u r no f f a n du n p l u gh e l a t h e b u t , t l e a v eh e b l a n k o u n t e d n t h e t o o l . t m o

. a I T o h e l py o uc a r v eh ef l a m e m a r k t p "r *i do' f - i n c hs o u a r eo n t h ee n t i r e u r s " s b f a c eo f t h e f l a m es e c t i o nT h e nd r a wi n . f f o u re q u a l l s p a c e s p i r alli n e s r o mt h e d y h n i t n m o t h e t o n n f t h e s e c t i o no d e l i n t t i s e a t et h e h o l l o w y o uw i l l c a r v e n s t e p2 : i o e t h e l i n e s h o u l d n t e r s e c tp p o s i t c o r s nersof eac.h sotnre (ripht).
L v L ' ' v L v P

the 1I Sketchins Dattern -



r) Caruing flame the gouge to surface, a narrower Use the a o Z . R e m o vt e ef i n i a f r o mt h e l a t h e n ds a w f f t h ew a s t e youcanreach entire h l (above, eachhollow ridge between defined a s c t . d i s kb e l o wh et e n o nT h e n l a m ph ef i n i atl o a w o r k u r f a c e ,carve sharply t \Norkromthe bottom thetopof thef lame, bringto f Carve to to it using shims hold parallel thebenchtop. thehol- right). . h o t i n ge a c h i d g eo a p o i n tT h e n o l l o w u tt h et o pe n dt o r e r with starttng a withtwogouges, lows between gridlines the h a k parallel thewood grain m o v eh e h o l e e f tb yt h e l a t h e 'ts i l s t o ca n ds m o o t t h e l t to /eff). Work wide-blade Gbove, tool w f l a m e i t hs a n d p a p e r . e; l th a m u c h s p o s s i b l r o t a t e n dr e - c l a m p ef i n i a s ot h a t a as

to Gluing finials thechest the into finial, bore hole thetopof a For each diamwith bit thechest a soade thesame Locate the on eter thetenon thefinial. as e h o l e i r e c t la b o v t h eq u a r t ecro l u m n d y (page This create impression will the 134). piece. and are that column finial a single the glue of and Spread onthetenon thesides (left) thenfit thefinialin place the hole, i un t U s e c l a m po h o l d t i n p o s i t i o n t i l a cures. theadhesive


the 1 Making columns I Cuta blank several inches longer than thef inished length thecolumns, of and wide thick and enough thenumber for of quarter you columns need. the blank Rip s, i n t oq u a r t e r j o i n tt h e i n s i d s u r f a c e s e of thepieces, glue clamp then and them back together newspaper between with in (inset, This enable to pull you top). will thecolumns easily. theglue apart Once is dry, mount blank a lathe. the on Mark two lines theblank the length the on for of column indicate waste and the withXs (inset, bottom). Drive screws through the waste sections hold quarters to the together.Adjust setof outside a calipers the to desired diameter thecolumn, turn of then theblank a cylinder youdidforthe into as finials(page l3l). Periodically off turn thelathe use calioers check and the to the (right). you diameter theblank of Once have reduced blank thecorrect the to diameter, turntwobeads each at endusing skew a gouge. cut chisel a fingernail and Then theflutes theblank, in either hand by using a gouge withtherouter jig shown or and on page 135.

Fluted quarter columnsadd a strong visualframework to the highboy.

Separating installing and thecolumns Once theflutes all have been made, cut away waste theends the on of theblank. Then a wood use chisel quarter to prytheglued-up columns apart. Holding blank the upright on a work surface, thechisel work tip intoa seam theendof thestock. on Push blade the deeper theseam into (left)untilthe blankseparates in half Prythe halves quarters, . into thenusea scraper clean glue to the a n dn e w s p a pfe o mt h ec o l u m n s . rr Toinstall columns thechest, the on glueon theirinside spread some surfaces clamp and themin place.



FOR JIG A ROUTER.LATHE FTUTING qUARTER COTUMNS jig you below, With box-like shown the column flutes a quarter in canrout while is mounted thelathe. it on blank Cuttheparts thejig from%-inch of plywood, is for except thetop,which The clear made from%-inch acrylic. jig should long wide enough be and and enough the io support router high the to hold tooljustabove column the rests on when jig bottom the blank Once top,bottom, the the lathe bed. add andsides assembled, two are the to vertical braces make jig more bed. rigid. Rest jig onthelathe the

piloted a Install double-bearing fluf router, a bit cleardrill ingbit in your through jig top,and the ance hole plate thejig. to base screw tool's the so should positioned be Therouter the thebitwillliealongside column mark Next, when jig is used. the blank on lines cutting fortheflutes theblank, on the thenmount blank the lathe. durall are Besure tools unplugged depth Adjust cutting the ingsetup. so onthe router the bit is aligned line withthecutting at themidpoint Tighten handscrew a of theblank. to drive shaft keep around lathe the Clamp blocks stop it fromrotating.

bed to the lathe sothatall theflutes length. willbethesame one Touse jig,buttit against the and stopblock, turnon therouter push theside thejig to feed of on 0nce pilots the thebit into blank. the slide the the areflushagainst stock, jig along lathe untilit conthe bed Keep the stopblock. tacts other the pilotspressed against stock the Turn the off asyourouttheflute. and remove handscrew the router, by to rotate blank hand align the line cutting withthe bit, the next w. a n dr e i n s t atlh eh a n d s c r eC u t l flules(below). the remaining


Scallop shells, stylized sunbursts and popularcarvings were appliedto fans Anne,Georgian, Chippendale and Queen throughout 18thCentury. the furniture Carvedby hand,decorative motifslike theoneat right werecommonly found on theaprons highboys. of Theywere alsoused adorntheknees cabriole to of legs and thefronts of centraldrawers.


Queen Anne ecallop ahell



QueenAnne fan

Chippendaleeaallop shell





surface the 1 Sculpting shell grain. the Then transfer of in working thedirection thewood pattern then of full-size a sheet paper, on I Draw shell the y p , o f l thickness. v e i n i n e sr o m o u r a t t e rtn t h eb l a n ka n du s ea p a r t i n g your blank to transfer design a hardwood of thedesired (above, right). Cutfrom into to it chisel etchthelines thewood saw on of Cuttheedges theblank theband andfasten to a stop tearout, each to of Start thebottom theblank thetop;to avoid surface. board a work to the Secure backup board. backup (above, direction. the it the left), cutnear topandcompletefrom opposite a using flatgouge of the sculpting surface theshell the Rounding rays
h b O n c e l l t h e v e i n s a v e e e nc u t , u s e a

of to the theflatgouge round contours the by lines. Start makthevein rays between (or convex of rng surfaces alltherays the Tof inish carving the outward). crowning pattern, valley every into a carve concave gouge witha narrow-blade ray second (lefil.fhe rays of adjacent should surfaces al, i ti c u r v en o p p o s i de r e c t i o n s t e r n a t i n g Use concave. a partconvex and between v e i n sn t h ew i n g s i t i n gt o o lt o c a r v eh e of sides the shell(photo, at the lower youaresatisf with page ied 136).Once s a n d h es u r f a c e t t h es h a p o f t h es h e l l , e it Then detach fromthebackup lightly. glue in place thefront of on it and board to helplocate using brads thelower chest, to 123)andclamps holdit tn it (page place dries. the while adhesive



the on table 1 Shaping volutes therouter I Thecurved moldings, called volutes, which decorate aoron the lower the of partially therouter, chest, shaped are with asshown left,andpartially hand, at by as in step Start making cardboard 3. by a template the molding, transfer of then your pattern a workpiecethedesired to of thickness. Leave enough waste the on stock feedit safely to across router the table. along of thepattern Cut one lines on theband saw, exposing edge one of themolding. shape edge, To this install a p i l o t e do u n d - o vb i r i n a r o u t ea n d r et r m o u ntth et o o li n a t a b l e R a t h e r a n . th m a k i ntg ec u tf r e e h a nc l,a m p p i v o t h d a point thetable line to in with bit,using the a brace steady Asyoufeedtheworkto it. piece thebit, brace stock into the against the pivotpoint(left).Make sureyoukeep theworkpiece against bit pilot. flush the

r) Cutting away remaining the waste you L Once have finished shaping one edge thevolute, of detach molding the fromthewaste using band the saw. To keep blade the frombinding thekerf, in make release through waste, a cut the stopping the pattern at line. Then saw along line, the feeding workpiece the with (right). bothhands Make thatneither sure hand in line is withtheblade.



edge thesecond Q Hand-shaping surto board a work a r-J Secure backup to the face clamp molding theboard. and edge Round thesecond of thevolute over produced the copying profile witha gouge, (right). Shape by the routerbit in step I are untilits contours smooth; the edge to try as muchas possible cut withthe from grain. the Remove molding thebacklightly. the and up board sand surface

Mounting volutes the layer glue of a Spreadthin,even of surfaces the on thecontacting Clamp the molding thechest. and i n li v o l u t ie p l a c e , n i n gt u p f l u s h rail of withtheedge thebottom and it between space leaving small a p o a n dt h ew i n g f t h es c a l l o s h e l l (\efl. Use clamps each piece for two of molding.


A-B-C Air-driedlumber: Lumber that has reachedits equilibrium moisture content by exposureto unheatedair. Batten: A board fastened across the grain ofa flat surfacesuch asa chest lid to minimize warping. Bevelcut A cut at an anglefrom face-to-face along the length or width of a workp.iece. Seimiter cut. Biscuit joinfi Seeplatejoint. Board foot A unit of wood volume measurement equivalentto a pieceof wood I inch thick and 12 inchessquare. Boundwater: Moisture presentin the cell walls of wood. It remains evenafter drying; see freewater. Cabriole leg: A styleof furniture lee characterize? rbundedcontours bv designedto imilate the hind leg of a leaping animal. Carcase The boxJike foundation of a pieceof furniture; made from solid panels. Cockbeading:Narrow projecting molding surroundingthe inside edgeof a draweropening. Cope-and-stickjoint: A method of joining stilesand rails in frame-andpanel construction. Tonguesin the rails meshwith groovesin the stiles; a decorative molding is cut along the insideedgeof thEframe. Cornice or crown molding: Molding attachedto the top of a pieceof furniture; typically mounted aboveeyelevel and angledoutwardsat 45o. Crosscut A cut made across the grain of a workpiece. Cuttinglist A list of the dimensionsof the lumber neededfor a specificproject. D-E-F Dado: A rectangularchannelcut into a workpiece. Dentil molding: A decorativedetail consistingof a row of small,evenly spaced bars or teeth;usuallyadded to cornicemolding. Doretail joint A method ofjoinery usinginterlockingpins and tails; the name derives from the distinctive shape into the endsof the cut joining boards. Dowel center: A metal rylinder that is insertedinto a dowel hole to pinpoint a matching hole in a mating workpiece. Drawer slide: A strip of wood or a commercialmetal devicefixed to a carcase support a drawer. to Dust frame: A frame-and-panel assembly installedat the bottom of a pieceof furniture or betweenthe drawersto preventdust from entering. Edgegluing: Bonding boardstogether edge-to-edge form a panel. to Equilibrium moisture content: The moisture content that wood eventually reaches when it is exposed a given levelofrelative to humidity and temperature. Escutcheon:A decorativefitting installedaround a keyholeto prevent damageto the surrounding wood by the key. Faceframe A decorative frame attachedto the front ofa carcasebasedbookcase, cabinet,or armoire; alsoserves stiffen the structure. to Falsefronfi A pieceof veneeror wood fixed to the front of a drawer, usuallyto concealits joinery. Fiber saturation point A condition in which wood cell cavitiesare free of all water while the cell walls remain fully saturated. Finiat An ornament-usually turned and carved-projectirig from the upper cornersof a fuiniture piecesuch asa highboy. joinery: A method Frame-and-panel of assembling doors and cabinet sidesusing framesenclosingpanelsthat float m groovesto accommodateshrinkage and swelling of the wood. Freewater: Moisture presentin the cell cavitiesof wood, so called because is free to evaporate it during the drying process; see-bound waterl

HeadstoclcThe shaft attachedto the motor of a lathe;holds work for spindle-turning conjunctionwith in the tailstockor for turning with a faceplate. tailstock See Highboy: An elegant18th Century styleofdresser, consisting ofan upper and lower chest.


Keybit: The part of a key that the engages locking mechanism. Kiln-dried lumber: Lumber that hasbeen dried with heat to a specific moisture content. Knee block A contoured pieceof wood usedto ioin the curved lines with the bottom of a cabriole169 or chestof a dresser chest. L-M-N Marquetry: Decorativeinlays of veneer,metal, or other materials. Median rail A horizontal member betweenthe upper and lower rails of a frame,dividing the opening into two sections. Miter cut A cut that anglesacross the faceof a workpiece.Seebevel cut. Miter-and-spline joint A mitered joint that is reinforcedwith a spline, or strip of wood,let into the pieces. Moisture content The amount of water containedin wood, expressed of asa percentage the wood's ovendried weight. Molding: Decorativestrips of wood usedto embellisha pieceof furniture; seedentil and cornice Decoration may alsobe moWing. carvedon the edgeofthe piece with a router. Mortise-and-tenon joint A joinery techniquein which a projecting tenon on one board fits into a cavity -the mortise-in another. Mullion: A verticalmemberbetween the outsidestilesof a frame: also known asa muntin.

O-P-Q Pediment Arched or S-shaped molding mounted on the upper rail of a dresser; alsoknown as crown molding. Pilaster:A decorative board fixed along the full length of the front stilesof a cabinet. Platejoint A method ofjoining wood in which oval wafersof compressed wood fit into slotscut in mating boards. Pommet The bottom sectionof a finial; rectangularshaped,sometimes fluted. Quarter column: A turned and sometimesfluted column setin nichesin the front cornersof highboys and other pieces 18th of Century furniture. QueenAnne: A sryleof furniture that emergedin the early 18th l, Century, characterized by gracefu flowing lines. R-S Rabbet A step-likecut in the edge or end of a board; usuallyforms part of a joint. Radial shrinkage: Shrinkagethat the occursacross growth rings as wood dries. Raift The horizontal member of a fr ame-and-panelassembly. RaisedpaneLA pieceof wood with bevelededges that createthe illusion "raised." that the centralportion is Relativehumidity: The ratio of water vapor presentin the air comparedto the amount the air would hold at its saturationpoint, usually figure. expressed a percentage as

Release cut A preliminary incision from the edgeof a workpieceto a line about to be cut: enables band a sawor sabersawto cut tighter curves by facilitating the removal of waste wood. Also known asa relief cut. Rip cut: A cut following the grain of a workpiece-usually alongits length. Rosette A circular ornament found at the end of crown molding on higboys;typically turned on the lathe. carved Scallopshel} A decorative, motif found on the bottom aprons ofhighboys and other piecesof 18th Century furniture. The process technique or Seasoning: of removing moisture from green wood to improve its workability. Slidingdovetail joint A joinery method in which a dovetailedslide on one piecefits into a matching grooYein the other. Stile: The vertical member of a frame-and-panelassembly. T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z Tirilstock The adiustableshaft on a lathe;usedin conjunction with the headstock hold work for spindle to turning. Seeheadstock. Tbngential shrinkage Wood shrinkagethat occurstangentialto the growth rings. Volute: An S-shaped scroll carving mounted on the bottom apron of highboysand many other pieces of furniture.


Page referenc in italicsindicate es an illustrationof subiectmatter. Page references bdld indicate in a Build It Yourselfproiect. Build It Yourself: Radial arm saws miter jigs, 70 Routers hinge mortising jigs, 90 routerJathe jigs for fluting quartercolumns,135 Table saws raisedpaneljigs, 37 Cabinetmaking,8, 13 Projectplanning,l7 Cabinets.See Armoires; Blanket chests; Highboys Cabriolelegs, 112-115, 117 Carcases: Backpanels, 3I Edge-glued boards, 13 Gluing up,28 alsoFrame-and-panel See construction; foinery Chests.See Blanket chests; Highboys Chisels,fr ont endpaper Clamps: Springboardclampsfor edgegluing (ShopTip), 53 Cockbeading, 118-119 joints, 35 Cope-and-stick Corner cupboards, I l0Cornice moldings, 66-69 Crosscutting,22 Crown moldings,124127 Bookcases,42 Curio cabinets, 73,78 61, Cutting lists, 18 Dovetail joints: Blanket chests.84 Hand-cut, 12,2G28 cutting awaywastewith a coping saw(ShopTip),27 Shelves. 50-51 Drawers,120-123 Adjustabledrawer stops (Shop Trp), 123 Blanket chests, 87 See alsoHighboys Drills: Shelf-drilling jigs, 45, 46 Shop-madeshelf-drilling jigs (ShopTip), 46 Edge-glued boards, 13,24-25 Edgemoldings, 52-5i Adding edgemolding to plywood (ShopTip),25 Springboardclampsfor edgegluing (ShopTip), 53 Escutcheons, 87,101 Faceframes.54-55 Feet: Adj ustable lev eler 63- 7I s, Bracketfeet,93-95 ogeebracket feet,97-99 Turned, 58-59 SeealsoLegs Finials, 130-133 Frame-and-panel construction, 32-39 Carcase assembly, 39 joints, 35 Cope-and-stick Doors,73-77 glass,28 joints, 33-34 Mortise-and-tenon Raised panels, 36,37, 38

Applied sculptures, 36 137 1 Armoires,60,61, 62 Decorativefeatures cornice moldings, 66-69 dentil moldings, Zl pilasters,64-65 shapingpilasterson the table saw (ShopTip), 65 Doors,72-73 glass, 61,73,78 hanging,72,79-82 Hardware. 63 adjustablelevelerc,63, 71 clock-case hinges,63, 80-81 lacehinges, 63, 79 locks,63,83 rat-tail hinges,63, 82 LeveIing, Tl Band saws: salvagingcupped stock on the band saw(ShopTip),21 Becksvoort, Chris,8-9 Belt sanders, 23 Biscuitjoints. See Platejoints Blanketchests, 84-85,86 Bottom assemblies basemoldings,85,96 feet, 93-95,97-99 Decorativefeatures escutcheons, 87,101 inlays,87, 104-105 Hardware, ST handles, 87,100,103 hinges, 87,88-89 locks,8Z 100-102 Tops inlays,104105 moldings,9I-92 piano hinges,88 Board-footmeasurementlG 17 . Bookcases, G7, 40-41,42 Anchoring bookcases the wall to (ShopTip), 59 Base moldings,56-57 Bottom braces,57 Connecting bookcases together,59 Decorative features, 52,54,57 41, face frames, 54-55 moldings,4I routing decorativedetails,58 F e e t , 5 65 7 , 5 8 - 5 9 , Hardware.43-44 threadedconnectors.59 See alsoShelves

Decorativetechnioues: Applied sculptu?es, 137 136Faceframes.54-55 Finials,130-133 Hardware escutcheons, 87,101 Inlays,87, 104-105 Pilasters. 6465 shapingpilasterson the table saw (ShopTip), 65 Quarter columns, 134,135 Rosettes, 128-129 Routing decorativefeatures (ShopTip), 58 See alsoMoldings Dentil moldings, Zl Display cabinets,61, 73, 78 Doors: Armoire* T2-73 fiame-and-panelconstruction, 7i-78 glass, 7j,78 61, hanging,72,79-82

Gluing: Carcases. 28 Edge-glued oards,24-25 b Springboardclamps for edgegluing (ShopTip), 53 Gotges,front endpaper Hand-crafting: Dovetailjoints, 12,2G28 Hardware: AdjustableIevelers, 71 63, Locks,63, 83,87, 100-102 See alsoHinges;subheading Hardware under types of cabinets Highboys,106,107, 108109 Decorativefeatures appliedsculptures,136137 cockbeading, 18- 19 1 1 crown moldin gs,124-127 finials, 130-133 quarter columns, 134,135 rosettes, 128-129 volutes.138-139


Drawers,1lU 111, 120123 adjustabledrawer stops (Shop Tip), 123 Dust shields.102 Legs,112-115, 117 Lower chest,109,116-117 Upper chest,I l0 Hinges: Hinge mortising jigs, 90 Tlpes of furniture armoires,63,79-82 blanket chests,8Z 88-89 Typesofhinges butt hinges,82, 89 clock-case hinges,63, 8081 lacehinges, 63, 79 piano hinges,88 rat-tail hinges,63,82 Inlays,87,104-105

Lumber,16-17 Defects, 19 salvaging cupped stock on the bandsaw(ShopTip),2l Grades,backendpaper Measurement, backendpaper, 1G17 cutting lists,18 l6-17 Selection, Shrinkage/swelling, 14- 15 Surfacing/dre ssing,20-23 SeealsoWood

Rosettes, 129 128Routers: Hinge mortising jigs, 90 Integral moldings, 92 |igs for routing evenlyspaceddadoes (ShopTip), 49 Raisedpanels,38 Router-lathejigs for fluting quarter columns,135

Safetyprecautions, ap front endp er Sanding,23 Decorativetechniques Sculpture.See Shelves, 43 Adjastable, 45-49 Edgetreatments,52-53 adding edgemolding to plywood (ShopTip),25 springboardclampsfor edge gluing (ShopTip), 53 Fixed, 50-5I Hardwarc,43,44 standardsand clips,43, 48 threadedshelf supports, 43, 45-46 loinery, 50-51 43,45-51 Supports, jigs for routing evenlyspaced (ShopTip), 49 dadoes shop-madeshelf-drilling jigs (ShopTip), 46 ShopTips: Armoires,65 Bookcases, 49, 53,58 46, Cabinetmakingbasics,21, 23, 26, 27 Highboys, i23 Table saws.22 Cornice moldings, 69 Making repeatcuts with the table saw(ShopTip),23 Raised panels, 37 36, Shapingpilasterson the table saw (ShopTip), 65 Tools: Safetyprecautions,front endp er ap Turning and carving tools, front endpaper See alsoDrills; Radial arm saws; Tablesaws Routers: Volutes.l38-139

Moldings: 1 1 Cockbeading, 18- 19 Cornice moldings, 66-68 Crown moldings, 124-127 Dentil moldings, ZI Edgemoldings, 52-53 adding edgemolding to plywood (ShopTip),25 springboardclampsfor edge gluing (ShopTip), 53 Integral moldings, 92 Iigs radial arm sawmiter jigs, 70 table sawcove-cuttingguides,69 Volutes,l38-1i9 Morcel, Nain,6-7 Mortise-and-tenon ioints: Frame-and-panei construction, 3i-i4 Ogeebracket feet,97-99

figs: CIamps springboardclamps for edge gluing (ShopTip), 53 Drills shelf-drilling jigs, 45, 46 shop-madeshelf-drilling jigs (ShopTip), 46 Radial arm saws miter jigs, 70 Routers jigs for routing evenlyspaced (ShopTip), 49 dadoes router-lathe jigs for fluting quarter columns.135 Table saws cove-cuttingjigs, 69 raisedpaneljigs, 37 loinery,24 Cope-and-stickjoints, 35 joints, 33-34 Mortise-and-tenon Platejoints, 24, 29-30,85 Wood grain, 15 alsoDovetail joints See lointing,20 Lathes: Router-lathejigs for fluting quarter columns,135 Tools,front endpaper Legs: Cabriole,112-115,117 SeealsoFeet Locks: Armoires, 63, 83 Blanketchests, 100-102 8Z Loeven,Fr€d6ric,7

Panels: Edge-glued boards, 13,24-25 Frame-and-panel construction, 32-39 raisedpanels, 36,37, 38 Pediments, 124-127 42, Pilasters,64-65 shapingpilasterson the table saw (ShopTip), 65 Planing,2l Platejoints, 24, 29-30,85 Plywood: Edgetreatments,52-53 adding edgemolding to plywood (ShopTip),25 Projectplanning,17 Quarter columns, 134,135 Radialarm saws: Miter jigs,70 Raisedpanels 36, 37, 38 , Ripping,22 Mario, -10-1 I Rodriguez,

Wall units. See Bookcases Wardrobes. SeeArmoires Wood: Grain, 15 alsoLumber See


Theeditors wish to thank thefollowing CABINETMAKING BASICS Adjustable ClampCo.,Chicago, DeltaInternational IL; Machinery/Porter Cable, Guelph,Ont.; FreudWestmore Tools,Ltd.,Mississauga, Ont.; GreatNeckSawMfrs. Inc. (BuckBros.Division),Millbury, MA; LeeValleyToolsLtd., Ottawa,Ont.; Sandvik Saws and ToolsCo.,Scranton, Shopsmith, PA; Inc.,Montreal,Que.; Stanley Tools,Division of the Stanley Works, New Britain, CT; Steiner-Lamello A.G. Switzerland/Colonial Co., Kingston,MA Saw AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,,r, o-..i..rur?3[:t:Etin.oln, NE; Black& Decker/EluPowerTools, Towson,MD; LesBoisM & M ltde.,St-Mathieu, MachineryiPorter Cable, Guelph,Ont.; Que.;DeltaInternational FreudWestmore Tools,Ltd.,Mississauga, Ont.; GrisetIndustries, Inc.,Santa Ana,CA; LeeValleyToolsLtd., Ottawa,Ont.; Sandvik Saws and ToolsCo.,Scranton, Sears, PA; Roebuck and Co.,Chicago, Shopsmith, IL; Inc., Montreal,Que.;Steiner-Lamello Switzerland/Colonial Co.,Kingston, A.G. Saw MA; Veritas ToolsInc., Ottawa,Ont./Ogdensburg, NY ARMOIRE Adjustable IL; ClampCo.,Chicago, Black& Decker/Elu PowerTools,Towson, MD; DeltaInternational Machinery/PorterCable,Guelph,Ont.; Allan Flegg, Montreal, Que.;FreudWestmoreTools,Ltd., Mississauga, Ont.; GreatNeckSawMfrs. Inc. (BuckBros.Division),Millbury, MA; LeeValleyToolsLtd., Ottawa,Ont.; Sears, Roebuck and Co.,Chicago, Shopsmith, IL; Inc.,Montreal,Que.;Stanley Tools, Division of the Stanley Works, New Britain, CT; Vermont AmericanCorp., Lincolnton, NC and Louisville,KY BI-ANKETCHEST Adjustable IL; ClampCo.,Chicago, AmericanTool Cos., Lincoln,NE; Black& Decker/Elu PowerTools, Towson, MD; DeltaInternational Machinery/Porter Cable, Guelph,Ont.; FreudWestmore Tools,Ltd., Mississauga, Ont.; General ToolsManufacturing Co.,Inc.,New York, NY; GreatNeckSawMfrs. Inc. (BuckBros. Division), Millbury, MA; Alain Morcel, LesRdalisations Loeven-Morcel, Montreal, Que.;SandvikSaws and Tools Co., Scranton,PA; Stanley Tools,Division of the Stanley Works, New Britain, CT; Steiner-Lamello A.G. Switzerland/Colonial Co.,'Kingston, Saw MA; VermontAmerican Corp.,Lincolnton,NC and Louisville, KY HIGHBOY Adjustable ClampCo.,Chicago, AmericanTool Cos., IL; Lincoln,NE; Anglo-American Enterprises Corp., NJ; Somerdale, Black& Decker/EluPowerTools,Towson,MD; Delta InternationalMachinerylPorterCable, Guelph,Ont.; FreudWestmore Tools,Ltd.,Mississauga, Ont.; GreatNeckSawMfrs. Inc. (BuckBros.Division), Millbury, MA; Hitachi PowerTools U.S.A.Ltd., Norcross,GA; RobertLarsonCompany,Inc., SanFrancisco, CA; Alain Morcel,LesR6alisations Loeven-Morcel, Montreal,Que.;Shopsmith, Inc.,Dayton,OH and Montreal,Que.; RobertSorbyLtd., Sheffield, U.K./BusyBeeMachineTools,Concord,Onl Thefollowingpersons assisted thepreparation this book: also in of Lorraine Dor6, Dominique Gagn€, Graphor Consultation,GeneviiveMonette,Brian Parsons, Gail Sowerby J.

Cover LesR6alisations Loeven-Morcel, Montr6al, Qudbec 40 GilesMiller-Mead, Brome,Qu6bec 60,6l GilesMiller-Mead, Brome,Qu€bec and fean-Frangois Brunelle, St-Bruno, Qu6bec 84, 106LesRdalisations Loeven-Morcel, Montrdal,Qudbec

Cover RobertChartier 6,7 Mark Tomalty 8,9 Tom Stewart 10,ll Grace Huang


GRADE HARDWOOD e A l l o w a b lle n g t h of board A l l o w a b lw i d t h e of board % Minimum of f c l e a r a c ec u t t i n g s s o Minimumize f c l e a rc u t t i n g s FAS 8'- 16'

SETECT 6'-16' 4" orwider 83Vz% 3 "x 7 ' ; 4 ' ,x 5 '


N0.2A& 28 COMMON 4 ' , -1 6 ' , 3" orwider 50% 3" x2'

NO. 3A COMMON 4 ' , -t 6 ' 3" orwider 33Vz% 3 "x 2 '

38 NO. COMMON 4'- 16' 3" orwider 25% than Notless wide 172" 36 containing inches square

3" orwider 662/z% 3 "x 3 ' ; 4" x2'

6" orwider 83i/2"/' 3"x7'; 4 , ' x5 ,

GRADES SOFTWOOD SelectB and BTR (su reme) p t C S e l e c( c h o i c e ) D Selec(qualitY) t S u p e r i oF i n i s h r F Prime inish N o .1 C o m m o n (coloial) n N o .2 C o m m o n (sterlng) i

CHARACTERISTICS and minordefects and appearance highest Quality; Clear a . ls . e a lw i t h c l e a rf i n i s h e sN o t a l w a y s v a i l d blemishe a b l e :e x P e n s i v e a ; H i g hq u a l i t ys m a l ld e f e c t s n d b l e m i s h e s s q ; a G o o d u a l r t yd e f e c t s n d b l e m i s h em o r ep r o n o u n c e d minordefects lumber; quality finishgrade of Highest a n db l e m i s h e s a w H i g hq u a l i t y i t hf e w d e f e c t s n d b l e m i s h e s s m a tn H a sl i m i t e d v a i l a b i l iay ds i z er a n g e s ; a yh a v e m a l l if appropriate a knotty this grade making tight knots, ie a p p e a r a n cs d e s i r e d oftenusedwhere and blemishes; defects coarser Larger, ie a a k n o t t y P p e a r a n cs d e s i r e d

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NOMINAL (rough)
3/a' r/zu

NOMINAL ilNCHES) 7-by-2 1-by-3 1-by-4 1-by-6 1-by-8 1-by-10 I-by-12 ACTUAL (rNcHES) dry Surfaced 3h-by-Ir/z
3k-by-2t/z 3h-by-3t/z 3h-by-5r/z 3h'by-7rh 3/+-by-9th 3h-by-lIrh

ACTUAL (surfaced sides) two
3ho" tAr"' 1/rc" e/',0" 3/4" or r3a6''


(rNcHES) Z-by-2 2-by-4 2-by-6 2-by-B 2-by-10 Z-by-12 4-by-4

ACTUAL (INCHES) dry Surfaced Ir/z-by-IVz 7t/z-by-3r/z It/z-by-51/z IVz-by-7|iq I\/z-by-91/t It/z-by-I1\./,t 3r/z-by-31/z


1" rlh' Ir/z'

1 F t I



A r

IVz" or I3/q"


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