(D20091035080) (D20091035084) (D20091035095) (D20091035076)

Some food only long lasting if it is stored in a different way from its original form such as preservations. One of the preservations methods is pickling. Pickling is the process of preserving food by anaerobic fermentation in brine (a solution of salt in water) to produce lactic acid, or marinating and storing it in an acid solution, usually vinegar (acetic acid). We chose mango for our best pickled because it is easily found in Malaysia. This experiment is conducted to find the best method to obtain the best pickled including to study how lime water effect the condition of pickled and also to study how the concentration of solution affect the texture of pickled. First thing that we need to do was cleaned and sterile the container that going to be used as well as the mango itself. After that, the cut mango was divided into three parts which are soaked in lime water for 5 minutes, 30 minutes and 60 minutes. Each of these parts then will be divided into another three parts which are different in the amount of ingredient. The observation was first made on the effect of lime water on the crunchiness of the mango. The crunchiest was then selected from the first observation for the second observation, where the color, crunchiness, and taste were considered to be observed. After that, the best pickled was concluded. From the result obtained, we found that the, the crunchiest and best mango pickled was the mango that soaked into the lime water for 60 minutes and contain sugar and salt only as its ingredients. So we conclude that, the longer the mango is soaked into the lime water the crunchier it will be and the combination of salt and sugar give the best pickled.



Pickling is a global culinary art. If you were to go on an international foodtasting tour, you’d find pickled foods just about everywhere. There are two basic categories of pickles. The first type includes pickles preserved in vinegar, a strong acid in which few bacteria can survive. Most of the bottled kosher cucumber pickles available in the supermarket are preserved in vinegar. The other category includes pickles soaked in a salt brine to encourages fermentation— the growth of "good" bacteria that make a food less vulnerable to "bad" spoilagecausing bacteria. Common examples of fermented pickles include kimchi and many cucumber dill pickles. In chemical pickling, the jar and lid are first boiled in order to sterilize them. The fruits or vegetables to be pickled are then added to the jar along with brine and/or vinegar as well as spices and are then allowed to ferment until the desired taste is obtained. In commercial pickling, a preservative like sodium benzoate or EDTA may also be added to enhance shelf life. In fermentation pickling, the food itself

one. For thousands of years, our ancestors have explored ways to pickle foods, following an instinct to secure surplus food supplies for long lasting. Here we also try to test what is the best way in making pickle. Another thing that we must take note, pickle cannot be too much consumed because the World Health Organization has listed

pickled vegetables as a possible carcinogen and the British Journal of Cancer released an online 2009 review of research on pickles as increasing the risks of esophageal cancer

1. Cut the mango into small pieces of the same size. (Almost the same) 2. Divide the mango into three parts. 3. Soak the first sample into lime water for 5 minutes, the second sample for 30 minutes and the third sample for 60 minutes. 4. Remove the mangoes from lime water, and then rinse with tap water. 5. Divide the first sample into four and add into the container that labeled A, B, C and D.

produces the preservation agent, typically by a process that produces lactic acid. Pickling is not only an international foodpreservation technique, it’s also an ancient


KITCHEN CHEMISTRY PROJECT container A Contents 26.06 g of sugar + 250 ml of water



25.37 g of salt + 250 ml of water


25.37 g of salt + 26.06 g of sugar + 250 ml of water


26.06 g of sugar + 6 pieces of asamboi + 250 ml of water

6. Leave the labeled containers at a dry place for six days.

7. Repeat step 4 until 6 by replacing the
first sample with the second and third sample.








container A (60)

observation Brown in color Quite taste The least crunchy


5 30

Less crunchy Moderately crunchy B (60) The original color is remained Not delicious at all (too salty) The most crunchy pickled C (60) Very delicious The original color is preserved very crunchy

60 B 5 30

Very crunchy Less crunchy Moderately crunchy

60 C 5 30

Very crunchy Less crunchy Moderately crunchy

60 D 5 30

Very crunchy Less crunchy Moderately crunchy


Very crunchy

After the time with best result has been selected (60 minutes), the second comparison is done.


Bubbles formed in the solution Reddish orange in color Quite tasty Less crunchy




Ingredients In the experiment, a different

sugar solution which caused it be exposed to oxygen and oxidized. The enzyme that responsible for the browning of the mango is polyphenol oxidase. This enzyme caused the formation of oxidized pigment which is brown in color and contributed to the color changes in the mango. The addition of salt in the container B has promoted the growth of bacteria known as Lactobacillus plantarum.

substance was added in each container. Container A was added with sugar and water, container B was added with salt and water, container C was added with water, sugar and salt while container D was added with water, sugar and ‘asamboi’. The pickled in container A was quite tasty because it tasted sweet which came from the sugar. Sugar plays an important role in the food preservation. This is because sugar is able to form hydrogen bond with water molecules in which will reduce the water activity and make the water less favourable for microbial growth. From the reading, it was found that the winter radish root will appear bright yellow in color that occurs naturally after the pickling process. The condition for the formation of yellow pigment is the same as the reaction between thioglucosidase and ascorbic acid that stimulate the production of yellow pigment (Ozawa et al., 1993). However, in this case the yellowing or browning of the pickled might be caused by some errors that were done during conducting the study. The mango might be not soaked fully in the

However salt must be added at a correct proportion. If too much salt was added, the good bacteria will not function properly and too little salt will promote the growth of less beneficial bacteria. The pickled in container C has the best taste because it has a balance taste. It was not too sweet and does not too salty, in fact it has both of the combination of the tastes. The solution in container D was quite different from the others, it was added with ‘asamboi’ which gave the solution an orange color. The solution was orange in color because the paticles in ‘asamboi’ which was orange in color has diffused throughout the water in the container via simple diffusion. The orange solution has stained the pickled with an orange color.

KITCHEN CHEMISTRY PROJECT Lime Water Processing is necessary for

it is

minutes. Alum may be safely used to firm fermented pickles. However,

all pickles and relishes to destroy the yeasts, molds and bacteria that may cause the product to spoil and also to inactivate enzymes that could affect color, flavour and texture of the pickled product. Calcium called slaked hydroxide, lime, is traditionally an inorganic

unnecessary and is not included in the recipes. improves The calcium in lime definitely pickle be firmness. used as Fooda lime-

grade lime may

water solution for soaking fresh mango before pickling them. The calcium in the lime reacts with the pectic acid in the fruit to form calcium pectate, which adds to 'crunchiness'. There is already some calcium pectate in mango and other vegetables. The longer the time it was soaked, the

compound with the chemical formula Ca (OH) 2. It is a colorless crystal or white powder and is obtained when calcium oxide (called lime or quicklime) is mixed, or "slaked" with water. It has many names including hydrated lime, builders lime, slack lime, cal, or pickling lime. It is of low toxicity and finds many applications,

probability for the calcium in lime reacts with pectic acid also high. Excess lime absorbed by the mango must be removed to make safe pickles. To remove excess lime, drain the lime-

including for food. Because of its low toxicity and the mildness of its basic properties, it is widely used in the food industry. But here in this experiment we were studying the effects of this substance on the crunchiness of the pickles. Time for the mango to be soaked on the lime water was varied; this is to determine the effect of time of mango soaked in lime water and the crunchiness of the pickles. From the result obtain we found out that the mango that soaked into the lime water for 1 hour more crunchy followed by 30 minutes and 5

water solution, rinse, and then resoak the mango in fresh water for 1 hour. Repeat the rinsing and soaking steps two more times. To further improve pickle firmness, the mango pickles can be process for 30 minutes in water at 180°F. This process also prevents spoilage, but the water temperature should not fall below 180°F. Use a candy or jelly thermometer to check the water temperature. But this process was not done for this time experiment. But the crunchiness of the

pickles not only depends on this factors but

KITCHEN CHEMISTRY PROJECT the concentration of the solution also affect. In order to determine this we were observing the crunchiest mango within the samples A, B and C. Once we got the crunchiest one, the comparison between the crunchiest 5 minute, 10 minute and 1 hour was made. We found that the longer the mango soaked into the lime water crunchier it will be. Temperature Temperature is one of the factors affecting the pickling process. Pickling process is also known as fermentation process. The optimum temperature for fermentation is around 21 oC. A change of just a few degrees from this temperature modifies the activity of the microbial process and affects the quality of the final product. Therefore, temperature control is one of the most important factors in the pickling process. A temperature of 18 oC to 22
o o


plantarum dominates,


primarily lactic acid. Many pickles start with Leuconostoc, and


to Lactobacillus with higher acidity.

Otherwise, the temperature above 30 C will provide pickles become too soft

during fermentation. It is also will cause the excess of microbial growth in the pickle and formation of bubble will occur. Actually, bubbling in pickles is the feedback from fermentation process. During fermentation, cultures transform the fresh fruits into pickles by converting sugars to lactic acid, acetic acid, carbon dioxide, and other beneficial substances. The bubbling formed in pickles is the carbon dioxide that released from fermentation process. To reduce the excessive bubbling formed, pickles can store under refrigerator to slow the fermentation. A very low temperature makes process of fermentation become more slowly compared at room temperature. As we mentioned above, the optimum temperature

C is most appropriate for initiating

fermentation since this is the optimum temperature range for the growth and metabolism of L. mesenteroides. Temperatures above 22 oC favor the growth of Lactobacillus species. When temperature is low, Leuconostoc


fermentation process is around 21 C, hence when pickles are kept in refrigerator which is in very low temperature under 21oC, the microbial process will become slow, and process converting sugar to lactic acid and carbon dioxide also become slow, this will reduce the formation of bubbles in pickle.

mesenteroides dominates, producing a mix of acids, alcohol, and aroma compounds. At higher temperatures Lactobacillus

KITCHEN CHEMISTRY PROJECT There are some precaution steps during making the pickles. Make sure that using the different spoon to stir salt or sugar with water and fruit in order to avoid pickles from being contaminated. Furthermore, we should use boiled water instead of pipe water to make pickle. Do not use the pipe water because there are microorganisms that might be caused the growth of bad bacteria and contaminate the pickles. Concentration Now, we move to the other factors that make the pickles crunchier which is concentration of the solution that the pickles were soaked. There are four different of concentration in making these pickles. The four solutions that we prepared are:


that the solution of sugar give the most crunchy texture compare to the other. This means that the lowest the concentration of pickling solution, the crunchy the pickles.

The process that involved to makes the food more crispy was osmosis. Osmosis is the movement of water molecules through a selectively-permeable membrane. Water will move from an area of high solute

concentration to an area of low solute concentration. This process does not require any energy so it occurs naturally and goes on until equilibrium is achieved. This is the essence of osmosis and is life critical in the cells of all living organisms. All plants, fruits consist of cells, surrounded by a cell wall that gives strength to the plant. The fluid in the cell is under pressure, providing

1. Solution of water and sugar only 2. Solution of water and salt only 3. Solution of water, salt and sugar only 4. Solution of water, sugar and asam boi only

a crisp and fresh texture.







concentration. The lowest concentration is the concentration of sugar solution (syrup), the middle one is sugar and salt solution and the highest concentration is the solution of salt (brine). Based on the results, it showed




When pickling, water will be extracted from the fruit by osmosis, resulting in a concentration of solutes in the food product and make the fruit less crispy or crunchy. Meanwhile, diffusion will cause the fruit to enrich itself with solutes in the brining solution or syrup. It is also possible that substances in the fruit leach out to the brining solution.

Different different

concentrations texture of

contribute pickles.

to The





microbiologically. It will actually make water unavailable for any living organism in the brine or brined food product. Since the concentration of solutes is far greater outside the cell of any bacteria or other harmful organisms than inside (food’s cell), hence the result is that bacteria will not be able to uptake water, which is essential to remain alive, on the contrary, water will be forced out of the cell, causing the bacteria to dehydrate and eventually die. The same happens in a pickling solution, with added

concentrated solution contains high amount of solute which made the lots of water from fruit to move out to the outer membrane. When water from fruit move outs, it makes the fruit less crunchy. For dilute solution, the amount of water loss is less compare to the concentrated solution and hence made the fruit crispier. Thus, the dilute the solution, the less amounts of water move out from the fruit and the crunchier the pickles.

The effect can again be reversed by washing the pickles afterwards in clean ice water. Now the pickles will take up water since the concentration of solutes is higher in the cells than in the ice water.

pH effects.

In this kitchen project also, we add few asam boi in 4th solution for better taste. Asam boi is to make the pickles taste sourer. It is quite tasty but not as tasty as the pickles that was soaked in 3rd solution

KITCHEN CHEMISTRY PROJECT CONCLUSION The longer the mango is soaked into the lime water the crunchier it will be. This is because the calcium in the lime reacts with the pectic acid in the fruit to form calcium pectate, which adds to 'crunchiness'. When concentration of solution increase, the texture of mango pickled become crunchier due to the process of osmosis. This process occurs because of the tendency of substance to move through membrane from high concentration water molecule to low


Alev Bayindirli, Enzymes in Fruit and vegetable Processing: Chemistry and Engineering Application, United States of America, Taylor & Francis Group, 2010

Retrieved October 22,2011,from m 211/lesson8_3.htm 20Opponents/processed_foods.htm /voices/Voices3=act2.pdf /voices/Voices3=act2.pdf notesl3/a/concentration.htm

concentration of water molecule. In this case, water molecule inside mango flows out to the solution since it has lower water molecule concentration than the water molecule concentration inside mango. The flowing out of water molecule from mango makes the pickled become crunchier. 

Retrieved November 1,2011, from he_pickling_process

 Retrieved October 20,2011,from 9-05/how-make-quick-pickles  Peter S. Murano, understanding Food Science and Technology, United States of America, Thomson Learning, Inc., 2003


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