White paper

Double Ground Fault Protection Implementation

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...................................................... Practical Guide ............................................... 10 ABB | Double Ground Fault Protection 1 ........................ References ........... 3 3......................... 9 5.................. Bibliography .................................. Application Description .....................Double Ground Fault Protection Index 1................ Generalities .............................................. 5 4.. 2 2.......................

The “Double G” function is easy to install and doesn’t require special wiring. The “Double G” is able to distinguish between each type of fault. 2 Double Ground Fault Protection | ABB . It is always available on New Emax circuit-breakers equipped with PR123/P LSIG trip units and on X1 circuit-breakers equipped with PR333/P LSIG trip units. With this function it is possible to ensure protection against: − earth faults downstream the circuit-breaker on the secondary side of the Medium/Low voltage (MV/LV) transformer (unrestricted earth faults or downstream earth faults). thanks to a chrono-amperometric discrimination and to the MV/LV integration. Generalities The purpose of this White Paper is to offer the necessary guidelines for the correct implementation of the “Double G” function of ABB SACE low voltage circuit-breakers. − earth faults between the transformer secondary windings and its cables connected to the circuit-breaker terminals (restricted earth faults or upstream earth faults).1. restricted and unrestricted.

2. This earth fault is not easily detectable by protections on the primary of the transformer. That offers the possibility to achieve a chrono-amperometric discrimination between the two G protection functions as shown.05 In to 4 In. In this case. This protection is obtained by using an external toroid on the conductor connecting the star center of the transformer to earth. − source ground return: it is the protection against all earth faults either on the load side of the circuit-breaker or from the circuit-breaker terminals to the secondary of the transformer. Application Description 2. This protection is obtained by using a circuit-breaker equipped with a trip unit that has earth fault protection G (or with a circuit-breaker equipped with an homopolar toroid for residual current protection or. MVCB MV LV Trip Unit with G protection MVCB MV side ACB LV side Homopolar toroid Restricted Earth Fault Unrestricted Earth Fault Source ground return Figure 2 These trip units allow two independent curves for G protection3: Figure 1 − unrestricted earth fault protection: it is the protection against earth faults on the load side of the air circuit-breaker (ACBs) put on the secondary of the transformer. − Internal G only for the unrestricted fault (G protection of the trip unit). it is not possible to distinguish between restricted earth fault and unrestricted earth fault. In this case the toroid is able to detect all earth faults either on the supply side or on the load side of the circuit-breaker (restricted and unrestricted. with the normal phase protections of the circuit-breaker). on the contrary the currents that flow in the PE conductor are detected by homopolar toroid. the unrestricted and restricted faults are always detectable 2. only in the presence of high ground faults. − restricted earth fault protection: it is the protection against earth faults in the section between the secondary of the transformer and the upstream terminals of the air circuitbreaker. because the current value of this fault type is very reduced. it represents a danger for electrical systems and for people safety. it is possible to identify three different areas where an earth fault could take place and three different kinds of earth protection that can be used: 2. it is possible to detect and discriminate between restricted and unrestricted faults. The standard operation range is from 0. in the time-current diagram below (Figure 3).5%. it is possible to distinguish the restricted and unrestricted faults. − External G for both restricted and unrestricted faults (Gext protection of the trip unit). but indiscriminately). In this way. 2 The trip unit is able to measure earth fault currents in a range from 0.1 Introduction The loss of insulation between normally live conductors and exposed-conductive-parts may generate a fault which is generally called earth fault. for example. Taking as example a typical MV/LV distribution substation.3 In to 4 In with a tolerance equal to +/. In this way the currents that flow in the neutral don’t pass through the homopolar toroid. 1 The external homopolar toroid. by using Gext protection. 3 With PR122/P-LSIG or PR332/P-LSIG it is possible to set only either internal G protection (activated by ACB’s current sensors) or external G protection (with the external homopolar toroid). With “Double G” function. placed on the conductor connecting the transformer star centre to earth. ABB | Double Ground Fault Protection 3 . must be located between the neutral conductor and PE conductor.1.2 Application solution Thanks to the PR123/P-LISG and PR333/P-LSIG trip units by ABB SACE and to the external toroid on the conductor connecting the star center of the transformer to earth1.

Application Description Time-Current curve only the case in which the trip unit is programmed to allow the opening is taken into consideration. the low voltage breaker is able to trip and eliminate the unrestricted earth fault. Firstly the Gext protection is activated and. the low voltage circuit-breaker can open: in fact. before the MV breaker receives the opening command. In order to guarantee the complete protection of the plant.25s 0. This possible trip cannot guarantee the complete plant protection because the fault occurs between the secondary of the transformer and the circuit-breaker terminals. Therefore.2xIn. thanks to the time-current discrimination between the two G protection functions. are activated and go into the “timing” phase. in the trip unit. the trip unit can made available an output signal to the MV circuit-breaker.upstream fault occurs in the plant. let’s suppose that a restricted fault .5xIn. assuring fault extinction and avoiding unnecessary opening of MV circuit breaker. the low voltage circuit-breaker trips thanks to the internal G protection. external and internal. Let’s suppose that an unrestricted fault . after the Gext protection timing. it is necessary to involve the protection device installed on the primary. it is possible to select if the breaker must open or remain closed after Gext protection timing. The settings of G and Gext protections must guarantee the discrimination: the Gext curve has always to be set at a higher value than G curve.1kA 1kA 10kA Figure 3 – Possible curves of the External and Internal G protections. The MV circuit-breaker detects the signal and commands the opening of the breaker ensuring the complete protection of the plant. t4=0. t4=0.1s Internal G: I4=0. that is the medium voltage circuit-breaker – MVCB. Once the fault has been detected. Now.downstream fault occurs in the plant: Transformer secondary winding L1 Circuit-breaker Internal CTs 1Es 100s 10s External G: I4=0.2. Transformer secondary winding L1 Circuit-breaker Internal CTs External toroid L2 L3 N PE L2 Figure 5 L3 External toroid N PE Figure 4 Both G. hence 4 Double Ground Fault Protection | ABB . By apposite current and time settings of both protections (Internal G and External G).5s 1s 0.

1 The external homopolar toroid. In this way the currents that flow in the neutral don’t pass through the homopolar toroid. PR021/K (Figure 9) and LD030 DO (Figure 10) signalling units. placed on the conductor connecting the transformer star centre to earth. must be located between the neutral conductor and PE conductor. − to apply and set the signalling module as PR120/K. on the contrary the currents that flow in the PE conductor are detected by homopolar toroid. − several supply-side circuit-breakers as MCCBs.3. A4 X XV K9 XK6 Signalling module PR120/K K9 K9 K10 9 XK6 K10 K10 K8 7 XK6 K8 K8 K6 5 XK6 K6 K6 K4 3 XK6 K4 K4 K10 1 XK6 Signalling module PR120/K K10 K10 K8 9 XK6 7 XK6 K8 K8 K6 5 XK6 K6 K6 5 XK6 K4 K4 K4 1 A1 K51 K51 IN1 K51 p1 8 K5 K5 K51 p2 XK6 6 K51 p3 XK6 4 K51 p4 PR123/P K51 K51 IN1 K51 p1 8 K9 K9 K51 p2 XK6 K7 6 K7 K7 K51 p3 XK6 K5 4 K5 K5 K51 p4 PR123/P XK6 K7 XV X A4 10 XK6 K5 K7 K7 XK6 K3 2 K3 K3 XK6 10 XK6 K9 XK6 K3 2 K3 K3 Figure 7 – PR120/K (4 Outputs + 1 Input with common terminal) Figure 8 – PR120/K (4 Outputs with independent terminals) ABB | Double Ground Fault Protection 5 . In order to guarantee the protection of the plant. The circuit diagrams below show the contacts available in the PR120/K (Figure 7-8).1 Application example Electrical distribution plant MV CB Homopolar toroid MV-LV E2N 1600 4p PR123/P LSIG MCCB LSIG MCCB LSIG MCCB LSIG MCCB LSIG M L Figure 6 – Electrical distribution plant L Consider an electrical distribution plant composed by: − a MV circuit-breaker. equipped with G (or Rc residual current) protection. This contact must be programmed so that the contact. − a MV-LV transformer. normally open. − an incoming LV air circuit-breaker as an E2N 1600 4p equipped with PR123/P LSIG trip unit (or X1N 1600 4P equipped with PR333/P LSIG). “Double G” implementation requires: − to apply a homoplar toroid connected to the star center of the transformer to earth1. PR021/K or LD030 DO in order to make available one contact to command the opening of the MV circuit-breaker. References 3. shall close when the trip unit of the LV circuit-breaker detects the fault thanks to the external G protection.

For example. please consult the White Paper “Integration between the MV protection and control unit REF 542 and LV protection trip unit PR123: selectivity and earth fault”. 250V AC 5A 8A 6 Double Ground Fault Protection | ABB . For more detailed information about the way to interlock the medium and low voltage side. the medium voltage shunt opening release receive the signal and command the opening of the MV circuit-breaker (Figure 11). LD030 DO contact Maximum switching power (resistive load) Maximum switching voltage Breaking capacity (resistive load) @ 30V DC @ 250V AC Monostable SPDT 150W.s. (1min@50Hz) @ 250V AC 5 A − and finally.m.3 A 2000V r. to make the interlocking cabling between the signalling unit and the shunt opening release of the medium voltage circuit-breaker.3. when the K51/P1 contact (PR120K) closes. 2000VA 30V DC. References A1 K51 PR123/P A1 K51 PR333/P XK2 8 XK2 9 XK2 10 XK2 19 W3 W4 K1 K2 XR2 1 XR2 2 XR2 3 XR2 5 W3 W4 K1 K2 XV X K1 K1 K2 K2 W3 W3 W4 W4 XV X13 K1 K1 K2 K2 W3 W3 W4 W4 + – 24 V + – 24 V A4 11 K51 1 K51 2 12 13 K51 3 14 15 K51 4 14 17 K51 5 18 19 K51 6 20 21 K51 7 22 23 K51 8 24 26 10 PR021/K A4 25 1 2 7 8 A13 11 K51 1 K51 2 12 13 K51 3 14 15 K51 4 14 17 K51 5 18 19 K51 6 20 21 K51 7 22 23 K51 8 24 26 10 PR021/K 25 1 2 7 8 Figure 9 – PR021/K signalling unit k51 PR123/P PR333/P For PR123/P with PR120/D-M module or PR333/P with PR330/D-M module only XV X W1 W1 X2 X2 XV X K2 K2 K1 K1 W3 W3 W2 W4 W4 (A) (B) W1 + – 24 V 16 D07 15 17 13 D07 19 3 20 1 2 23 (A) W2 24 (B) LD030 DO 12 A31 D01 11 D02 10 D03 9 7 D04 8 6 D05 5 14 D06 13 Figure 10 – LD030 DO PR120/K – PR021/K contact Maximum switching power (resistive load) Maximum switching voltage Maximum switching current Breaking capacity (resistive load) @ 30V DC Contact/coil insulation Monostable STDP 100W / 1250 VA 130 V DC / 250 V AC 5A 3.

the incoming air circuit-breaker trips due to the internal G protection. It follows that: − the LV ACB opens because of internal G protection trip. − the MV CB does not open.Unrestricted fault: in case of earth fault occurring in the installation area downstream the air circuit-breaker ACB. the LV circuit-breaker could open due to the “Gext” protection and the contact switches from the open to the closed condition. In the most common plants. K9 K9 Figure 12 – Restricted fault ABB | Double Ground Fault Protection 7 . but.K10 K10 K10 Restricted fault is only detected by the homopolar toroid. BB3: auxiliary contacts TR1: AC/DC converters MO1: opening coil K51/p1: contact of PR120/K module Figure 11 -TR1 ˜ ˜ + -XB11 2 -MO1 -XB 8 Three different scenarios might occur in the electrical plant: Case 1 . K10 Transformer secondary winding L1 Emax internal CTs K10 K10 XK6 7 K51 p1 L3 External toroid N K9 K9 K9 7 Figure 13 – Unrestricted fault PE XK6 8 Caption AR: REF 542 protection unit BB1. the MV circuit-breaker must trip. since it is activated by the contact. XK6 7 X21/d10 K51 p1 XK6 K9 8 K9 K9 -AR (803) X21/d12 -XX -XB 9 -XB -XB12 -XB11 11 7 -08 1 -BB3 -BB1 2 Case 2 . K10 Transformer secondary winding L1 Emax internal CTs K10 K10 L2 XK6 L2 K51 p1 L3 External toroid N PE XK6 K9 8 Unrestricted fault is detected by both the homopolar toroid and by the internal G. The contact remains open because the protection “Gext” goes into protection timing but the fault is extinguished before the protection timing phase ends. − the LV CB opens. since it is not activated by the contact. because of the settings. internal G protection is faster than external G protection (Gext). the trip unit is enabled to open the LV circuit-breaker because of Gext protection. It follows that: − the MV CB opens. As already described above. the LV circuitbreaker must to open when the MV circuit breaker trips due to the Gext protection.Restricted fault: in case of earth fault occurring in the installation area comprised between the MV-LV TRAFO and the incoming ACB.

the internal G (or Rc) protection of the MCCB should be faster than the internal G protection and the external G protection of the ACB. only the moulded-case circuit-breaker trips due to G. It follows that: − the G (or Rc) protection of the downstream MCCB is activated to extinguish the earth fault. K10 Transformer secondary winding L1 Circuit-breaker internal CTs Circuit-breaker internal CTs K10 XK6 7 K51 p1 XK6 PE K9 K9 K9 Figure 14 – Earth fault downstream the MCCB 8 Double Ground Fault Protection | ABB 8 K10 L2 L3 External toroid N . By appropriate settings. Unrestricted fault is detected by the homopolar toroid. S. it must open before the LV ACB due to selectivity. because it is not activated by the contact. − the LV ACB does not open. In this case the time to extinguish the earth fault depends on the earth fault intensity. References Case 3: In case of an earth fault occurring in the installation area downstream the MCCB load side. If the MCCB has not G (or Rc) protection. L. − the MVCB does not open. Rc.3. I protection activation. by the internal G of the ACB and by the internal G (or Rc) of the MCCB.

More details are available in the instruction sheet and are summarized below: − cable and set the external homopolar toroid according to the rated service current range.2 Testing field section In this section it is shown how to set each device in order to make available the “Double G” function.it. For example. Toroid clamp 1 2 3 4 In range 100 / 250A 400 / 800 A Figure 15 – External homopolar toroid − connect the cables to the terminal box of the breakers into the apposite contacts T7-T8. the “Double G” needs specific equipment: 1. In the pictures below. Homopolar 1 2 3 4 Terminal Box on CB T7 T8 T8 - 4.1 Shopping list section As already shown in the previous paragraphs.abb. External homopolar toroid installation and settings Apply the homopolar toroid on the conductor connecting the star centre of the transformer to earth and connect it to the terminal box or to the fixed part sliding contacts. 3. 2. the example of the terminal box for Emax fixed version. − internal wireless communication module PR120/B-T. Practical Guide 4. When choosing SD-TestBus2 or SD-Pocket. in order to obtain a current range3 of 400/800A. As regards the PR120/K. The external toroid must be connected to the trip unit by means of a cord shielded two-wire cable with length not exceeding 15 m. − the configuration Test Unit PR010/T. a communication network is needed and one of these components may be chosen: − communication module PR120/D-M (Modbus RTU) for New Emax or PR330/D-M for Emax X1. 3. setting of signalling module PR120/K. external homopolar toroid installation and settings. the homopolar toroid for the main power supply grounding conductor. 2. The shield must be earthed both on the circuit-breaker side as well as on the toroid side. 3 The accurate current value of the homopolar toroid is set through the trip unit settings.4. the PR021/K or LD030 DO are always needed because the PR120/K is not available. If you have a low voltage air circuit-breaker Emax X1. the signalling module: PR120/K only for New Emax circuitbreakers. PR021/K and LD030 DO signalling units. trip unit protection settings. ABB | Double Ground Fault Protection 9 . it is possible to set them by: − programming Free-Software SD-TestBus2 or SD-Pocket that can be downloaded (free) from the “Business On Line” website – http://bol. 1.com. The customer has to follow three easy steps: 1. choose clamps 1 and 3. PR021/K and LD030 DO. − external wireless/usb communication module BT030. Otherwise it is possible to use the PR021/K or LD030 DO with a separate 24VDC auxiliary power supply. the new Emax with PR123/P-LSIG trip unit or Emax X1 with PR333/P-LSIG trip unit.

Four thresholds are available: 100A 250A. in the “Bus” menu. (or “K51/1 contact” for PR021/K). write down the “Serial Address” and “Baudrate” 7. select “PR120/K configuration” (or “PR021/K configuration”) 1. 400A and 800A 8. Figure 16 – Emax terminal box – fixed version In order to set the external toroid (and consequently Gext). select “Local/Remote” 5. In the presence of PR120/D-BT or BT030/USB (wireless mode): 1. in the “Bus” menu. select “COM Module” 4. select “Toroid size”. select “Scan” 9. PR021/K and LD030 DO To regulate the programmable contacts of PR120/K or PR021/K. The settings are updated. choose “Settings” 2. select “Bluetooth” 3. 2. start SD -Testbus2 tool 2.4. select your PR123/P (or PR333/P). select “EvenParity” 10. as shown in the figure below. follow these instructions: 1. enter the trip unit password 6. use the PR021/K page configuration. choose “settings” from “MENU” page of PR123/P (or PR333/P) 2. move to “Byte Offset #8” 1 In SD-TestBus2. select “Serial Address” and “Baudrate” from PR123/P (or PR333/P) menu. Once the connection is available. select “Source Ground Return” 7. Setting of the signalling module PR120/K. 2. 10 Double Ground Fault Protection | ABB . after password input. Practical Guide SD-TestBus2 In the presence of PR120/D-M for New Emax or PR330/D-M for Emax X1. select “Remote” 6. press “Confirm”. select “External Toroid” 5. select “Ground Protection” 4. it is possible to set the signalling unit PR120/K (or PR021/K or LD030 DO): 1. press “Custom” in the “Function field”. press “ESC” until you get the confirmation message 9. in the browse menu of the SD-TestBus2 that appears on the left. select “Circuit Breaker” 3. select “Modules” 3. in the “P1 contact” area. from the Main Menu of PR123/P or PR333/P trip units: 1. it is necessary to use one of the following external devices: − SD-TestBus2 − SD-Pocket − PR010/T Figure – 17 3. in order to set the LD030 DO. start SD -Testbus2 software in your PC 8.

the signal source “Custom” and press It is also possible to choose: − contact “Latched” or “Not latched”. − it is possible to set a delay time. 7. a time shift respect to the event that changes the normal status of the contact. Contact “latched” is activated when the associated event happens. 14. i. It is also possible to choose: − contact “Latched” or “Not latched”. 3. Signalling” and press “Enter” select “1. “Yes” to save. i. 9. set the blinking cursor to “Gext alarm”. In the toolbar. − it is possible to set a delay time. 2. Signal source” and press “Enter” insert Password (if required) and then press “Enter” . select. Config/Param” and press “Enter” choose “1. select “Operation mode” and press “Enter” select DUT “PR123” for New Emax CB or “PR333” for X1 and press “Enter” select “4. Move to “Byte Offset #8” 8. 5. select “Custom” 7. 3. Modules” and press “Enter” select “3. save Configuration. 13. move to. In order to accept the configuration. press “Esc” until you have the possibility to save the configuration 15. enter in “Configuration”. Set this contact to “NO” (normally open) 10. 4. 6. to “Alarm 2 1…3” 12.e. scroll select “Gext alarm” . Press “Connect”. they are reset only by the reset of the circuit-breaker or of trip unit. Configurations” and press “Enter” select “9. In Function. select “Gext alarm (blocked trip)” set this contact to “NO” (normally open) press "Submit" Connect the PR010/T to the trip unit: 1. 10. Select “Gext alarm (blocked trip)” 9. select “Menu” ration” (or PR021/K or LD030 DO configuration”) 6. press “SET” 11. select NO (Normally Open). ABB | Double Ground Fault Protection 11 . 6. SD-Pocket Start SD-pocket tool Log-in as Administrator Select the device PR123/P or PR333/P (on the trip unit a device type PR120/D-BT or BT030 must be installed) 4. 8. by . press and and press “Enter”. press “Enter” select “PR120/K configu5. by “Enter” 11. 5. Relay 1” and press “Enter” select “1.PR010/T A) Instruction to set PR120/K Signalling module 4. 1. 2.e. a time delay respect to the event that changes the normal status of the contact.

In order to avoid the opening of the low voltage circuit-breaker after the Gext protection trip. 5. select “Protection” in the Main Menu of the trip unit select “Gext Protection” press “Enable” and enter the password select “On” select “Trip Enable” select “OFF” press “Esc” and confirm the changes. 3. 4.5%. select “10. while the rated service current for function G ext is the rated service current of the toroid (100A. 3. 250A. − the trip unit is able to measure earth fault currents in a range from 0. For example. − as regards the trip times. Please note: − the rated service current (In) for G protection is the rated service current of the circuit-breaker. The standard operation range is from 0. Connect PR010/T to the trip unit and repeat the steps from 1 to 4 of the PR120/K setting. 6.2 xIn = 160A Trip threshold I4 = 0. in case of restricted earth fault. a time delay with respect to the event that changes the normal status of the contact. − a minimum 20% difference between the current parameters of the two thresholds is needed. follow these instructions: 1. 2.1.5s t=k The signalling unit must be connected to the trip unit.5 xIn = 400A Trip Time t = 0. a possible configuration for a New Emax E1N800 PR123 In 800A and a toroid with In equal to 800 A. 12 Double Ground Fault Protection | ABB . It is also possible to choose: − contact “Latched” or “Not latched”.4.3 In to 4 In with a tolerance equal to +/. − it is possible to set a delay time. a difference of 100 ms between the two parameters is needed.05 In to 4 In. Local Bus Unit” and press “Enter” 2. is the following one: G protection Gext protection Trip threshold I4 = 0. Trip unit protection settings The parameters of internal G protection and external G protection (Gext) have to be set in order to guarantee a chronoamperometric discrimination between the two curves: protection Gext settings must have both trip thresholds and trip time parameters higher than those set for protection G. select “2. Relay 1” and press “Enter” Follow the instructions of PR120/K from the 8th step.25s t=k Trip Time t = 0. and afterwards: 1. Pratical Guide B) Instruction to set PR021/K and LD030 DO signalling modules. i. 7.e. 400A or 800A).

PR120/D-M (1SDH000460R0509) Instructions sheet for PR333 X1 microprocessor-based electronic release and module (1SDH000529R0504) Instructions sheet for PR021/K (1SDH000559R0002) White Paper "Integration between the MV protection and control unit REF 542 and LV protection trip unit PR123: selectivity and earth fault" (1SDC007402G0201) Signalling unit LD030 DO (1SDH000671R0001). Bibliography Distribution system and protection against indirect contact and earth fault (1SDC007102G0201) New Emax Technical Catalogue (Italian 1SDC200006D0905 / English 1SDC200006D0205) Emax X1 Technical Catalogue (Italian 1SDC200009D0903 / English 1SDC200009D0203) New Emax Installation and Service Instructions (Italian 1SDH000460R0001 / English 1SDH000460R0002) Operating instructions for T7-T8-X1 low voltage air circuitbreaker protection releases (Italian 1SDH000587R0001 / English 1SDH000587R0002) Instruction sheet for homopolar toroid for the main power supply grounding conductor (star center of the transformer) (1SDH000460R0507) Instructions sheet for PR120/K.5. ABB | Double Ground Fault Protection 13 .

Breakers Via Baioni.abb.p.com Copyright 2009 ABB. 35 24123 Bergamo . 1SDC007403G0201 .: +39 035 395 111 Fax: +39 035 395306-433 www. We reserve the right to modify the contents of this document on the basis of technical development of the products. All rights reserved.Italy Tel.Contact us ABB SACE A division of ABB S. . without prior notice. L.A.03/2009 The data and illustrations are not binding.V.

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