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Explain different Network Topologies Ans Network Topologies
Topology is a term used to describe the way in which computers are connected in network. The physical topology of a network refers to the configuration of cables, computers, and other peripherals. Network Topologies are logical layouts of the network. The term "logical" used here marks a great significant. That means network topologies depends not on the "physical" layout of the network. No matter that computer on a network are placed in a linear format, but if they connected via a hub they are forming a Star topology, not the Bus Topology .
Linear Bus Topology :
The type of network topology in which all of the nodes of the network are connected to a common transmission medium which has exactly two endpoints is called the 'bus'.It consists a single main cable connects each node.Ring Topology The type of network topology in which each of the nodes of the network is connected to two other nodes in the network and with the first and last nodes being connected to each other, forming a ring That is the nodes are connected in a circle using cable segments. Each node is physically connected only to two others.
Star Topology :
A star topology is designed with each node connected directly to a central network hub or concentrator. Data on a star network passes through the hub or concentrator before continuing to its destination
Tree Topology : A tree topology combines characteristics of linear bus and star topologies.Tree topologies allow for the expansion of an existing network, and enable schools to configure a network to meet their needs
Ques 2 Describe the following with respect to computer Networks: Ans A Service primities-- Establishing a connection sounds easy but in practice it is not so. The
problem occurs when the network can lose, store and duplicate packets The Major problem is the existence of delayed duplicates. It can be solved in various ways but not of them work satisfactorily.Packet lifetime can be restricted to a known maximum using one of the following ways. Restricted subnet design, Putting a hop counter in each packet & Time stamping each packet. B Design Issues of Layers -- The important design issues pertaining to the network layer are as follows : 1 Nature of the service provided : The network layer provides two well-defined classes of services, namely connectionless and connection oriented services to the numerous nodes or hosts communicating through subnet. 2. Internal organization : Another important design issue in the network layer is the internal organization of the subnet. The organization may be either a datagram based that employs connectionless services or virtual circuit based that employs a connection-oriented service. 3 Routing : Routing of packets across the subnet is considered the most important function of the network layer. Two basic types of routing static and dynamic . Static routing is also referred to as non-adaptive and dynamic is also referred to as Adaptive routing methods. 4. Congestion control : An important problem that any subnet faces is the congestion because of heavy traffic in the subnet than the load that it can handle. The subnet gets increasingly loaded with packets causing increase in delay in the delivery of packets, which can lead to more retransmission, and ultimately increasing more and more traffic. 5. Internetworking : A subnet can be considered as an interconnection of multiple subnets. The network layer now has to perform a job of internetworking among the subnets. Different subnets may use Different routing and congestion control techniques, Different packet length Different frame format Different data rates etc. Hence internetworking is a very crucial job. For this purpose a separate sub-layer has been created as the top part of the Network layer within an OSI model in order to take care of internetworking task
Ques3 Explain the TCP/IP Reference Model with diagram .
Ans The TCP/IP Reference Model :
The TCP/IP reference model is the network model used in the current Internet architecture. It was created in the 1970s by DARPA for use in developing the Internet's protocols, and the structure of the Internet is still closely reflected by the TCP/IP model. It has fewer, less rigidly defined layers than the commonly referenced OSI model, and thus provides an easier fit for real world protocolsThe original four-layer version of the model has layers as shown in figure. It consists of the following four layers Ques 4. Describe the following: Ans Guided and Unguided Transmission Medium-- Transmission media is the physical path
between the transmitter and receiver. It can be guided or unguided. Guided media provides a guided (by a solid medium) path for propagation of signals such as twisted pairs, coaxial cables, optical fibers etc. Unguided media employ an antenna for transmitting through air, vacuum or water. This form of transmission is referred to as wireless transmission. For example Broadcast radio, satellite The key concern in design of data transmission system is Data Rate and Distance.Number of factors used to determine data rate and distance are :Bandwidth: Greater the BW of the signal, the higher data rate can be achieved. Transmission impairment: these limit the distance Interference: overlapping frequency bands can distort/wipeout a signal. Number of receivers: A point to pint links are used or shared link is used with multiple attachments are used. Twisted pair : Twisted pairs are least expensive and most widely used transmission media.They are easier to work with but limited in terms of data rate and distance.It consists of two insulated copper wires arranged in regular spiral pattern.Wire pair acts like a communication link. Usually numbers of these pairs are bundled together in a protective sheath into a cable.Twisting tends to decrease the crosstalk. Twisted pair can be used for both analog and digital transmission. For analog signals, amplifiers are required about every 5-6km. For digital transmission (analog and digital signals), repeaters are required every 2-3kms.Unshielded Twisted Pair Cable (UTP) which is typically 1mm thick with a minimum number of twist per foot. Twisting reduces electrical interference.They run several kilometers without amplifications, repeaters are needed. They are used for transmitting either analog or digital signals Different categories of UTP’s are as follows 1. CAT3 Cable: They are less expensive. It consists of 4 pairs grouped in plastic sheet to protect the wires. Bandwidth of 16 to 100 MHz signals can be handled 2. CAT5 Cable: They are similar to CAT3, but are with more twists/cm. They have less crosstalk and provide better quality over long distance. Bandwidth 16 to 100 MHz signals can be handled. 3. CAT6 & CAT7 Cable: They are still more improved version than CAT 5. They are suitable for higher bandwidth of 250MHz and 600MHz. Coaxial Cable : Coaxial cable are widely used for long distance telephone network. Coaxial cable, like twisted pair, consists of two conductors, but constructed differently to permit it to operate over a wider range frequency. It consists of hollow outer cylindrical conductor that surrounds a single inner wire conductor. The inner conductor is held in place by either regularly spaced insulating rings or a solid dielectric material. The outer conductor is covered with jacket or shield. A single coaxial cable has a diameter of from 1 to 2.5cm.
Ques 5. Explain the term Switching. Describe the following Switching Mechanisms: Ans Circuit Switching- A circuit switching network is one that establishes a dedicated circuit
(or channel) between nodes and terminals before the users may communicate. Circuit switching is used for ordinary telephone calls. Communication using circuit switching involves three phases 1. Connection establishment: Before any signal can be transmitted, an end to end circuit must be established. 2. Data transfer: Information can now be transmitted from source through the network to the destination using the dedicated path established.Data transfer: Information can now be transmitted from source through the network to the destination using the dedicated path established. 3. Termination: After some period of data transfer, the connection is terminated
Packet Switching- Packet switching splits traffic data (for instance, digital representation of
sound, or computer data) into chunks, called packets. Packet switching is similar to message switching. Any message exceeding a network-defined maximum length is broken up into shorter units, known as packets, for transmission. Packet switching is used to optimize the use of the channel capacity available in a network, to minimize the transmission latency and to increase robustness of communication.
Message Switching -Message switching was the precursor of packet switching, where
messages were routed in their entirety and one hop at a time. Hop-by-hop Telex forwarding are examples of message switching systems.E-mail is another example of a message switching system. When this form of switching is used, no physical path is established in advance in between sender and receiver. Instead, when the sender has a block of data to be sent, it is stored in the first switching office (i.e. router) then forwarded later at one hop at a time. As the figure indicates, a complete message is sent from node A to node B when the link interconnecting them becomes available. The message is stored at B until the next link becomes available, with another queuing delay before it can be forwarded. It repeats this process until it reaches its destination.
6. Explain Radio spectrum ? Ans The radio spectrum, from 3 kHz to 300 GHz, is one range of the electromagnetic spectrum
(infrared, visible and ultraviolet light, and X-ray frequencies are other ranges). The radio spectrum is divided into eight frequency bands from VLF (very low frequency) to EHF (extremely high frequency). The propagation of a radio wave depends on its frequency. Radio waves with frequencies below 30 MHz are reflected against different layers of the atmosphere and against the ground.
Above 30 MHz, the frequencies are too high to be reflected by the ionized layers in the atmosphere. The VHF and UHF frequency bands, which are used for TV, broadcasting and mobile telephony, belong to this group. Microwave transmission : Microwave transmission refers to the technique of transmitting information over a Microwave link. Since microwaves are highly susceptible to attenuation by the atmosphere (especially during wet weather), the use of microwave transmission is limited to a few contexts. Properties It is only suitable over Line of Sight transmission links. Provides good bandwidth. Affected by rain, vapour, dust, snow, cloud, mist and fog, heavy moisture. Not suitable for links where an obstacle is in between the transmitter and receiver Uses of Microwave transmission : 1. Backbone carriers in cellular networks. Used to link BTS-BSC and BSC-MSC. 2. Communication with satellites 3. Microwave relay links for telephone service providers
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