Hullspeed

Windows Version 12

User Manual

© Formation Design Systems Pty Ltd 1984 – 2006

License and Copyright
Hullspeed Program © 1985-2006 Formation Design Systems. Hullspeed is copyrighted and all rights are reserved. The license for use is granted to the purchaser by Formation Design Systems as a single user license and does not permit the program to be used on more than one machine at one time. Copying of the program to other media is permitted for back-up purposes as long as all copies remain in the possession of the purchaser. Hullspeed User Manual © 2006 Formation Design Systems. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any language in any form or by any means, without the written permission of Formation Design Systems. Formation Design Systems reserves the right to revise this publication from time to time and to make changes to the contents without obligation to notify any person or organisation of such changes. DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY Neither Formation Design Systems, nor the author of this program and documentation are liable or responsible to the purchaser or user for loss or damage caused, or alleged to be caused, directly or indirectly by the software and its attendant documentation, including (but not limited to) interruption on service, loss of business, or anticipatory profits. No Formation Design Systems’ distributor, agent, or employee is authorised to make any modification, extension, or addition to this warranty.

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.................61 Index............................................17 Data Validation ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................30 Calculating Free Surface Wave Pattern .......................................................................................10 Taking Measurements from a Maxsurf design.............................43 Data Menu.........................................................................................................................................................................................41 Analysis Menu .......................................................................................................................5 Prediction methods....................................................9 Getting Started ..................................................................................8 Chapter 2 Using Hullspeed......Contents License and Copyright...................................................................................................................................................................................7 Analytical Method ......................18 Required Engine Power .....................................11 Opening a Data File ....................................................40 File Menu..52 Appendix A Demonstration Version ....................22 Model Validation ................................................................31 Chapter 3 Hullspeed Reference .....................42 Display Menu.......38 Toolbars ....................................................22 Calculating the Slender Body Resistance .......................................................................................................................6 Methods For Displacement Ships ..............................................................................................16 Wind and Appendage Resistance............................................................................................................4 Data Input Options ...........1 Chapter 1 Introduction.........................................41 View Menu ...............................................................3 Resistance Calculations Fundamentals ....................................................................................... iii Contents............23 Calculating the Form Factor ..............................................................................................22 Slender Body Analysis Geometry............................................40 Edit Menu ..................................................................44 Help Menu .........................................................................................16 Selecting the Resistance Prediction Methods ..................................................................................................................................12 Entering Data ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................39 Menus...................................................................................................................................................48 Bibliography.................................................6 Methods Applicable To Yachts ..........................................................................................18 Viewing Results..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................44 Windows Menu...........................................................................................................v About this Manual .......................................................................................................................7 Hull Parameter Validation.......................................................................................................................67 v ..........................6 Methods For Planing Hulls ................................47 Glossary .......................................................13 Calculating Resistance .....................55 Appendix B Applicability ...........21 Using the slender Body Method..................57 Appendix C Slender Body Method .............17 Specifying Speed Range ..................................................................................................................................................................................37 Windows ..........................................................................................................................................................45 Chapter 4 Theoretical Reference ...................................................................................................................

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Chapter 4 Theoretical Reference Lists abbreviations and terms used in Hullspeed and contains a bibliography. The manual is organised into the following chapters. Chapter 1 Introduction Contains a description of Hullspeed. a program used to predict the resistance of hull designs. Chapter 3 Hullspeed Reference Gives details of each of Hullspeed’s menu commands. Page 1 . Chapter 2 Using Hullspeed Explains how to use Hullspeed’s analysis routines.About this Manual About this Manual This manual describes Hullspeed. its theoretical fundamentals and its resistance prediction algorithms. Users of the demonstration version of Hullspeed should refer to Appendix A Demonstration Version which describes the limitations imposed on the demonstration version.

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the power requirements of the design may be predicted. Hullspeed will calculate the hull resistance at a range of speeds and will give results in graphical and tabular formats. Hullspeed implements several different resistance prediction algorithms. Given the data required for the resistance prediction algorithms selected for analysis. Besides resistance prediction calculations. These results may be copied to a spreadsheet or word processor for further analysis and/or formatting. Maxsurf designs may be read in and automatically measured to obtain the required parameters. or the parameters may be typed by hand without the need for an existing Maxsurf design file. Hullspeed supports resistance prediction calculations for a wide range of monohulls and multihulls. Hullspeed can also be used to calculate the wave pattern generated by the vessel for a given velocity.Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 1 Introduction Hullspeed provides a means of predicting the resistance of a ship hull. while others are useful for estimating the resistance of sailing boat hulls. may not provide exact results. Page 3 . or may be estimated. each applicable to various families of hull shapes. Many different approaches exist to predict the resistance of a vessel. some of the algorithms are useful for estimating the resistance of planing hulls. It should be emphasised that resistance prediction is not an exact science and that the algorithms implemented in this program. For example. If the overall efficiency of the propulsion installation is known. while they are useful for estimating the resistance of a hull.

Hullspeed calculates all the components of resistance and these may be plotted and tabulated separately. since different methods use different formulations. The viscous resistance includes a form effect applied to the friction resistance thus: Viscous resistance = (1 + k) Friction resistance . A number of regression-based methods and one analytical method can be used to predict the resistance of the hull form. Hullspeed can calculate the resistance components in coefficient form. In some cases the regression method predicts residuary resistance and no form factor.Chapter 1 Introduction Resistance Calculations Fundamentals Hullspeed is essentially a resistance prediction program. Page 4 . However. In these cases. where (1 + k) is the form factor. it is not possible to calculate the wave resistance. Total resistance is normally broken down into a Froude number dependent component – wave resistance (residuary resistance) and a Reynolds number dependent component – viscous resistance (friction resistance). not all the resistance components may be available. It is normal naval architecture practice to break down the resistance into components which scale according to different laws. The bracketed names give an alternative breakdown: Total resistance = Wave + Viscous = Residuary + Friction Typically the friction resistance is predicted using the ITTC’57 ship-model correlation line or some similar formulation. Where possible.

except for the wetted surface area. it is always advisable to check the automatic measurements of half angle of entrance.Chapter 1 Introduction Data Input Options In Hullspeed there are two ways to specify the input data that is used in the resistance algorithms: • Manually specify the input data* • Read the input data from a Maxsurf design and automatically measure the surface shape A combination of the two is also possible: read in and measure a Maxsurf design file and manually override the measured data. chine type etc. * = For the slender body method a mesh on the Maxsurf surface will be calculated which is then used to calculate the resistance. it is not possible to enter or edit the input data manually. Page 5 . as these can be difficult for Hullspeed to determine automatically. This means that. deadrise. In any case.

Lahtiharju Used for estimating the resistance of planing hulls when in the planing speed regime. fishing vessels. training or recreational powerboat type hull forms with transom sterns operating in the displacement and semi-planing regimes. Methods For Displacement Ships Holtrop This algorithm is designed for predicting the resistance of tankers.Chapter 1 Introduction Prediction methods Hullspeed provides different algorithms for estimating hull resistance. Compton This algorithm is designed for resistance prediction of typical coastal patrol. its pre-planing resistance. general cargo ships. container ships and frigates. Methods For Planing Hulls Savitsky (Pre-planing) This algorithm is useful for estimating the resistance of a planing hull before it gets ‘onto the plane’. i.e. Series 60 Used for estimating the resistance of single screw cargo ships. • Methods For Planing Hulls • Methods For Displacement Ships • Methods Applicable To Yachts • Analytical Method Also see: Appendix B Applicability on page 57 for information whether a method may be applicable for a particular design. These are divided in different groups dependent on the type of hull. Fung and Leibman (1995). van Oortmerssen Useful for estimating the resistance of small ships such as trawlers and tugs. Page 6 . Savitsky (Planing) Used for estimating the resistance of planing hulls when in the planing speed regime. tugs. Fung This algorithm is applicable for resistance prediction of displacement ships with transom stern hull forms (generally used for larger vessels than Compton). The regression is based on data from tests on 739 models at the David Taylor model basin and consists over 10 000 data points.

To calculate the total resistance. This method may be applied to many different hullforms including multihulls. This method uses a Michell (1898) based approach to compute the wave resistance of a port/starboard symmetrical monohull. Planing forces are neglected in the slender body method which limits speed range applicability for this method. In general. using the regression based on either Gerritsma et al (1991) or Gerritsma et al (1992). II and III Sailing yacht resistance prediction. Analytical Method Slender body method A slender body method.and multihull vessels operating at normal Froude numbers. Page 7 . * = have narrow beam compared to their length. Hullspeed calculates and adds the viscous resistance component using the ITTC’57 friction coefficient calculation method and the specified form factor. sensible results can be obtained for a wide range of mono. based on the work of Tuck et al (1999) and Couser et al (1996) is available in Hullspeed. This method predicts only the wave pattern resistance component.Chapter 1 Introduction Methods Applicable To Yachts Delft Series I. However the individual hulls should be slender* and should be symmetrical about their local centreline.

if they are too low they will be displayed in red with the words (low). and if they are too high they will be displayed in orange with the word (high). Hullspeed will still attempt to calculate the hull resistance if the data is out of range. Because of the difficulty of accurately determining some measurements from the surface model. but these results should be treated with caution since the accuracy of the method may be compromised if parameters are outside the valid range. it is important to verify the following measurements: • 1/2 angle of entrance • Bulb transverse area • Bulb height from keel • Deadrise at 50% LWL • Chine type: hard chine or round bilge Also see: Data Validation on page 17 for more information on data validation Page 8 . If the values are okay they will be displayed in black.Chapter 1 Introduction Hull Parameter Validation Hullspeed will check that the entered data is within the valid ranges for the selected methods.

• Getting Started • Taking Measurements from a Maxsurf design • Opening a Data File • Entering Data • Calculating Resistance Page 9 . these are measured from the Maxsurf design file ‘HullspeedExample. The example goes through the steps needed to predict the resistance of the hull.msd’.hsd’. The example uses a simple planing hull form whose data are supplied in a Hullspeed file called ‘HullspeedExample.Chapter 2 Using Hullspeed Chapter 2 Using Hullspeed You have been introduced to the way in which Hullspeed works and can now go on to learn in detail how to use Hullspeed by following the example outlined in this chapter.

Starboard above the centreline. The input data to be used for the analysis. looking from below. A numerical display of the resistance and power prediction results. A profile view of the hull. Page 10 . looking from starboard with the bow to the right. speed.Chapter 2 Using Hullspeed Getting Started Start up the program by double clicking on the program icon or selecting Hullspeed from the Maxsurf menu under the Start menu. A graph of the hull’s predicted power or resistance vs. This data may be measured from a Maxsurf design or typed manually. looking forward from the stern. in a format useful for copying to a spreadsheet. A body plan view of the hull. Hullspeed will start up and display the following windows: Perspective Plan Profile Body Plan Data Graph Results A perspective view of the hull being analysed. A plan view of the hull.

Chapter 2 Using Hullspeed Taking Measurements from a Maxsurf design Hullspeed may read and measure a Maxsurf design file directly. When the design is loaded in. Hullspeed will automatically calculate the hull’s hydrostatic characteristics using 200 sections. Because of the difficulty of accurately determining some measurements from the surface model. (Data | Frame of Reference). select Open Design from the File menu. the same rules and limitations about closed sections apply. The immersed sections are shown: The hull is always measured at the DWL. Because Hullspeed uses the same method as Hydromax to determine the hydrostatic properties of the design. change the position of the DWL in the Frame of Reference dialog. they can be edited if you so desire. so if you wish to measure the hull at a different draft. it is important to verify the following measurements: • 1/2 angle of entrance • Bulb transverse area • Bulb height from keel • Deadrise at 50% LWL • Chine type: hard chine or round bilge Page 11 . Do so by going to the perspective window and turning on the sections (in the Display | Contours dialog). At this point it is a good idea to check that the sections have been formed correctly. Once the measurements have been made. To load a design. See the Hydromax manual for more information on how to prepare a Maxsurf model before loading it into other applications of the Maxsurf suite.

Chapter 2 Using Hullspeed Opening a Data File Choose Open Measurement Data from the File menu. the Data window will fill with the relevant data: Page 12 . When it is read in. This file contains the data for a planing hull form.hsd’ in the Maxsurf Samples folder. Open the file titled ‘Hullspeed Sample_Workboat.

the wetted area is used to calculate the Friction and Viscous resistance coefficients only (the wave resistance is calculated directly from the surface model). then Max Sectional area (AX) will be recalculated. measured on the waterline. volume. while the third column contains the units for the data in that row. Draft The maximum submerged depth of the hull. The first column contains explanations of the data in a particular row. If Am is entered then CP will be recalculated. prismatic coefficient and max sectional area are related by the formula below. i. Changing any part of the data for a method will change that same piece of data for all methods. changing the length in any column will change the length in every column. volume (∇) or Prismatic Coefficient (CP) are entered. An extra column is added for each of the analysis methods used. data required for that method are copied into the new column. multiplied by the area of the largest transverse section. Beam The maximum submerged width of the hull. i. If either length (L). Note: Input parameters: length. Prismatic Coefficient A measure of the extent to which the submerged volume of a hull fills a prism defined by the submerged length.e. However if the data are entered manually. Hullspeed will recalculate these values to maintain consistency. Data may be typed into any column apart from the first and third columns. the second column contains the data itself. For the slender body method. Displaced Volume The volume of seawater displaced by the hull. there are three main columns.Chapter 2 Using Hullspeed Entering Data Note that in the Data window. The required data are as follows: Length / Lwl The length of the hull.e. Page 13 . Wetted Area The submerged surface area of the hull. The wetted area is also used to calculate the resistance coefficients displayed in the Graph window. If data is measured from a design then this data will be consistent.

i. an LCG 1.5m aft of midships will be entered as 1. it assumes that the vessel is in hydrostatic equilibrium at the DWL and the LCG is assumed to be at the LCB (longitudinal centre of buoyancy. Transom Area The submerged sectional area of the transom. Wetted Area The submerged surface area of the hull.Chapter 2 Using Hullspeed Water plane Area Coefficient A measure of the extent to which the area of the water plane fills the rectangle defined by the length * beam. Note that when Hullspeed measures a hull. LCG from midships The distance to the longitudinal centre of gravity. Half Angle of entrance The angle measured in the plane of the water plane.e.5 . to the transverse centre of area of the bulb section on the waterline at the stem. Bulb Height from Keel The distance from the keel line.e. measured from amidships. measured when the vessel is at rest. Note that this distance is positive forward. between the hull and the centreline. measured when the vessel is at rest. Maximum Sectional Area The largest submerged sectional area of the hull. Bulb Transverse Area The transverse sectional area of the bulb (if any) measured on the waterline at the stem. Page 14 . I..

Expected values would be in the range of 0. Set to zero to ignore wind resistance. The correlation allowance.0 to 3. Nominal Appendage Length This is a nominal length for the appendages which is used to calculate the Reynolds Number at which the appendages are operating. Van Oortmerssen and Series 60. whereupon Hullspeed will assume it is the same as the value for the ‘draft’ item. Air Density The air density. This factor is included only for the analysis methods which used a correlation allowance in their original formulation: Savitsky pre-planing. The ITTC’57 values for salt water (3.. Correlation Allowance A factor for accounting for variations between model tests and full-scale trials. used to calculate appendage drag. at the appropriate ambient temperature. Expected values range from 1. Deadrise at 50% Lwl The deadrise. Page 15 .8 . when viewed from the front.5% salinity) at 15°C.9 kg/m^3 and kinematic viscosity 1.0. C. This Reynolds Number is used to calculate the skin friction drag of the appendages using the ITTC’57 formulation. 1. for density and kinematic viscosity are as follows: density 1025. Typically this length would be representative of the rudder (and keel. typically 150x10-6m and L is the waterline length of the hull in the same units. as measured at midships. Appendage Area The wetted area of appendages.18831x10-6 m^2/s. Lahtiharju.1. Physical Properties of Sea Water The values for the density and kinematic viscosity of the water may be edited by the user. Appendage Factor A factor for estimating the resistance due to the drag on appendages. Frontal Area The area of the vessel above the waterline. may be estimated from the ITTC recommended formula: Where kS is the hull roughness.293 kg/m^3 at 15 deg. Drag Coefficient The coefficient of drag for calculation of wind resistance. The Holtrop method includes an implicit correlation allowance which is included at all times.2. or ΔCF. if applicable) chord.Chapter 2 Using Hullspeed Draft at FP The draft at the fore perpendicular. Set this to zero to ignore appendage resistance. This value can be left at zero.

-’.g. the results will be automatically displayed in the Results and Graph windows. Page 16 . different methods are useful for analysing different hull types. • Selecting the Resistance Prediction Methods • Data Validation • Specifying Speed Range • Viewing Results • Required Engine Power (optional) Selecting the Resistance Prediction Methods To specify which methods to use. Since a planing hull is to be analysed. –1. or alternatively . Once you have chosen these options. In general the methods do not use all the data. one for the predicted resistance and one for the power required. Two additional columns will appear in the Results window for each resistance prediction method selected. you should validate your data. a column will appear in the Data window.0). select a resistance prediction method and select a speed range. As outlined on page 6. This method is explained in detail in the Using the slender Body Method section starting at page 22. To use the Holtrop and Mennen form factor. only the data relevant to the analysis method is copied into that column. Once a method has been selected. choose Methods from the Data menu.Chapter 2 Using Hullspeed Calculating Resistance Before viewing the results of the resistance calculations.toolbar button. Unused data will contain ‘. The form factor is only applied to the slender body method resistance prediction. select the methods pertinent to such a design. give a negative value (e. with spaces to enter the data relevant to that method. For the Slender Body method. a user-specified form factor has to be specified. A dialog box will appear which allows you to select the use the resistance prediction methods that you wish to use.

Chapter 2 Using Hullspeed

Also see Prediction methods on page 6 for more information on the different methods available in Hullspeed. Appendix B Applicability on page 57 to investigate which method is appropriate for a particular type of vessel.

Wind and Appendage Resistance
Wind and appendage resistance may also be accounted for in the resistance calculation. Entering the frontal area of the vessel, the drag coefficient and the air density will cause air resistance to be included in the analysis. Setting any of these values to zero will ignore air resistance. The frontal area is the above-waterline area of the vessel when viewed from the bow, Afrontal. The drag coefficient, Cd, will depend on how ‘streamlined’ the vessel is. A very streamlined vessel would have a drag coefficient of less than one, say 0.8, while a less streamlined vessel would have a drag coefficient of greater that 1, say 1.2. The wind resistance is calculated as follows:

Where ρair is the air density and Vrel. is the relative wind speed. Entering the wetted area of the appendages, and nominal appendage length (for calculation of appendage Reynolds Number), as well as an ‘appendage factor’, will cause the resistance of these appendages to be estimated by Hullspeed. The wetted area of the appendages, Aappendage, is the total wetted surface of appendages, while the appendage factor, fappendage, is an indication of the resistance of the appendages. Value for the appendage factor typically vary from 1.0 to 3.0. The appendage resistance is calculated as follows:

Where ρwater is the water density and Vboat is the vessel speed. The skin friction coefficient, Cf, is calculated from the ITTC’57 formula, using the nominal appendage length to calculate the Reynolds Number.

Data Validation
Measurement data, either measured from a hull or entered by hand will automatically be compared with the limits of the chosen speed prediction methods. In the Data window, measurements that are outside the valid range for a particular method will be highlighted in the column for the method in question. Data in red indicates that the value is too low, whilst data in orange is too high. Please note that in some cases, the valid range for a particular method may be in terms of a ratio or coefficient such as B/T. In such a situation, if the B/T ratio was too high, the beam would be highlighted as being too high and the draft would be highlighted as being too low. In some cases, this can cause a value such as beam to be both too high and too low; this would occur if both B/T and L/B were too high.

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Chapter 2 Using Hullspeed

Please refer to Appendix B Applicability, section Dimensions on page 58 for details of the valid ranges for the different analysis methods. Also see: Entering Data on page 13

Specifying Speed Range
Once the prediction methods have been chosen, the speeds over which the analysis is to be carried out need to be set. To do this,
• choose Speeds from the Data menu, or

alternatively use the A dialog box will appear:

-toolbar button.

• Enter the minimum speed • Enter the maximum speed • Click on the OK button

Viewing Results
For the regression analysis methods (all methods except analytical), the resistance and power are automatically calculated whenever a change is made to the input data. The analytical results can only be obtained after solving the analysis, see Using the slender Body Method on page 22 for more information.
Results Table

A table with the calculation results will be tabulated in the Results window.
Results Graph

A graph of the results will appear in the Results Graph window.

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Chapter 2 Using Hullspeed

Clicking on any of the curves in the graph will show the resistance and speed values at that point in the bottom left of the Graph window. Double clicking on the graph will bring up a table with all the graph data points. The type of graph displayed can be changed by selecting Graph Type from the Display menu.

As well as graphs of resistance or power, it is possible to plot the individual resistance coefficients. Alternatively this can be done by selecting the required component from the pull-down list in the Graph toolbar:

Please note that not all methods calculate all the resistance components; many of the methods use the residuary + friction approach and hence the wave and viscous components cannot be derived. The following table summarises which components are calculated by each method.

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Does not include RCor. this is used rather than the user-specified value. etc. but Reynolds Number is based on a shorter length: 0. Typically by the use of a form factor (1+k).242 ⎤ surface area is used: C f = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ log10 ( Re C f ) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 2 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: ITTC’57 RT RR RW RF RV RCor RApp RAir The Holtrop wave resistance also contains the “bulb” and “transom” components The Holtrop method includes a regression equation for determining the correlation allowance coefficient. skin friction of equivalent flat plate area. either expressed as: RT = RR + RF + RCor + RApp + RAir or RT = RW + RV + RCor + RApp + RAir Residuary resistance. total hydrodynamic resistance less skin friction resistance.Chapter 2 Using Hullspeed Method Savitsky pre-planing Savitsky planing Lahtiharju Holtrop Compton Fung van Oortmerssen Series 60 Delft I. Uses the ITTC’57 friction line: C f = [log10 ( Re ) − 2]2 0.65]2 0. typically uses the ITTC’57 ship-model correlation line or Schoenherr friction line. Air resistance. resistance of appendages such as rudder.7 LPP If the user specified form factor is negative. wind resistance of above-water hull and superstructure Page 20 .075 Total resistance. Viscous resistance. Friction resistance.083 Uses ITTC’57 friction line. additional resistance for correlation from model to ship scale Appendage resistance. Uses alternative friction line: C f = [log10 ( Re ) − 1. In this case RV = (1+k) RF Correlation allowance resistance. the slender body method uses the form factor as calculated by the Holtrop method. II Delft III Slender Body Table notes: RT yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes RR no yes no yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes RW no no no yes2 no no no no no no yes RF no yes1 no yesITTC’57 yes ITTC’57 yes ITTC’57 yes ITTC’57 yes4 yes5 yes5 yes ITTC’57 RV no no no yes no no no no no no yes6 RCor yes yes yes yes3 yes yes yes yes no no yes RApp yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes RAir yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes The ATTC’47 (Schoenherr) friction line is used. resistance due to energy input into the generation of free surface waves. RApp or RAir Wave resistance. skin friction viscous resistance plus allowance for 3D form effects of the hull. but a modified wetted 1: ⎡ 0.

the efficiency used should be the QPC (QuasiPropulsive Coefficient). Hence if the delivered power is required. P. Page 21 . The efficiency is entered as a percentage. is calculated as follows: . the resistance. and will need to be reduced to get an accurate engine power estimate. The efficiency may be changed by selecting Efficiency from the Data menu. where V is the ship velocity. The power.Chapter 2 Using Hullspeed Required Engine Power This power prediction assumes 100% propulsive efficiency. the efficiency R. .

for very slender vessels (slenderness ratios greater than 7. The information given here also applies to the calculation of the free surface wave patterns described later in this manual since they use the same theoretical basis.0.0 to 6. good results can be obtained for slenderness ratios of around 5.and multihull vessels. Hulls with transom sterns are dealt with by automatically adding a “virtual appendage”. Particular attention should be paid to the mesh of multihulls and vessels with transom sterns. the slender body method may give sensible results for Froude numbers as high as 1. It is also recommended to read the papers on the slender body method listed in the Bibliography on page 52. it is recommended to check the slender body mesh. The following section explains how to use the slender body method provided in Hullspeed to compute the resistance of both mono. It computes the energy in the free surface wave pattern generated by the vessel and hence the wave resistance of the vessel. but in practice. high length:beam or slenderness ratios).0. The number of sections used can be increased for greater accuracy. The maximum Froude number for which sensible results can be obtained depends on the vessel’s slenderness ratio. In this section: • Model Validation • Calculating the Slender Body Resistance • Slender Body Analysis Geometry • Calculating the Form Factor Model Validation Except for the wetted surface area. To make sure that Hullspeed interprets the surface model correctly. This method is described in detail in Couser et al (1996). though this will increase the computation time. The slender body method may be applied equally well to round bilge and chine hull forms. It has been found that. Also see: Appendix B Applicability on page 57 Calculating the Slender Body Resistance After making sure that the vessel can be analysed with the slender body method.Chapter 2 Using Hullspeed Using the slender Body Method This analytical method is based on the so-called slender ship or slender body method. the input data for the slender body method is not displayed in the input table and can thus neither be validated nor modified by the user. See the following sections for more details. Hullspeed calculates and adds the viscous resistance component using the ITTC’57 friction coefficient calculation method and the specified form factor. The following section can be used as a guideline: The slender body method assumes the vessel to be slender (i.e.0). the minimum slenderness ratio to which the method is applicable also reduces. Ideally the slenderness ratio should be as high as possible. Page 22 . This can be done by turning on the SB mesh option in the Display menu. To calculate the total resistance. If the vessel’s Froude number is reduced.

See Modelling the Transom on page 25 for more information. this can be seen in the image above. a catamaran’s slender body mesh consists of one mesh that is symmetrical about the demihull centreline and mirrored about the catamaran’s centreline. for example. For multihulls this means that there is one such mesh for each individual hull. the Holtrop and Mennen formulation for form factor will be used. Page 23 . but the overall model can be asymmetrical (e. This mesh is symmetrical about the local hull centreline. an appendage is added to the slender body mesh which blends all the waterlines back into the local centreline. To calculate the resistance. If a form factor of less than zero (negative) is entered. a proa). see below for explanation This method is slower than the regression (non-analytical) methods in Hullspeed. This will calculate a mesh on the Maxsurf surface and calculate the resistance. If the hull has an immersed transom. Wetted surface area is used only to compute the friction resistance and the resistance coefficients displayed in the Graph window. other than wetted surface area. the geometry should be correctly interpreted by Hullspeed. Form Factor The form factor to be used for the slender body analysis can be specified in the Methods dialog. multihull) has been correctly setup in Maxsurf. Slender Body Analysis Geometry The analysis mesh for the slender body analysis can be displayed by ticking “SB Mesh” in the Display menu. so a full model is required and changing the measurement parameters. and so is not automatically calculated. The mesh is a series of sections and waterlines forming a rectangular grid that is symmetrical about the hull’s centreline.Chapter 2 Using Hullspeed • Select the Slender Body Method in the Methods dialog from the Display Menu • Specify the form factor.g. • select Analysis | Solve resistance analysis or use the solve toolbar button . Slender body mesh (orange grid) for MORC sample model If the vessel type (monohull. This means that each individual hull must be symmetrical about its own centreline. will not affect the results. Note: This method uses the Maxsurf hull surfaces directly.

Double click on the surfaces cell to select which surfaces should be used. you need one group for each individual hull in the model: Dialog for definition of slender body groups This dialog is the same as that used for definition of the Shipflow groups in Hydrolink. This is done by selecting “SB Analysis Geometry” from the analysis menu. For example. For monohulls this should be zero. Of main interest for Hullspeed are the following columns: Colour: The colour the mesh is drawn Surfaces: The surfaces to be used to calculate the offsets. for a catamaran this is the transverse position of the demihull centreline. A dialog is displayed with a table containing one row for each mesh group. Selection of the surfaces to be grouped for measuring the slender body mesh Num. Trans. the number of waterlines is chosen automatically to match the number of sections. Clicking “Yes” will set the bounding box to the rectangular extents of a box containing the selected surfaces. origin: This is used as the local hull centreline. It is best to choose only the surfaces that define the sections. for multihulls this should be the local symmetry plane / centreline of the individual hull. The greater the number of sections the better the accuracy of the analysis (but the analysis will also take longer). When you close the surface dialog you will be asked if you want to automatically set the bounding box to the selected surfaces. Page 24 . of contours: The number of contours for the mesh.Chapter 2 Using Hullspeed Editing the Slender Body Geometry In some cases it may be necessary to edit the slender body mesh. this is especially true for multihulls.

F bott: The last 10 columns define a longitudinally prismatic (or tapered) box which defines the boundary of the mesh. Further information on this dialog can be found in the Hydrolink manual in the Shipflow export section Modelling the Transom The slender body mesh is created by calculating the hull surface offsets on a regularly spaced grid of sections and waterlines. Fwd.e. Open and Save buttons: The data in the dialog can be saved and retrieved using the Save and Open buttons in the dialog. The corresponding four columns prefixed with F. For the slender body theory.Chapter 2 Using Hullspeed Aft. F top. can be used to define a tapering box with different port. the A port. A starb. Couser et al 1998). A starb. A bott. F port. starboard. F starb. top and bottom extents on the forward plane. A top. This can be useful if you have customised the slender body mesh definition and want to be able to retrieve it easily. top and bottom extents of the box at the aft plane. Hullspeed deals with transoms in a special manner. i. Mesh layout for the stern of a canoe-bodied hull without transom – Mesh follows hull Page 25 . A top and A bott columns define the port. The definition of the bounding box is similar to the way tanks are defined in Hydromax: the Aft and Fwd columns define the longitudinal aft and forward extents of the box. the mesh must start and finish with waterlines that lie on the centreline. the bow and stern sections must have all points at zero offset. the mesh is brought back to the centreline plane behind the model by applying a “virtual appendage” which is smoothly attached to the transom. starboard. (It is possible to remove this requirement for the stern by applying a transom correction). Mesh points which fall off the hull surface are given an offset of zero and remain on the hulls centreline. A port. This method was found to give good results for monohull and catamaran forms with transom sterns (Couser 1996.

the “virtual appendage” is removed Note: The virtual appendage is not included in the wetted surface area calculation. it is important that the vessel type (see the Maxsurf manual) is set up correctly. Note that removing the virtual appendage will affect the free-surface wave pattern and wave resistance calculation. Couser et all 1998. pentamarans etc. The calculated free surface wave pattern with and without the virtual appendage can be used to judge whether this appendage should be added or not.) using the theoretical slender body method. There is no limit to the number and position of the individual hulls. Multihull Mesh Examples Hullspeed is able to compute the resistance of multihulls (catamarans. To use this capability. it can be seen that adding the virtual appendage gives good results for monohulls and multihulls with transoms sterns. but each hull must have transverse symmetry about its local centreline plane.Chapter 2 Using Hullspeed Mesh layout for a hull with a transom– Artificial closure of mesh behind transom using a smoothly attached “virtual appendage” The “virtual appendage” can be removed by making the aft extent of the mesh bounding box end just after the end of the transom – see below: With the aft bounding box of the mesh terminating just aft of the transom. From the work of Couser 1996. There should be one mesh group (one row in the SB Geometry dialog. see page 24) for each individual hull of the model. Some example mesh definitions for different types of multihulls are shown below: Page 26 . trimarans. It is only used to artificially close off the numerical model to calculate the wave resistance.

Chapter 2 Using Hullspeed Catamaran If the vessel type is correctly defined in Maxsurf. Hullspeed will automatically generate a symmetrical mesh that is centred on the local demihull centreline. Vessel Type dialog setup in Maxsurf for a catamaran Catamaran has a single mesh mirrored about the vessel centreline. The mesh is symmetrical about the local demihull centreline Page 27 .

these two meshes will be automatically defined. one of the main hull and one for the outer hull (referred to as “ama”). Ama grid extends too far aft and the virtual appendage shape shows a rapid transition aft of the ama transom Correct: Ama grid has been set to use only the ama surfaces and the bounding box has been set to those surfaces: correct transom closure on ama Page 28 . especially if the hulls have transoms. Incorrect: Default grid for Trimaran sample. Then click Yes to set the bounding box extents to the selected surfaces. It may also be necessary to select which surfaces define the main hull and which define the ama. The simplest way to do this is to double click in the Surfaces cell.Chapter 2 Using Hullspeed Trimaran Vessel Type dialog setup in Maxsurf for a trimaran Two meshes will be required. If the vessel type is correctly defined in Maxsurf. However it may be necessary to change the longitudinal extents of the meshes. select only the surfaces required for the specific mesh and then click OK.

but only –64. Aft extent for Mainhull is –77.17. In the example below.Chapter 2 Using Hullspeed Correct Mesh definition for trimaran sample above.88 for Ama These files may be found in: Program files\Maxsurf\Sample Designs\Multihulls\Trimaran\Trimaran. the transverse origin is specified as the transverse offset of the local centreline of the ama hull. For the ama. Slender body mesh definition for main hull and ama Page 29 . The one for the main hull is defined as if the main hull were a monohull. whilst the outrigger (referred to as ama) is made up of two surfaces that are: • asymmetrical about the vessel’s centreline (there is no ama on the other side of the centreline) • mirrored about the ama centreline Two mesh groups are required.msd The mesh definition file is: TrimaranHSmeshDefn. the main hull is a symmetrical surface. and only the starboard side of the ama hull is used.hyd Proa It is possible to model asymmetrical vessels provided that each individual hull is symmetrical about its own centreline.

of the complete catamaran including viscous interaction effects between the demihulls.Chapter 2 Using Hullspeed Wave pattern calculated for proa model Calculating the Form Factor Hullspeed can automatically calculate the form factor that is used during the slender body analysis. You can chose to specify the form factor directly. the following equation: Note that this expression is for the form factor. Page 30 . or use Hullspeed’s Holtrop for Monohulls or the Molland algorithm for catamarans. to determine the form factor according to ratio. For more information please refer to the Bibliography on page 52. method uses the demihull slenderness . (1 + β k ) . The Molland et al.

Chapter 2 Using Hullspeed Calculating Free Surface Wave Pattern Hullspeed may be used to calculate the wave pattern generated by a vessel.e. the greater the accuracy (note that the integration method requires that this number be odd and it will be adjusted if required). see Analytical Method. You can specify the number of vessel lengths forward and aft of the vessel as well as to port and to starboard. You cannot select the Mirror option as the wave pattern will have port and starboard asymmetry.000) may be required. i. acceptable results can be achieved with relatively low settings. you can specify a symmetrical free surface. the same method as the slender body resistance prediction. Free surface speed The Speed field in the Free Surface Calculation Parameters dialog allows you to specify the vessel speed at which you wish to calculate the wave pattern. so that only the starboard side of the free surface is calculated and then simply mirrored about the centreline to produce the port side. Free surface grid area The area over which the free surface is to be calculated is specified in terms of vessel lengths. The wave pattern is calculated on a grid specified in the Analysis | Free Surface Calculation Parameters dialog. The calculation can be quite slow (press and hold the Escape ‘Esc’ key to abort) and is greatly affected by the number of grid points and the integration precision. Free surface integration precision The integration precision option refers to the accuracy of free surface calculation. For 3D rendered views. Page 31 . the higher the number. This free surface wave pattern calculation ignores the effects of viscosity and wave breaking. In addition. These values also depend on the Froude Number. you can also specify the number of grid points to be used in the transverse and longitudinal directions. This can either be specified directly as a speed or as a Froude Number. If the vessel is symmetrical. The wave pattern is calculated using a Michell / Slender Body type approach. however to obtain smooth contour plots a very large number (of the order of 30. If you have an asymmetric model like the proa described in the previous section.

this exaggeration factor can be changed without having to recalculate the wave pattern. After the wave pattern has been calculated. To do this. edit the value and close the dialog with Cancel instead of OK.Chapter 2 Using Hullspeed Free surface wave height vertical exaggeration You can exaggerate the displayed wave pattern by changing the Vertical exaggeration. This will apply the amplification without recalculating the free surface. Page 32 .

Plan. i. you can display the • Wave Grid • Wave Contours. Page 33 . The display options are dependent on the frontmost view window and can be selected from the Display window.e.Chapter 2 Using Hullspeed Wave Pattern Display The wave pattern may be displayed in all view windows in Hullspeed in various ways. Profile or Body Plan. 2D view In the 2D view windows. isometric elevation lines The image below is an example of a monohull isometric elevation contours in plan view.

Chapter 2 Using Hullspeed 3D view In the 3D view Perspective window you have the option of displaying the free surface wave pattern with.and without rendering (Display | Render). Also you can additionally display the • Solid Wave Render. only when Render is turned on Rendering of waves and wave grid Rendering of wave grid only False-colour rendering of wave contours Page 34 .

A transverse cut through the wave pattern can be made by looking at a single row and a longitudinal cut can be made by looking at a single column. However. The second indicates if it should be mirrored or not (0 not mirrored. this should be above 50. Page 35 .000. This is particularly true closer to the vessel since the accuracy of the wave pattern will be higher several vessel lengths aft of the vessel. For accurate results. Accuracy of Wave Pattern Calculations Several features of the numerical methods required to compute the wave pattern cause it to be less accurate than the calculation of the wave resistance. 1 mirrored). The two final lines at the bottom of the table give details of the model and speed used to calculate the wave pattern. All measurements are relative to the Maxsurf model zero point and are in the current length units. The first line is the list of transverse positions for the grid (from port to starboard). Also. The rest of the data is based on a grid (this should be apparent when you view the data in Excel). the data is tab delimited to facilitate loading into MS Excel. The “Integration precision” option in the Free Surface Calculation Parameters dialog controls the precision with which the main integration is performed and this will affect the smoothness and accuracy of the calculated wave pattern. depending on the number of grid points being evaluated. Thus the wave pattern calculation is generally to be used for presentation purposes or where an indication of the likely wave pattern is required. Not least of these. Wave pattern file format The file format is as follows: The first number is the file format version (1).Chapter 2 Using Hullspeed Saving and Loading Wave Patterns Because the calculation of wave patterns can be quite time consuming. This allows users to load the data into other application for producing (for example) wave cuts. The subsequent lines then give the longitudinal position in the first column (starting from aft moving forward) followed by the free surface elevations for the free surface grid points. these can be saved and reloaded from the File menu.000 and in most cases it is advisable to use 100. this can take a few 10s of minutes on a 3GHz Pentium4. the functions that must be integrated are smoother and can thus be integrated with more accuracy. The next two lines give the number of points in the longitudinal and transverse direction respectively. is the fact that the computation for the wave resistance is equivalent to computing the wave pattern at one single grid point on the free surface and thus significantly less computational intensive. in the case of the resistance computation. The file format is a relatively simple text format.

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• Windows • Toolbars • Menus Page 37 .Chapter 3 Hullspeed Reference Chapter 3 Hullspeed Reference This chapter summarises the overall structure of windows. toolbars and menu commands used in Hullspeed. including a glossary and references.

Results Window A numerical display of the resistance and power prediction results. in a format useful for copying to a spreadsheet. See the Results Table on page 18. Graph Window Displays a graph of the hull’s predicted power or resistance vs. View Windows Hullspeed has four view windows which are exactly the same as the windows in Maxsurf.Chapter 3 Hullspeed Reference Windows Hullspeed uses a range of windows. Page 38 . speed and Froude number. The input data may be measured from a Maxsurf design or typed manually. Data Window Displays the input data that is used for the selected methods. See Results Graph on page 18.

Paste | Print Preview View Toolbar The View toolbar contains icons which execute the following commands: Zoom – Shrink – Pan – Home View Contours Toolbar The Contours toolbar contains icons which facilitate the display of surface contours: Sections – Buttocks – Datum WL – Waterlines – Edges Analysis Toolbar The Analysis toolbar is used to access the most commonly used analysis commands. Analysis methods – Speed range | Solve (for slender body method only) – Calculate free surface Window Toolbar The Window toolbar contains icons which make the corresponding window come to the front: Perspective – Plan – Profile – Body Plan – Data window – Results window – Graph window Render Toolbar The Render toolbar contains icons for rendering the Maxsurf model in the perspective view: Render on/off – Light 1 – Light 2 – Light 3 – Light 4 – Light properties Page 39 . You can hold your mouse over an icon to reveal a pop-up tool tip of what the icon does.Chapter 3 Hullspeed Reference Toolbars Users of the Windows version of Hullspeed can use the icons on the toolbars to speed up access to some commonly used commands.Copy . File Toolbar The File toolbar contains icons which execute the following commands: New Data – Open Design – Save Design | Cut .

since you cannot edit the Maxsurf design in Hullspeed. a dialog box will appear asking whether you wish to save the current set of data. Note that. Open Design Selecting Open will open a Maxsurf file for measuring. New Measurement Data Selecting New will clear the current set of measurement data in anticipation of a new set. exporting data and printing. Page 40 . • File Menu • Edit Menu • View Menu • Analysis Menu • Display Menu • Data Menu • Windows Menu • Help Menu File Menu The File menu contains commands for opening and saving files. a dialog box will appear asking whether you wish to save the current set of data. Save Measurement Data Saves the measurement data in a file for later recall. Hullspeed will prompt the user to specify a name for the new file. Save Measurement Data As Saves the current Hullspeed data file with a different (user-specified) name. If the current data has been changed since it was last saved. Edit and Window operations.Chapter 3 Hullspeed Reference Menus Hullspeed uses the standard set of Windows menu commands for File. the current set of data will be saved to the disk. you cannot save the Maxsurf file. Close Design Selecting Close will close the Maxsurf file. If you select Yes. the current set of data will be saved to the disk before the Data window is cleared. If the data was changed after selecting New Measurement Data. Before closing. Open Measurement Data Opens a data file previously saved from Hullspeed. If you select Yes. Close Measurement Data Select Close Measurement Data when you wish to finish with the current set of data.

you will be asked whether you wish it to be saved. If Hullspeed has a set of data open that has not been saved to disk. etc. Export Bitmap Image. See the Maxsurf manual for more information. Page 41 . Save Free Surface As If a free surface wave pattern has been calculated it may be saved in a text file. Paste You may paste data from spreadsheets. Copy You can copy data from the Hullspeed windows. The free surface file is a simple text file and can be imported into Excel or other applications for plotting wave cuts etc. this command may be used to export a bitmap file of the rendered perspective view. View Menu The View menu contains commands that control the appearance of the display in the frontmost windows. it may be reopened with this command to save having to recalculate it. In the Data and Results windows highlight the columns and rows you wish to copy and select Copy or type Ctrl+C.Chapter 3 Hullspeed Reference Open Free Surface If a free surface wave pattern has been calculated and saved previously. See Saving and Loading Wave Patterns on page 35. Page Setup The Page Setup dialog allows you to change page size and orientation for printing. Cut Cut cannot be used in Hullspeed. Print Choosing the Print function prints out the contents of the foremost Hullspeed window. As in the other Maxsurf applications. It can then be reopened at a later date. Undo Undo will undo the last change made in the Data window. into the Data window. Edit Menu The Edit menu contains commands for copying and pasting data and working in tables. To copy the row and column titles press Shift whilst selecting Copy (Ctrl+Shft+C). This data may then be pasted into other applications such as spreadsheets and word processors. Exit Exit will close down Hullspeed.

Set Home View Choosing Set Home View allows you to set the Home View in the frontmost view window. see Toolbars on page 39 for further details. Status Bar Makes the Status Bar at the bottom of the screen visible. Shrink. Colour The Colour function allows you to set the colours used in the power/resistance graph or the colours of the contours used to display the Maxsurf design in the view windows. and Pan to arrange the view as you require. Toolbars Allows you to select which Toolbars are visible. Pan Choosing Pan allows you to move the image around within the frontmost view window. Analysis Menu The Display menu contains commands for setting the analysis parameters and solving the analysis. Hullspeed starts up with default Home View settings for each of the view windows. Font Font allows you to set the size and style of text used in the frontmost window. The methods chosen will be saved together with its required input data. use Zoom. To set the Home View. Methods Selecting Methods will bring up a dialog box which allows the user to select which prediction methods will be used. Home View Choosing Home View will set the image back to its Home View size. Shrink Choosing Shrink will reduce the size of the displayed image in the frontmost view window by a factor of two. However. These display items are dependent on the frontmost window.Chapter 3 Hullspeed Reference Zoom The Zoom function allows you to examine the contents of the frontmost view window in detail by enlarging any particular area to fill the screen. This Status Bar displays information about the current state of what is being viewed in the window as well as short descriptions of the functions of some commands as your mouse passes over them and indicates the state of some control keys. Hullspeed will display a list of display items that can be modified. Page 42 . the Home View may be set at any time by choosing the Set Home View function. then select Set Home View from the View menu.

it is advisable not to include the surfaces. SB Analysis Geometry Used to set up the surfaces and bounding box to be used to calculate the slender body mesh. The user will be asked to select the surfaces to be included in the measurement process. Page 43 . . used to calculate the ship’s power. from the resistance. Speed. the y-axis is multiplied by a factor of 1000. Speed or Resistance Coefficient vs. Speed graph is shown in the Results Graph window. for this method. you must tell Hullspeed to perform the analysis by selecting the Solve Resistance Analysis command. Solve Resistance Analysis All analysis methods other than the slender body method are computed as soon as any of the analysis parameters are changed. R: . Graph Type Allows the user to select whether a Power vs. For designs such as yacht hulls. Measure Hull Selecting Measure Hull will cause Hullspeed to calculate the data it requires from the Maxsurf file currently loaded. Display Menu The Display menu contains commands for changing the display. Resistance vs. Calculate Free Surface Calculates the wave pattern generated by the vessel for the specified speed using the slender body method. any data already input by the user will be over written by the measured values. where V is the ship velocity The efficiency is entered as a percentage. Contours The contours command lets you select which contours are displayed in the design views. Note that in the case of the Resistance Coefficient vs. If this option is chosen.Chapter 3 Hullspeed Reference Speeds Selecting Speeds will bring up a dialog box which allows you to select the speed range over which the analysis will be performed. Efficiency Selecting Efficiency will display a dialog box which allows the user to specify the efficiency. Speed graph. which define the appendages. You can also specify the number of sections to be used and the colour of the drawn mesh. the computation time for the analytical slender body method is considerably slower. P. such as the rudder and keel. However.

Wave Grid Displays a rectangular wire-frame.Chapter 3 Hullspeed Reference SB Mesh The SB Mesh command in the Display menu display the hull surface mesh used for the slender body method. Render Displays a rendered view of the model in the Perspective window (only if a Maxsurf model has been loaded). Wave Solid Render In rendered mode. Page 44 . Tile Horizontal Layout all visible windows across the screen. In rendered mode a false-colour rendering is used. Changes to the default units will be reflected in the Data. grid connecting the points at which the wave pattern elevation has been calculated Wave Contours Displays isometric wave elevation contours for the computed free surface. force and power may be selected from the units menu. selecting Wave Solid Render will shade the rendered free surface. Frame of Reference Allows the user to change the draft at which calculations are performed. a better result is often achieved just with the wave grid displayed. with the exception of density. it will also be rendered. Results and Graph windows. See the Wave Pattern Display on page 33 for more information. Units The default units to be used for linear dimensions. Data. Tile Vertical Layout all visible windows down the screen. Rendering is only available in the Perspective window. Windows Menu The Windows menu allows you to arrange and make any window selected from the menu the active window. Cascade Displays all the windows behind the active windows. The mesh parameters may be modified with the SB Analysis Geometry command in the Analysis menu. For printing. This function is only available in the Perspective window with rendering switched on. mass. If the free surface has been calculated. speed. may be entered in nondefault units by adding the appropriate units suffix. Data Menu The Data menu contains commands for changing the data used to calculate the hull’s resistance.

pdf manual. Perspective Brings up the Perspective window. Hullspeed Automation Reference Invokes the Automation Reference help system. Online Support Provides access to a wide range of support resources available on the internet. Data Brings up the data window. Page 45 . Body Plan Brings up the Body Plan window. Check for Updates Provides access to our website with the most recent version listed. About Hullspeed Displays information about the current version of Hullspeed you are using. Graph Brings up the graph window. Help Menu Provides access to the Hullspeed manual Hullspeed Help Invokes the Hullspeed . Profile Brings up the Profile window. See the Results Graph on page 18. Plan Brings up the Plan window. Results Brings up the Results window.Chapter 3 Hullspeed Reference Arrange Icons Rearranges the icons of any iconised window so that they are collected together at the bottom of the Hullspeed program window.

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• Glossary • Bibliography Page 47 .Chapter 4 Theoretical Reference Chapter 4 Theoretical Reference This chapter contains a list of terms and abbreviations used in this manual. and provides a literature list for all the resistance prediction methods used in Hullspeed.

Half Angle of entrance The angle measured in the plane of the water plane.0. between the hull and the centreline. Appendage Area The wetted area of appendages. Correlation Allowance A factor for accounting for variations between model tests and full-scale trials. Bulb Height from Keel The distance from the keel line. Page 48 . nominal A nominal length used to calculate the Reynolds Number of the appendages and hence the appropriate skin friction coefficient Appendage Factor A factor for estimating the resistance due to the drag on appendages. Set this to zero to ignore appendage resistance. as measured at midships. Expected values range from 1. to the transverse centre of area of the bulb section on the waterline at the stem. used to calculate appendage drag. Bulb Transverse Area The transverse sectional area of the bulb (if any) measured on the waterline at the stem. Beam The maximum submerged width of the hull.0 to 3. Deadrise at 50% Lwl The angle measured in the section plane between the hull and the horizontal. Appendage Length.Chapter 4 Theoretical Reference Glossary This glossary describes the key words and abbreviations used in this manual.

Set to zero to ignore wind resistance. Sometimes also referred to as “draught”.8 . at the appropriate ambient temperature and salinity. at the appropriate ambient temperature. Sea The sea density. The default value is 1. Density. Froude Number A dimensionless speed measurement: Page 49 . Displaced Volume The volume of seawater displaced by the hull. Efficiency The efficiency used to calculate the ship’s power from its resistance. The ITTC 1967 value. of 1025. This value can be left at zero. Air The air density. Draft The maximum submerged depth of the hull.Chapter 4 Theoretical Reference Density.2. Frontal Area The area of the vessel above the waterline.5% salinity) at 15°C.293 kg/m^3 for air at 15°C. whereupon Hullspeed will assume it is the same as the value for the ‘draft’ item.9 kg/m^3 is given as the default. for salt water (3.. Expected values would be in the range of 0. when viewed from the front.1. Drag Coefficient The coefficient of drag for calculation of wind resistance. Draft at FP The draft at the fore perpendicular.

measured when the vessel is at rest. L. multiplied by the area of the largest transverse section. as may draft etc. Prismatic Coefficient A measure of the extent to which the submerged volume of a hull fills the prism defined by the submerged length. the wetted area is used to calculate the Friction and Viscous resistance coefficients only. beam may be substituted for length. Transom Draft The maximum submerged depth of the transom. Wetted Area The submerged surface area of the hull.Chapter 4 Theoretical Reference Length. Transom Beam The maximum submerged width of the transom. but may be inappropriate for some measurements. That is. an LCG 1. Water plane Area Coefficient A measure of the extent to which the area of the water plane fills the rectangle defined by the length * beam. Transom Area The submerged sectional area of the transom. is typically used. measured when the vessel is at rest. where the waterline length varies with speed. The wetted area is also used to calculate the resistance coefficients displayed in the Graph window. Length / Lwl The length of the hull. Kinematic Viscosity The kinematic viscosity of sea water. In such circumstances. for salt water (3. Note that this distance is positive forward.5% salinity) at 15°C. LCG from midships The distance to the longitudinal centre of gravity. the wave resistance is calculated directly from the surface model.18831x10-6 m^2/s is given as the default. Maximum Sectional Area The largest submerged sectional area of the hull. For the slender body method. such as for a planing hull.5. Page 50 . measured on the waterline. The ITTC 1967 value.5m aft of midships will be entered as -1. measured from midships.. of 1.

Page 51 .Chapter 4 Theoretical Reference Volume Froude Number A dimensionless speed measurement based on the cube-root of the displaced volume.

Philosophical Magazine (5). Fung. . Volume 31. J.4. Wellicome J. Michell.F.“A Statistical Re-analysis of Resistance and Propulsion Data” International Shipbuilding Progress.edu. E. v23.V. LubeckTravemunde.. February 1977. September 1995. 1898 Michlet Page 52 . vol 45. J."Sailing Yacht Performance in Calm Water and in Waves" Holtrop. 45. S. NSMB Paper 689. Ph.J. Mennen . Holtrop. 444. November 1992. October 1978. J. L."Resistance and Seakeeping Characteristics of Fast Transom-Stern Hulls With Systematically Varied Form" SNAME . J. 363. Annapolis. “An investigation into the performance of high-speed catamarans in calm water and waves.Transactions (1991) v99 Lewis."The Delft Systematic Yacht Hull Series II experiments" 10th Chesapeake Sailing Yacht Symposium. 1988. 1998. "Resistance of a Systematic Series of Semi-Planing Transom-Stern Hulls" Marine Technology. Department of Ship Science. Holtrop.J.F. J.itu."An Approximate Power Prediction Method" Holtrop J.D. "Revised Speed-Dependent Powering Predictions for HighSpeed Transom Stern Hull Forms" FAST '95: Third International Conference on Fast Sea Transportation. and G. University of Southampton. Gerritsma. P.” PhD thesis. Couser. October 1986.G.Chapter 4 Theoretical Reference Bibliography Compton. J.gidb. ."A Statistical Analysis of Performance Test Results" International Shipbuilding Progress."Principles of Naval Architecture" Volume II The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers."A Statistical Power Prediction Method" Holtrop. “The wave resistance of a ship”. 1991. and Molland.E. Mennen . et al."Statistical Data for the Extrapolation of Model Performance Tests" Netherlands Ship Model Basin (NSMB) Paper 588. 1990 also available from: http://www. A... May 1978.C. .tr/staff/insel/Publications/phd. pp 106-123. and Leibman. "An improved method for the theoretical prediction of the wave resistance of transom-stern hulls using a slender body approach" International Shipbuilding Progress. vol.H. No. November 1984 Insel M. ”An Investigation into the Resistance Components of High Speed Displacement Catamarans” University of Southampton. May 1996. et al . .htm (Jan 2005) Lahtiharju . J. and G. P. Gerritsma. No. Couser. . July 1982. et al . NSMB Paper 603. R. Thesis. No.

– “Optimum spacing of a family of multihulls” Ship Technology Research. Wellicome. and Taunton. Taunton. L. October 1976. Russia Oortmerssen. Birmingham (2000) Tuck.O. Sydney. and Luzauskas. . D.. No."Series 60 Methodical Experiments with Models of Single Screw Ships" Tuck.C.. E. Scullen. 8-13 July 2002 Tuck. 1996. Karayannis. A. D. Todd. vol 18 . J. T."A Statistical Method for Calculation of Resistance and Trim of the Stepless Planing Hull" International Shipbuilding Progress. P. DTRC. TMB report 1712. IMDC 2003."Hydrodynamic Design of Planing Hulls" Savitsky. edited by James M. Tuck. Greece. “Wave Resistance of Thin Ships and Catamarans” Unaltered October 1997 reprint of internal report T8701. A. Part 1 Report: Primary Code and Test Results (Surface Vessels). Molland.C.O."Procedures for Hydrodynamic Evaluation of Planing Hulls in Smooth and Rough Water" Marine Technology. Lewthwaite. Savitsky.net/michlet. 2003. JAPAN.F.cyberiad. P. .O. Luzauskas. available from http://www.O. D. “Computation and Minimisation of Ship Waves” ICIAM03. L. D.O.“Sea Wave Pattern Evaluation. . 1963. SIAM 2004. Fukuoka.R. May.F. First produced January 1987.” Transactions. “Wave Patterns and Minimum Wave Resistance for High-Speed Vessels” 24th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics.J. Molland. June 2005.A. Hill and Ross Moore.. F.J. Tuck. J. 45 (1998) 180-195 Tuck. and Couser. G. Brown . and Scullen. 7-11 July 2003. ..Petersburg. “An investigation into the hydrodynamic characteristics of a high-speed partial air cushion supported catamaran (PACSCAT). October 1964.C.December 1984. Wilson. Scullen.Chapter 4 Theoretical Reference Wave resistance prediction software.” Eighth International Marine Design Conference. D. 138A. FAST’2005. L. Y.. Royal Institution of Naval Architects.O. E. Powering and Seakeeping Characteristics of Fast Ferries. and Luzauskas.207 1971 Radojcic. Page 53 . . Athens.C. A. E. “Ship-Wave Patterns In The Spirit Of Michell” Proceedings IUTAM Symposium Free Surface Flows. Chapter 17 in SIAM Proceedings in Applied Mathematics 116. “Preliminary Estimates of the Dimensions. and Sarac-Williams. D. St. Luzauskas. “Resistance experiments on a systematic series of high-speed displacement catamaran forms: Variations of length-displacement ratio and breadth-draught ratio. D. E. E.F.htm (Jan 2005) Molland.F."A Power Prediction Method and its Application to Small Ships" International Shipbuilding Progress. L. E. Marine Technology.” International Conference on Fast Sea Transportation. and W. D.

30 April 1999 also available from: http://www.O.C. “Sea Wave Pattern Evaluation. Scullen.cyberiad. E.pdf (January 2005) Tuck. D. Part 4 Report: Extension to Multihulls and Finite Depth” Applied Mathematics Department. E. L.Chapter 4 Theoretical Reference Applied Mathematics Department. The University of Adelaide. Part 3 Report: Near-Field Waves” Applied Mathematics Department. 19 June 2000 Page 54 . The University of Adelaide. The University of Adelaide. 31 January 2000 Tuck. Scullen.O. “Sea Wave Pattern Evaluation.C. L.net/library/pdf/tls99. D. and Luzauskas. and Luzauskas.

The measurement data for this design is given below: Data may be changed within +/-10% of these values.Appendix A Demonstration Version Appendix A Demonstration Version It should be noted that the demonstration version of Hullspeed will only predict the resistance of the HullspeedExample.” will be displayed in the Results table: Page 55 . If data is changed beyond this limit a warning will be given and the resistance will not be predicted and “calc.msd design.

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0 should be treated with caution. Some of the formulae (Savitsky planing. they will be most accurate when certain conditions are satisfied.0 FnL = 0. the regression equations were derived from resistance data within specified speed ranges and these are noted in the table above.speed limit Fnv = 1.0 to 7. Speed The resistance prediction algorithms are useful only within certain speed ranges.75 FnL = 0. The user should be aware that the accuracy of the algorithms is expected to decrease beyond the limits outlined above.0 Fnb = 1. These conditions are: • Hullshape • Speed • Dimensions Hullshape The hullshape is very important in determining whether a particular method is applicable to a particular design.0 0.282 0. Hullspeed will calculate the resistance for any speed.0 Fnv = 1.0 None. whilst there is no theoretical upper speed limit. these limits are: Algorithm: Savitsky (pre-planing) Savitsky (planing) Lahtiharju (round bilge) Lahtiharju (hard chine) Holtrop Van Oortmerssen Series 60 Delft Compton Fung Slender Body Low .6 FnL = 0. For the other algorithms.908 Up to FnL ≈ 1.0 High .8 Fnv = 5.0 depending on slenderness ratio For some algorithms.134 0.1 FnL = 0. see note below Fnv = 3. The Savitsky (planing) formula was derived from theory based on the planing behaviour of a prismatic hull. A thorough knowledge of the resistance prediction method is required. Hullspeed will calculate the resistance only for speeds within the limits indicated above. See the Bibliography section on page 52 to find the relevant documents on each of the methods available in Hullspeed.Beam Froude number Fnv . Note regarding speed ranges.80 FnL = 0.5 Fnv = 1.Volume Froude number Page 57 .0 Fnv = 0.Appendix B Applicability Appendix B Applicability Since the algorithms are designed for specific hull types.50 Fnv = 0. Lahtiharju and Holtrop) are able to calculate the vessel resistance for any speed. However. results for speeds above approximately Fnv = 6.0 FnL = 0.5 0. Fnb .speed limit Fnv = 2.677 FnL = 0.

6 18.Length Froude number.49 2.43 7.016 Lahtiharju (Round Bilge) 4.1 < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < L/V1/3 ie L/B B/T At/Ax LCG/L L/V1/3 B3/V L/B B/T At/Ax Cm L/V1/3 L/B B/T At/Ax Cp L/B B/T < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < 12.7 0 -0.8 3000 4.995 0.2 0.21 0.51% Series 60 0. These limits are: Algorithm: Savitsky Requirement: 3.30 7.21 10.9 2.52 1.6 5.Appendix B Applicability FnL .26 9.97 46 0.5 3.07 < 3.33 1.4 28.5 3.48% Page 58 .68 3.7 2.47 0.89 6. Dimensions The resistance prediction algorithms are useful only within certain limits of hull dimension.5 2.8 8.75 0.16 0.57 Lahtiharju (Hard Chine) 4.9 0.8 1 0.54 0.43 0.0 Holtrop van Oortmerssen 8 3 0. see Glossary for definition of these Froude numbers.82 0.5 -2.70 10 < < < < < < < < < < < < L L/B Cp 100 LCG / L V B/T Cm ie Cb L/B B/T LCB < < < < < < < < < < < < 80 6.73 2.0656 8.81 5.0 0.55 3.85 15 4.76 8.73 3.72 0.5 -7 5 1.

0.0 0.556 14.0% 0. As the Froude number is reduced.01257 10.0% 0.34 < -6. If the Froude number were reduced to 0.935 0.774 0. As a rough guide.662 Slender Body ≈ 4 or 51 Where: L B T At Ax V Cm Cp Cwp Cx ie LCB < L/V1/3 < no limit < < < < < < < V/L^3 B/T Cp Cx ie L/B Cwp < < < < < < < 0. the minimum slenderness ratio to which the method can be applied is also reduced. measured from midships.526 0.60 Compton -0.0. then the method could be applied to slenderness ratios as low as 4.841 < < < LCG/L L/B V/L^3 < < < -0.Appendix B Applicability Algorithm: Delft Requirement: 2. Page 59 .52 0.00 19.2.0036 8 Fung 0.13 4. 1 The minimum slenderness ratio to which the slender body method can be applied depends on the Froude number at which the resistance is being evaluated.204 0.46 < 4.324o 2.32 8.76 < 2.02 5. positive is forward.5 and 8.994 23.52 < < L/B B/T L/V1/3 LCB Cp < < < < < 5.0005 7 1. the minimum slenderness ratio would be between approximately 7.2 0. at a Froude number of unity.00525 Length on the waterline Beam on the waterline Draft of hull Transom sectional area Maximum sectional area Displaced volume Midship sectional area coefficient Prismatic coefficient Water plane area coefficient Maximum sectional area coefficient Half angle of entrance Longitudinal centre of buoyancy.696 0.50 0.673o 17.

Hullspeed will allow calculations beyond these limits. however. Mean deadrise. positive is forward. or deadrise at 50% Lwl. In some cases.Appendix B Applicability LCG Deadrise wsa Bt Tt Abulb Longitudinal centre of gravity. Page 60 . Transom beam at waterline Transom draft Bulb transverse area. the algorithm may become very sensitive to parameters outside the specified range. the user should be aware that the accuracy of the algorithms is expected to decrease beyond the limits outlined above. measured from Midships. Wetted area of hull.

In the case of the experiments.44 CM WSA/L2 0. Here results are compared with two theoretical methods Insel (1990) and Michlet as well as experimental results from Insel (1990). Wigley parabolic hull parameters: L/B 10.0 B/T 1. it appears that the theoretical methods tend to over-predict the wave resistance. Hullspeed can be seen to be in close agreement with the other two analytical methods.e.Appendix C Slender Body Method Validation Appendix C Slender Body Method In this appendix the results of the slender body resistance prediction method have been compared against model test data for the following hull forms: • Wigley hull • NPL round-bilge Wigley hull Results for the simple Wigley hull form are given below. the model was kept at the datum waterline. i.44 CP 0.6 0.1488 Monohull: Wigley hull bodyplan Page 61 .44 CB 0. Although there is a reasonable amount of scatter in the experimental results. the model was held fixed in trim and sinkage.

Appendix C Slender Body Method Validation Comparison of results for Wigley hull Catamaran: centreline separation / length = 0.2 Page 62 .

Appendix C Slender Body Method Validation Comparison of results for Wigley catamaran Trimaran: ama half main hull dimensions Page 63 .

4 B/T 1. For these experimental results the model was free to sink and trim.5 0. in general.565 CM WSA/L2 0.397 CB 0. Hullspeed under-predicts the resistance. NPL round bilge. other theoretical methods and experimental results for a transom-sterned hullform.Appendix C Slender Body Method Validation Comparison of results for Wigley trimaran NPL round-bilge The following graph shows a comparison between results from Hullspeed. The results from Michlet use a different method for dealing with the transom. The results for Hullspeed use a fixed waterline.5.693 CP 0. the theoretical results of Couser et al (1996) included the actual running trim and sinkage as measured during the experiments and hence the very close agreement with the experimental results. mode 4a (Couser et al 1996 notation) hull parameters L/B 10. The model is a stretched NPL round-bilge form. the trim and sinkage condition at each speed is not known. For transom-sterned hulls. in the transition condition. Hullspeed adds a “virtual appendage” which models the air-gap behind the transom when the water releases cleanly from the transom edge (high-speed condition) and the turbulent viscous wake behind the transom at slow speed (low speed condition) – this method is described in detail in Couser et al (1996). particularly when the transom is clearly in the high or low speed condition. since. The results from Hullspeed show good agreement with the experimental results.1359 Page 64 . around Froude number = 0.

Appendix C Slender Body Method Validation NPL (model 4a) hull bodyplan Monohull: Page 65 .

catamaran S/L = 0.2 Page 66 .Appendix C Slender Body Method Validation Comparison of results for NPL (model 4a) hull .2 Comparison of results for NPL (model 4a) .monohull Catamaran: centreline separation / length = 0.

............................................................ 48 Graph Type .......................................................................................... 45 B Beam ....................... 42 Compton........... 32 Free Surface Wave Pattern......................... 50 L Lahtiharju.................. 14................................................... 49 Draft at FP......... 13...................................................................... 40 File Toolbar............................................................... 6 Contour Toolbar...........................................................................Index Index A About Hullspeed ... 45 Bulb Height from Keel. 40 Colour ...... 14.............. 13....... 15................................................................................. 44 Check for Updates........... 38 Deadrise at 50% Lwl........................... 15......... 39 Analytical method.......................................................... 48 Cut............................. 39 Contour.................................................................. 39 Font ........ 55 Density ....................... 43 Graph Window................................................................. 14................................................................... 15......................................................................... 40 Close Measurement Data ..................................................................................... 15..... 6 Home View .......... 15..................................................... 6 G Getting Started .................................................................................................................................................... 4..................... 48 C Calculate Free Surface ................................... 44 Data Validation ..... 23 Frame of Reference........ 50 Measure Hull............. 38........................................................................................... 49 Drag Coefficient....... 13... 57 K Kinematic Viscosity......... 50 M Maximum Sectional Area .................. 7 Appendage Area................................................. 13 F File Menu..................... 48 Appendage Length........... wave .......................................................................................................... 42 Page 67 .............. 49 Display Menu..... 15............ 15....... 41 Efficiency...... 49 Dimensions ...................................................................... 44 Free surface grid .................. 17 Data Window ... 48 Bulb Transverse Area ......................... 14........................................................................ 45 Data Input Options....................... 42 Form Factor......................................... 45 Close Design . nominal ........................ 13......... 6................ 42 Hull Parameter Validation ................ 31 Vertical exaggeration .................................................... 48 Delft Series... 41 Correlation Allowance ............................................................... 45 Holtrop ................... 48 Bibliography ............................... 49 Fung ........................................ 45 Air Density...................... 40 Methods .......................................................... 43 Measuring a Design File ............................................................................... 49 Analysis Toolbar................... 30 Form Factor... 50 Length ............................. 48 Applicability .... 33 Contours............................................................. 31 Frontal Area .................................................... Slender Body Method .............................................................. 7 Demonstration Version ................................... 31 speed ..................... 15....................... 13..... 49 Froude Number .. 11 Menus.............................................................................................. 10 Glossary ........................ 31 Integration precision ................................................................................................ 43.. 58 Displaced Volume.............. 43 Draft ..................... 45 Automation Reference ..... 8 Hullshape ....................................................................................................................... 49 E Edit Menu ............................... 6 LCG from midships .............................. 16......... 49 Entering Data ...................................................... 42........... 15..................................................... 15................. 41 Body Plan Window .............. 50 Lwl ........ 43 Cascade .. 57 Arrange Icons....... 41 D Data .................................... 5 Data Menu....... 14........ 45 H Half Angle of entrance.................................. 48 Appendage Factor ..... 43 Copy.................................... 21..................................................... 48 Help Menu .. 52 Bitmap Image.........................

.. 21 Resistance Calculations Fundamentals ........................... 40 Open Free surface ........................ 44 Wave Pattern........... 51 W Waterplane Area Coefficient .......................................... 6 View Menu ........... 24 Contours...................................................................................... 41 Save Measurement Data................. 61 Catamaran ...... 44 Render Toolbar ................................................................................................................. 40 Save Measurement Data As ................................. 13......................................... 26 Proa .......... 4 Resistance.................................................................................... 4 Resistance......................................................... 18 Volume Froude Number ............................................................................................... Save ....................... 4 Resistance...... 40 Nominal Appendage Length ........ 45 Graph ...................................................................... 6 Set Home View ................................................. 39. 33.. Viscous.................... 15 Plan Window.............. 23 Edit.................. 6 SB Analysis Geometry........... 41 Pan ............ 4 Resistance................................................................................................................................ 44 Wave Grid............................................................................................................................................................................. 41 R References...................................................... 47 Tile Horizontal .......... 42 Paste ..................................... 35 Loading and Saving ... 42 Transom Area. Residuary ..................... 24 Slender Body Method ................................................. 39 Viewing Results ............................................................ 22 Multihulls. 43 Speed.................. Friction.............. 41 Units..... 6 Savitsky (Pre-planing) .............. sea water ................ 24 Open...................................................... 14.......................................... 40 Opening a Data File ..... 52 Render ................................. 41 Prismatic Coefficient......................... 4 Resistance Components ........... 4................................................................................... 38 S Save Free surface As............... 45 Physical properties........ 4 Resistance........................ 28 Solve Resistance Analysis ...... 31 Accuracy ................................................ 44 Toolbars .... 44 Page 68 .................................................................................. 44 V van Oortmerssen ...................................................................... 14.......................................................... 22............................................................... 40 Savitsky (Planing)................................ 33 File format.. 42 T Table of Contents..... 43.......................... 25 Trimaran........................ 7 Wave Solid Render ............ 45 Open Design................... 29 Transom ..................................................................................... 7 Results............ 39 Required Engine Power ........................................................................................... 24 Model Validation ............................................... 21 Prediction methods...... 35 Wave resistance ...................................... 35 Display ................... 7...................................................................................................... 41 View Toolbar ................................................. 45 Theoretical Reference ................................... 27 Form Factor.. 50 Wave Contours ................................................................................................................................................................................ 50 U Undo...................................... 18 Status Bar..... 43 SB Mesh............ 45 Q Quit ................................................................................................................................................................ 25 Colour ....... 42 Slender body mesh definition Bounding box................. 25 Surfaces........................................ 49 Series 60.................................... 45 Power ................................. 15............. 41 Open Measurement Data................ 57 Speed Range ....................... 23 Geometry ........... 50 Transom Draft........... 15 O Online Support ......... 12 P Page Setup......... 42 Shrink... 50 Profile Window........................................... 18 Table ...................... 50 Transom Beam ................................... 44 Sea Density .................................................. 44 Tile Vertical ............. 6 Print............................................. Wave ..............................................................................................................................................................................Index N New Measurement Data.................... 41 Perspective Window ................................................................................................ Total ................................................. 18 Results Window ...........................................................

............................ 39 Windows ............................................................... 42 Page 69 .. 13...................................................... 17 Window Toolbar .........................Index Wetted Area ..... 44 Z Zoom.... 38 Windows Menu...... 14............................... 61 Wind and Appendage Resistance................................................................................... 50 Wigley..............

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