P.

A COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY POLLACHI - 6420 002

LAB MANUAL CUM RECORD NOTE BOOK

080120040 - COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING LABORATORY VI - SEMESTER, BE - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING P.A. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, POLLACHI - 6420 002 (Affiliated to Anna University - Coimbatore)

P.A COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY POLLACHI, COIMBATORE - 642 002.
BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Registration No.

Certified

that

this

is

the

bonafide

record

of

work

done

by

Mr.………………………………………………..……… of …………. - semester B.E. Mechanical Engineering Branch / Batch during the academic year …………………………. in the Computer Aided Manufacturing laboratory .

Head of the Department

Staff In-Charge

Submitted Pollachi.

for

the

University

practical

examination

held

on…………………… at P.A College of Engineering and Technology,

Internal Examiner Date:…………………

External Examiner Date:…………………

LABARATORY CLASSES - INSTRUCTIONS TO STUDENTS
1. Students must attend the lab classes with ID cards and in the prescribed uniform. 2. Boys-shirts tucked in and wearing closed leather shoes. Girls’ students with cut shoes, overcoat, and plait incite the coat. Girls’ students should not wear loose garments. 3. Students must check if the components, instruments and machinery are in working condition before setting up the experiment. 4. Power supply to the experimental set up/ equipment/ machine must be switched on only after the faculty checks and gives approval for doing the experiment. Students must start to the experiment. Students must start doing the experiments only after getting permissions from the faculty. 5. Any damage to any of the equipment/instrument/machine caused due to carelessness, the cost will be fully recovered from the individual (or) group of students. 6. Students may contact the lab in charge immediately for any unexpected incidents and emergency. 7. The apparatus used for the experiments must be cleaned and returned to the technicians, safely without any damage. 8. Make sure, while leaving the lab after the stipulated time, that all the power connections are switched off. 9. EVALUATIONS: All students should go through the lab manual for the experiment to be carried out for that day and come fully prepared to complete the experiment within the prescribed periods. Student should complete the lab record work within the prescribed periods. Students must be fully aware of the core competencies to be gained by doing experiment/exercise/programs. Students should complete the lab record work within the prescribed periods. The following aspects will be assessed during every exercise, in every lab class and marks will be awarded accordingly: Preparedness, conducting experiment, observation, calculation, results, record presentation, basic understanding and answering for viv a questions. In case of repetition/redo, 25% of marks to be reduced for the respective component.

NOTE 1

Preparation means coming to the lab classes with neatly drawn circuit diagram /experimental setup /written programs /flowchart, tabular columns, formula, model graphs etc in the observation notebook and must know the step by step procedure to conduct the experiment. Conducting experiment means making connection, preparing the experimental setup without any mistakes at the time of reporting to the faculty. Observation means taking correct readings in the proper order and tabulating the readings in the tabular columns. Calculation means calculating the required parameters using the approximate formula and readings. Result means correct value of the required parameters and getting the correct shape of the characteristics at the time of reporting of the faculty. Viva voice means answering all the questions given in the manual pertaining to the experiments. Full marks will be awarded if the students performs well in each case of the above component
NOTE 2

Incompletion or repeat of experiments means not getting the correct value of the required parameters and not getting the correct shape of the characteristics of the first attempt. In such cases, it will be marked as “IC” in the red ink in the status column of the mark allocation table given at the end of every experiment. The students are expected to repeat the incomplete the experiment before coming to the next lab. Otherwise the marks for IC component will be reduced to zero.
NOTE 3

Absenteeism due to genuine reasons will be considered for doing the missed experiments. In case of power failure, extra classes will be arranged for doing those experiments only and assessment of all other components preparedness; viva voice etc. will be completed in the regular class itself.
NOTE 4

The end semester practical internal assessment marks will be based on the average of all the experiments.

INDEX
Ex. No
1

Date

Name of the Experiment

Mark

Page No

Staff Signature

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Completed date: Average Mark: Staff - in - charge

INDEX
Ex. No Date Name of the Experiment Mark Page No Staff Signature

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

Completed date: Average Mark: Staff - in - charge

STUDY EXERCISE ON CNC MACHINES
EX. NO: DATE: 1

Aim:
To conduct a brief study into various aspects of CNC machines

1. The evolution of CNC:
Shortly after world war – II, USAF faced with the complex machining of aircraft components and inspection fixtures to close accuracies on a repetitive basis. During this time Mr. John Parson was working on a project for developing equipment that would machine flat templates for inspecting contours of helicopter blades. He succeeded in it and the proposal for manufacturing such a machine was submitted to USAF in 1948 by Parson Corporation of Traverse City, Michigan, and resulted in a development contract in 1948. Parson found that the card reader was too slow and approached MIT to develop a tape reader and power drive for the proposed machine. The collaboration between Parson and MIT went into troubles later. USAF then awarded a prime contract to MIT in 1951. The servo machines laboratory of MIT successfully demonstrated a three motion- milling machine.

The following three successive years witnessed hardware refinements and development of mathematical functions for tape preparation in 1955. USAF awarded $35 millions for manufacturing approximately 100 CNC machines of various types. Giddings and Lewis, General Electric and Bendix are the companies who took interest in adopting NC technology in its early years. The subsequent developments in CNC technology are primarily attributed to refinements in computer hardware & part programming languages.

2. Difficulties faced by early NC machines 2.1 NC Controller
In a conventional NC system, the control is hardwired and therefore any modifications of addition in facility call for many changes in the controller, which may or may not be possible due to limitations of basic configuration.

2.2 Punched Tape
Paper tape is especially fragile and its susceptibility to war and tear makes it to be an unreliable NC component for repeated use on the shop floor. More durable materials like miler, Aluminum foil are used to overcome this difficulty. However these materials are also relatively expensive. Besides this, the tape heeds to be loaded each time and some errors in reading. If any change in instruction is needed, modification or editing of the tape is also not possible.

2.3 Tape Reader
It is the least reliable hardware component of the system. NC System breakdowns are mainly caused by tape readers.

2.4 Management information
The conventional NC System cannot provide timely information on operational performance to management. Such information might include piece counts, machine breakdowns and tool changes.

2.5 Non-optimal Speeds and Feeds
The conventional NC does not have facilities to optimize the speeds and feeds during the machining process. Consequently, the part programmer must plan the cutting conditions conservatively and this reduces productivity.

3. Canned Cycle
A Canned cycle is a combination of machine movements that perform machining operations like drilling, milling, boring and tapping. For example, the drilling cycle consists of the following movements of the tool.  Fast approach to work piece.  Drill at feed rate  Rapid return to initial position. These movements can be combined to form a cycle and give a code. When this code is invoked, the machine performs all these operations. The use of canned cycle reduces programming effort. This also saves the length of the program, thus saving the space required to store the program.

4. General Machining Features available in a typical CAM Software
 Complete integration with other software’s ensuring no discrepancy between design and machined part.  Choice of cutter simulation, cutter path, cutter tools itself or machined work piece.  Machining output to ISO Standard CL data.  Single or double precision CL data.  Repetitive tasks by command files  Cutting tool database adaptable to company standards.  ATC Support.  Estimation of machining times and tool path length (to establish tool wear).  Manual editing of cutter path at any time.  Efficient machining algorithms for optimum cutter path generation times.

5. Candidature of NC for the industry
When the following conditions are met, NC machines become a candidate for the production industry. When  Quantity of parts per setup is small  Parts are complex  Repeated lots occur.  Repeated design changes occur  Minimum lead time is must  Scrapping would be costly  Floor space is at a premium

6. Designation of co- ordinate systems in NC Machines
In an NC System, each axis of motion is equipped with a separate driving source such as DC motor, stepper motor etc. The three main axes of motion are referred to as X, Y and Z-axes. The Z-axes is perpendicular to both X and Y-axes in order to create a right hand co-ordinate system. This is detailed as follows

6.1 Z - Axis
(i) On a work piece-rotating machine, such as a lathe, the Z-axis is parallel to the spindle, and the positive motions the tool away from the work piece.

(ii)

On a tool-rotating machine, such as a milling or boring machine, Z-axis is parallel to the tool axis, and the positive motion moves the tool away from the work piece.

(iii)

On other machines such as press, a planning machine, Z-axis is perpendicular to the tool set and the work piece.

6.2 X - Axis
(i) (ii) (iii) On a lathe, X – axis is the direction of tool movement and the positive motion moves the tool away from the work piece. On a horizontal milling machine, the X-axis is parallel to the table. On a vertical milling machine, the positive X-axis points to the right when the programmer is facing the machine.

6.3 Y - Axis
This is the axis left in a standard Cartesian Co-ordinate system.

6.4 Rotational axis
A, B and C axis represent rotating about X, Y and Z respectively.

7. General format of a manual CNC Program
The CNC program block generally contains the following format N-G-X-Y-Z-A-B-C-F-S-T-M Where, N – Sequence number of instructions G- Preparatory function X, Y, Z, A, B, C Co -ordinate and angular data F- Feed S- Spindle speed T-Tool code M- Miscellaneous function.

8. Control systems used in CNC Machines
Though there are many control systems in the market, the following are widely used: (i) (ii) Allen Bradley Anilam

(iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x)

Bosch Fanuc OM, OT, 18T, 3M, 3TF.. GE 550,1050.. Heidenhain Mazak Philips Hinumeric Elpro

9. Execution of part program written in CAPP Language
There are two major classes of part programming languages (Smith and Earns, 1977)

9.1. Machine oriented languages
They create tool paths by doing all the necessary calculations in one computer processing stage by computing directly the special Co-ordinate data format and the coding for speed and feed requirements.

9.2. General purpose languages
The computer processing can be broken down to into two stages, viz., a processing stage and post processing stage. The processing stage creates an intermediate set of data points called CL data. The following figure illustrates a generalized flow chart for most NC processors to show the execution of the program written in a language like APT. The elements in the flow chart are explained of follows

9.3. NC Processor
It is computer application program that accepts as input user oriented language statements that describe the NC operations to be performed. The translation section translator symbolic inputs contained in the section performs geometric and trigonometric calculations required to generate the part surface. The path of the centerline of the cutter is also calculated here. This section generates the cutter location data.(CL data)

9.4. Post processor
It is also a program that converts the CL data into program blocks, which are used to machine the component. This is machine tool dependent.

9.5. CL Data
It is the intermediate data points, which represents the co-ordinates of various machinable features in the work piece. It is a neutral file and acceptable to any post processor.

10. The requirements of a spindle drive and feed drive
(a) The requirements of a spindle drive motor are (b) High rotational accuracy (c) Wide constant power band (d) Excellent running smoothness (e) Compactness (f) Fast dynamic response (g) High over load capacity (h) Infinitely variable speed within the range

11. Spindle drives commonly used in CNC machine tools
(a) Squirrel cage induction motors (b) DC shunt motors (c) Permanent magnet AC induction motors (d) Hydraulic drives (e) Pneumatic drives.

12. Requirements of Feed drives
(a) Constant torque to overcome friction and working forces (b) Infinitely variable driving speed (c) Smallest possible positioning increments (typical:1-2 m) (d) Quick response characteristics (High peak torque) (e) Integral mounting feedback devices (f) Low armature inertia (g) High torque-to-weight ratio (h) Total enclosed non-ventilated design (TENV)

12.1 Feed drives commonly used in CNC machines
 Permanent magnet DC Servo motor  Synchronous three phase AC servo motor with permanent magnet rotor

 Linear motor.

13. Important constituent parts of a CNC machine tool
(a) Machine structure

(b) Guide ways (c) Feed drives (d) Spindle & spindle bearings (e) Measuring and feedback systems (f) Controls, software and operator interface (g) Tool monitoring

14. CNC machining centers vis-à-vis CNC machines
Initially the CNC technology was applied on basic metal cutting machines like lathes, milling machines etc. To increase the flexibility of the machines in handling a variety of components and to finish them in a single set-up on the same machine, a CNC machining center for machining prismatic components combining operations like milling, drilling, boring and tapping. These machining centers are very powerful, heavy-duty production machines with the capability to change tools using ATC, A which can select any tool automatically, by the computer program from the tool magazine. A typical tool magazine can contain more tools of the order to 32 and above. While vertical and horizontal machining centers could be respectively utilized for machining only on one face and four faces of the component in a set-up, complete machining of all five faces of cubical component in a single set up was possible with a feature to change the spindle configuration automatically from vertical to horizontal and vice versa, as the case may be, within the programmed cycle. These machines are called universal machinating centers (UMC). Further, the concept of multi operations was also entered for machining cylindrical components, which led to the developments of turning centers.

Result:
Thus the overview and basic function of CNC machine were studied.

STUDY OF CNC CODES (M and G CODES
EX. NO: DATE: Aim:
To study the preparatory and miscellaneous function of CNC codes.

2

Miscellaneous Function (M - Code):
M00 M01 M02 M03 M04 M05 M06 M19 M20 M21 M30 M40 M41 M42 M43 M44 M45 M46 M70 M71 M72 M73 M80 M81 Unconditional stop Conditional stop End of program Spindle clockwise Spindle counterclockwise Spindle stop Tool change (see Note below) Spindle orientation Start oscillation (configured by G35) End oscillation End of program Automatic spindle gear range selection Spindle gear transmission step 1 Spindle gear transmission step 2 Spindle gear transmission step 3 Spindle gear transmission step 4 Spindle gear transmission step 5 Spindle gear transmission step 6 Spline definition, beginning and end curve 0 Spline definition, beginning tangential, end curve 0 Spline definition, beginning curve 0, end tangential Spline definition, beginning and end tangential Delete rest of distance using probe function, from axis measuring input Drive On application block

M101-M108 Turn off fast output byte bit 1 (to 8) M109 Turn off all (8) bits in the fast output byte M111-M118 Turn on fast output byte bit 1 (to 8) M121-M128 Pulsate (on/off) fast output byte bit 1 (to 8)

M140 M141 M150 M159 M160 M170 M171 M200 M209 M210 M211 M213 M214 M215 M280 M281 M290 M291

Distance regulation “on” (configured by G265) Distance regulation “off” Delete rest of distance using probe function, for a probe input PLC cannot define the bit mask for the probe inputs PLC can define the bit mask for the probe inputs (up to 16) Continue the block processing look ahead of the part program (cancel the M171) Stop the block processing look ahead of the probe input part program segment Activate the handwheel operation in the automatic mode Activate the handwheel operation in the automatic mode, with PLC control Deactivate the handwheel input while in the automatic mode Deactivate this handwheel feature and also remove the handwheel offset (if any) Spindle 2 clockwise Spindle 2 counterclockwise Spindle 2 stop Switchable spindle/rotary axis, rotary axis on, first combination Switchable spindle/rotary axis, rotary axis on, second combination Switchable spindle/rotary axis, spindle enabled, first combination Switchable spindle/rotary axis, spindle enabled, second combination

M151-M158 Digital input byte 1 bit 1 (to bit 8) is the active probe input

M161-M168 Digital input byte 2 bit 1 (to bit 8) is the active probe input

M201-M208 Select the axis (by number from 1 to 8) for the handwheel operation

Geometric codes (G - Code):
G00 G01 G02 G03 G04 G05 G06 G07 G08 G09 G10 G11 Rapid traverse Linear interpolation with feedrate Circular interpolation (clockwise) Circular interpolation (counter clockwise) Dwell time in milliseconds Spline definition Spline interpolation Tangential circular interpolation / Helix interpolation / Polygon interpolation Ramping function at block transition / Look ahead "off" No ramping function at block transition / Look ahead "on" Stop dynamic block preprocessing Stop interpolation during block preprocessing

G2/G3 Helical interpolation

G12 G13 G14 G15 G16 G17 G18 G19 G20 G21 G22 G24 G25 G26 G27 G33 G34 G35 G38 G39 G40 G41 G42 G43 G44 G50 G51 G52 G53 G54 G55 G56 G57 G58 G59 G63 G66

Circular interpolation (cw) with radius Circular interpolation (ccw) with radius Polar coordinate programming, absolute Polar coordinate programming, relative Definition of the pole point of the polar coordinate system Selection of the X, Y plane Selection of the Z, X plane Selection of the Y, Z plane Selection of a freely definable plane Parallel axes "on" Parallel axes "off" Safe zone programming; lower limit values Safe zone programming; upper limit values Safe zone programming "off" Safe zone programming "on" Thread cutting with constant pitch Thread cutting with dynamic pitch Oscillation configuration Mirror imaging "on" Mirror imaging "off" Path compensations "off" Path compensation left of the work piece contour Path compensation right of the work piece contour Path compensation left of the work piece contour with altered approach Path compensation right of the work piece contour with altered approach Scaling Part rotation; programming in degrees Part rotation; programming in radians Zero offset off Zero offset #1 Zero offset #2 Zero offset #3 Zero offset #4 Zero offset #5 Zero offset #6 Feed / spindle override not active Feed / spindle override active

G70 G71 G72 G73 G74 G75 G76 G78 G79 G80 G81 G82 G83 G84 G85 G86 G87 G88 G89 G81 G82 G83 G84 G85 G86 G87 G88 G90 G91 G92 G93 G94 G95 G96 G97

Inch format active Metric format active Interpolation with precision stop "off" Interpolation with precision stop "on" Move to home position Curvature function activation Curvature acceleration limit Normalcy function "on" (rotational axis orientation) Normalcy function "off" Canned cycle "off" Drilling to final depth canned cycle Spot facing with dwell time canned cycle Deep hole drilling canned cycle Tapping or Thread cutting with balanced chuck canned cycle Reaming canned cycle Boring canned cycle Reaming with measuring stop canned cycle Boring with spindle stop canned cycle Boring with intermediate stop canned cycle Reciprocation without plunge Incremental face grinding Incremental plunge grinding Multi-pass face grinding Multi-pass diameter grinding Shoulder grinding Shoulder grinding with face plunge Shoulder grinding with diameter plunge Absolute programming Incremental programming Position preset Constant tool circumference velocity "on" (grinding wheel) Feed in mm / min (or inch / min) Feed per revolution (mm / rev or inch / rev) Constant cutting speed "on" Constant cutting speed "off"

G80 - G89 for milling applications:

G81 - G88 for cylindrical grinding applications:

G98 G99

Positioning axis signal to PLC Axis offset

G100 Polar transformation "off" G101 Polar transformation "on" G102 Cylinder barrel transformation "on"; cartesian coordinate system G103 Cylinder barrel transformation "on," with real-time-radius compensation (RRC) G104 Cylinder barrel transformation with center line migration (CLM) and RRC G105 Polar transformation "on" with polar axis selections G106 Cylinder barrel transformation "on" polar-/cylinder-coordinates G107 Cylinder barrel transformation "on" polar-/cylinder-coordinates with RRC G108 Cylinder barrel transformation polar-/cylinder-coordinates with CLM and RRC G109 Axis transformation programming of the tool depth G110 Power control axis selection/channel 1 G111 Power control pre-selection V1, F1, T1/channel 1 (Voltage, Frequency, Time) G112 Power control pre-selection V2, F2, T2/channel 1 G113 Power control pre-selection V3, F3, T3/channel 1 G114 Power control pre-selection T4/channel 1 G115 Power control pre-selection T5/channel 1 G116 Power control pre-selection T6/pulsing output G117 Power control pre-selection T7/pulsing output G120 Axis transformation; orientation changing of the linear interpolation rotary axis G121 Axis transformation; orientation change in a plane G125 Electronic gear box; plain teeth G126 Electronic gear box; helical gearing, axial G127 Electronic gear box; helical gearing, tangential G128 Electronic gear box; helical gearing, diagonal G130 Axis transformation; programming of the type of the orientation change G131 Axis transformation; programming of the type of the orientation change G132 Axis transformation; programming of the type of the orientation change G133 Zero lag thread cutting "on" G134 Zero lag thread cutting "off" G140 Axis transformation; orientation designation work piece fixed coordinates G141 Axis transformation; orientation designation active coordinates G160 ART activation G161 ART learning function for velocity factors "on" G162 ART learning function deactivation G163 ART learning function for acceleration factors

G164 ART learning function for acceleration changing G165 Command filter "on" G166 Command filter "off" G170 Digital measuring signals; block transfer with hard stop G171 Digital measuring signals; block transfer without hard stop G172 Digital measuring signals; block transfer with smooth stop G175 SERCOS-identification number "write" G176 SERCOS-identification number "read" G180 Axis transformation "off" G181 Axis transformation "on" with not rotated coordinate system G182 Axis transformation "on" with rotated / displaced coordinate system G183 Axis transformation; definition of the coordinate system G184 Axis transformation; programming tool dimensions G186 Look ahead; corner acceleration; circle tolerance G188 Activation of the positioning axes G190 Diameter programming deactivation G191 Diameter programming "on" and display of the contact point G192 Diameter programming; only display contact point diameter G193 Diameter programming; only display contact point actual axes center point G200 Corner smoothing "off" G201 Corner smoothing "on" with defined radius G202 Corner smoothing "on" with defined corner tolerance G203 Corner smoothing with defined radius up to maximum tolerance G210 Power control axis selection/Channel 2 G211 Power control pre-selection V1, F1, T1/Channel 2 G212 Power control pre-selection V2, F2, T2/Channel 2 G213 Power control pre-selection V3, F3, T3/Channel 2 G214 Power control pre-selection T4/Channel 2 G215 Power control pre-selection T5/Channel 2 G216 Power control pre-selection T6/pulsing output/Channel 2 G217 Power control pre-selection T7/pulsing output/Channel 2 G220 Angled wheel transformation "off" G221 Angled wheel transformation "on" G222 Angled wheel transformation "on" but angled wheel moves before others G223 Angled wheel transformation "on" but angled wheel moves after others G265 Distance regulation – axis selection G270 Turning finishing cycle

G271 Stock removal in turning G272 Stock removal in facing G274 Peck finishing cycle G275 Outer diameter / internal diameter turning cycle G276 Multiple pass threading cycle G310 Power control axes selection /channel 3 G311 Power control pre-selection V1, F1, T1/channel 3 G312 Power control pre-selection V2, F2, T2/channel 3 G313 Power control pre-selection V3, F3, T3/channel 3 G314 Power control pre-selection T4/channel 3 G315 Power control pre-selection T5/channel 3 G316 Power control pre-selection T6/pulsing output/Channel 3 G317 Power control pre-selection T7/pulsing output/Channel 3

Result:
Thus the Miscellaneous and Geometric function of CNC machine were studied.

STUDY EXERCISE ON SPECIFICATIONS AND PROGRAMMING CODES
EX. NO: DATE: Aim
To study the specifications and various codes used in programming a CNC machine tool (FANUC controller).

3

XL TURN CNC LATHE SPECIFICATIONS
1. Swing over Bed 2. Swing over Cross slide 3. Z axis travel 4. X axis travel 5. Spindle 6. Speed 7. Feed 8. Spindle nose taper bore 9. Tail stock sleeve taper/travel 10. Z axis ball screw 11. Z axis ball screw 12. Coolant tank capacity 13. Overall size 14. Weight 150mm 50mm 170mm 80mm 1 HP Max 3000 RPM (For pneumatic chuck) 0-1000mm/min MT3/20mm MT2/30mm Dia 16x5mm lead 12x2.5mm lead 4Lrs. 700x500mm 110Kg.

XLMILL CNC (STARMILL) SPECIFICATIONS
1. Table clamping size 2. Traverses X axis 3. Traverses Y axis 4. Traverses Z axis 5. Spindle Taper ISO 30 Speed 425x130mm 180mm 120mm 115mm 0- 3000 RPM

3.1 NC Program Build – UP
In a NC program, the machining steps (operations) for producing a part on the machine tool are laid down in a form that the control system can understand. A program comprises of several blocks. A block is a collection of NC words. A NC word is a collection of address letter and a sequence of numbers. Table. 1. Shows the address letters according to DIN 66025 Table. 1. Address Characters as Per DIN 66025 Character A B C D&E F G H I J K L M N O P,Q,R Rotation about X-axis Rotation about Y-axis Rotation about Z-axis Rotation about additional axes Feed Preparatory function, identifying the action to be executed Unassigned Interpolation parameter / Thread pitch parallel to Xaxis Thread pitch parallel to Y-axis Thread pitch parallel to Z-axis Unassigned Auxiliary function Block number Not number Thread movement parallel to X, Y, respectively. P&Q are also used as parameters in cycles Spindle speed Tool Second movement parallel to X,Y,Z axes respectively Movement in X-axis Movement in Y-axis Movement in Z-axis Z axes Meaning

S T U,V,W X Y Z

3.2. G and M codes for Milling Operations:
Miscellaneous Functions (M codes): M00 M01 M02 Program Stop Optional Stop Program End

M03 M04 M05 M06 M08 M09 M10 M11 M13 M14 M30 M62 M63 M64 M65 M66 M67 M70 M71 M76 M77 M80 M81 M98 M99

Spindle Forward Spindle Reverse Spindle Stop Tool Change Coolant On Coolant Off Vice Open Vice Close Coolant, Spindle Fwd Coolant, Spindle Rev Program End and Rewind Output 1On Output 2On Output 1Off Output 2Off Output 2Off Wait Input 1 Off X Mirror On Y Mirror On Wait Input 1 Off Wait Input 2 Off X Mirror Off Y Mirror Off Subprogram Call Subprogram Exit

Preparatory Functions (G Codes) G Code G00 G01 G02 G03 G04 G17 G18 G19 G20 G21 G28 G40 06 00 02 01 Group Function Positioning (Rapid traverse) Linear interpolation (Cutting feed) Circular interpolation CW Circular interpolation CCW Dwell, Exact stop XY Plane selection ZX Plane selection YZ Plane selection Input in inch Input in mm Return to reference point Cutter compensation cancel

00

G41 G42 G43 G44 G49 G73 G74 G76 G80 G81 G82 G83 G84 G85 G86 G87 G88 G89 G90 G91 G92 G94 G95 G98 G99

07

Cutter compensation Left Cutter compensation Right Tool Length compensation + direction

08

Tool Length compensation - direction Tool Length compensation cancel Peck drilling cycle Counter tapping cycle Fine boring Canned cycle cancel Drilling cycle, spot boring

09

Drilling cycle, counter boring Peck drilling cycle Tapping cycle Boring cycle Boring cycle Back boring cycle Boring cycle Boring cycle

03 00 05 10

Absolute command Incremental command Programming of absolute zero point Feed per minute Feed per rotation Return to initial point in canned cycle Return to R point in canned cycle

3.3. G and M codes for Turning Operations:
Miscellaneous Functions (M codes): M00 M02 M03 M04 M05 M06 M08 M09 M10 M11 M62 Program Stop Optional Stop Spindle Forward (CW) Spindle Reverse (CCW) Spindle Stop Tool Change Coolant On Coolant Off Vice Open Vice Close Output 1On

M64 M65 M66 M67 M76 M77 M98 M99

Output 1Off Output 2Off Output 2Off Wait Input 1 Off Wait Input 1 Off Wait Input 2 Off Subprogram Call Subprogram Exit

Preparatory Functions (G Codes) G Code G00 G01 G02 G03 G04 G20 G21 G28 G32 G40 G41 G42 G49 G50 G70 G71 G72 G73 G74 G75 G76 G90 G92 G94 G96 G97 G98 G99 11 2 1 0 4 6 9 1 7 0 1 Group Function Positioning (Rapid traverse) Linear interpolation (Cutting feed) Circular interpolation CW Circular interpolation CCW Dwell, Exact stop Input in inch Input in mm Return to reference point Thread cutting Tool nose radius compensation cancel Tool nose radius compensation Left Tool nose radius compensation Right Tool Length compensation cancel Work co-or. change / spindle speed setting Finishing cycle Stock removal in turning Stock removal in facing Pattern repeating Peck drilling in Z axis Grooving in X axis Thread cutting cycle Cutting cycle A Thread cutting cycle Cutting cycle B Constant surface speed control Constant surface speed control cancel Feed per minute Feed per revolution

MILLING OPERATIONS: 1. CIRCULAR POCKETING:
Definitions for the terms used in the G170 and G171 circular pocket canned cycle as follows: N0080 G170 R0 P0 Q3 X0 Y0 Z-6 I0.5 J0.1 K-24 ; N0090 G171 P75 S2000 R75 F250 B2500 J200 Z5; For G170 block, R defines the position of the tool to start cycle ie. 0 (surface of job). P defines when P is zero(0) the cycle is a roughing cycle and P is one (1) the cycle is finishing cycle Q defines the peck increment, 2 pecks each of 3mm. X defines the pocket centre in X axis (0). Y defines the pocket centre in Y axis (0). Z defines the pocket base (-6mm) from job surface. I defines the side finish allowance (leaves a finishing allowance of 0.5). J defines the base finish allowance (leaves a finishing allowance of 0.1). K defines the radius of pocket (-24) negative value - cut in CCW direction). For G171 block, P defines the cutter width percentage. S defines the roughing spindle speed (S2000). R defines the roughing Feed in Z (75). F defines the roughing feed X,Y (250). B defines the finishing spindle speed (2500). J defines the finishing feed (200). Z defines for to lift tool for safety purpose.

2. RECTANGULAR POCKETING:

Definitions for the terms used in the G172 and G173 rectangular pocket canned cycle as follows: N0080 G172 I50 J50 K0 P0 Q3 R0 X25 Y25 Z-6 ;

N0090 G173 I0.5 K0.1 P75 T1 S1000 R75 F250 B1500 J200 Z5 ; For G172 block, I define the pocket X length (50). J defines the pocket Y length (50) K defines the radius of corner roundness (not applicable to Denford software). P defines that 0 = roughing cycle and 1 for finishing cycle. Q defines the pocket Z increment (peck increments in above cycle 2-3mm pecks). R defines the Absolute Z 'R' point. X defines the pocket corner X (Absolute position relative to the X datum position). Y defines the pocket corner Y (Absolute position relative to the Y datum position). Z defines the absolute Z base of pocket (-6, ie, a depth of 6mm). For G173 block, I defines the pocket side finish (0.5 finishing allowance) on the finishing pass. K defines the pocket base finish (0.1 finishing allowance) on the finishing pass. P defines the cut width percentage (75% of tool dia.). T defines the pocket tool (tool 1). S defines the spindle speed for roughing (1000rpm). R defines the roughing feed for Z (75). F defines the roughing feed X and Y (250). B defines the finishing spindle speed (1500 rpm). J defines the finishing feed (200). Z defines the safety Z (5mm above 'R' point). When values are stated for the I and K elements, the program will perform a finishing pass after completion of the final roughing cut.

3. PECK DRILLING CYCLE:
A G83 (Deep hole Peck drilling) command is written in the following format: G99 G83 X.... Y.... Z.... Q.... R.... F.... G98 G80

Sequence of moves: 1) Rapid position to X, Y and Z (the initial level). 2) Rapid traverse to R point level. 3) Feed rate in the value of Q. 4) Rapid traverse out to R point. Rapid traverse back to within 1mm of depth of Q cut. Operation moves 2 and 4 are repeated until Z depth is reached. 5) Rapid traverse to Initial level (G98) or R point level (G99). 1 - Positioning of the X and Y axes. 2 - Rapid traverse in the Z axis to the "R" point. 3 - Hole machining procedure. 4 - Operation at bottom of hole. 5 - Retraction to R point. 6 - Rapid traverse in the Z axis to the Initial level. G.... X.... Z.... R.... Q.... F.... G80is defined as the canned cycle. Y.... is defined as the hole position, in absolute or incremental value. is defined as the distance from the R point to the bottom of the hole in incremental is defined as the distance from the initial level to the R point level in incremental is defined as the cut-in distance value or shift value (Note - this is always specified as is defined as the feed rate for machining. Drilling cycle cancelled.

mode, or the position of the hole bottom in absolute mode. mode, or the position of the Z datum in relation to the R point level in absolute mode. an incremental value).

4. BORING OPERATION:

G86 (Boring Operation) command is written in the following format: G86 G99 X.... Y.... Z.... G98 G80 Sequence of moves: 1) Rapid position to X, Y and Z (the initial level). 2) Rapid traverse to R point level. R.... K… F....

3) Feed motion up to the Z level, the bottom of the hole. 4) Rapid traverse up to the R point level Initial level (G99) and up to the Initial tool Level (G98) 1 - Positioning of the X and Y axes. 2 - Rapid traverse in the Z axis to the "R" point. 3 - Hole machining procedure. 4 - Operation at bottom of hole. 5 - Retraction to R point. 6 - Rapid traverse in the Z axis to the Initial level. G.... X.... Z.... R.... K.. F.... is defined as the canned cycle. Y.... is defined as the hole position, in absolute or incremental value. is defined as the distance from the R point to the bottom of the hole in increm ental is defined as the distance from the initial level to the R point level in incremental is the number of repetitions (defaults to 1). is defined as the feed rate for machining.

mode, or the position of the hole bottom in absolute mode. mode, or the position of the Z datum in relation to the R point level in absolute mode.

G80… cycle cancelled.

TURNING OPERATIONS: 1. MULTIPLE TURNING (Canned Cycle)
G71 MULTIPLE TURNING G71 U(*ul) R (*r) G71 P(*p) Q (*q) U(*u2) W (*w2) F(*f) S(*s) T(*t) Where, *u1 *r *p *q *u2 = = = = = depth of cut (radius designation) relief amount line or block number of the start of the final profile line or block number of the end of the final profile finishing allowance in the X axis

*w2 *f *s *t

= = = =

finishing allowance in the Z axis feed rate speed tool number

G70 FINSHING CYCLE G70 P(p) Q(q) F(f)

2. GROOVING CYCLE
G75 GROOVING CYCLE G75 R1 G75 X16 W-3 P100 Q1500 R1 F15 Relief amount, R= 1.0mm Depth of groove, X =2mm Width of groove, W=6.0mm P-peck increment along, X axis 0.1mm Q- Stepping distance along Z axis 1.5 mm

3. MULTIPLE THREADING CYCLE
G76 MULTIPLE THREADING CYCLE G76 P031560 Q250 R0.15 G76 X9.853 Z-19 P1073 Q300 F1.75 (03 =Number of passes for finishing operation (15 =Chamfer amount in microns (60 =Angle of the thread in deg. (Q =Minimum cutting depth=0.25 mm (R =Finishing allowance =0.15mm (X = Core diameter =9.853 mm for M12 thread (Z =Length of thread =19 mm (P Height of thread =1.073 mm (Q =Depth of cut for first pass =0.3 mm (F =Pitch of the thread =1.75 mm

THREAD PARAMETERS
Nominal diameter, mm M2.5 M3 M4 M5 M6 M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24 M30 M33 M36 M8 X1 M10 X1.25 M12 X1.25 M16 X1.5 M20 X1.5 M24 X2 M30 X2 M36 X3 Pitch mm F 0.45 0.5 0.7 0.8 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2 2.5 3 3.5 3.5 4 1 1.25 1.25 1.5 1.5 2 2 3 Core diameter, X Bolt Nut 1.948 2.387 3.141 4.019 4.773 6.466 8.160 9.853 13.546 16.933 20.320 25.706 28.706 31.093 6.773 8.466 10.466 14.16 18.16 21.546 27.546 32.32 2.013 2.459 3.242 4.134 4.918 6.647 8.376 10.106 13.835 17.294 20.752 26.211 29.211 31.67 6.918 8.647 10.767 14.376 18.376 21.835 27.835 32.752 Height of thread ,mm 0.276 0.307 0.429 0.491 0.613 0.767 0.920 1.074 1.227 1.534 1.840 2.147 2.147 2.454 0.613 0.767 0.767 0.920 0.920 1.227 1.227 1.840

Result:
Thus the study exercise on specifications and programming codes of CNC machine were studied.

DENFORD MACHINE TOOL - FANUC (Lathe and milling)
EX. NO: DATE:
This is Fanuc programming system. It was created at Denford machine tools .The current version number can be seen at the top of the screen. CNC lathe (FLSTEP) - Denford Fanuc Turning V1.42 CNC Milling (FANUCMD) - Denford Fanuc milling V1.96 In the main window screen press F1....the following menu will appear,

4

Edit and simulate:
You are now editing a CNC program. A variety of instructions can be keyed in on each line. At any time you can start a simulation of machining of your program via the F9 menu. Whilst typing, characters will appear at the cursor position. The cursor is flashing or steady blob. Some "hot keys" are shown at the bottom.  Main window. Edit keys Hot keys CNC instructions  Example  G codes  M codes  Directives  Tutorials  Comments Screen display

Edit Keys
Whilst editing a CNC program you can use these keys Cursor keys DEL Move cursor in the appropriate direction Deletes one character at the cursor

Back arrow INS HOME END PGUP PGDN Ctrl PGUP Ctrl PGDN Ctrl Y Ctrl N Ctrl R

-

Deletes one character to the left of the cursor Toggles between insert and overwrite Move to start of the line Move to end of the line Moves up a page Moves down a page Moves to first line Moves to last line Deletes all of current line Inserts a new blank line Restores line after edit (This is only possible if you do not move off the line)

These keys are used for block marking: If marking in “anchor” mode: F7 F8 Sets start of marked area Sets end of marked area

If marking in “drag” mode: F7 F8 Starts marking: use the arrow keys to mark out of the drag area Stops marking and then if pressed again cancels marked area

These keys relate to block edits: Alt D Alt C Deletes marked area Moves marked area to current cursor position Copies marked area to current cursor position Alt M -

Remember these quick “hot” keys: F2 F3 Quick saves current program if it has been given a name Quick load of different program

Hot Keys
There are a number of special “hot” keys that can be pressed virtually anytime. This is a list of them: F1 F2 Get help Get G/M code help Quick save CNC program CtrlF1 -

F3 F5 F9 F10

-

Quick load CNC program Get information Check/run CNC programs Get main menu

In addition to the function keys there are the following key combinations: Alt-E Alt-E Returns to the edit Quits the Fanuc system

CNC Instructions
There are a number of different types of CNC program instructions. Select one of them from the menu to get more information. Note that G and M codes can be prefixed with an N block number. Example G codes M codes Directives Tutorials Comments Example

EXAMPLE PROGRAM
[BILLET X30 Z60 O1234 G21 G28 U0 W0 G99 G97 S2000 M06 T0101 M03 G00 X30 Z2 G71 U2 R0.5 G71 P1 Q2 U1 W0.2 F0.15 N1 G01 X12 F0.1 Z-20 G03 X20 Z-24 R4 G01 Z-30 N2 X30 G70 P1 Q2 - define material size - program number - metric, travels to machine datum - mm/rev, sp speed set at 2000rpm - change tool to No 1 - spindle on, rapid positioning - roughing cycle, this code is a - two line instruction - Between N1 and N2 the finished - Profile is defined. The depth - of cut is 2mm, U and W defines - the amount of stock left on - end of profile - finishing cycle

G28 U0 W0 M30

- returns to machine datum - end of program

The above example turns a shaft down to 26mm diameter using tool 1g and a spindle speed of 2000 rpm.

G codes
G codes are instructions describing machine tool movement. A G code quite often requires other information, for example a feed rate or axes coordinates. The Fanuc machine has a large selection of G codes, and help can be obtained for them all. Press Page-down for a list of G codes.

The G codes of listed in Appendix A. M codes
M codes are instructions describing auxiliary machine functions. An M code quite often requires other information, for example a spindle speed or tool number. The machine has a selection of M codes, and help can be obtained for them all. PAGE gives part two. You may select an item with the arrow keys and get help with it by pressing EOB.

The M codes of listed in Appendix B Directives Billet Definition
This directive allows the billet in the simulation window to be given a size. The billet definition should be placed at the start of a program, after the measure has optionally been set.

Example: G21
Sets the measure to metric. [BILLET X30.0 Z50.0 Defines the billet as 50mm long with a diameter of 30mm (if diameter programming is active).

Clear Directive
This clears the tutorial messages window. Example: [CLEAR

Step Directive
This directive switches over to single step execution on-screen and when linked to the fanuc machine. Example: [STEP

Single Step Off Directive
This directive switches off single step execution on-screen and when linked to the fanuc machine. Example: [NOSTEP

Enable Simulation
This directive allows the operations to be simulated. Example: [SHOW

Disable Simulation
This directive stops the operations being simulated. Example: [NOSHOW

Subprogram Directive
This directive allows a program with a non numeric name to be called as a subprogram. Example: [SUBPROGRAM 2 FRED M98 P2

Tutorials
Interactive lessons can be developed through the tutorials facility. Messages and Questions can be embedded within the CNC program. ! - Displays message without stopping. ? - Displays message but stops for key press.

TUTORIAL MESSAGE:
Tutorial message instructions begin with the “!” exclamation mark which is followed by some text. When the CNC program is executed your text will appear in the “tutorial” window at the bottom of the screen.

Example:

Using tool 2 ….

Tutorial pause instructions begin with the “?” question mark which is followed by some text. When the CNC program is executed your text will appear in the “tutorial” window at the bottom f the screen. You will then be prompted to press RETURN to continue. Example: Check the position

Comments
Comments begin with the “(“open bracket character. They can be used to annotate a program, and are ignored when it is executed. Example: (Entering circular cycle)

Screen Display
The top line of the screen gives the following information (left to right): Title and version of the software. Global units of measure (metric/imperial) Current CNC program name. The bottom line lists a set of key which can currently be used. It also shows the shift key states.

Press F2….. Load CNC Program
Key is the name of a CNC program you wish to load. To get a list of available programs blank out the prompt box and then press RETURN.A menu of the programs will then appear and you can select one with the arrow keys. Press RETURN to confirm your choice of program. If the program currently in memory has not been saved, then you will be asked if you want to save it before loading the new program. Answer yes or no, or press ESC to stop loading all together.

Save CNC Program
If the program in memory has no name or you have selected “save as” on the CNC files menu, you will be asked to give a name for it. Key this in, or ask for a list names.

New CNC Program
You have selected the “new program” option before saving the one currently in memory.

You must now decide whether or not you want to save the old program before beginning a new one.

Simulation
 Check syntax  Run program  Dry run  Set tooling  Set view  3D view  Post process

Check Syntax:
Checks through the whole program for errors in the way it is written.

Run program:
Starts on-screen simulation.

Dry run:
Runs the program without an on-screen display. This provides fast over travel checking.

Set datum:
Allows a zero point to be set before on-screen simulation.

Set tooling:
Allows a tool shape to be allocated to a tool number.

Set view:
Use this facility to indicate the view you require for the on-screen simulation.

3D screen:
Produce a 3D view of the billet. To set 3D view PGUP swaps between front and rear views. PGDN redraws the image. The arrow keys select the slice to start displaying from. The SPACE BAR changes the distance the arrow keys move.
Press ESC to leave the 3D view.

Post process:
Produces a program for a different machine.

Press F10…
Main menu  Edit only  Edit and simulate  Simulate only  Machine link  CNC files  Print  Remove link  Settings  Utilities  Quit

Edit only:
Changes to display of just the editor only (no simulation).

Edit and simulate:
Changes to simultaneous display of both the editor and the simulation.

Simulate only:
Changes to display of just the simulation only (no editor).

Machine link:
Programs can be received from or transmitted to the Fanuc controller. It is advisable to simulate program operation before transmitting to the controller.

CNC files:
Gives access to a sub-menu of disc operations you can load and save, change directory and delete files.

Load:
Loads CNC programs. Also allows another program to be merged with the current one.

New:
Destroys the current program and so allows a new one to be keyed in.

Save:
Saves the CNC program in the same file that it was loaded from.

Save as:
Saves the CNC program after prompting you to key in a new name for it.

Change dir:
Allows you to change to a different default directory on disc.

Print:
Prints your CNC program on paper in various formats.

Remote link:
Links to additional external devices, such as tape punch machines ,for CNC program transfer.

Settings:
Allows you to customize this software.

Utilities:
Lets you run other software packages that are installed on your computer.

Quit:
Leaves the Fanuc programming system and returns you to DOS.

Result:
Thus the study exercise on denford machine tool - fanuc (lathe and milling) of CNC machine were studied.

SIMPLE FACING
EX. NO: DATE: 5

AIM:
To simulate and face the work piece to the required dimension using CNC lathe

PROCEDURE: 1. Switch ON the machine control first and ON the computer. 2. Press F10 key and click the CNC files. 3. Click new, then type the program and save it. 4. Check the program for syntax. 5. Go to machine control and press HOME KEY. 6. Press the X and Z axis key . 7. Set the tool offset for both X and Z direction. 8. Switch on the spindle. 9. Press F9 key and execute the CNC program.

PROGRAM:
[BILLET X20 Z60 G21 G40 G98 G28 U0 W0 M06 T01 M03 S1200 ! SIMPLE FACING G00 X21 Z1 G94 X0 Z-1 F1.5 Z-2 Z-3 Z-4 Z-5 G28 U0 W0 M05 M30

RESULT:
Thus the simulation and facing were done on work piece by the CNC lathe to the required dimension.

STEP TURNING
EX. NO: DATE: 6

AIM:
To simulate and turn the work piece to the required dimension using CNC lathe

PROCEDURE: 1. Switch ON the machine control first and ON the computer. 2. Press F10 key and click the CNC files. 3. Click new, then type the program and save it. 4. Check the program for syntax. 5. Go to machine control and press HOME KEY. 6. Press the X and Z axis key . 7. Set the tool offset for both X and Z direction. 8. Switch on the spindle. 9. Press F9 key and execute the CNC program.

PROGRAM:
[BILLET X20 Z55 G21 G40 G98 G28 U0 W0 M06 T1 G97 M03 S1200 ! SIMPLE TURNING G00 X21 Z1 G00 X19 G01 Z-30 G01 X20 G00 Z1 G00 X18 G01 Z-30 G01 X20

G00 Z1 G00 X17 G01 Z-30 G01 X20 G00 Z1 G00 X16 G01 Z-30 G01 X20 G00 Z1 G00 X15 G01 Z-30 G01 X20 G00 Z1 G00 X14 G01 Z-30 G01 X20 G00 Z1 G28 U0 W0 M05 M30

RESULT:
Thus the simulation and turning were done on work piece by the CNC lathe to the required dimension.

STRAIGHT TURNING AND TAPER TURNING
EX. NO: DATE: 7

AIM:
To simulate and to make the taper turning on the work piece to the required dimension using CNC lathe

PROCEDURE: 1. Switch ON the machine control first and ON the computer. 2. Press F10 key and click the CNC files. 3. Click new, then type the program and save it. 4. Check the program for syntax. 5. Go to machine control and press HOME KEY. 6. Press the X and Z axis key . 7. Set the tool offset for both X and Z direction. 8. Switch on the spindle. 9. Press F9 key and execute the CNC program.

PROGRAM:
[BILLET X25 Z60 G21 G40 G98 G28 U0 W0 M06 T1 M03 S1200 !TURNING 4 G00 X26 Z1 G19 X23 Z-30 F1.5 X21 X20 !TAPER TURNING 5 G00 X26 Z-30 G90 X25 Z-35 R0 F1.5

X25 R-1.5 X25 R-2.5 !TURNING 2 G00 X21 Z1 G90 X18 Z-15 F1.5 X16 X14 X12 X10 !TAPERTURNING 3 G00 X21 Z-15 G90 X20 Z-20 R0 F1.5 X20 R-2.5 X20 R-5.0 !END ARC TURNING G00 X26 Z01 G00 X0 Z1 Z0 G03 X10 Z-5 R5 G28 U0 W0 M05 M30

RESULT:
Thus the simulation and taper turning were done on work piece by the CNC lathe to the required dimension.

PROFILE TURNING
EX. NO: DATE: 8

AIM:
To simulate and to make the profile turning on the work piece to the required dimension using CNC lathe

PROCEDURE: 1. Switch ON the machine control first and ON the computer. 2. Press F10 key and click the CNC files. 3. Click new, then type the program and save it. 4. Check the program for syntax. 5. Go to machine control and press HOME KEY. 6. Press the X and Z axis key . 7. Set the tool offset for both X and Z direction. 8. Switch on the spindle. 9. Press F9 key and execute the CNC program. PROGRAM:
[BILLET X40 Z52 G21 G40 G98 G28 U0 W0 M06 T0101 M03 S1200 !TURNING 6 G00 X41 Z1 G90 X39 Z-42 F1.5 X37 X35 !TAPER TURNING 7 G00 X41 Z-42 G90 X40 Z-47 R0 F1.5 X40 R-1.0 X40 R-2.0

X40 R-2.5 !TURNING 4 G00 X36 Z1 G90 X34 Z-30 F1.5 X32 X30 X28 X25 !ARC 5 G00 X36 Z-37 G02 X25 Z-30 R7 F1.5 !TURNING 2 G00 X26 Z1 G90 X23 Z-15 F1.5 X20 X17 X14 X12 X10 !ARC3 G00 X26 Z-25 G03 X10 Z-15 R10 F1.5 !TAPER TURNING 1 G00 X11 Z1 G90 X10 Z-10 R0 F1.5 X10 R-1.0 X10 R-1.5 X10 R-1.5 X10 R-2.5 G28 U0 W0 M05 M30

RESULT:
Thus the simulation and the profile turning were done on work piece by the CNC lathe to the required dimension.

TURNING, CHAMFERING, GROOVING AND THREAD CUTTING
EX. NO: DATE: 9

AIM:
To simulate and to make turning, chamfering, grooving and thread cutting on the work piece to the required dimension using CNC lathe.

PROCEDURE: 1. Switch ON the machine control first and ON the computer. 2. Press F10 key and click the CNC files. 3. Click new, then type the program and save it. 4. Check the program for syntax. 5. Go to machine control and press HOME KEY. 6. Press the X and Z axis key . 7. Set the tool offset for both X and Z direction. 8. Switch on the spindle. 9. Press F9 key and execute the CNC program. PROGRAM: [BILLET X20 Z63 G21 G40 G98 G28 U0 W0 M06 T1 M03 S1500 !TURNING 1 G00 X21 Z1 G90 X18 Z-43 F1.5 X17 X16 !TURNING 2 G90 X14 Z-23 F1.5 X12

!RADIUS 3 G00 X20 Z-43 G00 X16 G03 X20 Z-53 R20 F1.5 G00 X21 Z1 !RADIUS 4 G00 X12 Z-23 G02 X16 Z-33 R20 F1.5 G0 X21 Z1 !CHAMFERING 5 G00 X8 Z1 G01 X12 Z-2 F50 G28 U0 W0 !GROOVING 6 M06 T3 G0 X13 Z-23 G81 X11 X10 X8 G28 U0 W0 !THREAD CUTTING M06 T5 G00 X12 Z-2 G92 X12 Z-20 F1.25 X11 X10.47 G28 U0 W0 M05 M30

RESULT:
Thus the simulation turning, chamfering, grooving and thread cutting were done on work piece by the CNC lathe to the required dimension.

CIRCULAR INTERPOLATION
EX. NO: DATE: 10

AIM:
To simulate and to make the profile on the work piece (circular interpolation) to the required dimension using CNC milling machine.

PROCEDURE: 10. Switch ON the machine control first and ON the computer. 11. Press F10 key and click the CNC files. 12. Click new, then type the program and save it. 13. Check the program for syntax. 14. Go to machine control and press HOME KEY. 15. Press the X and Z axis key . 16. Set the tool offset for both X and Z direction. 17. Switch on the spindle. 18. Press F9 key and execute the CNC program.

PROGRAM:
[BILLET X100 Y100 Z10 [TOOLDEF T1 D6 [EDGEMOVE X0 Y0 G21 G94 G91 G28 X0 Y0 Z0 G90 M06 T0101 M03 S1500 G00 X30 Y15 Z5 G01 X30 Y15 Z-1 F50 G03 X15 Y30 R15 G01 X15 Y75 G03 X30 Y90 R15 G01 X70 Y90

G02 X90 Y75 R15 G01 X90 Y30 G03 X75 Y15 R15 G01 X30 Y15 G0 X30 Y15 Z5 ! CIRCULAR POCKETING G90 X50 Y50 Z5 G170 R0.5 P0 Q1 X50 Y50 Z-3 I0 J0 K15 G171 P50 S1200 R50 F50 B1800 J60 G91 G28 X0 Y0 Z0 M05 M30

RESULT:
Thus the simulation and the profile (circular interpolation) were done on the work piece by the CNC milling machine to the required dimension.

END MILLING
EX. NO: DATE: 11

AIM:
To simulate and to make the profile on the work piece (end milling) to the required dimension using CNC milling machine.

PROCEDURE: 10. Switch ON the machine control first and ON the computer. 11. Press F10 key and click the CNC files. 12. Click new, then type the program and save it. 13. Check the program for syntax. 14. Go to machine control and press HOME KEY. 15. Press the X and Z axis key . 16. Set the tool offset for both X and Z direction. 17. Switch on the spindle. 18. Press F9 key and execute the CNC program.

PROGRAM:
[BILLET X100 Y100 Z10 [TOOLDEF T1 D6 [EDGEMOVE X0 Y0 G21 G94 G91 G28 X0 Y0 Z0 G90 M06 T0101 M03 S1500 G00 X20 Y10 Z5 G01 X20 Y10 Z-5 G01 X80 Y10 G01 X90 Y20 G01 X90 Y70 G02 X70 Y90 R20

G01 X20 Y90 G01 X20 Y60 G01 X10 Y60 G01 X10 Y20 G03 X20 Y10 R10 G00 Z5 G91 G28 X0 Y0 Z0 M05 M30

RESULT:
Thus the simulation and the profile (end milling) were done on the work piece by the CNC milling machine to the required dimension.

PECK DRILLING
EX. NO: DATE: 12

AIM:
To simulate and to make the profile on the work piece (peck drilling) to the required dimension using CNC milling machine.

PROCEDURE: 10. Switch ON the machine control first and ON the computer. 11. Press F10 key and click the CNC files. 12. Click new, then type the program and save it. 13. Check the program for syntax. 14. Go to machine control and press HOME KEY. 15. Press the X and Z axis key . 16. Set the tool offset for both X and Z direction. 17. Switch on the spindle. 18. Press F9 key and execute the CNC program.

PROGRAM:
[BILLET X100 Y10 Z20 [TOOLDEF T1 D16 [EDGEMOVE X0 Y0 G21 G98 G91 G28 X0 Y0 Z0 G90 M06 T1 M03 S1500 G90 X0 Y0 Z1 ! HOLE A G00 X25 Y25 Z5 G83 X25 Y25 Z-18 R0 Q3 F1.5 G00 X25 Y25 Z5 ! HOLE B

G00 X25 Y75 Z5 G83 X25 Y75 Z-18 R0 Q3 F1.5 G00 X25 Y75 Z5 ! HOLE C G00 X75 Y75 Z5 G83 X75 Y75 Z-18 R0 Q3 F1.5 G00 X75 Y75 Z5 ! HOLE D G00 X75 Y25 Z5 G83 X75 Y25 Z-18 R0 Q3 F1.5 G00 X75 Y25 Z5 G00 X0 Y0 G28 U0 W0 M05 M30

RESULT:
Thus the simulation and the profile (peck drilling) were done on the work piece by the CNC milling machine to the required dimension.

IRREGULAR MILLING
EX. NO: DATE: 13

AIM:
To simulate and to make the profile on the work piece (irregular milling) to the required dimension using CNC milling machine.

PROCEDURE: 10. Switch ON the machine control first and ON the computer. 11. Press F10 key and click the CNC files. 12. Click new, then type the program and save it. 13. Check the program for syntax. 14. Go to machine control and press HOME KEY. 15. Press the X and Z axis key . 16. Set the tool offset for both X and Z direction. 17. Switch on the spindle. 18. Press F9 key and execute the CNC program.

PROGRAM:
[BILLET X80 Y80 Z10 [TOOLDEF T1 D6 [EDGE MOVE X0 Y0 G21 G94 G91 G28 X0 Y0 Z0 G90 M06 T0101 M03 S150 G00 X10 Y10 Z6 G01 Z-1 F50 G03 X70 Y10 R100 G03 X70 Y70 R100 G03 X10 Y70 R100 G03 X10 Y10 R100

G02 X70 Y10 R30 G02 X70 Y70 R30 G02 X10 Y70 R30 G02 X10 Y10 R30 G00 Z6 G91 G28 X0 Y0 Z0 M05 M30

RESULT:
Thus the simulation and the profile (irregular milling) were done on the work piece by the CNC milling machine to the required dimension.

MIRRORING
EX. NO: DATE: 14

AIM:
To simulate and to make the profile on the work piece (mirroring) to the required dimension using CNC milling machine.

PROCEDURE: 10. Switch ON the machine control first and ON the computer. 11. Press F10 key and click the CNC files. 12. Click new, then type the program and save it. 13. Check the program for syntax. 14. Go to machine control and press HOME KEY. 15. Press the X and Z axis key . 16. Set the tool offset for both X and Z direction. 17. Switch on the spindle. 18. Press F9 key and execute the CNC program.

PROGRAM:
[BILLET X100 Y100 Z10 [TOOLDEF T1 D6 [EDGE MOVE X-50 Y-50 G21 G40 G94 G91 G28 Z0 G28 X0 Y0 M06 T01 M03 S2000 G90 G00 X0 Y0 Z5 M98 P1234 M70 M98 P1234 M80

M71 M98 P1234 M81 M70 M71 M98 P1234 G91 G28 X0 Y0 Z0 M05 M30 SUB PROGRAM: [SAVED AS THE FILE NAME; 1234 SEPARATELY IN THE WORKING DIRECTORY] G90 G00 X10 Y10 Z5 G01 Z-1.0 F50 G01 X10 Y40 G01 X20 Y40 G01 X20 Y20 G01 X40 Y20 G01 X40 Y10 G01 X10 Y10 G01 X0 Y0 Z5 M99

RESULT:
Thus the simulation and the profile (mirroring) were done on the work piece by the CNC milling machine to the required dimension.

MULTIPLE TURNING OPERATIONS USING EDGECAM
EX. NO: DATE: 15

AIM:
To Generate the CNC part program for the component as shown in figure and simulate the tool path using EDGECAM

MINIMUM SYSTEM CONFIGURATION:
Software Operating system Processor Speed Ram : : : : : EDGECAM Windows 2000 Pentium IV 1.3 GHz 256MB

PROCEDURE:
1. Start Part Modeler. You will be working in the new 'Untitled Model' that automatically opens. 2. Click Planar Construction menu ► Shapes ► Rectangle. 3. The cursor changes to, and in the bottom left of the screen a message appears prompting you to 'Indicate First Corner of Rectangle'. 4. Move the cursor toward the marker at the centre of the graphics window until it 'snaps', as shown on the right. Then perform a left mouse click. Snapping means that you don't have to exactly place the cursor. For example near a line end your click may be automatically placed actually at the line end. The cursor changes to indicate this and you will see in a later step that this is controlled by the Locate toolbar. 5. The marker shows the Construction Plane origin, which is where X, Y and Z = 0. You are now following the prompt to 'Indicate 2nd corner of rectangle....'. 6. As you move the cursor this drags out the 2nd corner, and the Rectangle Width/Height dialog dynamically indicates the current size. 7. With the help of part modeler option, create the whole profile as per requirement.

8. Save the part i.e., file> save… Now start the new session of EDGECAM, and follow the given procedure, Right-click on any menu. 9. In the shortcut menu that appears click Profiles ► Turn Profile ► default. Config. 10. Operations > zx environment, 11. Solids> align body for Turning > select any surface > and set the CPL, Geometry > stock/fixture > and set as per the requirement , 12. Solids > feature finder > Turn > ok, Enter the Manufacturing mode by using ctrl+M, 13. On the Operations toolbar, click Straight Turn/Face Operation. 14. The status bar (at the bottom left of the window) prompts you to 'Digitise start point' 15. Click the point just clear of the right corner of the billet 16. On the Operations toolbar, click Turning Operation 17. Right-click to accept the default starts point on the profile. 18. Right-click to accept the default starts point of the cycle. For the outer billet, select the white profile at the top. 19. The dialog for the Turning Operation is now displayed, 20. On the Main toolbar, (see location) click Simulate Machining. 21. On the Main toolbar, click Generate Code. 22. Enter a CNC Name of your choice and click OK.

MODEL:

RESULT:
Thus CNC part program for the component as shown in figure is generated as well as simulated using EDGECAM

THREADING AND GROOVING OPERATIONS USING EDGECAM
EX. NO: DATE: 16

AIM:
To Generate the CNC part program for the component as shown in figure and simulate the tool path using EDGECAM

MINIMUM SYSTEM CONFIGURATION:
Software Operating system Processor Speed Ram : EDGECAM

: Windows 2000 : : : Pentium IV 1.3 GHz 256MB

PROCEDURE:
1. Start Part Modeler. You will be working in the new 'Untitled Model' that automatically opens. Click Planar Construction menu ► Shapes ► Rectangle. 2. The cursor changes to, and in the bottom left of the screen a message appears prompting you to 'Indicate First Corner of Rectangle'. 3. Move the cursor toward the marker at the centre of the graphics window until it 'snaps', as shown on the right. Then perform a left mouse click. Snapping means that you don't have to exactly place the cursor. For example near a line end your click may be automatically placed actually at the line end. The cursor changes to indicate this and you will see in a later step that this is controlled by the Locate toolbar. 4. The marker shows the Construction Plane origin, which is where X, Y and Z = 0. You are now following the prompt to 'Indicate 2nd corner of rectangle....’ 5. As you move the cursor this drags out the 2nd corner, and the Rectangle Width/Height dialog dynamically indicates the current size.

6. With the help of part modeler option, create the whole profile as per requirement, Save the part i.e., file> save… Now start the new session of EDGECAM, and follow the given procedure, Right-click on any menu. 7. In the shortcut menu that appears click Profiles ► Turn Profile ► default. Config. 8. Operations > zx environment, 9. Solids> align body for Turning > select any surface > and set the CPL, Geometry > stock/fixture > and set as per the requirement , 10. Solids > feature finder > Turn > ok, 11. Enter the Manufacturing mode by using ctrl+M, 12. On the Operations toolbar, click Straight Turn/Face Operation. The status bar (at the bottom left of the window) prompts you to ' point just clear of the right corner of the billet 13. On the Operations toolbar, click Turning Operation Right-click to accept the default start point on the profile. Right-click to accept the default starts point of the cycle. 14. For the outer billet, select the white profile at the top. 15. The dialog for the Turning Operation is now displayed, On the Main toolbar; (see location) click Simulate Machining. 16. On the Main toolbar, click Generate Code. 17. Enter a CNC Name of your choice and click OK. Digitise start point' click the

MODEL:

RESULT: Thus CNC part program for the component as shown in figure is generated as well as simulated using EDGECAM

PROFILE MILLING OPERATIONS USING EDGECAM
EX. NO: DATE: 17

AIM:
To Generate the CNC part program for the component as shown in figure and simulate the tool path using EDGECAM

MINIMUM SYSTEM CONFIGURATION:
Software Operating system Processor Speed Ram : EDGECAM

: Windows 2000 : : : Pentium IV 1.3 GHz 256MB

PROCEDURE:
1. On the File menu, click Open. 2. In the Open dialog, navigate to, and open the Corresponding file, 3. In the top right corner of the Edge cam window, click Switch to Manufacture Mode, In this part, the machining sequence has already been started. Edge cam may ask you to confirm settings for the code generator. If so, click Cancel. 4. Right-click on any menu, click Profiles ► Mill Profile ► default. config. 5. On the Options menu, click Select Technology. 6. To select the Component Material, click Browse. (You leave the default setting for Technology Adjustment unchanged.) 7. In the dialog that opens scroll down the list in the All tab, then click Steel - 150 HB to select it, then click Select. > Click OK to close the Select Technology dialog > You see a notification dialog about speeds and feeds - click OK in this dialog. 8. On the Operations toolbar click Face Mill Operation. > The status bar prompts you to 'Select closed profiles to machine'. Click on the white part outline to select it, then right-click to terminate the selection > the face mill operation dialog now now appear,

9. In the General tab set Mill Type to Climb, Angle to 0, %Stepover to 90, Lead Length to 0, Lead Radius to 0 and Stock Offset to 0.5. 10. Click the Tooling tab and set Feedrate to 500, Plunge Feed to 200, Speed to 150, and Diameter to 1.25. All other settings can be left blank. 11. Click the Depth tab and set Clearance to 0.25, Level to 0.04 and Depth to -0.04. All other settings can be left blank. > Click OK. > The Face Mill operation is now created. 12. On the Operations toolbar, click Roughing Operation. > The status bar prompts you to 'Digitise Geometry to machine'. Rest the cursor on the cyan profile to highlight it, then click. > Right-click to finish the geometry selection 13. On the Main toolbar, click Generate Code. 14. Enter a CNC Name of your choice and click OK.

MODEL:

RESULT: Thus CNC part program for the component as shown in figure is generated as well as simulated using EDGECAM

PROFILE MILLING AND DRILLING OPERATIONS USING EDGECAM

EX. NO: DATE:

18

AIM:
To Generate the CNC part program for the component as shown in figure and simulate the tool path using EDGECAM

MINIMUM SYSTEM CONFIGURATION:
Software Operating system Processor Speed Ram : EDGECAM

: Windows 2000 : : : Pentium IV 1.3 GHz 256MB

PROCEDURE:
1. On the File menu, click Open. 2. In the Open dialog, navigate to, and open the Corresponding file, 3. In the top right corner of the Edge cam window, click Switch to Manufacture Mode, In this part, the machining sequence has already been started. Edge cam may ask you to confirm settings for the code generator. If so, click Cancel. 4. Right-click on any menu, click Profiles ► Mill Profile ► default. Config. 5. On the Options menu, click Select Technology. 6. To select the Component Material, click Browse. (You leave the default setting for Technology Adjustment unchanged.) 7. In the dialog that opens scroll down the list in the All tab, then click Steel - 150 HB to select it, then click Select. > Click OK to close the Select Technology dialog > you see a notification dialog about speeds and feeds - click OK in this dialog. 8. On the Operations toolbar click Face Mill Operation. > The status bar prompts you to 'Select closed profiles to machine'. Click on the white part outline to select it, then right-click to terminate the selection > the face mill operation dialog now now appear,

9. In the General tab set Mill Type to Climb, Angle to 0, %Stepover to 90, Lead Length to 0, Lead Radius to 0 and Stock Offset to 0.5. 10. Click the Tooling tab and set Feedrate to 500, Plunge Feed to 200, Speed to 150, and Diameter to 1.25. All other settings can be left blank. 11. Click the Depth tab and set Clearance to 0.25, Level to 0.04 and Depth to -0.04. All other settings can be left blank. > Click OK. > The Face Mill operation is now created. 12. On the Operations toolbar, click Roughing Operation. > The status bar prompts you to 'Digitise Geometry to machine'. Rest the cursor on the cyan profile to highlight it, then click. > Right-click to finish the geometry selection 13. On the Main toobar, click Generate Code. 14. Enter a CNC Name of your choice and click OK.

MODEL:

RESULT:
Thus CNC part program for the component as shown in figure is generated as well as simulated using EDGECAM.

PREPARED AND PUBLISHED BY:
Mr.M.Mohan Prasad M.E., (MBA).
Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, P.A.College of Engineering and Tec hnology, Pollachi, Coimbatore - 642 002. Email: ermmpbe@gmail.com

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