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IN 'RODUC'TIONI TO MI!NING
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Mini DI may W'leU halve: been the second or humankind's earliest endeavors=grill ted tha t agrieul tu re was the: first, The two industries ranked to get h:er as 'iI." ,. b . .d ., 1 ivil "' .. h d i ·iL. ' the prlma.ry ·o,r basic In~ustnes o r',-eany ,CIVI. rzanon .. =LJtt~e has cl.~.'a,E:lg:e~. tne i '" 'I;·il.. in im.port;a.nce of these 11ndustries since the beginnlng 0':" civilization ..If we coasider ftsbin:iG a.nd. lumbering as pa rt f):F' agriculture and oil and gas production as part of mining, then agriculture ~d 'mining continua to supply all the basic
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as encompassing the extraction of all y :naturaU.,y oecurriag " 'I bs lid uqum, d '[\... h h ,~.J~a.v,en~,'y ~ ml,nenlhI substances-e-sotsd, I· "d- l$il:_, Ia,s-, r--uom tutS eart. .. or otner h · ~ bodies for uH~.i.ta rian pu rposes, The most prominent 0'£ these uses for ,n-l'j,n,erals are identified w,n Table 1~l. The h:~sto'.ry of mining is :fascj,na,ting~ It parallels the history of civilization,

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~',ith,manv im p-- ortant cultural eras associated '''li~'~+'1!... and ,~,..;II~I---lt-:'~~,ifild~1C various b. ,y~' IJU~ ..:,lIjll~. _:" minerals, or their derivatives: the Stone ,A,~~(prior to 41000 B\.C.,E.), the Bronze Ali.e (4000 to 5000 B .c.a), the :b~OD, ,A"g~:(1.500 :O.CJ];' ito 1.7.810 'C..E..)" the St;,ee] ,A,ge 1{178 t) to 1'94.5),,~and th.e Nuelear Agle (:~94.5to the present). Many :In:i:~es'tionasin human b'is'tJor'Y' Marco Polo's journey to 'C·bw,na.Vasco da Gama's voyages ~ to' Africa and India, Columbus's d:w~c~JP/'e'ryf the NeV!f'W orld, and the modern, o ,g;o'~drushes that :~edto. the settlement -of California, Alaska.!, South Afr,ica _ A ustralia and 'the, Canadian K lo'udike '\ye~re 8rch:ieved w:ith minerals provid ... ing a major incentive ('Ric:ka,rd~ 19,3 2.).,Other ·in~ereltini: aspects of' mini-n, and :mJ'taUurgi.cal history can, 'be found by' referring to the historical record provided by G'f'e~lory (1.'9.810)"1 Raymond r(,' .9:84)~ and Lacy and. L,BlICy {1,992)~
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As one of h u_manit~i~'s, ea rUe S:I endea vors - and ,eerta:i:nly ODe of its 6nl~ o rganized ind ustries mini ng has au ancien t and venerable history (Gregory t r980)~ To understand modern mining practices, it is useflld to trace the evolution o,f minmg technology, 'w'hi:cn (as pointed out earlier in. this chapter)
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mine, ,3 hematite mine at: Bo·m.VURi.d,ge~ Sw,azUan.d (G'.re,lorY~1 1.9'8 0)1,is fr,o.tll the ,,'; .. '. ••..•..• ',,'.-'-' .' '--.' 'd': '. ,.' . O.R'e: ~,~e:y(t. 1_0' Il)e lOU'~ "'tVt1:' ._-:' . Jl,r.Il.Y . ."' ..... 0<.1,'~d- 'S~····t-· A'.,'.ge-'- :aD." 'LI..·... 'l-·' -'''-··dl to 11...,.... ,ft,··b····",!t;~Jn 000' i-I ..years 0._'Id"~ .. ·E··~. !I'" m,ll1.ers-' emp oyed crude methods o:f ground eontrel, 've:nlUaUon~ haulage, hoisting, Ugh ting and rock breakage, 'Nonetheless, mines; ,it trained depths of 8100It ,(250 m) b:y eady Egyptian, times, MetaUic minerals also attracred the attention of prehistoric humans, Initially, metals were used in their native' form, probably obtained by washing river gravel in placer deposits" 'With the ad vent of the B:r.o:nze and Iron Ages, however; humans discovered s:m.,clting and learned to reduce ores into plul,e' metals cr alloys, w-:td'c'h.gre~ll.yhl1rprav'ed their a:bUU:y to use these metals, The 'fir~stchallenge for early miners was to 'break the ore and loosen it from the: surrounding flock mass, Often; their-crude 'tools made 0"'£bone. wood, and stone wer.'~''0:'-.0:'-'," match ,I' ,. t he hard er rock"" 'U" nless th ~ rock contained ,~~~'1i~~' or . i3!i ,u to-.'.:.lf·~· '" '1 ':'01. ~ !;..'.I. ."'. ~ cracks that could be: opened by wred;ging Of' prying, As ,3, resul t, theysoon devised a. revolutionary technique t,I~Jedfire sett,in,'l~'where:by 'th'ey first heated the rock 'to expand i'n and tll.en doused it 'with cold 'wa'tle:r .[.0 contract and break. it This was one 0:[ the fi:r~t great advances in the science of :f,oc:k. breakage and had a greater impact than any other discov'e!y un til dynamite was iuv,en.ted. by .A~rrod Nobel.. in~aJ ~ . 867 Mining ·t~c::hno,II:ogy~ 'ft'ba't.of ,aU industry, la:n.gu:ished during the Dark like .Aies~ Notably, a political development 'in :11.85:improved the standing of' mining and the status ofminers, '\Jihen 'the' bishop or Trent granted a. eharte
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horizontal ~di.oe' is taken, the- voids are filled. 'w1-ah a variety of £i,U, types to support the, walls, The fill (fan. be rock waste, tailings, cemented tailings, or other suitable ". Cut-and -fill m '~I'nina one :0-•• f' the m popu lar g.U· ~ materials tl~., -.. ~lL~J, ,t_dg~ r methods used ~or vein deposits, and bas recently grown in use:",S q;u:ar,e ... et s Is'toP',infJ also in volves ba-cidiJ:i,ng mine voids; however, j t relies mainly on timber sets to SoU pport the w~dls during mining, 'This mining method is rapidly disappearing im North America because of the :hi,glw, cost of labor. .. However, it,
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Congress r'e'allzed that fatalities in, the mining ind.ustr,Y were not heine: controlled., At the time, the n umbe![ of' deaths in tbe coal 'mining industry was nearly 3000'" .' . per year':! an d' t hI'e E" ]''''ines Ul tne meta~,:',:nonmebu, '. • 'II... 1:/' ","I l,nuustr,Y were nearly 'i',~::_' l tata '1000,1:,-' per 11l'!I~:r~ number The '61~~.~, and explosions w',,'·'I"'tl.!Ito-1 t'jf,;:p.:],,~~fatalities was I lJ.ilJ. m 'U' [ [Lg.u.lli.I]~" 'If ~,~ quite high, prompting the new' bureau 1.'0 seek an end tO the hazards associated W,~~,1l..', _!v 1,~" _ and coal Id~~i'IJ1J:s;t. addition ,d~~ eaths and iniuries due to roof ~ _!tU,i WI~, ~tl'~1f.·~'n!e.··: y_ ~~ In __ = _v_=~, ralls were targeted with. better metheds for roof control, During the :~ts:y'ea.r' ... h:i;sto,:r_y 0,( the 'US:O,M: safety equipment and :industry practices greatly im,....
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convincing the general public of its: contribution to :society in providing low-cost _ m--I(p}~Y"eon sumer ~"o",o;ji::d·'~,~'.''IT,~, pa rt, th-~~ I situatio n is the result l!;,io~\~ _. aterial to !~'~~,P": l_ '";-V, of the separation of mining and those consumer prod ucts in the mind. or the consumer and the past performance of the :m,jning ind ustry :i11 regard to health,
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earnest in the ,I'960'8" Since tha t period, the 'minerals industry has made great

strides to better protect our land, our air, and our water resources, M:,an:y new tech n.· u-,a~ to protect the envi ron nent nd I'~ti ,(JI'~I·t:tl!i: iq •. r: ·, nroblems ~ 1f-,~ve JL~,~ 'W~'" be-en developed over the last four decades, In addition many useful books outlining environmental protection procedures have been pu blished in recent years (H utehinson and EliisQ..n~,1'99.2; Ri~pb:y et al; 1.996, Marcus, 1997 a;
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t,ow,a,:fid th.e: ~D'vif'o:nment,>the tendency of tb;t~med:ia, to report any e;nvi,fOnmel1'[ ,al pro'blem~, and the ,ge.n,e~r.all~lckof ,ffX,:posure tOo t;he pos:iti v-e en,viron:m,e:R tsJ 8J:,cts, ():r fo:rwa:rd -thinkii},g: mining cO'm:ptlni,e~L ,As a, :restdt~ the :mimipg :~:nd'ffil.8'tr'y must

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and one can conclude that the search for 0:00 deposits, is clearly a, higbly · com1 p--,'II'~£i;'fIlt'~'~IlJ sin -~iii TIlll ,if'!; da V~' of a soli tarv orosoector with bur ro ,(, a or u a ,F" . kJ,r~~~ u., u ", v four-wheel-drive 'v'eh.i.,c'le) re largel y over; today' 51 mineral deposits are ty-,picaU," a
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diseovered by geologists and geophysicists armed w-ith. an a,r.ra,Y- of hi.gb.... , technology 'to-aIs", Nlea.rly all ore 'bodies found toda Y are discovered through the process or prospecting' and eX,p,:to,ratioH.. 'The 'In~,n:ne:r in which these activities are organ .., ized and relate to each other is shown in Figure :ll., 'Notiee loa t. Stage ] , (prospecting) emphasizes reconnaissance (1 r identifiea tion of favorable tat,gets and S;ta"ge :2 (exploration) focuses on target e:'Va:~.ua,t~on,;Each stage in 'tum, consists of two phases, proceeding from regional appraisal to. deposit evaln ... , ation, :Following alternative 'ptaths on the flowchart leads tO fil,vOra,bl~[i untimely, or unfavorable decisions as to w hether ;0, given target area is to be evalaated
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change when one: of these ta rget minerals is located benea tb the
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1f1IGIURE a,,6~ ~:Xp!iOfatICin o~: !hidden ore' bodies by d'n:lIi;ngl and unde(rgroulnd excavation ,(shaJns and dri~1i)I., IDi'amo-nd ~ifillholeauri gil!1\liie iiini'tialUr ai' the :SlIrf.'aoe' blJ~:IIIEf' are ,contin ued froml 'd niBs; as, the, ,ore 'bodiesl de~pe:~" (,A'her' HaJmriin~1 119-82.,IB~y pennissijion froml '~he S()Ciielty ~or Mlini~ng!
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d nuecd UlUU), nY'.- Jl,J' more m 'Le' seeone step, an dI.:l I ''''ml ,. . "']1 11,~ ,. h d 3 the thi ,,.4 Each step ".1 J US,d, .. e . ·b--'· ,.,,1,., -:,',--' '.' .~--, tified ..:/ u1:C prevto us' SIIL!~P" in this . 11.1 e uJ,ru., ~,a.c, ~:S, is
I. 1

'~I-

;",'·····1

,,'

~,.

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.,

-

lao "

case 'the r-esults continued to, he favorable, Note bow the pattern emerges nd nregmar holes '." 't'h'" .'_LfS".' ',-,W;()! seeps, ano a, reguiar (squarer "-'it't-· ,--- t.-· ""+-', "3~ notes I,D ~._ae 6,",-''- t-' , 'pattern m St'C',P_"
-,ft···, 'I . --,
I~'" ,( .-

"e-

For steep ,1:-y d,l"ir'I(-:;n-ICir or len it:L,fE'Ij' .d;,,1.11.11. "0 pattern mi'~y~'.:assume ,,,,", '~' ,I,'" . '~.;r: I,,,",, III U!!i.; ,:rij;'lm~'n'"' .' """"o::!<.. ',' d·~,· !l..~o:[m" ,as S:uown, ,.',-.-J,guf,e , '-.:''6'"~ 1'-niL,this St u-a,. ,Ion~ the ..U1,amO.l1.·'. u fl_::'11'11'1)...-'11 _lu,cren t, ' ". .',' t, ..... ,~n F"~'' -,--- 3 '.,', . ' , I,S ··~,t"I' _··t'·;····· IL", e· .:11,: : '-, 'd-' A U W 1e8 1,0 for the luria.'ce are mOllv'er,t'ical so that they- can :~.nte~r,Siec~ ore: bodies, at right the
,0Jj ,,~""

',F,

II,

~'~~;'II!'lII!(!! "'!!;;i,U-II"'"

l!U'.

'~J~It"_ !i.1!<1!;,;."

g, 11..11,,"",11, ,

, ,eL.,.

g,

I

-I'~

,'1

to ai, r-e-interceets ~'"' ~ ~ '~._,"'-''h- ~'iM-It. IL ._. space the n. somew other variebles do -not inte:rJerte',.The underground ex ploration drill holes show n "iIi't'h" ~O~ll,om-Ii!"F-~' --' ,-- '1 a .. -.-,- ldi ,it -.AI'-'11 '1.-1 --,.-,-- atte ·-.'Ii..,rt·-, "',-:-. aL\ r e 'b-' ,u---- o,~ -igure ,..1,.'U are equxns 'to..am a.'IIl,'O parauei, ,"n an attemp ...d) OIU'Il-a~n
I :.I.~ l~1l ," .I~ ....

angles, The pattern of' holes may be: 'i rregular ~but
'0"
, . .-

,lI . ·, ,,~ .

.I~"-,,,!I;'."'.-:J'

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attempt is normally made reeular fashi .no," *,Iir,t:ha top og 'r·~I:n'lJ;.v u. ~,o. ~.g~" ~Jr',I'~.J,' or
3,D
~,~}{1._l ·Y,II.I. JI.~ 1111"" \J
~)L~, I .1.. ·· e- ·1 ,-,
1

-.-,,--.,jjj,.

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,a,regular pattern of sample values. ,.',-. ~~-, -' .." ,,' , 'II: " '. '. .e·re thee. ,,' '- '~I','Ie,poS-IIL, m:s,11,0,.-.~,.. -:t' ',,8 0 ,-~ ,m,as_sa. ve; ,~n :~orm" ,3. ,lre',1 u,~a.r ,Ill ,mlnera,~ 'd' ' .... ,":~.. ~,. 'Il... r~:zo:n '~I ., r '-':.,.-,~'" f - --'I" ~--- --m - - d wnenever -- - - :- lb ~- "n --I - b ~'~-'''' - o~ sam p. ,CS is empioyec ---'ib.., - - - - - - p-OS:5a me. Ti-..·is- ,eS'I~III-,wls,ues a, ---- "'r'unuorm ~I ve 0 r',seve
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. ," " !

IL"

w

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./

Copyriqhted material _

ha d In ,~' '~.' " ., t__t every area construe ted i t:.he analysts centarns pownts ,t l.. are c ]oser 'to hat thesamole CO.uOO ion ,-,.,' , W,lt, J,n ,~it." area than t:["",- are to"~ ,an,Y oth ier ,.",;f.jj"'-"-'I'~" ,,,':,,,/t _e sampse collection pOtU, "'":~'h~"-- me ',-",' ",8,,11 _ ley ,,-.,', ,0' ~,,-,-, .. o-~ sampie point, Therefore, the entire area o:f' influence' ,or that sample is, assumed 'to ha vie d '~ d' ineinl a va '~ b ~ue nasee on '!:~l-egrace at---'h,~U:one: sam p 1 poi '"nt, T-'~J:S,pnnei p, ,e ean b s-een '~:' " e . -h.' ee ~ ,_ d" ; - ']" 9'·;'···,a ( 'l'l't - ] ik h -" llll. th e nsagrams Ul F--·'· ,1,gJ~n::,~'- ) '" A-" d' rut io['e uxe to,_"e one S"he - , In F"' - - -" own . -, , tgure ,3 ",'9(a,)(1) represen ts one sample, The area air influenee of that sample is: deri v'led on, the diagram by first d rawi ng :~i es from the sample to the surrounding n ~] ~e' sb. nl''J''i' bv d" ted '1Ii;'H~1L'? 'Ii~ rb",~:iOi"U'[,'j!JI, "9,-,(::11)"//'2:'.'l ~.-" perpen d';,;i,~~ 0 :\·~·ll!l A'" ....I .... -· it~,~~ '~. ~ " Jt!l ~ J" .~~~ ",-_,~' ,~~I~,~,~,~, d' r"~ hr 111 '~,~ ~~·C:~'O·' r ,I'v, . ~'-""",,, ;d-;- O. tted '~Af'C' ch ." ]'1" n ~ ';"'-', en .d- ra "W,';'n ,~", -I Y W {~~:,A on I,U . ,d-, sram . ,~r~ th 'n,d: 1flli'~1 the . _" l' !Ii.... a v" shown in 3.. 9( a)( 3),;The perpendicular bisectors define the' area of influence of the d:rirh.ole~, as, Ulustr,at-ed. in 3,~9(a.)(4)~For any pattern of d'riUhO:les through a
" I~."
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-, '. '_' ,,~::S, ,1k~"::-_,,, IO("b ,r'c- -- '~3-'-" a.reas, of nluu~nc~; fa t_' the bo mda a.ry" T'-'h- IS suown 1.11!F-,": o~ l,:~ ,IOUn. . I,gu,re 3···· ",,),', ,I,or ,~,,: ',--, d:-'·,· y " m. -, 'IN"" "~hat . lte ,-::, mC'L,,;,c- comes ranaom".'1-' , s.pa'ceu h. ores, ,.- O!IL,e;- ,t'mar one auernanve name ,1"'=-" -', th-e "','-th 0'-d.. com . lor
I I,. I I

same ~ hi 1,3S"ion,
",' i :--, "::"~I,

'e\ --,,'I], ed ed OF ,~~,,-,.~,-' de c,r- mnuenee -::-'·"-6 <de snnpie b e 'd:.ec " -, pianar ceposn, areas 0. ,"',.' ,a, , '~'-",,c' -, can be dse..ermtnec .:C, . ,:
I.

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--I In. the tne 'I" €I'" "'dl the I,n; ,~,v:t'ua.'II
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md ,-,,--·~-·-,,-~'I!..I't,"'" ,"cl-:':'-: urn anc wel,gn or ID,illSS I'I,-,""Ih"", I-'·'~'·.JI conten t of' each area of in,fluence
~~l

fro,''om'' faet thatil, ~ the ~,Q:__t~, ~" -,'"
~ :_:_ ,_,~"" I ",",

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g'II;"PI"_jj ,~~,~ ""'"""

"f influence ,;;"'"p.. ·ft~v'g: "W <.. " .u'~'J'.•,"0":'--1 Depending usea, the I"-"~"- ~a,1i 0 unt of metat ,--,' .. e ~,O ~ .·····11·: nt o~ ...-,<,~ Of d am
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erad t:l'1Il,
01_11:,'

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is calculated as:

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cJ:' ,met n01,; uses a
I ,', 'I-~ .' .....1.1

'-iIo" tlu 'ii' ",' -,' .: -', ,,", --, .' , f" de n1., S \ OZ ~op~, U' ~ .. hi' '-'-,-, "t - -), ,"OII"I~'" :-a~, any ,a"pip,rO'l'Ul,a,I~,e -" gra'c _ u ." ',t· ~'.' -/~' . . 'Ill '1)..",Y we~~g:,~'"51itJ).n - ," e.,C;".' e:oo:n ,Ie .!~ I ne; b ___:_, . 1" c-{J,m"p.a. tl,1 '~IeU,n.I,~S JO.r::. USlti·, - .r[),. 'iIi~' '.' wel,gi" ~h-:I'~',,-,' ..' ,ma,ss", '("I-'bl,"- ", k'o' to ,,' ,ton l.leL, ,,:-,~:s ,e, used ":f:," ',," ",''1'.,; ble I' '"'~"I 'f: :'1" ··d· w t: r ~,Ile, 1J1s!~1 .. it. or '" ': I '.,-~ ,~ I"ons 'i'U'~'.lh n, ,it IhQ I"' I"'!l;"" ':"If'It"g'D' ~,""I.'. iIl,. U\ "",0. vI, H ~ih . ,if,dUJ'Jyu~;~ -t:'~" 'd- a, so,nown - - ,a,s '['Ik ,:"',--.'-U'd'-,t:'U IQrea lflel n jiltl.·or - 'I)..e ,---. ',J;'--' e-' .-~ ", ..1'-',Ik' '" '" "", ,iIj, I,~e: me':: llO:~ -11ue lilt ~ -J -,-" ,--":r'j.,, 1,L. ~!a,lltrnC
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• ~'" "ree. :s-!m,p~,e 'il,:,,~';' ,- ." ,- >~ ,:iLo.:,."',' wn U1. JJ oca,ILlOns, ass uO , . ·'i .' 'd"-I -"~,~---"" \-, ,"f: i ,116' Vih,iU:e'; b--"-"- "d-I on, 'i'II-' weJ,g,IJ,~ ILj~ 'd' . a~ e,l, age 01, t1.-"" .•. a;~e; -'.- ~,~l,e -, ,,'. - 'l;.,'Iii-' \
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'l ,. ,. :. '., ,It . ," eac I tn,a,ngu,tU a.rea ~;S .dSSOC.U1l n eel W':'i' 'h 1. F·;~'" , -, ' .•' 3'. ilf'li1('I' T~II" 'UL ,'" -·"~,-d,-: .uOL. ,Hlrea.s 13,l"e Igure,.:;1 c '\ ,d,e I i,d-: 1Y ~ '-'., ~I J<1
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l.r.'--·

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total m:in,end con'ten'~ of e,a,ch ia,ni~a,s '(hen ca,l,cuID,a,b~~d i as:
(3"4)'
, .··'i~.:..
'-, ''',

I

Tbe wei,g,llt,ed a.ve'r.a,g~ ,g:ra.de is, obt:ain,ed u.sing the b;~ln,ilho:r the: bore:holcs, i.n
'wiU}, eom:pB.'t,i,bhe w'el:ght or 'DJla:ss u:n:i ts to acb ~,Ie,/e' t~h-e't-ota,~,,conte:n t

~ '" ~-.'t.~ngac~,ors."'A·' if ~ ., l" d b ~, .-JI t I, dl :le:'epos,U:., a:s,Ul,e' wei,g"h'" { .... gatn, Ul,le u:n:~'~:s ,g;r,i1.';,e must ;~e' m,lmlC~lel~ ,I,or

I'n th'e ex:am,ples eShO;\vn S,Q fa.r, the samples wlere~ ,lssTum,ed. to be c~olleC~,led U:Si,DI dlrUlholes through. ,3], plana.r depos:w.t~ tha.t. is.. a deposli'~:tha;t h as a. minim aJ
*'iL'~r-",J1 ',_ -M-= U ·d-I'~'1,~,Bnll~.~nn-1 ~'I1iIV
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ii :_'

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·d', l..... p-~n,i:!'I~:';r;C';! !(.I,I ~ nf·· ';:"lka '.'m' -',Ij\'it'",,]"!EJ\iiIi, P,'.jjlr--,A ·!U~ ~""'I VII t,~,I~ ,I, !I.'~
,"~li:]!',

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ii1"1i;:r-,s; v~,v.

b'':_.v' ,d· ' ' ..:

V J'

is, tlu~ee)..dimensional. To a,pp:l:y 'these two IlI1!ethods to s:uc'h de:pos,i'ts,. tbe seetlo,ij
mIn''''~n·JI
. 1:·.~·~,'·~~jU:

,~,,,, ii'~;tjo,j!i;..II .IIL~ U·~~Ui

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m,(Ulner" 'E,a,lch 8-aln:ple gathered :fro:m ,a, (::,r085, siec,tiol1 is. used to d.'e~erlnine th,e

w'eigJlted aiv,e:F'a"g~e:,grati[e rO'f that S,sctjOflr. The sect:ion aV ef'3"ges; 8,:00 then oo'mbin.,ed :u;s~.ng the b~lisj"c :~,t)g:~c the 'e:x,t'e:nded a:f'ea ,or th,e in,c.luded, a:rea. ,of method" 'w'hi,lch is haseJ.i, on using: 'Volumes ins~e.ad o:f ,a:re:~.sm ,For' e:x~tm,p,:~e.j,i1[1 F"igure .3,'9(d.)~leacb .sec~tion tbro'u;h the on~ bQd.y de:fines ,a.n ,e'r~,lend.'ed'Volum,e' of :i:n.1l1u,ence, i.ndi,lcated by the d-ot~ed lines~ 1:n tille e;x'b~:nded 'vo~un1.e;n1e~:hodj ea,c'b, 'v-o:hm:m.c:'of infl.ue~rH)e' is voJ rued ba.s:ed on th.,e weigbled average ,gra.de of th.,e
l

ll,

Copy rig hted m ateri

this technique because they may need. to ,a:pp~y it, in future .. '1" dd ·-"~I - - .' , J' d mme ,p',_a,D,n~n.,I, Ol_-,._ F or a.:c..:,_Jt.I,ona_ treatment -i 0 r- geostansties, see, Joume 'I !~Ull, W 'k' Huijbregts (19'78), Clark (19'19')~Kn udsen et al.,( 19'7S)~Rendu (19'8 -)~and K.im,
0:(
[-:, :~ -1-.," .. .-. ,--"-~', -.-I " ,:-.~~,., ,'.--, ' .. '

understanding

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8~,8.a CO,Rl,puter' ,Apiplicalions iln I!xpl,o;r,a:t~on

Modern prospecting a,nd, exploration have become heavily dependent o-:n the digital computer as a 'basic' tool in an, stages of the process. The general tren~, eeems to indica b~~ this, ;W:ill continue: into, the future, Consider the f(d,~owi,n.g that eXllm:ples: Initiallv the comnputer was u~'"'u, to record, ~'~IO-'~- and ... v, analyze data, Later, it was used 'to solve complex equations used io data, .analysis, in, interpreting the da ta, and in supplying the geophysicist 'wi rh confidence ~jmits a'S weU' {Van Blaricom, 199i)~ , 2., Sam:ple ,euld ,g.'eo-.log',lccd mtJ'ppi'ng,. The computer is now used in every process of mapping a ,g,ivle'D.deposit, i:nclud:i:u"g apping o,r the tope grap'b.y m and the: geologic formations, layout or 'the surface and drillhole samples, three-dimensional o.oa1:;s:I,$ of' the sample values, and mapping of the
11, . . ~'V ,...f'.,I!' ;,:H~ _~,~l~',:ii1.a"V"i1.,!I;"IJllJI,,18 '.,J: "i. 'G:-:-:,O.nI:H'~'t~'_~',tA.t':'i'~ lo1k "'''',,,"'''~

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,··.··.·I':o·:'i..·I, iJ't., ,'..' ... possi me '···/'"h-,·····"~ mo ..ern comp U ,-' -- ,',or corn pel.de ,anaJJysls~ ,.~--. ore w,~ .ou 'me mod "--,-'-,"-':, ter, F···-'-"-: comolete "',,-,-.,'11 .. ,":,"-::. an t bod_'til' m,-· uc €i-I'b' divided into_ '~',a'-i'" ."--: +'~, nds o.~ ,-,I,OC',l\S, Ca,C,U 0 -, ,:il!: .- '[4 .,u ~.u_ _.Ill' ,1.1;,.1,,-" ~.n'" 1""".08 0..'r' - ~,u(n;Uja.n",S ,~;il' ;b<II--:,,,;!I,t:~-,o1Ii,- ;'i' --'f"_ 'W,iUCU recuires sraustieal estimate '0": arade ,',u~ ...liill'Oi'lt,'lb-· ii!!!:'f 0····'(-,' '.ou,~,:u: c..-,n li'li"i"p·.--·-U'it;ifdi,jo1'· Jif'li;'n .... -,-. lib ,n,' ~'" ·T"1...,~, ,n S required can be.. accomplished only with ,3 sophisticated s,yst,em, Q,f com purer softwa 'U,,',dl ha if,d' l'n~'iIlIlF,~. ~u 4". S'C',h~du'U~g' ami:' ,pl:'a"n,i,rl!I'~, The determination o:f grades i.n a, deposit ,-- ,:,,:':..J!j;; t,'I!..,·· .JI... -:...'-~. d Wlt..L Ii" ,Je provtaes rne '6:';" major esement Q,_:r- th '-, dee '", ,-~'~O procee:c_, ". :/":-·'h-· th -. nrst tJe .,_'CCI,S'ilOn 1i'\i·roi"'\~~.'~,,~ m _r' ", ~~..", '-TII-h~ second element :r~"'11UU"'~iS that the " JQ',,",,'~lon pro~~G!' 'l...... -l-' -,-.-.41 .- :, ths if ,~,L.. -- sh ,g.- ... , '-',',' - 1!...__ -.,-- .11, '" ' d'" ·t ~ lptlUl.Dleu so '",u,"~J,J,C:'cas"I_.! u()W ,c;!.~,n~ ,a,o,9,JJy:ze.·1 ,It,···· som,lt .'- ,ex 't- ,IC,DJ ~ T-'-h-': If;, W1. ,~ 0, " .-.---- .',' . ":., .m r., , (" 1-1:-, ",~' .,.' req uire a comp utt:··-· .' .,.- d_ p~,a..n.tor -, :;,.h·· ex trac ·t-""i·-· . - sequence; .no.r,m,a,-,~'y"~~ml'fh80 enze ,~,'e " JOn.
ft,
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''7:.o:I],e9,of m inera ~ t:i,lo~.n~~ iza ~_ __~_ , ~ll~~ -3,.,-"eos~a,~-s,c;~C's,. '0';":'1 -·r&o,reserv,e ~S' ~nla.;,~.'on. 'L-, .S,U~lSd,c-a~, "ii:L'-d' .' would__:n.O~,1:. .. G- ,.~ ---':I!',~.-,;",: -.-,- ··.·_ .. - ,",. '., '.- tin .tio -- uy Iii': 'iif,'~ -,,~,," .. 'm ,m,e~,uo':,_,swou,~ .. !Lie
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hI·' " TbIe geo 1- '. trac 'Itec t ie me teator mmera 1S, up (,I,. e g acrer pa t,hIs, usmg , ogists _. d -h · d,. eeochemical meth ods, ,D~i:)~._ on the ueoehemical evidence th ev staked manv ~~IU~ltW.~ ~ii .... ~. Based .~ J claims, and went into partnership with SH'P' Minerals to further explore their
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electromagnetic ':ki··' be' enue pipes , . ave . beei mennneo on B~"=H-P" '-M:·'_,'' ' · -. ",-:-' '~". ',--;- :8···~·O·:··,'OO: "'0' 'a,c~~-_~,,·,,00,:- "0" .. , '('-'''4,;t1 _:_.I,ml_Iite .ine h - ',,, neen ';d::-.fi.'~,~-.A::, ". "J.ner,3i,I,S, :8..''';''-' hal of claims (M:C'LIJll,gbUn." ~,9:9,8)~ ee Johnson and Penny (1.9)97) for ,I, more S com plete summary these exploration activi ties, The _ project 'Ii'l1,O-"W referred as '~,h-;I!1!!' Ekati diamond iine in eludes seven n -J"""'" u..:Ii !Ii.. kimberlite ·p.. ,:iJ'p,ji!I'i.\:' considered to be ofore q.... uality • F" l·¥~ ofthe pipes "1:1'1']-1. be mined ':,~;t~, ,~ iIl.u.¥ . udGL,wl.~. .. u~ on the surface, and two 'W~U, be mined und erzr -O·:_;:U· "n~, T'.. devel opment cost- 00'-"" ,u.~ tllW .~~. ~ the project ]S about :'r700 ion - wi th '01 ore than 72000 000 tons, 16'.c;' -000-000 tounes) £\,ir' reserves .. ~~~I~r-,QIP1"'iIt'iiP' tt ;0 ,-.9:9- ct/ton I('~O-',()' .c:il··'_t,o.··:n····~'~):-".lJJ,~ averase about .• " ~T'he _ ~ ~__~J uJl [,&b . u, -.:. _.J ,J!. •. ,~ ',' value of the csamone d:S, vanes- f - -- abiout :$--:'3-'0:-"1" -'to about" i'J 1i 3""''ie: t·,. F U['~ier . ,. -: .:rom .- -,'-, .,,'ct -, - - 1.._ -rth -~1_J~__ 1:0 me d-'~ ... . ~I :' 01
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Spec:i:filc practices during both development and exploitation with the various mining methods are discussed. 1:11. succeedin,l, chapters, This chapter presents the eeneral principles 'of develonment and exploitation, b. l,r' ,r' ~
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4112

DIEVELOP1MIENT:: GENERA,L L,OGIIC:

construction, and other phases, Development ,ge'ner.',aUy proceeds according to the pla n adopted du ring the :~sa:s;i,bilit:y study In S rages ~,and 2-,but the p:~:an 'may be ;311 tered as more and better information becomes available during successive phases iOr the project, Mest ~n:i that are in existence for more than nes a decad ,n'r r.;P-V ''l'I:I,i;U exnerienee chanees 'iin their develonm ,tiio'n- '.' plans several tim,aiit"' v,~, """""h,,,I'~, ,,",I!;,;I,J,~,ll, "'!Ii;,'J~,~, _,~,~,~, as new technology becomes Ef"lih!!!b~,e., as the economics of their mineral commodity changes, and. as; t:lle s;ldta,bility of mining methods to the ore body
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The steps ,ge:n,eraU,y carried lout,during mine development include the :foUo\ving~ more or less i:p the o rder of accomplishment, Both surface and underground

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No one circumstance of mining has, changed the development and exploration activitv of '~I mine more ';I'n' recent decades than the req '11'1'~I:~m~-~~+:f' environfor I", l~._," menta] protection, Today's regulations req uire every mining company to adont modern 'technolo ~w '. sometimes at ,b sreat exnen se11 'to Pi roteet the en viron .. ',' .~ _
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hem 'f.'~ "0;·O,'iIjiII sidered ,t-'."-h ' ..~~ vironmiental consecuen of th u"W hem '?'-r ~ves """u~ r.1i""'''"l and whether all practical means have been taken to Dlinimize environmental . m• ~ • 'I • ,. d-I __ h arm, A-' di :~tl.Ontall,nll"o:rm,a:bo',n ('Fn hliS[ precess ';.8 p,:r,OVl ideo: _ b K[J;Ul,S (1Ign,);I,':';~ ern', ~; d ~ d ~/y, ':JJ,
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H'U'"!'*' l ~ 7'(&,).[ "JI 'f.l~ ..• ~ The other two :major federal Acts that hatve au ,c::lect on mining activi ties are the Surface Minin"g, Control and Reclamation A,ct 0[.£ 1'9'77 and the Resource
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laws that, m.ay ba:vi'e' s['i.,g,nlfl ... cant' :ramifica t'ion~ :for mi nin.g, compan:ies~ The I:a:w''wii'all the ,grea,t[est: pote'n.t~;aJ imp- 'act. is, 'the ,Com'p_[rebe:nsi'Y1e ,Eny.iron:m,e~n tal R,e~p~: OOSle, Com,p-e,usB! tiOD" a.nd
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In the i:nitia,tion of a nli.ller,a:~s operation, one of' the mos t imp ortant cost estimations is the capital investment required b) develop tile mine:" This value is neeessarv to secure le'n,('u!l,ab capital to onen the_" em ine and '""nitiate reven ue '-'r~"-' -~, "', .... "'"_- i ._ '.'"." -' - -"_ e'p-~.r",,~1it- ,lll.~, 'i;~~"JI',m-Jm""o;:n practice to base the cost on ,~ unit of • 'i0r--"f:i""~ the .:d~ J,Lu,~o~...i~ ~~.'"~('>;1r.'1l'_ i"0'if examnle 11~ terms ,~,(" '~/,g nnual ton (tonne) :0,f' caoacitv. '-T', 'he :' liD ~.J JoUow:ing ranges are commonly used for- the c:apU;aJ cost of various mineral
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Su.rface:

1'('~.iI~4·.· ,1,,t:.,~:l~'~iO'iI'rna/v'r)' '. ,~~ . ~ U,Jlllli,V.~,iH I.... ,J .
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v-'-I~~' ,-- rovide . O"'lb' .'~,;o;"ul'~iCj!'II'Y' '(- h '- ':::lll!..J'~.I!,J:'; _ P'~'~'I!1' I,'_~'_ 0',' 'n" v ,- r'-"O'-'-')'~~ ,j;.)~e,r of •he real ,ca,p'h!a,~ 'CV'S~:S, OJ. "Jl (1, Ug~l ,~(iI,I~a ._'_' ,e T,.."U, :-•,-_·;,It",'II:-,n:- '~' -:- .•,' " ,-"," -',', I',' ,,:,' .aCIUh 11-,~" -' - " 'I'" ,,"'-' a, mme.un a11 ietu mme ll.... d--',"Iiil'" ",' ,- anatysis, the engmeer would prO~l,·e ,m, ouogenng me ',.,.; .'-" :__ ,OlLh;~ ." ovide ~. ""-1,:;-':_ '~'It':' ,', , .',",:,'i',..J!,,~,_ ... (-i", -.1~S ",f? : ... unal mor-e 'd'I~:fi-"-I,:it""".~,~,-'f"esnma e bv eonsieen i',ng, the specme vana bles 0 ,11;..,,.:., acmai "e .nr ·,nre Y ne s :-_:ii'!If,,_ [lIe,
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of eq," ,. I ," and facilities that would 'be .. _, lui"p':-:ne;nt ' 'no ieeded to ;P:'i'::lifl"-~, the m :'~:fiI';!!]I' S-I~;m.:iJig ",J:'t ,: larlv a list 0'-'; f'~ all emeninas :~In'.lUi related _ l.!h!''''!i''",,"lvl_ ~, _b:,,'''''"'' develop1IJ.u, ~ JI , ment 'e~1E ipment to develon the mine would be p, :·fie:pl,red,. 'The: ICa.P. j-ud and u '~Jl ,t::' [ develo nnent OO'S,~ WflU, Id,~1t-1.... be comnil d~,, f";"rom ,e'>li~'~,l~.jl,Sb conS,~.rliljC_,.l.ng; :::_-"-,,,~--, __v.e,~.opmen_. e '_ ,,,uen ~e com,p,I"e __ le"Y ,1'':':t::,:·'1",-d:'for each ) '~'-I'-;'-'~' Ul e ,- '~,-, '-,-JI""", ", uel~all~. cos!!. esti]Ima,~,es10 r e.a_ " e~,e]:nen~ ,'.,-. the ,m,ln,e ,pilan~ es
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operation ",', " developingc' and , ",. '" '-,,''.' " , "
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~:·,it_·- ,r: . -f' me o,w,:' mine, 1:8 no Il 011.~Y ir'i!.",· CO'1-':" . non 011, t'il . a me mma rne th , ~.ages but ~,'~,~' precess b ''I' y,,. ~~'d,'1 the three 'pl'Ii'~'V'iIO.'UI'S·.·~.stases rc,,__ ree Pi;'r,~~d.:-~;'HiP' 'I'~JJ. '.:r"d' the 'fii','i;..I·'t~_-'.-,:~" ,,',;":",:-" i':·":,,,,"I-'~', i' '.' me ,', ",:', h-:- ,'I~ ,d- , 1'1 10 n 0.0." IS ,~ILJ]J s age ',-, ',: :,~:, (",',' ".:'" :",n ,,'-'-,'_"',' ',,~ reesamancn, are eeonormea .ra.y,: J,~,1!.lS,,t':'~~'d''-, ....I·t','.,, .0 ur pro· ue ·t,;, -,-;::Olr ore ~or coal or- stone) in a, substan tial am OUD't t here can be no oeeortu 11it~,.l[ll ,Y [or a mining venture '[0 succeed, a,nd. the mine wUl be abandoned before it is

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l:ill'Utill~]1g

A uger mi iiIl~n,g H )1\d:ra.!J]ic~king Dredging.
Botehole mining :+; Lea.[cb~im:G. '"Room-and-pillar

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i,:nthese schemes is some subjective combination of the spatial, ge~:~lo[,g~Ct and. geotechnical factors we have previously discussed, More [l0Cent sche:m.es
t'M' . .orrison an~Id.-· Ri'usse·,u. 1 i~"1':' 8.: n;~:1D1" k .. v " and t1r!f"~:l:~~~' .'I!·il 3,·' 1 I!I.," v.~ __ .._ V(I! !~... I!i!!!.. U. 1''IIi JI.,cv~lI! I"
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~.'9:82; and Nicholas, i'982~ ~99-2b) 11.a e added more quantitative v elements to the approach, but use the same basic approach as Peele, We 'wiU reler to some of these schemes agai n ·tVhen we discuss mini ng method $e:~ec'li:o:n in Cha.p'ter i.4", One a,-F'the diseencertin .. ;a.spects "o.r all ofthese app:[':oaJche;s is, g
the orientation
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noneoal methods, For 0 ur 'PI-[' u:.['iO,o:g,es, 'we will d evi se a'.' classification [~r mi nin 'D' metho.YJQ tha ,~, <;aI'l:'j Ln ~ _dJ. v_ _.JiW (1) is generic (that is, applies to both surface and underground and '~.Oall types: of mineral commodities) 'but not ex.cess:hl[(dy complicated, (2) :inC':~udes :aU . current major' :mini ng methods and (.3) recognizes 'the' established maj or class disti nction s and relati ve costs, T.1lis classification scheme wa 8 :i ntrodueed in
,_~_,. , __ ,_ ~ ., __ ~ __ .. __ ~ ... ,Pi ='IY'. d·!!!·~==lL ~ ".
I

of the scheme toward the underground

Ci-·h--I·"~I'li'!ta'r'.~ "J .!t ries used in
._ '_[Ql.,~

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ri'ili~[II!lI;'I'li'

~,~,Idlj ~,A,,_'

[~:""p-;II'o-;[,~glft~i,o-, 'method [it! 'i;'jI[ - '_' ~. ~,!Il "_ ,~,~, lJ.J.. ~Jlll,t~.· '_ hli _ ..:_'
til ~[~

l

''I;n[;;j,'IIi''\IlJ;;
"~~,~,

first~ do,iseussed -1! .:_
'~'~'"

lI,~· _

1!!JI1~~~..f.:_-

I.

'T· '~~[a m:-,·,'t'Ii·J···~·r--' ,.... teaoa _~~~,v J,lII,,=-"1 _'
, '~I~~_ ~,_, ~~I

class. :s~,b,('I'I(l;r.S·" and [,"et flod.. Tabl e 4·,.:1 outlines the clas:siftca:n'lon and provides basic ·i nforma tion OlD the typical comm odi ties mi ned and relative costs, Features of the various methods are yet to 'be examined, These include a:
OU.:Il'

classjfication

[are locete (surface or underground)

depiction of the method sequence of development cycle of operations, deposit

Copy rig hted m ateri al

'4~I'a\~2 ln1iing M

coats

costs, The sum of' ,ali the costs asseeiated with brioghlJ' a,mine into, production through the stages of prospecting, exploration, developmen t, exploitation, and reelama Hon is Ica:Ued the direct ,n:d,"in~g cost. If ca _,CU:_;R 0'11 a, gross 'basis, it is, ted a, r,Ol!'lal co;st~if' on. a unit (S/to'n" S/ton.ne) basis, it is ,a :u:nit IC,O'S,t',., In addition, .i'ndi,'~,~ct ,mirl.in:g c',os,t is,,a:n. overhead that U'~u,aUY' neludes an ,a.~~O'wa:noe: SQ~ to l o:r '~O'~~,. administra tion en aineeei na, and other noniternized services; To :6nd 0 for
I
I I " I _1 •• _ I ••• =r _. ~. ~. ';:;" I I,~ I.

B;lI~ldingO'D. the dis cussio n or' cost. es;timation introduced during mine develop ... ment in Section 4i 7~ 'wle can extend the process 'to include exploitation costs as 'welt At this, poin t, it is important to 'lIl~nders:tand more of the :no,m,enc:~a:t:ute or

J~~

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_._I,~

r.·'''''il:dll,l'II~~··'i1·

ii"Ia

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cost

,i,t, ..I.",,~

is

n-~~aj";",iil'g 'r'\} '-~~~~~.'J'

[:t'n 1111 Vi

(;!'IU~lm~~ c ~.I ..',_.,

the ,t~··-w-' '0- either l~_~,~
~._._.'I'"

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otal n'r' un'"';;'iIl'
yl" ..._ [till

basis as

.rOU,OWI:

S 1~.,20 ml~:~non
,$1~:~t2~ I S'4S m~Uion

'-rob e nna gures is~'h ~~~t. },erunge -"~n '.,'1' ~ umt- costso r:' m].RID;;aSweu 38 t~_erange---b~:- -, "- '. 11~' '-'11 - ~ ~ - ,.,__ fi'- -~ -1 ·ow th - -- t,,_e ~ '. in the '~','O qJl costs Students sh :t'\~!I,lld: n~l~,O'4[.a. thg'i' detailed .OO-~;f 11i3i,~:tJ'· .. .·t':QI~ ~ .. · In:--i'I~~ _ 'u~ fI U __ vl~I. __ gl "~~-a~Jl~U __ _"_ ~l 11,_,_I:III,~:t-' ~~
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or I/tonne) in our discussions of m.i,nin,g methods - \vbilc'h rapidly become obsolete-s-It __ 'wi1:, be' more..... be ,I,n'f-U-",I :I'i'f~- we employ- ;:·~:'~l','~~·';~;'·,;,,~:,,>, ..5 ~';::n.' 10'/,)'. ~l"Hi _ _ ~ ~~ _ __ __ _~ __ ' II]! irehl uJ.e CCJ:i .fila. W'V~ .. ... ,.,,~,.,,-" ," ,:,,,.' ,.0 ,]00 that .' ae le )11'1: adonts that standard T,· ·:t-.""II'·'-'-' ~""IS compansons, Notiee ,,, a _ Table ~."Jl a, _:opts mar s ~·a,n~~3,ru. uunze thit ~,O relative cost standard tbe miniuo: cost of the most exeensive methods ,t quarry ,: _ ing and sq ua re-set stoping) is, "estl,bUshled a t a 1(10% relative; IOO!st~ the costs of ~n ~'~·h~-' -- ~ ~." .. , "" ........1 ,,·1, III.:~ t- ,J' ' - ... ~ d rd . ,.' ~'h" an 0 fL,'~,~er me"t'~· d-~- are expressea reta 'iI!,'~"ve to il b,;·l"IS sranc arc, T"h US, :1.,,: e cneapes I .110,-- S ~
~[lr'"

'it~;jJ"Ii;'L.n' '~~~11 'p'-~'O"gr,!Io.;i~"s. rU',~"Il.' !-I:t'o-dc"'co~ ~S:use~ , In this te olog ;- ~~m . ;:-;:, nd'3,:L,'IIJ.., ·-,~,t-·, ., 'd": "" 1l,:I.~S Jex,l~m,ay iL...... -f'.~"" .,. I':~,",;,III" IUhJ!'I,iw.,O",~, ,i f" ~ ~a,IK,C.n as current at the time of the wri ting, To avoid 'the U~ of labIJo,l:ut e eosrs I( $lt~on,
"'"l.l!i it~~ ''*'11,,'".'. :U.'!t.i~'~" and
,'C, ,:.

costs flnetus te unoredietsbl - - --------. _"_~,~. - --_ ..

f' costs ,;,~ -Ir'~~u lL~, ~ry'r-the m inlna enaineer,I, ~im" I._ .op'!r;,!'!li'~~'~"'~' ~,u !l~e ClOS'~ estimation exampl ,.... oeeu es ~1'f'oflJ11'III,D'.b:o_u::'~' text,~ ,. ".ctualu..~, 1:::_::='IO:"i'~ ;("-~,';' d. .1",:ffi'" :__'~'~I'II_I-~: this . ",",x, A,,' . '!>.lb. _____Ii~v=~ _,_-§-,~I!!l. .:1.1, .vu.~_ l!lli ,,",IIi.,. CO\i:)L,S: a"n~,~. '" to obtain because companies often. consider them proprietary. In addi tion, ~
Because the determ ination u II~~I.. . .... w.",
,1]!§.-!I!I.t."
r.1Ij~
,I •

prepared for 'e/Vier), mining project, to' pinpoint the costs,
DIIL;y;

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over time with 'P~'FI~in Ha,tj n 'c~h Dl~~ 'In labor o an .. II
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_, JJJUIi~Jj,.
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ron ..-raI,,,, :,' ",1", roCK ~ n.ornuIU.:y by chemical en.er.gy in blasti:n.g or bY' mechanical, hydraulic, or other more 'Do'1"ei .a.nnHcations, Olf' ener~[J'V ,"C-..~'13 ·nr':'.:--/':t. ,".~:: 1;-:,-: penelC,,(,a,_10n an. _, 1""'; J1Uoug h, operal ..D.g on u,luerC,[h, s,ca~es" .- enetratio ',- ":11' d: J.r,agme.nu_3J,II"UJn __ . l A-lthc fU:DctbJ,:n 'by ,Q·PP,lylng energy through si'miJ,ar :m,echanlsm;s tO break r.tJck.. The , verv [a.'-p:'~·d. Ipl'lica.f~o'Elof ell e rg.'.'4 is critical in' .. prod"-' lllciJJJ'P rock 'faj]u.rf:' in man '.J w .... ...} ., .. .1. ap :1"".,. ,-, " "'.} .. .. "' ..
=
_-

,-L.,~'~ ... 1~:,!!Ii .l~l dim !(!I1.Dld·~J,Wg,:r'!IiI' :("'~~r ~·p')~i=:!!'. ension U, ~...0:,,'.'0e) ] D,. st ' , ',IIVv, ,., ....;.-,' ..~. 1·:;".,~~,·~·:::·t·:t,<I'-"';":'-::-: I·-,~'b'-"J,-" J rQgnw.tUQ~.,lor1- a. .l"eanp ,8 to break,' [oell ,'.-.-,;rlIO '·"i'·:·:·'-; 0 '", ieit --\:,,~.~~ .. ,m.a.na.gea. "lie .-.'~":.,:-.' J In ~uzes~.
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it..,....... ..J~.--,' u~IUI;g (.~T'Ii' ·rn~t~!jf'~iF'h''!!~, '.. ,Ji~1Ii ,;i,1\iii,1I, 'ViI:iI!~~ 1 if~III'

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to
11;."

Sit,fJ~£'tc loadi~g') to
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accomplish the penetration or fr,agmeti;ta;tio·rt, It is ordinarily assumed that tbe w1el-oht w~orhe rock broken. usinp anw 'p'[ven reek breakaae t [oJ' =.. method, is pf()"porU,oln,a]to the ,energy' E consumed :m. the process;
~_,~ . l ...
I~ •••••• ~.

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beeom " H:·~n~. the ·bQ~.;P1ij",~'I~t'~~;Oln,"""V ,._._"'''''' ""~."""~;:r,. "
e-

1"'IIPricj1ilt':r:O'~~;o-:""n~' '1'IIi;n:I~:~ ,ta, ~IS'·m,v. , ..' imeortan ·t', th :~I':n"1 the am "";I1;11'11'"~' ~t' rock 'nPI,: tleU"",., ~_ . , , ore 1U1II,I,rlli;.;l'.1. 1Lu.,u., , im r' .... ,iUI'''~. r'"'"" .,U,'!I.;o 1lL.--,. ,UU,Uit vI ..
U.,I!~
L

"0'" other ',,'.', :" t·"' ,_-,,', processea, ,,",'. ano 01., er peo.6tl,I.l.OD :,:",.-' ',,;,.- -':--'
"of!.' ._-,'
~"'" ,I!.I!!;.o ..~g'_ _._ ~

tit.I, ·iUe

rare i of '''1~1~' ,,'.. R'- th'-' 0 i1/Uv,a,nce "'~ .' e
-.

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·b--:.IIi'·O. ,:~"'~nl ... .11, .1io.'I!;;;oJiJi .•

,_--_II;,;!

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ctI:~

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.J."

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where d'lEldt· is the time rate 0'" application of' the ene~r,8rY to the rock .. Because , ,d:i/d't is ,a]lo the :po,we:r .P eon,sumled. :1.0 the process, we ma.y write Eq ..!L2;in the
fORD. ..

R:«:
....
l ••

",

P';'
"

;

5- .'l\ (·',~'.':[.,JJ

wbich indicates ,.'that .~. ill, drilling, curting, boring, Of any other s,imli:lar' pro'teSS·- the penetration rate is directly proportional to the :po,wle:r applied 'h) the :p:,r.~~~~;c _.
_., IU~jj]i~ilLII

I~-V,_~~I ~',

h rock earameters ,n,~. u~!N;, ;if'l-ft-m- ~,'~-=:~iI'''','~, 1~ll,~~,~, <l[I,'lAd'l it'e·;ft;l"i;~1In,stren ,,1'b" h-. :~': resist failure indu ieed 1.\..,y f,-'Le; ~"'f', 1000iE-' s).. ~It 'UI>:: ~li,~ ~r ..p-~i·&'dl Ioads Becluse the steen ot hs decrease in the order' stated it. is advan taaeous to a:pply' the ~oads to' OYeToo.me the :~m;a~~esttrength ('t,e:n:si]e) and the next s smallest strength (shea)"')1 before tne 'rock is, broken by compressive loads, However, 111,lt is:normldJy 0.01 easy to do in drilling operations, and the rock is, often broken by the appliea:-io,n of compressive forces" In au ,en~lof
I~~~ ~~I"~!IJ~~I

teristics
. _._ .. - __ ~ •.

'10 modelina rock breakase P·.fOCC8ses.. we must also understand 'I.be eharae1 _.! _.... I ,~I 1. _. J _ _ l •• _ ," I~_' I l' _........ •.

,g"?,,,A ~11U,

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.incfeasingly expeDli:v,e :cdergYi d.ril~. esi,g:ners. are :paying more attention d 51 a:n,~. "· In. or:d er to oons.erve et~li,ers",· d53 _ .I ...
i
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to Eqs ..
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51.2'~1 IPrJ1nCilPies cd 'FlOCk: 'Penel,ratlon •. oct: :penetr,ati,o:n. methods can be' classified on several bases, These include 'the size of h:("'~£. method of mounting and type of power" 'The' seheme out~il!H~~d in Table :5~I (Hartman, 1.'990)1 is based on. the form. of' attaek o.n the rock a,nd the

Copy rig h ted m ateri al

1. The ,(Hr"vildc;:h,attacks the' rock with, rotational and/or' percussive action 4" TIle c,ir;c1ll"atio,n,fl~id t:b,a,tcleans the hole, controls dust; cools the brit, and (at times) stalbUizes the hole
'L"~,,, ", ennances th',' 'e,,_~ a,eney OJ! th , tne "m-" tne drill by' flem:o,vlog cottimgs from the bottom 0(' the hole, eM'"' UJCI"h h '" ...·,cn "Jone over t .h ~I ""~' ew·c_,cCD-_eJI0' ma,'l~, dJ] '~.I.nl,-toots more dver _,e =,BJ;st d d- - t k ... ")1-" )". "as, · ~~~i~~D~ b 'v red ueing the enersv 11~'Ii1j\"'~~. in tran sm iissio,',n"I-',"This ,I:~!!r."'!il! '1i"~~li'!I'!!'~';R'd,~ 1 ";'1f]II th '1I1l;~-, ~ "!ill! ,~,~-~u'I'iW.. use olf downhole (in-the-hole) dri~jgof both the ~aFge percussion type and the --';,~,' 1: 'I d11"-,''·I~ h 'c;:' .. u," e tatter nas ~' d'i ro )'1"'-I"'" I:Q'-'I":t rotlt,ry (,1,e",ectro_"rL" D,nd "-T~'-' b d '·'[1) "ere:, . -,-::; tur ~o_,n, "'. e, a ~tnoug '11 '1-' h ,,:- :1"'C;-,'I'f :-:-:'';"' h ;;- ,- ,_QU"..

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'T'h"" 'ifi'~I'"~ threroo " are ,t:iL-", ,I,}h-'"~:_,, /,,," :1-'CcQ,U,Jj ponen-.'f""t' o.~'-'Ib', d",- '~II"II;"! ,,' , ,sys, em, aecompelish :',' ' ne '--' ,y~nCtl, ,,~-,,;,,- I ts , ,ie ,rSII.II. t e nru ,I~ng, isnI

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application m t" ,ij'iFI' ,~,i't ~iir~1;11 '0"" r~]"']it;~i£j' T'I~'~ " second tvee ~~":il.~lI~;f,I~, m eehanical I energy with fluid or 'e'lec~riad ener,gy, which 'U~'IlUllUY' resnlts i:n 'm~("'feener,gy' reaching the bi.t ,B,nd faster d:riUi:ng.
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5.2~,312 MeGhsn"cs and' Penormance Facto,18 ,CIt ,Pe,nefratlo,ft. As indicated previously, there are on~ytW'Q' basic: w'ays, to attack rock mechanicaUy ~ percussion and rotado'D~,a'lld all commercial d.riUi[lO' methods to be: discussed, V"II!III!I" .. III utilize -percussion or rota tion 'p,ri:n.cip!:les .1' combinations of them" ,A" graphical 0 de,p,iCl,ion, (1If lQC d:i:Ke:,rent mecna:n.',ca,u' 'methods, of'd:rUU,ng reek is s:hown i,n Figure c~l.l Note that the percussion drii~U ~ attacks the' rock thro u,g:h eompres .. ,
.-~Il ,~ I • .... I I" • l. ~ . •~ I •. I I •• I. l I . I ••• I ••. •~ ,~"l I I • I • ~.. •• ~. •. ~ •• ~ • ~ .

sion, the rotary ,( rag... drill by shearing or a,p,plyi:n,g, tension d bit)
.. ···1i"'~ ~ '1/,,1'

.. I ,II). , on 'Ij--',e~f~ctl~ on i'o"; ..., "",,,,,,",Uu.. _ .. MO '~,n··lfo"'-lr-ml;r'(j;~~lo·.··-n" ,u_ ~~,'''' _ of mechanical,~""'!I;,d: attack dl\, un rock I~~':H, be ,I' .•und in M:anrer ,(1961)1 and Clark {.19fl1)~ The resistan of roek I'A eenetra tr~;'ntn bv '.·d·I'irii'~I'~m"O' term···,Q·d.''ii:t~';;,-" '~i'l'"'~"",-",,,v ,iF,·i;." IJ.liv "',J ,u:rhlng stre.n,g,th;;, an em:piricaJ p',roperty.; it is not equivalent to any or the ·w,e~,nknown ... strength parameters, The drnnng strength and the wear on the bits, are extremely important in ·.,hedet'e:rmina tion ofthe d rilling cost. Other faetors thet a:ffect d.rU] performance can 'be categorized into :fOU'f ,grou:ps:
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I, Ope,r'€I:ti'JJ'g tJari'abl:f2,'I" These ,aJFect the four components or the d:r:-:lliD;g: system (d:ri,U rod, bit, and 'ftll.id).. 'Th~y are ]a,r,gel:y eon,tr,ollabl,e and,
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1.., K,leri'cutting
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Coal and. sort, nonmetallic minerals: Icha_illJ~la w~type.cutting 'machines 'wHh either- ,I, fixed cutter bar' or' a uni"e:~sa] (moveable) cutter bar Dimension stone; channeling machines (percussion or ftame jet), 'wire saws, ,cireular $.8'WS: 'with. diamond blades
Underground (i,) Continuous " miners and longwall shearers in coal or

,2;., Fun.'~,faceexcava tiug
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nonmetal-

Iies (ii) Boom-type miners (roadheaders) in. loft. to, medium rocks (ii.i)' Ra"pid exeava tion eq uipm:e::nt (tunnel borers, raise borers, and sh.aft"', sinking 'rigs) for soft to- medium- hard rock h, Surface ~ (I) Rippers [0:1" ·v'e:r,Yompact soil, coal, and weathered OF' 80f1. rock. c (ii) B-ucket..,wbeel and c'uttin,g,~head. exc'.av:a\to:u fo:r :soU-OF' coal ('~'~'~)'A"-'In - 'I1I~I,~'I1':'" and I '1\... ,U:l~~:IQ' :-m' g_ }"tiners ~, tAli" coal , :1 H.J,Ihl~ ~ViL' ~u v) leehan ieal dirp;4,DiP~ I' _1[- 'Ii'1,1i acers a, (d~ __ ~o' an . ~· ~IO;] (,~ J~-v. _.~~U~~ ..
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As discussed previously, rock jra,f}'me'J~t'(J't.ioH is the, breakage function carried lout '0:11. ,3, ~a,r,gescale 'to f.ra.,gment masses of reek, '1:0 both the mining and construction industries, .blast:i'ng is, the predominant rra,gll1en't,at::ion rnethod employed, bu 'f[ 'O:~,:t,1:...I~II' tech 'i'il'i;'q:; ues ""'!I;o; beeom ,rU-;!!ll mo are U'e.". ""'JO' :m- ton " Based ,0',' ,'u""iI, , "'"' distinctions in 'the: \l\~'a,ytbe!y apply energy to break rock, a,classification of rock fragmeutation methods is given in Table ,S.2~ Electrical Jracturing of rock has used.. I spar ~'iti'jliOi:llw' Ior secon 'd·' 'U'break 1,~lIil,r' of boulders '~'n' surface mines u~·~ JJ'. O'~~v vl~ll._~.I_ _ (M',alJ,lier~,9\80)': the other ttu~tbods are all in common us-e. However only t blasting usi:n.~ chemical explosi ves has ~¥jdle~:J)r,ead. se for all consolida ted u materials iQ both surface and underground mini ng, Exel uded are exca vat ~ ng 'm' seh ';;'"1 ,r 'i!I'Ii/Il...,'~ ii,t'!,'i!..'1 iU.. th~ry m':-,~ fra'. -m', -e t, ~v ~,~~ nd ~"l!' ~"~ n ,,~n' orim '. ril nerform [I ~,v J _'~.lVll, ,s loading funct'i(tn [Table SA) - and contin uous excavating m aehines, wh i,ch "m' prod U' '!.J'r'i op enin ,a~, ~l",AI are' ,i"':-I,g'~'I2''"I'~D!d-:nen- etration method i,fj' v~ ~,J ~
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C"~'~.,-o' ,,l ~'11Ui ~_~f.::IJ (S",~~s' 4 ·~~~'i~ /J'_~D' TI 'o 'P,II":""'iI"lP.'l[' ,I,.'.y.;'n~',(!f~r a I~'I- st" '~,_. ,~~, 1!W~ unUJWI , :1:- t ~:r:t-'!WI" a w-;::h,~,-tr·hi'4.iJl" . der~ . ,,-Ii ~ 1V!lr.Ir.r/iiF.-I l. V ,'. ~ V~'¥' U U\ la~ ~'U'n_"dJ . -- on th e ,~:I1'.r,I(a': "".IlRo . ',J m n'IU~I.f~ro.'~'ii ':inc'~~~'~,·t·Cj1:~II-l- ,_V,I!.!!!i'oi_,~ --',otlIi red !I!._._.!!!,IUQ. _~V, __ components pro,eli""""" _jill. . or, U:u:, I[,il~__ce, sneeialle ;;,!r'.... _~.Il.il_~~",~_, __ -:-' V
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1" Init:bd e:ne'r,gyseurce (to initiate '~thereaction) "\ (1I) 'M~l'tcb. nd igni.l:or eord (to initia te b~asting~use) a (0) Bla:stins cap (to iDitia-~e~detonating 'Of' low,... e~n.'~rgy cord) I(,e) E~ectric current source (to power an electrical b ,as:liog circuit) (d) Low-energy 'u:r:ing CI,P 1(1.0 iu:itiate ,3 shock tube: :reacUon)1 21'Distribution network (~or distrib:utitll'f!!n'ergy '1..0 the: various 'blastholic,s,) (a) B,:I,t;udi,ng fuse (an old, component no longer in common use) (b), Elec1~r.l,calcircuit. (to carry current to electrical blasting IC,a,:PS,) (c] Detonating cord fa, cord 00 ntaining . .1..5 'to 60 IJ8.his/ft Of 1,1'9 to ]2.,16 ,gjm, of hi"gh explosive) (d J. 'Low..energy de ton at i:-n,g, cord, (a cord. containing 2.4 to' ·6grs-i,ns/ft or 0.5 j, to 1~28 g/m, of' :high explosive) (e') Shock. tube ·(a smaiU ... diameter plastic tube with 81 've':r.y low loading of an explosive d (:0 Gas tube' (a, smalil-d:i!am,eter plastic tube that is: explosive o,:nly :(lite!, gas is 'prum:ped,into the tube) 3" Detonator (the device' that causes Ibe' detonation in each bla,stbo]e) (a.) Bla_stii:n"g: a"p (:fuse or electric variety) e fb) Cartridge 'e:lp'- osive
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Tbe selection of an iC'X:P' c,lo:tU ve and a, b~a8tj:nD' Illfs'!:em is a rela ti'v,elv com p-,.,i'icatcd task, As 'with. ,I drilling s,:y,st:e,m~ objective is :1:1.0-1 to o ptimize the blasting the
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lOAD:U'~D,ANI!] EXCAVATION,

114,11

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M A HE:UV£RI NG A:tlEA IAE!QUIII R:iE,iD

5'14.3 Sal'action of: I!qluiipmenl
n ::1 i' , , A· f",j!lr;l!'I;l,t,t 'IIi,,'~1 'il;to:lir-I~nm ber of t'~f"t:;i9i'r~ ' H,', st be eonsid c ered 't'n' e sel eetio . n O..~,. the,.... , ;~JiIU.. "',,-",JI.;.' v ,~ m ... " 1. erime excavators that are u~ed in a mininD' onerarien (,""'Marn,iut al, 19[82:" e .-r·~·. .. I' Atkinson, 199[,2a,)~The foUo-wi:n.,g: list of' va,fja:b~esw',as dra wn up oonsiderin.s: ' surface mining applications, but the factors are ap'p,Ucabl,[e to underground ;i1i"Q". !"U[ ipmen t selection well "TII:h' ,~' la~ILU,",;i."]l to '1....... consid ered can be 11'o~o,jl'f';oJI<'I['II'v ors UPG grouped hlto four categories;
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1'. PerfQ,'~'manCi(!; factor». These are related to machine prod ulc~:i:vi'~y 'and.
inc] ude ' cycle speed, available breakout force, dj;g:itlS range, bucket

capaclty-;, travel speed and f.lldlabUity,.
2,: ,Desi'g',tlja,ct'Ofs,; The design variables apply 'to the quality and effectiveness
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desian ]~:1(1;,i!"i!I''i!'ild::i'o'" the ~O~'IP'--;. 'i!t':[-·l' cation ni(: 'h' um an-m- achine interac ... g' , II..[, \~", """~'. _;b" tion for operators and maintenance personnel, tbe level of technology employed, and the types of control and power a v'aHable,.
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3~ .su:p,PO,fi J,"c;to,rs" These variables involve the service and maiatenance aspects, of machine operation, :S'om,etim"es, overlooked in the past, these monitorinz svstems ~~~ ~ ~~~ _ ~ ~ =,
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rif.CeSSI,f,Y to, update a long-range pilau 'periodilcaU,r to guide the overall mining process. Note also that SU11twe,m:i:n~n8' :prOt:fitab-i~U, of a ,gi:vlen.deposit, does: n.ot automatically -mrean that the d.eposit, should be :miOld, by s'lu"Falce mini:n,g: methods, It may be that underground methods are appropriate for the d,e,posit ~rstrlp:ping ratios ere bi,gh, lIad:l:tioln~ it m:i,y be -econ om:ic-a:lly' optimal '1:0 operate an oeen pit. 'Fo!'the ,'-" \ eart " of the ore... bodv and ,BD underg,'-::--.' -, . ..... , "". "_'_ .... ..r ", '._' , upper !to'. !t-".... ..-" -, . --, ",,_._. .. " ..-. . ' ~.r(lund, :t: :;f- •. n~12;')" .~.- ovid ,>"i"""h-'-I+ -"if;,m,l,netor,-, '~':-'-" ueeper pomona 0.., ,t:h'" e .ore, zone, ·N·, ',"'1.,--, " ·."IISSO.n \,1,];JI':",-, ,proV,I,· C'8 ]i1,!ng. ~S on methods of analvzina the surface... versus-underground decision, J c ~ ob

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Calculate the maximum allowable stripping ratio, locate the pit ~w~ni~, (speciJy h ~ vertical depth 'to the deposit and ,tl':c: horizontal d,·~;s:t~l,n,ce along the 5iU rfa ce from the 0 till tcrop), a nd ca leu late the: overall st ri,ppj DI ratio ,(actual yd l/to,n, 0,1" m Jl~:on ne J in lui ning t he ore body shown in FW,[i,u ,6.,9'by surface met hods, AUOl~ a 30 ft -(9'.,1m) berm and a pi~ slope re or 4$0,.,Cost of excavating an equivalent yard of overburden is SQ:.,35/ydJ (~So..46/n], the stri ppi ng allowa nee ,js, $2,1 Olton ($2.,3l/lon:ne) of O'Fe J,}!, uncovered, and the ore tonnage factor is ~,6 n,,3l~o~n (O~.50 m3/to;nnJle~)., V.'oir]{ the pro blem first in. Engl ish units, ~hen in S I uni ts, and check the' resul ts to 'be certain '~heyare co mpatible, ..

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. 1. Open pit mining
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:1.. Quarryin.g 3". Open cast (strip] m:ining. . 4~Auger Of' :b~.g:h:wall.:min]D.,g; _

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a:lect the layout of the pit, the selection of equipment, and the prescribed
- odueti Pr v.
U,,",. UI., . Ui,

on rate, Becan srades typica ·~~w I.. ,~u,. _ '~i'n; i ,u~ commodin, ","'. ...... DIL';~r U,} low, ,QD·.d·,. .~. m est .., v. _~ tics" d,ec~re,as;ing s,t"ea,d,Hy ratios must be held to modest Ievels fu~sually 1. to j, yd! ItolJl~ or OJ~: 4- :m~/ton:ne)., Th us, most open pit: mines are i,'ess: th,ID, I. O€JO' fl' '~O (300 m) in depth 'unless '~bey are associated with a deposit of better _.than
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a.v~rB.,g"e grade, sttipping ratio, or' size (Crawford and H:'ustruUd" 19'7'9; ,A'tkin .. son, ~. 98.3)" M8;JO:r steps in the development of an open pit mine are as 'fonoiWS,:. A~b!frall

permits are obtained the land IS elea red, Surface buildings are located and const ructed as descri bed. in Section 4",2..Partioularl Y' important is, the location of waste d umps and, U' reclama tion of the s itij rface is. req u:~ topsoil stockpiles. red; 'O'F~~ storage, processing, and storage :r-acw~.itie:s located, :k.,ae·pi.DS the ulthll,a:~!e are pit Unrh and ou tside access in. :mind. Equi pment is selected and acquired 3;S n eeded .. Ad'vanced _ stripping :··'r· ove rburd ten then com mences to 'OUF!i;''1~' exploita, ~_u_u __ ~. v U. ul~,~~vJ' ~a tj on of the ore [,0 begin on sehed u le, St ripping ,fUld mining are :~a,~·er conducted
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E~l~ ab~ishm.en t, oft he first bench and each succeed i.ng beach i.n waste ,0:1" ore is a. critical operation, The initial entry in a. bench. is referred to as the ViOl: cut (o ·d·- n'n r v,~· ·t·· )" wed lOI-"''=~1 Ih·" . aped qo-,I!'! olnm m of . rock '·"1-' at 'm u ,~'il, b~. r-.a·lI1in oved :ii' n oto·' .. I. _ establish a new bench face, 'D[i~ les are pl,a.lced. in parallel rows in descend ing UUl order of depth so that when the box cut is blasted and excavated, there' ·~:s a ramp of: negotiable grade :FJ~o:m upper to' the lower bench, T~he m,a.njt the considerations in executing n, box cut are outli n.ed i:n. detail by H ust rui~:id.and
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,A, miljor leo neern in :p;~tdevelo'p,'m'ent is the' proper design 0''( t he benches, and the haul roads" The excavator reach and other dimensions of the: equipment used generally determine the height and width of the working benches, Pits are often developed 'Using a l;i·O,··ki.t,t.g slope, a. slope angle with a relatively high factor or safe'n:y so that the slopes, are stable during the expleitaticn or due deposit, W hen ·t he pit is in its final stage, the slopes m,3Y be steepened to achieve a lower S~.ripipinl ratio, The m a xim um SlOiJC of' 'the :pi t is then caned t he u Ittmase 51·ope., P·a.rt~cu:~a.:rlywhe ~1 the' ul timate slope :is bei ng used, the
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and curve desi.. 1.'0 allow .,be' t rucks to ope rate wi th the greatest :ssJety a.nd a gns low :ro,U.in,g :resis·t a:nce,. H .3JJl ~age U~'uclc,sh~ many p:~'ts t.r,a,vel, ou the :~re(frt ide of t;he s -r·oa.d t.o oJ,]ow '~hie'd'f..i er to g,8.uge the '~oca lion of '[be: v€;b.h:;Ie: \v:it'b :r~s:pec:t t,o the v
berm,. 'This decrea.ses: t:he :probabi.Hty of m:isjudgi:ng th.e :;ocati.on
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OPEN PIT IMlliN~INB

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uranium, bauxite, molybdenum, and most nonmetallics, Open pit mining is also the, most common method used in surface limestone and other surface
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Longest horizontal dimension of pit: 2.,5 mi (4..0 km) Pit dept 11:: 0.,,5 m i {O.s. k.:m) 'D-' ' 11'11 ., -.1. Onel",b-it r -t·--.. u..rluwnb -0.'f~ '~'"2", t~ 3'-:\ -. owes: ,-'~~., '1 ~o_,a.1 A, '''~I'~I'-, :n,u:5L y Ji _ - U1.... \\J.,~ - m.J h-" ~I .
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Viirgmnia, GEH)lo~neal and [Economic ,Suw~y~, iMorgafltoWD, WY'.,)
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IFlIGUA,E 7,~5.. ~r:Uagnlm ,o,f o\pelriami"OFIS I'll d imen~i'oll-S't:o:rne, 'qu Imry ~ 1(I13y' permi'ssion '~'mm 'Wes!t

that ,m]ust be rem oved (usuallv-J- m l"'H '0', '1f·\1,~~ then stripped ~"I'~~ desired ro ek, ~_IJ~~' . , ~u' \.u~~ W u l, th 1 mass, usfn,! a,ny means that applies to, the type ,or material to 'be moved, Opening the Em rst face is aceompl ished by fermi rl:g ,I cut across the ,qu.a:r.ry ina th '.-'~, d ...I ". do 'her Wl'·'d-'Il.., .o:(IICO UIII thecut W'l.t.u " ue fel~t~y. o ,t"L b ddi '1;1~~1 '. t n,C'!C!_.' ~.]nl,JiU1CS, J.OUltS\! i3f:L··.ot__ pI .,',... ·,·.,' . ·'1.. :~"" vaJ'~~lalles, .,_,ornso n ,~Ul, ,..... I("M"':'~""'-"-'-"-"'I'" nd Re US;Se,II", ]H'1~1'. ,rr 0 'W"-cr" ''!il1~'C')" T,:h·. ClIlIL, ,!,s '1['11 g,eOuJ,gu:: variables , , -:7-' , . .l'Ii 'D. .... ,"7 .)1 '." , e -:-t'-"b-1I.':"ih''- ·d: block nt:'f--about estanns ,_,,_,IYbv c tr':i":·-c.~ or c ranneung ,-;cuaung .,- ehann -~.,-(-;; 1 H, ,Jlli.ey,,~o"l;,;A~ orten I~ _""""th, A, f'I' t'll- ""Ii '----.)', :"c'~'d~-,L, rn Wl':: e, ~-' ... ~U I 12-: Ill ('3_'~~ I ..deep, :3,n,'d', U·Pi. to 3~,O,' ft I('~,.'~, m:).:~on~(see Fianre 1.'5::\., Once rhe block 'J~_Jl, __ -.---e\.--~ J- . Jl~._ UJ._.~J 1 removed _the '~""~;1.1" slot ,;""'fl: 'IJ...:"; ~IU'il 'l\lI;~'F'n'~,~ "i"Ii,.'I~ q. IU· 0 rrv.which ll"~estab ,11';il~,h-·· ~'~' the ,C,~,~' V I, ~:~wlI\,~ rJ' ,aJlu. W t,l-~,~ " ._ . '.,. n' ll-~ It.,tll ~ cu +, _ '~'b: ere are t\IU,O ,rr' ,t~ -,IIiliiii'ii: ,I}A~-~ '~'O.· ~~,n~I"il.'l· ta'~'~'l!".,:i".Qi;I~ k'~ a,~ ,~1iInd b lv~~~ .. ,e;;: '0·' '·'·r--' the '1IniJi"i!'I ~ ..,. .:..1, IJ ~a ~~~
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7~3.2~ Strl/pplng' OV8lburdan~ Because the overburden associated with a, 1 .' dimension s:l.'o:nedeposit is, IC:l'n::raUy not olr great Ul!ickness~, simiple s,'l ri,pipi,ng methods suffice., Quarries 'm,3,Ycontract this ope,rat:ion to another oom'p~U]"l~'~ as 'their equipm .. :~$not the type normally 'Uiied Ior stripping purposes, S'~,ri,p:pi,n,g ent meth ad s paral leI, those in open pit :mi,ni:n.g:, t he ~y,c'leof operations normally
consists of the foli,ow'ing:'

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OPElN CAS1' ,(SlRIIP)' MININGI ,

1a-1'

8.. Complies te-d,and eostly rock breakage because of' inabi~it.Yto use the full
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Quarrying for dimension stone is, limited ·t:o the production Qir speciflc geologie materials that have either structural or aesthetic arcbitectural properties, Exam pilesinclude granite (V'emlo':n't; 'Wis.co:os,j:n~ Massachusetts, Pennsyt vania J~ :1,~dfO·rd. limestone (Indiana), marble (Georgia, Colorado, a,n~, Tennessee), and slate (,P1tD,ns:ylv:ania)-,. 'N',ea.fly aU these mines are ,lm,aU surface operations, 'but there 8're some variations. ,Dim'e!n:siio:n, stone companies seldoD'll,10 underground because or the high cost of' doing so, However, Colorado Yule marble, 'wbien. 'wa~sused oin the Lincoln Memorial, is mined today in an underground mine in 'IM-'-I ~,o._ Colorad :fl: (M.·...·-·rO.·····,e-:j;l; 2--,00'ii\)', - In '!iI!D, nderaro ~u' d 'd· "'P'Ri Q";n~ stone arb .l"mi fII'-U rrv, ~·_=u=, _¥ _.U similar benching 'methods: for extracting [he blocks are used, 'with the ope~nillls being arranged Iike 'those: in a large re om-and-pillar or stope-and -pillar mine,
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'l ., 'II... '. '. areas; at older tunes, btC' stripping
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~nd.' other bedded deposits, which re-Jc'm,bJes open ,p,it, m.imjn'8~ However it (r'frecs to.'" one uniq:I-Merespect: The. overbnrd e,_ is not _. transported '1'0 waste _1_ r. l ., " . _ " .... ,.' . '_ u r. ~n ~ dum ,--~ror msposar bu t· 'cas.. errec 11JJi Uh,O aejaeem mmec ""OU,. 'p 11. ': ·.u~'I,U1,g - ,t~,-. ·d·I,'!',~,-- ;-.'~ .0. 7 ,- st ..J.~, ,-- 7·t -y 'i'-'- ~" ,n~' ied :-:"-'-I'i' paneis, ..7-' ,;", .'_ umps ,II,'" if,",~ term commonly used;-,n m inin 'I,::' '0 ind ieate lI'b-:l~'f" p: •.ro i •. ···' 0'·-,.'[';-' excavation and '!J"U"" _JI!·u,u , dumping into a. final loea lion. Materials handling thus consists of excava tion -- ~*'.i'n rQDn7~:r- -,~ 1111,\!!, ofoo:)m- -~b ";;'i'JI1ti!id!: I 1;'" one ~:iIin '~'i~oneratio .,'0--; ,!l;n-Id: 1"~:D!~O' ._,·:'r'm',--,,e::;J1 'b-~,''U.~I, 'n- d i 0' ~JjIJl' ~"' I __ ,r,~l,ll. _ .. _,.u "J .sin~'llemachine Someti mes overburden- -, " iB- ~o,ad.edinto OOIlVl1,v,an06S,- . _. and. dep-::O'8,'i_"" "~ - ,...~ - -". ,I _."., -- ..-, , . - . - . , _.... - _. ,. -" _. - -J' . - - .. .. . -, - --e _ '___ , ,

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FIGURE 7.. 3~ Aug~f' work1]ngl ln an Appalach'~mneoa,l ntine .. (V,ol,k.weh' .and ure'Y~1~993),. 1
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. place (Ford, Bacon, and Davis, Ine., ~,'97S:; B:b~llkeJy,'915:)" Bxamples ,of auger "~.... d ~ M-' C 'I ~k • nn2-) uti.~.i.za.uon, be :~::OU'l1.~in ."c C arter an:dl Smolm car (1il'y:i :,' can b d'.' ,. IW .... Jiit n ... T'h second vananon or auger mnnng IS 011 'len cane dl h··iL. .,e mgnwau ] 'I' mtmng, 'H,ign W,ldl min'i rr:~J the' practice of sending a small, r,ernote:'~:y con I(,01 ned,. is continuous miner into the highwall '~10mine parallel entries of about 1.0:r~ m) (1 In 'widt'h land the height 10,' the coal seam, A, high'waU, miner is shown in F':~,gl!ll[ie 1'..1,4~ S,:'__ ~ r~- --~~ ar:11::' left between the len- tries the W·''·lid: otto, depending on 't-:b-i-,po .. m,d~n 'nlna:I!'~:~ ~ 1- ~ - ~. ~ . ~~..... ~v, snpp Of'[ needed, The depth of' the' holes can be up to 1000 .n, I( 100 :m) but :D,1a:y
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(60 to 90 m) in length can 'be placed under the higbwall, To improve '[i8COVflf,Y and :p!roduc!ti-vi'~y,au,g,ers 'witb Dlu16'pl'e heads are usedi es,pecwally .in thin seams, S tnt toe' typica I, augering operation extracts only 40'o/g to fi5, ~/ijl o:f the coal ,:ii:n .

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b w hel_u tc lesser ~'m0'1 ~ :n''iii,,,,,' to O''!ILJ!o!J;TC'-i'''i;"m'' a lo 0'1' ~C"(1o 'p':r-Fi; ".~., !'-'Iii.!""V~"'"'-i -!!!~! f;il.U'vyIL.,it· blem IR~-iO,"""n'U'ar~ 'If.. .. n ~ _u ~,I"", __~,~ 'L,'. """'"" -~V",,""', V',I;i!".:J!U,'_-.-:J ,_~_u--,l~., , • r"' 'b'"I ."' -to • o A 0,- some equipment ea,:pa"h,tl1Jes "' 60' 10.1 In m,(}s:~, peraticns- A summary
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a'va]la,b~e in Chadwick (199,3)" On a pure'~y economic ;b\asis~the use all, g:c rnining is quite attractive. The r extraction of addit ional coal from the bighwa tJ can be done at ,I much lower cost 1ft, the I 'I"'~;'m-I'li)r':-y::' ~'tr-'-1~1I"!IIn1'n- o· onera tion, Ho the 'm--C-1~'Fi'~ m have ·,t~;h,-~ u~w w ._' a b ghwaH length, bench width roof conditions, dip, and reserves 'to make the auger 0 r highwall mini ng operatic n feasible. The augering o'pe~ilIl is not tion pnttaU:y possi b~l~ mines other than open cast mines, iii

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1,. Jnc',I,l,*"tio,i4 loJth-e ~,bo,reh(J',le;~Generally vertical; m,3,y be inclined to improve ,efficiency'"
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4,. Hole pt1,ttern~' Square, rectangular, or triangular, • 5., EX,p,lQsi.pe's,;' ,A,NF'O (b,ulk or packaged); A,N slurry or gel, \ 6,~Hille' 1(J'adi"fI.~ Performed by mechine (bulk) or hand (packaged explos'.'v,a;Iii:'!'")'" confined bv stem min 0' ·d~ or d n'~'~']'~ ',j. [~,,,:,~;,~,~ u .Il cuttinas 'm:':-"8'1/ -.. J d'-,~,C·"L.' explosives (]oad in. layers with ine'rt material between layers) to better distri bu te explosive energy, 7~ ,8 oie d'e,to'-~£il'io'"::Double line of detonating cord i;s; used 'to set off'primers in. each hole; cord detonated by blasting caps, fired ,tdectrical[y; millisecond ld d ~ d '. f , .. dec.3,:ys. :p,rovl~ie c ,e~a.y;setween 'I.. 11 ane ' rO:W8 1;0 unprove ,~,ra,gm,en,u~t:ion'i __ 1 b notes reduce noise, and minimize seismic eleets (ground vibrations), ;8;" SIf.ccoJ:m;a" b,e"tk-a9'e~~Addi tional breakage req uired rOlf' boulders per.. formed by :nludca.pp,in"g~ b:loc::k:h.ol!i:n,g;, dropballing, or hyd:rauli.c impact
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factors, are orb;~n considered to evaluate the drilling and b)a'st.~:n,g ,o'perati,ofl-s., The :flrst is, caJled the d,ru'lin,9' focto«, the :~,en"g.t:h,0:( hole d:r.iUed, 'per t.O':8 (tonne) of material blasted, The second is, the ,PtJlvde,r'f(lcttJ,r~ the 'wle~gh.t of explosives ner ton (tonn e')I"A''" material blast :!IiifU~ These two liU. .. ~" '~,~' ,='~,ve a 'wIlde ..l a v.Q! I_ ..... v\1l, _""Il;,v ,,;YI_ ... ,--u,~ .... : " "'~ v factors 'h· ,_:..' __-'_!, range of values, depending '0:0 the strength of' 'the material to be blasted and . the number' of planes of' weakness distributed through the rock, Hartman
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concepts, 'but is, modified by experienee a:od, empirical considerations,

patterns i:o surface 'mining ls based on theoretical
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(1981) reports that the dIiUin,g factor in surface mines ranges from 0..02, to ,(t04 :n/to:n. (6~7 to :1,3.,4,mm/tonne) and the powder factor -v a ries from -O,.US to ,1",Olb/ton (O~03 to O~,Sk,g;/tollne)., In ,aniy given situation, a mining operation 'win seek means o:r f'educlng, these' 'two factors to the low'est possible values consistent with, good blasting results, Several aspects ,or the drUUng, pattern used. ':in surface mlnes are shown in Figure "71,S:~ N ote in Figure 1..1. 5a that two primers are used to ensure proper ~ detona tion, (J11' Figure 7~I Sb, a pl an view of ,3, triangular pattern of holes is
shown

for a surfa,ce' mine blast with two free' faloes., The d:i,stance between rows
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c'··d". ",1 stoespnes, a.n_, marenais Ul :b)", ---'~:~-.'h _,I.PSi!' WU,U:::"., broadens its u:tiUt~'in mine en,p'iDeeri:n,t!'~ mechanics 'is a eomp anion field to :SoU IJi ~ reek mechanics, and the two have mueh in common in. the desl,gn ~)t:r: PAlO' 'n'~T!!fil'l stru ,e~ -,,·t~'ih· -,,~,I~,"'''''Q!,. " ,C,i'i'i' ~~: d ,ii!!!!'D'" ned ~,~A ,aD·I:"~D":~I·t,;i!i, ,;f'iI;'f~ m '!illJ1i"'Q,'t '0' 'i!),'i(''1j,-d'' deea ved wu e the C,.l . -.' 'r .-' h 1l\,Il.u;; .. ,., U.I.", ~-. - d' tha :it" occupy 'tne-. ,''-', ~"Y" ::,-,~--,':--~:~ +h'· ,em,p~''- s,pa,c~s organic ma ner ftliORg WI"tt'L, ,!I[1!...... ],,-~q 'iid~ ano - g;as'.lIJ",a,~ " be't::ooD 'the:s,ond ..particles ,IDas " 1990)" "Forr 0,'0.:['',,' ,f,r" ,.. 'we 'wn) also consider " w .. " ,.. , ,', ' " t. \' .,. ' . "~ " purposes 'II'd'.~O" nsoli .JOI ted h 'II'm't!:l1'iIi'l_'mi'~ de 'lD'"ateri ~'~,~, iCjjj'No~~1 'Dd ~ n alvze .' ' them in 'the :tlD me ~iu! .:::'---~ manner '1'-0'1 "J'~'~'U'QII'i~;'ii"Iii'lil!f,.'Ii."b' ,,",, com 'iIi"ii1it:"'ij~n,'lIIijl!;: 0".'" ir~· IjI!;'~';;'1 the three phases n;" 'IIILI~' '!l!"n,ii'~ Ii::!];, l~ 'aJI:.Ii;LII,II..II~ f"' .... :Ji,""",ui J I-iI.1I!! I, -Ii 'V,I 1II.11II.!!v ,.,vd, can 'L,~ d:: ep"~rt~d,:, 1I:0! two 'W..g,; as '~;h"r~'W:111i'o:1-·";i'DU: re "7., 'I~1·.·~ T",,,,",- " " F '"h~ upper diaaram i!;!1",,- "" ,.~ .. u ,m-- __" _'_. s,'bOIWS:·'th.e soi~ in its natural form .. 'The 'loiwc;r diagram , illustrates the :SlOU. 'b '"dl "'11 nas 'i separate d 1I1't,o tnree pi·' ases..-··.·.··OSl': er t,h ,thie' natural i, SIO~~'I.. a 'volume '~'" its !IJ.., , Co' tat : ..,.,~, .. . ,.,", ". d' '. ' 'I' " 'f~a gram vo 'I"ume 17," ap"," a void v "1 ,um,e 'IT A'" ., ',-,- ".' .. 31,_50th the , ··'il, _ 0" ,illr 11' ... VOl" "'0. ",Ir ~:'_ssu,m,e' _!:"ill tne V,(bu:me d .. ~ 11 " ~s . ,AI ,ilmJ,·I, tb ,e to, ~ nrne 01f-' water ,U~ II:~,," Ir' the speer'"fi" C We.~I.,t 10,'f' t.h"e, Um1U vo '~ , I, '11 ume ··Ir-;· .' . 'i'11 ~ ",'~. ' ," I lJJe -- h ..- ":'" ../~,;a:o".~ I,I.~ ,. .'i' .I.'~ 0" Ik. B W8, " "; ff,~! 0" .SOIJJ~I 'r;J'!' th'e w,ell-h'i' 0,fi 't'll..,· .. gr"d:ns.' ~s W ,..' d-I th e. we~g ht of th.,--- ,tle,rs lS 'Ui'l' Ir"'i ~,. ' (tb e. .. .i',~'i' .. f!' th.. 'a~,r '1.11' ~S' .normar 1(1·' ,1"gl10r1ru\~ ,we.' can. -, ' oenve th e r.:n. I o.~ mg , ' ...:il), " .. ", d· i' _:i; -', '-I.,;! w~ .',: wingl')I, OJJ IL,.;6 "i' prJf ~ ...... ' ..'.. ." .... "'1 I,O,~
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"I ~jgr,arnsh I" ~;;;;j1 IqUlu (water:i)~,andl'Qas 1(:ai'lr), 'e Top)1 Naituntil composite sarnp'le (,BorlOm'), Saliinl,ple stJrar1ified Ill,y IPIr1,ase',.

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Filiilure i planel
RGUIE, '1,jt1,. Relation

m: ;shear strength ,tfJ noma I!,stmss iin U IlOOrlrf:ined :$0111.,
• i
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1 where .~~ 'the shear strensth iu Ib.'1ft,2, (kPI.)' , ,~',is: cohesion in. l~/rf2 (.····~kP,I)i' is IS... ]8 _..... e,~ c. ... . ... ur . r' ~ normal . , stress -in b/ft2: (.'k·Pa)l. ," W' is, s,p",eci6c 'w,ei,p:b~t~ Ib"fit3<(c.k::,f!bi,im3),;. h is depth --, . ,'-''',' '..' ----.... _. --, .- -- - -- - -- -,~~ - - in ~ ·1'~ -~ ~- o in ft." (m), and+, ,~:s, an'l!C ,_.f ,or in ternal (riction ,'\,(an ,,~, , '0,( repose) ill ,-,,~, . _. TheiA1.'le , - .. "/' desrees , " .I ,~,__, ." I. , ~le ., ",. ., diagrams in Fignr ,~,,.-',? 1 1i'~,d·· Ilv.u !I~; the d."-,i'ae~n.~~~'~nl" ~:h-. strenath for d:illl'_. ~ ~~ , .• ear :~:~er-~:~t'·, UJl~i '_ :u ~ Iii JlI~1 . ,.IIU~_ . - - <l'__ - - as - ,3,. fi' . - t" I:" t l--ypes, F'" t· 'n- - .- - - - - I s- t'.. ress, 1\ _08,_- sanos- h- - - ,_,ow conesson ana d'- , ."M'-- - - t" - d' . nave '1 - -- - h -' · - .- - -SlOI nmenon 0 I_-c.._eDosma" ~ bigh :fri,e;tion between 'partiel,es~, w'belreas: ~hl-Ys have hi,g;h cohesion and low
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of 'i~~,~'ri'il;'''I:1 ·';:"i!t.';::""iiHi!~ ,~,t"~. '. rated "'.. 'h." n ""'" both "U~ J ,h~-.U to ~~r"o·.:. ':(;n·· owever ,~?'n .. . ,I:," d ~:!lIlt(U' ,v v. .. "'",: :-: ca,~ "-'i~,-'W- vuer ·~·o· aeneral g,1J ,AlL:",' ',--ionsIS, ,;:-··o··,~-,·tl ~,-C;1;'11 beh..'81\(';i, A·····.•.. 'b o~e"rVal',lO,. !iI,,,,.lit ..,,D,d ~, ,SwHfl:J W'..Ie ,-:ii"n;I .no :.: ,A~-:'- s-m, e: t.Jf"'" '!J~T.;. I~ is IUI~,IU11i!fI1'1-'IV' ~~ - JIr~l and _' nermaeable and can be kept drained to nrevent ~'#!iiii:' "11,Ji :~'~"fl1lb:,'II~ ".:' '. ~ r!li!r.i1 - vu,.. r ~.~ ~ saturation and~ a loss or shear streaeth, , QI-~i:-'ksan'd' :is a. dangerous subtype . 0;( _ .. .. ." ,. . , _ . ... .. _ . =: '~ _)f.l c,~,_ ,__ _ :. _ _,~__ _ ~__ ~ . ,~,,__ : soU exhibiting spontaneous ~iquela,cl:I.'~":n; consists (Ji:f rounded grains and is :~,t nn stable'" '~''I~.'h·,:~ft wet A,.... . ...i:.;'i"n\i~'u ~.o!'"i,£,~ ,U,u.~ a 'r'¥ 'J"lt\V" for water cohesive and It.u. ... " n' .. ~J"~ ,J,' I ~,o:!Ij,'5:q~ u.U,lIU ',,) Jllv, 'n t,t'\~ ·,.-.,l~1 .. ,.'i,..", ..... '.'1iP ~.' ·'h-,··,'·,:·fF' '~llt'(d"- ' -.,1,,~t:··, psas .U;~,,ma.,), IW,e.IJiI'WnJIUl wel~~, dC'I- can 'L.",," tre ,I:,U1 ~ reaenerous w len:saruraree. A':.. S~.~:y , :s1Ji:'l (loam) demonstra tes properties intermediate between sands and ,c.la~s~ In
v"
~U.iI,lll'"", ,UQ., ,,",,JlU,!,,1,, II.,~

fri:c11:io'il., 'wet son usually pessesses both bi,g.11er cohesion and .a ~arger angle A
f8.,-v "
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buHdio'" or road the strength properties of' the d:r, (or moist) so,n are utilized, and provisions are wade... to. keep t:he soi,I I,\ll'~n drained. ~ SoU,_dra 1, . c. 'i s at su,hft(dd. of soil meeh an ics , . . -"'," . . ... . .. ,. . ... __,. inaee one of 'oma. t. imoertance in surface minin 0" but 'Its ;e:I'Ii))ora tion is bevond tbe c." . ·]'[,r'···· ",r- .....
.J • ~ " ........... .~. ••• ,-~ • ~.

de"s!:ttoin,a. a, soil-suocerted .structu:re ~,ban:k: slone - - ~ ~'->e- l ~. ~... - ·J,rL~'.
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7~72 Anay,sii,s,0': Sllope' Stabiililty' ..
,
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. _•.• _. ., I, . ...

A ·c:fdeis Hi term g_')l,ilv~'n'1',0 the sudden or gradual failure of the soH mass in a ~'I,O··.I.,pe-':':'.eau sin• Ig·.- the slope ml:I' 1'0,'. J''lnIO. ·v~ O:U· twa rd 'IllI'D d"'"d'--,~'~~~H'W'rard ,1:J'~i"'!'~111~~ thev . ... ~I 1J,~ J ~ ... ..... '1..."'" catastrophic in deep surface mines eng ineers must Jearn h'-'o'~'w' 'p',-r:evPD-"" an 'to 1',1,'_ .. _. """,\1. ~___:_ ~ VQ,~g-,-,.1 "', ,'JI~~,~ c..!!~,'. ,,_,= '!;;;o~, -1.jd, ~',-~~,'J -,i'\P!~. '-~"f '-,. :::.?~ ":--' ; ~"~'m'; t~i1i '-~""11:: I -.,<" ... _-':_. ,·r ,.. ,-I"""'h; ·.. Ji.D S' .o~s' 0.., ,SOlit au d~I ~~u··I.I,[U~ ma,,!i.ena s", 'T'_;h-- ,C d' esi,IB 0._. ,SU,cI .. ,-..:I"ftP'---' , IS, Oluell.., J S.W:Oy ..... S ~:, ···~·t:t·'" t"~iii~~'" '.",~,:~ 1~'UIJr'~ ,tI,tf,~ iJ;.lt,"'~:ty-··' ft,o J!,~I,~I"I.~U 'v 'a.'
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,. . '. I ,. A .,. ("''- m,tal,nta.lnl.ng too s_'b:e~:pa, Slo':pe" ('"'Ii) exc.El v,a u,ng 0',( 'lLn.\li"ercn:ttj:ng Ul t h toe ar.'ea; I) " ("'~'. _.~,e

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_

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Copy rig h ted m ateri al

SPE;C~A!l TOPiC IB,::SLOPE: ,srF:A8Il1FIiV

·

225

---

_

.. _ ,"1111.1\11 I!;fGi J .'. 0-.'. . -~i;,.....nk
l

iir".... ;t!it' I VI~I!iJ.t.·,.

Details, o,f' this method are provided 'by Co"rding and Cepeda ... Diaz (~1992J., T~~ birO"a:I~~:t eroblem of [~[ vsi~ ~.n the past h 'I!)"C' 1f.....~'n '~,,,,..,.g;tion of th ~ I~I,~ 1lJ,IJ~ rotational center 0',;, This can 'be accomplished b:y' 'usiOI;a physical model or the bank a~Rd.eX''Perimem:~~n~g til. the' model, It can also be performed "by calculawi Uon methods. Tod.ay~ the rotational center' can be: 'located quite readily using
,1"bC~~
,[tiI"II.
1_

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n:f;Ii t&JlIL"i~II~ ~

~

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a computer' to perform, the computations,
'm!
;I1~;Q;'IIi'!ii~ ,vit'&~~Jlj~

In the fi,e.1d.~, slope ,stability ex pert s 1.00.k for evidence
of 'O·""~'1j"';i"'!;if'illm: '.'~~ICJ'
•. -. 'Ir
~IIIJI

0:(
!'ilil~l"_

V.VI

J

11.11l"1[~1 I~UI[~ U'&:~~

,~~;"il'n"i'~~i:!' g.

and detectina ,=, incipien U. U1IJI.#. _ ~'~ll
l

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.

Jl.~'

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unstable slopes as a
,Q;'~'
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A··,·····. sian ~'u·llr~
I
J ~ J

I!Er

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of
V.

if!iI ~,

cracks in the crest of the bank some distance [rpm, the crest (Figure "',,24)..Preventi lie measures can often be taken at this time by correcting the geometry o:f the slope or 'reducing the o:ppof't:unlt)1 for water 'to. a tlJec:t:its, stability,. In addition, ius:~:ru:m.'e~:nta,t:ion can. be insta led in slopes '~O detect initial evidence of a slide before a major movement of earth

pending s'l.icleis the appearance

0.(' tension

occurs,

The analytical procedure for analyzing 'the sta biIity of strated by a numerical example,
~~~M~J!~,.·~~

,8,

slope is demon-

li"""'IiI;,""!R':n.,

,.,.._~'. " ~IJ.I~

,,;,_-,fi''''::'~I-.'if een ..er

(h

soil bank sh own ,j;~ Fisure ~'_ 'T..,1,1... w->o~,r--.iEi"~"",,,"~r;j;,f:"e. ,,~:_ ~I_J.I I he '. I -"~'It,"~ , 1"0,3,11.100, 1,8 sh OW.l1., T'~'~[" ank C{)nSI,S~5 ,,["1 at ~ .. d ",:~tLI "..",'.["" S" ' ne b !!J\a> '" 0 san WI. propernes 8.S
A':: . ~"n-I'~I~W?~ ,Qll.1-~1I.f.
:""

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if L,. ~~t',l '\ ,WI

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L-"U'. so:-['~T·' N. S ,= o. Therefore
.. I ~>IO':' .. II.
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m ,th e :~O'~ I ~!ll _ _ _ __ the rn oment s l» :.:O.
,Ro _~

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Then

:= 0.'. ~~" =: 0,:~ I",b, . .

,"<lI,D' g~1

d. , r .

Copy rig h ted m ateri al

[iiI

229

center of sUdin.~ is as shown .A,n,aJV21e:('a)' drv sl)~l nd (., satnra ted soil, a b) ,Atj1 ". . and jf:'!ii,W, Sv~JLi pro ."jp';'i?ifrt'";jp;~ii!: b ank d: irn. nsions are lI~'II~,u~
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