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The Wikimedia Board of Trustees election has started. Please vote. [Hide] [Help us with translations!] History of India From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search History of South Asia Stone Age before 3300 BCE • Mehrgarh Culture • 7000–3300 BCE Indus Valley Civilization 3300–1700 BCE • Late Harappan Culture • 1700–1300 BCE Vedic Civilization 2000–600 BCE Iron Age 1200–1 BCE • Maha Janapadas • 700–300 BCE • Magadha Empire • 684–424 BCE • Nanda Empire • 424-321 BCE • Maurya Empire • 321–184 BCE • Sunga Empire • 185-73 BCE • Kanva Empire • 75-26 BCE • Kharavela Empire • 209–170 BCE • Kuninda Kingdom • 200s BCE–300s CE • Indo-Scythian Kingdom • 200 BC–400 CE • Chera Kingdom • 300 BCE–1200 CE • Chola Empire • 300 BCE–1279 CE • Pandyan Kingdom • 250 BCE–1345 CE • Satavahana Empire • 230 BCE–220 CE • Indo-Greek Kingdom • 180 BCE–10 CE Middle Kingdoms 1CE–1279 CE • Indo-Parthian Kingdom • 21–130s CE • Western Satrap Empire • 35–405 CE • Kushan Empire • 60–240 CE

• Indo-Sassanid Kingdom • 230–360 CE • Vakataka Empire • 250–500 CE • Kalabhras Kingdom • 250–600 CE • Gupta Empire • 280–550 CE • Pallava Kingdom • 275–800 CE • Kadamba Empire • 345–525 CE • Western Ganga Kingdom • 350–1000 CE • Vishnukundina Empire • 420-624 CE • Huna Kingdom • 475-576 CE • Chalukya Empire • 543–753 CE • Harsha Empire • 590-647 CE • Shahi Kingdom • 565-670 CE • Eastern Chalukya Kingdom • 624-1075 CE • Pratihara Empire • 650–1036 CE • Pala Empire • 750–1174 CE • Rashtrakuta Empire • 753–982 CE • Paramara Kingdom • 800–1327 CE • Yadava Empire • 850–1334 CE • Solanki Kingdom • 942–1244 CE • Western Chalukya Empire • 973–1189 CE • Hoysala Empire • 1040–1346 CE • Sena Empire • 1070–1230 CE • Eastern Ganga Empire • 1078–1434 CE • Kakatiya Kingdom • 1083–1323 CE • Kalachuri Empire • 1130–1184 CE Islamic Sultanates 1206–1596 CE • Delhi Sultanate • 1206–1526 CE • Deccan Sultanates • 1490–1596 CE Ahom Kingdom 1228–1826 CE

Vijayanagara Empire 1336–1646 CE Mysore Kingdom 1399–1947 CE Mughal Empire 1526–1858 CE Madurai Nayak Kingdom 1559 –1736 CE Thanjavur Nayak Kingdom 1572–1918 CE Maratha Empire 1674–1818 CE Sikh Confederacy 1716–1799 CE Sikh Empire 1799–1849 CE Company rule in India 1757–1858 CE British India 1858–1947 CE Partition of India 1947 CE Nation histories Afghanistan • Bangladesh • Bhutan • India Maldives • Nepal • Pakistan • Sri Lanka Regional histories Assam • Bihar • Balochistan • Bengal Himachal Pradesh • Orissa • Pakistani Regions Punjab • South India • Tibet Specialised histories Coinage • Dynasties • Economy Indology • Language • Literature • Maritime Military • Science and Technology • Timeline This box: view • talk • edit This article is about the history of the Indian Subcontinent prior to the Partition of India in 1947. For the history of the modern Republic of India, see History of the Republic of India. For the histories of Pakistan and Bangladesh see History of Pakistan and History of Bangladesh. Also for South India see History of South India. The known history of India begins with the Indus Valley Civilization, which spread and flourished in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent, from c. 3300 to 1300 BCE. Its Mature Harappan period lasted from 2600-1900 BCE. This Bronze Age civilization collapsed at the beginning of the second millennium BCE and was followed by the Iron Age Vedic period, which extended over much of the IndoGangetic plains and which witnessed the rise of major kingdoms known as the Mahajanapadas. In one of these kingdoms Magadha, Mahavira and Gautama Buddha were born in the 6th century BCE, who propagated their Shramanic philosophies among the masses. Later, successive empires and kingdoms ruled the region and enriched its culture from the Achaemenid Persian empire[1] around 543 BCE, to Alexander the Great[2] in 326 BCE. The Indo-Greek Kingdom, founded by Demetrius of Bactria, included Gandhara and Punjab from 184 BCE; it reached its greatest extent under Menander, establishing the Greco-Buddhist period with advances in trade and culture. The subcontinent was united under the Maurya Empire during the 4th and 3rd

flourished contemporaneously. administration. Mughal rule came to cover most of the northern parts of the subcontinent. India was gradually annexed by the British East India Company. is known among its admirers as the "Golden Age of India. Southern India. after which India was directly administered by the British Crown and witnessed a period of both rapid development of infrastructure and economic decline. after being partitioned into the dominions of India and Pakistan. culture. The Mughal Empire suffered a gradual decline in the early eighteenth century. The subcontinent gained independence from Great Britain in 1947. which provided opportunities for the Afghans. Balochis and Sikhs to exercise control over large areas in the northwest of the subcontinent until the British East India Company[4] gained ascendancy over South Asia.1 Stone Age o 1. Contents [hide] • 1 Pre-Historic Era o 1.1 Roman trade with India o 4.centuries BCE. a nationwide struggle for independence was launched by the Indian National Congress.1 The British Raj • 9 The Indian Independence movement • 10 Independence and Partition • 11 See also • 12 References • 13 Further reading . with various parts ruled by numerous Middle kingdoms for the next ten centuries.2 The Mughal era • 7 Post-Mughal Regional Kingdoms • 8 Colonial era o 8. During the first half of the 20th century. In addition to the Mughals. in Western. several independent Hindu states. the Ahom Kingdom and various Rajput kingdoms. Muslim rule in the subcontinent began in 712 CE when the Arab general Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh and Multan in southern Punjab. and remained so for two centuries thereafter. leading to the formation of Muslim empires in the Indian subcontinent such as the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire. such as the Vijayanagara Empire.3 Vedic period o 1.5 Persian and Greek invasions • 2 Maurya Period • 3 Early Middle Kingdoms — The Golden Age • 4 Northwestern hybrid cultures o 4. Dissatisfaction with Company rule led to the First War of Indian Independence. Beginning in the mid-18th century and over the next century." During the same time. It subsequently became fragmented. Pallavas and Pandyas. Kerala had maritime business links with the Roman Empire from around AD 77. Cholas. Mughal rulers introduced middle-eastern art and architecture to India. under the rule of the Chalukyas. This period. and later joined by the Muslim League. Southern and North-Eastern India respectively.4 Maha Janapadas o 1.[3] setting the stage for several successive invasions between the 10th and 15th centuries CE from Central Asia.1 Delhi Sultanate o 6. Its northern regions were united once again in the 4th century CE. and for several centuries afterwards. the Maratha Empire.2 Bronze Age o 1. of Hindu religious and intellectual resurgence. under the Gupta Empire. and religion (Hinduism and Buddhism) spread to much of Asia. during which Indian civilization.2 Gupta Dynasty • 5 Late Middle Kingdoms — The Classical Age • 6 The Islamic Sultanates o 6. experienced its own golden age.

Early Neolithic culture in South Asia is represented by the Mehrgarh findings (7000 BCE onwards) in present day Balochistan. India.[11] the GangesYamuna Doab. radiocarbon dated to 7500 BCE.[11][12] The earliest archaeological site in the Subcontinent is the palaeolithic hominid site in the Soan River valley. recent finds in Tamil Nadu (at c. bronze.000 years ago in the Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka in modern Madhya Pradesh.[15][16] Bronze Age Main article: Indus Valley Civilization See also: Economic history of India and Timeline of the economy of India Ancient Lothal as envisaged by the Archaeological Survey of India.[7] The Edakkal Caves has one of the earliest exmples of stone age writing. The ancient civilization included . It was centered on the Indus River and its tributaries which extended into the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley. The first confirmed permanent settlements appeared 9. Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley. The north-western part of the Subcontinent has been inhabited continuously for at least two million years. Historically part of Ancient India. India.000 years ago. Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka.[17] Gujarat. India. The civilization flourished from about 2600 BCE to 1900 BCE marked the beginning of the urban civilization on the subcontinent.[5][6] Most traces of the out of Africa migration along the shores of the Indian Ocean seem to have been lost.[8][9] The ancient history of the region includes some of South Asia's oldest settlements[10] and some of its major civilizations.[19] The civilization is primarily located in modern day India (Gujarat.[14] while the first urban civilization of the region began with the Indus Valley Civilization.000 years ago. Due to flooding in the post-Ice Age period. More extensive settlement of the subcontinent occurred after the end of the last Ice Age. Traces of a Neolithic culture have been found submerged in the Gulf of Khambat in India. Late Neolithic cultures sprang up in the Indus Valley region between 6000 and 2000 BCE and in southern India between 2800 and 1200 BCE. Madhya Pradesh.000 to 500. it is one of the world's earliest urban civilizations along with Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt.[13] Village life began with the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh.000 years ago. Isolated remains of Homo erectus in Hathnora in the Narmada Valley in Central India indicate that India might have been inhabited since at least the Middle Pleistocene era. starting around 30. Punjab and Rajasthan provinces) and today's Pakistan (Sindh. Stone age writings of Edakkal Caves in Kerala. before and after the explosion of the Toba volcano) indicate the presence of the first anatomically modern humans in the area. The Mesolithic period in the Indian subcontinent covered a timespan of around 25.• 14 External links Pre-Historic Era Stone Age Main article: South Asian Stone Age Further information: Mehrgarh. the Harappans. Pakistan. somewhere between 200. "Priest King" of Indus Valley Civilization The Bronze Age on the Indian subcontinent began around 3300 BCE with the beginning of the Indus Valley Civilization.[18] and northern Afghanistan. Haryana.000 years. developed new techniques in metallurgy and produced copper. or approximately 12. 75. lead and tin. and Edakkal Caves Bhimbetka rock painting. Punjab. and Balochistan provinces).000 years ago.

around 1000 BCE with the composition of the Atharvaveda. which were orally composed in Vedic Sanskrit. Aryan society became increasingly agricultural. c. The civilization is noted for its cities built of brick. The later part of this period corresponds with an increasing movement away from the prevalent tribal system towards establishment of kingdoms. Ganeriwala. Rupar. Mohenjo-daro in modern day Pakistan. as śyāma ayas.[22] Vaishali was the capital of "Licchavi. however there were a number of smaller kingdoms stretching the length and breadth of Ancient India. This period succeeded the prehistoric Late Harappan during which immigrations of Indo-Aryan speaking tribes overlaid the existing civilizations of local people whom they called Dasyus. Adi Shankara. an Indian philosopher who consolidated the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta by using the Upanishads for reference. The Aryas established Vedic civilization all over North India. In addition to the principal texts of Hinduism the Vedas. Detail of a leaf with.[20] After the Rigveda. Early Vedic society consisted of largely pastoral groups. and increasingly so in the Gangetic Plain. The Vedic period lasted from about 1500 BCE to 500 BCE. with late Harappan urbanization having been abandoned. Maha Janapadas Gautama Buddha undertaking extreme ascetic practices before his enlightenment on the bank of river Falgu in Bodh Gaya. called Maha Janapadas. from the Kalpa Sutra." world's second republic only after Arwad." The Painted Grey Ware culture spanning much of Northern India was prevalent from about 1100 to 600 BCE. and was socially organized around the four Varnas. India. road-side drainage system and multi-storied houses. .[22] The Vedic Period also established republics (such as Vaishali) which existed as early as the sixth century BC and persisted in some areas until the fourth century AD. Bihar. located mainly across the fertile Indo-Gangetic plains. the core themes of the Sanskrit epics Ramayana and Mahabharata are said to have their ultimate origins during this period. in part. Vedic period Main article: Vedic period See also: Vedas and Indo-Aryans Map of North India in the late Vedic period. next to those of Egypt and Mesopotamia. The Mahajanapadas were the sixteen most powerful kingdoms and republics of the era. laid the foundations of Hinduism and other cultural aspects of early Indian society. Kalibangan.urban centers such as Dholavira. The Vedic period is characterized by Indo-Aryan culture associated with the texts of Vedas.[21] Early Indo-Aryan presence probably corresponds. the first Indian text to mention iron. The Birth of Mahavira (the 24th Jain Tirthankara). The Vedas are some of the oldest extant texts. to the presence of Ochre Coloured Pottery in archaeological findings. literally "black metal. Lothal in modern day India and Harappa. sacred to Hindus. Rakhigarhi.1375-1400.[23] The kingdom of the Kurus[24] corresponds to the Black and Red Ware and Painted Gray Ware culture and the beginning of the Iron Age in Northwestern India.

Kuru. Nanda Empire. Chedi. Persian and Greek invasions See also: Achaemenid Empire. a number of small kingdoms or city states had covered the subcontinent." It was the center of Buddhist learning and research in the world from 450–1193 CE. he defeated King Puru in the Battle of the Hydaspes (near modern-day Jhelum. Kosala. and were contemporary to the development of Buddhism and Jainism. Pakistan) and conquered much of the Punjab. Panchala. sixteen monarchies and 'republics' known as the Mahajanapadas — Kasi. Mahavira (the 24th Jain Tirthankara according to Jains) propagated a similar theology. that was to later become Jainism. which helped them gain acceptance amongst the masses. Avanti.Nalanda University is considered "one of the first great universities in recorded history. Vatsa (or Vamsa). Assaka. indicating a golden age of thought in this period.[26] However. prohibition of animal slaughter and ahimsa (non-violence). Surasena.[29] Alexander's march East put . Indian Religions. Siddhartha Gautama. East Asia. It is believed that in 537 BCE. Some of these kings were hereditary. and Mahavira Further information: Upanishads. Many of the sixteen kingdoms had coalesced to four major ones by 500/400 BCE. Avanti. 520 BCE during the reign of Darius the Great. They have profoundly influenced practices that Hinduism and Indian spiritual orders are associated with namely. Anga. Alexander the Great. late Vedic texts dealing mainly with incipient philosophy. while the dialects of the general population of northern India are referred to as Prakrits. that Siddhartha Gautama attained the state of "enlightenment". and Gangaridai Asia in 323BC. were composed in the later Vedic Age and early in this period of the Mahajanapadas (from about 600 . There. Alexander the Great conquered Asia Minor and the Achaemenid Empire. and Ancient universities of India In the later Vedic Age. Many smaller clans mentioned within early literature seem to have been present across the rest of the subcontinent. many mentioned during Vedic. Jain orthodoxy believes it predates all known time. Sri Lanka and South East Asia. It is thought that the Upanishads.400 BCE). vegetarianism. and History of Jainism See also: Adi Shankara. The Vedas are believed to have documented a few Jain Tirthankars. the Nanda Empire and Gangaridai Empire in relation to Alexander's Empire and neighbors. History of Buddhism. and became known as the 'Buddha' . Indian philosophy. Upanishads had a substantial effect on Indian philosophy. early Buddhist and Jaina literature as far back as 1000 BCE. Much of the northwestern Indian Subcontinent (present day Eastern Afghanistan and Pakistan) came under the rule of the Persian Achaemenid Empire in c.the elightened one. Main articles: Mahajanapadas and Magadha Empire Main articles: History of Hinduism. Greco-Buddhism. and were preached in Prakrit. Magadha. By 500 BCE. This period was that of the second major urbanisation in India after the Indus Valley Civilization. Around the same time. Tibet. Buddhist nuns and monks eventually spread the teachings of Buddha to Central Asia. Vajji (or Vriji). Machcha (or Matsya). Kosala and Magadha. and an ascetic order similar to the sramana movement. by the time of Siddhartha Gautama. Kamboja — stretched across the Indo-Gangetic plains from modern-day Afghanistan to Bengal and Maharastra. While the geographic impact of Jainism was limited to India.[25] Hindu rituals at that time were complicated and conducted by the priestly class. and remained so for two centuries thereafter. The educated speech at that time was Sanskrit.[27] The Buddha's teachings and Jainism had doctrines inclined toward asceticism. other states elected their rulers. These four were Vatsa. Gandhara. reaching the north-west frontiers of the Indian subcontinent. Malla.[28] In 326 BCE.

also known as the Andhras. Kuninda Kingdom. was geographically extensive. and a political military empire in ancient India. Gurjara Kingdom. after the meeting with his officer. The great Maurya empire was established by Chandragupta Maurya and this empire was flourished by Ashoka the Great. Chola Empire. the region of Gandhara. The Satavahanas. Kharavela. Kushan Empire of Ancient India. Gautamiputra Satakarni was another notable ruler of the dynasty. became a melting pot of Indian. The Kushanas invaded north-western India about the middle of the 1st century CE. The Empire was expanded into India's central and southern regions by the emperors Chandragupta and Bindusara. His army. powerful. Western Ganga Dynasty. Pandyan Kingdom. Central Asian and Greek cultures and gave rise to a hybrid culture. exhausted and frightened by the prospect of facing larger Indian armies at the Ganges River. 1030 C. the Empire stretched to the north along the natural boundaries of the Himalayas. Western Satraps. but it excluded a big portion of unexplored tribal and forested regions near Kalinga which was won by Ashoka the Great. The Persian and Greek invasions had important repercussions on Indian civilization.him in confrontation with the Nanda Empire of Magadha and Gangaridai Empire of Bengal. and to the east stretching into what is now Assam. To the west. defeated the Sunga dynasty of North India. was convinced that it was better to return. mutinied at the Hyphasis (modern Beas) and refused to march further East. Bindusara. and founded an empire that eventually stretched from Peshawar to the . Badami Chalukya Empire Main article: Middle Kingdoms of India See also: Satavahanas. At its greatest extent. Satakarni. which lasted until the 5th century CE and influenced the artistic development of Mahayana Buddhism. Greco-Buddhism. the sixth ruler of the Satvahana dynasty.C). it reached beyond modern Pakistan. from Central Asia. Kuninda Kingdom was a small Himalayan state that survived from around the 2nd century BCE to roughly the 3rd century CE. In addition. Chola Empire under Rajendra Chola c. Sunga Empire. Pallava. including the administration of the Mauryan dynasty. The political systems of the Persians was to influence future forms of governance on the subcontinent. or present-day eastern Afghanistan and north-west Pakistan. ________________________________________ Early Middle Kingdoms — The Golden Age Ancient India during the rise of Sunga Empire and Satavahana Empire. Coenus. Chera dynasty. Vishnukundina. ________________________________________ Maurya Period Main article: Maurya Empire Further information: Chandragupta Maurya. annexing Balochistan and much of what is now Afghanistan. was a dynasty which ruled in Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. including the modern Herat and Kandahar provinces. Persian. and Ashoka the Great Maurya Empire under Ashoka the Great The Maurya Empire (322–185 B. Kadamba Dynasty. Kushan Empire.E. and Chalukya Empire The middle period was a time of notable cultural development. ruled by the Mauryan dynasty. Alexander.

See also: Indo-Greek kingdom. Indo-Scythians. Gandhara and finally into India. The trade started by Eudoxus of Cyzicus in 130 BCE kept increasing.101) complained about the drain of specie to India: "India. for domination of the south. So much gold was used for this trade. Roman trade with India Main article: Roman trade with India Coin of the Roman emperor Augustus found at the Pudukottai. For what percentage of these imports is intended for sacrifices to the gods or the spirits of the dead?" —Pliny. Demetrius I "the Invincible" (205–171 BCE). that Pliny (NH VI. in the Gandhara region. and apparently recycled by the Kushans for their own coinage. and the Satavahana (Andhra) who ruled in Central India. China and the Arabian peninsula take one hundred million sesterces from our empire per annum at a conservative estimate: that is what our luxuries and women cost us. a Buddhist kingdom. Samudragupta. as far as the Bay of Bengal. The Western Satraps (35-405 CE) were Saka rulers of the western and central part of India. Historia Naturae 12.5. extended over various parts of present-day Afghanistan and Pakistan. perhaps.12. briefly interrupted the usual domination of the Cholas. Chera Dynasty.[31] These trade routes and harbour are described in detail in the 1st century CE Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. at different periods of time. Arachosia. Roman trade with India started around 1 CE following the reign of Augustus and his conquest of Egypt. Kalabhras. Chandra Gupta II. by the time of Augustus up to 120 ships were setting sail every year from Myos Hormos to India. and the Indo-Sassinids. Several southern kingdoms formed overseas empires that stretched across South East Asia. founded when the Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius invaded the region in 180 BCE. the Indo-Parthians. Yet another kingdom. after fighting many local rulers such as the Kushan ruler Kujula Kadphises. Indo-Parthian Kingdom. Different empires such as the Pandyan Kingdom. The Sassanid empire of Persia. who were contemporaries of the Guptas. Lasting for almost two centuries. Northwestern hybrid cultures The founder of the Indo-Greek Kingdom. where the mingling of Indian and Persian cultures gave birth to the Indo-Sassanid culture. their kingdom lasted from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century BCE. South India. Cheras and Pandyas in the South. Kumaragupta I. The Indo-Scythians was a branch of the Indo-European Sakas (Scythians). the Indo-Scythians. Gupta Dynasty Main article: Gupta Empire See also: Chandra Gupta I. the Indo-Greek Kingdom. it was ruled by a succession of more than 30 Greek kings. expanded into the region of present-day Pakistan. The kingdoms warred with each other and Deccan states. It also included ancient Bactria (in the north of modern Afghanistan) and southern Tajikistan. Western Ganga Dynasty. theretofore India's biggest trade partner in the West.84.middle Ganges and. and Skandagupta . Chola Dynasty. Kashmir. Pallavas and Chalukya Dynasty dominated the southern part of the Indian peninsula. They were the successors of the Indo-Scythians (see below) and contemporaneous with the Kushans who ruled the northern part of the Indian subcontinent. and according to Strabo (II. The first of these. who migrated from southern Siberia first into Bactria. the Indo-Parthians (also known as Pahlavas) came to control most of present-day Afghanistan and northern Pakistan. subsequently into Sogdiana.41.[30]). and IndoSassanids The north-western hybrid cultures of the subcontinent included the Indo-Greeks. who were often in conflict with each other. Kadamba Dynasty.

the Palas of Bengal and the Rashtrakutas of Deccan. This period produced some of India's finest art. and the Pratiharas fragmented into various states. and the Palas of Bengal.Further information: Kalidasa. and Vatsyayana Further information: Meghadūta. These Guptas were ultimately ousted by the Vardhana king Harsha. They were responsible for the downfall of the Gupta dynasty. Chandragupta I. Ahom Kingdom. and the development of the main spiritual and philosophical systems which continued to be in Hinduism. science and political administration reached new heights. who established an empire in the first half of the seventh century. Hoysala Empire. and Chandragupta II were the most notable rulers of the Gupta dynasty. Late Middle Kingdoms — The Classical Age Main article: Middle Kingdoms of India See also: Harsha. Aryabhatta. Abhijñānaśākuntala. Kakatiya dynasty. Samudragupta. The earliest available Puranas are also thought to have been written around this period. and thus brought an end to what historians consider a golden age in northern India. Indian numerals. Kumārasambhava. The Sena dynasty would later assume control of the Pala Empire. much of the Deccan and southern India were largely unaffected by this state of flux in the north. Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri. Rashtrakuta Empire. who seem to have been part of the Hephthalite group. From the 7th to the 9th century. and ended with the fall of the Vijayanagar Empire in the South. King Harsha of Kannauj succeeded in reuniting northern India during his reign in the 7th century. His kingdom collapsed after his death. a series of kingdoms which managed to survive in some form for almost a millennium . Shahi. after the collapse of the Gupta dynasty. and Vijayanagara Empire Pala Empire under Dharmapala Pala Empire under Devapala The classical age in India began with the Guptas and the resurgence of the north during Harsha's conquests around the 7th century. Vishnu Sharma. The empire came to an end with the attack of the Huns from central Asia. Hindu culture. Western Chalukya Empire. the Gupta Dynasty unified northern India. Buddhism and Jainism. Sena dynasty. Varahamihira. three dynasties contested for control of northern India: the Pratiharas of Malwa. These were the first of the Rajputs. with their capital at Bamiyan. Madurai Nayak Dynasty. Panchatantra. due to pressure from the invaders to the north in the 13th century. known as India's Golden Age of Hindu renaissance.the Rashtrakutas of Deccan. The White Huns. Aryabhatiya. established themselves in Afghanistan by the first half of the fifth century. India was again ruled by numerous regional kingdoms. During this period. Pratihara. After the collapse of the Gupta Empire in the 6th century. A minor line of the Gupta clan continued to rule Magadha after the disintegration of the empire. and Kama Sutra The Gupta Empire Kalidasa's Sanskrit play Abhijñānaśākuntala is one of the Legacy of the Gupta Empire. Nevertheless. Kalachuri. The Kanauj Triangle was the focal point of empires . Pala Empire. the Pratiharas of Malwa. considered the epitome of classical development. In the 4th and 5th centuries. Eastern Ganga dynasty.

Turkics and Pashtuns invaded parts of northern India and established the Delhi Sultanate at the beginning of the 13th century. all these kingdoms had ceased to exist giving rise to the Vijayanagar empire. particularly in Kerala. controlling vast overseas empires in Southeast Asia. The Vijaynagar Empire eventually declined due to pressure from the first Delhi Sultanates who had managed to establish themselves in the north. with a flourishing international trade and the only known diamond mines in the world. this had marked the introduction of an Abrahamic Middle Eastern religion in Southern India's pre-existing dharmic Hindu culture. The Chalukya Empire ruled parts of southern and central India from 550 to 750 from Badami. and the Chera kingdom in Kerala. where they arrived in small numbers. Later during the middle period. the ideal instead shifted to the south. Whilst the northern concept of a pan-Indian empire had collapsed at the end of Harsha's empire. One Rajput of the Chauhan clan. Southern Indian kingdoms of the time expanded their influence as far as Indonesia. their feudatories. The Islamic Sultanates Gol Gumbaz at Bijapur. the Chola kingdom emerged in northern Tamil Nadu. By 1343.[34] The subsequent Slave dynasty of Delhi managed to conquer large areas of northern India. After resistance for a few centuries by various north Indian kingdoms. The first recorded Rajput kingdoms emerged in Rajasthan in the 6th century. The Hindu Vijayanagar dynasty came into conflict with Islamic rule (the Bahmani Kingdom) and the clashing of the two systems. Karnataka and again from 970 to 1190 from Kalyani. was known for bloody conflicts against the encroaching Islamic Sultanates. With the decline of the Chalukya empire. with the Roman Empire to the west and Southeast Asia to the east. The Pallavas of Kanchi were their contemporaries further to the south. However. centered around the city of Delhi by that time. The Shahi dynasty ruled portions of eastern Afghanistan. prior to Turkic invasions. the Bahmani Sultanate and Deccan Sultanates flourished in the south. Karnataka. short lived Islamic empires (Sultanates) were established and spread across the northern subcontinent over a period of a few centuries. Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri and a southern branch of the Kalachuri divided the vast Chalukya empire amongst themselves around the middle of 12th century. Muslim trading communities had flourished throughout coastal South India. Hoysalas of Halebidu. northern Pakistan. and small Rajput dynasties later ruled much of northern India. Main article: Delhi Sultanate In the 12th and 13th centuries. Later. commenced by Qutb-ud-din Aybak of the Slave dynasty. has the second largest pre-modern dome in the world after the Byzantine Hagia Sophia. Kakatiya of Warangal. approximate to the ancient extent of the .until Indian independence from the British. chiefly involving spices. which was the richest classical civilization. and Kashmir from the mid-seventh century to the early eleventh century. expanding forces in that area were keen to invade India. Main article: Islamic Empires in India See also: Bahmani Sultanate and Deccan Sultanates After the Arab invasion of India's ancient western neighbour Persia. caused a mingling of the indigenous and foreign culture that left lasting cultural influences on each other. in the former Rajput holdings. But. Prithvi Raj Chauhan. often in puritanical form. The ports of South India were involved in the Indian Ocean trade. through trade links via the Indian Ocean. mainly from the Arabian peninsula.[32][33] Literature in local vernaculars and spectacular architecture flourished till about the beginning of the 14th century when southern expeditions of the sultan of Delhi took their toll on these kingdoms. Delhi Sultanate Qutub Minar is the world's tallest brick minaret.

Humayun. The Mughals. Turkic and Arabic speaking immigrants under the Muslim rulers. However.Guptas.[36] The Mughal Dynasty ruled most of the Indian subcontinent by 1600. which lasted for over 200 years. Akbar the Great. After this victory. Nader Shah defeated the Mughal army at the huge Battle of Karnal. He rolled back the Jazia Tax for non-Muslims. Jahangir. 1398.including the Maratha confederacy . and Aurangzeb In 1526. liberally patronising Hindu culture. In 1739. carrying away many treasures. It is surmised that the language of Urdu (literally meaning "horde" or "camp" in various Turkic dialects) was born during the Delhi Sultanate period as a result of the inter-mingling of the local speakers of Sanskritic prakrits with the Persian. while often employing brutal tactics to subjugate their empire. and attempted to fuse their Turko-Persian culture with ancient Indian styles. built by the Mughals Main articles: Mughal era and Mughal Empire See also: Babur. During the decline of the Mughal Empire. most of them showed religious tolerance. Timur entered Delhi and the city was sacked. A Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur began a trek starting in 1398 to invade the reigning Sultan Nasir-u Din Mehmud of the Tughlaq Dynasty in the north Indian city of Delhi. a Timurid descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan. several smaller empires rose to fill the power vacuum or themselves were contributing factors to the decline. The Delhi Sultanate is the only IndoIslamic empire to stake a claim to enthroning one of the few female rulers in India. while the Khilji Empire was also able to conquer most of central India. The Mughals were perhaps the richest single dynasty to have ever existed. The famous emperor Akbar. had a policy of integration with Indian culture. who was the grandson of Babar. tried to establish a good relationship with the Hindus. that often inflamed the majority Hindu population. Post-Mughal Regional Kingdoms . Razia Sultan (1236-1240). the dominant political forces consisted of the Mughal Empire and its tributaries and. The Mughal Emperors married local royalty. destroyed. Shah Jahan. and clothing. Nader captured and sacked Delhi. creating unique Indo-Saracenic architecture. Taj Mahal. imposed relatively nonpluralistic policies on the general population. the rising successor states . allied themselves with local Maharajas. religion. The Mughal era Approximate extent of the Mughal Empire in the 17th century. who unlike previous emperors. it went into a slow decline after 1707 and was finally defeated during the 1857 War of Independence also called the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Babur. later emperors such as Aurangazeb tried to establish complete Muslim dominance and as a result several historical temples were destroyed during this period and taxes imposed on nonMuslims. literature.[37] During the Mughal era. but were ultimately unsuccessful in conquering and uniting most of the subcontinent. swept across the Khyber Pass and established the Mughal Empire.[35] The Sultan's army was defeated on December 17.who fought an increasingly weak and disfavoured Mughal dynasty. The Sultanate ushered in a period of Indian cultural renaissance. later on. Akbar declared "Amari" or non-killing of animals in the holy days of Jainism. including the Peacock Throne. and left in ruins. The resulting "Indo-Muslim" fusion of cultures left lasting syncretic monuments in architecture. which is what made them successful where the short-lived Sultanates of Delhi had failed. It was the erosion of this tradition coupled with increased brutality and centralization that played a large part in their downfall after Aurangzeb. music. which at its peak occupied an area similar to the ancient Maurya Empire. Akbar the Great was particularly famed for this. This period marked vast social change in the subcontinent as the Hindu majority were ruled over by the Mughal emperors.

Daman. Baji Rao II. The Anglo-Sikh wars marked the downfall of the Sikh Empire.[40] Gradually their increasing influence led the de-jure Mughal emperor Farrukh Siyar to grant them dastaks or permits for duty free trade in Bengal in 1717. and the Portuguese colonies of Goa. and also by the increasing activities of European powers (see colonial era below).[41] The Nawab of Bengal Siraj Ud Daulah. they would eventually lose all their territories in India to the British islanders. Sikh Empire. Nizam. Mysore was a kingdom of southern India. Diu and Bombay. Tippu Sultan. Both Mysore and Hyderabad became princely states in British India. Kingdom of Mysore. The British Raj Main article: British Raj The British East India Company had been given permission by the Mughal emperor Jahangir in 1617 to trade in India. Ranjit Singh. Colonial era Main article: Colonial India Vasco da Gama's maritime success to discover for Europeans a new sea route to India in 1498 paved the way for direct Indo-European commerce. It was ruled by a hereditary Nizam from 1724 until 1948. was a political entity that governed the region of modern day Punjab. the Dutch port of Travancore. Harmandir Sahib or The Golden Temple is culturally the most significant place of worship for the Sikhs. Under their rule Mysore fought a series of wars sometimes against the combined forces of the British and Marathas. The internal conflicts among Indian Kingdoms gave opportunities to the European traders to gradually establish political influence and appropriate lands.Main articles: Maratha Empire. By the 18th century. Daman. Rajputs. was defeated by the British in the Third Anglo-Maratha War. By 1760. the British—who set up a trading-post in the west-coast port of Surat[39] in 1619—and the French. The next to arrive were the Dutch. The Punjabi kingdom. and Diu. The rule of the Wodeyars was interrupted by Hyder Ali and his son Tippu Sultan. Around the 18th century modern Nepal was formed by Gorkha rulers. This was among the last areas of the subcontinent to be conquered by the British. and Durrani Empire See also: History of Sikhism Further information: Shivaji. Although these continental European powers were to control various regions of southern and eastern India during the ensuing century. a Mughal official. The Maratha Kingdom was founded and consolidated by Shivaji. seized control of Hyderabad declaring himself Nizam-al-Mulk of Hyderabad in 1724. The post-Mughal era was dominated by the rise of the Maratha suzerianity as other small regional states (mostly post-Mughal tributary states) emerged. and Ahmad Shah Abdali The Maratha Empire in 1760. ruled by members of the Sikh religion. with the exception of the French outposts of Pondicherry and Chandernagore.[38] The Portuguese soon set up trading-posts in Goa. but mostly against the British with some aid or promise of aid from the French. the de . This expansion was brought to an end by the defeat of the Marathas by an Afghan army led by Ahmad Shah Abdali at the Third Battle of Panipat (1761). the Empire had stretched across practically the entire subcontinent. it had transformed itself into the Maratha Empire under the rule of the Peshwas. Hyderabad was founded by the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golconda in 1591. The last Hindu empire of India. The last Peshwa. Following a brief Mughal rule. Asif Jah. which was founded around 1400 CE by the Wodeyar dynasty. Hyderabad State. and the Shahs and the Ranas very strictly maintained their national identity and integrity.

was exiled to Burma. in which 6. were some of the worst ever recorded. This was the first political foothold with territorial implications that the British acquired in India. opposed British attempts to use these permits. Clive was appointed by the Company as its first 'Governor of Bengal' in 1757. the British overcame the rebellion. it marked the beginning of its formal rule. and these movements succeeded in . He is often referred to as Shaheed Bhagat Singh (the word shaheed means "martyr"). The first step toward Indian independence and western-style democracy was taken with the appointment of Indian councilors to advise the British viceroy. the population of the Indian subcontinent. the Company's lands were controlled directly and the rest through the rulers of what it called the Princely states.1 million to 10. The nominal leader of the uprising. including the Great Famine of 1876–78.[43] The East India Company monopolized the trade of Bengal.[49] From 1920 leaders such as Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi began mass movements to campaign against the British Raj. which stood at about 125 million in 1750. Their policy was sometimes summed up as Divide and Rule. Veerapandiya Kattabomman was also another freedom fighter who started his freedom movement against British rule by refusing to pay tax to British Government. During the British Raj. Subash Chandara Bose was another freedom fighter who formed army forces against British rule. This led to the Battle of Plassey in 1757. had reached 389 million by 1941. Bhagat Singh was also an Indian freedom fighter. the last Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar. which was to engulf eventually most of India and extinguish the Moghul rule and dynasty itself in a century. and reinforcement of the East India Company's troops with British soldiers. in which the 'army' of East India Company. By the 1850s. taking advantage of the enmity festering between various princely states and social and religious groups. his children were beheaded and the Moghul line abolished.[46] The first major movement against the British Company's high handed rule resulted in the Indian Rebellion of 1857. In the aftermath all power was transferred from the East India Company to the British Crown. considered to be one of the most influential revolutionaries of the Indian independence movement.3 million people died[44] and the Indian famine of 1899– 1900. which included present-day Pakistan and Bangladesh. led by Robert Clive. in which 1.[45] Despite persistent diseases and famines. spreading plague to all inhabited continents and killing 10 million people in India alone.25 to 10 million people died.[47] The Indian Independence movement Main article: Indian independence movement See also: Mahatma Gandhi Further information: Freedom fighters of India Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru in 1937. There were 565 princely states when the Indian subcontinent became independent from Britain in August 1947. the Company acquired the civil rights of administration in Bengal from the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II. After a year of turmoil.facto ruler of the Bengal province. Revolutionary activities against the British rule also took place throughout the Indian sub-continent.[44] The Third Plague Pandemic started in China in the middle of the 19th century. also known as the "Indian Mutiny" or "Sepoy Mutiny" or the "First War of Independence". often attributed to failed government policies. the East India Company controlled most of the Indian sub-continent. defeated the Nawab's forces. Rabindranath Tagore is Asia's first Nobel laureate and composer of India's national anthem. famines in India. which began to administer most of India as a colony.[42] After the Battle of Buxar in 1764. They introduced a land taxation system called the Permanent Settlement which introduced a feudal like structure (See Zamindar) in Bengal.[48] and with the establishment of provincial Councils with Indian members the councillors' participation was subsequently widened in legislative councils.

or Great Soul. rioting broke out between Sikhs. with a total of 12 million Hindus. leaving some 500. Independence and Partition Main articles: Partition of India and History of the Republic of India See also: Jawaharlal Nehru. Indians gave him the name Mahatma. Hindus and Muslims in several parts of India. wearing homespun clothes to weaken the British textile industry and orchestrating a march to the sea. they were as inclined to mistrust Hindu rule as they were to resist the Raj. British Indian territories gained independence in 1947. Following the division of prepartition Punjab and Bengal provinces. where demonstrators proceeded to make their own salt in protest against the British monopoly. One year later. tensions between Hindus and Muslims had also been developing over the years.bringing Independence to the Indian sub-continent in 1947. and the prospect of an exclusively Hindu government made them wary of independence. calling for unity between the two groups in an astonishing display of leadership that would eventually lead the country to independence. Gandhi was assassinated. The British promised that they would leave India by 1947. this period saw one of the largest mass migrations ever recorded in modern history. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi came onto the scene. However. he did live long enough to free his homeland. He led by example. In 1915. The Muslims had always been a minority.[50] Also. first suggested by the Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore.Concealing the Record of Islam • Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent • Imperialism in Asia#The British in India References India portal .000 dead. Sikhs and Muslims moving between the newly created nations of India and Pakistan. after being partitioned into the Union of India and Dominion of Pakistan. including Punjab. and Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar' Along with the desire for independence. Rabindranath Tagore. The profound impact Gandhi had on India and his ability to gain independence through a totally non-violent mass movement made him one of the most remarkable leaders the world has ever known. Bengal and Delhi.[50] See also • History of South Asia • History of the Republic of India • History of Pakistan • History of Bangladesh • Indianized kingdom • Contributions of Indian Civilization • Economic history of India • Religion in India • Indian Religions • History of Buddhism • History of Hinduism • History of Jainism • History of Sikhism • Indian philosophy • Science and technology in ancient India • List of Indian inventions and discoveries • Indian maritime history • Military history of India • Kingdoms of Ancient India • Timeline of Indian history • Timeline of the economy of India • Historic figures of ancient India • Indian nationalism • Harappan mathematics • Negationism in India .

http://www. Cucina. ^ ISBN M. 147.pdf.-F. http://www. Macchiarelli (6 April 2006). ^ "History in Chronological Order". 2005). pp. Meadow and G. Delhi: . K. S. Kimberley Heuston (May 2005). 6. Ch. "Palaeontology: Early Neolithic tradition of dentistry" (PDF). pp.S (March 21. Mark (1998).annualreviews. Oxford University Press.tufts.1. http://books. Library of Congress. 7. Retrieved on 2007-05-07. India". 12. and the Ministry of Foreign 15. ^ Coppa. Time and archaeology. http://www. M. G. ISSN 0011-3891. http://www. Dennell.perseus. British Archaeological Reports International Series. http://books. Quivron. KnowHow (The Telegraph).pk/History. 17. Retrieved on 2008-01-09. ^ Kenoyer. http://www.19. Jona Lendering. R. J. Northern Pakistan. 5. A Review. 9.htm. Vora (July 10.loc. L. A.100190. ^ "Palaeolithic and Pleistocene of Pakistan". ^ 14. Jarrige.nature. C. Subhash Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0835607208. R.1038/440755a. H. D. Jarrige. Retrieved on 2008-01-09. Geological Survey of India. R. of Culture and Tourism.+60. Tim (1999). The Ancient South Asian World. 11. C. David Frawley (1995).1. Current India Science 77 (1): 180– ^ Mudur.. http://www. 2. doi:10. "Still a mystery". ^ "Achaemenians". during the Indus civilization (Late Mid-Holocene): A study based on archaeological evidences". ^ Rendell. Multi Disciplinary Geoscientific Studies. ^ a b Retrieved on 2007-11-22. LX. Livius. ^ "The Hathnora Skull Fossil from Madhya Pradesh. "Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanization". OCLC 231832104 (October 1990).001401. Retrieved on 2008-01-09. Retrieved on 2008-01-09.asp. Retrieved on 2007-12-01. Quivron (1995). doi:10. Mehrgarh Field Reports 1975 to 1985 . 364.. G.. ISBN 0195174224. J. Frayer. W. http://www. H. 1958-1959. Pleistocene and Palaeolithic Investigations in the Soan Valley. ^ Feuerstein. ISBN 0415117623. Department of Archaeology. G.telegraphindia. ^ Murray. "Ancient shorelines of Gujarat. Jarrige. Government of Pakistan. Annual Review of Anthropology 19: 261– http://www. 84.infopak. Mestrius. 16. A. 8. London: William Heinemann. 1999). Illinois: Quest Books.) (1919). W. L. F.from the Neolithic to the Indus Civilization.ias.html. pp. Retrieved on 2007-05-07. and Halim. 20 September 2005. A. ISBN (1989).html. Retrieved on 2007-05-06. OCLC 29222688. 3. ^ Gaur. OCLC Rossi. J. of Sindh. Retrieved on 2007-05-06. Excavations at Alamgirpur. University of +and+Archaeology%22&ots=vvWqvaJHik&sig=17HcKQWGCxkHycTaYqfJb_ZzGAo. Govt.+Caes. Nature 440: 755– 756. ^ Indian Archaeology. http://www.gsi. ^ Plutarchus. The Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization. pp. M. ISBN 0860546918. 10.oup. 11c2EmY2k9OTc4MDE5NTE3NDIyOQ==. Bernadotte Perrin (trans. ^ "Pakistan".com/books?id=kbx7q0gxyTcC&printsec=frontcover&dq=In+Search+of+ the+Cradle+of+Civilization&sig=ie6cTRBBjV2enHRPO6cBXNbd0qE. In search of the cradle of civilization: New light on ancient India. R.htm.aspx. H. New York: Routledge. Plutarch's Lives. Wheaton. Bondioli. Georg. Jonathan Mark.. Oxford University Press. India. Dept.1146/annurev. London.

24. Kölver (ed. ^ Mary Pat Fisher (1997) In: Living Religions: An Encyclopedia of the World's Faiths I.E)". ed.70.1968. p96. ^ "At any rate. Volume 1: Balakanda. whereas formerly. ^ http://p2. J. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill. 2004). USA: Oxford University Press. Historia Naturae 12. 18. Retrieved on 2007-05-19. 23. I accompanied him and ascended the Nile as far as Syene and the frontiers of Ethiopia.1525/aa.Archaeol.). and Administration in Classical India.02a00070.Tauris : London ISBN 1860641482 . . 188–199.). The Ramayana of Valmiki: An Epic of Ancient India. 641.C.D. Paul Halsall." Strabo II. ^ Leshnik. B. pp. Internet Modern History Sourcebook. iam vel ad inferos pertinet?" Pliny. quaeso. ISBN 0070483698. (February 3. a contemporary of the Buddha. 34. ^ Search for India's ancient city.CO%3B2-2.htm. "Alexander's Great Battles". 23. only a very few ventured to undertake the voyage and to carry on traffic in Indian merchandise.4. quota enim portio ex illis ad deos. Source Vaisali. pp. Special edition for Sandpiper Books. 30.Jainism's major teacher is the Mahavira. "The Achaemenid Persian Empire (550–330 B. 2007. ^ Krishna Reddy (2003). 27-52 = Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies. pp. ^ 70 (5): 911–922. ISBN 0306813300. under the Ptolemies. Early Sanskritization. Ramayana of Valmiki. The Generalship of Alexander the Great (Reprint ed. capital of Muslim India 35. 33. München : R. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ^ "Vasco da Gama: Round Africa to India. Staat und Verwaltung im klassischen Indien. ^ The Islamic World to 1600: Rise of the Great Islamic Empires (The Mughal Empire) 37.F. ISBN 0070483698. ^ Timur . Oldenbourg 1997. 22. A107. Innes. ISBN 069101485X.metmuseum.C. ^ a b Krishna Reddy (2003). 2007. ^ M.12. Origins and development of the Kuru State. ^ Miller. 1. ^ Mary Pat Fisher (1997) In: Living Religions: An Encyclopedia of the World's Faiths I. December 1995. (1969). Lawrence S. the Law. Page 114 27. 20.0. A11. (October 1968). ISBN 0195779401. The Spice Trade of The Roman Empire: 29 B. ISBN 0-19-814264-1. The state. 32. Retrieved on May 12. to A. Ancient Hindu and Buddhist scriptures refer to Jainism as an existing tradition which began long before Mahavira. Surv. 51–52. BBC News.“The extreme antiquity of Jainism as a non-vedic. 1497-1498 CE". 1998. ^ Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art (October 2004). New Series. vol. ^ Fuller. India. Timeline of Art History. Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization.C.B. ^ Iran in the Age of the Raj 38. pp. 19. when Gallus was prefect of Egypt. Robert P. June 1998. New York: Da Capo Press. ^ India: Reemergence of Urbanization.” Page 115 28. Goldman. "The Harappan "Port" at Lothal: Another View". and who died approximately 526 BCE. Princeton. Indian History. 21.B. 29. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.www. Jonathan (15 September 1998).5. pp. indigenous Indian religion is well documented. [1] 25. Oxford University Press. ^ Valmiki (March 1990). New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill. Retrieved on 2007-05-06. American Anthropologist. pp.Tauris : London ISBN 1860641482 .5. and I learned that as many as one hundred and twenty vessels were sailing from Myos Hormos to India. ^ Battuta's Travels: Delhi.britannica. doi:10.conquest of India 36. http://www. J. Encyclopedia Britannica. Indian History. http://links. 26.jstor.41. ^ "minimaque computatione miliens centena milia sestertium annis omnibus India et Seres et paeninsula illa imperio nostro adimunt: tanti nobis deliciae et feminae constant. Retrieved on June 22. Recht.

. Russian and Bengali. Hindi." Tamil and Telugu translations projected. .shtml.indianchild. Baron 39. Sharma. Kannada. K. half a million people perished and twelve million became homeless" Further reading • R. Economic History Department.calcuttaweb. Malayalam. 2000. "Robert Clive.lse. ^ "Indian History .S. Om. • R.asp?artid=A119. Delhi. http://www. 1907). paperback edn. storyofpakistan. Gujrati.html.fordham.S. Indianchild. ^ Prakash. Banglapedia. • R. 1904-1906).S. Verso.. Urdu and Marathi (two volumes).http://www. 333–335. BBC News. Translated into Hindi and Bengali. 2 Vols. 2002).S. Third Revised Edition. Retrieved on 2007-0507. ^ Plague. Calcuttaweb. 1. 3–40.. ASIN B0000CHMB1. Russian and Bengali.300-1000). 40. 47. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. 26-40. Tamil and Telugu translations projected. Retrieved on 2007-05-07. • R. (Boston: Ginn and Co. Thatcher. (Munshiram Advent of the Aryans in India (Manohar Publishers. Malayalam. (Macmillan Publishers. Paul Halsall.htm. Internet Indian History Sourcebook.fordham. J. ^ "KOLKATA (CALCUTTA) : HISTORY". Sharma. Translated into Hindi and Translated into Bengali. OCLC 1462689. 43. V: 9th to 16th Centuries. 2003). The Library of Original Sources (Milwaukee: University Research Extension Co. ^ a b Symonds. Sharma..M. Late Victorian Holocausts. http://banglapedia.S. 1987). Material Culture and Social Formations in Ancient India. Readings in European From: James Harvey Robinson. World Health Organization. 1617 CE. (Munshiram Manoharlal. http://www. An overview". pp. Delhi. History of India. Indian History Sourcebook: England. Sudras in Ancient India: A Social History of the Lower Order Down to Circa A D 600(Motilal Banarsidass. 46. 1617 A. Global Economic History Network. 50. ^ Mohsin. Vol. http://www. ^ Reintegrating India with the World Economy. Vol. 1985). 1990. Delhi. Retrieved on 2007-05-07. London School of Economics. 41. Retrieved on 2007-05-07. June 1 2003. (1 November 2000). 2005). (Lord)". historyofwar. "Indian Council Act of 1861 by which non-official Indian members were nominated to the Viceroy's Legislative Council.S. Retrieved on 200705-07. 44. Urban Decay in India (c.html. Aspects of Political Ideas and Institutions in Ancient India. Marathi.html. Delhi. Richard (1950).. Delhi. ^ "Minto-Morley Reforms". ^ "The Great Moghul Jahangir: Letter to James I. ^ a b Davis. http://www. ^ Kashmir: The origins of the dispute. ISBN 8120808983.pdf.D. ^ from%20a%20Pre-Colonial%20-%20Om%20Prakash. ed. From: Oliver J. Mike. 2002 48. pp. • R. "Canning.". Sharma. Delhi. (Motilal Banarsidass. 1725-1774". 42. pp. Retrieved on London: Faber and Faber. and The East Indies. http://www. Reprint. Sharma. June 1998.htm.. ed. Gujrati. The Making of Pakistan. http://www. 'Clive of India'. Retrieved on King of England. II: From the opening of the Protestant Revolt to the Present Day. ISBN 1859847390 pg 7 45. Perspectives in Social and Economic History of Early India. Sharma. Telugu. Military History Encyclopedia on the Web.historyofwar. Translated into Hindi. January 16.Important events: History of India. Delhi. Jin Technologies. Retrieved on 2007-05-07. Peterson Institute for International Economics. "at the lowest Fifth Revised Edition. • R. "The Transformation from a Pre-Colonial to a Colonial Order: The Case of India" (PDF). Kannada. Kannada. Translated into

1992. Part I: the Colas. People's Publishing House (PPH). 2003). Edited by Dowson.S. Wolseley Haig. • R. Madras. 2005). Elliot.S. Jayaswal memorial lecture series).S. (Oxford University Press. Delhi. (Oxford University Press. The Cambridge Shorter History of India (1934) • Chandavarkar. (Oxford University Press. sponsored by Indian History Congress. In Defence of "Ancient India". • R. Kannada.S. Social Changes in Early Medieval India (Circa A. Sharma. 1992. People's Publishing House. Hindi. 1994. ISBN 8125006311). Delhi. and H. A Brief History of India (2003) • Das. • Allan. • R. Japanese. Survey of Research in Economic and Social History of India: a project sponsored by Indian Council of Social Science Research.S. Translated into Bengali. Italian and German translations projected. 2005. • R. 1999. as Told by Its Own Historians. Sharma. Sharma. Sharma. Sharma. India Unbound: The Social and Economic Revolution from Independence to the Global Information Age (2002) • Elliot. Sharma. • R. • R. Sharma. Delhi.S. ISBN 978-0195697872). published by London Trubner Company 1867–1877. • R. 2nd Revised Edition. • R. 1995. 1993. University of Bombay. 1986. 3rd Revised Edition. Light on Early Indian Society and Economy. The State and Varna Formations in the Mid-Ganga Plains: An Ethnoarchaeological Vew (New Delhi. Rethinking India's Past. The History of India.S.S. Kannada.. • R. Early Medieval Indian Society: A Study in Feudalisation (Orient Longman Publishers Pvt. The Origins of Industrial Capitalism in India: Business Strategies and the Working Class in Bombay 1900-1940 (1994) • Cohen. Stephen P. Two versions in Bengali. India: Emerging Power (2002) • Daniélou. Sharma. Telugu and Urdu.2003). National Council of Educational Research and Training. Edited by John Dowson. 1989) • R. Tamil. Ancient India. Sir H. M. 1971. Gurcharan. Land Revenue in India: Historical Studies. Bombay.. Transition from antiquity to the Middle Ages in India (K. Sharma. • R. 1996). 1980. by Sir H. The Muhammadan Period.500-1200). ISBN 9780195687859). ISBN 978-0195687859). (Orient Longman. Calukyas and Rajputs (Ad 985-1206). London Trubner . Indian History Congress. • R. • R. A Comprehensive History of India: Volume Four. Sharma. a Textbook for Class XI. 2009. Indian History Congress. H.S. Sharma. 1966. Sharma. Tamil. Sharma. Patna.S. J.S. Sharma. Manohar. Some economic aspects of the caste system in ancient India. of History. Hindi.S. Origin of the State in India (Dept. Translated into Bengali. Indian Feudalism (Macmillan Publishers India Ltd. India's Ancient Past. Alain. • R. Delhi. T. Kashi Prasad Jayaswal Research Institute. • R. Communal History and Rama's Ayodhya. Sharma. Ajanta Publishers. People's Publishing House. John. Motilal Banarsidass. Delhi. Sharma.S. Ltd.S. 2005. Patna. • R. Dodwell. • R. • R. Korean. Sharma.. Delhi. P.D. Raj. Sharma.S. Sharma. Revised and enlarged book as India's Ancient Past.S. (Online Copy: The History of India. Rahul Sankrityayan and Social Change. 1952. Telugu and Urdu. as Told by Its Own Historians.S. September. Looking for the Aryans.S. Indo-European languages and historical problems (Symposia papers). • R. People's Publishing House.S. The Muhammadan Period. Delhi. M. Manaktala.

Percival. The History of India Vol. ISBN 0-333-90298-X • R. 1 Sometimes included in Europe. John. New York. Romila. Vincent. 3 Sometimes included in Oceania. The History and Culture of the Indian People.C.a. depending on the border definitions. New York: The Macmillan Co. Prem and Anuradha Kishore Ganpati.This online Copy has been posted by: The Packard Humanities Institute. (1998) • Mahajan. Hermann and Dietmar Rothermund. 3rd ed. India: A History (2001) • Kishore. ISBN 0-7619-9367-3 • R.Company 1867–1877 . India: An Illustrated History (2003) • Kulke. John. and also known as Timor-Leste. An Economic History of India: From Pre-Colonial Times to 1991 (1993) • Smith. The Oxford History of India (1981) • Spear. other territories Aceh • Adjara1 • Abkhazia1 • Akrotiri and Dhekelia • Altai • British Indian Ocean Territory • Buryatia • Christmas Island • Cocos (Keeling) Islands • Guangxi • Hong Kong • Inner Mongolia • Iraqi Kurdistan • Jakarta • Khakassia • Macau • NagornoKarabakh • Nakhchivan • Ningxia • Northern Cyprus • Palestine (Gaza Strip • West Bank) • Papua • Sakha • South Ossetia1 • Tibet • Tuva • West Papua • Xinjiang • Yogyakarta Italics indicates an unrecognised or partially recognised country. A History of India. Indian Summer (2007).C. A New History of India 6th ed. Also find other historical books: Author List and Title List) • Keay. An Advanced History of India London: Macmillan.] : Sage 2000. 2 Officially known as Myanmar. New Delhi [u. Sucheta. 4 Transcontinental country. and Kaukinkar Datta. • Mcleod. 2 (1990) • Thapar. Persian Texts in Translation.. Henry Holt and Company. H. The History of India (2002) • Rothermund. 5 Commonly known as Taiwan. Alex. Majumdar.C. Raychaudhuri. . Stanley. Early India: From the Origins to AD 1300 (2004) • von Tunzelmann. autonomies. Dietmar. Independence and partition: the erosion of colonial power in India. (1999) External links • History of India at the Open Directory Project [hide] v • d • e History of Asia Sovereign states Afghanistan • Armenia1 • Azerbaijan1 • Bahrain • Bangladesh • Bhutan • Brunei • Burma2 • Cambodia • People's Republic of China • Cyprus1 • East Timor3 • Egypt4 • Georgia4 • India • Indonesia • Iran • Iraq • Israel • Japan • Jordan • Kazakhstan4 • North Korea • South Korea • Kuwait • Kyrgyzstan • Laos • Lebanon • Malaysia • Maldives • Mongolia • Nepal • Oman • Pakistan • Philippines • Qatar • Russia4 • Saudi Arabia • Singapore • Sri Lanka • Syria • Tajikistan • Republic of China5 • Thailand • Turkey4 • Turkmenistan • United Arab Emirates • Uzbekistan • Vietnam • Yemen Dependencies. 1960. ISBN 0-8050-8073-2 • Wolpert. Majumdar. 1951." Categories: History of India Views • Article • Discussion • View source • History Personal tools • Log in / create account Navigation • Main page • Contents • Featured content • Current events • Random article Search Interaction • About Wikipedia • Community portal • Recent changes • Contact Wikipedia • Donate to Wikipedia • Help Toolbox • What links here • Related changes • Upload file • Special pages • Printable version • Permanent link • Cite this page Languages • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ‫العربية‬ বাংলা Brezhoneg Česky Cymraeg Deutsch Español Esperanto Français 贛語 ििनदी Hrvatski ইমার ঠার/িবষুিিয়া মিিপুরী Bahasa Indonesia Italiano ‫עברית‬ ಕನನಡ Latina Latviešu .Retrieved from "http://en.

• Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Lietuvių Magyar മലയാളം Nederlands 日本語 Polski Português Русский संसक ृत Simple English Suomi Svenska ไทย Tiếng Việt Українська 中文 తలగ • This page was last modified on 28 July 2009 at 23:20. • Privacy policy • About Wikipedia • Disclaimers South Asian Stone Age From Wikipedia.. search History of South Asia Stone Age before 3300 BCE • Mehrgarh Culture • 7000–3300 BCE Indus Valley Civilization 3300–1700 BCE • Late Harappan Culture • 1700–1300 BCE Vedic Civilization 2000–600 BCE Iron Age 1200–1 BCE • Maha Janapadas • 700–300 BCE • Magadha Empire • 684–424 BCE • Nanda Empire • 424-321 BCE • Maurya Empire • 321–184 BCE . See Terms of Use for details. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. additional terms may apply. Inc. a nonprofit organization.

• Sunga Empire • 185-73 BCE • Kanva Empire • 75-26 BCE • Kharavela Empire • 209–170 BCE • Kuninda Kingdom • 200s BCE–300s CE • Indo-Scythian Kingdom • 200 BC–400 CE • Chera Kingdom • 300 BCE–1200 CE • Chola Empire • 300 BCE–1279 CE • Pandyan Kingdom • 250 BCE–1345 CE • Satavahana Empire • 230 BCE–220 CE • Indo-Greek Kingdom • 180 BCE–10 CE Middle Kingdoms 1CE–1279 CE • Indo-Parthian Kingdom • 21–130s CE • Western Satrap Empire • 35–405 CE • Kushan Empire • 60–240 CE • Indo-Sassanid Kingdom • 230–360 CE • Vakataka Empire • 250–500 CE • Kalabhras Kingdom • 250–600 CE • Gupta Empire • 280–550 CE • Pallava Kingdom • 275–800 CE • Kadamba Empire • 345–525 CE • Western Ganga Kingdom • 350–1000 CE • Vishnukundina Empire • 420-624 CE • Huna Kingdom • 475-576 CE • Chalukya Empire • 543–753 CE • Harsha Empire • 590-647 CE • Shahi Kingdom • 565-670 CE • Eastern Chalukya Kingdom • 624-1075 CE • Pratihara Empire • 650–1036 CE • Pala Empire • 750–1174 CE .

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Chert. India.[2] [edit] The coming of Homo sapiens Bhimbetka rock painting.5500 BC. Stone age writing of Edakkal Caves in Kerala. Pakistan. . The ceramic Neolithic lasts up to 3300 BC. 7000 and lasts until 3300 BCE and the first beginnings of the Bronze Age. (Kennedy 2000: 180). in upper Punjab.1 Homo erectus o 1. the Mesolithic lasts until 3000 BCE. India. reaching Australia by 40. Cave sites in Sri Lanka have yielded the earliest record of modern homo sapiens in South Asia. Pakistan along the Soan River (nearby Rawalpindi) during the Pleistocene Epoch.2 The coming of Homo sapiens • 2 Neolithic • 3 References • 4 See also • 5 External links [edit] Paleolithic [edit] Homo erectus Further information: Acheulian.[4] These populations spread further to Southeast Asia. followed by a Megalithic transitional period mostly skipping the Bronze Age. They were dated to 34. In South India. At the Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka humans lived throughout the Upper Paleolithic (10th to 8th millennia BC). the Neolithic begins ca. around 1200 to 1000 BCE (Painted Grey Ware culture.Specialised histories Coinage • Dynasties • Economy Indology • Language • Literature • Maritime Military • Science and Technology • Timeline This box: view • talk • edit The South Asian Stone Age covers the Palaeolithic.000 years ago. For finds from the Belan in southern Uttar Pradesh radio carbon data have indicated an age of 18-17kya. 7000 BC. and the Neolithic until 1400 BCE. The Iron Age begins roughly simultaneously in North and South India. [edit] Neolithic Further information: Mehrgarh and Neolithic Tamil Nadu The aceramic Neolithic (Mehrgarh I. Contents [hide] • 1 Paleolithic o 1. Soanian.Baluchistan. blending into the Early Harappan (Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age) period. jasper and quartzite were often used by humans during this period. Madhya Pradesh. the Sivaliks and the Potwar (Pakistan) region also exhibit many vertebrate fossil remains and paleolithic tools.000 to 50. Biface handaxe and cleaver traditions may have originated in the middle Pleistocene. 7000 .[3] An analysis of Y chromosome haplogroups found one man in a village west of Madurai to be a direct descendant of these migrators. Mesolithic and Neolithic periods in South Asia. Palaeolithic rock art is also well-known. Analysis of mtDNA dates the immigration of Homo sapiens to South Asia to 70. Hallur). In Mehrgarh. and Riwat Homo erectus lived on the Pothohar Plateau. in what is today western Pakistan.[1] The beginning of the use of Acheulian and chopper-chopping tools of lower paleolithic may be dated to approximately the middle Pleistocene.000 years ago. revealing cave paintings dating to ca. also dubbed "Early Food Producing Era") lasts ca.000 years ago.

160) 3.28" 7. Hannah V. Companion Studies to the History of Tamil Literature. script found at ancient burial site in Tamil Nadu". Current Anthropology 46 (Supplement): S3. doi:10.. Kamil A. Petraglia. T. ^ (Kennedy 2000: p. http://www. 136) 2. S. which have been discovered at various places in Tamil Nadu. UP 2002-2003-2004 & 2005-06" in Pragdhara No. Brill Academic Publishers. doi:10. pp. 8. p. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. http://www.human-evol. ^ of the earliest Neolithic sites in India is Lahuradewa. http://www.[8][9] [edit] References • Kennedy. 24 km from 49– 51.1007/BF02704749. "Agricultural Origins and Frontiers in South Asia: A Working Synthesis" in Journal of World Prehistory 20. ^ Subramanian. This proved that Tirunelveli area has been the abode for human habituation since the Neolithic period about 3.ias. ^ Spencer Wells. A History of South India.District Sant Kabir Nagar. notably at Adichanallur. God-Apes and Fossil Men: Palaeoanthropology of South Asia. (November 2001). Adhichanallur has been announced as an archaeological site for further excavation and studies. 21–22. "The most interesting pre-historic remains in Tamil India were discovered at Adichanallur. 1. Recently another site near the confluence of Ganges and Yamuna rivers called Jhusi yielded a C14 dating of 7100 BC for its Neolithic levels. ^ (Kennedy 2000: p. Comparative excavations carried out in Adichanallur in Thirunelveli District and in Northern India have provided evidence of a southward migration of the Megalithic culture[7] The earliest clear evidence of the presence of the megalithic urn burials are those dating from around 1000 BC.[6] In South India the Neolithic began by 3000 BC and lasted until around 1400 BC. • James.There is a series of urn V. The Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey. 2006. ^ Zvelebil. ISBN 9004093656. 16 "Electronic Version p.1086/444365. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. "Modern Human Origins and the Evolution of Behavior in the Later Pleistocene Record of South Asia" (PDF). at Middle Ganges region. A. N.hindu. "Second Preliminary Report of the excavations at Lahuradewa. Journal of Biosciences 26 (4): 491–531. ISBN 0-8129-7146-9 5. The Hindu. Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta. ^ Petraglia 2005. (2004-05-26).uk/Members/Petraglia/pubs/JamesPetraglia(CA2005). Retrieved on 200707-31. giving evidence confirming it of the Neolithic period 2800 years ago. plus husks. grains of rice. 9. Dorian 2006. charred rice and Neolithic celts. "Skeletons." Mehrgarh From Wikipedia. ^ Fuller. (December 2005).[5]. • ^ Tewari.42 "Ganges Neolithic" 6. Random House. "Prehistoric human colonization of India" (PDF). search Holocene epoch This box: view • talk • edit ↑ Pleistocene . (1992).com/2004/05/26/stories/2004052602871200. seem to be related to the megalithic complex.pdf. C14 dated around 7th millennium BC. where archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of India unearthed 12 urns with Tamil Brahmi script on them containing human skulls. pp.South Indian Neolithic is characterized by Ashmounds since 2500 BC in Karnataka region. S6 4.000 years ago. Rakesh et al. expanded later to Tamil Nadu.pdf. Kenneth Adrian Raine (2000). Michael D. skeletons and bones.

Holocene Preboreal (10.3 ka – 9 ka), Boreal (9 ka – 7.5 ka), Atlantic (7.5 ka – 5 ka), Subboreal (5 ka – 2.5 ka) Subatlantic (2.5 ka – present) Mehrgarh, (Urdu: ‫ ) مﮩرگڑھ‬one of the most important Neolithic (7000 BC to 3200 BC) sites in archaeology, lies on what is now the "Kachi plain" of today's Balochistan, Pakistan. It is one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming (wheat and barley) and herding (cattle, sheep and goats) in South Asia."[1]. Located near the Bolan Pass, to the west of the Indus River valley and between the present-day Pakistani cities of Quetta, Kalat and Sibi, Mehrgarh was discovered in 1974 by an archaeological team directed by French archaeologist Jean-François Jarrige, and was excavated continuously between 1974 and 1986. The earliest settlement at Mehrgarh—in the northeast corner of the 495-acre (2.00 km2) site—was a small farming village dated between 7000 BC–5500 BC. Contents [hide] • 1 Lifestyle and technology • 2 Archaeological significance • 3 Mehrgarh Period I • 4 Mehrgarh Period VII • 5 Common variant spellings • 6 See also • 7 Notes • 8 External links [edit] Lifestyle and technology Early farming village in Mehrgarh, c. 7000 BC, with houses built with mud bricks. (Musée Guimet, Paris). Early Mehrgarh residents lived in mud brick houses, stored their grain in granaries, fashioned tools with local copper ore, and lined their large basket containers with bitumen. They cultivated six-row barley, einkorn and emmer wheat, jujubes and dates, and herded sheep, goats and cattle. Residents of the later period (5500 BC to 2600 BC) put much effort into crafts, including flint knapping, tanning, bead production, and metal working. The site was occupied continuously until about 2600 BC.[2] In April 2006, it was announced in the scientific journal Nature that the oldest (and first early Neolithic) evidence in human history for the drilling of teeth in vivo (i.e. in a living person) was found in Mehrgarh.[3] [edit] Archaeological significance A relief map of Pakistan showing Mehrgarh. Mehrgarh is now seen as a precursor to the Indus Valley Civilization. "Discoveries at Mehrgarh changed the entire concept of the Indus civilization," according to Ahmad Hasan Dani, professor emeritus of archaeology at Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, "There we have the whole sequence, right from the beginning of settled village life."[4] According to Catherine Jarrige of the Centre for Archaeological Research Indus Balochistan, Musée Guimet, Paris …the Kachi plain and in the Bolan basin (are) situated at the Bolan peak pass, one of the main routes connecting southern Afghanistan, eastern Iran, the Balochistan hills and the Indus valley. This area of rolling hills is thus located on the western edge of the Indus valley, where, around 2500 BC, a large urban

civilization emerged at the same time as those of Mesopotamia and the ancient Egyptian empire. For the first time in the Indian subcontinent, a continuous sequence of dwelling-sites has been established from 7000 BC to 500 BC, (as a result of the) explorations in Pirak from 1968 to 1974; in Mehrgarh from 1975 to 1985; and of Nausharo from 1985 to 1996.[5] The chalcolithic people of Mehrgarh also had contacts with contemporaneous cultures in northern Afghanistan, northeastern Iran and southern central Asia.[6] [edit] Mehrgarh Period I A figurine from Mehrgarh, c. 3000 BCE. (Musée Guimet, Paris) [hide]History of South Asia Stone Age before 3300 BCE Indus Valley Civilization 3300–1700 BCE Vedic Civilization 2000–600 BCE Iron Age 1200–1 BCE Maurya Empire • 321–184 BCE Chola Empire • 300 BCE–1279 CE Satavahana Empire • 230 BCE–220 CE Middle Kingdoms 1CE–1279 CE Gupta Empire • 280–550 CE Chalukya Empire • 543–753 CE Pala Empire • 750–1174 CE Islamic Sultanates 1206–1596 Mughal Empire 1526–1858 Sikh Empire 1733–1849 British India 1858–1947 Modern States since 1947 Timeline This box: view • talk • edit Archaeologists divide the occupation at the site into several periods. Mehrgarh Period I 7000 BC–5500 BC, was Neolithic and aceramic (i.e., without the use of pottery). The earliest farming in the area was developed by semi-nomadic people using plants such as wheat and barley and animals such as sheep, goats and cattle. The settlement was established with simple mud buildings with four internal subdivisions. Numerous burials have been found, many with elaborate goods such as baskets, stone and bone tools, beads, bangles, pendants and occasionally animal sacrifices, with more goods left with burials of males. Ornaments of sea shell, limestone, turquoise, lapis lazuli, sandstone and polished copper have been found,

along with simple figurines of women and animals. Sea shells from far sea shore and lapis lazuli found far in Badakshan, Afghanistan shows good contact with those areas. A single ground stone axe was discovered in a burial, and several more were obtained from the surface. These ground stone axes are the earliest to come from a stratified context in the South Asia. In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh made the discovery that the people of the Indus Valley Civilization, from the early Harappan periods, had knowledge of proto-dentistry. Later, in April 2006, it was announced in the scientific journal Nature that the oldest (and first early Neolithic) evidence for the drilling of human teeth in vivo (i.e. in a living person) was found in Mehrgarh. According to the authors, their discoveries point to a tradition of proto-dentistry in the early farming cultures of that region. "Here we describe eleven drilled molar crowns from nine adults discovered in a Neolithic graveyard in Pakistan that dates from 7,500 to 9,000 years ago. These findings provide evidence for a long tradition of a type of proto-dentistry in an early farming culture."[3] [edit] Mehrgarh Period VII Somewhere between 2600 BC and 2000 BC, the city seems to have been largely abandoned, which is when the Indus Valley Civilisation was in its middle stages of development. It has been surmised that the inhabitants of Mehrgarh migrated to the fertile Indus valley as the Balochistan became more arid due to climatic changes. [edit] Common variant spellings • Mehrgarh is also spelled as Mehrgahr, Merhgarh or Merhgahr. • Kachi plain is also spelled as Kacchi plain, Katchi plain. Indus Valley Civilization From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search The extent of Indus Valley Civilization. [hide]History of South Asia Stone Age before 3300 BCE Indus Valley Civilization Vedic Civilization 2000–600 BCE Iron Age 1200–1 BCE Maurya Empire • 321–184 BCE Chola Empire • 300 BCE–1279 CE Satavahana Empire • 230 BCE–220 CE Middle Kingdoms 1CE–1279 CE Gupta Empire • 280–550 CE Chalukya Empire • 543–753 CE Pala Empire • 750–1174 CE Islamic Sultanates 1206–1596 Mughal Empire 1526–1858 Sikh Empire

3300–1700 BCE

Writing.[4] but this usage is disputed on linguistic and geographical grounds. Axe. Primarily centered along the Indus river. as well as extending into modern day Indian states of Gujarat. Levant. Haryana. Punjab and Balochistan. Anatolia. as well. Gold hat. the civilization encompassed most of what is now Pakistan. Elam. The appellation IndusSarasvati is based on the possible identification of the Ghaggar-Hakra River with the Sarasvati River mentioned in the Rig Veda. Ugarit.1733–1849 British India 1858–1947 Modern States since 1947 Timeline This box: view • talk • edit Bronze Age This box: view • talk • edit ↑ Neolithic Near East (3300-1200 BC) Caucasus. Collapse ↓Iron age The Indus Valley Civilization (mature period 2600–1900 BCE). Chariot. Literature. Sistan China (3100-700 BC) List of Bronze Age sites South Asia (3000-1200 BC) Pontic-Caspian steppe (5500-1200 BC) Europe (3000-600 BC) Aegean civilization Beaker culture Unetice culture Tumulus culture Urnfield culture Apennine culture Terramare culture Atlantic Bronze Age Bronze Age Britain Nordic Bronze Age Korea (800-400 BC) Copper Age. Mesopotamia. abbreviated IVC. Egypt. was an ancient civilization in South Asia that flourished around the Indus River basin. mainly the provinces of Sindh. with important breakthroughs occurring as recently as 1999.[1] Excavation of IVC sites have been ongoing since 1920. Punjab and Rajasthan. Turkmenistan and Iran. Bronze. Remains have been excavated from Afghanistan.[2] The civilization is sometimes referred to as the Indus Ghaggar-Hakra civilization[3] or the Indus-Sarasvati civilization. Sword. Arsenical bronze.[5] Contents [hide] • 1 Discovery and excavation • 2 Periodisation • 3 Geography . Boat. The mature phase of this civilization is known as the Harappan Civilization as the first of its cities to be unearthed was from Harappa in Pakistan.

6 Writing or symbol system 6. much of Mohenjo-Daro had been excavated. These bricks now provided ballast along 93 miles (150 km) of the railroad track running from Karachi to Lahore.• • • o o o o o o o • o • • • • • 4 Origins 5 Early Harappan 6 Mature Harappan 6. John wrote: "I was much exercised in my mind how we were to get ballast for the line of the railway. and at Mohenjo-daro by Rakhal Das Banerjee.[6] In 1856. J.3 Arts and culture 6. Fleet. Periodisation Main article: Periodization of the Indus Valley Civilization The mature phase of the Harappan civilization lasted from c. Brij Basi Lal. that more Harappan seals were discovered by J. where locals talked of an ancient city extending "thirteen cosses" (about 25 miles). and excavations from this time include those led by Sir Mortimer Wheeler in 1949. Among other archaeologists who worked on IVC sites before the partition of the subcontinent in 1947 were Ahmad Hasan Dani. Pakistan. Nani Gopal Majumdar. E. Following the Partition of India. archaeological adviser to the Government of Pakistan. further north.5 Agriculture 6. Visiting the city. and "convinced that there was a grand quarry for the ballast I wanted. in 1912. director of the Archaeological Survey of India in 1944. and Sir Marc Aurel Stein.7 Religion 7 Late Harappan 7. H. as far north as at Shortugai on the Amudarya or Oxus River in current Afghanistan. and Sir John Marshall. prompting an excavation campaign under Sir John Hubert Marshall in 1921–22 and resulting in the discovery of the hitherto unknown civilization at Harappa by Sir John Marshall. In 1872–75 Alexander Cunningham published the first Harappan seal (with an erroneous identification as Brahmi letters). MacKay.2 Science 6. British engineers John and William Brunton were laying the East Indian Railway Company line connecting the cities of Karachi and Lahore. such as that led by Sir Mortimer Wheeler. but excavations continued.[8] It was half a century later. Outposts of the Indus Valley civilization were excavated as far west as Sutkagan Dor in Baluchistan. 2600 to 1900 BCE."[7] Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro.4 Trade and transportation 6. but no archaeological interest would attach to this for nearly a century.[7] A few months later.1 Legacy 8 Historical context 9 See also 10 Notes 11 Bibliography 12 External links Discovery and excavation The ruins of Harrappa were first described in 1842 by Charles Masson in his Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan." They were told of an ancient ruined city near the lines. he found it full of hard well-burnt bricks. John's brother William Brunton's "section of the line ran near another ruined city. .1 Cities 6." the city of Brahminabad was reduced to ballast. By 1931. Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni and Madho Sarup Vats. bricks from which had already been used by villagers in the nearby village of Harappa at the same site. Afghanistan and the Punjab. the bulk of the archaeological finds were inherited by Pakistan where most of the IVC was based. called Brahminabad.

Balakot. See[1] for a more detailed map. Shaffer and D. Haryana and Punjab. Kalibangan.[21] Among them are: Rupar. extending from Balochistan to Sindh. Integration.[18] for example. Mehrgarh VII) 2600-1900 Mature Harappan (Middle Bronze Age) Integration Era 2600-2450 Harappan 3A (Nausharo II) 2450-2200 Harappan 3B 2200-1900 Harappan 3C 1900-1300 Late Harappan (Cemetery H. However.[17] Indus Valley sites have been found most often on rivers. and Ganwariwala. Many Indus Valley (or Harappan) sites have been discovered along the Ghaggar-Hakra beds. professor emeritus at Quaid-e-Azam University. and Late Harappan phases are also called the Regionalisation. Nausharo I. "Discoveries at Mehrgarh changed the entire concept of the Indus civilization.[25] consequently. The Indus Valley Civilization encompassed most of Pakistan. A.[16] India.[23] the Harappan Civilization "is a fusion of the Bagor. and at Alamgirpur on the Hindon River. The shaded area does not include recent excavations such as Rupar. only 28 km from Delhi. Shortughai in Afghanistan. Rakhigarhi. respectively. the appellation Indus Ghaggar-Hakra civilisation or Indus-Saraswati civilisation is justified. and extending into modern day Indian states of Gujarat.[14] in the Gomal River valley in northwestern Pakistan. but also on the ancient seacoast. Sothi. Hakra. An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River at Shortughai in northern Afghanistan. right from the beginning of settled village life. for example. Indus sites have been discovered in Pakistan's northwestern Frontier Province as well. and Localisation eras." according to Ahmad Hasan Dani. respectively—the entire Indus Valley Civilization may be taken to have lasted from the 33rd to the 14th centuries BCE. Lichtenstein. G. in their opinion. Rajasthan.[15] at Manda on the Beas River near Jammu. Manda in Jammu. Two terms are employed for the periodization of the IVC: Phases and Eras. Recently.[24] in contrast to only about 100 along the Indus and its tributaries.[20] There is evidence of dry river beds overlapping with the Hakra channel in Pakistan and the seasonal Ghaggar River in India."[21] According to some archaeologists. and Koti Dij traditions or 'ethnic groups' in the Ghaggar-Hakra valley on the borders of India and Pakistan.[22] According to J. Dholavira. Other IVC colonies can be found in Afghanistan while smaller isolated colonies can be found as far away as Turkmenistan and in Gujarat. with an upward reach to Rupar on the upper Sutlej. etc.[19] and on islands."[11] Date range (BCE) Phase Era 5500-3300 Mehrgarh II-VI (Pottery Neolithic) Regionalisation Era 3300-2600 Early Harappan (Early Bronze Age) 3300-2800 Harappan 1 (Ravi Phase) 2800-2600 Harappan 2 (Kot Diji Phase. Islamabad.[9][10] The Early Harappan. over 500 Harappan sites have been discovered along the dried up river beds of the Ghaggar-Hakra River and its tributaries. Balakot. Mature Harappan. with the Regionalization era reaching back to the Neolithic Mehrgarh II period. these politically inspired arguments are disputed by other archaeologists who state that the Ghaggar-Hakra . "There we have the whole sequence. Coastal settlements extended from Sutkagan Dor[12] in Western Baluchistan to Lothal[13] in Gujarat. Late Bronze Age) Localisation Era 1900-1700 Harappan 4 1700-1300 Harappan 5 Geography Extent and major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization.With the inclusion of the predecessor and successor cultures—Early Harappan and Late Harappan.

dates and cotton. However. Cities . considering the importance of horses and chariots to the culture described in the Vedas. according to the common archaeological usage of naming a civilization after its first findspot. was a tributary of the Indus. from where the mature Harappan phase started. the Dravidian language family is concentrated mostly in southern India and northern Sri Lanka. but pockets of it still remain throughout the rest of India and Pakistan (the Brahui language). as well as various animals. Pakistan.[32] Kot Diji (Harappan 2) represents the phase leading up to Mature Harappan. named after the nearby Ravi River. including peas.. lasted from circa 3300 BCE until 2800 BCE. Villagers had. the concept of urban life which dominates the Indus Valley civilization is foreign to the more rural lifestyle which is described in the Vedas. this theory began to be rejected when no signs of the traditional culture associated with the Vedas was uncovered in that of the Indus Valley. that the number of Harappan sites along the Ghaggar-Hakra river beds have been exaggerated and that the Ghaggar-Hakra. Origins See also: Substratum in Vedic Sanskrit There are several theories as to the origin of the Indus Valley civilization. over 1. Kalibangan. near Mohenjo Daro.[29] The next theory put forward was that the civilization was of proto-Dravidian origin.[30] This theory was first proposed by researchers from Russia and Finland who attempted to show that Indus valley symbols could be derived from the Dravidian language group. identified in the Ghaggar-Hakra River Valley to the west. with the citadel representing centralised authority and an increasingly urban quality of life. The earliest examples of the Indus script date from around 3000 BCE. named after a site in northern Sindh. The earliest hypothesis was that it was an early form of a Vedic civilization which would come to dominate most of South Asia. Harappan 2). which lends credence to the theory. Ganeriwala.C. the Early Harappan communities had been turned into large urban centers. the proto-Dravidian origin theory is far from being confirmed due to an emphasis on linguistic connection while evidence of a broader cultural connection remains to be found. including lapis lazuli and other materials for beadmaking. Rupar. It is related to the Hakra Phase. Mature Harappan By 2600 BCE. In total.[26] "Harappan Civilization" remains the correct one. including the water buffalo.[31] The mature phase of earlier village cultures is represented by Rehman Dheri and Amri in Pakistan.[33] Trade networks linked this culture with related regional cultures and distant sources of raw materials. domesticated numerous crops. so the new nomenclature is redundant.[29] Early Harappan The Early Harappan Ravi Phase. Rakhigarhi. Early Harappan communities turned to large urban centres by 2600 BCE. which contributes to the chronological problem with this theory. second. The absence of horses amongst the many realistic representations of animals was also considered significant. by this time.desert area has been left untouched by settlements and agriculture since the end of the Indus period and hence shows more sites than found in the alluvium of the Indus valley. Lothal in modern day India.052 cities and settlements have been found. Detailed bone analysis has revealed that the horse itself was introduced to the subcontinent only at the beginning of the second millennium B. and that an early form of Dravidian language must have been the language of the Indus people.[27][28] Finally. Such urban centers include Harappa. Another town of this stage was found at Kalibangan in India on the Hakra River. when it existed. and predates the Kot Diji Phase (2800-2600 BCE. which was presumed to have been characterized by influence from Indo-European migrations. However. sesame seeds. mainly in the general region of the Indus Rivers and their tributaries. Today. Finnish Indologist Asko Parpola concludes that the uniformity of the Indus inscriptions precludes any possibility of widely different languages being used. Mohenjo-daro in modern day Pakistan and Dholavira.

10. and time. and 500 units. brick platforms and protective walls. it is far from clear that these structures were defensive. . Some structures are thought to have been granaries. if relative. and smaller objects were weighed in similar ratios with the units of 0. Some of the seals were used to stamp clay on trade goods and most probably had other uses as well.So-called "Priest King" statue.2. however. All the houses had access to water and drainage facilities.05.[34] The ancient Indus systems of sewerage and drainage that were developed and used in cities throughout the Indus region were far more advanced than any found in contemporary urban sites in the Middle East and even more efficient than those in many areas of Pakistan and India today.871. Pakistan A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture is evident in the Indus Valley Civilization making them the first urban centers in the region. Science Further information: Harappan mathematics The people of the Indus Civilization achieved great accuracy in measuring length. 200. people (perhaps gods) and other types of inscriptions. Most city dwellers appear to have been traders or artisans. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. They may have been built to divert flood waters. Houses opened only to inner courtyards and smaller lanes.[citation needed] The purpose of the citadel remains debated. granaries. the smallest division ever recorded on a scale of the Bronze Age. which lined the major streets. Among the artifacts discovered were beautiful glazed faïence beads. no large monumental structures were built. with each unit weighing approximately 28 grams. Harappan engineers followed the decimal division of measurement for all practical purposes. These chert weights were in a perfect ratio of 4:2:1 with weights of 0. who lived with others pursuing the same occupation in well-defined neighborhoods. this urban plan included the world's first urban sanitation systems. The quality of municipal town planning suggests the knowledge of urban planning and efficient municipal governments which placed a high priority on hygiene. including the yet un-deciphered writing system of the Indus Valley Civilization. As seen in Harappa. warehouses.1. The massive walls of Indus cities most likely protected the Harappans from floods and may have dissuaded military conflicts. 2. In sharp contrast to this civilization's contemporaries. They were among the first to develop a system of uniform weights and measures. 5. Their smallest division. Karachi. Mohenjo-daro. Within the city. 1. a comparison of available objects indicates large scale variation across the Indus territories. From a room that appears to have been set aside for bathing. beads and other objects. 0. waste water was directed to covered drains. which may have been a public bath. This gives the impression of a society with relatively low wealth concentration. though clear social leveling is seen in personal adornments.704 mm. similar to the English Imperial ounce or Greek uncia. Materials from distant regions were used in the cities for constructing seals. mass. Their measurements are said to be extremely precise. Indus Civilization cities were remarkable for their apparent. or priests. alternately. individual homes or groups of homes obtained water from wells. 0. armies. including the measurement of mass as revealed by their hexahedron weights. or. However. 20. which is marked on an ivory scale found in Lothal. late Mature Harappan period. National Museum. 50. The house-building in some villages in the region still resembles in some respects the house-building of the Harappans. Steatite seals have images of animals. 0. egalitarianism. Although some houses were larger than others.5. accessibility to the means of religious ritual. 100. Although the citadels were walled. Found at one city is an enormous well-built bath. The advanced architecture of the Harappans is shown by their impressive dockyards. was approximately 1. There is no conclusive evidence of palaces or temples—or of kings. Mohenjo-daro and the recently partially excavated Rakhigarhi.

it was announced in the scientific journal Nature that the oldest (and first early Neolithic) evidence for the drilling of human teeth in vivo (i. According to the in other cultures. especially in building docks after a careful study of tides. and dogs. In 2001. Many crafts "such as shell working. in April 2006. it is just this anatomical truth which is so startling. Sir John Marshall is known to have reacted with surprise when he saw the famous Indus bronze statuette of a slender-limbed dancing girl in Mohenjo-daro: … When I first saw them I found it difficult to believe that they were prehistoric. in this all-important matter. actual weights were not uniform throughout the area. The Harappans also made various toys and games.000 years ago. A harp-like instrument depicted on an Indus seal and two shell objects found at Lothal indicate the use of stringed musical instruments. monkeys.[35] Unique Harappan inventions include an instrument which was used to measure whole sections of the horizon and the tidal lock. and agate and glazed steatite bead making" were used in the making of necklaces. In addition. lead and tin. that makes us wonder whether.[37] Arts and culture The "dancing girl of Mohenjo Daro.[39] Terracotta female figurines were found (ca. these terra-cotta figurines included cows. from the early Harappan periods. and other ornaments from all phases of Harappan sites and some of these crafts are still practiced in the subcontinent today. bronze and steatite have been found at the excavation sites. gold jewelry and anatomically detailed figurines in terracotta. that these figures had found their way into levels some 3000 years older than those to which they properly belonged. the use of collyrium and a special three-in-one toiletry gadget) that were found in Harappan contexts still have similar counterparts in modern India. seals. they seemed to completely upset all established ideas about early art. their discoveries point to a tradition of protodentistry in the early farming cultures of that region. and culture. Later. bangles. is disputed. … Now.[38] Some make-up and toiletry items (a special kind of combs (kakai). 2800-2600 BCE) which had red color applied to the "manga" (line of partition of the hair). ceramics. which was probably used for testing the purity of gold (such a technique is still used in some parts of India). A number of gold.500-9. Harappans evolved some new techniques in metallurgy and produced copper. Pakistan. pottery. that some mistake must surely have been made. Eleven drilled molar crowns from nine adults were discovered in a Neolithic graveyard in Mehrgarh that dates. therefore. which were found in sites like Mohenjo-Daro. in a living person) was found in Mehrgarh." Various sculptures. waves and currents. archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh.[40] Trade and transportation . Also. the so-called Pashupati. bronze. made the discovery that the people of the Indus Valley Civilisation.[39] Seals have been found at Mohenjo-daro depicting a figure standing on its head. The weights and measures later used in Kautilya's Arthashastra (4th century BCE) are the same as those used in Lothal. however. The engineering skill of the Harappans was remarkable. Modeling such as this was unknown in the ancient world up to the Hellenistic age of Greece. The function of the so-called "dock" at Lothal. terra-cotta and stone figurines of girls in dancing poses reveal the presence of some dance form. among them cubical dice (with one to six holes on the faces). below).e. and another sitting cross-legged in what some call a yoga-like pose (see image. from 7. bears. had knowledge of proto-dentistry. in these statuettes. and I thought.. Greek artistry could possibly have been anticipated by the sculptors of a far-off age on the banks of the Indus.[36] A touchstone bearing gold streaks was found in Banawali.

Shaffer (1999: 245) writes that the Mehrgarh site "demonstrates that food production was an indigenous South Asian phenomenon" and that the data support interpretation of "the prehistoric urbanization and complex social organization in South Asia as based on indigenous. equipped with a single central mast supporting a sail of woven rushes or cloth. cultural developments. Archaeologist Jim G. seals.-P. economically.. with much commerce being handled by "middlemen merchants from Dilmun" (modern Bahrain and Failaka located in the Persian Gulf). c.54 . north of Jiwani). During 4300–3200 BCE of the chalcolithic period (copper age). These advances included bullock carts that are identical to those seen throughout South Asia today. but not isolated. which is less than 1 inch (2. the coastal regions of Persia." Others. Typical Indus inscriptions are no more than four or five characters in length. similar to those one can see on the Indus River today. or ceramic pots and over a dozen other materials. 1999). northern and western India. ornaments. Agriculture Some post-1980 studies indicate that food production was largely indigenous to the Indus Valley. An extensive canal network.[41] Judging from the dispersal of Indus civilisation artifacts. such as Dorian Fuller. most of which (aside from the Dholavira "signboard") are exquisitely tiny. figurines. a crop derived from two-row barley (see Shaffer and Liechtenstein 1995. document intensive caravan trade with Central Asia and the Iranian plateau. as well as boats. including portions of Afghanistan. It is known that the people of Mehrgarh used domesticated wheats and barley. which was facilitated by major advances in transport technology. Archaeologists have discovered a massive. however. the trade networks.Computer-aided reconstruction of Harappan coastal settlement at Sokhta Koh near Pasni on the westernmost outreaches of the civilization Further information: Lothal and Meluhha The Indus civilization's economy appears to have depended significantly on trade. used for irrigation. indicate that it took some 2000 years before Middle Eastern wheat was acclimatised to South Asian conditions. similarities in pottery. perhaps driven by sail.[43] and the major cultivated cereal crop was naked six-row barley. Several coastal settlements like Sotkagen-dor (astride Dasht River. dredged canal and what they regard as a docking facility at the coastal city of Lothal in western India (Gujarat state). During the Early Harappan period (about 3200–2600 BCE). etc. there is secondary evidence of sea-going craft. Shallow harbors located at the estuary of rivers opening into the sea allowed brisk maritime trade with Mesopotamian cities. however. 2000 BCE Well over 400 distinct Indus symbols (some say 600)[44] have been found on seals. Writing or symbol system Main article: Indus script Ten Indus characters discovered near the northern gate of Dholavira. Sokhta Koh (astride Shadi River. and Mesopotamia. There was an extensive maritime trade network operating between the Harappan and Mesopotamian civilizations as early as the middle Harappan Phase. has however also been discovered by H. Most of these boats were probably small. north of Pasni) and Balakot (near Sonmiani) in Pakistan along with Lothal in India testify to their role as Harappan trading outposts. integrated a huge area. the longest on a single surface. small tablets. including a "signboard" that apparently once hung over the gate of the inner citadel of the Indus city of Dholavira.[42] Such long-distance sea trade became feasible with the innovative development of plank-built watercraft. Francfort. the Indus Valley Civilization area shows ceramic similarities with southern Turkmenistan and northern Iran which suggest considerable mobility and trade. flat-bottomed craft.

[55][56]. which will reportedly republish photos taken in the 1920s and 1930s of hundreds of lost or stolen inscriptions. One famous seal shows a figure seated in a posture reminiscent of the Lotus position and surrounded by animals was named after Pashupati (lord of cattle). Wheeler (1947). Parpola and his colleagues. the longest on any object (found on three different faces of a mass-produced object) has a length of 26 symbols.[46] In a 2009 study published in Science. While the Indus Valley Civilization is often characterized as a literate society on the evidence of these inscriptions.[58] Archaeologists have emphasised that. later. researchers must supplement the materials in the Corpus by study of the tiny photos in the excavation reports of Marshall (1931).[57] In the earlier phases of their culture. a transition notably also alluded to in the Rigveda. However. Clark. found that the Indus script's pattern is closer to that of spoken words. These link "the so-called two major phases of urbanisation in South Asia". many of which were massproduced in molds.15. but this claim leaves unexplained the appearance of Indus symbols on many ritual objects. they also cremated their dead and buried the ashes in burial urns. a controversial paper by Farmer. where the forefathers "both cremated (agnidagdhá-) and uncremated (ánagnidagdha-)" are invoked (RV 10. an epithet of Shiva and Rudra. computer scientists. and many elements of the Indus Civilization can be found in later cultures. Mackay (1938. especially in the Cemetery H culture of the late Harrapan period. 1000-900 BCE and was partially contemporaneous with the Painted Grey Ware culture. and by around 1700 BCE. 1943). and Witzel (2004)[45] argues that the Indus system did not encode square. signs of a gradual decline began to emerge.[58] . especially in Indian religions such as Hinduism and Jainism.[50] Some Indus valley seals show swastikas which are found in later religions and mythologies. or reproductions in more recent scattered sources. Current archaeological data suggests that material culture classified as Late Harappan may have persisted until at least c. However.[53][54] Many Indus valley seals show animals. The earliest evidence for elements of Hinduism are present before and during the early Harappan period[51][52]. comparing the pattern of symbols to various linguistic scripts and nonlinguistic systems. this view has been disputed by S. the Harappans buried their dead. however. along with many discovered in the last few decades. Based partly on this evidence. just as in most areas of the world. there was a continuous series of cultural developments. including DNA and a computer programming language. Sproat. supporting the hypothesis that it codes for an as-yet-unknown language. the Indus Valley Civilization did not disappear suddenly. For now. most of the cities were abandoned. is 17 signs long. but has not yet found its way into print. but was instead similar to a variety of non-linguistic sign systems used extensively in the Near East and other societies. it has been widely suggested that the Harappan people worshipped a Mother goddess symbolizing fertility. has been announced for several years. Late Harappan Main article: Late Harappan Around 1800 BCE. Others have claimed on occasion that the symbols were exclusively used for economic transactions. edited by A. Phallic symbols resembling the Hindu Siva lingam have been found in the Harappan remains. Religion Further information: Prehistoric religion and History of Hinduism In view of the large number of figurines[49] found in the Indus valley.14). Publication of a final third volume.[47][48] Photos of many of the thousands of extant inscriptions are published in the Corpus of Indus Seals and Inscriptions (1987. 1991). No parallels to these mass-produced inscriptions are known in any other early ancient civilizations. this description has been challenged on linguistic and archaeological grounds: it has been pointed out that the brevity of the inscriptions is unparalleled in any known premodern literate society.

pp. from the University of Aberdeen. a crucial factor may have been the disappearance of substantial portions of the Ghaggar Hakra river system. IL: McDougal Littell.. ^ (McIntosh 2001. K. In the formerly great city of Harappa. A 2004 paper indicated that the isotopes of the Ghaggar-Hakra system do not come from the Himalayan glaciers. World History: Patterns of Interaction. ^ "'Earliest writing' found". N. regional cultures emerged. in particular the Old Elamite period. to investigate how the courses of rivers have changed in this region since 8000 years ago in order to test whether climate or river reorganizations are responsible for the decline of the Harappan. ISBN 0-395-87274-X.First European explorer of Harappa • Sokhta Koh . ^ Ratnagar. Wiley & Sons. A tectonic event may have diverted the system's sources toward the Ganges Plain. Krieger. The language of the IVC is unknown. and were rain-fed instead. Dahia Ibo Shabaka. 4. At the same time. Prepalatial Minoan Crete and Old Kingdom to First Intermediate Period Egypt. as with any other civilization.[59] Legacy In the aftermath of the Indus Civilization's collapse. ISBN The Cemetery H culture has the earliest evidence for Phillip C. Historical context The IVC has been tentatively identified with the toponym Meluhha known from Sumerian records.A coastal Harappan settlement • Meluhha .[61][31] Proto-Munda (or Para-Munda) and a "lost phylum" (perhaps related or ancestral to the Nihali language)[62] have been proposed as candidates.J. BBC News. Vikramaditya (2006). Shereen (2006). linked to a general weakening of the monsoon at that time.[citation needed] New geological research is now being conducted by a group led by Peter Clift. although there are a number of hypotheses: Proto-Dravidian. See also • Charles Masson . Hoboken. 3. the Ochre Coloured Pottery culture expanded from Rajasthan into the Gangetic Plain.[60] The mature (Harappan) phase of the IVC is contemporary to the Early to Middle Bronze Age in the Ancient Near East. Evanston.stm. Jarzombek. and not generally accepted. to varying degrees showing the influence of the Indus Civilization. Alternatively.24) 5. contradicting a Harappan time mighty "Sarasvati' river. 28–32. pp. http://news. Naylor. will have been due to a combination of various reasons. Early Dynastic to Ur III Mesopotamia.a place name used in Mesopotamia which may have referred to the Indus Civilization • Synoptic table of the principal old world prehistoric cultures • Brahui language .. Mark.a language sometimes linked to that of the (southern) Indus Civilization • Gola dhoro Notes 1. ^ Ching. the decline of the IVC. The first one shows a Swastika A possible natural reason for the IVC's decline is connected with climate change that is also signaled for the neighboring areas of the Middle East: The Indus valley climate grew significantly cooler and drier from about 1800 BCE. Larry S. (1999). though there is complete uncertainty about the date of this event as most settlements inside Ghaggar-Hakra river beds have not yet been dated. It has been compared in particular with the civilizations of Elam (also in the context of the Elamo-Dravidian hypothesis) and with Minoan Crete (because of isolated cultural parallels such as the ubiquitous goddess worship and depictions of bull-leaping). Linda Black. burials have been found that correspond to a regional culture called the Cemetery H culture. Roger B.: J. ^ Beck. p.Indus tablets. Although this particular factor is speculative. A Global History of Architecture.Prakash. Francis D. Trading Encounters: From the Euphrates to the . a practice dominant in Hinduism until today.

World's Last Mysteries. 1982. London: Richard Bentley. History and Archaeology. Oxford University Press. George F.. ed.2 km).100190. Old Problems and New Perspectives in the Archaeology of South Asia. "Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanization". doi:10. ISBN Behind us was a large circular mound. in Reader's Digest.. Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan. (1962). in Chatterjee. Wisconsin Archaeological Reports 2. 10. Annual Reviews of Anthropology 19 (19): 261–282 (Map on page 263). S. thirteen cosses distant. 8. India. A. "Excavations at Alamgirpur". 6. George F.annualreviews. ISBN 0210222786.. 117–126. 14. "Indus Valley". The Archaeology of Seafaring in Ancient South Asia. (1979). Cambridge University Press.g. ^ (Kenoyer 1998. Misra. I:441-464. Gregory L. a measure of distance used from Vedic period to Mughal times. Archaeological Survey of India. ^ Bisht. ^ (Gupta 1995. crowned with the remains of buildings. Ahmad Hassan (1970-1971).19. p. ^ a b Possehl. Lichtenstein. 23. "A long march preceded our arrival at Haripah. Saudi Aramco World: 34–42. India. ISBN 019568088X. 22.). ^ Chandler. 379–408.Indus in the Bronze Age. Afghanistan and the Panjab.) 11. 51–52. pp. is approximately 2 miles (3. Report for the Year 1872-73.. Robert (1976). a special Number of . Charles (1842). ^ Dales. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.. ^ Joshi. 19. 96) 15. ^ Dani. pp. 13. (1982).of. 85–95. Shikaripura Ranganatha (1973). (1989).). or eminence. Calcutta: Archaeological Survey of India.htm. Diane A. Bhaskar (ed.I. "Ethnicity and Change in the Indus Valley Cultural Tradition".1. Harappan Civilization: A recent perspective. 17. 7.). Journal of World Prehistory 5: 1–64. (1990). South Asian Archaeology 1977.1007/BF00978474. "The Balakot Project: summary of four years excavations in Pakistan". and to the west was an irregular rocky height. 20.001401. ^ Ray. brought down by the lust and crimes of the sovereign. ^ Cunningham. in fragments of walls. London: Asia Publishing House. pp. J. so considerable that it extended to Chicha Watni. pp. 32-3.S. Delhi: Oxford & IBH & A. Lothal and the Indus civilization. II:425-446. http://arjournals. ^ Shaffer.the. Tradition affirms the existence here of a city. pp. 1875. Naples: Seminario di Studi Asiatici Series Minor 6. after the eastern manner. A Review (1958-1959). "A new model of the Harappan town planning as revealed at Dholavira in Kutch: a surface study of its plan and architecture". Virendra Nath (1992). M. "Traders of the Plain". (ed. ^ A. pp. 241–274. Surv.1146/annurev.. Ancient Pakistan (5): 1–177. Indus Civilization. 472. 21. R. 24.. pp. 18. in Possehl. Jonathan Mark (1991). 5: 105-8 and pl.). Jim G. New Delhi: Ramanand Vidya Bhawan. P." Note that the coss. 9.plain. including a residence in those countries from 1826 to 1838. 12. ^ (Shaffer 1992. 95. M. 16. ^ e. ^ Mughal. doi:10. Antiquity 36 (142): 86. When I joined the camp I found it in front of the village and ruinous brick castle. Harappan Civilization. Instituto Universitario Orientate. "Manda: A Harappan site in Jammu and Kashmir". Himanshu Prabha (2003). in Maurizio Taddei ( Bala. Ghosh.. pp. in Possehl. ISBN with niches. p. ^ Kenoyer. "Excavations in the Gomal Valley". Gregory L. Delhi: Archaeol. "Chapter 2: Haripah". and that it was destroyed by a particular visitation of Providence. "Harappan Outposts on the Makran Coast". (1989). R. "Recent archaeological research in the Cholistan desert". (ed. ^ Masson. "The Indus Valley tradition of Pakistan and Western India".. ^ Rao. ^ a b Davreau. ^ Dales. Gregory L. 185–95. http://www. Indian Archaeology..saudiaramcoworld. 183) 25. Graham (September/October 1999). through jangal of the closest description.

the Eastern Anthropologist. pp. 1–19. 26. ^ Ratnagar, Shereen (2006). Understanding Harappa: Civilization in the Greater Indus Valley. New Delhi: Tulika Books. ISBN 8189487027. 27. ^ Indus writing: Sanskrit or Dravidian? 28. ^ Hinduism and The Indus Valley Civilization 29. ^ a b Ancient Indus Valley Script: Dani Interview Text Only 30. ^ Indus Writing Analysis by Asko Parpola 31. ^ a b Parpola, Asko (1994). Deciphering the Indus Script. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521430798. 32. ^ Durrani, F. A. (1984). "Some Early Harappan sites in Gomal and Bannu Valleys". in Lal, B. B. and Gupta, S. P.. Frontiers of Indus Civilisation. Delhi: Books & Books. pp. 505–510. 33. ^ Thapar, B. K. (1975). "Kalibangan: A Harappan Metropolis Beyond the Indus Valley". Expedition 17 (2): 19–32. 34. ^ It has been noted that the courtyard pattern and techniques of flooring of Harappan houses has similarities to the way house-building is still done in some villages of the region. (Lal 2002, pp. 93–95) 35. ^ Sergent, Bernard (1997) (in French). Genèse de l'Inde. Paris: Payot. pp. 113. ISBN 2228891169. 36. ^ Coppa, A.; et al. (2006-04-06). "Early Neolithic tradition of dentistry: Flint tips were surprisingly effective for drilling tooth enamel in a prehistoric population". Nature 440: 755. doi:10.1038/440755a. 37. ^ Bisht, R. S. (1982). "Excavations at Banawali: 1974-77". in Possehl, Gregory L. (ed.). Harappan Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective. New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publishing Co.. pp. 113–124. 38. ^ Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark (1997). "Trade and Technology of the Indus Valley: New Insights from Harappa, Pakistan". World Archaeology 29 (2: "High-Definition Archaeology: Threads Through the Past"): 262–280. 39. ^ a b (Lal 2002, p. 82) 40. ^ (Lal 2002, p. 89) 41. ^ (Parpola 2005, pp. 2–3) 42. ^ Neyland, R. S. (1992). "The seagoing vessels on Dilmun seals". in Keith, D.H.; Carrell, T.L. (eds.). Underwater archaeology proceedings of the Society for Historical Archaeology Conference at Kingston, Jamaica 1992. Tucson, AZ: Society for Historical Archaeology. pp. 68–74. 43. ^ Jarrige, J.-F. (1986). "Excavations at Mehrgarh-Nausharo". Pakistan Archaeology 10 (22): 63–131. 44. ^ Wells, B. An Introduction to Indus Writing. Early Sites Research Society (West) Monograph Series, 2, Independence MO 1999 45. ^ Farmer, Steve; Sproat, Richard; Witzel, Michael. The Collapse of the Indus-Script Thesis: The Myth of a Literate Harappan Civilization. 46. ^ These and other issues are addressed in (Parpola 2005) 47. ^ "Entropic Evidence for Linguistic Structure in the Indus Script.". Science 324 (5931): 1165. May 2009. doi:10.1126/science.1170391. Retrieved on 2009-06-05. 48. ^ Indus Script Encodes Language, Reveals New Study of Ancient Symbols Newswise, Retrieved on Jun 5, 2009. 49. ^ Photos: 50. ^ Clark, Sharri R. (2007). The social lives of figurines: recontextualizing the third millennium BC terracotta figurines from Harappa, Pakistan.. Harvard PhD. 51. ^ "Rigveda". The Hindu Universe. HinduNet Inc. Retrieved on 2007-06-25. 52. ^ "Hindu History". The BBC names a bath and phallic symbols of the Harappan civilization as features of the

"Prehistoric religion (3000-1000BCE)". 53. ^ (Basham 1967) 54. ^ Frederick J. Simoons (1998). Plants of life, plants of death. pp. 363. 55. ^ Ranbir Vohra (2000). The Making of India: A Historical Survey. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 15. 56. ^ Grigoriĭ Maksimovich Bongard-Levin (1985). Ancient Indian Civilization. Arnold-Heinemann. pp. 45. 57. ^ Steven Rosen, Graham M. Schweig (2006). Essential Hinduism. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 45. 58. ^ a b Shaffer, Jim (1993). "Reurbanization: The eastern Punjab and beyond". in Spodek, Howard; Srinivasan, Doris M.. Urban Form and Meaning in South Asia: The Shaping of Cities from Prehistoric to Precolonial Times. 59. ^ Tripathi, Jayant K.; Tripathi, K.; Bock, Barbara; Rajamani, V. & Eisenhauer, A. (2004-10-25). "Is River Ghaggar, Saraswati? Geochemical Constraints". Current Science 87 (8). 60. ^ Mode, H. (1944). Indische Frühkulturen und ihre Beziehungen zum Westen. Basel. 61. ^ "Indus civilization". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Retrieved on 2007-02-16. 62. ^ Witzel, Michael (1999). "Substrate Languages in Old Indo-Aryan (Ṛgvedic, Middle and Late Vedic)". Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies 5 (1). Bibliography • Allchin, Bridget (1997). Origins of a Civilization: The Prehistory and Early Archaeology of South Asia. New York: Viking. • Allchin, Raymond (ed.) (1995). The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States. New York: Cambridge University Press. • Aronovsky, Ilona; Gopinath, Sujata (2005). The Indus Valley. Chicago: Heinemann. • Basham, A. L. (1967). The Wonder That Was India. London: Sidgwick & Jackson. pp. 11–14. • Chakrabarti, D. K. (2004). Indus Civilization Sites in India: New Discoveries. Mumbai: Marg Publications. ISBN 81-85026-63-7. • Dani, Ahmad Hassan (1984). Short History of Pakistan (Book 1). University of Karachi. • Dani, Ahmad Hassan; Mohen, J-P. (eds.) (1996). History of Humanity, Volume III, From the Third Millennium to the Seventh Century BC. New York/Paris: Routledge/UNESCO. ISBN 0415093066. • Gupta, S. P. (1996). The Indus-Saraswati Civilization: Origins, Problems and Issues. Delhi: Pratibha Prakashan. ISBN 81-85268-46-0. • Gupta, S. P. (ed.) (1995). The lost Sarasvati and the Indus Civilisation. Jodhpur: Kusumanjali Prakashan. • Kathiroli; et al. (2004). "Recent Marine Archaeological Finds in Khambhat, Gujarat". Journal of Indian Ocean Archaeology (1): 141–149. • Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark (1998). Ancient cities of the Indus Valley Civilisation. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-577940-1. • Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark (1991). "The Indus Valley tradition of Pakistan and Western India". Journal of World Prehistory 5: 1–64. doi:10.1007/BF00978474. • Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark; Heuston, Kimberly (2005). The Ancient South Asian World. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195174224. • Kirkpatrick, Naida (2002). The Indus Valley. Chicago: Heinemann. • Lahiri, Nayanjot (ed.) (2000). The Decline and Fall of the Indus Civilisation. Delhi: Permanent Black. ISBN 81-7530-034-5. • Lal, B. B. (1998). India 1947-1997: New Light on the Indus Civilization. New Delhi: Aryan Books International. ISBN 81-7305-129-1. • Lal, B. B. (1997). The Earliest Civilisation of South Asia (Rise, Maturity and Decline).

• Lal, B. B. (2002). The Sarasvati flows on. • McIntosh, Jane (2001). A Peaceful Realm: The Rise And Fall of the Indus Civilization. Boulder: Westview Press. ISBN 0813335329. • Mughal, Mohammad Rafique (1997). Ancient Cholistan, Archaeology and Architecture. Ferozesons. ISBN 9690013505. • Parpola, Asko (2005-05-19). "Study of the Indus Script". (50th ICES Tokyo Session) • Possehl, Gregory (2002). The Indus Civilisation. Walnut Creek: Alta Mira Press. • Rao, Shikaripura Ranganatha (1991). Dawn and Devolution of the Indus Civilisation. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan. ISBN 81-85179-74-3. • Shaffer, Jim G. (1995). "Cultural tradition and Palaeoethnicity in South Asian Archaeology". in George Erdosy (ed.). Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia. Berlin u.a.: de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-014447-6. • Shaffer, Jim G. (1999). "Migration, Philology and South Asian Archaeology". in Bronkhorst and Deshpande (eds.). Aryan and Non-Aryan in South Asia.. Cambridge: Harvard University, Dept. of Sanskrit and Indian Studies. ISBN 1-888789-04-2. • Shaffer, Jim G. (1992). "The Indus Valley, Baluchistan and Helmand Traditions: Neolithic Through Bronze Age". in R. W. Ehrich (ed.). Chronologies in Old World Archaeology (Second ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. • Witzel, Michael (February 2000). "The Languages of Harappa". Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies. Cemetery H culture From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Geography of the Rigveda, with river names; the extent of the Swat and Cemetery H cultures are indicated. [hide]History of South Asia Stone Age before 3300 BCE Indus Valley Civilization 3300–1700 BCE Vedic Civilization 2000–600 BCE Iron Age 1200–1 BCE Maurya Empire • 321–184 BCE Chola Empire • 300 BCE–1279 CE Satavahana Empire • 230 BCE–220 CE Middle Kingdoms 1CE–1279 CE Gupta Empire • 280–550 CE Chalukya Empire • 543–753 CE Pala Empire • 750–1174 CE Islamic Sultanates 1206–1596 Mughal Empire 1526–1858

urban decay. painted in black with antelopes. London and Chicago: Fitzroy-Dearborn. Harappa Excavations 19861990: A multidiscipinary approach to Third Millennium urbanism. This is completely different from the Indus civilization where bodies were buried in wooden coffins. • Rice became a main crop.1007/BF00978474. one of three cultural phases that developed in the Localization Era of the Indus Valley Tradition. Ancient Races of Baluchistan. pp. • Mallory. and Sind. (2000). • Sarkar. it is considered by some scholars a nucleus of Vedic civilization. ^ Kennedy 2000.[1] It is considered to be part of the Late Harrappan phase. Shaffer 1992 2. Jonathan Mark (1991a). Kenneth A. ^ Kenoyer 1991b. "The Indus Valley tradition of Pakistan and Western India". The distinguishing features of this culture include:[citation needed] • The use of cremation of human remains. 103. doi:10. H. (ed. WI: Prehistory Press. Jonathan Mark (1991b).). 312.. R. • Apparent breakdown of the widespread trade of the Indus civilization. "Urban Process in the Indus Tradition: A preliminary model from Harappa". J.Sikh Empire 1733–1849 British India 1858–1947 Modern States since 1947 Timeline This box: view • talk • edit The Cemetery H culture developed out of the northern part of the Indus Valley Civilization around 1900 BCE. peacocks etc. God-Apes and Fossil Men: Palaeoanthropology of South Asia. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. in Meadow.[3] The archaeologist Kenoyer noted that this culture "may only reflect a change in the focus of settlement organization from that which was the pattern of the earlier Harappan phase and not cultural discontinuity. sun or star motifs. • Kenoyer. Adams. 310 4. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Sasanka Sekhar (1964). p. or site abandonment. The urn burials and the "grave skeletons" were nearly contemporaneous. The Cemetery H culture also "shows clear biological affinities" with the earlier population of Harappa. Panjab. (1997).[citation needed] [edit] See also • Indus Valley Tradition • Painted Grey Ware [edit] References 1. 56 • Kennedy. Journal of World Prehistory 5: 1–64. Together with the Gandhara grave culture and the Ochre Coloured Pottery culture. Q. .. • Kenoyer. with materials such as marine shells no longer used. • Expansion of settlements into the east. ^ Kenoyer 1991a. D. The Cemetery H culture is part of the Punjab Phase. all of which have been suggested in the past. invading aliens.[2] • Reddish pottery. with different surface treatments to the earlier period. Mallory & Adams 1997. • Continued use of mud brick for building. p. The bones were stored in painted pottery burial urns. in and around western Punjab region located in present-day Pakistan. R. P. ^ Sarkar 1964 3. 29–60. It was named after a cemetery found in "area H" at Harappa. Madison. pp."[4] Remains of the culture have been dated from about 1900 BCE until about 1300 BCE.

sometimes referred to as Vedic civilization.2 Society and economy • 3 Vedic Religious Practices • 4 The later Vedic period o 4. and was succeeded by the Maurya Empire (from ca. both by linguistic change and by reinterpretation.• Shaffer. "The Indus • http://pubweb. and the spread of the kuru- . Contents [hide] • 1 Overview • 2 Rigvedic period o 2. Linguistically. but have undergone certain changes. Chronologies in Old World Archaeology (Second ed. the Vedic texts could be classified in five chronological strata: 1.).. W. the oldest sacred texts of the Indo-Aryans. 2. • The associated culture. II:425–446. 320 BCE). Scholars place the Vedic period in the second and first millennia BCE continuing up to the 6th century BCE based on literary evidence. classical age of Sanskrit literature. 600 BCE). Its early phase saw the formation of various kingdoms of ancient India. the Rigveda Khilani.wikipedia. the Cemetery H culture of the Punjab and the Ochre Coloured Pottery culture (OCP) further east. were being composed. the golden age. it saw the rise of the Mahajanapadas. Jim G. (1992). the Samaveda Samhita (containing some 75 mantras not in the Rigveda). and the mantras of the Yajurveda. and it retains many common Indo-Iranian elements. R. There is no widely accepted archaeological or linguistic evidence of direct cultural continuity from the Indus Valley civilization.1 Political organization o 2. In its late phase (from" Vedic period From Wikipedia. and the Middle kingdoms of was centered in the northern and northwestern parts of the Indian subcontinent.html Retrieved from "http://en. Its creation must have taken place over several centuries.1 Kingdoms • 5 Notes • 6 References • 7 Further reading • 8 See also • 9 External links Overview The reconstruction of the history of Vedic India is based on text-internal Mantra language: This period includes both the mantra and prose language of the Atharvaveda (Paippalada and Shaunakiya). I:441– 464. pp. Conspicuous changes include change of vishva "all" by sarva. both in language and in content. Rigvedic: The Rigveda is by far the most archaic of the Vedic texts preserved. search Map of northern India in the late Vedic period The Vedic Period (or Vedic Age) is the period during which the Vedas.u-tokai.harappa. Many of these texts are largely derived from the Rigveda. would have been complete by 1000(?) BCE. Archaeologically. the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Vedic Period) Jump to: navigation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. and apart from that of the youngest books (first part of 1 and all of 10). that are not present in any other Vedic texts. in Ehrich. Baluchistan and Helmand Traditions: Neolithic Through Bronze Age". this period may correspond with the Gandhara Grave Culture.

and belongs to the time after 500 BCE. mainly in the younger books 1 and 10. KathU. it cannot be easily localized. the 10th century BCE. TS) belongs to this period. Archaeologically. VadhSS). although some hold book 9. Historical records set in only after the end of the Vedic period. and at the same time the beginning of Classical Sanskrit. various myths and stories. Indo-Aryan migration and Gandhara Grave culture related cultures remains controversial and politically charged in Indian society. The invasion of Darius I of the Indus valley in the early 6th century BCE marks the beginning of outside influence. The Andronovo culture is believed to be the site of the first horse-drawn chariots. The oldest hymns. Political organization The grama (wagon train). cultural and political changes. JUB) and the oldest Shrautasutras (BSS. to be even more ancient. vis and jana were political units of the early Vedic Aryans. All but the five prose Upanishads are post-Buddhist[1]). due to the semi-nomadic nature of the society described. and in its earliest phase describes tribes that were essentially on the move. and some Upanishads (e. Also. often leading to disputes on the history of Vedic culture. Kushan and ultimately the Islamic Sultans. Videha (N. the rapid spread of Northern Black Polished Ware (NBP) over all of northern India corresponds to this period. probably in books 2–7. ChU. as well as the Aranyakas. the Painted Grey Ware (PGW) culture from ca. common Indo-Iranian society. The rashtra (polity) was governed by a rajan (chieftain. and remain scarce throughout the Indian Middle Ages. corresponding to the Black and Red Ware (BRW) culture. 900 BCE corresponds. and a grama was a smaller unit than the other two. He was elected from a restricted class of 'royals' (rajanya). contain many elements inherited from pre-Vedic. 6. Archaeologically. This is the time of the early Iron Age in northwestern India. and allusions to.g. Bihar) as a third political center is established. The earliest Vedanta. The leader of a grama was called gramani and that of a vish was called vishpati. it is difficult to define the precise beginning of the "Rigvedic period". and the Pali Prakrit dialect of Buddhist scripture belong to this period. the Soma Mandala. Gautama Buddha. 3. and the Classical Sanskrit described by Panini is considered post-Vedic. The grammar of Panini marks a final apex in the codification of Sutra texts. Therefore. dating from ca. Epic and Paninian Sanskrit: The language of the Mahabharata and Ramayana epics. as it emerges seamlessly from the era preceding it. KS. 500 BCE. and the kingdom of the Kurus. A vish was a subdivision of a jana or "krishti". new waves of immigration from 150 BCE (Abhira. The king is often referred to as gopa (protector) and occasionally as samrat (supreme ruler). The end of Vedic India is marked by linguistic. He governed the people with their consent and approval. and the shift of the political center from the Kurus to the Pancalas on the Ganges. Sutra language: This is the last stratum of Vedic Sanskrit leading up to c. 5. Brahmana prose: The Brahmanas proper of the four Vedas belong to this period. 'king').verbal stem (for Rigvedic krno-). RigVedic Aryans have a lot in common with the Andronovo culture and the Mittanni kingdoms as well as with early Iranians. Megasthenes. comprising the bulk of the Śrauta and Grhya Sutras. MaitrU). The most important historical source of the geography of post-Vedic India is the 2nd century Greek historian Arrian whose report is based on the Mauryan time ambassador to Patna. Rigvedic period See also Rigvedic tribes The origin of the Vedic civilization and its relation to the Indus Valley civilization. An important linguistic change is the complete loss of the injunctive. the oldest of the Upanishads (BAU. There were various types of meetings such . but not explanation of. Samhita prose: This period marks the beginning of the collection and codification of a Vedic canon. 4. The Rigveda is primarily a collection of religious hymns. The Brahmana part ('commentary' on mantras and ritual) of the Black Yajurveda (MS. continued in the kingdoms of the Indo Greeks. Shaka).

preserving the sacred the vidhata or "Sabha". Kshatriyas. He collected taxes (originally ceremonial gifts. to be distinguished from caste. In the Early Vedic Period all the three upper classes Brahmins. as in the fields of science. As the caste system became deep-rooted there were many restrictions and rules which were to be followed. jati) Vedic Religious Practices Main articles: Historical Vedic religion. The status of the Brahmins and Kshatriyas was higher than that of the Vaishyas and Shudras. Texts considered to date to the Vedic period are mainly the four Vedas. 1300 BCE. The concept of varna (class) and the rules of marriage were rigid as is evident from Vedic verses (RV 10. sons. maintained the structure of society and the economy of a tribe. sena: army). but the Brahmanas. Society and economy Ceramic goblet from Navdatoli. Aranyakas and the older Upanishads as well as the oldest Shrautasutras are also considered to be Vedic. strictly excluding the Sudras. The main duty of the king was to protect the tribe. The Society was strictly organized in a system of four varna (classes. The priests executed rituals for the three upper classes (varna) of Vedic society. the composers of the hymns of the Rigveda. were common. Gana was the non-monarchial assembly that is a parallel one to the monarchial assemblies of that period headed by Jyestha the same was referred in Buddhist text named Jettaka. long life and gaining 'heaven'. Malwa. Kshatriyas amassed wealth (cattle). The Vedas record the liturgy connected with the rituals and sacrifices performed by the 16 or 17 Shrauta priests and the purohitas. religion and the environment. Rau 1957). Soldiers on foot (pattis) and on chariots (rathins). cattle. The Vaishyas were pastoralists and farmers. People offered for abundance of rain. Cattle were held in high esteem and frequently appear in Rigvedic hymns. Śrauta means "what is heard"). Agriculture grew more prominent with time as the community gradually began to settle down in post-Rigvedic times. were considered inspired poets and seers (in post-Vedic times understood as "hearers" of an eternally existing Veda. The proper enunciation of verses in ritual was considered essential for prosperity and success in war and harvests. and Vaishyas were considered as —relatively— equal Arya. and helped in maintaining law and order. W. The former not only gave advice to the ruler but also was his chariot driver and practiced spells and charms for success in war. The Brahmins were specialized in creating poetry. Kshatriyas helped in administering the polity. The Sabha. including the purohita (chaplain) and the senani (army chief. and many commissioned the performance of sacrifices. sitated outside of settlement. and carrying out various types of rituals. The king employed spaś (spies) and dutas (messengers). was restricted to the Vratyas. The economy was based on bartering with cattle and other valuables such as salt or metals. they also restricted social mobility between the varnas. The mode of worship was performance of sacrifices which included the chanting of Rigvedic verses (see Vedic chant). and gods to bulls. and people prayed for the abundance of sons. Families were patrilineal. He was aided by several functionaries. Vedic astrology The Vedic forms of belief are the precursor to modern Hinduism. singing of Samans and 'mumbling' of offering mantras (Yajus) . war. from the people which he had to redistribute. but in the Later Vedic Age the Brahmins and Kshatriyas became upper class. armed with bow and arrow.90. bali). . with a common woman (pumscali) [2] while the vidatha was the potlatchlike ritual distribution of bounty [3]. goddesses were often compared to cows. literature. The rishis. bands of roving Brahmins and Kshatriyas in search of cattle. Functioning as intellectual leadership. the Shudras were the lower class. they included artisans and were meant to serve the upper three classes [4].

in part with the exception of animal sacrifice. from ca. Prithivi (the earth). Kutch. ^ V. vajapeya (including a chariot race) and. Several changes went hand in hand with this. Aryaman. South Asian Studies 13: 297-307. 1989. http://www. Hyderabad: Orient Longmans (1999). . Staat und Gesellschaft. ^ W. Rulers gave themselves titles like ekarat (the one ruler).htm 2. The kings performed sacrifices like rajasuya (royal consecration). Selected Writings on Indian Linguistics and Philology. further nature deities such as Surya (the Sun).The main deities of the Vedic pantheon were Indra. Agni (the sacrificial fire). The late Vedic period. Aryan Books International. New Delhi. with Agni (the sacrificial fire) taking the role of messenger between the two. • Michael Witzel. The Homeland of the Aryans. S. Bhaga and Amsa. The coronation ceremony was a major social occasion.B.Falk. 406-417 4. pp. partly under the influence of the Buddhist and Jain religions. Bruderschaft udn Würfelspiel. was continued in India until at least the 4th century AD and revived under Jay Singh in 1740 AD. Vayu (the wind). 1957 References • Bokonyi. the ashvamedha (horse sacrifice). Evidence of Rigvedic Flora and Fauna & Archaeology. Goddesses included Ushas (the dawn). ^ F. The role of the people in political decision making and the status of the Vaishyas as such was greatly decreased. took part. "Horse Remains from the Prehistoric Site of Surkotada. and Soma and some deities of social order such as Mitra-Varuna. Notes 1.A. for supreme dominance over other kings. The Vedic people: their history and geography. Rajesh. several large kingdoms arose because of the increasing importance of land and long distance trade. • Kocchar. Vedic religion evolved into the Hindu paths of Yoga and Vedanta. Strong traces of a common Indo-Iranian religion remain visible. especially in the Soma cult and the fire worship. epics (namely Gita of Mahabharat). a religious path considering itself the 'essence' of the Vedas. ^ H. have been fully preserved and form the basis of modern Hinduism. Paris. B. Several functionaries. especially Saraswati. Late 3rd Millennium BC. and their criticism of such practices[citation needed].J. The relationship between humans and the deity was one of transaction. in Rome and old Ireland. For instance. • Lal. The Ashvamedha (horse sacrifice) has parallels in the 2nd millennium BC Andronovo culture. which was mostly abandoned by the higher castes by the end of the Vedic period. The later Vedic period The transition from the early to the later Vedic period was marked by the emergence of agriculture as the dominant economic activity and a corresponding decline in the significance of cattle rearing. Gunasekara. Kuiper. 97–265. Caillat. 2005.". The power of the king and the Kshatriyas greatly increased. more or less seamlessly blends into the period of the Middle kingdoms of India known from historical sources. Rau. Freiburg 1986 3.budsas. Tracing the Vedic dialects in Dialectes dans les litteratures Indo-Aryennes ed. sarvabhauma (ruler of all the earth) and chakravartin ('who moves the wheel'). Deities were not viewed as all-powerful. The ritualistic traditions of Vedic religion are preserved in the conservative Śrauta tradition. in addition to the purohita and the senani. Rivers. were also considered Prithvi and Aditi (the mother of the Aditya gods or sometimes the cow). along with later texts like Upanishads. These post-Vedic systems of thought. interpreting the Vedic pantheon as a unitary view of the universe with 'God' (Brahman) seen as immanent and transcendent in the forms of Ishvara and Brahman. 1997b. Kingdoms The late Vedic period was marked by the rise of the sixteen Mahajanapadas referred to in some of the literature. both of which are preserved in Zoroastrianism. 500 BCE onward.

5 (1999). Volume I. Bombay : Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan 1951 • R. Messrs Tilak Bros. Global communication without universal civilization. Further reading • R. An Advanced History of India.• Michael Witzel. Majumdar and A. D. Chinese. Pusalker (editors): The History and Culture of the Indian People. The Pleiades and the Bears viewed from inside the Vedic texts. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. C. The Vedic age.C.. Bharati. issue 2 (December) [1]. MacMillan. INU societal research. search [hide]History of South Asia Stone Age before 3300 BCE Indus Valley Civilization 3300–1700 BCE Vedic Civilization 2000–600 BCE Iron Age 1200–1 BCE Maurya Empire • 321–184 BCE Chola Empire • 300 BCE–1279 CE Satavahana Empire • 230 BCE–220 CE Middle Kingdoms 1CE–1279 CE Gupta Empire • 280–550 CE Chalukya Empire • 543–753 CE Pala Empire • 750–1174 CE Islamic Sultanates 1206–1596 Mughal Empire 1526–1858 Sikh Empire 1733–1849 British India 1858–1947 Modern States since 1947 Timeline This box: view • talk • edit Ancient history This box: view • talk • edit ↑ Prehistory Ancient Near East Sumer • Akkad • Egypt • Babylonia • Hittite Empire • Syro-Hittite states • Neo- . and Western. 1903 • Ankerl. See alsoIron Age India From Wikipedia. EVJS Vol. • Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak "The Arctic Home in the Vedas". Majumdar et al. ISBN 2-88155-004-5.1: Coexisting contemporary civilizations : Arabo-Muslim. 1967. Vol. Geneva: INU Press. Guy.

1995a Interaction Systems.K. Technical studies on materials dated c. o 1992. o 1974. Achaemenid Empire • Classical Greece • Dacia • Thrace • Scythia • Macedon • Hellenism • Roman Republic • Roman Empire • Parthia . Material Culture and Ethnicity. J. implying that they had already been experimenting for centuries (Agrawal et al. 1991a The Indus Valley Tradition of Pakistan and Western India. Ghosh (ed. Perspectives in Palaeoanthropology: 345-356. search This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. Mukhopadhyay. M. [edit] References • Kenoyer. pp. • Chakrabarti. D. Oxford University Press and American Institute of Pakistan Studies. Calcutta: Firma K. Please . J. edited by G. The Beginning of Iron in India. J. pp. Erdosy. India An Archaeological History. [1] The earliest Iron Age sites in South India are Hallur. In Chronologies in Old Worlsfgagd Archaeology (3rd Edition). viara is the one writing for ancient India and her project grade need to be a 80.). • Kenoyer. 1998 Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization. In The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia: Language. Chicago. DeGruyter. 1000 BCE at Komaranhalli (Karnataka) showed that the smiths of this site could deal with large artifacts.Assyrian Empire • Urartu Classical Antiquity Archaic Greece • Median Empire . The Early Use of Iron in India.M. o 1976.L. Ehrich. and suggested that “the date of the beginning of iron smelting in India may well be placed as early as the sixteenth century BCE” and “by about the early decade of thirteenth century BCE iron smelting was definitely known in India on a bigger scale”. G. Berlin. M. Karnataka and Adichanallur. in A. also known as the last phase of the Indus Valley Tradition. Baluchistan and Helmand Traditions: Neolithic Through Bronze Age. o 1999. 1992 The Indus Valley. J. Sahi (1979: 366) drew attention to the presence of iron in Chalcolithic deposits at Ahar. There has been fresh evidence for even earlier iron-working in India. 213-257. Tamil Nadu[2] at around 1000 BC. Delhi: Oxford University Press. 441-464. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. W. Beginning of Iron in India: Problem Reconsidered. edited by R.or higher Specialized Crafts and Culture Change: The Indus Valley Tradition and the IndoGangetic Tradition in South Asia. Antiquity 4: 114-124. In Journal of World Prehistory 5(4): 331-385. Karachi. • Kenoyer. University of Chicago Press. • Shaffer. Delhi: Oxford University Press Mahajanapadas From Wikipedia. Arsacid Empire • Sassanid Empire • Late Antiquity East Asia Hồng Bàng Dynasty • Gojoseon • Shang China • Qin Dynasty • Han Dynasty • Jin Dynasty South Asia Vedic India • Maha Janapadas • Mauryan India • Chola India • Satavahana India • Gupta India Pre-Columbian Americas Aztecs • Incas • Mayas • Olmecs • Teotihuacan see also: World history • Ancient maritime history • Protohistory • Axial Age • Iron Age • Historiography • Ancient literature • Ancient warfare • Cradle of civilization ↓Middle Ages The Iron Age in the Indian subcontinent succeeds the Late Harappan (Cemetery H) culture.K. 1985: 228-29).

They do not give any connected history except in the case of Magadha. Ancient Buddhist texts like Anguttara Nikaya [1] make frequent reference to sixteen great kingdoms and republics (Solas Mahajanapadas) which had evolved and flourished in the northern/north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent prior to the rise of Buddhism in India. "country") were Ancient Indian kingdoms or countries. The term "Janapada" literally means the foothold of a tribe. and Janapada "foothold of a tribe". Mahājanapadas). (May 2008) Map of the Mahajanapadas Mahajanapadas (Sanskrit: मिाजनपद. sheep and green pastures.[2] Contents [hide] • 1 Overview • 2 Kasi • 3 Kosala • 4 Anga • 5 Magadha • 6 Vajji or Vriji • 7 Malla • 8 Chedi or Cheti • 9 Vamsa or Vatsa • 10 Kuru • 11 Panchala • 12 Machcha or Matsya • 13 Surasena • 14 Assaka or Ashmaka • 15 Avanti • 16 Gandhara • 17 Kamboja • 18 See also • 19 References [edit] Overview The political structure of the ancient Indians appears to have started with seminomadic tribal units called Jana (meaning subjects). These early Vedic Janas later coalesced into Janapadas of the Epic Age. The fact that Janapada is derived from Jana points to an early stage of land-taking by the Jana tribe for a settled way of life. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Janapada stands for country and Janapadin for its citizenry. "great". Each of these Janapadas was named after the Kshatriya tribe (or the Kshatriya Jana) who had settled there-in. fighting among themselves and with other Non-Aryan tribes for cows. The PreBuddhist North-west region of Indian sub-continent was divided into several Janapadas demarcated from each other by boundaries. at several places. living in semi-nomadic tribal state." (from Maha. This process of first settlement on land had completed its final stage prior to the times of Buddha and Panini. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. In Panini.[5] gives a list of sixteen great nations: . Early Vedic texts attest several Janas or tribes of the Aryans. (January 2009) This article needs additional citations for verification.improve this article if you can.[3][4] The Buddhist and other texts only incidentally refer to sixteen great nations (Solasa Mahajanapadas) which were in existence before the time of Buddha. literally "Great realms. The Buddhist Anguttara Nikaya.

Vatsa (or Vamsa) 9. the following few isolated facts. Before Buddha. are gleaned from them and other ancient texts about these ancient nations. Several Jatakas bear witness to the superiority of its capital over other cities of India and speaks high of its prosperity and opulence.King Brihadratha of Kasi had conquered Kosala but Kasi was later incorporated into Kosala by King Kansa during Buddha's time. Moli (Malla). Ladha (Lata). The more extended horizon of the Bhagvati and the omission of all countries from Uttarapatha "clearly shows that the Bhagvati list is of later origin and therefore less reliable. [edit] Kasi Main article: Kasi This detailed map shows the locations of Kingdoms mentioned in the Indian epics. Magadha 5. Kuru 10. Padha.[7][8] The Jaina Bhagvati Sutra gives slightly different list of sixteen Mahajanapadas viz: Anga. The Jatakas speak of long rivalry of Kasi with Kosala. All other ancient texts read Kasi.[6] Chulla-Niddesa. the author of Bhagvati has a focus on the countries of Madhydesa and of far east and south only. Anga 4. Anga and Magadha. The Kasis were Aryan people who had settled in the region around Varanasi (modern Banaras).1. another ancient text of the Buddhist canon. Bajji (Vajji). A struggle for supremacy went on among them for a time. Kosala. He omits the nations from Uttarapatha like the Kamboja and Gandhara. Gandhara 16. Kasi was the most powerful of the sixteen Mahajanapadas. Panchala 11. Vajji (or Vriji) 6. Machcha (or Matsya) 12. Vaccha. thus listing the Kamboja and the Yona as the only Mahajanapadas from Uttarapatha. The Kasis along with the Kosalas and Videhans find mention in Vedic texts and appear to have been a closely allied people. since the lists include names of the people and not the countries. Kasi 2. Chedi 8. Accha. Kamboja Another Buddhist text Digha Nikaya mentions only first twelve Mahajanapadas and omits the last four in the above list. Surasena 13. Obviously. at best. [edit] Kosala Main article: Kosala The country of Kosalas was located to the north-west of Magadha with its capital at Savatthi (Sravasti). The capital of Kasi was at Varanasi. It had river Ganga for its southern. Kochcha (Kachcha?). It was located about 70 miles to north-west of Gorakhpur and comprised territory corresponding to the modern Awadh (or Oudh) in Uttar Pradesh."[9] The main idea in the minds of those who drew up the Janapada lists was basically more tribal than geographical. Malavaka. As the Buddhist and Jaina texts only casually refer to the Mahajanapadas with no details on history. Matsya Purana and Alberuni read Kasi as Kausika and Kaushaka respectively. The kingdom was ruled by king . Malla 7. Avaha and Sambhuttara. Avanti 15. Banga (Vanga). Malaya. Magadha. Kasi. Kosala 3. river Gandhak for its eastern and the Himalaya mountains for its northern boundaries. adds Kalinga to the list and substitutes Yona for Gandhara. Assaka 14. The city was bounded by rivers Varuna and Asi on north and south which gave Varanasi its name.

The last king of Videha was Kalara who is said to have perished along with his kingdom on account of his attempt on a Brahmin maiden. River Champa formed the boundaries between the Magadha in the west and Anga in the east. Later literature refers to Kikata as synonym of Magadha. It was in the time of king Janaka that Videha came into prominence. formerly known as Malini. During Buddha's time. Its capital Champa. On the ruins of his kingdom arose the republics of Lichchhavis. the Jnatrikas and the Vajjis were the most important. The Vedic dislike of the Magadhas in early times was due to the fact that the Magadhas were not yet wholly Brahmanised. the earliest ruling dynasty of Magadha was founded by king Brihadratha. Based on Mahabharata evidence. Mithila (modern Janakpur in district of Tirhut) was the capital of Videha which became the important center of political and cultural activities of northern India. the country of Anga roughly corresponded to the region of Bhagalpur and Monghyr in Bihar and parts of Bengal. Benares and Sravasti were the chief cities of Kosala. but Magadha came into prominence only under king Bimbisara and his son Ajatasatru. near its junction with river Champa. kingdom of Magadha finally emerged victorious and became a predominant empire in Mid India. and parts of Bengal in the east. With the exception of the Rigvedic Pramaganda. Main article: Anga The first reference to the Angas is found in the Atharva-Veda where they find mention along with the Magadhas. [edit] Vajji or Vriji Main article: Vajji The Vajjians or Virijis included eight or nine confederated clans of whom the Licchhavis. Its earliest capital was Girivraja or Rajagriha modern Rajgir in Patna district of Bihar. [edit] Anga Ancient Cities of India during the time of Ramayana. Anga was annexed by Magadha in the time of Bimbisara. It was bounded on the north by river Ganga. the Videhans. Mahabharata and Buddha. According to the Mahabharata and the Puranas. It was an active center of Jainism in ancient times. Vasumati. Videhans and seven other small republics.Prasenjit followed by his son Vidudabha. The Jaina Prajnapana ranks Angas and Vangas in the first group of Aryan peoples. [edit] Magadha Main article: Magadha The first reference to the Magadhas occurs in the Atharva-Veda where they are found listed along with the Angas. The other names for the city were Magadhapura. Kushagrapura and Bimbisarapuri. It was one of the very flourishing cities and is referred to as one of six principal cities of ancient India (Digha Nikaya). Rigveda mentions a king Pramaganda as a ruler of Kikata. There was struggle for supremacy between king Pasenadi (Prasenjit) and king Ajatasatru of Magadha which was finally settled once the confederation of Lichchavis became aligned with Magadha. Kosala was ultimately merged into Magadha when Vidudabha was Kosala's ruler. on the south by Vindhya mountains and on the west by river Sona. The . In the war of supremacy which went on for long between the nations of Majjhimadesa. however. Gandharis and the Mujavats apparently as a despised people. The bards of Magadha are. Later on. its boundaries included Anga. It was also a great center of trade and commerce and its merchants regularly sailed to distant Suvarnabhumi. Saketa. whose connection with Magadha is very speculative. Yasaka declares that Kikata was a non-Aryan country. was located on the right bank of river Ganga. no other king of Magadha is mentioned in Vedic literature. Ayodhya. Pataliputra became the capital of Magadha. Gandharis and the Mujavats as a despised people. Anga was bounded by river Ganga on the north. referred to in early Vedic literature and are spoken of in terms of contempt. Brihadrathapura. The first Buddhist Council was held in Rajagriha in the Vaibhara Hills. on the east by the river Champa. The kingdom of the Magadhas roughly corresponded to the modern districts of Patna and Gaya in southern Bihar.

They are called Vasishthas (Vasetthas) in the Mahapparnibbana Suttanta.. They however. Nirayavali Sutra). The Mallas appeared to have formed alliance with Lichchhavis for self defense. Kausambi had been a very prosperous city where large number of millionaire merchants resided. Mother of Mahavira was a Lichchhavi princess.Lichchhavis were very independent people. The Licchhavis were followers of Buddha. like the Lichchhavis. The Mallas were republican people with their dominion consisting of nine territories (Kalpa Sutra. had become very important at the time of Buddha. 38 miles from Allahabad). [edit] Kuru Main article: Kuru (India) The Puranas trace the origin of Kurus from the Puru-Bharata family. the headquarters of the powerful Vajji republic and the capital of Lichchavis was defeated by king Ajatasatru of Magadha. the southern frontiers of Chedi extended to the banks of river Narmada. The Licchhavis were closely related by marriage to the Magadhas and one branch of Lichhavis dynasty ruled Nepal until start of the Middle Ages but have nothing to do with current ruling shah dynasty in Nepal. 12 miles from Kasia) as the capital. [edit] Malla Main article: Malla (India) The Mallas are frequently mentioned in Buddhist and Jain works. lost their independence not long after Buddha's death and their dominions were annexed to the Magadhan empire. Panduputra Bhimasena is said to have conquered the chief of the Mallas in course of his expedition of Eastern India. was the capital of Chedi. the Sukti or Suktimati of Mahabharata. Buddha is said to have visited the Licchavis on many occasions. one of each of the nine confederated clans. He was very powerful. The Vatsa or Vamsa country corresponded with territory of modern Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh. Kuśināra and Pava are very important in the history of Buddhism since Buddha took his last meal and was taken ill at Pava and died at Kusinara. Sotthivatnagara. The Mallas. The Chedis were an ancient peoples of India and are mentioned in the Rigveda. and Kalingas as eastern tribes. Chedis lay near Yamuna midway between the kingdom of Kurus and Vatsas. In the mediaeval period. Vaishali was located 25 miles north of river Ganga and 38 miles from Rajagriha and was a very prosperous town. Initially king Udayana was opposed to Buddhism but later on he became follower of Buddha and made Buddhism the state religion. It had monarchical form of government with its capital at Kausambi (identified with village Kosam. Vangas. According to old authorities. Mahabharata mention Mallas along with the Angas. Vamsas or Vachchas are stated to be an offshoot from the Kurus. It was the most important entreport of goods and passengers from north-west and south. Jainism and Buddhism found many followers among the Mallas. are mentioned by Manusmriti as Vratya Kshatriyas. [edit] Vamsa or Vatsa Main article: Vatsa The Vatsas. warlike and fond of hunting. The Licchavis are represented as (Vratya) Kshatriyas in Manusmriti. Aitareya . The Second Buddhist Council was held at Vaishali. Vaishali. Chetis or Chetyas had two distinct settlements of which one was in the mountains of Nepal and the other in Bundelkhand near Kausambi. The Mallas were a brave and warlike people. Vaishali (modern Basarh in Vaishali District of North Bihar) was the capital of Licchhavis and the political headquarters of powerful Varijian confederacy. The Mallas originally had a monarchical form of government but later they switched to Samgha (republic) of which the members called themselves rajas. A branch of Chedis found a royal dynasty in the kingdom of Kalinga according to the Hathigumpha Inscription of Kharvela. Two of these confederations. [edit] Chedi or Cheti Main article: Chedi Kingdom The with Kuśināra (modern Kasia near Gorakhpur) as its capital.. second with Pava (modern Padrauna. They were a powerful people dwelling in Eastern India. Udayana was the ruler of Vatsa in sixth century BCE at the time of Buddha.

union territory of Delhi and Meerut district of Uttar Pradesh. Vayu Purana attests that Kuru. The northern Panchala had its capital at Adhichhatra or Chhatravati (modern Ramnagar in the Bareilly District). Buddhism gained ground in Mathura country. [edit] Assaka or Ashmaka Main article: Assaka The Country of Assaka or Ashmaka tribe was located in Dakshinapatha or southern . It roughly corresponded to modern Budaun. In Pali literature. The Andhakas and Vrishnis of Mathura/Surasena are referred to in the Ashtadhyayi of Panini. was the eponymous ancestor of the Kurus and the founder of Kururashtra (Kuru Janapada) in Kurukshetra. Farrukhabad and the adjoining districts of Uttar Pradesh. It roughly corresponded to former state of Jaipur in Rajasthan. [edit] Machcha or Matsya Main article: Matsya Kingdom Country of Matsya or Machcha tribe lied to south of the Kurus and west of the Yamuna which separated them from the Panchalas.Brahmana locates the Kurus in Madhyadesha and also refers to the Uttarakurus as living beyond the Himalayas. Andhakas and other allied tribes of the Yadavas formed a Samgha and Vasudeva (Krishna) is described as the Samgha-mukhya. and included the whole of Alwar with portions of Bharatpur. There is a Jataka reference to king Dhananjaya introduced as prince from the race of Yudhishtra. Mathura. Originally a monarchical clan. the capital of Surasena was also known at the time of Megasthenes as the centre of Krishna worship. According to Buddhist text Sumangavilasini (II. the Bhojas and the Panchalas. It had its capital at Madhura or Mathura. Though a well known monarchical people in earlier period. According to Jatakas. the Matsyas are usually associated with the Surasenas. the Vrishnis are described as Samgha or republic. the king of Surasena was the first among the chief disciples of Buddha through whose help. p 481). The Vrishnis. the capital of Kurus was Indraprastha (Indapatta) near modern Delhi which extended on seven leagues. The Kurus of Buddhist period did not occupy the same position as they did in the Vedic period but they continued to enjoy their ancient reputation for deep wisdom and sound health. The Kurus had matrimonial relations with Yadavas. The country was divided into Uttara-Panchala and Dakshina-Panchala. A branch of Matsya is also found in later days in Vizagapatam region. The Surasena kingdom had lost its independence on annexation by Magadhan empire. son of Samvarsana of the Puru lineage. [edit] Panchala Main article: Panchala The Panchalas occupied the country to the east of the Kurus between the mountains and river Ganga. while southern Panchala had it capital at Kampilya or Kampil in Farrukhabad District. Fourth century BCE Kautiliya's Arthashastra also attests the Kurus following the Rajashabdopajivin (king consul) constitution. the people of Kururashtra (the Kurus) came from the Uttarakuru. King Sujata ruled over both the Chedis and Matsyas thus showing that Matsya once formed a part of Chedi kingdom. [edit] Surasena Main article: Surasena Country of the Surasenas lied to south-west of Matsya and west of Yamuna. the Panchals appear to have switched to republican corporation in the sixth and fifth century BCE. The country of the Kurus roughly corresponded to the modern Thaneswer. Fourth century BCE Kautiliya's Arthashastra also attests the Panchalas as following the Rajashabdopajivin (king consul) constitution. the Kurus are known to have switched to republic form of government during sixth/fifth century BCE. At Buddha's time. The western Matsya was the hill tract on the north bank of Chambal. Avantiputra. the Kuru country was ruled by a titular chieftain (king consul) named Korayvya. The capital of Matsya was at Viratanagara (modern Bairat) which is said to have been named after its founder king Virata. The Matsyas had not much political importance of their own during the times of Buddha. The famous city of Kanyakubja or Kanauj was situated in the kingdom of Panchala. In Kautiliya's Arthashastra.

e Kashmira) as Gandharic city. are said to have been named after Taksa and Pushkara. According to Gandhara Jataka. Gandharas are included in the Uttarapatha division of Puranic and Buddhistic traditions. Later the Gandharas crossed Indus and expanded into parts of north-west Panjab. The Taxila University was a renowned center of learning in ancient times. the Dakshinapatha. It was located on a southern high road. The Gandharis. but apparently as a despised people.107). Initially. Panini has mentioned both Vedic form Gandhari as well as the later form Gandhara in his Ashtadhyayi. Gandhara Mahajanapada of Buddhist traditions included territories of east Afghanistan. Mahissati (Sanskrit Mahishamati) was the capital of Southern Avanti. Avanti was divided into north and south by river Vetravati. Gandharas were settled since the Vedic times on the south bank of river Kubha (Kabol) up to its mouth into Indus itself. well trained in the art of war. and Ujjaini (Sanskrit Ujjayini) was of northern Avanti. son of Aruddha. Avanti later became part of Magadhan empire. Aitareya Brahmana refers to king Naganajit of Gandhara who was contemporary of raja Janaka of Videha. [edit] Avanti Main article: Avanti (India) Country of the Avantis was an important kingdom of western India and was one of the four great monarchies in India when Buddhism arose. It was an important channel of communication with ancient Iran and Central Asia. the two cities of this Mahajanapada. The Gandharas were a furious people. According to Dr Zimmer. Gandharas and their king figure prominently as strong allies of the Kurus against the Pandavas in Mahabharata war. Assakas were located on the banks of river Godavari (south of Vindhya mountains). At one time. According to Vayu Purana (II. King Nandivardhana of Avanti was defeated by king Shishunaga of Magadha. a prince of Ayodhya. Its capital was Takshasila (Prakrit Taxila).India. at the end of Kaliyuga.36. Angas and the Magadhas. Vatsa and Magadha. Nimar and adjoining parts of the Madhya Pradesh. The country of Assaka lay outside the pale of Madhyadesa. The commentator of Kautiliya's Arthashastra identifies Ashmaka with Maharashtra. Avanti was an important center of Buddhism and some of the leading theras and theirs were born and resided there. The country of Avanti roughly corresponded to modern Malwa. the two sons of Bharata.[10] Hecataeus of Miletus (549-468) refers to Kaspapyros (Kasyapura i. but at the times of Mahavira and Buddha. River Godavari separated the country of Assakas from that of the Mulakas (or Alakas). and north-west of the Panjab (modern districts of Peshawar (Purushapura) and Rawalpindi). the Gandharas were destroyed by Pramiti aka Kalika. The river Indus watered the lands of Gandhara. Assaka included Mulaka and their country abutted with Avanti (Dr Bhandarkaar). The princes of this country are said to have come from the line of Druhyu who was a famous king of Rigvedic period. Ujjaini was the capital of integrated Avanti. this Janapada was founded by Gandhara. Gandhara was located on the grand northern high road (Uttarapatha) and was a centre of international commercial activities. the Indian genius of grammar and Kautiliya are the world renowned products of Taxila University. The Gandhara kingdom sometimes also included Kashmira. Taksashila and Pushkalavati. They are placed in the north-west in the Markendeya Purana and the Brhat Samhita. The Ashmakas are also mentioned by Panini. along with the Mujavantas. a descendant of Yayati. Gandhara formed a part of the kingdom of Kashmir. at one time. According to Puranic traditions. the Gandharas and . The capital of Assakas was Potana or Potali which corresponds to Paudanya of Mahabharata. According to one school of scholars. [edit] Gandhara Main article: Gandhara The wool of Gandharis is referred to in the Rigveda. In Buddha's time. Jataka also gives another name Chandahara for Gandhara. where scholars from all over the world came to seek higher education. King Pukkusati or Pushkarasarin of Gandhara in middle of sixth century BCE was the contemporary of king Bimbisara of Magadha. are also mentioned in the Atharvaveda. the other three being Kosala. Both Mahishmati and Ujjaini stood on the southern high road called Dakshinapatha which extended from Rajagriha to Pratishthana (modern Paithan). Panini.

[16][17][18][19] Gandhara was often linked politically with the neighboring regions of Kashmir and Kamboja.[24] The trans-Hindukush branch of the Kambojas remained pure Iranian but a large section of the Kambojas of cis-Hindukush appears to have come under Indian cultural influence. Gandharas and Bahlikas were cognate people and all had Iranian affinities. the Kamboja is variously associated with the Gandhara. Mahabharata refers to several Ganah (or Republics) of the Kambojas. Darada and the Bahlika (Bactria). The Kambojans and Gandharans. But these nations also fell a prey to the Achaemenids of Persia during the reign of Cyrus (558-530 BCE) or in the first year of Darius. never came into direct contact with Magadhan state until Chandragupta and Kautiliya arose on the scene. Vatsyas and other neo-Vedic tribes of the east Panjab of whom nothing was ever heard except in the legend and poetry. however.[22] The capital of Kamboja was probably Rajapura (modern Rajori) in south-west of Kashmir. Kosalas. In ancient literature. but "the special rule and the exceptional form of derivative" he gives to denote the ruler of the Kambojas implies that the king of Kamboja was a titular head (king consul) only. the growing state of Magadhas emerged as the most predominant power in ancient India annexing several of the Janapadas of the Majjhimadesa. but with time. the first fourteen of the above Mahajanapadas belong to Majjhimadesa (Mid India) while the last two belong to Uttarapatha or the northwest division of Jambudvipa.[23] The trans-Hindukush region including Pamirs and Badakhshan which shared borders with the Bahlikas (Bactria) in the west and the Lohas and Rishikas of Sogdiana/Fergana in the north. they may have once been a cognate people. Kurus. Panini's Sutras. In a struggle for supremacy that followed in the sixth/fifth century BCE.[20] [edit] Kamboja Main article: Kambojas Kambojas are also included in the Uttarapatha. The Kambojas are known to have had both Iranian as well as Indian affinities. The Kamboja Mahajanapada of the Buddhist traditions refers to this cis-Hindukush branch of ancient Kambojas. Kambojas.[39] According to Buddhist texts.[25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32] [33][34][35] The Kambojas were also a well known republican people since Epic times.[11][12][13] It is also contended that the Kurus. Cyrus I is said to have destroyed the famous Kamboja city called Kapisi (modern Begram) in Paropamisade. A bitter line in the Brahmin Puranas laments that Magadhan emperor Mahapadma Nanda exterminated all Kshatriyas. XIII also attest that the Kambojas followed republican constitution. Ancient Kamboja is known to have comprised regions on either side of the Hindukush.[14] According to Dr T. some clans of Kambojas appear to have crossed Hindukush and planted colonies on its southern side also. Shah. the Gandhara and Kamboja were nothing but two provinces of one empire and were located coterminously hence influencing each others language.[21] The cis-Hindukush region from Nurestan up to Rajauri in southwest of Kashmir sharing borders with the Daradas and the Gandharas constituted the Kamboja country. Panchalas.[38] though tend to convey that the Kamboja of Panini was a Kshatriya Monarchy.Kambojas were cognate people. none worthy of the name Kshatrya being left thereafter. This obviously refers to the Kasis. [edit] See also • Iron Age India • Kingdoms of ancient India [edit] References . These latter Kambojas are associated with the Daradas and Gandharas in Indian literature and also find mention in the Edicts of Ashoka.[36] Kautiliya's Arthashastra [37] and Ashoka's Edict No. L. The evidence in Mahabharata and in Ptolemy's Geography distinctly supports two Kamboja settlements. Kamboja and Gandhara formed the twentieth and richest strapy of Achaemenid Empire. constituted the Parama-Kamboja country.[15] Naturally. The original Kamboja was located in eastern Oxus country as neighbor to Bahlika.

Vedas. Yavanas. The History and Culture of the Indian People. Oriental Institute (Vadodara. 1988. Devendra Handa . p 9. of Sanskrit. 6. Indic . p 15-16 10. Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala .35-51). K Mishra . 1966. ^ Anguttara Nikaya: Vol I. 1977. ^ A History of Pāli Literature. and Paradas but again the Gandharas are not included in Haihayas's army (Harivamsa 14. Brahma Purana (8.India.37. 256. Association pour l'encouragement des etudes grecques en France. p 213. N. p. Qamarud Din Ahmed .Bihar (India). 1944. 15. ^ Revue des etudes grecques 1973. David Gordon White. Journal of Indian Museums. Sethna. 4.Pāradas.Oriental studies.Numismatics. 1938. Museums Association of pp 38. ^ India as Known to Pāṇini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashṭādhyāyī. ^ Myths of the Dog-man. ^ Jataka No 406. ^ Early Indian Economic History. ^ Ancient India. p 200. Ch-Em Ruelle. p 68. p 131. Bhāratīya Itihāsa Samiti. Y.). 1973. 1968. C. 7. 1996. Mamata Choudhury . D. Bahlikas and Kiratas but again it does not include the Gandharas in Chandragupta's army list. 16. 11. 199. 1972.1-4) (4th c BCE) refers only to clans of the Kurus. K. History of India for 1000 years. The Journal of the Numismatic Society of India.html 3. p 50. 9. Rabindra Bharati University. p 119. Journal of the Oriental Institute. 2002. Panchalas. Mukherjee . Chandra Chakraberty . Academy of Indian Numismatics and Sigillography .T. 5.1. 324. 1973. p 213. p 86. 1989. Rajaram Narayan Saletore. IV. p 153. India) . p 265. p 7. 13.g Vayu Purana 88. L. Yavanas. Vol II. p lxv. 1974. Forlong. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. Paradise of Gods. p xxiv. This shows that when Chulla-Niddesa Commentary was written. pp 237. 2000. 1963.63. 2000 Edition.India. G. the Kambojas in the Uttarapatha were a predominant people and that the Gandharans. ^ Anguttara Nikaya I. Dept. ^ http://www. Puri . 2007.Ethnology. Journal of the Department of Sanskrit. p 648 B.123-141). For Kuru-Kamboja connections. 1919. Dr Kailash Chand Jain. Vol I. p 114. four Volumes. ^ Chulla-Niddesa (P. p 37. e.2007. N. ^ Digha Nikaya. Dr B. which is one of the most ancient Buddhist Commentaries.T. p 18. Cf: Rivers of Life: Or Sources and Streams of the Faiths of Man in All Lands. Kambojas. p 221.127-43. Pahlavas. Law. pp 14. includes the Kamboja and Yona but no Gandhara (See: Chulla-Niddesa. see Dr Chandra Chakraberty's views in: Literary history of ancient India in relation to its racial and linguistic affiliations. Brahmanda Purana (3. Dr Ramesh Chandra Majumdar. formed part of the Kamboja Mahajanapada around this time---thus making them a one people. Dr B. p 2. However.Pakistan. Shiva . pp 252.37).Ethnology. The Mudrarakshasa Drama by Visakhadatta also refer to the Sakas. Tribes of Ancient India. '^ IMPORTANT NOTE: Ancient Buddhist text Anguttara Nikaya's list of Mahajanapadas includes the Gandhara and the Kamboja as the only two salient Mahajanapadas in the Uttarapatha. 256. Sakas. Problems of Ancient India. p 58.S. ^ Journal of the Oriental Institute. The Journal of Academy of Indian Numismatics & Sigillography. Shah. p 330. 1972. 261.iloveindia. 2. The Racial History of India. Numismatic Society of India . 260 etc. p 427. Age of Imperial Unity. the Chulla-Niddesa list (5th c BCE). 1924. 8. The well known Puranic legend (told in numerous Puranas) of king Sagara's war with the invading tribes from the north-west includes the Kambojas. 12. Kautiliya's Arthashastra (11. p 197. 1968.1-19.Sanskrit literature. Dr B. 1919. Tribal Coins of Ancient India.S. Madrakas. p 52. India in the Time of Patañjali. 98 Dr T. in all probability. pp 252. ^ Political History of Ancient India. The Pāradas: A Study in Their Coinage and History.Numismatics . Socio-economic and Political History of Eastern India. Kambojas etc but it does not mention the Gandharas as separate people from the Kambojas. ^ Lord Mahāvīra and his times. p 200.Coins. Pahlavas.1. Vol IV. C. J. History & Culture of Indian People.). 14. pp 230-253. R. Law & Some Ksatriya Tribes of Ancient India. (P. 1977.

Kiratas.20-23.285-86) and Kathasaritsagara of Somadeva (18. but no mention of Gandharas (Rajatarangini: 4. Mlecchas.1. Prasthalas. Yavanas. Kuru.61. Pandyas.76-78) each list the Sakas. Vrishnis. Besides. Madrakas. Vatsa. Kambojas. Kamboja. Daradas etc as the Vrishalas/degraded Kshatriyas (See also: Comprehensive History of India. In context of Krsna digvijay. Mekalas. Kashmira. Brhat Katha of Kshmendra (10. 1997.50-1. Pundras. Chinas. Vairamas. Mlechchas. Latas. the Kambojas are conspicuously mentioned in the lists of north-western frontier peoples. Yet at another place in the Ramayana (I. Bhadra (Madra). there were Janapadas of Kurus and Panchalas also. Magadha.207. The Assalayana-Sutta of Majjima Nakaya says that in the frontier lands of the Yonas a.54.1644. Trigarta. Chola. Kalinga.3). Harahunas.23). Pulindas. Dr L. Karusha. Paradas. Usinaras.. Kankas etc etc (Mahabharata 2. Siva. Vana Parva of Mahabharata states that the Andhhas. the Mahabharata furnishes a key list of twenty-five ancient Janapadas viz: Anga. lists the Sakas. Joshi and Dr Fauja Singh (Editors)). Sakas. Dravidas. Parasikas etc but they do not mention the Gandharas. Tukharas. Sakas. Haritas/Tukharas. Pulindas. Vishnu Purana (5. Kiratas. Cholas. Dakshinatya. but no reference is made to the Gandharas or the Daradas. Sabha Parava of Mahabharata enumerates numerous kings from the north-west paying gifts to Pandava king Yudhistra at the occasion of Rajasuya amongs whom it mentions the Kambojas. contains a list of 75 countries among which it includes Khorasahana. Yavanas. Garga. Uttarakurus and Pragjyotisha respectively. Malava. Dasherka. Here there is no mention of Gandhara since it is included amongst the Kamboja. 1957. Paundrakas. Bharatas. Kasi.Purana (7. Sakas (from Saka-dvipa). and Darada (MBH 7/11/15-17). XIII. Mahishakas.175). Barbaras and Mlechchas etc joined the army of sage Vasishtha during the battle of Kamdhenu against Aryan king Viswamitra of Kanauj. Vanga. Romikas.2) refers to the Kambojas but not to the Gandharas.. Tukharas. Hariala (Haryana). Kiratas. Pulindas. Pandya. Kambojas. Mudgala. Kachcha. Again in another of its well known Shlokas. Sudras. Vidarbhas. A.2 seq ). Avantis. Saurashtra. Sikanda Purana (Studies in the Geography. Kashmira. Yavanas. Vidarbha. Pahlavas. Niharas. no mention is made to Gandhara in this list. Magadha. Nipas. 17-18). Barbaras.seqq). Sastri). Again. Daradas. the Valmiki Ramayana --(a later list) includes Janapadas of Andhras. Kiratas and Barbaras (Yauna Kamboja Gandharah Kirata barbaraih) etc as Mlechcha tribes living the lives of the Dasyus or the Barbarians. Keralas. the Gandharas are definitively included among the Kambojas as if the two people are same. Utkalas. Here again. Yavanas.21. Padma Purana (6. Tanganas. the same epic now brands the Yavanas. Dasharnas. p 259-62.1. Sircar. Thus in the first shlokas. In both the references in the Ramayana. furnishes a list of northern nations which king Lalitaditya Muktapida (Kashmir) (8th c AD) undertakes to reduce in his dig-vijaya expedition.55. Kurus. M. Aurnikas and Abhiras etc will become rulers in Kaliyuga and will rule the earth (India) un-righteously(MBH 3. Mekhalas. Kambojas. K. Valhikas. Among the several unrighteous barbaric hordes (opposed to Aryan king Vikarmaditya). Avanti. Tukharas. Ursa. the Mahabharata (XIII. Sudras. Tungas. p 40. Kambojas and other nations. N. a Sanskrit text from the north. I. Kalingas. Sindhu. Daradas. Nepala . Pulindas. Yaska in his Nirukta (II. Kanyakubja. Kosala. Valukambudhi. Gauda. Nishadas. Bhauttas (in Baltistan in western Tibet). Surasenas. Kambojas. Kolisarpas. Rishikas. Tusharas.17. Yavanas. Hist of Punjab. Pundra. Kiratas. p 190. Parvartaka. the Gandharas and the Kambojas are definitely treated as one people. Maha-Chinas. Pasupalas etc (Ramayana 4. there are only two classes of People.187. Kamboja. Kambojas. Kosala. Yavana.Arya and Dasa where an Arya could become Dasa and vicevarsa (Majjima Nakayya 43. Pishacha. Valhikas. Kirata. Kambojas. Gandharas.16-33) etc etc). Abhiras. The lists does not include the Gandharas since they are counted as the same people as the Kambojas. Aushmikas. Bahlika. Pragjyotisha. It does not include the Gandharas in the list though in yet another similar shloka (MBH 12.3.43-44). The list includes the Kambojas. 1971. Vatadhana. Jalandhara (Jullundur). Rajatarangini of Kalhana. Hunas. 35. Interestingly. Apparently the Gandharas are counted among the Kambojas. the northwestern martial tribes of the Sakas. 33. Yavanas.43).28-30). Lada.15-21). Strirajya.1. Abravantis. Neechas. Chinas.

Dr S Levi has identified Tambyzoi with Kamboja (Indian Antiquary. Huna. Huhuka.850AD) the successor of king Dharmapalal. Yavanas. Rajashekhara. ^ James Fergusson observes: "In a wider sense. Chola. Sircar. Kinnaras. Dravida. p 99. James Fergusson). Pahlavas. Hence. p 268. Huna and the Kamboja. Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. the Kambojas and the Gandhara do seem to have been a cognate people. Chodas. Vanayuja. the Daradas and Gandharas are also treated as the Kambojas. Encylopedias and Dictionaries. ^ Ptolemy's Geography mentions Tambyzoi located in eastern Bactria (Ancient India as Described by Ptolemy: Being a Translation of the Chapters . Kamboja.Geography. Tangana. ^ There are also several instances in the ancient literature where the reference has been made only to the Gandharas and not to the Kambojas. Ancient. Maha-Cina. Bahlika. See map in McCrindle. Bagchi). Vahlika. Here again no mention of the Gandharas though Raghu does talk of the Kambojas. Thus. Malava. Vangas. and Kerals). Bahlika. Pragjyotishas) etc etc (See: Raghuvamsa IV.43-44).. p 277. In these cases. then of the south (including Pandyas. Kuru Saindhava. Gauda. trans. name Gandhara implied all the countries west of Indus as far as Candhahar"(The Tree and Serpent Worship. Ch VII. Pandu. Sindhu. Sahuda. ^ Encyclopedia Americana. p 78. Hamsamarga (Hunza). Dr P. 20. Virata. Tushara. Vahvala. Talbert) and Ambautai people located to south of Hindukush Mountains(Geography 6. Simhala etc but no mention of Daradac and Gandhara (See quotes in: Studies in Geography. Pancala. Chinas. Ramatha and Karakantha etc but no mention of Gandhara or Darada (See: Kavyamimasa. Kuluta. History .. Turushaka. the Hindu Law Book. thus indicating them to be same group of people. . Shakas. Obviously the Kamboja of the Monghyr inscriptions of king Devapala here is none else than the Gandhara of the Kalimpur inscription of king Dharamapala.etc but no mention of Gandhara in this list of 75 countries. the Kambojas have obviously been counted among the Gandharas themselves. Hara-hurava. K. the Gandhara and the Kamboja are used interchangeably in the records of the Pala kings of Bengal. Dardura. Malaya. Avanti. Nepala. Kerala. 2004. Barbara. Here in both the lists. Minakshi. Gandhara and the Kira (Kangra) which he boasts of as if they are his vassal states. Barbara. John Watson McCrindle . Utkala. Paradas. Maru. C. Kachcha among the 56 countries but the list does not include the Gandharas and Daradas. 17.(Editors) Richard J. ^ Kalimpur Inscriptions of Pala king Dharmapala of Bengal (770-810 AD) lists the nations around his kingdom as the Bhoja (Gurjara). 1-55) lists Gurjara. and then of the north-west (like the Yavanas. 18. Madra. Obviously. Studies in the Tantra. Maharashtra.18. 19. even the well known Manusmriti. Vidarbha.2000. Cina. Parsika. Yavana. Avanti. Kiratas. p 8). Dravidas but surprisingly enough. Similarly. Daradas and Khasha besides also the Paundrakas.3. 21. Magadha. Malava. Surasena. Kekaya. Utkalas. 1994. pp 97-99. Kaikeya. Sammoha Tantra list also contains 56 nations and lists Kashmira. From Monghyr inscriptions of king Devapala (810 . p 47. The above references amply demonstrate that the Gandharas were many times counted among the Kambojas themselves as if the were one and the same people. C. the Parasikas. Huna. Kamarupa. Utsavasketas. Kirata. Matsya. it does not make any mention of the Gandharas in this very elaborate list of the Vrishalah Ksatriyas (Manusamriti X. Gurjara (Bhoja). Kamboja. then of the west (Aprantas). we get the list of the nations as Utkala (Kalinga). Abhira. also: Kavyamimasa Editor Kedarnath. the Kambojas) and finally those of the north Himalayan (like the Kirats.A. refers to the Kambojas. the Hunas. Vokkana. pp 226-227). Pragjyotisha (Assam). Saurashtra. Raghu Vamsa by Kalidasa refers to numerous tribes/nations of the east (including the Sushmas. Avanti. Kavyamimasa of Rajasekhara (880-920 AD) also lists 21 north-western countries/nations of the Saka. Kalingas and those on Mt Mahendra). And last but not the least. Konkana. Kamboja. 1885. Kira. Khurasana.. the Daradas and Gandharaa are included among the Kambojas.60 seq). D. Lampaka. These are the nations which cavalry of Pala king Devapala is said to have scoured during his war expeditions against these people. 1971. Chapter 17. The Satapancasaddesavibhaga of Saktisagama Tantra (Book III. Kuru.

Prācīna Kamboja. p 122. 39. Laurie L. p 138. Arthur Anthony Macdonell. p 326. Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja . Dr Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala. Asian Educational Services) while land of Ambautai has also been identified by Dr Michael Witzel (Harvard University) with Sanskrit Kamboja (Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies. Indo-Aryan Controversy: Evidence and Inference in Indian History. p 49.5. 33.27. Fraser. p 80. Dr Ram Chandra Jain. ^ Ashtadhyayi IV. II.. 1953.. Edwin Bryant. A. the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Magadha Empire) Jump to: navigation. ^ MBH 7/91/39. Jules Bloch. 311 etc.. jana aura janapada =: Ancient Kamboja. 36. Association for Asian Studies. p 52. Surya Kanta. Agarwala. ^ Iran. p 53. 1955.S. The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia: : Language. Dr A. ^ India as Known to Pāṇini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashṭādhyāyī – 1953. 26. C. Pre Aryan and Pre Dravidian in India. Retrieved from "http://en. 35. 1953. 28. M. p 49. 32. ^ Hindu Polity: A Constitutional History of India in Hindu Times. W. p 107. its Society. 2005. ^ Afghanistan. 38... ^ Ethnology of Ancient Bhārata – 1970. 23. its Culture. p 54. p 2. ^ Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva. 5. K. Dr Macdonnel.1.1923. ^ Arthashastra 11/1/4. p 5-6.Constitutional history. issue 1 (September). Wilber..wikipedia. Dr Peggy Melcher. p 384. 1981. 24. Dr. M. ^ A Grammatical Dictionary of Sanskrit (Vedic): 700 Complete Reviews of the . Far Eastern Association (U. ^ Afghanistan.). 34.4. 37.Kamboja (Pakistan). ^ The Journal of Asian Studies – 1956. p 58. 22. Dr Jean Przyluski. Vol. Clifford R. Barnett.168-175. Dr Kashi Prasad Jayaswal . 30. p 257. ^ MBH II. 2000. 1945. cf: Geographical Data in the Early Puranas. muz̤mirāt va rujḥānāt – 1989. Witzel. Herbert Harold Vreeland. Dr Sylvain Lévi. George Erdosy. 1962. ^ Vedic Index I.27.India. p 33. p 49.23. people and country. Patton. Material Culture and Ethnicity. Jacob Wackernagel. 1993. Donal N. p 168. 31. Gillet. 1956.1999.27. Peggy Melcher . Dr Keith. ^ Geogramatical Dictionary of Sanskrit (Vedic): 700 Complete Revisions of the Best Books. S. McDonnel. Dr Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala. Dr Surya Kanta. search The approximate extent of the Magadha state in the 5th century BC History of South Asia Stone Age before 3300 BC • Mehrgarh Culture • 7000–3300 BC Indus Valley Civilization 3300–1700 BC • Late Harappan Culture • 1700–1300 BC Vedic Civilization 2000–600 BC . Dr Jacob Wackmangel. 25. 29. 27.. ^ MBH VII. Munīr Aḥmad Marrī.org/wiki/Mahajanapadas" Magadha From Wikipedia. its People. ^ Balocistān: siyāsī kashmakash. Parts I and II.India. 1995. Dr V. ^ See: Problems of Ancient India. Dr Moti Chandra .

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8 Gupta dynasty • 4 Kings of Magadha o 4. astronomy.5 Maurya dynasty o 3. These empires saw advancements in ancient India's science. Mahabharata. The Magadha kingdom included republican communities such as the community of Rajakumara. and Mujavats as despised peoples. Magadha expanded to include most of Bihar and Bengal with the conquest of Licchavi and Anga respectively.3 Hariyanka dynasty (545 BC-346 BC) o 4. its first capital was Rajagaha (modern Rajgir) then Pataliputra (modern Patna).1 Brihadratha Dynasty o 4.5 Nanda Dynasty (424-321 BC) o 4.2 Pradyota dynasty o 3.6 Maurya Dynasty (324-184 BC) o 4. mathematics. Villages had their own assemblies under their local chiefs called Gramakas. Gandharis.6 Sunga dynasty o 3. The earliest reference to the Magadha people occurs in the Atharva-Veda where they are found listed along with the Angas.Partition of India 1947 AD Nation histories Afghanistan • Bangladesh • Bhutan • India Maldives • Nepal • Pakistan • Sri Lanka Regional histories Assam • Bihar • Balochistan • Bengal Himachal Pradesh • Orissa • Pakistani Regions Punjab • South India • Tibet Specialised histories Coinage • Dynasties • Economy Indology • Language • Literature • Maritime Military • Science and Technology • Timeline This box: view • talk • edit Magadha (Sanskrit: मगध) formed one of the sixteen Mahājanapadas (Sanskrit "Great Countries") or regions in ancient India. and military functions.[1] followed by much of eastern Uttar Pradesh.7 Kanva dynasty o 3.8 Kanva Dynasty (73-26 BC) . originated from Magadha.2 Pradyota dynasty o 4. It is also heavily mentioned in Buddhist and Jain texts.1 Brihadratha dynasty o 3. two of India's greatest empires. Their administrations were divided into executive. Two of India's major religions started from Magadha. religion. the Maurya Empire and Gupta Empire. judicial. Puranas. The ancient kingdom of Magadha is mentioned in the Ramayana. and philosophy and were considered the Indian "Golden Age".3 Haryanka dynasty o 3.7 Shunga Dynasty (185-73 BC) o 4. Contents [hide] • 1 Geography • 2 History • 3 Magadha Dynasties o 3.4 Shishunaga dynasty (430-364 BC) o 4.4 Nanda dynasty o 3. The core of the kingdom was the area of Bihar south of the Ganges.

However.o • • 4. king of neighboring Kosala and brother-in-law of King Bimbisara. it appears that Magadha was ruled by the Haryanka dynasty for some 200 years. in Magadha. before it expanded The kingdom of the Magadha roughly corresponds to the modern districts of Patna and Gaya in southern Bihar. King Pasendi also gave his daughter in marriage to the new young king. Torn by disagreements the Licchavis with many tribes that fought with Ajatshatru. The Haryanka dynasty was overthrown by the Shishunaga dynasty. an area north of the river Ganges. the Buddhist Chronicles of Sri Lanka. on the south by the Vindhya mountains and on the west by the river Sona. the Nanda Dynasty ended and Chandragupta became the first king of the great Mauryan Dynasty and Mauryan Empire with the help of Vishnugupta. It appears that Ajatashatru sent a minister to the area who for three years worked to undermine the unity of the Licchavis. during the Haryanka dynasty. conquering his way down the Indus to the Ocean. retook the gift of the Kashi province and a war was triggered between Kosala and Magadha. Pradyota Dynasty. King Pasenadi. and restored the province of Kashi. Śiśunāga Dynasty ruled Magadha from 684 - . Prince Ajatashatru. conquering Anga in what is now West Bengal. the Mauryan Empire ended and the Gupta Empire began. the army of Alexander the Great approached the boundaries of the Magadha. 684 BC . was persuaded that it was better to return and turned south. Pataliputra began to grow as a center of commerce and became the capitol of Magadha after Ajatashatru's death. after the meeting with his officer. It took fifteen years for Ajatshatru to defeat them. and a covered chariot with swinging mace that has been compared to a modern tank. Ajatashatru built a fort at the town of Pataliputra. c. Coenus. King Pasenadi allowed him and his army return to Magadha. exhausted and frightened at the prospect of facing another giant Indian army at the Ganges. The last ruler of Shishunaga Dynsty. Jain texts tell how Ajatashatru used two new weapons: a catapult. Accounts differ slightly as to the cause of King Ajatashatru's war with the Licchavi republic.424 BC. The Empire later extended over most of Southern Asia under King Asoka. The most important sources are the Puranas. To launch his attack across the Ganga River (Ganges). King Bimbisara of the Haryanka dynasty led an active and expansive policy. the first of the so-called Nine Nandas (Mahapadma and his eight sons). 240-550 AD) 5 References 6 See also [edit] Geography The Magadha state circa 600 BC. Around 321 BC. The capital of the Gupta Empire remained Pataliputra. and parts of Bengal in the east. Ajatashatru was trapped by an ambush and captured with his army. The death of King Bimbisara was at the hands of his son. such as the Pali Canon.9 Gupta Dynasty (c. The Nanda Dynasty ruled for about 100 years. its boundaries included Anga. During the Buddha’s time and onward. mutinied at the Hyphasis (modern Beas) and refused to march further East. [edit] Magadha Dynasties Brihadratha Dynasty. Magadha is often considered a blessed land. and other Jain and Buddhist texts. [edit] History There is little certain information available on the early rulers of Magadha. Based on these sources. Siddhartha Gautama himself was born a prince of Kapilavastu in Kosala around 563 BC. on the east by the river Champa. including his enlightenment. Alexander. Later. The army. As the scene of many incidents in his life. who was at first known as 'Asoka the Cruel' but later became a disciple of Buddhism and became known as 'Dhamma Asoka'. Kalasoka was assainated by Mahapadma Nanda in 424 BC. It was bounded on the north by the river Ganga. In 326 BC.

[edit] Maurya dynasty Main article: Maurya Empire . and under whose rule the dynasty reached its largest extent. During this time. Bimbisara was responsible for expanding the boundaries of his kingdom through matrimonial alliances and conquest.[2][3] Vaishali was the capital of the Licchavis and the Vajjian Confederacy. 599 BC). [edit] Brihadratha dynasty Main article: Legendary Kings of Magadha According to the Puranas. Kanva Dynasty. Mahapadma Nanda died at the age of 88. This period saw the development of two of India's major religions that started from Magadha. is thought to have ruled from 491-461 BCE and moved his capital of the Magadha kingdom from Rajagriha to Patliputra. They inherited the large kingdom of Magadha and wished to extend it to yet more distant frontiers. Vayu Purana mentions that the Brihadrathas ruled for 1000 years. Ambapali. The Nandas are sometimes described as the first empire builders of India. it is reported that there was high crimes in Magadha. Licchavi was an ancient republic which existed in what is now Bihar state of India. and helped in large measure in making the city prosperous[4]. Maurya Dynasty. The people rose up and elected Haryanka to become the new king. His son Jarasandha appears in popular legend and is slain by Bhima in the Mahabharatha. was famous for her beauty. ruling the bulk of this 100-year dynasty. The first prominent Emperor of the Magadhan branch of Bharathas was Emperor Brihadratha. Magadha rose to prominence under a number of dynasties that peaked with the reign of Asoka Maurya. Ajatashatru went to war with the Licchavi several time. who was the sixth in line from Emperor Kuru of the Bharata dynasty through his eldest son Sudhanush. Afterwards the Nanda Dynasty. One of the Pradyota traditions was for the prince to kill his father to become king.424 BC. when it was overthrown by the Nanda dynasty. Gautama Buddha in the 6th or 5th century BC was the founder of Buddhism. Gupta Dynasty expanded beyond Magadha. Bimbisara (543-493 BCE ) was imprisoned and killed by his son Ajatashatru (ruled 491-461 BCE) who then became his successor. under him Patliputra became the largest city in the world. Amongst the sixteen Mahajanapadas. whose capital was Rajagriha. Its courtesan. later Pataliputra. the Haryanka dynasty founded the Magadha Empire in 684 BC. [edit] Pradyota dynasty Main article: Pradyota dynasty The Brihadrathas were succeeded by the Pradyotas who according to the Vayu Purana ruled for 138 years. Due in part to this bloody dynastic feuding. it is thought that a civil revolt led to the emergence of the Haryanka dynasty [edit] Haryanka dynasty Main article: Haryanka dynasty According to tradition. one of India's most legendary and famous emperors. The greatest extent of the empire was led by Dhana Nanda. which destroyed the power of the Pradyotas and created the Haryanka dynasty. Sunga Dynasty.the Magadha Empire was established by the Brihadratha Dynasty. while Mahavira revived and propagated the ancient sramanic religion of Jainism. This dynasty lasted till 424 BC. Udayabhadra eventually succeeded his father. which later spread to East Asia and South-East Asia. Ajatashatru. The Nandas were followed by the Maurya dynasty. Ajatashatru. near the present day Patna. The land of Kosala fell to Magadha in this way. [edit] Nanda dynasty Main article: Nanda Dynasty The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent The Nanda dynasty was established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. since the before the birth of Mahavira (b.

Following the collapse of the Kanva dynasty. The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. was assassinated by the then commander-in-chief of the Mauryan armed forces. exiled general Chandragupta Maurya founded the Maurya dynasty after overthrowing the reigning Nanda king Dhana Nanda to establish the Maurya Empire. barring the extreme south and east. The kingdom was inherited by his son Ashoka The Great who initially sought to expand his kingdom. conquering the Gandhara region. and ruled in the eastern part of India from 71 BC to 26 BC. who expanded the kingdom over most of present day India. the Satavahana dynasty of the Andhra kingdom replaced the Magandhan kingdom as the most powerful Indian state. and from Ashoka's time. [edit] Gupta dynasty Main article: Gupta Empire The Gupta Empre under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta dynasty ruled from around 240 to 550 AD. while he was taking the Guard of Honour of his forces.The Maurya Empire at its greatest extent(Asoka's empire) In 321 BC. but also push its boundaries into Persia and Central Asia. Ashoka the Great has been described as one of the greatest rulers the world has seen. The Kanva ruler allowed the kings of the Sunga dynasty to continue to rule in obscurity in a corner of their former dominions. During this time. Purananuru. This unified Tamil force is supposed to be broken by King Kharavela. about fifty years after Ashoka's death. The last ruler of the Sunga dynasty was overthrown by Vasudeva of the Kanva dynasty in 75 BC. Pusyamitra Sunga then ascended the throne. he renounced bloodshed and pursued a policy of non-violence or ahimsa after converting to Buddhism. The Buddhist stupa at Sanchi. a Kalinga ruler. The Edicts of Ashoka are the oldest preserved historical documents of India. a Chola King. the Mauryan empire under Chandragupta would not only conquer most of the Indian subcontinent. The Mauryan dynasty under Ashoka was responsible for the proliferation of Buddhist ideals across the whole of East Asia and South-East Asia. Capitalising on the destabilization of northern India by the Persian and Greek incursions. when the king Brihadratha. Chandragupta was succeeded by his son Bindusara. There are references in one of the oldest Tamil Sangam literature. approximate dating of dynasties becomes possible. Magadha was ruled by four Kanva rulers. [edit] Kanva dynasty Main article: Kanva dynasty The Kanva dynasty replaced the Sunga dynasty. the southern power swept away both the Kanvas and Sungas and the province of Eastern Malwa was absorbed within the dominions of the conqueror. most of the subcontinent was united under a single government for the first time. as per one of his inscriptions. built during the Mauryan period The only region that was not under the Mauryan's were present day Tamil Nadu and Kerala (which was a Tamil kingdom then). In 30 BC. Pusyamitra Sunga. fundamentally altering the history and development of Asia as a whole. The Gupta age is referred . Extent of the Sunga Empire [edit] Sunga dynasty Main article: Sunga Empire The Sunga dynasty was established in 185 BC. In the aftermath of the carnage caused in the invasion of Kalinga. that a Mauryan army was driven out by a unified Tamil army under the leadership of Ilanchetchenni. the last of the Mauryan rulers.

southeastern Pakistan. The doorways were very decorative. Metallurgy too made rapid strides. A council of ministers and some officials helped him. Books by Harisena and others. People lived in a happy and prosperous life. The material sources of this age were Kalidasa's works i. They had their capital at Pataliputra. Temples devoted to Shiva and Vishnu were built during this period. Astronomy made rapid strides. Allahabad pillar inscription called Prayag Prashsti. Meghdoot. [edit] Kings of Magadha [edit] Brihadratha Dynasty Semi-legendary rulers in Purana accounts. mathematics. Ayurveda was known to the people of Gupta age. The kingdom covered Gujarat. Malavikagnimitram and Abhinjnana Shakuntalam. The king occupied a powerful and important position and often took titles to assert his supremacy. Early temples had a large room where the idol of god was kept. Today these can be found in Deogarh in Jhansi. northern Madhya Pradesh and eastern India. Rest houses and hospitals were set up. However there was a serious flaw. Aryabhatta stated that the earth moved round the sun and rotated on its own Axis. Orissa. Villages were the smallest units. These murals depict the life of Buddha. Most people lived in villages and led a simple life. Laws were simple and punishments were not very harsh. People were mostly Vaishnavas. Wall murals flourished during this age. • Brihadratha • Jarasandha • Sahadeva • Somapi (1678-1618 BC) • Srutasravas (1618-1551 BC) • Ayutayus (1551-1515 BC) • Niramitra (1515-1415 BC) • Sukshatra (1415-1407 BC) • Brihatkarman (1407-1384 BC) • Senajit (1384-1361 BC) • Srutanjaya (1361-1321 BC) • Vipra (1321-1296 BC) • Suchi (1296-1238 BC) • Kshemya (1238-1210 BC) • Subrata (1210-1150 BC) • Dharma (1150-1145 BC) • Susuma (1145-1107 BC) • Dridhasena (1107-1059 BC) • Sumati (1059-1026 BC) • Subhala (1026-1004 BC) • Sunita (1004-964 BC) • Satyajit (964-884 BC) • Biswajit (884-849 BC) • Nipunjaya (849-799 BC) [edit] Pradyota dynasty . North-east India. Art and architecture flourished during the Gupta age. religion and philosophy. works of Fa-hein. The empire was divided into provinces and provinces were further divided into districts. inhuman treatment of the Chandalas or Untouchables.Yajnas were performed by Brahmins. Aryabhatta and Varahamihira were two great Astronomers and Mathematicians. The time of the Gupta Empire was an Indian "Golden Age" in science. astronomy. The difference between Gupta and Mauryan administration was that the in the Mauryan administration power was centralised but in the Gupta administration power was more decentralised.the Chinese buddhist scholar. Temples were mostly made of brick or stone. They were made to live outside the city and even their shadows were considered capable of polluting.e Raghuvamsa. Proof is the Iron Pillar near Mehrauli on the outskirts of Delhi. The bad.These can be seen in Ajanta caves which are about 100 km from as the Classical age of India by most historians. All forms of worship were carried out in Sanskrit.

first emperor to unify India (after conquering most of South Asia and Afghanistan). founded the Nanda Empire after inheriting Mahanandin's empire • Pandhuka • Panghupati • Bhutapala • Rashtrapala • Govishanaka • Dashasidkhaka • Kaivarta • Dhana (Agrammes. son and successor of Pusyamitra • Vasujyeshtha (141-131 BC) • Vasumitra (131-124 BC) • Andhraka (124-122 BC) • Pulindaka (122-119 BC) . lost his empire to Chandragupta Maurya after being defeated by him [edit] Maurya Dynasty (324-184 BC) • Chandragupta Maurya (Sandrakottos) (324-301 BC). adopt Buddhism. grant animal rights and promote nonviolence. Xandrammes) (until 321 BC).Ruling 799-684 BC according to calculations based on the Vayu Purana[citation needed]. founded the dynasty after assassinating Brihadrata • Agnimitra (149-141 BC). • Dasaratha (232-224 BC) • Samprati (224-215 BC) • Salisuka (215-202 BC) • Devavarman (202-195 BC) • Satadhanvan (195-187 BC). founder of the first Magadhan empire[5][6] • Ajatashatru (493-461 BC) • Darshaka (from 461 BC) • UdayBhadra • Anurudhra • Mund • NagDasak [edit] Shishunaga dynasty (430-364 BC) • Shishunaga (430 BC). considered the greatest ancient Indian emperor. established the kingdom of Magadha • Kakavarna (394-364 BC) • Kshemadharman (618-582 BC) • Kshatraujas (582-558 BC) • Kalasoka • Mahanandin (until 424 BC).often called the emperor of all ages. the Mauryan Empire had shrunk by the time of his reign • Brihadrata (187-184 BC). founded the Mauryan Empire after defeating both the Nanda Empire and the Macedonian Seleucid Empire • Amritrochates (301-273 BC) • Ashoka Vardhana (Ashoka the Great) (273-232 BC). his empire is inherited by his illegitimate son Mahapadma Nanda [edit] Nanda Dynasty (424-321 BC) • Mahapadma Nanda (from 424 BC). illegitimate son of Mahanandin. • Pradyota • Palaka • Visakhayupa • Ajaka • Varttivarddhana [edit] Hariyanka dynasty (545 BC-346 BC) • Bimbisara (545-493 BC). a secular administrator. assassinated by Pusyamitra Shunga [edit] Shunga Dynasty (185-73 BC) • Pusyamitra Shunga (185-149 BC).

i. p. the Chinese pilgrim Fa-Hsien describes Indian culture during his reign • Kumara Gupta I (415-455) • Skanda Gupta (455-467) • Kumara Gupta II (467-477) • Buddha Gupta (477-496) • Chandra Gupta III (496-500) • Vainya Gupta (500-515) • Narasimha Gupta (510-530) • Kumara Gupta III (530-540) • Vishnu Gupta (c. the Gupta Empire achieved its zenith under his reign. son of Samudra Gupta. 240-290) • Ghatotkacha (290-305) • Chandra Gupta I (305-335). founder of the Gupta Empire. 46. Routledge (UK). Motilal Banarsidass Publ. 6. Encyclopedia Britannica Online 4. mentioned by the Puranas • Devabhuti (83-73 BC). 240-550 AD) • Sri-Gupta I (c. Max. xlvii.• Ghosha • Vajramitra • Bhagabhadra. ^ Muller. Hugh George. [edit] See also • Śiśunāga dynasty • Nanda dynasty Middle kingdoms of India Timeline: Northern Empires Southern Dynasties Northwestern Kingdoms 6th century BCE 5th century BCE 4th century BCE 3rd century BCE 2nd century BCE 1st century BCE 1st century CE 2nd 3rd 4th 5th century century century century . Ancient India. ^ Vin. which is often regarded as the golden age of Indian culture • Samudra Gupta (335-370) • Rama Gupta (370-375) • Chandra Gupta II (Chandragupta Vikramaditya) (375-415). (2001) The Dhammapada And Sutta-nipata. last Sunga king [edit] Kanva Dynasty (73-26 BC) • Vasudeva (from 73 BC) • Successors of Vasudeva (until 26 BC) [edit] Gupta Dynasty (c. 540-550) [edit] References 1. (1950) A Concise History of the Indian People.268 5. ^ "Licchavi". Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-7007-1548-7. 2. F. ^ Rawlinson. ISBN 81-208-0436-8. ^ Vaishali. ^ Ramesh Chandra Majumdar (1977). Encyclopedia Britannica Online 3. p.

6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th • • • • • • • • • • • • century century century century century century • Magadha Shishunaga dynasty Nanda empire Kalinga Maurya Empire Sunga Empire Kuninda Kingdom Western Satraps Gupta Empire Harsha Pala Empire Solanki Sena dynasty • • • • • • • • • Satavahana empire Pandyan Cholas Chera Kalabhras Kadamba Dynasty Pallava Chalukya Rashtrakuta • Western Chalukyas • Hoysala Empire • Gandhara (Persian rule) (Greek conquests) • • • • • • • Indo-Greeks Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthians Kushan Empire Indo-Sassanids Kidarite Kingdom Indo-Hephthalites (Islamic invasions) • Shahi (Islamic empires .

while its banks on the further side were covered with multitudes of men-at-arms and horsemen and elephants. 20. eight thousand chariots. They inherited the large kingdom of Magadha and wished to extend it to yet more distant frontiers. Kasis. However. they violently opposed Alexander when he insisted on crossing the river Ganges also. Asmakas. the Nandas never had the opportunity to see their army up against Alexander.[citation needed] [edit] Nanda Rule The Nandas are sometimes described as the first empire builders of India. therefore. Contents [hide] • 1 Establishment of the dynasty • 2 Nanda Rule • 3 The Fall • 4 List of Nanda rulers • 5 See Also • 6 Footnotes [edit] Establishment of the dynasty Mahapadma Nanda has been described as the destroyer of all the Kshatriyas. 2. He defeated the Ikshvaku dynasty. the width of which. Panchalas. showing borders of the Nanda Empire in relation to Alexander's Empire and neighbors. The Nanda Empire originated from the kingdom of Magadha in Ancient India during the 5th and 4th centuries BC. "As for the Macedonians. 80.000 infantry. and six thousand . He expanded his territory till south of Deccan. the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Nanda Empire) Jump to: navigation. its depth a hundred fathoms. Kalingas. for his forces. the size of the Nanda army was even larger. however. who invaded India at the time of Dhana Nanda. mutinied at the Hyphasis River (the modern Beas River) refusing to march any further. was the son of a Shudra mother. For they were told that the kings of the Ganderites and Praesii were awaiting them with eighty thousand horsemen. etc.000 war elephants. as they learned. Vitihotras. To this purpose they built up a vast army consisting of 200. search The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent under Dhana Nanda circa 323 BC.[1] The Nanda Empire was later conquered by Chandragupta Maurya. which lasted 100 years.Nanda Dynasty From Wikipedia. Nandas were the first of a number of dynasties of northern India who were of non-kshatriya origin. who founded the Maurya Empire.000 war chariots and 3. Mahapadma. Haihayas. At its greatest extent. since Alexander had to confine his campaign to the plains of Punjab. frightened by the prospect of facing a formidable foe. Some sources state that the founder.000 war chariots.000 war elephants (at the lowest estimates). numbering 200. he ruled the bulk of the period of this dynasty. Mahapadma Nanda died at the age of 88 and. others that he was born of a union of a barber with a courtesan. Kurus. This river thus marks the eastern-most extent of Alexander's conquests: Asia in 323BC. The Nandas who usurped the throne of the Shishunaga dynasty were of low origin. was thirty-two furlongs. Surasenas.000 cavalry. their struggle with Porus blunted their courage and stayed their further advance into India. 8.000 infantry. For having had all they could do to repulse an enemy who mustered only twenty thousand infantry and two thousand horse. the Nanda Empire extended from Bihar and Bengal in the East to Sindh and Balochistan in the West.000 cavalry. two hundred thousand footmen. Maithilas. and 6.[2] According to Plutarch however.

since its king was hated and despised on account of his baseness and low birth.fighting elephants. Dhana Nanda was dethroned after he was defeated by Chandragupta Maurya. the wealth of the Nandas being well-known. Plutarch records that Chandragupta Maurya had stated that he was able to overthrow Dhana Nanda since he was hated and despised by his subjects on account of the wickedness of his disposition: "Sandrocottus. He had a great potential to rule. saw Alexander himself. The Nandas made the methodical collection of taxes by regularly appointed officials a part of their administrative system. when he was a stripling. 424 BC – ?) • Pandhuka • Panghupati • Bhutapala • Rashtrapala • Govishanaka • Dashasidkhaka • Kaivarta • Dhana Nanda (Argames) (? – c."[3]. The treasury was continually replenished. a young adventurer born of a Nanda prince and a maid named "Mura". Dhana Nanda was murdered which finally signaled the advent of the Maurya Empire in 321 BC. [edit] The Fall The last of the Nandas was Dhana Nanda (called Xandrames or Aggrammes in ancient Greek and Latin sources). The Nandas also built canals and carried out irrigation projects. and we are told that he often said in later times that Alexander narrowly missed making himself master of the country. Preceded by Shishunaga dynasty Magadha dynasties Succeeded by Maurya dynasty [edit] See Also Middle kingdoms of India Timeline: Northern Empires Southern Dynasties Northwestern Kingdoms 6th century BCE 5th century BCE 4th century BCE 3rd century BCE 2nd century BCE 1st century BCE 1st century CE 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th century century century century century ."[4] [edit] List of Nanda rulers • Mahapadma Nanda (c. The possibility of an imperial structure based on an essentially agrarian economy began to germinate in the Indian mind. 321 BC) The Puranas describe the duration of the Nanda dynasty as 100 years.

7th 8th 9th 10th 11th • • • • • • • • • • • • century century century century century • Magadha Shishunaga dynasty Nanda empire Kalinga Maurya Empire Sunga Empire Kuninda Kingdom Western Satraps Gupta Empire Harsha Pala Empire Solanki Sena dynasty • • • • • • • • • Satavahana empire Pandyan Cholas Chera Kalabhras Kadamba Dynasty Pallava Chalukya Rashtrakuta • Western Chalukyas • Hoysala Empire • Gandhara (Persian rule) (Greek conquests) • • • • • • • Indo-Greeks Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthians Kushan Empire Indo-Sassanids Kidarite Kingdom Indo-Hephthalites (Islamic invasions) • Shahi (Islamic empires) Maurya Empire .

search "Ancient India" redirects here. see Ancient India (disambiguation). Maurya Empire The Maurya Dynasty at its largest extent under Ashoka the Great. Provinces divided into districts run by lower officials and similar stratification . Extensive network of officials from treasurers (Sannidhatas) to collectors (Samahartas) and clerks (Karmikas). Provincial administration under regional viceroys (Kumara or Aryaputra) with their own Mantriparishads and supervisory officials (Mahamattas).From Wikipedia. Imperial Symbol: The Lion Capital of Ashoka Founder Chandragupta Maurya The Nanda Dynasty of Magadha Preceding State(s) The Mahajanapadas Languages Sanskrit Magadhi Prakrit Pali Prakrit Other Prakrits Religions Historical Vedic religion Buddhism Jainism Ājīvika Cārvāka Local Deities Capital Pataliputra Head of State Samraat (Emperor) First Emperor Last Emperor Chandragupta Maurya Brhadrata Government Centralized Absolute Monarchy with Divine Right of Kings as described in the Arthashastra Divisions 4 provinces: Tosali Ujjain Suvarnagiri Taxila Semi-independent tribes Administration Inner Council of Ministers (Mantriparishad) under a Mahamantri with a larger assembly of ministers (Mantrinomantriparisadamca). For other uses. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation.

The Mauryan Empire was one of the largest empires to rule the Indian subcontinent. military arts. Its decline began fifty years after Ashoka's rule ended. eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bengal) in the eastern side of the Indian subcontinent. religious transformation. Chandragupta then defeated the invasion led by Seleucus I. Under Chandragupta. one of the greatest treatises on economics. Mauryan India also enjoyed an era of social harmony. a Greek general from Alexander's army. Ashoka sponsored the spreading of Buddhist ideals into Sri Lanka. Area 5 million km² [1] (Southern Asia and parts of Central Asia) Population 50 million [2] (one third of the world population [3]) Currency Silver Ingots (Panas) Existed 322–185 BCE Dissolution Military coup by Pusyamitra Sunga Succeeding state Sunga Empire The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive and powerful empire in ancient India. the Empire stretched to the north along the natural boundaries of the Himalayas. politics. Chandragupta's minister Kautilya Chanakya wrote the Arthashastra. The Empire was founded in 322 BC by Chandragupta Maurya.down to individual villages run by headmen and supervised by Imperial officials (Gopas). By 320 BC the empire had fully occupied Northwestern India. both internal and external trade. and expansion of the sciences and of knowledge. administration and security. Under Chandragupta and his successors. ruled by the Mauryan dynasty from 321 to 185 BC. it reached beyond modern Pakistan. To the west. defeating and conquering the satraps left by Alexander. West Asia and Mediterranean Europe. but it excluded a small portion of unexplored tribal and forested regions near Kalinga (modern Orissa). while Ashoka's embrace of Buddhism was the foundation of the reign of social and political peace and non-violence across all of India. and agriculture and economic activities. the . the Empire experienced half a century of peace and security under Ashoka: India was a prosperous and stable empire of great economic and military power whose political influence and trade extended across Western and Central Asia and Europe. The Empire was expanded into India's central and southern regions by the emperors Chandragupta and Bindusara. At its greatest extent. and it dissolved in 185 BC with the foundation of the Sunga Dynasty in Magadha. the Mauryan Empire conquered the trans-Indus region. all thrived and expanded across India thanks to the creation of a single and efficient system of finance. the empire had its capital city at Pataliputra (near modern Patna). Archaeologically. foreign affairs. war. Chandragupta Maurya's embrace of Jainism increased social and religious renewal and reform across his society. Southeast Asia. which was under Macedonian rule. who had overthrown the Nanda Dynasty and rapidly expanded his power westwards across central and western India taking advantage of the disruptions of local powers in the wake of the withdrawal westward by Alexander the Great's Greek and Persian armies. and to the east stretching into what is now Assam. After the Kalinga War. and religion ever produced in the India. including the modern Herat and Kandahar provinces. administration. annexing Balochistan and much of what is now Afghanistan. Originating from the kingdom of Magadha in the Indo-Gangetic plains (modern Bihar.

is the emblem of India.4 Bindusara o 1.3 Exchange of presents o 7.3 Brahmanism • 5 Architectural remains • 6 Natural history in the times of the Mauryas • 7 Contacts with the Hellenistic world o 7.2 Reconquest of the Northwest (c. leaving several smaller satraps in a disunited state.3 Chandragupta Maurya o 1. a kingdom that was large and militarily-powerful and feared by its neighbors. Chandragupta Maurya deposed Dhana. ruled previously by kings Ambhi of Taxila and Porus of Pauravas (modern day Jhelum). However. Contents [hide] • 1 Background o 1.3.5 Buddhist missions to the West (c.250 BCE) o 7. and redeployed most of his troops west of the Indus river. also known as Kautilya) traveled to Magadha.3. of the Nanda Dynasty. Following Alexander's advance into the Punjab.2 Establishment of the Indo-Greek Kingdom (180 BCE) • 9 See Also • 10 Notes • 11 References • 12 External links [edit] Background Alexander set up a Greek-Macedonian garrison and satrapies (vassal states) in the trans-Indus region of modern day Pakistan. The Arthashastra and the Edicts of Ashoka are primary sources of written records of the Mauryan times. 310 BCE) o 7.6 Subhagsena and Antiochos III (206 BCE) • 8 Decline o 8.2 Buddhism o 4.3 Conflict and alliance with Seleucus (305 BCE) 7. a brahmin named Chanakya (real name Vishnugupt. and Peithon.2 Exchange of ambassadors 7. but was dismissed by its king Dhana. When Alexander died in Babylon. and local kings declared their independence. played an important part in the foundation and governance of the Maurya dynasty. ruled .2 Conquest of Magadha o 1.1 Sunga coup (185 BCE) o 8. soon after in 323 BCE.5 Asoka the Great • 2 Administration • 3 Economy • 4 Religion o 4. his empire fragmented. The Mauryan empire is considered one of the most significant periods in Indian history.3. The Lion Capital of Asoka at Sarnath.period of Mauryan rule in South Asia falls into the era of Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW). [edit] Chanakya and Chandragupta Maurya Main articles: Chanakya and Chandragupta Maurya The court of Chandragupta Maurya.1 Marital alliance 7.1 Jainism o 4. The Greek generals Eudemus.4 Greek populations in India o 7.1 Foundation of the Empire o 7.1 Chanakya and Chandragupta Maurya o 1. especially Chanakya. the prospect of battling Magadha deterred Alexander's troops from going further east: he returned to Babylon.

insisting that he continue in office. when Chandragupta Maurya (with the help of Chanakya. a number of ancient Indian accounts. Rakshasa accepted Chanakya's reasoning. plus resources necessary for his army to fight a long series of battles. such as the drama Mudrarakshasa (Poem of Rakshasa . men upset over the corrupt and oppressive rule of king Dhana. Kambojas.[5] Chanakya's original intentions were to train a guerilla army under Chandragupta's command. Parasikas (Persians) and Bahlikas (Bactrians)[6] [7] [8]. and Magadha Chanakya encouraged Chandragupta Maurya and his army to take over the throne of Magadha. angered him. Nanda Dynasty. after conquering the Nanda Empire when he was only about 20 years old. and went into exile and was never heard of again. Chandragupta first emerges in Greek accounts as "Sandrokottos". Rakshasa became Chandragupta's chief advisor. Ultimately Nanda resigned. not to the Magadha dynasty. As a young man he is said to have met Alexander.[4] He is also said to have met the Nanda king. Maurya hatched a plan. These men included the former general of Taxila. Chanakya also reiterated that choosing to resist would start a war that would severely affect Magadha and destroy the city.[10] Ashoka the Great extended into Kalinga during the Kalinga War circa 265 BCE. Chandragupta extended the borders of the Maurya Empire towards Seleucid Persia after defeating Seleucus circa 305 BCE. describe his royal ancestry and even link him with the Nanda family. Chandragupta gathered many young men from across Magadha and other provinces. The Maurya Empire when it was first founded by Chandragupta Maurya circa 320 BCE. Preparing to invade Pataliputra. who was now his advisor) surprised and defeated the Macedonians and consolidated the region under the control of his new seat of power in Magadha. and the rulers of small states. handing power to Chandragupta. On the one hand. and . Chanakya managed to win over popular sentiment. Using his intelligence network. The Mudrarakshasa of Visakhadutta as well as the Jaina work Parisishtaparvan talk of Chandragupta's alliance with the Himalayan king Parvatka. The approximate extent of the Magadha state in the 5th century BCE. [edit] Conquest of Magadha Main articles: Chandragupta Maurya.Rakshasa was the prime minister of Magadha) by Visakhadatta. Chanakya contacted the prime minister. Chandragupta Maurya's rise to power is shrouded in mystery and controversy. Mahaparinibbana Sutta. Rakshasas. He also managed to create an atmosphere of civil war in the kingdom. A battle was announced and the Magadhan army was drawn from the city to a distant battlefield to engage Maurya's forces. p18. The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent under Dhana Nanda circa 323 BCE. and Chanakya assumed the position of an elder statesman. With the help of these frontier martial tribes from Central Asia. However. and made a narrow escape. his son Malayketu. which culminated in the death of the heir to the throne.[9] Chandragupta extended the borders of the empire southward into the Deccan Plateau circa 300 BC. and al. and made him understand that his loyalty was to Magadha. Chandragupta was able to defeat the Nanda/Nandin rulers of Magadha and found the powerful Maurya empire in northern India.) This Himalayan alliance gave Chandragupta a composite and powerful army made up of Yavanas (Greeks). other accomplished students of Chanakya. Kiratas (Nepalese).until around 316 BCE. and Chandragupta Maurya was legitimately installed as the new King of Magadha. any conclusions are hard to make without further historical evidence. Maurya's general and spies meanwhile bribed the corrupt general of Nanda. the representative of King Porus of Kakayee. A kshatriya tribe known as the Maurya's are referred to in the earliest Buddhist texts. sometimes identified with Porus (Sir John Marshall "Taxila". Shakas (Scythians).

during a campaign in 305 BCE. Arachosia (Kandhahar) and Gedrosia (Balochistan). such as the historian Megasthenes.established superiority over the southern kingdoms. but failed. Chandragupta received the satrapies of Paropamisade (Kamboja and Gandhara). [edit] Chandragupta Maurya Main article: Chandragupta Maurya Approximate Dates of Mauryan Dynasty Emperor Reign start Reign end Chandragupta Maurya 322 BCE 298 BCE Bindusara 297 BCE 272 BCE Asoka The Great 273 BCE 232 BCE Dasaratha 232 BCE 224 BCE Samprati 224 BCE 215 BCE Salisuka 215 BCE 202 BCE Devavarman 202 BCE 195 BCE Satadhanvan 195 BCE 187 BCE Brihadratha 187 BCE 185 BCE Indian postage stamp depicting Chandragupta Maurya Chandragupta was again in conflict with the Greeks when Seleucus I. Deimakos and Dionysius resided at the Mauryan court. and Seleucus I received 500 war elephants that were to have a decisive role in his victory against western Hellenistic kings at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BCE. tried to reconquer the northwestern parts of India. The two rulers finally concluded a peace treaty: a marital treaty (Epigamia) was concluded. implying either a marital alliance between the two dynastic lines or a recognition of marriage between Greeks and Indians. Chandragupta established a strong centralized state with a complex administration . Diplomatic relations were established and several Greeks. ruler of the Seleucid Empire.

which. found that the thefts reported on any one day did not exceed the value of two hundred drachmae. For a monarch in ancient times. Although predominantly written in Prakrit. honestly. an estimated 100." Chandragupta's son Bindusara extended the rule of the Mauryan empire towards southern India. Over 40 years of peace. While he maintained a large and powerful army. The Edicts also accurately locate their territory "600 yojanas away" (a yojanas being about 7 miles). Theft is of very rare occurrence. named Deimachus (Strabo 1–70). He remains an idealized figure of inspiration in modern India. They live. As a young prince. but are ignorant of writing. Kambojas. and Gandharas as peoples forming a frontier region of his empire. Megasthenes describes a disciplined multitude under Chandragupta. Tulamaya (Ptolemy). Ranging from as far west as Afghanistan and as far south as Andhra (Nellore District). Their beverage is a liquor composed from rice instead of barley. wherein lay 400. Ashoka's edicts state his policies and accomplishments. Ashoka began feeling remorse. Ashoka expanded friendly relations with states across Asia and Europe. and their food is principally a rice-pottage. The Edicts of Ashoka. Maka (Magas) and Alikasudaro (Alexander) as recipients of Ashoka's proselytism.000 soldiers and civilians were killed in the furious warfare. i. When he personally witnessed the Pataliputra. Megasthenes says that those who were in the camp of Sandrakottos. Amtikini (Antigonos). 53-56.232 BCE). two of them were written in Greek. They dislike a great undisciplined multitude. He also had a Greek ambassador at his court. Hundreds of thousands of people were adversely affected by the destruction and fallout of war. and one in both Greek and Aramaic. They never drink wine except at sacrifices. and must therefore in all the business of life trust to memory. Although the annexation of Kalinga was completed. set in stone. corresponding to the distance between the center of India and Greece . Ashoka was a brilliant commander who crushed revolts in Ujjain and Taxila. The edicts precisely name each of the rulers of the Hellenic world at the time such as Amtiyoko (Antiochus). harmony and prosperity made Ashoka one of the most successful and famous monarchs in Indian history. are found throughout the Subcontinent. Ashoka embraced the teachings of Gautama Buddha. better known as Ashoka the Great (ruled 273. being simple in their manners and frugal." Strabo XV.000 of Ashoka's own men.000 men. They also attest to Ashoka's having sent envoys to the Greek rulers in the West as far as the Mediterranean. But it was his conquest of Kalinga which proved to be the pivotal event of his life. and consequently they observe good order. and this among a people who have no written laws. quoting Megasthenes[11] [edit] Bindusara Main article: Bindusara [edit] Asoka the Great Main article: Ashoka the Great Emperor Ashoka The Great Chandragupta's grandson was Ashokavardhan Maurya. and do not know writing: " The Indians all live frugally. re-asserting the Empire's superiority in southern and western India. He undertook a massive public works building campaign across the country. this was an historic feat. was "surrounded by a wooden wall pierced by 64 gates and 570 towers— (and) rivaled the splendors of contemporaneous Persian sites such as Susa and Ecbatana. As monarch he was ambitious and aggressive. happily enough. and renounced war and violence. to keep the peace and maintain authority. Ashoka implemented principles of ahimsa by banning hunting and violent sports activity and ending indentured and forced labor (many thousands of people in warravaged Kalinga had been forced into hard labor and servitude). especially when in camp. who live simply. nevertheless. including over 10. Ashoka's edicts refer to the Greeks. according to Megasthenes. and he sponsored Buddhist missions. Although Ashoka's army succeeded in overwhelming Kalinga forces of royal soldiers and civilian units. and he cried 'what have I done?'.

The previous situation involving hundreds of kingdoms. The expansion and defense of the empire was made possible by what appears to have been the largest standing army of its time[citation needed]. Musée Guimet. with symbols of wheel and elephant. and 9. British Museum. Historians theorize that the organization of the Empire was in line with the extensive bureaucracy described by Kautilya in the Arthashastra: a sophisticated civil service governed everything from municipal hygiene to international trade. The kumara was assisted by Mahamatyas and council of ministers. to protect the Empire and instill stability and peace across West and South Asia. The Mauryan army wiped out many gangs of bandits. 3rd century BCE. To the West. with the imperial capital at Pataliputra. Northwest Pakistan. For the first time in South Asia. with standing goddess. with increased agricultural productivity. powerful regional chieftains. Farmers were freed of tax and crop collection burdens from regional kings. Although regimental in revenue collection. and internecine warfare. 4th-3rd century BCE. 30. which one of the four. The Empire was divided into four provinces.(roughly 4. and bordered the contemporary Hellenistic metropolis of Ai Khanoum. many small armies. look like a giant crescents. regional private armies. and powerful chieftains who sought to impose their own supremacy in small areas. it went as far as Kandahar (where the Edicts were written in Greek and Aramaic). Suvarnagiri (in the south). which was erected around 250 BCE. British Museum. Statuettes of the Maurya period. A vast espionage system collected intelligence for both internal and external security purposes. while internal trade in India expanded greatly due to newfound political unity and internal peace. From Ashokan edicts. Mauryan cast copper coin. the names of the four provincial capitals are Tosali (in the east).[12] A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka. Chandragupta Maurya established a single currency across India. 3rd century BCE. According to Megasthenes. and Taxila (in the north). It is the emblem of India. The head of the provincial administration was the Kumara (royal prince). farmers and traders.[13] is a concrete indication of the extent of Ashoka's rule. Ashoka nevertheless continued to maintain this large army. who governed the provinces as king's representative.000 miles). Maurya also sponsored many public works and waterways to enhance productivity. gave way to a disciplined central authority. The distribution of the Edicts of Ashoka. Ujjain in the west.000 war elephants. [edit] Administration Mauryan ringstone. [edit] Economy Silver punch mark coin of the Mauryan empire. Late 3rd century BCE. . and a network of regional governors and administrators and a civil service provided justice and security for merchants.000 cavalry. This organizational structure was reflected at the imperial level with the Emperor and his Mantriparishad (Council of Ministers). the empire wielded a military of 600. paying instead to a nationally-administered and strict-but-fair system of taxation as advised by the principles in the Arthashastra.000 infantry. political unity and military security allowed for a common economic system and enhanced trade and commerce. Having renounced offensive warfare and expansionism.

his successor. are credited for spread of Jainism in Southern India. Samprati sent messengers & preachers to Greece. including those regarding taxation and crop collection. This was due to the Mauryas having to contend with pre-existing private commercial entities hence they were more concerned about keeping the support of these pre-existing organizations. while the Romans did not have such pre-existing entities to contend with hence they were able to prevent such entities from developing. Greek states and Hellenic kingdoms in West Asia became important trade partners of India. hospitals. canals.e. Lakhs of Jain Temples & Jain Stupas were erected during their reign. Viramgam. Thus. spices and exotic foods. Jainism became a vital force under the Mauryan Rule. Persia & middle-east for the spread of Jainism. Some of them are still found in towns of Ahmedabad. [edit] Jainism Emperor Chandragupta Maurya became the first major Indian monarch to initiate a religious transformation at the highest level when he embraced Jainism. and later became an avatar of Vishnu.Under the Indo-Greek friendship treaty. preserved Hindu traditions and distanced himself from Jain and Buddhist movements.[15] Buddhist proselytism at the time of king Ashoka (260-218 BCE).) [edit] Religion Buddhist stupas during the Mauryan period were simple mounds without decorations. an international network of trade expanded. It is said that in his last days. along . the grandson of Ashoka also embraced Jainism. British Museum. Grottoe of Lomas Richi. Chandragupta renounced his throne and material possessions to join a wandering group of Jain monks. Mauryan India had numerous private commercial entities which existed purely for private commerce. Samrat Samprati was influenced by the teachings of Jain monk Arya Suhasti Suri and he is known to have built 125. holding mace and conch (lower right) on a Maurya coin. Butkara stupa. 3rd century BCE. helped increase productivity and economic activity across the Empire.[14] (See also Economic history of India. 3rd century BCE.000 Jain Temples across India. Balarama was originally a powerful independent deity of Hinduism. Chandragupta & Samprati. The Khyber Pass. But till date no research has been done in this area. on the modern boundary of Pakistan and Afghanistan. rest-houses and other public works. At an older age. a religious movement resented by orthodox Hindu priests who usually attended the imperial court. fast unto death. which both had extensive trade connections and both had organizations similar to corporations. Chandragupta was a disciple of Acharya Bhadrabahu. Balarama. Emperor Bindusara. became a strategically-important port of trade and intercourse with the outside world. It is also said that just like Ashoka. But due to lack of royal patronage & its strict principles. waterways. Ujjain & Palitana. he observed the rigorous but self purifying Jain ritual of santhara i. The Empire was enriched further with an exchange of scientific knowledge and technology with Europe and West Asia. However. Mauryan architecture in the Barabar Mounts. Samprati. Ashoka also sponsored the construction of thousands of roads. In many ways. at Shravana Belagola in Karnataka. Trade also extended through the Malay peninsula into Southeast Asia. and during Ashoka's reign. the economic situation in the Maurya Empire is comparable to the Roman Empire several centuries later. While Rome had organizational entities which were largely used for public state-driven projects. 3rd-2nd century CE. India's exports included silk goods and textiles. The easing of many overly-rigorous administrative practices.

Remains of a hypostyle building with about 80 columns of a height of about 10 meters have been found in Kumhrar. intensive policing.. Ashoka retained the membership of Brahmana priests and ministers in his court. Ashoka helped convene the Third Buddhist Council of India and South Asia's Buddhist orders. [edit] Buddhism But when Ashoka embraced Buddhism.. he should establish a forest for elephants guarded by foresters. and ruthless measures for tax collection and against rebels. and the harsher injunctions of the Arthashastra on the use of force. often exquisitely decorated. —Arthashastra The Mauryas also designated separate forests to protect supplies of timber. whose king Tissa was so charmed with Buddhist ideals that he adopted them himself and made Buddhism the state religion. but also unambiguously specifies the responsibilities of officials such as the Protector of the Elephant Forests:[18] On the border of the forest..e. The Mauryas firstly looked at forests as a resource. are another example of Mauryan architecture. Military might in those times depended not only upon horses and men but also battle-elephants.They should kill anyone slaying an elephant..000 stupas across India i. following the Kalinga War.with rise of Shankaracharya & Ramanujacharya. near his capital. and is one of the very few site that has been connected to the rule of the Mauryas in that city. a council that undertook much work of reform and expansion of the Buddhist religion. Greece and South East Asia. once the major religion of southern India. Also greatly discouraged was the caste system and orthodox discrimination. Sanchi and Mahabodhi Temple. [edit] Brahmanism While himself a Buddhist. [edit] Architectural remains Main article: Edicts of Ashoka Architectural remains of the Maurya period are rather few. along lakes or in marshy tracts. Alexander's governor of the Punjab. Kautilya's Arthashastra contains not only maxims on ancient statecraft. as Brahmanism began to absorb the ideals and values of Jain and Buddhist teachings.protect the elephants whether along on the mountain. the most important forest product was the elephant. and he increased the popularity of Buddhism in Afghanistan. [edit] Natural history in the times of the Mauryas The protection of animals in India became serious business by the time of the Maurya dynasty. The style is rather reminiscent of Persian Achaemenid architecture. Ashoka sent a mission led by his son Mahinda and daughter Sanghamitta to Sri Lanka. schools and publication of Buddhist literature across the empire. The Superintendent should with the help of guards. especially the decorated front of the Lomas Rishi grotto. and commissioned the construction of monasteries. along a river. the attitude of the Mauryas towards forests. Ashoka sent many Buddhist missions to West Asia. These were offered by the Mauryas to the Buddhist sect of the Ajivikas. its denizens and fauna in general is of interest.[17] The most widespread example of Maurya architecture are the Pillars of Ashoka. He is believed to have built as many as 84. The Mauryas sought to preserve supplies of elephants since it was cheaper and took less time to catch.[16] The grottoes of Barabar Caves. 5 km from Patna Railway station. crime and internal conflicts reduced dramatically. Jainism. tame and train wild elephants than to raise them. being the first empire to provide a unified political entity in India. and he maintained religious freedom and tolerance although the Buddhist faith grew in popularity with his patronage.Thailand and north Asian countries. For them. with more than 40 spread throughout the subcontinent. these played a role in the defeat of Seleucus. and given the increased prosperity and improved law enforcement. declined. he renounced expansionism and aggression. Brahmanic society began embracing the philosophy of ahimsa. Social freedom began expanding in an age of peace and prosperity. as .

They employed some of them.[19] When Ashoka embraced Buddhism in the latter part of his reign. the Macedonian satrap of the Asian portion of Alexander's former empire. the food-gatherers or aranyaca to guard borders and trap animals.[19] [edit] Contacts with the Hellenistic world Mauryan Statuette. for skins. who fought Chandragupta Maurya. Plutarch 62-3[20] [edit] Reconquest of the Northwest (c.19[22] [edit] Conflict and alliance with Seleucus (305 BCE) Silver coin of Seleucus I Nicator.4. among whom may have been Eudemus. and later made an alliance with him. since. in the territories formerly ruled by the Greeks. The Mauryas valued certain forest tracts in strategic or economic terms and instituted curbs and control measures over them. Seleucus I Nicator. "India. fishing and setting fires in forests. he brought about significant changes in his style of governance. [edit] Foundation of the Empire Relations with the Hellenistic world may have started from the very beginning of the Maurya Empire. but he had transformed liberation in servitude after victory. tigers and other predators to render the woods safe for grazing cattle. after taking the throne. —Edict on Fifth Pillar However. and we are told that he often said in later times that Alexander narrowly missed making himself master of the country. 310 BCE) Chandragupta ultimately occupied Northwestern India. He was the first ruler in history to advocate conservation measures for wildlife and even had rules inscribed in stone edicts. and he became a remarkable fighter and war leader. the edicts of Ashoka reflect more the desire of rulers than actual events. Sandracottos possessed India at the time Seleucos was preparing future glory. The edicts proclaim that many followed the king's example in giving up the slaughter of animals. he himself oppressed the very people he has liberated from foreign domination" Justin XV. conquered and put under his own authority eastern territories as . Elsewhere the Protector of Animals also worked to eliminate thieves. saw Alexander himself. probably around Taxila in the northwest: "Sandrocottus. The sometimes tense and conflict-ridden relationship nevertheless enabled the Mauryas to guard their vast empire. as if shaking the burden of servitude. as he was preparing war against the prefects of Alexander. the mention of a 100 'panas' (coins) fine for poaching deer in royal hunting preserves shows that rule-breakers did exist. They regarded all forest tribes with distrust and controlled them with bribery and political subjugation. felling. after the death of Alexander. The author of this liberation was Sandracottos. one of them proudly states:[19] Our king killed very few animals. 2nd Century BCE. The legal restrictions conflicted with the practices freely exercised by the common people in hunting.4. had assassinated his prefects. where he fought the satraps (described as "Prefects" in Western sources) left in place after Alexander (Justin).well as lions and tigers. Plutarch reports that Chandragupta Maurya met with Alexander the Great. ruler in the western Punjab until his departure in 317 BCE or Peithon. when he was a stripling. son of Agenor.12-13[21] "Later. Having thus acquired royal power. ruler of the Greek colonies along the Indus until his departure for Babylon in 316 BCE. and even relinquished the royal hunt." Justin XV. which included providing protection to fauna. since its king was hated and despised on account of his baseness and low birth". a huge wild elephant went to him and took him on his back as if tame.

Sogdia. Megasthenes. [edit] Marital alliance It is generally thought that an alliance was made. some of them written . or both. he [Seleucus] acquired Mesopotamia. until in 305 BCE he entered in a confrontation with Chandragupta: "Always lying in wait for the neighboring nations. The whole region from Phrygia to the Indus was subject to Seleucus". Seleucus. king of the Indians. Regardless. meaning either the recognition of marriage between trans-Indus inhabitants and Greeks. to Chandragupta. Parthia. The Syrian Wars 55[23] The treaty on "Epigamia" implies lawful marriage between Greeks and Indians was recognized at the State level. by reference to some of the presents which Sandrakottus. the king of the Indians. the king of the Indians. Arabia. but it is not lawful for a sophist to be sold in Greece" Athenaeus. the ruler of Ptolemaic Egypt and contemporary of Ashoka. and a sophist. sent to Seleucus. "The dry figs and the sweet wine we will send you. Armenia. and some dried figs. were to banish love" Athenaeus of Naucratis. Chandragupta and Seleucus exchanged presents. it is clear that Seleucus fared poorly against the Indian Emperor as he failed in conquering any territory. In his Edicts of Ashoka. Bactria. Accordingly. which were to act like charms in producing a wonderful degree of affection. History of Rome. was forced to surrender much that was already his.far as Bactria and the Indus (Appian. Seleucus obtained five hundred war elephants. History of Rome. The Syrian Wars 55). Appian. chapter 32[27] His son Bindusara 'Amitraghata' (Slayer of Enemies) also is recorded in Classical sources as having exchanged present with Antiochus I: "But dried figs were so very much sought after by all men (for really. such as when Chandragupta sent various aphrodisiacs to Seleucus: "And Theophrastus says that some contrivances are of wondrous efficacy in such matters [as to make people more amorous]. entreating him (it is Hegesander who tells this story) to buy and send him some sweet wine. wrote to Antiochus. and that Antiochus wrote to him in answer. "The deipnosophists" Book I. or a dynastic alliance): "He (Seleucus) crossed the Indus and waged war with Sandrocottus [Maurya]. including southern Afghanistan and parts of Persia. strong in arms and persuasive in council. as Aristophanes says. and other adjacent peoples that had been subdued by Alexander. and in fact. that even Amitrochates. The Syrian Wars 55[23] Though no accounts of the conflict remain. on the contrary. a military asset which would play a decisive role at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BCE. Hyrcania. while some. 'Seleucid' Cappadocia. Arachosia. who dwelt on the banks of that stream. so that the boundaries of his empire were the most extensive in Asia after that of Alexander.67[28] [edit] Greek populations in India Greek populations apparently remained in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent under Ashoka's rule. at the Mauryan court at Pataliputra (Modern Patna in Bihar state). according to Strabo. ceded a number of territories to Chandragupta. Seleucus and Chandragupta ultimately reached a settlement and through a treaty sealed in 305 BCE. as far as the river Indus.[26] [edit] Exchange of presents Classical sources have also recorded that following their treaty. Later Ptolemy II Philadelphus. and that a Greek Seleucid princess was bethrothed to the Maurya Dynasty. although it is unclear whether it occurred among dynastic rulers or common people. "There's really nothing nicer than dried figs"). Persis. is also recorded by Pliny the Elder as having sent an ambassador named Dionysius to the Mauryan court. And Phylarchus confirms him.[9][24][25] A matrimonial alliance was also agreed upon (called Epigamia in ancient sources. and later Deimakos to his son Bindusara. set in stone. until they came to an understanding with each other and contracted a marriage relationship". "Deipnosophistae" XIV. Tapouria. [edit] Exchange of ambassadors Seleucus dispatched an ambassador. Appian. History of Rome.

Also. likewise in the south among the Cholas. King Piodasses (Ashoka) made known (the doctrine of) Piety (εὐσέβεια. although no Western historical record of this event remain: "The conquest by Dharma has been won here. everywhere people are following Beloved-of-the-Gods' instructions in Dharma". they will live better and more happily". It is said to be written in excellent Classical Greek. Eusebeia) to men. XII[29]). the Pandyas. are described in Pali sources as leading Greek ("Yona") Buddhist monks. as far as Tamraparni and where the Greek king Antiochos rules. Dhammika). the Nabhakas. and other men and those who (are) huntsmen and fishermen of the king have desisted from hunting. (Click image for translation). active in Buddhist proselytism (the Mahavamsa. He ruled an area south of the Hindu Kush. the son of Ashoka. Kabul Museum. Ashoka describes that Greek populations within his realm converted to Buddhism: "Here in the king's domain among the Greeks. beyond there where the four kings named Ptolemy. King Piyadasi. S. Dhammika). Wherever medical herbs suitable for humans or animals are not available.P. Along roads I have had wells dug and trees planted for the benefit of humans and animals". Bilingual edict (Greek and Aramaic) by king Ashoka. and from this moment he has made men more pious. the Andhras and the Palidas. King Piyadasi's [Ashoka's] domain. and obedient to their father and mother and to the elders. and also in the list of the Yadava dynasty. using sophisticated philosophical terms.400-9. the Satiyaputras. from Kandahar." (Edicts of Ashoka. in the Edicts of Ashoka. on the borders. and as far as Tamraparni (Sri Lanka). such as Dharmaraksita. by G. in opposition to the past also in the future. in their territories: "Everywhere within Beloved-of-the-Gods. described in ancient Greek sources. by so acting on every occasion. made provision for two types of medical treatment: medical treatment for humans and medical treatment for animals. And if some (were) intemperate. And the king abstains from (killing) living beings. the Pitinikas. or Kunala. . everywhere has Beloved-of-theGods.250 BCE) Front view of the single lion capital in Vaishali. the Bhojas. Carratelli [1]) [edit] Buddhist missions to the West (c. 13th Rock Edict. as a descendant of Pradyumna. for men and animals.600 km) away. Fragments of Edict 13 have been found in Greek. and among the kings who are neighbors of Antiochos. In this Edict. Wherever medical roots or fruits are not available I have had them imported and grown. Ashoka uses the word Eusebeia ("Piety") as the Greek translation for the ubiquitous "Dharma" of his other Edicts written in Prakrit: "Ten years (of reign) having been completed. His name is mentioned in the list of Mauryan princes[citation needed]. as some of the emissaries of Ashoka. I have had them imported and grown. the Cholas. Antigonos. [edit] Subhagsena and Antiochos III (206 BCE) Sophagasenus was an Indian Mauryan ruler of the 3rd century BCE. the Pandyas. the Keralaputras. written in both Greek and Aramaic has been discovered in Kandahar. (Trans. and among the people beyond the borders. and a full Edict. the Nabhapamkits. Rock Edict Nb13 (S. He may have been a grandson of Ashoka. where the Greek king Antiochos rules. and everything thrives throughout the whole world. Magas and Alexander rule. Ashoka also claims that he encouraged the development of herbal medicine. and even six hundred yojanas (5. they have ceased from their intemperance as was in their power. Ashoka mentions the Hellenistic kings of the period as a recipient of his Buddhist proselytism. the Kambojas. 2nd Rock Edict The Greeks in India even seem to have played an active role in the propagation of Buddhism. and named Subhagsena or Subhashsena in Prakrit.

and Gujarat. until he had a hundred and fifty altogether. the extent of their domains and the lengths of their rule are subject to much debate. and make forays into central India. Polybius 11.39 [edit] Decline Ashoka was followed for 50 years by a succession of weaker kings.[33] among others. However. renewed his friendship with Sophagasenus the king of the Indians. Pali . and a wave of foreign invasion followed. although he still upheld the Buddhist faith. he was to establish a new capital of Sagala. The Indo-Greeks would maintain holdings on the trans-Indus region. for about a century. by the commanderin-chief of his guard. [edit] Sunga coup (185 BCE) Brihadrata was assassinated in 185 BCE during a military parade. and having once more provisioned his troops. although later Sunga kings seem to have been more supportive of Buddhism. and one of their kings Menander became a famous figure of Buddhism. According to Sir John Marshall. the region of Mathura. the modern city of Sialkot. brought about the demise of the Indo-Greeks from around 70 BCE and retained lands in the trans-Indus. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. Prakrit. such as Etienne Lamotte[32] and Romila Thapar. Satavahanas.possibly in Gandhara. who then took over the throne and established the Sunga dynasty. Buddhism flourished. Although the extent of their successes against indigenous powers such as the Sungas. [edit] Establishment of the Indo-Greek Kingdom (180 BCE) Main article: Indo-Greek kingdom The fall of the Mauryas left the Khyber Pass unguarded. Under them. and he conquered southern Afghanistan and Pakistan around 180 BC. Buddhist records such as the Asokavadana write that the assassination of Brhadrata and the rise of the Sunga empire led to a wave of persecution for Buddhists. Sunga Empire From Wikipedia. Other historians. received more elephants. Antiochos III. went to India in 206 BC and is said to have renewed his friendship with the Indian king there: "He (Antiochus) crossed the Caucasus and descended into India. set out again personally with his army: leaving Androsthenes of Cyzicus the duty of taking home the treasure which this king had agreed to hand over to him". search For other uses of the term Sunga see Shunga (disambiguation) Shunga Empire ← 185 BC–75 BC → Approximate greatest extent of the Sunga empire (circa 185 BCE). after having made peace with Euthydemus in Bactria. the last ruler of the Mauryan dynasty. what is clear is that Scythian tribes. Capital Pataliputra Vidisa Language(s) Sanskrit. Numismatic evidence indicates that they retained holdings in the subcontinent right up to the birth of Christ. The Greco-Bactrian king.[31] Pusyamitra may have been the main author of the persecutions. have argued that archaeological evidence in favor of the allegations of persecution of Buddhists are lacking. Demetrius. and Kalingas are unclear. renamed Indo-Scythians.[30] and a resurgence of Hinduism. and that the extent and magnitude of the atrocities have been exaggerated. capitalized on the breakup. forming the Indo-Greek Kingdom. Brhadrata. the Brahmin general Pusyamitra Sunga. held territories that had shrunk considerably from the time of emperor Ashoka. the Seleucid king.

modern Besnagar in Eastern Malwa. The Kabul Valley and much of the Punjab passed into the hands of the Indo-Greeks and the Deccan to the Satavahanas.83-75 BC Devabhuti Historical era Antiquity . [1] The Sunga Empire is noted for its numerous wars with both foreign and indigenous powers. Pushyamitra Sunga became the ruler of the Magadha and neighbouring territories. Contents [hide] • 1 Origins • 2 Buddhism o 2. was assassinated by the then commander-in-chief of the Mauryan armed forces.Religion Hinduism/Buddhism Government Monarchy King . Musee Guimet. and the city of Ujjain [3] in central India. The Shunga dynasty was established in 185 BCE. It was established after the fall of the Indian Maurya Empire. Pusyamitra Sunga [2]. Pusyamitra Sunga then ascended the throne. the last of the Mauryan rulers. Madhya Pradesh (?). The capital of the Sungas was Pataliputra. The kingdom of Pushyamitra was extended up to Narmada in the south. when the king Brhadrata.Established 185 BC . . Later kings such as Bhagabhadra also held court at Vidisha.Disestablished 75 BC The Shunga Empire (Sanskrit: शुग राजवश) or Sunga Empire is a Magadha dynasty that ं ं controlled North-central and Eastern India as well as parts of the northwest (now Pakistan) from around 185 to 73 BCE. while he was taking the Guard of Honour of his forces. and controlled Jalandhar and Sialkot in the Punjab in the north-western regions.1 Support given • 3 Wars of the Sungas • 4 Cultural Contributions • 5 Script • 6 List of Sunga kings • 7 See Also • 8 Notes • 9 References • 10 See also • 11 References • 12 External links [edit] Origins Balustrade-holding Yaksa. Sunga period (2nd-1st century BCE). about 50 years after Ashoka's death. the Mathura school of art and the works of Patanjali colored North India during this empire. Although very much isn't known.185-151 BC Pusyamitra Sunga .

distinguishing the temple as a particularly large and stately building similar to such expressions as rajahastin 'a noble elephant'. Kalidasa. It is said that there were ten Sunga kings. 133. rajahamsa `a goose (as distinguished from hamsa 'a duck'). the first nine of which read "rajapasada-cetika sa". B.M. and intending to destroy the Buddhist religion. He was succeeded by son Agnimitra.[5] Some writers believe that Brahmanism competed in political and spiritual realm with Buddhism[4] in the gangetic plains. "to the caitya (cetika) of the noble temple".. is believed by some writers with the persecution of Buddhists and a resurgence of Brahmanism that forced Buddhism outwards to Kashmir. Buddhism flourished in the realms of the Bactrian kings. 'Old Buddhist Shrines at Bodh-Gaya Inscriptions).. The existence of Buddhism in Bengal in the Sunga period can also be inferred from a terracotta tablet that was found at Tamralipti and is on exhibit at the Asutosh Museum. [edit] Support given Later Sunga kings were seen as amenable to Buddhism and as having contributed to the building of the stupa at Bharhut. 2nd century BCE. (.. taking the word raja before pasada as an epithet on ornans. As regards the first coping inscription. The power of the Sungas gradually weakened. Main article: Pusyamitra Sunga See also: Decline of Buddhism in India Following the Mauryans. the wife of Indragnimitra and the mother of living sons). This prince is the hero of a famous drama by one of India's greatest playwrights. [6] Some Indian scholars are of the opinion that the orthodox Sunga kings were not intolerant towards Buddhism and that Buddhism prospered during the time of the Sunga kings. An inspriction at Bodh Gaya at the Mahabodhi Temple records the construction of the temple as follows: "The gift of Nagadevi the wife of King Brahmamitra. he has found traces of eleven Brahmi letters after "Kuramgiye danam". the caitya". suggesting that "the mention of the raja-pasada would . he went to the Kukkutarama. University of Calcutta. trans.Pushyamitra died after ruling for 36 years (187-151 BCE). 'Old Buddhist Shrines at Bodh-Gaya Inscriptions). killed the monks there.M. John Strong. and proclaimed that he would give a hundred dinara reward to whomever brought him the head of a Buddhist monk" (Shramanas) Ashokavadana.. Gandhara and Bactria. Bharhut. [edit] Buddhism Yaksa reliefs. The Sungas were succeeded by the Kanva dynasty around 73 BCE. Agnimitra was viceroy of Vidisha when the story takes place. "[2] Cunningham has regretted the loss of the latter part of these important records.) Pusyamitra therefore destroyed the sangharama. The gift also of Srima of the royal palace shrine (Barua. the first Brahmin king was Pusyamitra Sunga.[4] According to the 2nd century Ashokavadana: "Then King Pusyamitra equipped a fourfold army. After some time.[4] However. he arrived in Sakala." Cunningham has translated the expression by "the royal palace." So then this further means that the Sungas were in support of Buddhism (Barua. etc. son of Kosiki. and departed. there is doubt as to whether he did persecute Buddhists actively. Another inscription reads: "The gift of Kurangi. B. the mother of living sons and the wife of King Indragnimitra. Bloch reads these nine letters as "raja-pasada-cetikasa" and translates this expression in relation to the preceding words: "(the gift of Kurangi.

which describes Indian historical events in the form of a prophecy." Luders doubtfully suggests "to the king's temple" as a rendering of "raja-pasada-cetikasa.10080BC. Calcutta (drawing). Madhya Pradesh. on the Indus river. Scriptures such as the Divyavadhana note that his rule extended even farther to Sialkot. The net result of these wars remains uncertain. and during the 1st century BCE. as indicated by the Heliodorus pillar.[11] Nevertheless. however. They are known to have warred with the Kalingas.seem to connect the donor with the king's family. 2nd-1st century BCE. conquered the Kabul Valley and is theorized to have advanced into the trans-Indus. Eastern India. The Indo Greek Menander is credited with either joining or leading a campaign to Pataliputra with other Indian Kings. in which the Indians defeated the Greeks and Pushyamitra successfully completed the Ashvamedha Yagna. the Yavanas. Sunga Period. a magnificent fortified city with 570 towers and 64 gates according to Megasthenes. after having approached Saketa together with the Panchalas and the Mathuras. the Trigartas. in the Punjab." (Yuga Purana. 2002 edition. Accounts of battles between the Greeks and the Sunga in Northwestern India are also found in the Mālavikāgnimitram. War and conflict characterized the Sunga period. what does appear clear is that the two realms appeared to have established normalized diplomatic relations in the succeeding reigns of their respective rulers. Some interpretations of the Mahabharata and Yuga Purana have attempted to account for this: The Anushasanaparava of the Mahabharata affirms that the city of Mathura was under the joint control of the Yavanas and the Kambojas. c. Paragraph 47-48. will reach Kusumadhvaja ("The town of the flower-standard". "Victory of the Yaudheyas"). which records the dispatch of a Greek ambassador named Heliodorus.) Bronze coin of the Sunga period. a play by Kālidāsa which describes a battle between Greek cavalrymen and Vasumitra.[10] and describes the ultimate destruction of the city's walls: "Then.[9] relates the attack of the Indo-Greeks on the capital Pataliputra. the grandson of Pushyamitra. From around 180 BCE the Greco-Bactrian ruler Demetrius. However. The Shunga Empire's wars with the Indo-Greek Kingdom figure greatly in the history of this period. Audumbaras and finally the Kunindas also started to mint their own coins). the Indo-Greeks. and possibly the Panchalas and Mathuras.[8] Also the Hindu text of the Yuga Purana. once Puspapura (another name of Pataliputra) has been reached and its celebrated mud[-walls] cast down. to the court of the Sunga king Bhagabhadra at the site of Vidisha in central India. valiant in battle. Moreover." [edit] Wars of the Sungas Vedika pillar with Greek warrior. The Indo-Greeks and the Sungas seem to have reconciled and exchanged diplomatic missions around 110 BCE. Then. all the realm will be in disorder. Bharhut. very little is know about the exact nature and success of the campaign. Reddish brown sandstone. [edit] Cultural Contributions . Pataliputra). Mathura was regained by the Sungas around 100 BCE (or by other indigenous rulers: the Arjunayanas (area of Mathura) and Yaudheyas mention military victories on their coins ("Victory of the Arjunayanas". Satavahanas. if it was lost. from the court of the Indo-Greek king Antialcidas.[7]Indian Museum. very little can be said with great certainty. Pushyamitra is recorded to have performed two Ashvamedha Yagnas and Sunga imperial inscriptions have extended as far as Jalandhar.

26 BCE) . 2nd-1st century BCE. Magadha was ruled by four Kanva rulers. originally started under King Ashoka. masculine figurine (molded plate). This work was composed by Kalidasa in the later Gupta period. philosophy. The script is thought to be an intermediary between the Maurya and the Kalinga brahmi scripts. He was assassinated by his minister (Vasudeva Kanva) and is said to have been overfond of the company of women. 40 . Sunga Sunga Sunga Sunga Yakshi. and was used to write the Sanskrit language. 52 . Artistry on the subcontinent also progressed with the rise of the Mathura school. 2nd-1st century BCE.131 BCE) • Vasumitra (131 . 52 BCE) • Narayana (c. 75 . search The Kanva dynasty replaced the Sunga dynasty in Magadha.122 BCE) • Pulindaka (122 . the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. Sunga fecundity deity. it is recognized for a number of contributions. Patanjali's Yoga Sutras and Mahabhasya were composed in this period. [edit] Script The script used by the Sunga was a variant of Brahmi. however. It is also noted for its subsequent mention in the Malavikaagnimitra.119 BCE) • Ghosha (?) • Vajramitra (?) • Bhagabhadra (?) • Devabhuti (83 . 2nd-1st century BCE. Sunga fecundity deity. 66 BCE) • Bhumimitra (c.149 BCE) • Agnimitra (149 . and romanticized the love of Malavika and King Agnimitra. Buddhist activity also managed to survive somewhat in central India (Madhya Pradesh) as suggested by some architectural expansions that were done at the stupas of Sanchi and Barhut. or a sign of tolerance on their part. which is considered the indigenous counterpart to the more Hellenistic Gandhara school of Afghanistan and Pakistan. Yaksa. 40 BCE) • Susarman (c. and ruled in the eastern part of India from 75 BCE to 26 BCE. their dynasty was brought to an end by the Satavahanas of the south. The last of the Sunga kings was Devabhuti (83-73 BCE). woman with child. with a background of court intrigue.124 BCE) • Andhraka (124 .73 BCE) Kanva dynasty From Wikipedia.[12] [edit] List of Sunga kings • Pusyamitra Sunga (185 . It remains uncertain whether these works were due to the weakness of the control of the Sungas in these areas. The Kanva ruler allowed the kings of the Sunga dynasty to continue to rule in obscurity in a corner of their former dominions. and other learning flowered during this period.c.141 BCE) • Vasujyeshtha (141 . [edit] Rulers • Vasudeva (c.A relief from Bharhut.c. While there is much debate on the religious politics of the Sunga dynasty. The Sunga dynasty was then replaced by the subsequent Kanvas. The last ruler of the Sunga dynasty was overthrown by Vasudeva of the Kanva dynasty in 75 BC.c. Little is known about the Kanvas. education.c. 2nd-1st century BCE. 2nd-1st century BCE. 66 . Most notably. 2nd-1st century BCE. During the historical Sunga period (185 to 73 BCE). Art.

Burma. Thailand. On religion side. Kharavela belonged to the Chedi clan. According to the inscription. Vietnam. Apart from this eulogic descent amounting to a myth. several historians have tried to speculate the origin of Kharavela. Emperor Khāravela patronised Jainism. the ancient name of Orissa state of India. Borneo. The main source of information about Kharavela is his famous seventeen line rock-cut Hathigumpha inscription in a cave in Udayagiri hills near Bhubaneswar in Orissa . in absence of any material evidence to the converse. Sumatra and Jabadwipa (Java). All these happened within a century of Ashokan era. Bali. Devanagari: खारवेल.Kharavela From Wikipedia. Under Kharavela's generalship. Bhubaneswar Hathigumpha inscription of King Khāravela at Udayagiri Hills Khandagiri caves Kharavela (ଖାରେେଳ) (IAST: Khāravela. The Kalingan military might was reinstated by Kharavela. Anga. present Tamil Nadu state. the Kalinga kingdom had a formidable maritime reach with trade routes linking it to the then Simhala (Sri Lanka). search Maximum extent of Kharavela (ଖାରେେଳ) Kalingan Empire: 2nd century B. .C. Contents [hide] • 1 Introduction • 2 Hathigumpha Inscription o 2. though extremely liberal. with full West to East coverage.E Hathigumpha on Udayagiri Hills. Kharavela (ଖାେରେଳ) was the third king of the Mahameghavahana dynasty. Satavahanas and the then South Indian regions of Pandya kingdom. However. Emperor Kharavela (ଖାେରେଳ) led many successful campaigns against Kingdoms of Magadha.1 Salient features of the Hathigumpha Inscription • 3 Minor Inscriptions of Kharavela • 4 Period • 5 Wars & Expeditions • 6 Dynasty • 7 Queens of Kharavela • 8 Remembering Kharavela • 9 See also • 10 External links • 11 References [edit] Introduction The chief source of information about emperor Kharavela is the Hathigumpha inscription at Udayagiri caves. Oriya: ଖାେରେଳ) (?209 – after 170 BCE) was the greatest Oriya emperor of Kalinga. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. Kharavela has been accepted as being from an Odia descent. near present Bhubaneswar city. and expanded Kalinga till the river Ganga in North and river Kaveri in South. and was a lineal descendant of the sage king Vasu. The Chedi dynasty of Kalinga under the kingship of Khāravela ascended to eminence and restored the lost power and glory of Kalinga. which was subdued since the devastating Kalinga war with Ashoka.

as well as . elephants. Later. Incidentally. which is situated at a distance of about six miles. which was widely accepted. rampart and structures of the fort of Kalinga Nagari. Stirling in 1820 who published an eye copy of it in Asiatic Researches. [edit] Salient features of the Hathigumpha Inscription The Hathigumpha inscription starts with a version of the auspicious Jain Namokar ं Mantra: नमो अरितानं [।।] णमो सविसधानं [।।] for in Jainism. The first syllable Khāra (Devanagari:खार) is the corrupt form of Kshāra (Devanagari:कार) meaning 'saltish'. The inscription was first discovered/noticed by A. Statistical and Historical of Orissa or Cuttack”. Geographical . VI (1837). Princep’s reading along with a facsimile prepared by Kittoe was published in the Journal of the Asiatic Society Bengal. [edit] Hathigumpha Inscription This inscription. According to Princep. The body-text mentions that: • In the very first year of his coronation. in his book titled “An Account. The inscriptions date back to the 1st Century BCE.L. [1] However. there are a large number of lacunae and faults (Both syntactical and physical deformities) in the inscription. II. The letter Khā (Devanagari:खा) in the Hathigumpha inscription is the transformed corrupt (Apabhramsha) form of kshā (Devanagari:का). consisting of seventeen lines has been incised in deep cut Brahmi script on the overhanging brow of a natural cavern called Hathigumpha (Oriya: ହାତିଗୁଂଫା) (Meaning in English: The Elephant’s Cave) in the southern side of the Udayagiri hills near present day Bhubaneswar. Vela means 'wave' or 'shore'. . Pandit Indraji was the first scholar to declare that the King referred to and eulogised in the Hathigumpha inscription was named Kharavela' and not Aira.D. originated during the north-western conquest of the emperor. Subsequently. which had been damaged by storm. Mitra published a slightly modified version in the book Antiquities of Orissa. Thereafter.Etymologically. a plaster cast of the inscription was prepared by H.. without caring for Satakarni. However. there is a clan of Jats having the clan name Khārvel. and caused to be built flight of steps for the cool tanks and laid all gardens at the cost of thirty five hundred thousand mudra (coins) and thus pleased all his subjects. (His Majesty) caused to be repaired the gate. the name Kharavela is the prakrit transformation of Sanskrit word Ksharavela (Devanagari:कारवेल). indologist and linguist James Princep succeeded in deciphering the inscription. which obstruct its correct reading and the mutilated condition of the inscription has given the space for rival claims and given rise to controversies. infantry and chariots. Towards the end of 1871 A. which is now preserved in the Indian Museum. (His Majesty) sent to the west a large army consisting of horses. the referred personality in the Hatigumpha inscription was a king named ‘Aira’. The second syllable. • In the second year. Similarly. Indraji presented the novel approach before the Sixth International Congress of Orientalists in 1885. I and in 1880 R. in history books Air (ऐर) has been stated as a clan that originated from Nagavanshi ruler named Airawat. The first authentic reading of the inscription is credited to historian Bhagwan Lal Indraji. Calcutta. XV . in north-western part of India. Vol. deep and multi-disciplinary research is required to arrive at the exact origin of Kharavela. and struck terror to Asikanagara with that troop that marched up to the river Kanhavemna. Locke. which claims descent from the Emperor Kharavela. Alexander Cunningham published this inscription in 1877 in the Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarrum Vol. It faces straight towards the rock Edicts of Asoka at Dhauli.

and Pataliputra. to flow into Kalinga Nagri through Tanasuli. meaning Vima Kadphises. of which the second is mi or ma. (His Majesty) attacked Rajagriha in Magadha and forced the Indo-Greek king Demetrius (described as the Yavana king ("Yavanaraja") named Dimi{ta}) to retreat to Mathura. M Barua (Indian Historical Quarterly-XIV). [edit] Minor Inscriptions of Kharavela Main article: Minor Inscriptions of Kharavela Besides the celebrated Hathigumpha inscription of Kharavela. the Vidhadhara tract. the restorer of shrines of all gods. their umbrella and royal insignia thrown aside. It confirms my suggestion.L. reasonably places the date of emperor Kharavela’s reign in second half of the first century BC. R. These minor inscriptions pertaining to Emperor Kharavela have been engraved in Brahmi script..• Then in the fourth year. But as early as 1951. nor saka or pahlava. historian.. • (His Majesty) then attacked and vanquished the kingdom of Magadha." There are some issues with this interpretation. and that the king is categorized as yavana. meaning Demetrius the Indo-Greek king. or Pusyamitra himself) bow at his (His Majesty’s) feet. Devanagari script) Translation: The worshipper of all religious orders. [edit] Period The dating of Kharavela's period has been highly debatable and controversial. The Patna Museum has a plaster cast of this inscription. An exact time bracketing has been unachievable at present. • In the 12th year of his reign. The Indian numismatist P. which were deciphered earlier by Prof. Shri Sadananda Agrawal. The inscription states that the Emperor Kharvela had a liberal religious spirit. were. Tirthankar’s idol was brought back with its crown and endowment and the jewels plundered by king Nanda from the Kalinga royal palace. Banerjee during the years 1915-16 (Epigraphic Indica . The exact time bracket of Kalingan emperor Kharavela will continue to be controversial so long any other corroborative evidences have not been discovered. not kushan or tukhara. prakrit language. (His Majesty) caused the aqueducts that had been excavated by king Nanda three hundred years before. and their Jewelry and wealth confiscated. Then brought back the holy idols of Kalinga's Jain Gods (The Blessed Tirthankars) which earlier Magadha rulers had carried away with them after Kalinga war in Past.. made to pay obeisance at the feet (of His Majesty). The Rathika and Bhojaka chiefs with their crown cast off. It has been a formidable challenge to ascertain the correct date of Kharavela’s ascendancy and reign within a definite chronological frame work.XIII) and subsequently by B. (His Majesty] . since the stated facts are that the name consists of three letters. • And in the fifth year. the then capital of the Sunga. who fled to Mathura when he realized the might of Khâravela. • In the 8th year of his reign. which I personally examined when I was there as Curator. has given details and clarifications about those. Kharavela describes himself as: “ सव पासंड पूजको सवदेवायतन संकार कारको ” (Prakrit Language. and made king "Bahasatimita" (May be a Sunga king Bruhaspatimitra. D. I thought it to be Vimaka. • And in the seventh year of his reign [the Queen] of Vajiraghara. there are several other minor inscriptions in the twin hills of Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves. blessed with a son attained motherhood. Gupta has suggested that the Hatigumpha inscription is from the 2nd century CE:[2]: "The Hâthîgumphâ inscription refers in line 8 to a yavana-râja. The internal evidence from the Hathigumpha inscription. The name of the yavana-râja bears three letters. of which the second letter may be fairly read as ma or mi. along with the treasures of Anga and Magadha were regained. It has been doubtfully restored as Dimita. It is . that had been established by the former kings of Kalinga and had never been crossed before. he attacked the king of Uttarapatha.

The eighth regnal year of Kharavela. However. there are palaeographic problems with dating the Hâthîgumphâ text so late as Wema Kadphises (Reign 90s-110s CE). The period of 1st century BC. Kharavela entered into the territory of Magadha and fought out important engagement with the army of that empire at Gorathagiri and stormed that outlying fortress which guarded Rajagrha. as per the Hatigumpha inscription. According to Sadananda Agrawal. It is worth noting in the present context that a terracotta sealing having a legend. M. Krishna lies much to the south of Kalinga. An article about Emperor Kharavela mentions about the rule of Kaswan in 2nd century of Vikram samvat. and for Vima Kadphises to be referred to as Vimaka (expanded from Vema/Vima). the former capital of Magadha. Some scholars prefer to read Masikanagara instead of Asikanagara and locate it in the coastal region of Andhra Pradesh. Shastri is of the opinion that Adam itself represents the Asikanagara of Hathigumpha inscription. has been discovered from Adam. infantry and chariots to the western quarter without caring for or bothering about Sātakarnī. three years after his war in western India. has been preferred by Indic script specialists. Andhra Pradesh where a large number of coins of some chiefs styled Mahārathi have been found in excavations. The Hathigumpha inscription tells us that again in his fourth regnal year Kharavela directed his invasion against the Satavahana territory. Likewise . But there is another stream flowing to the west of Kalinga in Vidarbha and known locally at present as Kanhan which flows about 17 km northwest of Nagpur and joins the river Vena (Wainganga). In view of the evidence of a highly prosperous city unearthed at Adam. Also. which reads Asakajanapadasa (Devanagari: असकजनपदस). Kanhavemṇā is commonly equated with the river Krishna coastal flowing in Andhra Pradesh.कुसवानाम् किियाना च सिाययतावता पापत मिसक नगरम् IAST . As a result of this victory Kharavela’s suzerainty spread over the land from the eastern sea to western sea. elephants. and it is the combined flow of these two streams that is spoken as Kanhavemṇā in our records.otherwise unknown for a Kushan king to have been referred to as a yavana. Prof.“Kusawānāṃ kshatriyānāṃ ca Sahāyyatāvatāṃ prāpt masika nagaraṃ”. interpretation of the city as Masikanagara is not well-supported. . or approximately contemporary with the Sanchi inscriptions from the reign of the Satavahana Satakarni. It is quite likely that the Rathikas are to be located in southern Maharashtra region and adjoining Karnataka. heard the war trumpets of Kalinga blowing in direction of the north. and not west as averred in the epigraph (Devanagari: पििमिदसं). as regards the Bhojakas. The recent find of a seal belonging to the Asikajanapada in course of intensive archaeological excavations at Adam (Nagpur district) has solved also the problem of locating the historical Asikanagara whose king or and people became frightful at the arrival of Kharavela's army at Kanhavemṇā. In course of the campaign the army of Kalinga marched headlong against the Rathikas and Bhojakas who inhabited the western Deccan and whose chiefs might have been subordinates or vassals under Satavahana king Satakarni. A. The strong fort was demolished and Rajagrha was put to great trouble. Translation: The city of 'Masiknagara' was captured with the help of 'Kuswan' Kshatriyas. [edit] Wars & Expeditions It is revealed from Line-4 of the Hathigumpha inscription that Kharavela in the second year of his reign dispatched a strong force comprising cavalry. It has been mentioned in ‘Hathi Gumpha and three other inscriptions’ (page 24) in Sanskrit as under: Sanskrit . situated on the right bank of the river Wainganga. it is not impossible that they flourished in the region of Goa and adjoining parts of Karnataka where the Bhoja Kings are found a few centuries later. and the kingdom of Asikanagara was frightened of its (Kharavela’s army) reaching the river Kanhavemṇā.

) Kharavela could achieve a series of brilliant victories extending his suzerainty from the North-Western part of India to the farthest extend in the South. According to Hathigumpha inscription that year he caused his army much towards Bharatavarsha. “ The political and military performances of Kharavela have. This Kalinga Tirthankars (Jain God) was once the invaluable religious property of Kalinga but was carried away from Kalinga during the first wave of the northern invasion under Mahapadmananda emperor of Magadha. who were very likely the Indo-Greeks.Sahu aptly remarks about his expeditions: “Thus within a short span of ten years (form his 2nd to 12th regnal years. While the former belongs to Asokan period the latter seems to be incised by one of the men who had accompanied Kharavela in this campaign. the founder of Sunga dynasty. and was succeeded by his son Kudepasiri. The king's name has been read extremely doubtfully as "Dimita". Dr Sahu remarks: “In the epigraphic records of India the name Bharatavarsha appears for the first time in Hathigumpha inscription.Gorathagiri has been identified with the modern Barabar hill in the Gaya district in Bihar state. Kharavela constructed the great victory palace in Kalinganagari at a cost of thirty eight hundred thousand coins which stood to personify in all its grandeur the great victory a great conqueror. in fact. [edit] Dynasty In the first line of Hathigumpha inscription Kharavela styles himself as IAST-Airena Mahārājena Mahāmeghavāhana Chetarāja vasa Vadhanena xxx Kalimgādhipatinā Siri Khāravelan . The people of Magadha were struck with terror at the sight of the elephants and horses and Brhaspatimitra. son and successor of Euthydemus belonging to 2nd century BC. forcing several chiefs to submission. It is worth nothing here that two small inscriptions are found engraved in that hill. Bhima and Arjuna on the way of their campaign against Jarasandha. which read Gorathgiri and Goradhagiri respectively. This name however. Many renowned scholars equate Brhaspatimitra with Pushyamitra. no parallel in history and this great monarch fully justifies the epithet Chakravarti given to him in the inscription of his chief queen. It was by that critical time that one Yavana King (Indo-Greek) who was then in occupation of Mathura was advancing against Magadha. In the Sabhaparva of the Mahabharata this hill has been referred to by the name Gorathagiri wherefrom Girivraja (Rajagrha) the capital of Magadha was surveyed by Krishna.” When the twelfth year of his reign dawned Kharavela marched against Uttarapatha (Northwest India) with a vast army. and has been identified by many scholars with the famous Indo-Greek King Demetrius. In commemoration of this victory over the Indo-Greeks and age old enemy Magadha. The tenth year witnessed another expedition towards north. Before his home ward march the monarch brought back from Magadha the greatest and by far the most significant war trophy to his home land was the Original Idol of Kalinga's Jain Tirthankars (Gods) Idol that adorned the spiritual realm of Magadha. He seems to have abandoned his throne in the 13th year of his reign. the king of Magadha was humbled by Kharavela and made the Magadhan king touch his feet. This was his third onslaught against North India. Kharavela’s inscription seems to have been intended to counter affect Asoka’s inscription.K. On his return from Uttarapatha Kharavela planned for the final encounter against Magadha and the Kalingan army encamped on the banks of the Ganges not far off Pataliputra. N. Dr. In the former hill we find the inscription of the victory of Magadha and in the latter that of the victory of Kalinga. It is worth nothing in the present context that for recording the events of his reign Kharavela chose the Hathigumpha in the southern side of Udayagiri hill which faces straight towards the Dhauli hill bearing Rock Edicts of Ashoka. denoted to Northern India by that time.

It is significant that the word Aira has not been prefixed with the name of Sada. belonging to be the second king in the Mahameghavahana line in Kalinga. Sircar to decipher the word as Ceti (Devanagari:चेित) and this conjectural reading led the renowned scholars to hold the view that Kharavela belongs to Cedi dynasty. Bhagwan Lal Indraji is the first scholar to assert that the King whose activities are glorified in the inscription in named Kharavela. As no available record speaks any thing more about prince Badukha.C. have never been stated in their respective inscription to be belonging to Cedi dysasty. this crack misled some eminent scholars like R. The meaning of Mahameghavahana is the great one riding on clouds. Mitra take the word Aira as the name of the king of Kalinga eulogised in the inscription. he stands an obscure figures. On basis of above discussion we can say that Kharavela belonged to Mahameghavahana .D. Princep and R. It is to be noted here that Kumara Badukha has not assumed any royal title. But in no way this can be accepted. It is pertinent to note in this context that a small inscription is found engraved in the Mancapuri Cave where King Kudepasiri (one of the successor of Kharavela) styled himself as Aira Maharaja Kalingadhipati Mahameghavahana (Devanagari:ऐरे मिाराजा किलंगािधपितना मिामेघवािन). Cetaraja was the father of Kharavela and it seems probable that he was the immediate predecessor of Kharavela. The Vahana ending dynastic (and personal) names were quite popular during the few centuries preceding. XIV. it is difficult to be sure of the relationship between Kharavela and Kudepasir. However. Dr. It is pertinent to note in the context that in Mahabharata. The King Sada has also been styled himself as Maharaja Kalinga Mahisika Adhipati Mahameghavahana. King Vasu recorded in Hathigumpha inscription can not be taken as Cedi king. Mahiska country denoted the modern coastal Andhra (Guntur – Krishna region) which was apparently added to the Mahameghavahana kingdom at least during the reign of Maharaja Sada. so both the dynasties should not be equated. Banerji and D.D. Both Kudepasiri and Sada.े े े ं (Devanagari:ऐरेण मिाराजेन मिामेघवािनन चेतराज वस वधनन पसथ सुभलखलेन चतुरतलुठन गुणउपेनत किलंगािधपितना िसिर खारवेलेन) While the earliest scholar J. other few scholars are inclined to take the word as dynastic name and connected the ancestry of Kharavela with the puranic Aila belonging to the lunar Kshatriya dynasty. The line-7 of the Hathigumpha inscription indicates that the Queen of Vajiraghara (Chief Queen of Kharavela ?) gave birth to a son. Meghavahana as a dynastic name is found mentioned (Sabha Parva. 13) while the same epic preserves detailed accounts regarding the activities of Cedi dynasty. Sahu takes Maha as the prefix of Megha and opines: “ Mahameghavahana literary means one whose vehicle is great cloud”. There is a small crack in the stone above the letter ta (त) giving the impression of medial i. in history but seems to be the son or brother Kudepasiri. Cedi and Meghavahana have been flourished as two distinct dynasties since the early times. The Sada rule came to an end during end first century / early second century A. In this cave another inscription is incised which reveals the name of Kumara Badukha. In line 17 of the Hathigumpha inscription Kharavela claims to have been descended from Rajarsi Vasu Kula. It is a significant to note here that there is also no direct evidence in Hathigumpha inscription to show that Kharavela belongs to Cedi Dynasty. L. Another inscription in the lower storey of the same caves informs us that it had been executed by the Aira Maharaja Kalingadhipati Mahameghavahana Kudepasiri. The only meaning conveyed by this expression is that Kharavela was the son of Cetarāja (Devanagari:चेतराज). happen to be the successors of Kharavela.

[3][4] R. now in (Pakistan).Mahasada 7. Legend in Prakrit (Brahmi script. the history of ancient Kalinga and in particular Kharavela is being revived as Orissa's golden age. who ruled in the mountainous valley of the Jamuna and Sutlej rivers (in today's Uttarakhand and southern Himachal in northern India). in particular IT and higher education. Legend in Kharoshti script. However. The history of the kingdom is documented from around the 2nd century BCE. The chief queen.Kharavela 4. and surrounded by a swastika.Sada’s successors. a "Y" symbol. M. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. from left to right): Rajnah Kunindasya Amoghabhutisya maharajasya ("Great King Amoghabhuti. because in some medieval inscription this place is found referred to as Vayirakara. [edit] Queens of Kharavela The Hathigumpha inscription mentions that in the seventh year of his reign [the Queen] of Vajiraghara was blessed with a son attained motherhood.Kudepasiri 5. [edit] Remembering Kharavela Kharavela Nagar is an important commercial district of Bhubaneswar and home to the city's first mall. search Silver coin of the Kuninda Kingdom. Sometime before his coronation the prince very probably married chief queen as per presence was essentially required in anointation ceremony. was the great-grand daughter of Hastisimha and the daughter of king Lalaka or Lalarka. was a Lalli “Jat” It also refers to the gift of two trees by one Moika in the eastern region of “ Kasua”. and Sutlej originate.[1] . referse to one “ Lala. Sahu identifies this place with Vajradantadesa mentioned in the Kamasutra of Vatsyayana. Rev: Stupa surmounted by the Buddhist symbol triratna. India.dynasty and the Genealogical chart of can be given as under: 1. the protector of the Kushana dynasty of Maharaja Kanishka”.Badukha 6. The famous Panjtar stone inscription. crowned by two cobras. K. 1st century BCE. The Kingdom of Kuninda (or Kulinda in ancient literature) was an ancient central Himalayan kingdom from around the 2nd century BCE to the 3rd century. This Lala. That last word Kasua is the same as Kasuan the name of the Kushana clan (and territory) which is still existing. The Mahabharata relates they were defeated by Arjuna. attended by Lakshmi holding a lotus flower. ("Great King Amoghabhuti. Banerjee has identified Vayiraghara with Wairagarh in present Chanda district of Maharastra. It is to be pointed out here that not much is known about Hastisimha and Lalarka from any other source. Kuninda Kingdom From Wikipedia. They are mentioned in Indian epics and puranas. located in the modern state of Uttarakhand and southern areas of Himachal in northern India. from righ to left: Rana Kunidasa Amoghabhutisa Maharajasa. The Greek historian Ptolemy linked the origin of the Kuninda to the country where the rivers Ganges. who was very likely his second queen. whose record has been engraved in the upper storey of Mancapuri Cave. Obv: Deer standing right. King Kharavela is known to have two queens. of the Kunindas"). We find mention of Lal (लल) as a gotra of Jats living in Muzaffarnagar district in Uttar Pradesh. and a tree in railing. Line-15 of the Haithgumpha inscription refers to the queen of Simhapatha. c. With the rise of industry.Mahameghavahana 2. Simhapatha may be same as Simhapura which was the capital of Kalinga during the rule of the Matharas in the 4th century A. Dr.D. The place is identified with modern Singupuram in Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh. who originated from mahapurusha Lala (लल). Yamuna. of the Kunindas"). One of the first kings of the Kuninda was Amoghbhuti. D. written in the year 122 of Saka ara.Cetaraja 3.

and incorporated Buddhist symbolism such as the triratna. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. or the Audumbaras. the first one issued around the 1st century BCE. it seems the region shifted to Shaivite beliefs. Capital Sigal Taxila Mathura Language(s) Scythian language Persian language Pali (Kharoshthi script) Sanskrit.One the Edicts of Ashoka on a pillar is also present at Kalsi. indicating the spread of Buddhism to the region from the 4th century BCE. The Kuninda kingdom disappeared around the 3rd century. They represent the first effort by an Indian to produce coins that could compare with those of the Indo-Greeks. and their coins are often found together with Indo-Greek coins in hoards. in the region of Garhwal. and the second around the 2nd century CE. search Indo-Scythian Kingdom ← 200 BCE–400 CE → Territories (full line) and expansion (dotted line) of the Indo-Scythians Kingdom at its greatest extent. [edit] Rulers • Amoghabhuti (late 2nd century-1st century BCE) Indo-Scythians From Wikipedia. These coins typically follow the Indo-Greek weight and size standards (drachms. of about 2. Prakrit (Brahmi script) Possibly Aramaic Religion Buddhism Ancient Greek religion Hinduism Zoroastrianism Government Monarchy King . Contents [hide] • 1 Coinage • 2 Rulers • 3 See also • 4 External links • 5 Notes [edit] Coinage There are two types of Kuninda coinage.85-60 BCE Maues . and from the 4th century. such as those of the Yaudheyas. The first coins of the Kuninda were influenced by the numismatic model of their predecessor Indo-Greek kingdoms.14g in weight and 19 mm in diameter).

2 Gandhara and Punjab 3.2.2 Bimaran casket o 3.6 Minor local rulers .4 Paratarajas o 12. Parthia and India as well as far off Rome in the west. from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 4th century CE. Getae[6].10s CE Hajatria Antiquity Historical era .1 Butkara Stupa o 6. included besides the Sakas[1] other allied tribes. the Indo-Scythian war is just one chapter in the events triggered by the nomadic flight of Central Asians from conflict with Chinese tribes which had lasting effects on Bactria. The invasion of India by Scythian tribes from Central Asia.2 Kshaharatas o 12. Gandhara. Maharashtra and Rajasthan. Bahlikas.Disestablished 400 CE The Indo-Scythians are a branch of Sakas (Scythians). The Scythian groups that invaded India and set up various kingdoms.2 Gandharan sculptures o 6.6 Western Kshatrapas legacy • 4 Indo-Scythian coinage • 5 Depiction of Indo-Scythians o 5. Gujarat.5 "Northern Satraps" (Mathura area) o 12.1 Sculpture 3.1 Buner reliefs o 5.3 Apracarajas (Bajaur area) o 12. The first Saka king in India was Maues or Moga who established Saka power in Gandhara and gradually extended supremacy over north-western India. Avars.5 Kushan and Indo-Parthian conquests o 3.2 Stone palettes • 6 The Indo-Scythians and Buddhism o 6. played a significant part in the history of India as well as nearby countries. who migrated from southern Siberia into Bactria. Kabol.1 Northwestern India o 12. Parama Kambojas.2. such as the Medii[2].1 Yuezhi expansion • 2 Settlement in Sakastan • 3 Indo-Scythian kingdoms o 3.3 Mathura lion capital • 7 Indo-Scythians in Western sources • 8 Indo-Scythians in Indian literature • 9 Sai-Wang Scythian hordes of Chipin or Kipin • 10 Establishment of Mlechcha Kingdoms in Northern India • 11 Evidence about joint invasions • 12 Main Indo-Scythian rulers o 12.3 Mathura area ("Northern Satraps") o 3.Established 200 BCE . Sogdiana. Contents [hide] • 1 Origins o 1. Punjab. In fact. Indo-Scythian rule in India ended with the last Western Satrap Rudrasimha III in 395 CE. Arachosia. Kashmir. often referred to as the Indo-Scythian invasion. and into parts of Western and Central India. Xanthii[3][4]. Rishikas and Paradas.4 Pataliputra o 3..1 Abiria to Surastrene o 3. Massagetae[5].

The treasure of the royal burial Tillia tepe is attributed to 1st century BCE Sakas in Bactria. These Sakas journeyed through Tashkent and Ferghana (Sogdiana) (inhabited by the Sugud or Shulik tribe of the Iranians) and occupied the Doab of Oxus and Jaxartes. Recorded in the annals of the Han dynasty and other Chinese records.10. this great tribal movement began after the Yuezhi tribe was defeated by the Xiongnu. Many fled in a southwesterly direction and joined the Haumavarka Sakas in Bactria.[9] After being defeated and evicted by the joint forces of the Wu-sun and Hsiung-nu people.o o o o • • • • • 12.9 Military actions 12.10. C.1 Invasion of India (c 180 BC) 12. the initial clash with the invading Yue-chi caused a large group of the Haumavarka Shakas to leave their ancestral home. the Haumavarka Sakas allowed the Yue-chi to settle in their lands. probably Scythian. producing lasting effects on the history of Rome in Europe and Bactria. and following the route north of Takla Makan.3 Relation between the descendants of Indo-Scythians 13 Descendants of the Indo-Scythians 14 See also 15 Footnotes 16 References 17 External links [edit] Origins Main article: Sakas A Scythian horseman from the general area of the Ili river. Parthia and India in the east. fleeing westwards after their defeat and creating a domino effect as they displaced other central Asian tribes in their path. The Yue-chi followed behind. the Ta Yue-chis also moved southwards.10 Military alliance with Chandragupta (c 320 BC) 12. Sircar reconciles the difference by suggesting that Ta-hia referred to Tukhara and the eastern parts of Bactria. According to these ancient sources Mao-tun of the Hsiung-nu tribe of Mongolia attacked the Yuezhi and evicted them from their homeland Kansu (Nan-shan). In the years to come. Bamiyan. . 1955. p 125. Pazyryk. entered the lands of the Haumavarka Sakas of Issyk-kul Lake through the passes of Tien-shan. Lohas and other allied Scythian clans living in the Transoxian regions as far as Fargana.2 Extinction 12. Unable to withstand the assault. in the Ili river area. originally settled in southern Siberia. Bagchi). overrunning in their path the Rishikas. also overrunning the western parts of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom. the Sakas and other allied Scythian groups including the Kambojas were forced to leave Bactria. 3rd–4th centuries. C.9. D.[7] Leaving behind a remnant of their number. Bearded man with cap. Even so.8 "Degraded Kshatriyas" from the northwest 12. P. the Haumavarka Sakas (Sakas of Wu-sun?) sought the help of the Hsiung-nu people and evicted the Yue-chi. a fresh nomadic movement started among the Central Asian tribes.10. c 300 BCE. Once again under extreme pressure. Kabul. The ancestors of the Indo-Scythians are thought to be Sakas (Scythian) tribes.[8] Others suggest Tukhara (India and Central Asia.7 Western Satraps 12. most of the population moved westwards. [edit] Yuezhi expansion In the second century BCE.1 Ancient wars (1500–500 BC) 12. Parama-Kambojas.

the Sakas tribes of the Massagetae and Sacaraucae came into conflict with the Parthian Empire. but no mention is made of the Sakas. there had occurred extensive social and cultural admixture among the Kambojas and Yavanas. The Parthian king Mithridates II finally retook control of Central Asia. The Sakas seem to have entered the territory of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom around 145 BCE. Kambojas and the Gandharas in the northwest. There. After their defeat. It is thus likely that the immigrant Saka populations who settled in Afghanistan did so among or near the Kambojas and nearby Greek cities. the region later called Sakasthan or Seistan. and south-west towards Parthia and Afghanistan. the Yuezhi tribes (probable related to the Tocharians) who lived in eastern Tarim Basin area. as described by the Chinese ambassador Zhang Qian who visited the region around 126 BCE. the Sakas and Pahlavas. who migrated south towards Bactria.[15] The Rock Edicts of King Ashoka only refer to the Yavanas. winning several battles. the Yuezhi tribes migrated into Bactria. again displacing the Scythians. between 138–124 BCE.[13] towards the end of first century BCE. and where they are known as "IndoScythians". which they were to control for several centuries. where they established various kingdoms. Rebuffed. The Yuezhi remained in Sogdiana on the northern bank of the Oxus.[14] The region is still known as Seistan. the Yuezhi were again defeated by an alliance of the Wusun and the Xiongnu. were defeated by the Xiongnu (Hsiung-nu or Hun) tribes. A section of these people moved from Bactria to Lake Helmond in the wake of Yue-chi pressure and settled about Drangiana (Sigal). who migrated south into Ferghana and Sogdiana. but they became suzerains of the Sakas in Bactrian territory. and killing successively King Phraates II and King Artabanus I.They first tried to enter India via the Kabul valley but were vigorously opposed by the Indo-Greek powers there. In Parthia. From there. they displaced the Sakas. the clans turned westwards to Herat and then took a southerly direction. The Sakas settled in areas of southern Afghanistan. still called after them Sakastan. The Arsacid emperor Mithridates II (c 123–88/87 BCE) had scored many successes against the Scythians and added many provinces to the Parthian empire. since the Yuezhi were called Tocharians by the Greeks. reaching Helmund valley (Sigal) in south-west Afghanistan. The area of Bactria they settled came to be known as Tocharistan. first by defeating the Yuezhi in Sogdiana in 115 BCE. and then defeating the Scythians in Parthia and Seistan around 100 BCE. where they burnt to the ground the Greek city of Alexandria on the Oxus. Some scholars believe that this Indo-Scythian migration through Herat to Drangiana was accompanied by groups of Kambojas (Parama-Kambojas). and from which they later conquered northern India to found the Kushan Empire. Rishikas and other allied tribes from Transoxiana that were also displaced by the Yuezhi.[16] Numerous scholars believe that during centuries immediately preceding Christian era.[10][11] Around 175 BCE. and were forced to move south. a region which later came to be called "Sakistana of the Skythian (Scythian) Sakai". [edit] Settlement in Sakastan Map of Sakastan around 100 BCE. Sometime after 155 BCE. According to the Chinese historical chronicles (who call the Sakas. Sakistan or Seistan of Drangiana may not only have been the habitat of the Saka alone but may also have contained population of the Pahlavas and the Kambojas. and fled west into the Ili river area.[12] and apparently the Bactrian Scythian hordes were also conquered by him. they progressively expanded into the Indian subcontinent. "Sai" 塞): "The Yuezhi attacked the king of the Sai who moved a considerable distance to the south and the Yuezhi then occupied his lands" (Han Shu 61 4B). and the . who immigrated in the region more than a century later.

The 1st century CE Periplus of the Erythraean Sea describes the Scythian territories there: "Beyond this region (Gedrosia). the greatest of all the rivers that flow into the Erythraean Sea. Afghanistan. Control mark. In the southeast. In the east. the continent making a wide curve from the east across the depths of the bays.Kambojas. Barbaricum. More than a century later. and the Parthian-controlled territory of Arachosia to the south: "Beyond is Sacastana of the Scythian Sacae. Minnagara. and it seems they initially recognized the power of the local Greek rulers. so that they are not navigable. with two Great Satraps. bringing down an enormous volume of water (. from which flows down the river Sinthus. 63 schoeni. They progressively further moved north into Indo-Greek territory until the conquests of Maues. possibly for Khandahar. very shallow and marshy. showing the Indo-Scythians and their neighbors..) This river has seven mouths. Early anepigraphic coinage of the Indo-Scythians (c 110–100 BCE). in that place is the royal residence of the Sacae. is the market-town. the Indo-Scythians invaded the area of Ujjain.. Obv: Horse walking right with her head turned back. and prospered. which lies above toward the north.. in 78 CE the Sakas would again invade Ujjain and establish the Saka era. celebrating his victory by the creation of the Vikrama Era (starting 58 BCE). and inland behind it is the metropolis of Scythia."[18] The Indo-Scythians ultimately established a kingdom in the northwest. except the one in the middle. He explained that they were bordered at that time by Greek cities to the east (Alexandria of the Caucasus and Alexandria of the Arachosians). To commemorate the event Vikramaditya established the Vikrama era.. at which by the shore. 18. a specific Indian calendar starting in 57 BCE. and six villages. marking the beginning of the long-lived Saka Western Satraps kingdom. but his kingdom disintegrated after his death. as . from around 110 to 80 BCE. but were subsequently repelled in 57 BCE by the Malwa king Vikramaditya..[17] [edit] Indo-Scythian kingdoms Asia in AD 1. c 80 BCE. there follows the coast district of Scythia. Indo-Greek kings again ruled after Maues. Sakas. Before it there lies a small island. [edit] Abiria to Surastrene The first Indo-Scythian kingdom in the Indian subcontinent occupied the southern part of Pakistan (which they accessed from southern Afghanistan). Rev: Goddess Nike walking right. based in Taxila. Maues first conquered Gandhara and Taxila around 80 BCE. such that their cultures and social customs had become almost identical." Parthian stations. the whole marshy. the Indian king Vikrama retook Ujjain from the Indo-Scythians. There are the city of Barda and the city of Min and the city of Palacenti and the city of Sigal. and Pahlavas etc. and one in Surastrene (Gujarat) in the southwest. The presence of the Sakas in Sakastan in the 1st century BCE is mentioned by Isidore of Charax in his "Parthian stations". which is also Paraetacena. one in Mathura in the east. and nearby is the city of Alexandria (and nearby is the city of Alexandropolis). The presence of the Scythians in north-western India during the 1st century BCE was contemporary with that of the Indo-Greek Kingdoms there.[19] [edit] Gandhara and Punjab A coin of the Indo-Scythian king Azes II. in the areas from Abiria (Sindh) to Surastrene (Gujarat).

Yuvaraja Kharostes (Kshatrapa) was the son of Arta as is attested by his own coins. with Greek legend. several statuettes in the round are also known. sculptures have been found in the Early Saka layer (Layer No4. Mathura. Not until Azes I. with his victory over Hippostratos. From the same layer. Kharoshthi legend. The coinage of the period. by Queen Nadasi Kasa. from Mathura in Central India. Rajuvula. AE. near Jalalabad in Afghanistan. did the Indo-Scythians take final control of northwestern India. [edit] Mathura area ("Northern Satraps") Coin of Rajuvula (c 10 CE). describes in kharoshthi the gift of a stupa with a relic of the Buddha. or slightly later. In central India. and it is indeed possible they would have commended the work. Some of their satraps were Hagamasha and Hagana.indicated by the profusion of coins from Kings Apollodotus II and Hippostratos. in exchange for a higher proportion of bronze. Obv: Bust of King Rajuvula. Rev: Pallas standing right (crude). The casket was used for the dedication of a stupa in Bamiran. The Mathura lion capital is an important Indo-Scythian monument dedicated to the Buddhist religion (British Museum). This event may have happened during the reign of Azes II (30–10 BCE). Hellenistic ones found in the earlier layers.[21] Princess Aiyasi Kambojaka. the Indo-Scythians conquered the area of Mathura over Indian kings around 60 BCE. British Museum. Marshall comments that "we have a praiseworthy effort to copy a Hellenistic original but obviously without the appreciation of form and skill which were necessary for the task". The Indo-Scythians are otherwise connected with Buddhism (see Mathura lion capital).[20] Arta is stated to be brother of King Moga or Maues. Several of them are toilet trays (also called Stone palettes) roughly imitative of earlier. an Indo-Scythian sandstone capital in crude style. the silver content becoming lower and lower. The Mathura lion capital. the wife of the Indo-Scythian ruler of Mathura. who were in turn followed by the Saca Great Satrap Rajuvula. representing the Buddha surrounded by Brahma (left) and Śakra (right) was found inside a stupa with coins of Azes II inside. The Mathura Lion Capital inscriptions attest that Mathura fell under the control of the Sakas. in 55 BCE. such as that of Rajuvula. Rajuvula apparently eliminated the last of the Indo-Greek kings Strato II around 10 CE. and dated to the 1st century CE. and took his capital city. Sagala. [edit] Bimaran casket Main article: Bimaran casket Azes II is connected to the Bimaran casket. The inscriptions contain references to Kharaosta Kamuio and Aiyasi Kamuia. The capital also mentions the genealogy of several Indo-Scythian satraps of Mathura. also called Kambojika. was the chief queen of Shaka . [edit] Sculpture A toilet tray Several stone corresponding found) in the of the type found in the Early Saka layer at Sirkap. It is also very much debased. in which numerous coins of the latter were ruins of Sirkap. during the excavations organized by John Marshall. an alloying technique (billon) suggesting less than wealthy finances. to the period of Azes I. and placed inside the stupa with several coins of Azes II. and finer. The Bimaran casket. one of the earliest representations of the Buddha. tends to become very crude and barbarized in style. in very rigid and frontal style.

such as the "Great Satrap" Kharapallana and the "Satrap" Vanaspara. Main article: Western Kshatrapas The Indo-Scythians continued to hold the area of Seistan until the reign of Bahram II (276–293 CE). The Yuga Purana explains that the king of the Sakas killed one fourth of the population. Vokanas. Profile of the Indo-Scythian King Azes II on one of his coins. Soon after. and were now expanding into India to create a Kushan Empire. Turukshas. Bahlikas. The text of the Yuga Purana describes an invasion of Pataliputra by the Scythians sometimes during the 1st century BCE.Mahakshatrapa Rajuvula. Parasikas. in opposition to the "Western Satraps" ruling in Gujarat and Malwa. Tusharas. and the area of Mathura from around 100 CE. Tusharas.[22] This may suggest that Sakas and Kambojas may have jointly ruled over Mathura/Uttara Pradesh. Kamboj) or else have addressed them as Yavanas. The Indo-Scythian satraps of Mathura are sometimes called the "Northern Satraps". in which they were paying allegiance to the Kushans. Kambojas. etc. It is revealing that Mahabharata verses only attest the Kambojas and Yavanas as the inhabitants of Mathura. Their leader Gondophares temporarily displaced the Kushans and founded the Indo-Parthian Kingdom that was to last towards the middle of the 1st century CE. who are known from an inscription discovered in Sarnath. but do not make any reference to the Sakas. [edit] Indo-Scythian coinage . Tangana. L. the rule of the Indo-Scythians in northwestern India finally crumbled with the conquest of the Kushans. by annihilating these sinners completely. Kambojas. Buddhist triratna symbol in the left field on the reverse. the epic has reckoned the Sakas of Mathura among the Kambojas (J. The Kushans ultimately regained northwestern India from around 75 CE. where they were to prosper for several centuries. several successors are known to have ruled as vassals to the Kushans. and held several areas of India well into the 1st millennium: Kathiawar and Gujarat were under their rule until the 5th century under the designation of Western Kshatrapas. etc. Hunas. After Rajuvula. unless the Mahabharata verses refer to the previous period of invasion occupation by the Yavanas around 150 BCE.[25] [edit] Kushan and Indo-Parthian conquests After the death of Azes II. The Brihat-Katha-Manjari of the Kshmendra (10/1/285-86) informs us that around 400 CE the Gupta king Vikramaditya (Chandragupta II) had unburdened the sacred earth of the Barbarians like the Shakas. a descendant of the Indo-Scythians. Pahlavas. the Parthians invaded from the west. Mlecchas. together and states them as the tribes located in the Uttarapatha division.[24] [edit] Pataliputra Silver coin of Vijayamitra in the name of Azes II. [edit] Western Kshatrapas legacy Coin of the Western Kshatrapa ruler Bhratadaman (278 to 295 CE). one of the five tribes of the Yuezhi who had lived in Bactria for more than a century. Kamboja presence in Mathura is also verified from some verses of epic Mahabharata which are believed to have been composed around this period. Hunas. Yavanas. after seven great kings had ruled in succession in Saketa following the retreat of the Yavanas.[23] Probably. until they were eventually conquered by the Gupta emperor Chandragupta II (also called Vikramaditya). before he was himself slain by the Kalinga king Shata and a group of Sabalas (Sabaras). The 10th century CE Kavyamimamsa of Raj Shekhar (Ch 17) still lists the Shakas. and dated to the 3rd year of Kanishka (c 130 CE).

Hunting scene. hinting at an intermixing of Indo-Scythians (holding military power) and Indo-Greeks (confined. activities which are widely represented elsewhere in Gandharan art: Indo-Scythians are typically shown as reveling devotees. It is often suggested Indo-Scythian coinage benefited from the help of Greek celators (Boppearachchi).[28] Hunting scene. and is replaced by depictions of the king on horse (and sometimes on camel). artistically somewhere between Indo-Greek and Kushan coinage. and have heavy straight sword as a weapon. They stand in contrast to representations of Kushan men. In particular. or the presence of the Buddhist lion on the coins of the same two kings. [edit] Depiction of Indo-Scythians Azilises on horse. They are contemporary with other friezes representing people in purely Greek attire. undecorated. Indo-Scythian and Indo-Parthian rule. such friezes were used as decorations on the pedestals of Buddhist stupas. Indo-Scythian coinage is generally quite realistic. They are depicted in ample tunics with trousers. The reverse of their coins typically show Greek divinities. which distinguishes them from the Indo-Parthians who only wore a simple fillet over their bushy hair. wearing a tunic.[27] and which is also systematically worn by Indo-Scythian rulers on their coins. under Indo-Scythian rule. by using the Greek language on the obverse and the Kharoshthi language on the reverse. Indo-Scythians rulers are usually depicted on horseback in armour. archaic style. Hunting scene. or sometimes sitting cross-legged on a cushion. and are essentially unknown the preceding Mauryan layers or the succeeding Kushan layers. tunics. and are often realized in a simple. tunic. They wear a pointed hood (the Scythian cap or bashlyk). A fairly high-quality but rather stereotypical coinage would continue in the Western Satraps until the 4th century CE. few works of art are known to indisputably represent IndoScythians. but the coins of Azilises show the king in a simple. although it clearly deteriorates towards the disintegration of Indo-Scythian rule around 20 CE (coins of Rajuvula).[26] [edit] Buner reliefs Indo-Scythian soldiers in military attire are sometimes represented in Buddhist friezes in the art of Gandhara (particularly in Buner reliefs). Another relief is known where the same type of soldiers are playing musical instruments and dancing. Indo-Scythian coinage is generally of a high artistic quality. they adopted the Indo-Greek practice since Menander I of showing divinities forming the vitarka mudra with their right hand (as for the mudra-forming Zeus on the coins of Maues or Azes II). some of them are forming the Karana mudra against evil spirits. Several Gandharan sculptures also show foreigner in soft tunics. to civilian life).Silver tetradrachm of the Indo-Scythian king Maues (85–60 BCE). Indo-Scythian coins essentially continue the Indo-Greek tradition. rigid. sometimes wearing the typical Scythian cap. Buddhist symbolism is present throughout Indo-Scythian coinage. [edit] Stone palettes Main article: Stone palette Numerous stone palettes found in Gandhara are considered as good representatives of Indo-Scythian art. These palettes combine Greek and Iranian influences. or the triratana symbol on the coins of Zeionises. With the right hand. Besides coinage.[29] . and who are generally represented in a much more simplistic manner. Stone palettes have only been found in archaeological layers corresponding to Indo-Greek. who seem to wear thicks. Indo-Scythians pushing along the Greek god Dyonisos with Ariadne. In Gandhara. The portrait of the king is never shown however.

recorded through such epigraphic material as the Taxila copper plate inscription or the Mathura lion capital inscription. In particular. On the back side is a relief of a standing Buddha[35] [edit] Indo-Scythians in Western sources . and being attacked by a lion.[30] Possible Scythian devotee couple (extreme left and right. and side-by-side with reliefs of standing Buddhas. and characteristically Buddhist phrases such as: "sarvabudhana puya dhamasa puya saghasa puya" "Revere all the Buddhas. mentions a dedication of a relic of the Buddha in a stupa.[32] A contemporary pilaster with the image of a Buddhist devotee in Greek dress has also been found at the same spot. Turin City Museum of Ancient Art. inscription O1/O2) Indo-Corinthian capital from Butkara Stupa. The Indo-Scythians seem to have been followers of Buddhism. A palette found in Sirkap and now in the New Delhi Museum shows a winged Indo-Scythian horseman riding winged deer. and even fewer in Indo-Scythian dress (Phrygian hat. and is also filled with mentions of the bhagavat Buddha Sakyamuni. around the Buddha. 1st century BCE. again suggesting a mingling of the two populations. They are known for their numerous Buddhist dedications. Swat. which show Indo-Scythian men with their characteristic pointed cap pushing a cart on which is reclining the Greek god Dionysos with his consort Ariadne. often described as "Scytho-Parthian"[31]). Butkara door jamb. and decorative Acanthus leave friezes. revere the sangha" (Mathura lion capital. It also bears centrally the Buddhist symbol of the triratana. revere the dharma. jewelry. baggy trousers). securely dating the sculpture to around 20 BCE. crossed-over jacket on a bare chest.[33] Various reliefs at the same location show Indo-Scythians with their characteristics tunics and pointed hoods within a Buddhist context. Buddhist relief from Swat. Excavation at the Butkara Stupa in Swat by an Italian archaeological team have yielded various Buddhist sculptures thought to belong to the Indo-Scythian period. [edit] Butkara Stupa Buddhist stupas during the late Indo-Greek/Indo-Scythian period were highly decorated structures with columns. with Indo-Scythians dancing and reveling. Gandhara. during the reign of Azes II. Dancing Indo-Scythians (top) and hunting scene (bottom). belt. [edit] The Indo-Scythians and Buddhism The Taxila copper plate records Buddhist dedications by Indo-Scythian rulers (British Museum). flights of stairs.[34] [edit] Gandharan sculptures Other reliefs have been found. which associates many of the Indo-Scythian rulers from Maues to Rajuvula. an Indo-Corinthian capital representing a Buddhist devotee within foliage has been found which had a reliquary and a coins of Azes II buried at its base. a few in Parthian dress (head-bands over bushy hair.Very often these palettes represent people in Greek dress in mythological scenes. Brahma and Indra. [edit] Mathura lion capital The Mathura lion capital. dated to 20 BCE. tunic and comparatively straight trousers). and many of their practices apparently continued those of the Indo-Greeks. Butkara stupa.

The mixed Scythian hordes that migrated to Drangiana and surrounding regions.[40] but Bagchi who takes the word Wang in the sense of the king of the Scythians but he distinguishes the Sai Sakas from the Murunda Sakas. The presence of Scythian territory in northwestern India. From the time of the Mahabharata wars (4000–1500 BCE roughly[citation needed]) Shakas receive numerous mentions in texts like the Puranas. [edit] Sai-Wang Scythian hordes of Chipin or Kipin Coin of Azes II. Raychaudhury and some others with Kashmir[37] while other scholars identify it with Kapisha (Kafirstan). King Moga or Maues could have belonged to this group of Scythians who had migrated from the Sai country (Central Asia) to Chipin.e. as well as the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea mention prominently Scythia in the Indus area. the Manusmriti. [edit] Indo-Scythians in Indian literature Main article: Indo-Scythians in Indian literature The Indo-Scythians were named "Shaka" in India. as well as Roman Tabula Peutingeriana. The Ptolemy world map. S. including kingdoms in the Indian mainland. the Brhat Samhita of Vraha Mihira.[45] Leading Indologists like H. holding a drawn sword and a whip. Bagchi. It also distinguishes Scythia with Ariaca further east (centered in Gujarat and Malwa). master or lord.) had last name Kamuia or Kamuio (q. Rajasthan and northern India. 1st century BCE. the Mahabhasiya of Patanjali.[36] Chipin has been identified by Pelliot. the BrihatKatha-Manjari. Konow interprets the Sai-Wang as Saka Murunda of Indian literature. Gujarat. later spread further into north and south-west India via the lower Indus valley. king.[42] The Mathura Lion Capital inscriptions attest that the members of the family of King Moga (q. Kambojas and Pahlavas in the Bala Kanda of the Valmiki Ramayana also.[38][39] The Sai-Wang had established his kingdom in Kipin. in the Roman period Tabula Peutingeriana. There are important references to the warring Mleccha hordes of the Shakas.[43] Thus. and that Parthian king were fighting for it during the 1st century CE. with king seated.e.[41] There are reasons to believe that Sai Scythians were Kamboja Scythians and therefore Sai-Wang belonged to the Scythianised Kambojas (i. C. an extension on the name Saka used by the Persians to designate Scythians. A section of the Central Asian Scythians (under Sai-Wang) is said to have taken southerly direction and after passing through the Pamirs it entered the Chipin or Kipin after crossing the Hasuna-tu (Hanging Pass) located above the valley of Kanda in Swat country.) which Khroshthi term has been identified by scholars with Sanskrit Kamboja or Kambojaka. over which ruled the Western Satrap king Nahapana. British Museum. Raychadhury glimpses in these verses the struggles between the Hindus and the invading hordes of Mlechcha barbarians from the . Yavanas. Their migration spread into Sovira. The Periplus states that Minnagara was the capital of Scythia.[44] [edit] Establishment of Mlechcha Kingdoms in Northern India Coin of Maues depicting Balarama. Sai-Wang and his migrant hordes which came to settle in Kabol valley in Kapisha may indeed have been from the transoxian Parama Kambojas living in Shakadvipa or Scythian land.v. the Ramayana. the Katha-Saritsagara and several other old texts."Scythia" appears around the mouth of the river Indus and along the western coast of India. Murunda being equal to Wang i. and especially around the mouth of the Indus is mentioned extensively in Western maps and travel descriptions of the period. the Kavyamimamsa. They are described as part of an amalgam of other war-like tribes from the northwest. Parama-Kambojas) of the Transoxiana region and came back to settle among his own stock after being evicted from his ancestral land located in Scythia or Shakadvipa. the Mahabharata.v.

First century CE Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (c AD 70–80) also attests a Scythian district in lower Indus with Minnagra as its capital. c 57–35 BCE • Azes II. • Spalagadames c 50 BCE. Williams wrote: “ The extent of the Scythian invasion has been variously estimated. c 57–35 BCE • Azilises. Malwa. was in all probability carried out jointly by the Sakas. C. groups of these people who had originally lived in the northwest before the Christian era. Vanaparava by Mahabharata contains verses in the form of prophecy deploring that ". c 75–65 BCE • Spalahores. India) un-righteously in Kaliyuga.[55] ” The second century BCE Scythian invasion of India. Kambojas.Massagetae[52]. c 90–60 BCE • Vonones. [edit] Main Indo-Scythian rulers [edit] Northwestern India • Maues. c 75–65 BCE. It refers to the hordes' struggle to seize political control of Sovira. Shudra and Rishika tribes from the northwest. Ptolemy (c AD 140) also attests Indo-Scythia in south-western India which comprised Patalene.S.[47] According to H. such as the Medii[49]. Punjab. satrap and brother of King Vonones. Rishikas and other allied tribes from the northwest. Pahlavas. Rajasthan. • Azes I. These peoples were all absorbed into the community of Kshatriyas of mainstream Indian society. central and southern India. king and brother of King Vonones. • Spalirises. Gujarat.the Mlechha (barbaric) kings of the Shakas.. c 10 BCE – 10 CE . etc.e. Mahabharata too furnishes a veiled hint about the invasion of the mixed hordes from the northwest. Yavana. • H.. this is too clear a statement to be ignored or explained away.[54] The Shakas were formerly a people of trans-Hemodos region---the Shakadvipa of the Puranas or the Scythia of the classical writings.northwest. Xanthii[50][51].. Mahabharata's epic reference apparently alludes to the chaotic politics which followed the collapse of the Mauryan and Sunga dynasties in northern India and the area's subsequent occupation by foreign hordes of the Saka. Getae[53]. Raychadhury fixes the date of the present version of the Valmiki Ramayana around or after the second century CE. Abhira and the Surastrene (Saurashtra) territories.". Kamboja. c 35–12 BCE • Zeionises.[56] As a result. shall rule the earth (i. Kambojas.. Pahlavas. and son of Spalahores. c 60–57 BCE.. Bahlika. Bahlikas. The time frame for these struggles is the second century BCE onwards.. Yavanas. Paradas. and probably the later King Spalirises. See also: Migration of Kambojas [edit] Evidence about joint invasions The Scythian groups that invaded India and set up various kingdoms. were also found to have lived in southwest India in post-Christian times. included besides the Sakas[48] other allied tribes.[46] This picture presented by the Ramayana probably refers to the political scenario that emerged when the mixed hordes descended from Sakasthan and advanced into the lower Indus valley via Bolan Pass and beyond into the Indian mainland. Maharashtra and further areas of eastern. satrap. Some scholars believe that they virtually supplanted the previous population of the Punjab region and there seems little doubt that by far the most numerous section of the Punjab population is of Scythian origin. All these groups of northwestern peoples apparently entered Indian mainland following the Scythian invasion of India. Isidor of Charax (beginning of first c AD) attests them in Sakastana (modern Seistan). Ray Chaudhury.

son of Bagavera (2nd century) • Arjuna. 1. son of Jayadaman • Damajadasri I (170–175) • Jivadaman (175 d 199) • Rudrasimha I (175–188 d 197) • Isvaradatta (188–191) • Rudrasimha I (restored) (191–197) • Jivadaman (restored) (197–199) • Rudrasena I (200–222) • Samghadaman (222–223) . wearing tiara-shaped diadem. another son of Yolamira(2nd century) • Mirahvara. Senior (Indo-Scythian) 286. Obv: Robed bust of Bhimajhunasa left. another son of Hvaramira (2nd century) [edit] "Northern Satraps" (Mathura area) • Hagamasha (satrap. c 10 BCE – 10 CE • Indravarman • Hajatria [edit] Kshaharatas Main article: Kshaharatas • Liaka Kusuluka. son of Yolamira (2nd century) • Karyyanapa • Hvaramira. Rev: Swastika with legend around. son of Rajuvula • "Great Satrap" Kharapallana (c 130 CE) • "Satrap" Vanaspara (c 130 CE) [edit] Minor local rulers • Bhadayasa • Mamvadi • Arsakes [edit] Western Satraps Main article: Western Satraps • Nahapana (119–124) • Chastana (c 120). satrap of Chuksa • Kusulaka Patika.• Kharahostes. son of Chastana • Rudradaman I (c 130–150). c 10 CE (Great Satrap) • Sodasa.1 • Kuvhusuvhume • Spajhana • Spajhayam • Bhimajhuna • Yolamira. satrap of Chuksa and son of Liaka Kusulaka • Abhiraka • Bhumaka • Nahapana (founder of the Western Satraps) [edit] Apracarajas (Bajaur area) Main article: Apracarajas • Vijayamitra (12 BCE – 15 CE) • Itravasu (c 20 CE) • Aspavarma (15–45 CE) [edit] Paratarajas Main article: Paratarajas Bi-drachm of Parataraja Bhimajhunasa. son of Ghsamotika • Jayadaman. 1st century BCE) • Rajuvula. son of Hvaramira (2nd century) • Miratakhma. 1st century BCE) • Hagana (satrap.70g.

had militarily supported the Haihaya and Talajunga Kshatriyas in depriving Ikshvaku king Bahu (the 7th king in descent from Harishchandra). one of the Upa-Puranas of the Hindus. III(6). etc. Paradas. groups the Shakas with the Yavanas. He made the Shakas shave half of their heads. etc. The Mahabharata also associates the Shakas with the Yavanas. Sagara punished them by meting out to them weird punishments.4. In another verse. Kambojas.. Tusharas. Pahlavas and Mlechhas and refers to them as military allies of sage Vedic Vashistha against Vedic king Vishwamitra (55/2-3). Kiratas and the Daradas. Patanjali in his Mahabhashya regards the Shakas and Yavanas as pure Shudras (II. may also be addressed by their respective tribal names. of his Ayodhya kingdom. written about 200. the military corporations of the Shakas. 22–40). The epic repeatedly applauds this composite army as being very fierce and wrathful.e. Kambojas. as a powerful military allies of King Kali. Also. Yavanas. in the same light. refers to a war between king Kalika king Kali and states the Shakas. Yavanas and Paradas in the extreme north-west beyond the Himavat (i. Bahu's son Sagara managed to recapture Ayodhya after defeating these foreign hordes. Barbaras. the Kambojas and the Yavanas the totality. A generation later. Kambojas. known as "five hordes" (pānca-ganah). Gandharas. Yavanas. like those of the Kambojas. Kambojas. the Kishkindha Kanda of the Ramayana locates the Shakas.10). Pahlavas. The Balakanda of the Ramayana also groups the Shakas with the Kambojas.. Kambojas. the Pahlavas to keep their beards and the Paradas to let their hair go free. [edit] Military alliance with Chandragupta (c 320 BC) The Buddhist drama Mudrarakshas by Visakhadutta and the Jaina works Parisishtaparvan refer to Chandragupta's alliance with Himalayan king Parvataka. Anushasanaparva of the Mahabharata also views the Shakas. north division (5/169/20). and addresses them all as the Barbaric tribes of Uttarapatha. This Himalayan alliance gave Chandragupta a powerful composite army made up of the . Kambojas. son of Lord (Svami) Jivadaman (304–348) with • Yasodaman II (317–332) • Rudradaman II (332–348) • Rudrasena III (348–380) • Simhasena (380– ?) • Rudrasena IV (382–388) • Rudrasimha III (388–395) [edit] "Degraded Kshatriyas" from the northwest The Manusmriti. Yavanas and Shakas had participated in the Mahabharata war under the supreme command of Kamboja king Sudakshina. The Vartika of the Katyayana informs us that the kings of the Shakas and the Yavanas. Khasas.• Damasena (223–232) • Damajadasri II (232–239) with • Viradaman (234–238) • Yasodaman I (239) • Vijayasena (239–250) • Damajadasri III (251–255) • Rudrasena II (255–277) • Visvasimha (277–282) • Bhratadarman (282–295) with • Visvasena (293–304) • Rudrasimha II. and addresses them all as "degraded warriors" or Kshatriyas" (X/43-44). The Kalika Purana. Hindukush) (43/12). The Purana further states that these Barbarians take the orders from their women (Ref: Kalika Purana. Yavanas etc. Pahlavas. [edit] Military actions [edit] Ancient wars (1500–500 BC) According to numerous Puranas. Pahlavas and Paradas. the same epic groups the Shakas and Kambojas and Khashas and addresses them as the tribes from Udichya i. Sabaras. etc.e. The Udyogaparva of the Mahabharata (5/19/21-23) tells us that the composite army of the Kambojas..

Tarkhan. Kodungallur) Government Monarchy Preceding state Unknown . Yavanas. [edit] Extinction The Brihat-Katha-Manjari of the Kshemendra (10/1/285-86) relates that around 400 AD. Kambojas and Pahlavas. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. II).frontier martial tribes of the Shakas. see Cheras. Yavanas. Tusharas.[citation needed] These tribes are said to be related to various tribes of Central Asia and Eastern Europe. Jatt. and thus establishing his Mauryan Empire in northern India (See: Mudrarakshas. Tangana. [edit] Relation between the descendants of Indo-Scythians The Punjabi tribes having Indo-Scythian origin (Khatri. [edit] Invasion of India (c 180 BC) The Vanaparva of the Mahabharata contains verses in the form of prophecy that the kings of the Shakas. Lohar and Kamboj) are genetically and ethnically closely related to each other. etc. Hunas. Kambojas.[citation needed] [edit] Descendants of the Indo-Scythians There is speculation that a number of communities in South Asia. Yavanas. and states them as the tribes located in the Uttarapatha division. Vokanas. Pahlavas. 17) still lists the Sakas. Hunas. by annihilating these "sinners" completely. Kambojas. Bahlikas etc.. Bahlikas and Abhiras etc. The 10th century Kavyamimamsa of Raj Shekhar (Ch. Yavanas. Rajput. Parasikas. see Cheras. see Chera. Valencia. which he utilised to defeat the Nanda rulers of Magadha. Selangor. Kambojas. Mlecchas. This reference apparently alludes to the precarious political scenario following the collapse of Mauryan and Sunga dynasties in northern India and its occupation by foreign hordes of the Shakas. for the town in Selangor. Bahlikas. These include: • Ahirs[57][58][59][60][61][62][63][64] • Gujjars • Jats[65][66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75][76][77][78][79] • Kambohs • Kodavas[80][81] • Lohars • Nairs[82][83] • Bunts • Pashtuns • Tarkhan[84] • Rajputs[85] • Khatris[86][87][88][89] Chera Dynasty From Wikipedia. Tusharas. are partly descended from the Indo-Scythians. the Gupta king Vikramaditya (Chandragupta II) had "unburdened the sacred earth of the barbarians" like the Shakas. search For district of Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur. shall rule unrighteously in Kaliyuga (MBH 3/188/34-36). Parasikas. the town in Spain. Turukshas. together. mainly in the northwestern regions. etc. Kambojas. ேேரர் Cheras Chera territories Official language Tamil Capitals Kizhanthur-Kandallur (Vanchi Muthur . Gujjar.

Kochi.Succeeding states Gangas. Hoysala. Vijayanagara History of South Asia Stone Age before 3300 BCE • Mehrgarh Culture • 7000–3300 BCE Indus Valley Civilization 3300–1700 BCE • Late Harappan Culture • 1700–1300 BCE Vedic Civilization 2000–600 BCE Iron Age 1200–1 BCE • Maha Janapadas • 700–300 BCE • Magadha Empire • 684–424 BCE • Nanda Empire • 424-321 BCE • Maurya Empire • 321–184 BCE • Sunga Empire • 185-73 BCE • Kanva Empire • 75-26 BCE • Kharavela Empire • 209–170 BCE • Kuninda Kingdom • 200s BCE–300s CE • Indo-Scythian Kingdom • 200 BC–400 CE • Chera Kingdom • 300 BCE–1200 CE • Chola Empire • 300 BCE–1279 CE • Pandyan Kingdom • 250 BCE–1345 CE • Satavahana Empire • 230 BCE–220 CE • Indo-Greek Kingdom • 180 BCE–10 CE Middle Kingdoms 1CE–1279 CE • Indo-Parthian Kingdom • 21–130s CE • Western Satrap Empire • 35–405 CE • Kushan Empire • 60–240 CE • Indo-Sassanid Kingdom • 230–360 CE • Vakataka Empire • 250–500 CE • Kalabhras Kingdom • 250–600 CE • Gupta Empire . Zamorins. Travancore.

• 280–550 CE • Pallava Kingdom • 275–800 CE • Kadamba Empire • 345–525 CE • Western Ganga Kingdom • 350–1000 CE • Vishnukundina Empire • 420-624 CE • Huna Kingdom • 475-576 CE • Chalukya Empire • 543–753 CE • Harsha Empire • 590-647 CE • Shahi Kingdom • 565-670 CE • Eastern Chalukya Kingdom • 624-1075 CE • Pratihara Empire • 650–1036 CE • Pala Empire • 750–1174 CE • Rashtrakuta Empire • 753–982 CE • Paramara Kingdom • 800–1327 CE • Yadava Empire • 850–1334 CE • Solanki Kingdom • 942–1244 CE • Western Chalukya Empire • 973–1189 CE • Hoysala Empire • 1040–1346 CE • Sena Empire • 1070–1230 CE • Eastern Ganga Empire • 1078–1434 CE • Kakatiya Kingdom • 1083–1323 CE • Kalachuri Empire • 1130–1184 CE Islamic Sultanates 1206–1596 CE • Delhi Sultanate • 1206–1526 CE • Deccan Sultanates • 1490–1596 CE Ahom Kingdom 1228–1826 CE Vijayanagara Empire 1336–1646 CE Mysore Kingdom 1399–1947 CE Mughal Empire 1526–1858 CE Madurai Nayak Kingdom .

Greece. Since they were a hill tribe. trade continued to bring prosperity to the then Tamil Country (part of which was modern-day Kerala). While Cheras had their own religion (Hinduism). Erode and Coimbatore regions of modern-day Tamil Nadu. near Kodungallur in Kerala.[citation needed] The second dynasty ruled from out skirts of Muziris on the banks of River Periyar [2] from 8th century CE. Vanchi Muthur. their ancient capital could not be on the plains or on the coast. Phoenicia and Arabia. until the first dynasty perished in 3rd Century AD. Roman and Arabic coins unearthed from Kollam. Namakkal. Muziris has been referenced by ancient writers. such as the author of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea to be an inland port probably near Kodungallur. from the Greek. The early Cheras ruled Kerala. Their capital was Vanchi Muthur. The other two major Tamil dynasties were the Cholas in the eastern Coromandel Coast and Pandyas in the South Central Peninsula. Karur.1559 –1736 CE Thanjavur Nayak Kingdom 1572–1918 CE Maratha Empire 1674–1818 CE Sikh Confederacy 1716–1799 CE Sikh Empire 1799–1849 CE Company rule in India 1757–1858 CE British India 1858–1947 CE Partition of India 1947 CE Nation histories Afghanistan • Bangladesh • Bhutan • India Maldives • Nepal • Pakistan • Sri Lanka Regional histories Assam • Bihar • Balochistan • Bengal Himachal Pradesh • Orissa • Pakistani Regions Punjab • South India • Tibet Specialised histories Coinage • Dynasties • Economy Indology • Language • Literature • Maritime Military • Science and Technology • Timeline This box: view • talk • edit The Chera Dynasty (Tamil: ேேரர்) was a Dravidian Tamil dynasty that ruled in southern India from before the Sangam era (300 BC . They cannot be considered as their ancient capital. timber. Their ancient capital Vanchi Muthur is in Kanthallur-Kizhanthur region of Idukki District of Kerala. pearls and gems being exported to Mesopotamia. other religious traditions like . Egypt. Eyyal (near Thrissur) etc in Kerala.250 AD) until the twelfth century AD. this have been located at present-day Kodungallur in Thrissur district of Kerala .[1]. ivory. with spices.[citation needed] They moved their administrative capital to Karur (Karur Vanchi) in second century. Throughout the reign of the Cheras. Kongu Nadu and Salem. Karur is on the plains and Kodungallur is on the sea coast. Sangam Chera coins and inscriptions are found in Pattanam. Chera rulers engaged in frequent warfare as well as constant intermarriage with the Pandyas and Cholas. Kodungallur. for obvious reasons. Evidence of extensive foreign trade from the ancient period is available throughout the Malabar Coast. Rome.

who fought a fierce war against the Nagas.1 Sangam Cheras o 2. Each King is praised in ten songs sung by the Court Poet and the Kings are in the following order: . mention a continent called Kumari Nadu or Kumari Kandam. the Cheras. It is believed that religiously the Cheras were Shaivites.[4] Contents [hide] • 1 Etymology • 2 History o 2. of possible Prakrit origins. Despite a rich literature that depicts the life and work of these people. which was believed to have been located to the South of the present-day Kanyakumari tens of thousands of years ago. the fourth book in the Ettuthokai anthology mentions a number of Chera Kings of the Chera dynasty.2 Bhakti era Cheras • 3 Notes • 4 References [edit] Etymology The word Chera is derived from the word Cheral meaning declivity of a hill or a mountain slope in classical Tamil[5]. Kalittokai again mentions a war between the combined forces of Villavars and the Meenavars (the Cheras and the Pandyas respectively). these are not worked into connected history so far. notably. Irumporai. Also. and the Cheras supposedly ruled this country.[7][8] They are also mentioned in the Aitareya Aranyaka. does not appear in Sangam Literature. and of the poets who extolled them.[15] The internal chronology of this literature is still far from settled. Kuttuvan. or another species of living beings. such as the Kalittokai. The unknown author of Periplus of the Erythraean Sea mentions Chera as Cerobothra ("Keralaputhra") whose capital is Karur. calls it Caelobothras. Cheraman Perunal who ruled the Chera Dynasty in the late 8th century.Buddhism came to this area during the period of the Chera Kings. The nobility among the Cheras were called Cheraman in general. where they (along with the Pandyas and the Cholas) are believed to have been on the side of the Pandavas in the Great War. who might have been a non-Dravidian people. Chera rulers were also called Kothai or Makothai. This is supported by the fact that the Chera Kings were called Chera-alatan which means Lord of the Slopes in classical Tamil[6]. Bhil Meena of North India could be the equivalent rulers in North India. tens of thousands of years ago. find mention as one of the three ruling dynasties of the Southern region of the then Bharatavarsha. and subsequently Central India to the Nagas. Ashoka's edicts mention an independent dynasty known by the name Kedalaputho. the Roman historian of the first century. in the very ancient [Hindu] epic of the Ramayana. their arch-enemies. The word Kerala.[13] Some kings of the dynasty referred to themselves as Vanavaramban. between the then Kumari and Pahruli rivers. who were outside Ashoka's empire. Their capital is stated to be modern Karur in Tamil Nadu. eventually losing the war.[14] [edit] Sangam Cheras The only source available for us regarding the early Chera Kings is the anthologies of the Sangam literature. Jainism came to Chera Kingdom by the second century BCE. Pandyan kings such as Chenkon. while Pliny. The Sangam literature is full of names of the kings and the princes. and the Mahabharata. Imayavaramban etc. Scholars now generally agree that this literature belongs to the first few centuries AD. Pathirruppaththu. They fought and defeated the Nagas.[3] Some adhered to Islam as well.[9][10][11][12] Again in other early Tamil literature the great Chera rulers are referred to as Cheral. [edit] History The earliest Tamil literary works. along with the Pandyas and the Cholas. Kollipurai and Athan.

The Chera kings took the title of Perumal during this period and patronised the Vaishnavite sect. located in the Tamil Nadu side of the Sahya Mountains. invaded the Tamil country. reached as far south as the Kaveri river.730 – 765AD). Some inscriptions trace the Chera Dynasty from Puranic Kings of Chandraditya Dynasty. the Kalabhras. the seat of the Cheras being in Karur Kongu Nadu. They were displaced by the Pallavas and the Pandyas in the sixth century AD. was a prominent ruler during this period. Attu Kottu Pattu Cheralathan 6. Athan Cheral Irumporai was probably the last crowned king of the first dynasty.[18] Trade flourished overseas and there was a considerable exchange of gold and coins. in his Aihole inscription mentioned " Pulikesin II. his son Perumkadungo. It therefore follows that Perumkadungo was the son of a crowned King of the Chera Dynasty.[17] The early Cheras controlled a large territory of the Kongu region. They were in contact with the Satavahanas in the north and with the Romans and Greeks.1. This inscription refers to three generations of Chera Rulers. Imayavaramban Neduncheralathan. Arikesari Parankusa Maravarman (c. 'Purananuru' refers to a certain Udiyan Cheral. A Pandya Ruler. Palyane Chel Kezhu Kuttuvan 3. The first recorded King was the son of Uthiyan Cheralathan and Veliyan Nallini. Chelva Kadunko Azhi Athan 7. Pulakesin II. and his son Ilamkadungo. mentioned in a number of Pandya copper-plate inscriptions. while the mother of fourth King (also known as Chenkuttuvan) was Chola Princess Manikilli. Chenkuttuvan Cheran (Kadal Pirakottiya Vel Kezhu Kuttuvan) 5. Chelva Kadunko Vazhiyathan was the son of Anthuvan Cheral Irumporai and Porayan Perumthevi. The Romans brought vast amounts of gold in exchange of 'Kari' (Pepper) from Malainadu. Perum Cheral Irumporai was the son of Vazhiyathan and Ilam Cheral Irumporai was the son of a Chera ruler Kuttuvan Irumporai (son of Mantharan Cheral Irumporai). namely Adam Cheral Irrumporai. and there caused prosperity to . Kulasekara Alwar who ruled in the 8th century became a devotional Vaishnavite poet. whose contemporary Gajabahu II of Lanka according to Mahavamsa visited the Chera country. An obscure dynasty. the Chera territory ceded seems to have included the entire Malabar and Travancore (Kuttanadu and Venadu) and the Southern Pandya country from Kanyakumari to Thirunelveli. The charter was issued when Perum Kadungo was the Ruler Monarch and Ilam Kadungo was appointed Prince. Nedum Cheralathan 2. displaced the existing kingdoms and ruled for around three centuries. meaning that they descended from both the Solar and Lunar Races. The most important of these is the Pugalur (Aranattarmalai) inscription. Athan refers only to a crowned King of the Chera Dynasty who accepted this title at the time of coronation. [2] [edit] Bhakti era Cheras Little is known about the Cheras between c. Senguttuvan was another famous Chera.[citation needed] Archaeology has also found epigraphic evidence regarding these early Cheras of recorded history. fourth and fifth kings were sons of Nedum Cheralathan. Athan Cheral Irumporai was the son of Perum Cheral Irumporai. Thakadur Erintha Perum Cheral Irumporai 8. It is said that he fed the rival armies during the war of Mahabharata. The third. Kalankai Kanni Narmudi Cheral 4. another Sangam Age King claimed to have conquered Bharatavarsha up to the Himalayas and to have inscribed his emblem on the face of the mountains. third century AD and the eight century AD. Perum Kadunko means that he was the Senior Ko (Senior ruler) of Kadunadu. Kudako Ilam Cheral Irumporai. He claims to have defeated a prominent Chera King. The name of the Chera King is not known. however from the details of the battles between the Pandya and the Chera. as seen by archaeological evidence and literature. They also ruled the Kodunthamizh regions of Travancore (Venadu) and the Malabar (Kuttanadu) West Coast through vassals. Pallavas also mention in their inscriptions their battles with the Cheras.[16]. driving the Pallava behind the forts of Kanchi.

Sreedhara Menon . ^ See Mahavamsa – on. Chully ref: Akam. ^ http://www. pp 106 16. 15 The Ācā 149) 3.Madugula.. Chieftains and Poets Appearing in the Sangam Literature By Sivaraja Pillai 7. ^ http://www. ^ See A History of South India – pp 146 – 147 Chola Dynasty From Wikipedia. See Nilakanta Śaṅkara of Kāladī: A Story By Savita R. Since Senguttuvan (Kadal pirakottiya Vel Kezhu Kuttuvan) was a contemporary of Gajabahu II he was the Chera King during 170-185 AD. Cultural contacts between the Pallava court and the Chera country were common.the Chola. Roman Karur: A peep into Tamil's ^ (Ancient name. ^ http://ccat.html 12. ேேோழர் குலம் Chola Dynasty 300s BC–1279 CE → . ^ http://www.1967 (India) . M. Pallavamalla Nadivarman defeated the Pandya Varaguna with the help of a Chera king.upenn. G. ^ See Verse 31 Aihole Inscription of Pulakesi II http://www. Adi Shankara was his contemporary. Sadasivan. Bhave.bvashram. ^ http://www.[20] The Saivite saint Cheraman Perumal and the other is the Vaishnavite saint Kulasekhara.306 5. For the Spanish term. the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Chola Empire) Jump to: navigation. ^ See report in Frontline. Chera and Pandya". ^ These foreigners were called Yavana in the ancient times 19. [edit] Notes 1.htm Brahad Prakashan. ^ The Chronology of the Early Tamils . R.htm 11. see Kulasekhara became one of the celebrated Alvars and his poems came to be called the Perumal Thirumozhi. June/July 2003 [1] 17. K. 104 Indian Anthropologist: Journal of the Indian Anthropological Association By Indian Anthropological Association Muṣṭafá Amīn.htm 13.harekrsna. the Cheras were still in Karur and were a close ally of the Pallavas. 1933.A. Cheraman Perumal ruled around the eighth and the ninth centuries. N. ^ P. Madras.html ^ Nagaswami. were famous in the Hindu religious movements.[19] During the reign of Pandya Parantaka Nedumjadaiyan (765 – 790).Based on the Synchronistic Tables of Their Kings.hinduwebsite. I S Madugula 15. In this Kulasekhara calls himself Kongar Kon (the king of the Kongu people) hailing from Kollinagar (Karur).html 10. pg. (1995). ^ P. ^ http://www. 18. By S. Kongumandala Satakam also says that Cheraman Perumal went to Kayilai with Sundarar from Kongu Nadu. search "Chola" redirects here.http://www.tamilartsacademy.htm 8. ^ The age of Sangam is established through the correlation between the evidence on foreign trade found in the poems and the writings by ancient Greek and Romans such as Periplus of the Erythrian Sea. ^ A Survey of Kerala History by A. ^ akananuru 4. ^ A social history of India.asp 9. History of South India.

Rajendra Chola I. The Cholas were at the height of their power continuously from the later half of the 9th century till the beginning of the 13th centuries. Vikrama Chola and Kulothunga Chola III were notable emperors of the medieval Cholas. Virarajendra Chola.Chola's empire and influence at the height of its power (c. Kulothunga Chola I.[4] Rajaraja Chola conquered peninsular South India. [7] The Cholas left a lasting legacy. Contents [hide] • 1 Origins o 1.1246-1279 Historical era . the Chola territories stretched from the islands of the Maldives in the south to as far north as the banks of the Godavari River in Andhra Pradesh.[3] The Chola kings were avid builders and envisioned the temples in their kingdoms not only as places of worship but also as centres of economic activity.[2][3] During the period 1010–1200. Rajadhiraja Chola. while Aditya I. Medieval Cholas: Pazhaiyaarai. Mahipala.Rise of the medieval Cholas .Established 300s BC . Rajaraja Chola I. Karikala Chola was the most famous among the early Chola kings. Thanjavur Gangaikonda Cholapuram Language(s) Tamil Religion Hinduism Government Monarchy King .1 Clan o 1.[3] Rajendra Chola sent a victorious expedition to North India that touched the river Ganga and defeated the Pala ruler of Pataliputra. economic and cultural power in Asia. The dynasty originated in the fertile valley of the Kaveri River.2 Etymology of Chola . annexed parts of what is now Sri Lanka and occupied the islands of the Maldives. IPA: ['t͡ʃoːɻə]) was a Dravidian Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century.[5][6] The Chola tottered at the beginning of the thirteenth century and vanished with the rise of the Pandyas and the Hoysala.Disestablished 1279 CE The Chola Dynasty (Tamil: ேேோழர் குலம்.848-871 Vijayalaya Chola Rajendra Chola III Middle Ages 848 . Urayur. Parantaka I. Their patronage of Tamil literature and their zeal in building temples have resulted in some great works of Tamil literature and architecture. 1050) Capital Early Cholas: Poompuhar.[8][9] They pioneered a centralised form of government and established a disciplined bureaucracy.[1] Under Rajaraja Chola I and his son Rajendra Chola I. the dynasty became a military. He also successfully invaded kingdoms of the Malay Archipelago as well as expanding the empire from coastal Burma to Vietnam.

• o o o o • o o o o o • o o o • • • • •

2 History 2.1 Early Cholas 2.2 Interregnum 2.3 Medieval Cholas 2.4 Later Cholas 3 Government and society 3.1 Chola country 3.2 Nature of government 3.3 Local government 3.4 Foreign trade 3.5 Chola society 4 Cultural contributions 4.1 Art 4.2 Literature 4.3 Religion 5 In popular culture 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

[edit] Origins Part of a series on History of Tamil Nadu

Chronology of Tamil history Sangam period Sources Government Society • • Economy Religion • • Music

Early Cholas

Early Pandyans

Medieval history Pallavas Pandyas Chola Empire Chera Dynasty Vijayanagara Empire Madurai Nayaks Tanjore Nayaks This box: view • talk • edit

An early silver coin of Uttama Chola found in Sri Lanka showing the Tiger emblem of the Cholas.In Grantha Tamil.[10][11] There is very little information available regarding the origin of the Chola Dynasty. The antiquity of this dynasty is evident from the mentions in ancient Tamil literature and in inscriptions. Later medieval Cholas also claimed a long and ancient lineage to their dynasty. Mentions in the early Sangam literature (c. 150 CE)[12] indicate that the earliest kings of the dynasty antedated 100 CE. Parimelalagar, the annotator of the Tamil classic Tirukkural, mentions that this could be the name of an ancient king. [edit] Clan The most commonly held view is that this is, like Cheras and Pandyas, the name of the ruling family or clan of immemorial antiquity.[13][14] On the history of the early Cholas there is very little authentic written evidence available. Historians during the past 150 years have gleaned a lot of knowledge on the subject from a variety of sources such as ancient Tamil Sangam literature, oral traditions, religious texts, temple and copperplate inscriptions. The main source for the available information of the early Cholas is the early Tamil literature of the Sangam Period.[15] There are also brief notices on the Chola country and its towns, ports and commerce furnished by the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (Periplus Maris Erythraei).[16] Periplus is a work by an anonymous Alexandrian merchant, written in the time of Domitian (81–96) and contains very little information of the Chola country.[17] Writing half a century later, the geographer Ptolemy gives more detail about the Chola country, its port and its inland cities.[18] Mahavamsa, a Buddhist text, recounts a number of conflicts between the inhabitants of Ceylon and the Tamil immigrants.[19] Cholas are mentioned in the Pillars of Ashoka (inscribed 273 BCE–232 BCE) inscriptions, where they are mentioned among the kingdoms which, though not subject to Ashoka, were on friendly terms with him.[20][21][22] [edit] Etymology of Chola In Tamil lexicon Chola means Soazhi or Saei denoting a newly formed kingdom, in the lines of Pandya or the old country. However Sanskrit scholars deem that the word Chola is derived from the Tamil word Sora or Chora.[23] Numerous inscriptions by Brahmin scribes mention the Dynasty as Chora or Sora but pronounced as Chozha.[24] Sora or Chozha in Tamil becomes Chola in Sanskrit and Chola or Choda in Telugu.[25] [edit] History List of Chola kings Early Cholas Ilamcetcenni Nedunkilli Killivalavan Kocengannan • • • Kopperuncholan Perunarkilli • Karikala Chola

Interregnum (c.200–848) Medieval Cholas Vijayalaya Chola 848–871(?) Aditya I 871–907 Parantaka Chola I

907–950 Gandaraditya 950–957 Arinjaya Chola 956–957 Sundara Chola 957–970 Uttama Chola 970–985 Rajaraja Chola I 985–1014 Rajendra Chola I 1012–1044 Rajadhiraja Chola 1018–1054 Rajendra Chola II 1051–1063 Virarajendra Chola 1063–1070 Athirajendra Chola 1067–1070 Later Cholas Kulothunga Chola I 1070–1120 Vikrama Chola 1118–1135 Kulothunga Chola II 1133–1150 Rajaraja Chola II 1146–1163 Rajadhiraja Chola II 1163–1178 Kulothunga Chola III 1178–1218 Rajaraja Chola III 1216–1256 Rajendra Chola III 1246–1279 Chola society Chola government Chola military Chola art • • Chola Navy

Chola literature

Solesvara Temples Poompuhar • Urayur

Gangaikonda Cholapuram Thanjavur edit • Telugu Cholas

when he rose to prominence hailed from this geographical area. and of the poets who extolled them.[56] The Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang.[51][52] Despite this loss in influence and power.[28][29] [30][31] These myths speak of the Chola king Kantaman. the Kalabhras. it is unlikely that the Cholas lost total grip of the territory around Uraiyur. a supposed contemporary of the sage Agastya.[53][54] Around the 7th century. a Chola prince known as Elara. of fixing their relations with one another and with many other princelings of about the same period.[26] [edit] Early Cholas Main article: Early Cholas The earliest Chola kings for whom there is tangible evidence are mentioned in the Sangam literature.[47][57][58] [edit] Medieval Cholas .The history of the Cholas falls into four periods: the early Cholas of the Sangam literature. whose devotion brought the river Kaveri into existence. who spent several months in Kanchipuram during 639–640 writes about the 'kingdom of Culi-ya'. What is certain is that when the power of the Cholas fell to its lowest ebb and that of the Pandyas and Pallavas rose to the north and south of them.[38][39] Urayur (now in/part-of Thiruchirapalli) was their oldest capital.[12] The internal chronology of this literature is still far from settled. Scholars generally agree that this literature belongs to the first few centuries of the common era.[43][44][45] They were displaced by the Pallavas and the Pandyas in the 6th century. invaded the Tamil country. their old capital. The Sangam literature records the names of the kings and the princes. but only in a minor capacity. However. as Vijayalaya.[53] These Telugu Cholas (or Chodas) traced their descent to the early Sangam Cholas.[2][49] The Cholas continued to rule over a diminished territory in the neighbourhood of Uraiyur. invaded the island around 235 BCE and that King Gajabahu visited Chera Cenguttuvan around 108 CE. possibly out of regard for their reputation.[50] Numerous inscriptions of Pallavas. the interregnum between the fall of the Sangam Cholas and the rise of the medieval Cholas under Vijayalaya (c.[42] An obscure dynasty. who feature in Sangam literature: Karikala Chola[34][35][36] and Kocengannan.[30][41] [edit] Interregnum There is not much information about the transition period of around three centuries from the end of the Sangam age (c. and at present a connected account of the history of the period cannot be derived.[40] The Mahavamsa mentions that an ethnic Tamil adventurer.[55] It is possible that a branch of the Tamil Cholas migrated north during the time of the Pallavas to establish a kingdom of their own. In spite of their reduced powers.[30] Kaveripattinam also served as an early Chola capital. and finally the Later Chola dynasty of Kulothunga Chola I from the third quarter of the eleventh century.[36][48] this dynasty was compelled to seek refuge and patronage under their more successful rivals. these cannot be worked into connected history. 300) to that in which the Pandyas and Pallavas dominate the Tamil country. Pandyas and Chalukya of this period mention conquering 'the Chola country'.[32][33] Two names stand out prominently from among those Chola kings known to have existed.[37] There is no sure means of settling the order of succession. in an apparent reference to the Telugu Chodas. 848). the Pandayas and Pallavas accepted Chola princesses in marriage. a Chola kingdom flourished in present-day Andhra Pradesh. displaced the existing kingdoms and ruled for around three centuries. away from the dominating influences of the Pandyas and Pallavas.[47] Epigraphy and literature provide a few faint glimpses of the transformations that came over this ancient line of kings during this long interval. it is not known if they had any relation to the early Cholas. the dynasty of Vijayalaya. Despite a rich literature that depicts the life and work of these people.[35][46] Little is known of the fate of the Cholas during the succeeding three centuries until the accession of Vijayalaya in the second quarter of the ninth century.[27] The Sangam literature also records legends about mythical Chola kings.

[2][3] At its peak. have been instrumental in constructing the history of Cholas of that period. the Chalukya interference was to cause them dearly with these Kingdoms steadily increasing their stock and ultimately the Hoysalas. and copper-plate grants.[61] captured Thanjavur and eventually established the imperial line of the medieval Cholas. A balance of power existed between the Chalukyas and the Cholas. Vikrama Chola etc.Main article: Medieval Cholas Detail of the statue of Rajaraja Chola at Brihadisvara Temple at Thanjavur. in the internecine wars among the small Kannada kingdoms of the Kadambas. the Chalukya kingdom was already starting to dissolve. in a series of wars with Somesvara IV the last Chalukya king whose territories did not include the erstwhile Chalukyan capital Manyakheta. In any case. the Kakatiyas. the Chola Empire stretched from the island of Sri Lanka in the south to the Godavari basin in the north. Hoysalas. they never were able to occupy any territory in Chola country during their entire existence. with the Chola forces penetrating deep in to the Kannada country up to Tungabhadra in Central Karnataka and controlling the Konkan coast up to Bhatkal where a Chola temple exists even today. Vaidumbas or Kalachuris. all their other attempts ended in failure with successive Chola emperors routing the armies of the Chalukyas at various places in many wars. the Kalachuris and the Seunas consuming the Chalukyas and sending them into oblivion. the Cholas were constantly troubled by the ever-resilient Sinhalas.[64] The kingdoms along the east coast of India up to the river Ganges acknowledged Chola suzerainty. In contrast. While there is little reliable information on the Cholas during the period between the early Cholas and Vijayalaya dynasties. Kakinada or Anantapur or Gutti. excepting mounting some invasions in and around the Chola protectorate of Vengi or hegemony during the existence of the Cholas and they predeceased the Cholas around 1198 when Kulothunga III collaborated with Veera Ballala II and his son Narasimha to sound the death-knell of the Chalukya Kingdom. the wars against the Chalukyas were mainly fought in Chalukya territories in Karnataka or in the Telugu country like Vengi.[71] With the Kalachuris occupying the Chalukyan capital for over 35 years sometime after 1135 and with the occupation of Dharwar in North Central Karnataka by the Hoysalas under Vishnuvardhana where he based himself with his son Narasimha I in-charge at the Hoysala capital Dorasamudra around AD 1149. who attempted to overthrow the Chola occupation of Lanka.[66][67] Pandya princes who tried to win independence for their traditional territories. the Chalukyas never rose to any kind of prominence.[69] However. and by the growing ambitions of the Chalukyas in the western Deccan.[1] Through their leadership and vision. Pandyas and Chalukyas. kings such as Rajaraja Chola I and Rajendra Chola I extended the Chola kingdom beyond the traditional limits of a Tamil kingdom. Vijayalaya rose from obscurity to take an opportunity arising out of a conflict between Pandyas and Pallavas. while the Cholas would be stable till 1215 AD. A large number of stone inscriptions by the Cholas themselves and by their rival kings. the sonin-law of the Chola monarch.[70] The Western Chalukyas mounted several unsuccessful attempts to engage the Chola emperors in war and except for a brief occupation of Vengi territories between 1118-1126. It is also pertinent to note that even under the not so strong emperors of the Cholas like Kulothunga I.[59][60] Around 850. there is an abundance of materials from diverse sources on the Vijayalaya and the Later Chola dynasties.[68] This period saw constant warfare between the Cholas and these antagonists. and finally getting consumed by the Pandiyan empire [72] The Cholas under Kulothunga Chola III even contributed to the downfall and dissolution of the Chalukyas by aiding Hoysalas under Veera Ballala II. mainly due to incompetency of its rulers. That was the final dissolution of Chalukyan power[73] .[62][63] The Chola dynasty was at the peak of its influence and power during the medieval period. around AD 1190. the bone of contention between these two powers was the growing Chola influence in the Vengi kingdom.[5][6][65] Throughout this period.[4] Chola navies invaded and conquered Srivijaya in the Malayan archipelago.

[79][80] The Cholas. Thanjavur-Mayuram-Chidambaram-Vriddhachalam-Kanchi. the Kadava chieftain Kopperunchinga I. these were only temporary setbacks. however. So naturally. the rule of the later Cholas was not as strong as those of the emperors up to Rajendra Chola II. experienced continuous trouble. [edit] Later Cholas Main article: Later Cholas (1070-1279 AD) Chola territories during Kulothunga Chola I c. the Hoysalas found it convenient to have friendly relations with the Cholas from the time of Kulothunga Chola III.though the Chalukyas existed only in name since 1135-1140. Chera country. under Rajaraja Chola III and later.[76] Virarajendra Chola's son Athirajendra Chola was assassinated in a civil disturbance in 1070. and had been steadily increasing their territories in the Kaveri belt between Dindigul-Tiruchy-Karur-Satyamangalam as well as in the Kaveri Delta i.[69][76][77] The Later Chola dynasty saw capable rulers in Kulothunga Chola I. but they too faced constant trouble from the Seunas and the Kalachuris who were occupying Chalukya capital for those empires were their new rivals. the son of Rajaraja Narendra. ascended the Chola throne starting the Later Chola dynasty. The Pandiyas steadily routed both the Hoysalas and the Cholas. the growing influence of the Hoysalas replaced the declining Chalukyas as the main player in the Kannada country. However. They first steadily gained control of the Tamil country as well as territories in Sri Lanka. Ilam and Kataha. his successor Rajendra Chola III. who had defeated Hoysala Veera Ballala II but who had subsequent marital relations with the Chola monarch.[75] Rajendra Chola's daughter was also married to an eastern Chalukya prince Rajaraja Narendra. Rajadhiraja Chola II and the great Kulothunga Chola III.[81][82] At the close of the 12th century. Around 1118. One feudatory. were quite weak and therefore.[78] The Cholas lost control of the island of Lanka and were driven out by the revival of Sinhala power. even held Rajaraja Chola III as hostage for sometime. his son Ramanatha[78] Rajendra III tried to survive by aligning with the Kadava Pallavas and the Hoysalas in turn in order to counter the constantly rising power of the Pandiyans who were a major players in the Tamil Kingdom from AD 1215 and had intelligently consolidated their position in Madurai-Rameswaram-Ilam-Cheranadu and Kanniyakumari belt. who conquered Kalinga. his successor Rajendra Chola III and the Hoysalas under Someshwara. While the rule of Kulothunga Chola III was stable and very prosperous up to 1215 AD. because under king Vikrama Chola successor of Kulothunga Chola I. This continued during the time of Rajaraja Chola III the son and successor of Kulothunga Chola III[78][83] The Pandyas in the south had risen to the rank of a great power who ultimately banished the Hoysalas who were allies of the Cholas from Tamil country and subsequently causing the demise of the Cholas themselves in AD 1279. other successors like Rajaraja Chola II.[84] They also .[74] Rajaraja Chola's daughter married Chalukya prince Vimaladitya. finally marching all the way up to Arcot—Tirumalai-Nellore-Visayawadai-Vengi-Kalingam belt by 1250 AD. and Kulothunga Chola I. the lack of a controlling central administration prompted a number of claimants to the Pandya throne to cause a civil war in which the Sinhalas and the Cholas were involved by proxy. the Cholas lost no time shortly after his accession in recovering the province of Vengi by defeating Chalukya Somesvara III and also recovering Gangavadi from the Hoysalas. In the Pandya territories. Telugu country under Maravarman Sundara Pandiyan II his able successor Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan before inflicting several defeats on the joint forces of the Cholas under Rajaraja Chola III. his son Vikrama Chola. 1120 Marital and political alliances between the Eastern Chalukyas began during the reign of Rajaraja following his invasion of Vengi. during his time itself.e. the decline of the Chola power started beginning with his defeat by Maravarman Sundara Pandiyan II in1215-16 AD. they lost control of Vengi to the Western Chalukya and Gangavadi (southern Mysore districts) to the Hoysalas.

Kaverippattinam on the coast near the Kaveri delta was a major port town.[2][4][64] Although Vengi had a separate political existence. The river Kaveri and its tributaries dominate this landscape of generally flat country that gradually slopes towards the sea.[82][88] [edit] Government and society Main article: Chola Government [edit] Chola country According to Tamil tradition. for the first time.[93] when a serious attempt was made to face and solve the problems of public administration. the Chola Empire comprised the entire south Indian peninsula. there was little in common between the local chiefdoms of the earlier time and the imperial-like states of Rajaraja Chola and his successors. also known as Ponni (golden) river. the old Chola country comprised the region that includes the modern-day Tiruchirapalli District and the Thanjavur District in Tamil Nadu. and later.[8][99] . and bounded to the north by an irregular line along the Tungabhadra river and the Vengi frontier.[92] The later Chola kings moved around their capitals frequently and made cities such as Chidambaram. However both Kanchipuram and Madurai were considered to be regional capitals.[89] Roman ships found their way into these ports. now known as Kumbakonam. The king was the supreme commander and a benevolent dictator. Madurai and Kanchipuram their regional capitals.[95] Thanjavur. brought under a single government.dispossessed the Hoysalas. it was closely connected to the Chola Empire and. Adiperukku. for all practical purposes. The Cholas' system of government was monarchical. including Buddhism.[18] These two towns became hubs of trade and commerce and attracted many religious faiths. [edit] Nature of government In the age of the Cholas. Uraiyur and Kudanthai. the Chola dominion extended up to the banks of the Godavari river. in which occasional courts were held. Thus the Chola empire was completely overshadowed by the Pandyan empire and sank into obscurity by the end of the 13th century. Roman coins dating from the early centuries of the common era have been found near the Kaveri delta. The Chola kings built temples and endowed them with great wealth. and c. 1150.[96] His administrative role consisted of issuing oral commands to responsible officers when representations were made to him. the Pandyan empire was at the height of prosperity and had taken the place of the Chola empire in the eyes of the foreign observers.[30] Ptolemy knew of this and the other port town of Nagappattinam as the most important centres of Cholas. benefiting their entire community.[87][88] The Hoysalas were routed from Kannanur Kuppam around 1279 by Kulasekhara Pandiyan and in the same war the last Chola emperor Rajendra III was routed and the Chola empire ceased to exist thereafter.[94] Between 980. [85] At the close of Rajendra’s reign.[86] The last recorded date of Rajendra III is 1279. unbroken by major hills or valleys. who had been overestimating their power by interfering in the politics of Tamil country by routing them under Jatavarman Sundara Pandiyan at Kannanur Kuppam and chased the Hoysalas back to the Mysore plateau and stopped the war only thereafter.[97] A powerful bureaucracy assisted the king in the tasks of administration and in executing his orders. The river Kaveri. Gangaikonda Cholapuram were the imperial capitals. the whole of South India was. extending east to west from coast to coast. Due to the lack of a legislature or a legislative system in the modern sense.[30] After Rajendra Chola moved his capital to Gangaikonda Cholapuram. as in the Sangam age. had a special place in the culture of Cholas.[35] However. There is no evidence that Rajendra was followed immediately by another Chola prince. the fairness of king’s orders dependent on the goodness of the man and in his belief in Dharma—a sense of fairness and justice. The annual floods in the Kaveri marked an occasion for celebration. in which the whole nation took part. Thanjavur lost its importance.[90][91] The other major towns were Thanjavur.[8][98] The temples acted not only as places of worship but also as centres of economic activity.

which were supported by the government.[125][126][127] [edit] Cultural contributions . and the Abbasid Kalifat at Bagdad were the main trading partners.[105] [edit] Foreign trade See also: Chola Navy Hindu temple complex at Prambanan in Java clearly showing Dravidian architectural influences [106] The Cholas excelled in foreign trade and maritime activity.[115] [edit] Chola society There is little information on the size and the density of the population during the Chola reign. there is circumstantial evidence to suggest that some village councils organised schools to teach the basics of reading and writing to children.[edit] Local government Every village was a self-governing unit. the typical punishment in these cases was either execution or the confiscation of property.[118] A fragmentary Tamil inscription found in Sumatra cites the name of a merchant guild Nanadesa Tisaiyayirattu Ainnutruvar (literally.[119] The stability in the core Chola region enabled the people to lead a productive and contented life. depending on the area. southern India had developed extensive maritime and commercial activity.[107] Towards the end of the 9th century.[113] Chinese Song Dynasty reports record that an embassy from Chulian (Chola) reached the Chinese court in the year 1077. The text in these inscriptions was written by court poets and engraved by talented artisans. the Srivijaya empire in the Malayan archipelago under the Sailendras. there were reports of widespread famine caused by natural calamities. minor disputes were settled at the village level. and spices'. including glass articles. being in possession of parts of both the west and the east coasts of peninsular India.[100] A number of villages constituted a larger entity known as a Kurram. who returned with '81.[117] It is possible that these syllables denote "Deva Kulo[tunga]" (Kulothunga Chola I).[121][122] The quality of the inscriptions of the regime indicates a presence of high level of literacy and education in the society. Education in the contemporary sense was not considered important. a famous merchant guild in the Chola country. Even crimes such as manslaughter or murder were punished with fines.[109] The inscription is dated 1088. Tamil was the medium of education for the masses.[103] These structures underwent constant change and refinement throughout the Chola period. indicating that there was an active overseas trade during the Chola period.800 strings of copper coins in exchange for articles of tributes.[104] Justice was mostly a local matter in the Chola Empire.[120] However. Sanskrit education was restricted to the Brahmins. "the five hundred from the four countries and the thousand directions"). This embassy was a trading venture and was highly profitable to the visitors.[124] Vocational education was through hereditary training in which the father passed on his skills to his sons. such as treason.[108][109] The Cholas. were at the forefront of these ventures.[123] although there is no evidence of systematic educational system for the masses.[114][115][116] and that the king of the Chulien at the time was called Ti-hua-kia-lo. were heard and decided by the king himself.[110][111][112] The Tang dynasty of China. Nadu or Kottram.[102] Punishment for minor crimes were in the form of fines or a direction for the offender to donate to some charitable endowment. There is only one recorded instance of civil disturbance during the entire period of Chola reign. Religious monasteries (matha or gatika) were centres of learning. extending their influence overseas to China and Southeast Asia. Crimes of the state.[100][101][101][102] A number of Kurrams constituted a valanadu.

Detail of the main vimanam (tower) of the Thanjavur Temple Under the Cholas.[132] Many of the surviving examples of the Hindu cultural influence found today throughout the Southeast Asia owe much to the legacy of the Cholas. the creation of Rajendra Chola.[129][136][137] With heavily ornamented pillars accurate in detail and richly sculpted walls.[74][139] The temple of Gangaikondacholisvaram at Gangaikondacholapuram. the temple of Gangaikondacholisvaram at Gangaikondacholapuram and the Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram were declared as World Heritage Sites by the UNESCO. the Tamil country reached new heights of excellence in art.[143] The Chola period is also remarkable for its sculptures and bronzes. the greater elaboration in its appearance attests the more affluent state of the Chola Empire under Rajendra.[133][134] [edit] Art Main article: Chola Art The Cholas continued the temple-building traditions of the Pallava dynasty and contributed significantly to the Dravidian temple design.[138] The maturity and grandeur to which the Chola architecture had evolved found expression in the two temples of Thanjavur and Gangaikondacholapuram. is a fitting memorial to the material achievements of the time of Rajaraja. the Airavateswara temple at Darasuram is a classic example of Chola art and architecture Temple building received great impetus from the conquests and the genius of Rajaraja Chola and his son Rajendra Chola I. the majority of which have been lost.[135] Though conforming generally to the iconographic conventions established by long tradition.[3] Chola inscriptions cite many works. completed around 1009. marked by the importance of literature.[149] The revival of Hinduism from its nadir during the Kalabhras spurred the . the Chola period marked the culmination of movements that had begun in an earlier age under the Pallavas. and their continued commercial contacts with the Chinese Empire. and the Saivaite saints. The largest and tallest of all Indian temples of its time. it is at the apex of South Indian architecture. such as Vishnu and his consort Lakshmi.[128] In all of these spheres. religion and literature. The best example of this can be seen in the form of Nataraja the Divine Dancer.[129][130] Monumental architecture in the form of majestic temples and sculpture in stone and bronze reached a finesse never before achieved in India. and are referred to as the Great living Chola temples.[131] The Chola conquest of Kadaram (Kedah) and Srivijaya.[135][142] The Brihadisvara Temple at Thanjavur. the sculptors worked with great freedom in the 11th and the 12th centuries to achieve a classic grace and grandeur.[135] They built a number of Siva temples along the banks of the river Kaveri.[147][148] Chola bronze from the Ulster Museum [edit] Literature Main article: Chola literature The age of the Imperial Cholas (850–1200) was the golden age of Tamil culture. enabled them to influence the local cultures.[144][145][146] Among the existing specimens in museums around the world and in the temples of South India may be seen many fine figures of Siva in various forms.[140][141] Completed around 1030. These temples were not on a large scale until the end of the 10th century. The magnificent Siva temple of Thanjavur. was intended to excel its predecessor. only two decades after the temple at Thanjavur and in the same style.

was celebrated in both Sangam literature and in the Saiva canon as a saint.[37] Later Cholas were also staunch Saivites. and although the author states that he followed Valmiki's Ramayana.[170] Rajaraja Chola I patronised Buddhists.[154][158][159] Jayamkondar’s masterpiece Kalingattuparani is an example of narrative poetry that draws a clear boundary between history and fictitious conventions. all Chola kings especially from Aditya to Rajendra IV not only built great temples for Lord Vishnu but also gave numerous grants and gifts to them (***) In fact during the time of Aditya I (871-903 AD) the Gangas of Kannada country had recognized his superiority which he acknowledged by marrying into that family and making grant contributions to the construction of the Sri Ranganatha temple at modern Srirangapatnam. possibly because of the apparent animosity towards the Vaishnavites by the Later Chola monarchs. tutelary (deities) treasures of the Chola emperors(***) In fact this dictat was repeated around 300 years back when the last great Chola King. it is generally accepted that his work is not a simple translation or adaptation of the Sanskrit epic: Kamban imports into his narration the colour and landscape of his own time.[152][153][154] The art of Tirutakkatevar is marked by all the qualities of great poetry. Even the early Cholas followed a version of the classical Hindu faith. a poem extolling the virtues of the Chola king. In fact it was Aditya I's dictat which was faithfully carried out by his illustrious son Parantaka I and his successors wherein it was declared in edicts that the Siva Temple of Chidambaram (at that time the grand Siva temples of Tanjore and Gangaikonda Cholapuram were not in existence) and the Sri Ranganatha Swami temple of Srirangam were the 'Kuladhanams' i. relatively few Vaishnavite works were composed during the later Chola period. who lived close to the end of 10th century.[150] Jain and Buddhist authors flourished as well. There is evidence in Purananuru for Karikala Chola’s faith in the Vedic Hinduism in the Tamil country. although in fewer numbers than in previous centuries. Cholas were the adherents of Hinduism.[157] His Ramavatharam (also referred to as Kambaramayanam) is a great epic in Tamil literature.[156][159][160][162] Ottakuttan wrote Kulothunga Cholan Ula. hails Lord Ranganatha at Srirangam in an inscription in .[159][160][161] The famous Tamil poet Ottakuttan was a contemporary of Kulothunga Chola I and served at the courts of three of Kulothunga's successors. they were not swayed by the rise of Buddhism and Jainism as were the kings of the Pallava and Pandya dynasties. This describes the events during Kulothunga Chola I’s war in Kalinga and depicts not only the pomp and circumstance of war.[168] although there was a sense of toleration towards other sects and religions.[156] Kamban flourished during the reign of Kulothunga Chola III.[167] Kocengannan.[164][165] of numerous temples and these in turn generated Saiva and Vaishnava devotional literature.[169] Parantaka I and Sundara Chola endowed and built temples for both Siva and Vishnu.[166] [edit] Religion Bronze Chola Statue of Nataraja at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. but the gruesome details of the field. his description of Kosala is an idealised account of the features of the Chola country.e.[155] It is considered as the model for Kamban for his masterpiece Ramavataram. Kulothunga III. New York City In general. Throughout their history.[163] The impulse to produce devotional religious literature continued into the Chola period and the arrangement of the Saiva canon into 11 books was the work of Nambi Andar Nambi. the builder of the great Sarabeswarar Temple at Tribhuvanam on the outskirts of Kumbakonam. another early Chola. and provided for the construction of the Chudamani Vihara (a Buddhist monastery) in Nagapattinam at the request of the Srivijaya Sailendra king.[151] Jivaka-chintamani by Tirutakkatevar and Sulamani by Tolamoli are among notable by non-Hindu authors.[29][171][172][173] While it is true that the biggest and grandest temples of the Cholas were dedicated to Lord Siva.

[181] Parthiban Kanavu was also serialised in the Kalki weekly during the early 1950s. Sandilyan. as his 'tutelary deity' (***) As per findings of Dr. wrote Kadal Pura in the 1960s.[183] The serialisation lasted for nearly five years and every week its publication was awaited with great interest. the acharya of the Vaishnavites. a historical novel in Tamil written by Kalki Krishnamurthy.[180] Written in five volumes. [edit] See also • History of Tamil Nadu • Tamil and Sanskrit inscriptions in Malaysia . In fact. Raghu Kasthuri is a great descendent from the area previously ruled by the Cholas. The period of the story lies within the interregnum during which the Cholas were in eclipse before Vijayalaya Chola revived their fortune. to whom he gave numerous gifts and embellishments. produced by Avalon Hill. though this is only a probability[176][177][178] [edit] In popular culture Standing Hanuman. there were assumed to be instances of intolerance towards Vaishnavites. (***) During the period of Later Cholas. Kadal Pura speculates the whereabouts of Kulothunga during this period. the great epigraphist. prior to his proceeding for war for regaining the territories in and around Kanchi and Arcot from the waning Rashtrakutas and while leading expeditions against both Madurai and Ilam (Sri Lanka). Chola king Sundara (Parantaka-II) was a staunch devotee of the reclining Vishnu (Vadivu Azhagiya Nambi) at Anbil in the banks of Cauvery on the outskirts of Tiruchy.[185] More recently. this narrates the story of Rajaraja Chola. Hultzsch. which is a pointer to the fact that the Cholas were secular and patronized equally all religions and sub-sects within the same religion(***) Another proof of this fact is the existence of as many as 40 Vaishnava Divyadesams out of 108 such temples in the Chola country. which deals with the fortunes of an imaginary Chola prince Vikraman who was supposed to have lived as a feudatory of the Pallava king Narasimhavarman I during the 7th century.[186] There were stage productions based on the life of Rajaraja Chola during the 1950s and in 1973. Balakumaran wrote the opus Udaiyar based on the event surrounding Rajaraja Chola's construction of the Brihadisvara Temple in Thanjavur. Kalki had cleverly utilised the confusion in the succession to the Chola throne after the demise of Sundara Chola. which are functioning and flourishing even today. and prayed before him by keeping his sword before the deity. The history of the Chola dynasty has inspired many Tamil authors to produce literary and artistic creations during the last several decades. 11thCentury.[182] This book was serialised in the Tamil periodical Kalki during the mid 1950s.[184] Kalki perhaps laid the foundations for this novel in his earlier historical romance Parthiban Kanavu. Sandilyan's earlier work Yavana Rani written in the early 1960s is based on the life of Karikala Chola.[181] Ponniyin Selvan deals with the events leading up to the ascension of Uttama Chola on the Chola throne. Shivaji Ganesan acted in a screen adaptation of this play titled Rajaraja Cholan.[179] These works of popular literature have helped continue the memory of the great Cholas in the minds of the Tamil people. The most important work of this genre is the popular Ponniyin Selvan (The son of Ponni). in this very inscription acknowledgment is made to the earlier great Chola king Parantaka about declaring the Chidambaram (Siva) Koil and the Srirangam (Vishnu) Koil as 'Kuladhanams' of the Cholas. Kadal Pura is set during the period when Kulothunga Chola I was in exile from the Vengi kingdom.[175] Kulothunga Chola II. another popular Tamil novelist.the Srirangam Koil. Chola Dynasty. It was serialised in the Tamil weekly Kumudam.[174] especially towards Ramanuja. a staunch Saivite. after he was denied the throne that was rightfully his. is said to have removed a statue of Vishnu from the Siva temple at Chidambaram. The Cholas are featured in the History of the World board game.

The CōĻas. vol. or from point Calimere to the mouth of Krishna. ^ The period covered by the Sangam poetry is likely to extend not longer than five or six generations . The annotator Parimelazhagar writes "The charity of people with ancient lineage (such as the Cholas.A.A. Nilakanta Sastri. Magas and Alexander rule. likewise in the south among the Cholas. issued around 250 BCE by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka. ^ a b Meyer. A History of South India.Proceedings. Nilakanta Sastri. 1888). p 3 16. A History of South India. ^ The Periplus refers to the region of the eastern seaboard of South India as Damirica .A.A. ^ Tripathi. Nilakanta Sastri. Nalankilli and so on. The Edicts of King Asoka: An English Rendering 22. 17. there were more than one Chola . ^ Archaeological News A. 69–125 25. ^ a b c d e Keay. mention the Cholas as recipients of his Buddhist prozelitism: "The conquest by Dharma has been won here. Valavan is most probably connected with 'valam' (வளம்) – fertility and means owner or ruler of a fertile country. ^ K. K. 6. Valavan (வளவன்) and Sembiyan (ேேம்பியன்). ^ The Edicts of Ashoka. ^ a b K. in his time.K. beyond there where the four kings named Ptolemy. 122.. ^ K. A History of South India. The CōĻas. on the borders. ^ K. The CōĻas. where the Greek king Antiochos rules. 4. ^ Tirukkural poem 955. p 20 21. ^ a b c Majumdar. p 5 2. p 73 7. 20. p 23 18. and even six hundred yojanas (5. K. pp 217–218 10. ^ a b c d Kulke and Rothermund. p 106 13.. Nilakanta Sastri. the Pandyas. and as far as Tamraparni (Sri Lanka)". pp 211–220 6.A. but almost drops out of use in later times. A History of South India. ^ a b The age of Sangam is established through the correlation between the evidence on foreign trade found in the poems and the writings by ancient Greek and Romans such as Periplus. Vol. ^ Mahavamsa eText . S. No. The CōĻas. implying that. p 192 8. p 31 12. ^ a b The kadaram campaign is first mentioned in Rajendra's inscriptions dating from his 14th year. Antigonos.A. ^ Keay. Nilakanta Sastri. Dhammika. p 456 24.[edit] Notes 1.A. Nilakanta Sastri. pp 20–22 9.600 km) away. Killi perhaps comes from the Tamil kil (கிள்) meaning dig or cleave and conveys the idea of a digger or a worker of the land. Frothingham. A History of South India. ^ "The name Coromandel is used for the east coast of India from Cape Comorin to Nellore. p 414 19. pp. 14. p 407 5. p 18 11. Sembiyan is generally taken to mean a descendant of Shibi – a legendary hero whose self-sacrifice in saving a dove from the pursuit of a falcon figures among the early Chola legends and forms the subject matter of the Sibi Jataka among the Jataka stories of Buddhism. the Pandyas and the Cheras) are forever generous in spite of their reduced means". ^ Smith. No.http://lakdiva. 1 (Mar. This word often forms an integral part of early Chola names like Nedunkilli. p viii 23. The name of the Srivijaya king was Sangrama Vijayatungavarman. which is the Tamil form of the title . ^ Chopra et al. The American Journal of Archaeology and of the History of the Fine Arts. pp 19–20 15.A. p 215 4.A.The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (Ancient History source book). The word is a corrupt form of Choramandala or the Realm of Chora. Nilakanta Sastri. Nilakanta Sastri.400– 9. ^ a b c Vasudevan. L. Jr. p 115 3. American Philosophical Society (1978). ^ The Asokan inscriptions speak of the Cholas in plural.K. ^ a b Ptolemy mentions the town of Kaveripattinam (under the form Khaberis) . ^ Other names in common use for the Cholas are Killi (கிள்ளி). Nilakanta Sastri.

^ Copperplate grants of the Pallava Buddhavarman(late 4th century) mention that the king as the 'underwater fire that destroyed the ocean of the Chola army'.A. pp 104–116 29. Nilakanta Sastri. ^ Manimekalai (poem 00-10) 32. Vol 3 30. who had for his queen a Chola princess.. Nilakanta Sastri. 40.htm. Nilakanta Sastri postulates that there was a live connection between . pp 170–172 27.A. Nilakanta Sastri.Nilakanta Sastri. . A History of South India. p 182 26. Quote:"it is not known what relation. The CōĻ ^ K. ^ K. Kulothunga Chola I. The CōĻas. ^ K. ^ though a branch of them can be traced towards the close of the period in Rayalaseema . p 104 36. p 135 47. ^ Majumdar. p 139 45. Nilakanta Sastri. ^ The direct line of Cholas of the Vijayalaya dynasty came to an end with the death of Virarajendra Chola and the assassination of his son Athirajendra Chola. Retrieved on 2006-12-05. ^ K. Nilakanta Sastri.the Telugu-Chodas. bore to their namesakes of the Tamil land. ^ Gnanaprakasar.A. pp 104–106 28. ^ K. A History of South India. ^ K. ^ Majumdar. p 130 43. Nilakanta Sastri. A History of South India. p 67 33. pp 130.A. Acchchutakalaba is likely the last Kalabhra king . 137 44. pp 104–105 52. A History of South India. ^ K. though they claimed descent from Karikala. pp 130. ^ Manimekalai (poem 22-030) 34. The Chalukya Pulakesin II in his inscriptions in Aihole states that he defeated the Pallavas and brought relief to the Cholas. ^ Pandya Kadungon and Pallava Simhavishnu overthrew the Kalabhras.A. ^ K. lankalibrary.A.A. ^ a b Chopra et al.lankalibrary.Gupta AN. ^ a b K. ^ a b c d e Tripathi.of the Chola dynasty". A History of South India. 135. "Beginnings of tamil rule in ceylon". ^ a b K. Nilakanta Sastri. the Telugu-Chodas of the Renadu country in the Ceded District. Nilakanta Sastri.A. A History of South India. Gajabahu I who is said to be the contemporary of the Chera Senguttuvan is determined to belong to the 2nd century. Nilakanta Sastri. ^ Tripathi.A. p459 55.D 48. ^ a b c Kulke and Rothermund. http://www. p 116 38. whose kingdom is mentioned by Yuan Chwang in the seventh century A. ^ K. ^ Periyapuranam.Nilakanta Sastri. p 102 49. A History of South India. A History of South India. Nilakanta Sastri. A History of South India. p 105 53. A History of South India. Nilakanta Sastri. if any. Quote:"The Cholas disappeared from the Tamil land almost completely in this debacle. ascended the throne in 1070. ^ a b South Indian Inscriptions. ^ K.A. Nilakanta Sastri. Ancient India. This leads us to date the poems mentioning Senguttuvan and his contemporaries to belong to this period.A. 133. p 268 46. K. p 95 54. Nilakanta Sastri. Nilakanta Sastri. The CōĻas.A. Chopra et al.A. 42. ^ Simhavishnu (575–600) is also stated to have seized the Chola country. p 137 35. p 113 41. ^ The only evidence for the approximate period of these early kings is the Sangam Literature and the synchronization with the history of Sri Lanka as given in the Mahavamsa.A. pp 19–20. p 458 37. Mahendravarman I was called the 'crown of the Chola country' in his inscriptions. pp 105–106 39. . ^ K.K. the most celebrated of the early Chola monarchs of the Sangam age" 56. A History of South India. p 95 51. a Saiva religious work of 12th century tells us of the Pandya king Nindrasirnedumaran. p 4. ^ a b Tripathi. p 457 31.A.. Nallur Swami. A History of South India. p 102 50. The CōĻas. .

^ Majumdar.. Vol. ^ The only other time when peninsular India would be brought under one umbrella before the Independence was during the Vijayanagara Empire (1336–1614) 94. The CōĻas. Nilakanta Sastri. ^ The opportunity for Vijayalaya arose during the battle of Sripurambayam between the Pallava ally Ganga Pritvipati and the Pandya Varaguna. 12 80. Nilakanta Sastri. Nilakanta Sastri.A. A History of South India. ^ Stuart Munro-Hay. p 109 68. p 102 58. 70. are present in the Mahavamsa as well as the Pallavarayanpettai Inscriptions. ^ K. p 448 96. p 18.. A History of South India. p 106 93. ^ Nagaswamy. in a poetic and ornate style of Tamil. p 405 76. ^ Majumdar. Nakhon Sri Thammarat . p 102 61. p 107 92. Nilakanta Sastri. A History of South India. Nilakanta Sastri.. The king ruled by .A.A. ^ Stein. Tamil Coins . ^ a b Chopra et al. ^ K. Nilakanta Sastri. ^ K. K. p 471 79. Nilakanta Sastri. ^ a b Rajendra Chola I completed the conquest of the island of Sri Lanka and captured the Sinhala king Mahinda V prisoner. K.. Nilakanta Sastri. Nilakanta Sastri.... ^ Tripathi. ^ Details of the Pandyan civil war and the role played by the Cholas and Sinhalas.The Archaeology. Nilakanta Sastri. Nilakanta Sastri. 180 74. pp 128–129 81. A History of South India. ISBN 9747534738 66.A. The CōĻas. ^ Chopra et al. ^ The Buddhist work Milinda Panha dated to the early Christian era. ^ The Chola inscriptions followed the practice of prefacing the intended text with a historical recounting. p. p 410 84. p 26 95. ^ a b Tripathi. ^ Kulke and Rothermund. p 195 85.A. Nilakanta Sastri. ^ K.A. ^ Chopra et al. p 158 63. ^ K. A History of South India.A. ^ Chopra et al. ^ K. mentions Kolapttna among the best-known sea ports on the Chola coast. pp 122–123 64. ^ K. p 158 71. ^ Chopra et al.A. ^ K.the early Cholas and the Renandu Cholas of the Andhra country. Nilakanta Sastri. A History of South India. p 472 83.. p. ^ Tripathi.A. ^ K. The CōĻas. feudatory of the Pandyas. A History of South India. ^ Majumdar. ^ K. p 107 67. p 194 82. ^ Chopra et al. p 196 86.179 73. History and Legends of a Southern Thai Town. p 158 62. K. A History of South India. ^ Chopra et al. p 197 88. ^ There were no legislature or controls on the executive. p 120 77. ^ a b K. A History of South India. ^ Vijayalaya invaded Thanjavur and defeated the Muttarayar king. South Indian Inscriptions.A. p 23 90.A. pp 107–109 69. The Colas pp 194–210 65. A History of South India. pp 458–459 59. Nilakanta Sastri.a study 91. p 216 75. Nilakanta Sastri. Nilakanta Sastri.A. A History of South India. Vol 2 60. of the main achievements of the reign and the descent of the king and of his ancestors South Indian Inscriptions. 72. ^ a b Chopra et al.A. p 130 89. ^ K. ^ a b c Tripathi.K. p 107 57. The northward migration probably took place during the Pallava domination of Simhavishnu. Nilakanta Sastri. A History of South India. The CōĻas. ^ a b Keay. p 372 78.A. p 485 87.A. Sastri also categorically rejects the claims that these were the descendants of Karikala Chola .A.

^ Keay. pp 474–475 101. p 403 132. ^ a b Stein. K. ^ Keay. p 465 105. cloves. pp 451. K. ^ The Tamil merchants took glassware. pp 172–173 128. Vedas (trayi – the threefold Vedas of Rigveda. p 709 . rose water. The temple served as a centre for redistribution of wealth and contributed towards the integrity of the kingdom.. ^ K. pp 217–218 100. A History of South India. ^ a b Tripathi. p 185 103. Rajaraja is mentioned in the Layden copperplate grant to have issued an oral order for a gift to a Buddhist vihara at Nagapattinam.Keay. p 418 130. Thapar. p 118 110. Yajurveda and Samaveda. p 124 111. Nilakanta Sastri. ^ K.A. Nilakanta Sastri. astronomy. sandalwood.). p 284 120. grammar. ^ Scharfe.A.A. A History of South India. p 150 104. and his orders were written out by a clerk . pp 116–117 108. The CōĻas. p 477 113. ^ a b Kulke and Rothermund.A. ^ 17th century Italian traveler Pietro Della Valle (1623) has given a vivid account of the village schools in South India. asafoetida. ^ See Thapar. The CōĻas.A. etymology.A. ^ Mitter. Nilakanta Sastri.K. Nilakanta Sastri. ^ a b K. ^ The great temple complex at Prambanan in Indonesia exhibit a number of similarities with the South Indian architecture. politics (arthasastra) and music. including philosophy (anvikshiki). Nilakanta Sastri. ^ Tripathi. Nilakanta Sastri. K. ^ The students studied a number of subjects in these colleges. The CōĻas. Nilakanta Sastri. p 293 126. Nilakanta Sastri. ^ K. ^ Kulke and Rothermund. p 20 102. p 125 122. ^ Kulke and Rothermund. p 292 127. p 129 123. The CōĻas. medicine (ayurveda). ^ For example.A. These accounts reflect the system of primary education in existence until the morder times in Tamil Nadu 125.A. ^ Chopra et al. ^ Scharfe. however. ^ K.edicts. p 461 98. which possibly had some sectarian roots. A History of South India. producing images rivalling the best anywhere. pp 424–426 107. K. p 223 115. ^ K.A. p 180 124. ^ Some of the output of villages throughout the kingdom was given to temples that reinvested some of the wealth accumulated as loans to the settlements. 460–461 97. logic (tarka). ^ Rajendra Chola I endowed a large college in which more than 280 students learnt from 14 teachers . A History of South India. ^ K. Nilakanta Sastri. Nilakanta Sastri. spices such as pepper. etc. ^ a b Kulke and Rothermund. which generally followed dharma a culturally mediated concept of 'fair and proper' practice.A. government (dandaniti). Nilakanta Sastri. A History of South India.A. prosody. p 218 99. .. ^ Tripathi. The fourth Atharvaveda was considered a non-religious text. camphor. Nilakanta Sastri. 121. Nilakanta Sastri. p xv 117. p 173 119. ^ It was. ^ Kulke and Rothermund. A History of South India. p 117 116. ^ Kulke and Rothermund. economics (vartta). ^ a b K. ^ Chopra et al. in bronze sculptures that the Chola craftsmen excelled. p 2 129. p 174 131. Nilakanta Sastri. ivory. A History of South India.A. Nilakanta Sastri. p 12 109.K. p 477 106. ^ K.A. p 465 112.A. The CōĻas. A History of South India. rhinoceros horns. The CōĻas. p 316 118.A. ^ —during the short reign of Virarajendra Chola. p 159 133. The CōĻas. ^ Keay. p 604 114.

. vol. p 163 146. Nilakanta Sastri. p221 142. ^ "Great Living Chola Temples". ^ K. 2. ^ Chopra et al. pp 222–223 173. p 104 176.A.htm.unesco. Nilakanta Sastri. p 57 138.A. pp 21–24 139. p423 141. Nilakanta Sastri. p 196 156. p 108 180. p 176 177. The CōĻas. The Hindu. p 406 174. ^ "Versatile writer and patriot". pp 159–160 135.A.. 144. p 1195 155. http://www. Nilakanta Sastri.a work on drama. ^ K. 1.A. ^ K. ^ Wolpert. p174 148. A History of South India. ^ K. The CōĻas. p 421 140.A..A. and Kannivana Puranam.. ^ a b c Chopra et al.hinduonnet. Nilakanta Sastri.A. p 645 178. p 480 170. ^ Nagasamy R. p 672 158. p 188 153. ^ Vasudevan. ^ Harle. p 126 179.A. The CōĻas. ^ Majumdar.A. p 214 172. Retrieved on 2008-06-03. ^ K. ^ Purananuru (poem 224) movingly expresses his faith and the grief caused by his passing away.A. Nilakanta Sastri.A. A History of South India. ^ Stein. A History of South India. ^ Vasudevan. K. The CōĻas. ^ Kulke and Rothermund. pp 339–340 154. A History of South India. A History of South India. p 307 Nilakanta Sastri. ^ Chopra et al.A. p 59 149. ^ . p 20 161. ^ Keay. 181. a work of popular nature. p 22 Retrieved on 2008-0529.. pp 340–341 162. K. A History of South India. ^ K. ^ By common consent. p 339 152. ^ Encylopaedia of Indian literature. pp 309–310 147. p 116 160. ^ Chopra et al. ^ Vasudevan. ^ K. Nilakanta Sastri. K. p 681 167. p 134 175. Mitter. p 186 145. ^ a b K. ^ Chopra et al. ^ Das.A. Nilakanta Sastri. UNESCO. A History of South India. ^ Keay. p 8 163. ^ Thapar.. p 295 137. The CōĻas. including Rajarajesvara Natakam. ^ K. ^ Mitter.134.Nilakanta Sastri. ^ a b c Tripathi. Nilakanta Sastri. p 109 .A. ^ a b Encylopaedia of Indian literature. ^ K. 168. Gangaikondacholapuram 143. Viranukkaviyam by one Virasola Anukkar. ^ K. ^ Tripathi.A. http://whc. p 333 151. ^ Mitter. p 479 136. pp 341–342 159. p 340 157. A History of South India. A History of South India. ^ Majumdar. pp 342–343 165. the finest Cola masterpieces are the bronze images of Siva Nataraja. Nilakanta Sastri. ^ a b K. Nilakanta Sastri. p 115 166. p 102 171. A History of South India. ^ K. Nilakanta Sastri. ^ Vasudevan. pp 663–664 150. A History of South India. ^ There is an inscription from 1160 that the custodians of Siva temples who had social intercourses with Vaishnavites would forfeit their property. ^ The name of the Sailendra king was Sri Chulamanivarman and the Vihara was named 'Chudamani vihara' in his honour. ^ Chopra et al. vol. ^ a b Das. Nilakanta Sastri. Nilakanta Sastri.A.

^ "Book review of Udaiyar".hinduonnet. Pandi Mandala. and in later times moved to Madurai.24) Pandyan Kingdom From Wikipedia. Their recorded existence and mention are found in records dating to as early as 550 BC. The Hindu. .hindu. vol.182. the free encyclopedia Jump to: The Emperor Augustus of Rome at Antioch knew of the Pandion of Dramira and received a Pandyan ambassador with letters and gifts from this ancient Tamil Kingdom. Chera and Pallava Dynasties are the four Dravidian Tamil Dynasties which ruled South India till the 15th century CE.htm. Chola. The Hindu. The early Pandyan Dynasty of the Sangam Literature went into obscurity during the invasion of the Kalabhras. Pandyan was well known since the ancient period. 184. (***) www. ^ Das. Official language Tamil Capitals Korkai Madurai Government Monarchy Preceding state Kalabhras Succeeding states Delhi Sultanate.whatsindia. Strabo described an ambassador to emperor Augustus Caesar from a South Indian King called Pandion. The dynasty revived under Kadungon in the early 6th century. ^ "Lines that Speak".hinduonnet. 185.Vijayanagar. They again went into decline with the rise of the Cholas in the 9th century and were in constant conflict with them. The Pandyas. search போண்டியர் Pandyas Extent of the Pandya Territories c. 1250 C. They initially ruled from Korkai. Retrieved on a seaport on the Southernmost tip of the Indian Peninsula. The country of the Pandyas. pp 108–109 183. pp 631–632 186. reaching the Roman Empire. The Pandyas allied themselves with the Sinhalese and the Cheras in harassing the Chola empire until they found an opportunity for reviving their fortunes during the late 13th century. Retrieved on 2008-05-29.E. The Pandyan Kingdom of Southern India is believed to have been founded around five to six centuries before the Christian Era. (Vol. with contacts. Retrieved on 2008-05-30. even diplomatic. was described as Pandionis Mediterranea by Periplus and Modura Regia Pandionis by Ptolemy[2]. The Pandyan Kingdom (Tamil: போண்டியர்) was an ancient Tamil state in South India. http://www. http://www. ^ Encylopaedia of Indian literature.htm. pushed the Kalabhras out of the Tamil country and ruled from Madurai[3].htm. during the 13th century of the Christian era Marco Polo mentioned it as the richest kingdom in existence[1]. ^ "English translation of Ponniyin Selvan". http://www. Nayaks of Madurai.

3 Foreign Sources • 3 History o 3. which by common consent belong to an age later than the Sangam age. which produced some of the finest pearls known in the known ancient world.The Later Pandyas (1150-1350)entered their golden age under Maravman Sundara Pandiyan and Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan (c. Tradition holds that the legendary Sangams were held in Madurai under their patronage. During their history. It is difficult to estimate the exact dates of these Sangam age Pandyas.1 Early Pandyas o 3. who expanded the empire into Telugu country. Among them Nedunjeliyan. They also had extensive trade links with the Southeast Asian maritime empires of Srivijaya and their successors. Cholas. Unfortunately. Pandya Dynasty. 1251). there are two major works — Mathuraikkanci and the Netunalvatai (in the collection of Pattupattu) — which give a glimpse into the society and commercial activities in the Pandyan kingdom during the Sangam age.3 Under the Cholas o 3. They controlled the pearl fisheries along the South Indian coast. Pandyas were the longest ruling dynasty of Indian history. Beside several short poems found in the Akananuru and the Purananuru collections. Each . the exact genealogy of these kings has not been authoritatively established yet.4 Pandya Revival o 3. Various Pandya kings find mention in a number of poems in the Sangam Literature. conquered Kalinga (Orissa) and invaded and conquered Sri Lanka. Contents [hide] • 1 Etymology • 2 Sources o 2. and Mudukudimi Peruvaludi 'of several sacrifices' deserve special mention.5 Zenith followed by the end of Pandyas • 4 Government and Society o 4. the Pandyas were repeatedly in conflict with the Pallavas.2 First Empire o 3.2 Epigraphy o 2. Hoysalas and finally the Muslim invaders from the Delhi Sultanate. between Sri Lanka and India. The Pandyas excelled in both trade and literature from before the Christian Era. Except the longer epics Silapathikaram and Manimekalai. and that some of the Pandya Kings were poets themselves. The Pandyan Kingdom finally became extinct after the establishment of the Madurai Sultanate in the 16th century. 'the victor of Talaiyalanganam'. The period covered by the extant literature of the Sangam is unfortunately not easy to determine with any measure of certainty. 8-9th century CE.1 Trade • 5 Religion • 6 Culture • 7 Notes • 8 References • 9 External links [edit] Etymology Historians have used several sources to identify the origins of the early Pandyan dynasty with the pre-Christian Era and also to piece together the names of the Pandyan kings. [edit] Sources Main article: Early Pandyan Kingdom [edit] Sangam Literature Four-armed Vishnu. the poems have reached us in the forms of systematic anthologies.1 Sangam Literature o 2.

the Weilüe." [6] Kharavela.The inhabitants are small.. with Rome by the first century. its people were harsh and of different religions. through Egypt. figuring in the Minakshipuram record assigned from the second to the first centuries BCE. beyond there where the four kings named Ptolemy. This place also is situated on a river. and with China by the 3rd century. Cheras. each of which was expected to meet the needs of the royal household for one day in the year. some historians have even denounced these colophons as later additions and untrustworthy as historical documents. [8] According to Hiuen-Tsang.[9] The Roman emperor Julian received an embassy from a Pandya about 361. likewise in the south among the Cholas. Pandyas and Satiyaputras — as recipients of his Buddhist proselytism. In his inscriptions Asoka refers to the peoples of south India — the Cholas. The Chinese historian Yu Huan in his 3rd century text. Pandyas are also mentioned in the Pillars of Ashoka (inscribed 273 . mentions The Kingdom of Panyue: . According to his account.[4][5] These kingdoms.. about one hundred and twenty stadia from the sea. the Pandya country was a depot for sea pearls. It is several thousand li to the southeast of Tianzhu (Northern India). Punch marked coins in the Pandya country dating from around the same time have also been found.232 BCE). on the borders. and to have acquired a large quantity of pearls from the Pandyas. The 1st century Greek . The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (c. Any attempt at extracting a systematic chronology from these poems should take into consideration the casual nature of these poems and the wide differences between the purposes of the anthologist who collected these poems and the historian’s attempts to arrive at a continuous history. were on friendly terms with Asoka: "The conquest by Dharma has been won here. A Roman trading centre was located on the Pandyan coast at the mouth of the Vaigai river.400–9. and even six hundred yojanas (5. claims to have destroyed a confederacy of Tamil states (‘’Tamiradesasanghatam’’) which had lasted 132 years. and rarely from the texts of the poems themselves.600 km) away.. where the Greek king Antiochos rules. the Pandyas. the Pandian..Nelcynda is distant from Muziris by river and sea about five hundred stadia. to a Jain ascetic.. The name of the king or chieftain to whom the poem relates and the occasion which called forth the eulogy are also found.individual poem has generally attached to it a colophon on the authorship and subject matter of the poem. it had 365 villages... The record documents a gift of rock-cut beds. The task of reducing these names to an ordered scheme in which the different generations of contemporaries can be marked off one another has not been easy. they are the same height as the Chinese. in his Hathigumpha inscription.[5] [edit] Foreign Sources Coin of the Roman emperor Augustus found at the Pudukottai. Megasthenes knew of the Pandyan kingdom around 300 BC. Antigonos. Magas and Alexander rule.. He described the Pandyan queen at the time.. that we gather the names of many kings and chieftains and the poets and poetesses patronized by them.The kingdom of Panyue is also called Hanyuewang. Pandaia as a daughter of Heracles.. and as far as Tamraparni (Sri Lanka). [edit] Epigraphy The earliest Pandya to be found in epigraph is Nedunjeliyan. the Kalinga king who ruled during the second century BCE. and is of another Kingdom.[7]. Pandyas also had trade contacts with Ptolemaic Egypt and. He described it in Indika as occupying the portion of India which lies southward and extends to the sea. They were very good at trade[3]. South India. 60 . It is from these colophons. southeast of Madurai).100 CE) describes the riches of a 'Pandian Kingdom': .. although not part of the Mauryan Empire. To add to the confusions.

in the very ancient [Hindu] epic of the Ramayana. In order to maintain verifiability of this article. and the Cheras supposedly ruled this country. and subsequently Central India to the Nagas. That is why they portray them as I have described. the ambassador sent by a king from Dramira "named Pandion or. Sastri.1-73).[10][11] In 1288 and again in 1293 the Venetian traveler Marco Polo visited the Pandyan kingdom and left a vivid description of the land and its people. Kalittokai again mentions a war between the combined forces of Villavars and the Meenavars (the Cheras and the Pandyas). at Damascus. their arch-enemies.1-4. the first Pandyan empire was established by Kadungon in the 6th century by defeating the Kalabhras. We have a connected history of the Pandyas from the fall of Kalabhras during the middle of the 6th century. or another species of living beings. Kalittokai mentions that many ethnically different non Tamil Naga tribes such as Maravar. Bhil Meena of North India could be the equivalent rulers in North India. Eyinar. The following lists of the Pandya kings are based on the authoritative A History of South India from the Early Times to the Fall of Vijayanagar by K. Oliar. Oviar. we currently have no way of determining a cogent genealogy of these ancient kings. the Pandyas. New Delhi (Reprinted 1998). and the Mahabharata." [edit] History The earliest Tamil literary works. who might have been a non-Dravidian people.N. [edit] Early Pandyas Main article: Early Pandyan Kingdom The following is a partial list of Pandyan emperors who ruled during the Sangam age:[17][18][19] • Nedunj Cheliyan I ( Aariyap Padai Kadantha Nedunj Cheliyan ) • Pudappandiyan • Mudukudumi Paruvaludhi • Nedunj Cheliyan II • Nan Maran • Nedunj Cheliyan III ( Talaiyaalanganathu Seruvendra Nedunj Cheliyan ) • Maran Valudi • Musiri Mutriya Cheliyan • Ukkirap Peruvaludi [edit] First Empire After the close of the Sangam age. Let me add that in very truth these people portray and depict their gods and their idols black and their devils white as snow. according to others. Polo exclaimed that: "The darkest man is here the most highly esteemed and considered better than the others who are not so dark. Porus" to Caesar Augustus around 13 CE (Strabo XV. tens of thousands of years ago.[16]. The following . Pandyan kings such as Chenkon.[14][15] Although there are many instances of the Pandya Kingdom being referred to in surviving ancient Hindu texts including the Mahabharata. For they say that God and all the saints are black and the devils are all white. which was believed to have been located to the South of the present-day Kanyakumari tens of thousands of years ago. along with the Cheras and the Cholas. They fought and defeated the Nagas. Oxford U Press. find mention as one of the three ruling dynasties of the Southern region of the then Bharatavarsha. Aruvalur and Parathavar migrated to the Pandyan kingdom and started living there in the Third Tamil Sangam period 2000 years ago. and Strabo XV. where they are (along with the Cheras and the Cholas) believed to have been on the side of the Pandavas in the Great War.A. who fought a fierce war against the Nagas.historian Nicolaus of Damascus met.[12][13] They are also mentioned in the Aitareya Aranyaka. eventually losing the war. between the then Kumari and Pahruli rivers. such as the Kalittokai. The Pandyan kings had the title Maran. Also. mention a continent called Kumari Nadu or Kumari Kandam. the names of these early Pandya Kings have been omitted.

The Pandyas were assisted by the Sinhalese forces of Mahinda IVPandyas were driven out of their territories and had to seek refuge on the island of Sri Lanka.D • Kochadaiyan Ranadhiran 710 .D • Sirmara Srivallabha 830 .D • Maravarman Avani Culamani 590 .790 A. [edit] Under the Cholas The Chola domination of the Tamil country began in earnest during the reign of Parantaka Chola II.735 A.D • Maravarman Rajasimha II 900 .900 A. After Vijayalaya Chola conquered Thanjavur by defeating the Muttarayar chieftains around 850. They were constantly harassing their Chola overlords by occupying their territories. their presence in the southern country requires recognition. the Pandyas reversed this defeat to regain most of their lost territories.D • Parantaka Nedunjadaiyan 765 .chronological list of the Pandya emperors is based on an inscription found on the Vaigai riverbeds. Parantaka Chola I invaded the Pandya territories and defeated Rajasinha III. the Tamil country was divided between the Pallavas and the Pandyas. It is difficult to give their dates of accession and the duration of their rule.920 A. • Sundara Pandya I • Vira Pandya I • Vira Pandya II • Amarabhujanga Tivrakopa • Jatavarman Sundara Chola Pandya • Maravarman Vikrama Chola Pandya • Maravarman Parakrama Chola Pandya • Jatavarman Chola Pandya • Srivallabha Manakulachala (1101 . • Arikesari Parankusa Maravarman Rajasimha I 735 .D • Arikesari Maravarman Nindraseer Nedumaaran 670 .1216) [edit] Pandya Revival A Pandya sculpture The 13th century is the greatest period in the history of the Pandyan Empire. son of Parantaka Chola II defeated Vira Pandya in battle.765 A.590 A. Chola armies led by Aditya Karikala.D • Parantaka Viranarayana 880 .620 A.D • Cezhiyan Cendan 620 . The foundation for such a great empire was laid by Maravarman Sundara Pandya early in the 13th century. Nevertheless.D • Rasasingan II 790 .710 A.1124) • Maaravaramban Seervallaban (1132 . However. .800 A.D • Varagunan I 800 .1162) • Kulasekara Pandyan III • Vira Pandyan III • Jatavarman Srivallaban (1175 . the Pandyas went into a period of decline. They were replaced by a series of Chola viceroys with the title Chola Pandyas who ruled from Madurai from c.1161) • Parakrama Pandiyan (1161 . the river Kaveri being the frontier between them.D After the defeat of the Kalabhras. The following list gives the names of the Pandya kings who were active during the 10th century and the first half of 11th century. 1020. This was the start of the long exile of the Pandyas.830 A.D. With the Cholas in obscurity.862 A. the Pandya kingdom grew steadily in power and territory. • Kadungon 560 . Their power reached its zenith under Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan in the middle of the 13th century.640 A.1180) • Jatavarman Kulasekara Devan (1180 .D • Varagunavarman II 862 .880 A.

the Renanti and the Irungola Cholas of the Telugu country. However. his strength rested on support from Hoysalas. This was because other feudatories of the Hoysalas were also growing in power and threatening the Hoysala kingdom itself. Ilam and Kalinga. The last two or three Chola kings who followed Kulothunga III were either very weak or incompetent. He initially tolerated the presence of the Hoysalas under Vira Someshwara with his son Visvanatha or Ramanatha ruling from Kuppam near Samayapuram on the outskirts of Srirangam.1327) • Vira Pandyan IV (1309 . The resurgent Pandiyans under Maravarman Sundara Pandiyan went to war against Kulothunga and first at Kandai and then near Manaparai on the outskirts of modern Tiruchirappalli.1308) • Sundara Pandyan IV (1309 . like the Kalachuris. Raja Raja III. having been held in captivity by Kopperinchunga II and his release being secured by the Hoysalas. for the last three-named had been very trusted allies of the Cholas up to Kulothunga III. who subdued Rajendra Chola III in around 1258-1260 AD was an equal antagonist of the Hoysalas whose presence he absolutely disliked in the Tamil country. there was a political affinity between the two which was cemented also by marital relations. who wanted to completely subjugate the Cholas. Kulothunga III had even conquered Karur. who had challenged the Hoysala army stationed in and around Kanchi and killed a few of their commanders. But it appears that in the Tiruchy and Srirangam areas. The marital alliance of Kulothunga III and one of his successors. Pandyan glory was briefly revived by Maravaramban Sundara Pandyan and by (probably his younger brother or son) the much celebrated Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan in 1251. though (initially.1345) [edit] Zenith followed by the end of Pandyas The Pandyan kingdom was replaced by the Chola princes who assumed the title as Chola Pandyas in the 11th century. the Pandiyans routed the Chola army and entered Tiruchy. because of the growing power of Pandiyans being felt by both Cholas and Hoysalas.with an earlier Chola. the Kadava Pallavas. However. The Pandya power extended from the Telugu countries on banks of the Godavari river to the northern half of Sri Lanka.1238) • Sundaravaramban Kulasekaran II (1238 . The Cholas of course did not lack valour but had been unable to stop the revival of the Pandiyan empire from the times of Maravaramban Sundara Pandyan. Seunas etc. Besides. But Jatavarman Sundara Pandiyan. Cheranadu in addition to Madurai.1268) • Maaravaramban Kulasekara Pandyan I (1268 . the revival of the Kadava Pallavas at Kanchi under Kopperinchunga I and indeed the growing power and status of the Telugu Cholas. the Muslim invasion of the Deccan had started under Malik Kafur. Veera Ballala II himself had lost quite a bit of his territories between 1208-1212 to his local adversaries in Kannada country. After being overshadowed by the Pallavas and Cholas for centuries. Ultimately.1251) • Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan (1251 . Jatavarman Sundara Pandiyan was a very brave. ambitious warrior king.• Maravarman Sundara Pandya (1216 . Raja Raja III. The challenged Hoysalas did have a foothold in and around Tiruchy and Srirangam for a few years and seemed to have indulged in some temple building activity at Srirangam also. At the time the Pandiyans and the Kadava Pallavas. He first vanquished the Kadava Pallavas under Kopperinchungan-II. at least) Kulothunga III took the help of the Hoysalas in countering the Pandiyan resurgence. having helped him in conquering Kalinga. Though Rajendra III suffered another defeat at the hands of Vira Someshwara. with the Hoysalas did not yield any advantage. Srirangam and Thanjavur victorious in war. The revival of the Pandyan dynasty was to coincide with the gradual but steady decline of the Chola empire. whose king Veera Ballala II was his son-in-law. there was renewed control of the Cholas.1240) • Maaravaramban Sundara Pandiyan II (1241 . Hoysalas and also the Telugu Choda Timma who invaded Kanchi were all one by one vanquished by Jatavarman . presumably with the help of the Hoysalas under Vira Someswara with the Hoysalas later shifting their allegiance to the Pandyans either during the last years of Maravarman Sundara Pandyan or the early years of his successor Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan.

the brave but tactically naive Rajendra III marched against the Pandiyans between Tanjore and Tiruchy. However. This was his opportunity. Jatavarman did not stop there: he went inside Kannada country after conquering Tiruchy and occupied parts of Hoysala territory up to the Konkana coast and established his son Vira Pandiyan as ruler of those territories. In 1254 (or 1260) Jatavarman first dragged the Hoysalas into war by routing his son Ramanatha out of Tiruchy. keeping in mind the earlier marital alliance of the Cholas with the Hoysalas. at least. up to 1268 only. a conflict stemming from succession disputes arose amongst his sons. the Chola empire was no more. Rajendra III had hoped for renewed friendship and military alliance with the Hoysalas. the armies of Vira Someshwara were routed with Vira Someshwara losing his life in this battle. when Alauddin Khilji of Khilji dynasty sent his favourite slave general. the Hoysalas were in disarray in Kannada country itself.Sundara Pandiyan with the Cholas finally becoming extinct after defeat of Hoysala Ramanatha as well as his ally Rajendra iii around 1279 by Maravarman Kulasekhara Pandiyan. Sundara Pandyan and Vira Pandyan fought each other for the throne. Rajendra III had been counting on Hoysala assistance in case he was challenged by the Pandiyans. Vira Someshwara Hoysala. Though Rajendra III had been opposed to the Hoysalas due to their alliance with the Pandiyans. with new hostilities emerging between Hoysalas and the Pandiyans. had to come out of his slumber and tried to challenge Jatavarman. On the death of Maravarman Kulasekara Pandyan I in 1308. he was merely engaging in a military treasure-hunt on the Sultan's behalf. was thoroughly routed and humiliated in this war. By 1280 AD. Next the Pandiyan prince Jatavarman concentrated on completely wiping out the Chola empire. Malik Khafur was not seeking to expand the borders of the Delhi Sultanate. hoping for assistance and participation in war from the Hoysalas. They did not want to go to war and risk yet another defeat by the resurgent Pandiyans. Jatavarman Sundara Pandiyan seized the opportunity with the Hoysalas being in Tiruchy and not having any ally. Initially. Probably Rajendra III fled the battlefield and had continued in obscurity up to 1279 but without any of the erstwhile Chola territories. Rajendra III. at least from 1254 AD. The known rule of Jatavarman Sundara Pandiyan is of course. Malik's victory over Veera Ballala III and loot of hindu temples at . Sundara Pandyan however with the help of his loyal generals and Veera Ballala III was successful in supressing Vira Pandyan into a petty army chief with just 500 Maravars who was indeed supported for the throne by his father Maravarman Kulasekara Pandyan I and the people of madurai. During the years 1270-1276 it appeared that Rajendra III ruled mainly in and around Gangaikondacholapuram and Tanjore. Between Samayapuram and Tiruchy. as they had been wiped out of Tamizhagam and indeed lost territories inside Kannada country itself to Jatavarman Sundara Pandiyan. the Hoysalas had lost any claim to regional power in Kannada and the Tamil countries. was not far from reach. The Chola capital of Gangaikondacholapuram. This ended the presence of the Hoysalas in Tamil country. who had given the control of the empire to his sons. Since then an uneasy truce existed between the two brothers. the rapidly weakening Cholas seeking alliance with the Kadava Pallavas who were themselves being threatened by the Telugu Cholas. Rajadhiraja III had interfered in an earlier Pandiyan war of succession and defeated a confederation of Pandiyan princes. Scenarios changed during 1311. too. Tiruchy and Srirangam had been lost to the Cholas forever. which is variously dated as between 1268-1270. Malik Kafur. hopelessly isolated. Temporarily. When challenged by Jatavarman Sundara Pandiyan. Unfortunately for Rajendra III. The Kingdom now under Sundara Pandyan revived its infrastructure and military strength to gain autonomy and drive out Hoysala Empire from its political affairs. on a buccaneering expedition to the kingdoms of the South. the already vanquished Hoysalas were in a defensive position. Jatavarman consodlidated the Pandiyan hold on Tiruchy and Srirangam and marched towards Tanjore and Kumbakonam. The predecessors of Jatavarman Sundara Pandiyan had suffered at the time of the Chola invasion and he wanted to take revenge.

No inscriptions about Pandyas are known since then. continuous archery attack by Maravars and surprise cavalry attacks on the Muslim infantry during night times tremendously increased the casualties on Kafur's side. followed by the muslim infantry's attack blocked any possible retreat for the Sundara Pandyan's army. Vira Pandyan and his maravars still managed to hold the line. [edit] Government and Society . Kafur's forces on the other hand tactically planned on their ration and water supplies. it turned futile as his army lacked any Ballistas or Trebuchets and relied on Battering Rams of inferior quality. Following this there were two other expeditions from the Delhi Sultanate in 1314 CE led by Khusrav Khan and in 1323 CE by Ulugh Khan. Kafur lost about half of his army. The already exhausted pandyan army planned to march west in search of nearby water source. Sayyid declared his independence and created Madurai Sultanate which was replaced by Vijayanagar Empire in 1378. However. The generals of Kafur's army took Sundara Pandyan as captive and beheaded all the others captured. The physically exhausted Pandyan infantry easily fell prey for the Sultanate's army. Tactical strikes by Kafur's crossbow men over the hindu cavalry. Understanding the fact that they were largely outnumbered. Hand over all the treasures belonging to the Meenakshi Temple and Madurai Treasury which included 96. These Nayaks continued to govern Madurai until the arrival of British forces. the mulsim cavaliers were well armed with turcopoles and chain mail armors while pandyan horsemen were inferiorly armored and heavily relied on heavy swords. In 1333 CE. But their reliance on the river Kaveri as the water source turned disastrous as the river ran dry during the hot summer of 1311. Half of the Rice rationed inside the walls of madurai 3. the defenders' only hope is to delay their enemies long enough for them to negotiate.Halebidu sent alarming bells to the Pandyan Kingdom. Their speed was drastically reduced due to the general's decision of marching on the dried beds of River Kaveri. met Sundara Pandyan much before Thiruchirapalli. thus making Kafur to finally come down for negotiation. Their sole aim was to safeguard Meenakshi Sundareswarar Temple and also yield time for the safe passage of women and children to the hilly regions of present day Kerala. The walled city of Madurai was now left only with the Vira pandyan's men along with the aid from maravars of Ramanathapuram. Telugu kamma Nayak governors were appointed to rule Madurai. Being a strong Saivite. He assembled his army and planned to march them at once to face the invading armies of the Delhi Sultanate. It was Alauddin Khilji himself ordered and sent reinforcements to Kafur to attack Madurai after hearing the richness of it via Veera Virupaksha Ballala who was sent to Delhi as an act of peace by his defeated father Veera Ballala III. This idea was however opposed by Vira Pandyan who felt that taking a defensive position might be more advantageous. On the other hand. The victorious sultanate went on plundering the temples of Thiruchirapalli and Srirangam. In return. The pandyan army managed to march well intact till Melaithirukattupalli. and then managed to breach the wall after weeks of siege. Sundara Pandyan was enraged by the destruction of the hindu temples by the invading muslim armies.000 gold coins and precious stones 2. Sayyid Jalal-ud-Din Ahsan was appointed governor of the newly created southern-most Ma'bar province of the Delhi sultanate by Muhammad bin Tughluq. Few Pandyan cavaliers managed to escape to Madurai to report their defeat to Vira Pandya. Kafur's siege on Madurai continued for weeks. Vira Pandyan was promised the release of his brother. Kafur on the other hand. Kafur offered the following terms to Vira Pandyan: 1. however. the Pandyan cavalry revived its attack on the mulsim cavalry. All the elephants and horses available with Pandyas. Sundara Pandyan ignored his words and ordered his army to march leaving Vira Pandyan to safeguard madurai with his men. Sundara Pandyan and safety of the idols in the inner sanctum of the Meenakshi Temple. These expeditions led the already weakened Pandyas to confine around the small region of Tirunelveli. heard about the raised strength of the pandyan army and its defensive position within the walls of madurai was reluctant in carrying out his expedition further south. But.

With the advent of Bhakti movements. [20][21] [edit] Religion Historical Madurai was a stronghold of Saivism. Saivism and Vaishnavism resurfaced. indicating that the Pandyas derived great wealth from the pearl trade. The latter-day Pandyas after 600 AD were Hindus who claimed to descend from Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. Jainism gained a foothold in the Pandyan kingdom. search . Pandyan Nedumchadayan was a staunch Vaishnavite. Following the invasion of Kalabhras. Jainism was something not new to the land of Pandyas as references to a jainist (and buddhist) past are found in ancient Tamil literature (see Civaka Cintamani).[edit] Trade Megasthenes reported about the pearl fisheries of the Pandyas.[22] [edit] Culture Middle kingdoms of India Timeline: Northern Empires Southern Dynasties Northwestern Kingdoms 6th century BCE 5th century BCE 4th century BCE 3rd century BCE 2nd century BCE 1st century BCE 1st century CE 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th • • • • • • • • • • • • century century century century century century century century century century • Magadha Shishunaga dynasty Nanda empire Kalinga Maurya Empire Sunga Empire Kuninda Kingdom Western Satraps Gupta Empire Harsha Pala Empire Solanki Sena dynasty Satavahana From Wikipedia.

Established 230 BC . Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end.Disestablished 220 AD Preceded by Succeeded by Mauryan Empire Kadamba Ikshvaku Western Satraps Chutu Pallava The Sātavāhana Empire also known as Andhras[3][4] were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar (Pune). and conquests (dotted line). the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted about 450 years.230-207 BC Simuka .190s AD Madhariputra Svami Sakasena(?) Historical era Antiquity . The . Capital Paithan. Junnar near Pune and Kotilingala near Godavari River at Karimnagar Language(s) Prakrit Maharashtri[1] Telugu[2] Religion Buddhism Vedic Government Monarchy King . Prathisthan (Paithan) in Maharashtra and Kotilingala (Karimnagar) in Andhra Pradesh over Southern and Central India from around 230 BCE onward. until around 220 CE.Satavahana Empire ← 230 BC–220 AD ↓ Territorial extent of the Satavahana Empire (continuous line).

British Museum. and which supplies its king with an army of 100. The Edicts of Ashoka mention the Sātavāhanas as feudatories of Emperor Ashoka. sandstone. It is believed that they were Buddhistic Brahmins. Sātakarnīs. VI. their commercialism and naval activity is evidenced by establishment of Indian colonies in southeast Asia. the Kambojas. quoting Megasthenes[5] The Sātavāhanas ruled a large and powerful empire that withstood the onslaughts from Central Asia. the Nabhakas. —Rock Edict Nb13 (S.[6] Some rulers like Maharaja Satakarni are believed to have performed Vedic sacrifices as well. a still more powerful race. everywhere people are following Beloved-of-the-Gods' instructions in Dhamma. Indra.[8] They were mostly Buddhistic Vaishnavites.1 Decline of the Satavahanas • 5 Coinage • 6 Cultural achievements o 6. and 1. Nat.2 Satakarni (c. 2. which possesses numerous villages.000 cavalry. 1. —Plin. but also other incarnations of Vishnu and Shiva.In the Pūrānas and on their coins the dynasty is variously referred to as the Sātavāhanas. as the Maurya Empire began to weaken. Yavanas and Pahlavas o 3. 8-23. the Nabhapamkits. Hist. They seem to have been under the control of Emperor Ashoka.2 Art of Sanchi • 7 List of rulers • 8 References • 9 See also • 10 External links [edit] Origins The first mention of the Satavahana is in the Aitareya Brahmana.000 infantry. the Pitinikas. and had more than 30 well built fortified towns: Next come the Andarae.. the sun and moon. A reference to the Sātavāhanas by the Greek traveller Megasthenes indicates that they possessed 100.180-124 BCE) o 2.1 Gautamiputra Satakarni (78-106 CE) • 4 Successors o 4.230-207 BCE) o 2. 21. in Brahmi.Satavahanas are credited for establishing peace in the country.3 Kanva suzerainty (75-35 BCE) • 3 Victory over the Shakas. Dhammika) The Satavahanas declared independence sometime after the death of Ashoka (232 BCE).000 elephants. Under their reign.1 Art of Amaravati o 6. The Sātavāhanas began as feudatories to the Mauryan Empire. Contents [hide] • 1 Origins • 2 Early rulers o 2. the Telugu . resisting the onslaught of foreigners after the decline of Mauryan empire.1 Simuka (c. Fragment of the 6th Pillar Edicts of Ashoka (238 BCE). and that he introduced Buddhism among them: Here in the king's domain among the Yavanas (Greeks).000 infantry. Buddha had been worshiped as a form of Vishnu in Amaravati[9] [edit] Early rulers The Satavahanas/ Andhras initially ruled in the area of Andhradesa. and thirty towns defended by walls and towers.000 elephants. who claims they were in his domain. 11. Andhras and Andhrabhrityas. Gauri. dating back to the 8th century BCE mentioning them to be of Vishwamitra's lineage. the Bhojas. Aside from their military power. the Andhras and the Palidas.[7] They were not only worshipers of The Buddha.

According to the Nasik inscription made by his mother Gautami Balasri. British Museum. [edit] Satakarni (c. 78106 CE) defeated the Western Satrap ruler Nahapana. The four immediate successors of Hāla (r. an abbreviation of the full name “Shri Sata” that occurs on coins from Ujjain). Dravidian legend "Arahanaku gotami putaku Hiru Yana Hatakanaku". The Puranas (the Matsya Purana. [edit] Kanva suzerainty (75-35 BCE) Many small rulers succeeded Satakarni. conquered Maharashtra. including the Horse Sacrifice . with its capital at Pratishthānapura (Paithan) in Maharashtra. and Northern Konkan. from Broach to Sopara and the Nasik and Poona districts. 207-189 BCE). who are thought to have been under the suzerainty of the Kanva dynasty. Meghasvati and Kuntala Satakarni.180-124 BCE) Early Satakarni issue. He was succeeded by his brother Kanha (or Krishna) (r. 30-6 BCE). who further extended his kingdom to the west and the south. the last ruler of the Kanvas. The Pūrānas list 30 Andhra rulers. Simuka. and performed several Vedic sacrifices at huge cost. [edit] Victory over the Shakas.[11] This feat is usually thought to have been accomplished by Pulomavi (c. the Satavahanas lost a considerable territory to the satraps. He is said in the Puranas to have ruled for 56 years. restoring the prestige of his dynasty by reconquering a large part of the former dominions of the Sātavāhanas. sun and moon. According to the Yuga Purana he conquered Kalinga following the death of Kharavela. he is the one. Yavanas and Pahlavas The first century CE saw another incursion of the Sakas of Central Asia into India. Satakarni defeated the Sunga dynasty of North India by wrestling Western Malwa from them.Vidarbha type. Southern Gujarat. 20-24 CE) had short reigns totalling about a dozen years. the Brahmanda Purana. Many are known from their coins and inscriptions as well. Apilaka. He extended Satavahana rule over Madhya Pradesh and pushed back the Sakas from Pataliputra (he is thought to be the Yuga Purana's "Shata".Ashwamedha yajna. Obv: King in profile. who mentions him in the Hathigumpha inscription. including eastern Malwa. Maharashtra . Malwa and part of Madhya Pradesh. the Vishnu Purana) all state that the first of the Andhra kings rose to power in the 1st century BCE.[13] Eventually Gautamiputra (Sri Yagna) Sātakarni (also known as Shalivahan) (r.. By this time the dynasty was well established. During the reign of the Western Satrap Nahapana. which was always their heartland. who then ruled over Pataliputra. [edit] Simuka (c. and its power spreading into all of South for the people country between the rivers Krishna and Godavari[10]. He was an ardent supporter of Hinduism. where he subsequently ruled for 10 years. His successor Sātakarnī I was the sixth ruler of the Satavahana.[12] [edit] Gautamiputra Satakarni (78-106 CE) Coin of Gautamiputra Satakarni. such as Lambodara.230-207 BCE) After becoming independent around 230 BCE. He also was in conflict with the Kalinga ruler Kharavela.. Satavahana 1st century BCE coin inscribed in Brahmi: "(Sataka)Nisa". . where they formed the dynasty of the Western Kshatrapas. the founder of the dynasty. the Vayu Purana. by slaying Susarman. Prakrit legend "Rano Gotamiputasa Siri Yana Satakarnisa": "In the reign of Gautamiputra Sri Yana Satakarni" Rev: Hill with Satavahana symbol.

" —Junagadh rock inscription [17] As a result of his victories. • Andhra Ikshvakus (or Srīparvatiyas) in the Krishna-Guntur region. who rooted the Khakharata family (The Kshaharata family of Nahapana). They were ultimately to succeed the Sātavāhanas in their capital Pratishthānapura. 106-130 CE)... River below. defeated the Western Satraps and reconquered their southern regions in western and central India. who restored the glory of the Satavahana race[14] Gautamiputra Satakarni may also have defeated Shaka king Vikramaditya in 78 AD and started the calendar known as Shalivahana era or Shaka era. and continued to rule till about the mid 200s CE. married the daughter of Rudradaman I of the Western Satraps dynasty..-ko being the royal name suffix Gautamiputra's brother..[18] Satavahana dominions were limited to their original base in the Deccan and eastern central India around Amaravati. now his father-in-law.) who obtained good report because he.[21] Several dynasties divided the lands of the kingdom among themselves. who were defeated twice in these conflicts. • Chutus of Banavasi in North Karnataka.rendered as classical Tamil to "The ruler. [19] During the reign of Sri Yajna Sātakarni (170-199 CE) the Sātavāhanas regained some prosperity. except for the extreme south territories of Poona and Nasik. Rudradaman regained all the former territories previously held by Nahapana. Vashishtiputra Satakarni was only spared his life because of his family links with Rudradaman:[16] "Rudradaman (.who crushed down the pride and conceit of the Kshatriyas (the native Indian princes. However. (r. However. the lord of Dakshinapatha. Crescented six-arch chaitya hill right. who destroyed the Shakas (Western Kshatrapas). Vashishtiputra Pulumāyi (r. 275300 CE).. and some of his coins have been found in Surashtra[20] but around the middle of the third century. Vasitti's son. the dynasty was soon extinguished following the rise of its feudatories. • Kadambas of Banavasi in North Karnataka... Highness Satakani" . waged war against the Satavahanas.[15] [edit] Successors Silver coin of king Vashishtiputra Sātakarni (c. Around 150 CE. perhaps on account of a decline in central power. Obv: Bust of king. on account of the nearness of their connection did not destroy him. the Rajputs of Rajputana. Gautamiputra Sātakarni's son.. Among them were: • Western Satraps in the northwestern part of the kingdom.. Prakrit legend in the Brahmi script: "Siri Satakanisa Rano . Four or five kings of Yajna Satakarni's line succeeded him. in spite of having twice in fair fight completely defeated Satakarni. Gautamiputra was the first Sātavāhana king to issue the portrait-type coinage. Gujarat and Central India). 167-196 CE). in a style derived from the Western Satraps. Vashishtiputra Sātakarni. 160 CE). the last great king of this dynasty. • Pallavas of Kanchipuram. the dynasty came to an end. which is followed by the Marathi and Telugu people. Rudradaman I. Vasithiputasa": "King Vasishtiputra Sri Satakarni" Rev: Ujjain/Sātavāhana symbol left. Yavanas (Indo-Greeks) and Pahlavas (IndoParthians). • Abhiras in the western part of the kingdom. Dravidian legend in the Brahmi script: "Arahanaku Vahitti makanaku Tiru Hatakaniko" .. 220320 CE). succeeded him. of whom the first ruler was Simhavarman I (r. [edit] Decline of the Satavahanas Coin of Gautamiputra Yajna Satakarni (r. Yajna Satakarni. [edit] Coinage .

and appear to have been commissioned by them. portrayed in a characteristic slim and elegant style. The Satavahanas are the first native Indian rulers to issue their own coins with portraits of their rulers. the foreman of the artisans of rajan Siri Satakarni[24] Throughout. including the stupa at Amaravati in Andhra Pradesh. The coin legends of the Satavahanas. . The stupas were decorated in marble slabs and sculpted with scenes from the life of the Buddha. Hāla (r. Karimnagar district and Krishna. which seems to have been in use in their heartland abutting the godavari. was carried to many parts of Asia by the rich maritime culture of the Satavahanas. The Satavahana empire colonized southeast Asia and spread Indian culture to those parts. Guntur district. Amaravati. Their coins had images of ships.probably Kotilingala. a practice derived from that of the Western Satraps he defeated. which may have originated in Andhra (northwestern India being the alternative candidate). Of the Sātavāhana kings. They issued mainly lead and copper coins. the son of Vasithi. Amaravati. spreading Hindu culture. 2nd-3rd century CE. [edit] Art of Sanchi The Satavahanas contributed greatly to the embellishment of the Buddhist stupa of Sanchi. their portrait-style silver coins were usually struck over coins of the Western Kshatrapa kings. lions.Royal earrings. starting with king Gautamiputra Satakarni. The Lilavati describes his marriage with a Ceylonese Princess. 1st Century BCE. itself originating with the Indo-Greek kings to the northwest. [edit] Cultural achievements An aniconic representation of Mara's assault on the Buddha.[23] Their coins also display various traditional symbols. They built great stupas in the Krishna River Valley. The Amaravati style of sculpture spread to Southeast Asia at this time. Andhra Pradesh. Mahayana Buddhism. in all areas and all periods. The Sātavāhana kings are also remarkable for their contributions to Buddhist art and architecture. Satavahana coins give unique indications as to their chronology. as well as the "Ujjain symbol". used a Prakrit dialect without exception. long ears and strong lips). in the 2nd century CE. such as elephants. even in highly descriptive scenes. horses and chaityas (stupas). the Buddhist art of the Satavahanas remained aniconic. The gateways and the balustrade were built after 70 BCE. The Satavahanas influenced South-East Asia to a great extent. a cross with four circles at the end. 20-24 CE) is famous for compiling the collection of Maharashtri poems known as the Gaha Sattasai (Sanskrit: Gāthā Saptashatī). Andhra Pradesh. denying any human representation of the Buddha. and even facial features (curly hair. language and religion into that part of the world. probably Amaravati. 2nd century CE. although from linguistic evidence it seems that the work now extant must have been re-edited in the succeeding century or two. [edit] Art of Amaravati Scroll supported by Indian Yaksha. This remained true until the end of the Satavahana rule. An inscription records the gift of one of the top architraves of the Southern Gateway by the artisans of the Satavahana king Satakarni: Gift of Ananda. language. Some reverse coin legends are in a Dravidian language in Telugu or Tamil[22] . The legendary Ujjayini emperor Vikramditiya on whose name the Vikram Samvat is initiated might be Satakarni II a Satavahana emperor as the Ujjayini symbol also appeared on the Satavahana coins.

ruled 6 months. 87-67 BCE) Probably as vassals of Kanva dynasty (75-35 BCE): • Apilaka. A History of South India. 6.. • Sundara Satakarni. Puliman (r. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ruled 36 years. ruled 8 years. • Svati (or Svami). • Majumdar.. ruled 5 years.[edit] List of rulers Puranic list of Andhra/ Satavahana kings (Source: "A Catalogue of Indian coins in the British Museum. • Vasisthiputra Sri Pulamavi. ruled 10 years. • Meghasvati (or Saudasa). ruled 18 years • Skandhastambhi. Ancient India. or Gautamiputra. Satakarni II). • Cakora Satakarni (or Cakora Svatikarna). Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta (1976). ^ Source:fragment LVI. ruled 25 years.190) [edit] References General • Sastri. or Puloma. Bhasha India. Andhras etc. ruled 5 years. • Gautamiputra Sātakarni. ruled 7 years. Madras: Oxford University Press. Microsoft". • Pulomavi (or Patumavi). (157-159). ruled 28 years.Bhasha India Microsoft". • Simuka or Sisuka (r. • Sivasvati. Puttalaka). ruled 18 years. popularly known as Shalivahan (r. 3. 167-196 CE). • Puloma. • Riktavarna (or Aristakarman). • Skandasvati. Retrieved on 2009-06-27. • Purnotsanga. 7 years. author of the Gathasaptasati. ruled 23 years. ruled 29 years. • Kuntala Satakarni (or Kuntala Svatikarna). or Shiva Sri. • Vashishtiputra Sātakarni (r. 78-114 CE). ruled 7 years. ruled 21 years. • Madhariputra Svami Sakasena? (r. http://bhashaindia. ruled 1 year. c.hindu. 20-24 CE). the Western Ksatrapas etc. ruled 8 years. • Sri Mallakarni (or Sri Satakarni). ^ http://www.htm 5. ^ ""Marathi History.aspx. ruled 18 years • Sātakarnī I (195 BCE). A Catalogue of Indian coins in the British Museum.html 4. Retrieved on 2009-06-27. (r. • Vijaya.(r. • Rapson. ruled 6 years. (1990). • Krishna (r. 2. ruled 18 Notes 1. • Canda Sri Satakarni. ruled 18 years. ruled 1 year. • Hāla (r.".com/2007/09/05/stories/2007090559120400. Sivasri.. Rapson).com/Patrons/LanguageTech/TeluguFeatures. 25-78 CE). • Svatikarna. 207-189 BCE). ruled 18 years. ruled 10 years. ^ http://encarta. 230-207 BCE). ruled 5 years. E. 130-160). is based on the Matsya Purana. the most complete one with 30 kings. ^ ""Telugu History. • Purindrasena. Ramesh Chandra (2003). • Mandalaka (or Bhavaka. ruled 56 years • Lambodara. Coins of Andhra Dynasty. ^ HISTORY – ANCIENT PERIOD "CHAPTER 2: SATAVAHANA EMPIRE AND ITS . ruled 28 years. ruled 12 years. This list. http://bhashaindia. an Indian literature classic. • Mahendra Satakarni (or Mrgendra Svatikarna.msn. • Yajna Sri Satakarni.aspx. ruled 7 years. Patna. Also (271-248 BCE). • Shivaskanda Satakarni.

probably indicating the naval power of the Andras. ^ (Rapson) 19. John. He not only ruled Aparanta. and Northern Konkan. quoting the Junagadh inscription) 17. kInscription. but did not destroy on account of the nearness of their connection" (Rapson.FEUDATORIES*" 7. Southern Gujarat. from Broach to Sopara and the Nasik and Poona districts. which ruled in different parts of the kingdom after the decline in central authority. New Delhi 11. the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Indo-Greek Kingdom) Jump to: navigation. ^ (Rapson. ^ Ancient India: English translation of 'Kitab-ul Hind' by Al-Biruni. ^ G. p. p. ^ Source for coin information 14. Culture. His coins contain figures of ships. XXXVII) Original Prakrit. CLXXXVII) 24.G. ^ (Rapson) 16. Durga Prasad. ISBN 0-5202-4500-8. Marshall. The Language of the Gods in the World of Men: Sanskrit. ^ (Rapson. ^ "Junagadh Rock Inscription of Rudradaman". search Indo-Greek Kingdom ← 180 BC–10 → Indo-Greek Kingdoms in 100 BC. 291 23. LXIV) 12." in "History of the Andhras" 13. They were gradually pushed out of the west by the Sakas (Western Khatrapas). ^ HISTORY – ANCIENT PERIOD "CHAPTER 2: SATAVAHANA EMPIRE AND ITS FEUDATORIES*" 8. Capital Alexandria in the Caucasus . but probably also the eastern part of the Central Provinces" (Majumdar. and Power in Premodern India.sdstate. ^ (Rapson." (Majumdar) 22. ^ ""The different branches of the Satavahana family. By becoming master of wide regions including Malwa. 400 Ancient India 9. The Kshaharata Nahapana's coins in the Nasik area indicate that the Western Kshatrapas controlled this region by the first century CE. 52 Indo-Greeks From Wikipedia. History of the Andhras upto 1565 A. P. Lord of the Deccan. line 5 and 6 of the inscription: "Khatiya-dapa-mana-madanasa Saka-Yavana-Palhava-nisudanasa — Khakharatavamsaniravasesa-karasa Satavahana-kula-yasa patithapana-karasa" 15. Nahapana rose from the status of a mere Kshatrapa in the year 41 (58 CE) to that of Mahakshatrapa in the year 46 (63 CE). 18.htm. ^ "The Satavahanas did not hold the western Deccan for long. ^ Pollock. ^ "later Satavahana named Yajna Satakarni seems to have conquered the Southern Dominions of the Western Satraps. XXXVIII. D. ^ Original text "L1: Rano Siri Satakarnisa L2: avesanisa vasithiputasa L3: Anamdasa danam". ^ Mahajan. weres soon ousted by new powers some of which were probably feudatories at the outset. [whom Rudradaman] (inscription dated Saka 72=150 CE) twice in a fair fight was completely defeated. p. CLXXXVI) 21. ^ "Satakarni. Sheldon (2003). Publishers. 116 10. P. National Book Trust. A guide to Sanchi. University of California Press. 135) 20. p.. http://projectsouthasia. ^ (Rapson.

Disestablished 10 Indo-Greek Kingdom Ancient sources History Religion Art Legacy The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Graeco-Indian Kingdom[1]) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent during the last two centuries BC. and blended ancient Greek. Prakrit (Brahmi script) Possibly Aramaic Religion Buddhism Ancient Greek religion Hinduism Zoroastrianism Government Monarchy King . in this context the boundary of "India" is the Hindu Kush. During the two centuries of their rule. such as Taxila[3] Pakistan's Punjab. The Greeks in India were eventually divided from the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom centered in Bactria (now the border between Afghanistan and Uzbekistan).180-160 BC Apollodotus I . The kingdom was founded when the Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius invaded India early in the second century BC.Established 180 BC . There were numerous cities. a certain Theophila in the south was also probably a satrapal or royal seat at some point.[4] These cities would house a number of dynasties in their times.25 BC-10 Strato II Historical era Antiquity . and based on Ptolemy's Geographia and the nomenclature of later kings.Sirkap/Taxila Sagala/Sialkot Pushkalavati/Peucela Language(s) Greek (Greek alphabet) Pali (Kharoshthi script) Sanskrit. or Pushkalavati and Sagala. Hindu and Buddhist religious practices. as seen on their coins. and was ruled by more than 30 Hellenistic kings. The expression "Indo-Greek Kingdom" loosely describes a number of various dynastic polities. as seen in the archaeological . the Indo-Greek kings combined the Greek and Indian languages and symbols.[2] often in conflict with each other.

1 Nature and quality of the sources o 2. pointing to a rich fusion of Indian and Hellenistic influences. Seleucus I led an army to the Indus. possibly as far as Arachosia and . and "an intermarriage agreement" (Epigamia.2.2 Size of Indo-Greek armies • 8 Legacy of the Indo-Greeks • 9 List of the Indo-Greek kings and their territories • 10 Footnotes • 11 References • 12 See also • 13 External links [edit] Background [edit] Preliminary Greek presence in India In 326 BC Alexander the Great conquered the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent as far as the Hyphasis River.remains of their cities and in the indications of their support of Buddhism. Sometime after 321 Eudemus toppled Taxiles.3 Consolidation 2. such as Bucephala.1 Loss of Mathura and eastern territories (circa 100 BC) 2.1 Tribute payments o 6.1 Military technology o 7.3 Indian Ocean trade • 7 Armed forces o 7. The Indo-Greeks ultimately disappeared as a political entity around 10 AD following the invasions of the Indo-Scythians. Greek: Επιγαμια).[8] until his departure for Babylon in 316 BC.2 Greek rule in Bactria o 1.2 Demetrius 2.1 Preliminary Greek presence in India o 1. and remaining Greek troops in these satrapies were left under the command of general Eudemus. who were confirmed again at the Treaty of Triparadisus in 321 BC.[7] The Indian satrapies of the Punjab were left to the rule of Porus and Taxiles.3. and established satrapies as well as several cities. until his troops refused to go further east.2 The first conquests o 2.2 Scythian invasions (80 BC-20 AD) 2. The confrontation ended with a peace treaty.3 Western Yuezhi or Saka expansion (70 BC-) • 3 Ideology • 4 Religion • 5 Art • 6 Economy o 6. Accordingly. meaning either a dynastic marriage or an agreement for intermarriage between Indians and Greeks.1 The fall of Bactria and death of Menander o 2.2.4. Another general also ruled over the Greek colonies of the Indus: Peithon. until he left India in 316 BC.[6] Contents [hide] • 1 Background o 1.1 After Demetrius I 2. Seleucus ceded to Chandragupta his northwestern territories. son of Agenor. particularly through the influence of Greco-Buddhist art.2 Trade with China o 6.4 Later History 2.4. In 305 BC. where he encountered Chandragupta. although pockets of Greek populations probably remained for several centuries longer under the subsequent rule of the Indo-Parthians and Kushans.[5] The diffusion of Indo-Greek culture had consequences which are still felt today.3 Rise of the Sungas (185 BC) • 2 History of the Indo-Greek kingdom o 2.4.

[13] The intensity of these contacts is testified by the existence of a dedicated Mauryan state department for Greek (Yavana) and Persian foreigners.[25] It is also thought that Greeks contributed to the sculptural work of the Pillars of Ashoka. Ai Khanoum. Kabul Museum (click image for translation)." —Polybius 11. active in Buddhist proselytism (the Mahavamsa. until he had a hundred and fifty altogether. Bactria. the Nabhakas. from Kandahar. were sent to reside at the Mauryan court.[16] On these occasions. the Bhojas." —Strabo 15.[14] or the remains of Hellenistic pottery that can be found throughout northern India.[23] or the teacher Mahadharmaraksita. In 250 BC the Satrap Diodotus of Bactria rebelled against the Seleucids and proclaimed himself King of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom. But Seleucus Nicator gave them to Sandrocottus in consequence of a marriage contract. the Kambojas. In his edicts. Diodotus' son was overthrown by Euthydemus I in 230 BC.[20][21] and that he developed herbal medicine in their territories. received more elephants. the Andhras and the Palidas. 2nd century BC Main article: Greco-Bactrian Kingdom Alexander had also established several colonies in neighbouring Bactria. 2). Dhammika). such as Alexandria on the Oxus (modern Ai-Khanoum) and Alexandria of the Caucasus (medieval Kapisa.[27] Again in 206 BC. and received in return five hundred elephants. Bactria became a Satrapy of the Seleucid Empire. According to Ranajit Pal[2] he was the same as the great Ashoka. and established there settlements of his own.[26] and more generally to the blossoming of Mauryan art." —Rock Edict Nb13 (S.[12] Presents continued to be exchanged between the two rulers. the Nabhapamkits.[11] followed by Deimachus and Dionysius. and having once more provisioned his troops. modern Bagram). renewed his friendship with Sophagasenus the king of the Indians.[22] The Greeks in India even seem to have played an active role in the propagation of Buddhism. After Alexander's death in 323 BC. for the welfare of humans and animals (Edict No. as some of the emissaries of Ashoka such as Dharmaraksita. who founded the Euthydemid . Greek populations apparently remained in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent under Mauryan rule. Chandragupta's grandson Ashoka. XII). everywhere people are following Beloved-of-the-Gods' instructions in Dharma. set in stone.1(9)[10] Also several Greeks.[15] Bilingual edict (Greek and Aramaic) by king Ashoka. which formerly belonged to the Persians: Alexander deprived the Ariani of them. set out again personally with his army: leaving Androsthenes of Cyzicus the duty of taking home the treasure which this king had agreed to hand over to him. the Pitinikas. 13). where he received war elephants and presents from the king Sophagasenus:[28] "He (Antiochus) crossed the Caucasus (Hindu Kush) and descended into India.[17][18] that Greek populations within his realm also had converted to Buddhism:[19] "Here in the king's domain among the Greeks.2. who had converted to the Buddhist faith declared in the Edicts of Ashoka. such as the historian Megasthenes. Ashoka claims he sent Buddhist emissaries to Greek rulers as far as the Mediterranean (Edict No.39[29] [edit] Greek rule in Bactria Greco-Bactrian statue of an old man or philosopher. some of them written in Greek. the Seleucid emperor Antiochus led an army into India.[24] are described in Pali sources as leading Greek ("Yona") Buddhist monks.received 500 war elephants (which played a key role in the victory of Seleucus at the Battle of Ipsus):[9] "The Indians occupy in part some of the countries situated along the Indus.

Sarnath or Mathura. mention that Pusyamitra was hostile towards Buddhists and allegedly persecuted the Buddhist faith. at the time of Augustus Caesar. the commander-in-chief of Mauryan Imperial forces and a Brahmin. [edit] History of the Indo-Greek kingdom Main article: History of the Indo-Greek Kingdom [edit] Nature and quality of the sources Main article: Indo-Greeks (sources) Some narrative history has survived for most of the Hellenistic world. who wrote an anthology drawn from the Roman historian Pompeius Trogus.[37] this is lacking for India. with the Sungas preferring the former to the latter. ranging from the Milinda Panha. down to a sentence about Menander (presumably the same Menander) .[38] Justin tells the parts of Trogus' history he finds particularly interesting at some length. historians such as Etienne Lamotte[35] and Romila Thapar[36] argue that Buddhist accounts of persecution of Buddhists by Sungas are largely exaggerated. and his summaries are held together by phrases like "meanwhile" (eodem tempore) and "thereafter" (deinde). which extended its control as far west as the Punjab. in such places as Nalanda. Strabo does not believe them on this. Most of these are purely geographical claims. The main Greco-Roman source on the Indo-Greeks is Justin. as exemplified by the archaeological site of Ai-Khanoum. quite interesting.[42] There are Indian literary sources. an army led by King Demetrius I of Bactria invaded India and seized the lands of the Kabul Valley. the recent annotator of Justin. but modern historians do. a dialogue between a Buddhist sage Nagasena and King Menander I. which he uses very loosely. As Develin.[40] Menander I (155-130 BC) is one of the few Indo-Greek kings mentioned in both Graeco-Roman and Indian sources. Bodhgaya. he is collecting instructive moral anecdotes.[30][31] The Greeks in Bactria (Greco-Bactrians) remained in close contact with the Greeks in the Mauryan Empire. In the process he has left 85% to 90% of Trogus out. assassinated the last of the Mauryan emperors Brhadrata. Justin is not trying to write history in our sense of the word. which were covered in Trogus' 41st book. from Greek sources. and Tarn both point out. who in turn wrote. Buddhist sources. [edit] Rise of the Sungas (185 BC) Main article: Sunga Empire In India. The Greco-Bactrians maintained a strong Hellenistic culture at the door of India during the rule of the Mauryan empire in India.[33][34] Pusyamitra Sunga then ascended the throne and established the Sunga Empire. and discusses them at length.[39] Justin does find the customs and growth of the Parthians. in the process. In addition to these dozen sentences. which includes some incidental information on Menander's biography and the geography and institutions of his kingdom. While it is established by secular sources that Hinduism and Buddhism were in competition during this time. at least of the kings and the wars. he mentions four of the kings of Bactria and one Greek king of India. but he does mention that Eratosthenes' sources say that some of the Greek kings conquered further than Alexander. the Maurya Dynasty was overthrown around 185 BC when Pusyamitra Sunga. nor does he believe that Menander and Demetrius son of Euthydemus conquered more tribes than Alexander[41] There is half a story about Menander in one of the books of Polybius which has not come down to us intact. he connects them by short and simplified summaries of the rest of the material.Dynasty. Where Justin covers periods for which there are other and better sources. A large number of Buddhist monasteries (viharas) were allegedly converted to Hindu temples. the geographer Strabo mentions India a few times in the course of his long dispute with Eratosthenes about the shape of Eurasia. he has occasionally made provable mistakes.[32] When the Mauryan empire was overthrown by the Sunga Dynasty around 185 BC. such as the Asokavadana.

Names in these sources are consistently Indianized. wearing the scalp of an elephant. including some epigraphic evidence. and several alternate interpretations have been proposed. in addition to mere existence: • Kings who left many coins reigned long and prosperously. and the same coins have been identified by different enquirers as describing Demetrius I. recorded in the Records of the Grand Historian and Book of the Former Han. or three Demetrii. the latter would be the first entry of the Greeks into India. with additional evidence in the Book of the Later Han. exactly how many is complicated to determine. The exact time and progression of the Bactrian expansion into India is difficult to ascertain. There are coin finds of several dozen Indo-Greek rulers in India.170 BC). All of these arguments are arguments of probability. Demetrius I always carries the elephant-helmet worn by Alexander. Demetrius II. the peace treaty included the offer of a marriage between Demetrius and Antiochus' daughter. and the eastern Greeks did not date their coins.[49] Demetrius I seems to have conquered the Kabul valley. the identification of places and peoples behind transcriptions into Chinese is difficult. one of Menander's coins was found in Wales.[44] primarily in Indic languages. and there is some dispute whether. • If a king overstrikes another king's coins. because the Greeks did not number their kings. two. There was also a Chinese expedition to Bactria by Chang-k'ien under the Emperor Wu of Han. There is also literary evidence for a campaign eastward against the Seres and the Phryni. there is an inscription from his father's reign already officially hailing him as victorious. but the order and dating of these conquests is uncertain.[48] Coins of Demetrius I have been found in Arachosia and in the Kabul Valley. for the Indo-Greek kings. this is an important evidence to show that the overstriker reigned after the overstruck. if two kings issue coins with the same monogram. have monograms in addition to their inscriptions. These are generally held to indicate a mint official. but ancient authors name Demetrius. and have exceptions. He also has one of the few absolute dates in Indo-Greek history: after his father held off Antiochus III for two years. so either his conquests did not penetrate that far into India or he died before he could consolidate them. they reigned in the same area.[51] Bopearachchi believes that Demetrius received the title of "King of India" following his victories south of the Hindu Kush. • Hoards which contain many coins of the same king come from his realm. • Indo-Greek coins. like other Hellenistic coins. and Menander as conquerors.[50] he struck no Indian coins.[52] He was also given. Arachosia and perhaps Gandhara. which seems to be a token of his Indian conquests. and may well be from the same family.[43] There is also significant archaeological evidence. therefore. On his coins. Dharmamitra represents "Demetrius" or is an Indian prince with that name. such as the mention of the "Yavana" embassy of king Antialcidas on the Heliodorus pillar in Vidisha. for example. none is a narrative history. which has the same problems with names as the Indic literary evidence.[46] [edit] Demetrius The founder of the Indo-Greek Kingdom Demetrius I (c. there are a substantial number of coin finds for a King Demetrius. or Demetrius III. as they defined it. • Kings who use the same iconography are friendly. Overstrikes may indicate that the two kings were enemies. have no long interval between them. symbol of his conquests in India. But the chief archaeological evidence is the coins. 208-6 BC.[45] The following deductions have been made from coins. but authors have postulated one. 205– c.and his attack on Pataliputra which happens to have survived as a standard example in grammar texts. Apollodotus.[47] Demetrius I was the son of Euthydemus I of Bactria. and if not immediately following one another. For example. .

Philoxenus. starting in 186/5 BC. quoted by Strabo. and since he already ruled in India. to the Ganges and Pataliputra. Senior considers that these conquests can only refer to Menander:[66] Against this. Invincible) a cult title of Heracles. with known campaigns and battles. and also any parts beyond the Hypanis of which an account has been added by those who. To the south. and he seems to have reigned in Gandhara as well as western Punjab.[65] It is theorized that Greek advances temporarily went as far as the Sunga capital Pataliputra (today Patna) in eastern India. 165/155 BC) whose coins are frequently found even in eastern Punjab. John Mitchener considers that the Greeks probably raided the Indian capital of Pataliputra during the time of Demetrius. which Alexander had assumed. and it seems likely that the civil wars between them made it possible for Apollodotus I (from c. a chlamys cape.[64] Apollodotus I (and Menander I) were mentioned by Pompejus Trogus as important Indo-Greek kings. Large numbers of his coins have been found in India. but if this was the case. the Greeks may have occupied the areas of the Sindh and Gujarat. so Greek presence outside was probably short-lived or less significant. after Alexander.[67] though Mitchener's analysis is not based on numismatic evidence. probably in honour of the conqueror Demetrius. An Indo-Greek stone palette showing Poseidon with attendants. and Artemidorus also took it. the Bactrian kings Pantaleon and Agathocles struck the first bilingual coins with Indian inscriptions found as far east as Taxila[58] so in their time (c. it seems likely that the easternmost conquests were made by him.though perhaps only posthumously. probably due to wars in their own territories. the Indo-Greek territory for a while included the Indian coastal provinces of Sindh and possibly Gujarat. He describes Greek cities there. then. there have become known to us all those parts which lie this side of the Hypanis. 15-1-27[68] The seriousness of the attack is in some doubt: Menander may merely have joined a raid led by Indian Kings down the Ganga.[63] Menander's reign saw the end of the Indo-Greek expansion. the title ανικητος ("Anicetos". Apollodotus I was succeeded by or ruled alongside Antimachus II. Gandhara.[55][56][57] After the death of Demetrius. Demetrius may have been the founder of a newly discovered Greek Era. 185-170 BC) the Bactrian kingdom seems to have included Gandhara. Menander seems to have begun a second wave of conquests.[69] as Indo-Greek presence has not been confirmed this far east. [edit] The first conquests Greek presence in Arachosia. He wears a chiton tunic. one of them called Demetrias. 180/175 BC) to make himself independent as the first proper Indo-Greek king (who did not rule from Bactria). 2nd-1st century BC.[59] Several Bactrian kings followed after Demetrius' death. Western and Indian sources also indicate that the Indo-Greeks may have captured the Sunga capital Pataliputra in northeastern India.[61] According to Apollodorus of Artemita. ." —Strabo. and boots.[54] [edit] After Demetrius I Indo-Greek territory. likely the son of the Bactrian king Antimachus I. where Greek populations had been living since before the acquisition of the territory by Chandragupta from Seleucus is mentioned by Isidore of Charax. the later Indo-Greek kings Lysias.[53] Finally. "Of the eastern parts of India.[60] The next important Indo-Greek king was Menander (from c. the Indo-Greek territory can however only be confirmed from the Kabul Valley to the eastern Punjab. advanced beyond the Hypanis. lit.[62] With archaeological methods. Ancient Orient Museum. they did not hold it for long but were forced to retreat.

including the strategic harbour of Barygaza (Bharuch),[70] conquests also attested by coins dating from the Indo-Greek ruler Apollodotus I and by several ancient writers (Strabo 11; Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, Chap. 41/47):[71] "The Greeks... took possession, not only of Patalena, but also, on the rest of the coast, of what is called the kingdom of Saraostus and Sigerdis." —Strabo 11.11.1[72] Menander I became the most important of the Indo-Greek rulers.[73] Narain however dismisses the account of the Periplus as "just a sailor's story", and holds that coin finds are not necessarily indicators of occupation.[74] Coin hoards suggest that in Central India, the area of Malwa may also have been conquered.[75] Various Indian records describe Yavana attacks on Mathura, Panchala, Saketa, and Pataliputra. The term Yavana is thought to be a transliteration of "Ionians" and is known to have designated Hellenistic Greeks (starting with the Edicts of Ashoka, where Ashoka writes about "the Yavana king Antiochus"),[76] but may have sometimes referred to other foreigners as well after the 1st century AD.[77] Patanjali, a grammarian and commentator on Panini around 150 BC, describes in the Mahābhāsya, the invasion in two examples using the imperfect tense of Sanskrit, denoting a recent event:[78][79] • "Arunad Yavanah Sāketam" ("The Yavanas (Greeks) were besieging Saketa") • "Arunad Yavano Madhyamikām" ("The Yavanas were besieging Madhyamika" (the "Middle country")). Also the Brahmanical text of the Yuga Purana, which describes Indian historical events in the form of a prophecy, but is thought to be likely historical,[80][81][82] relates the attack of the Indo-Greeks on the capital Pataliputra,[83] a magnificent fortified city with 570 towers and 64 gates according to Megasthenes,[84] and describes the ultimate destruction of the city's walls:[85] "Then, after having approached Saketa together with the Panchalas and the Mathuras, the Yavanas, valiant in battle, will reach Kusumadhvaja ("The town of the flower-standard", Pataliputra). Then, once Puspapura (another name of Pataliputra) has been reached and its celebrated mud-walls cast down, all the realm will be in disorder." —Yuga Purana, Paragraph 47–48, quoted in Mitchener, The Yuga Purana, 2002 edition Earlier authors such as Tarn have suggested that the raid on Pataliputra was made by Demetrius.[86] According to Mitchener, the Hathigumpha inscription indicates the presence of the Greeks led by a "Demetrius" in eastern India (Magadha) sometime during the 1st century BC,[87] although this interpretation was previously disputed by Narain.[88] But while this inscription may be interpreted as an indication that Demetrius I was the king who made conquests in Punjab, it is still true that he never issued any Indian coins, and the restoration of his name in Kharosthi on the Hathigumpha inscription: Di-Mi-Ta, has been doubted.[89] The "Di" is a reconstruction, and it may be noted that the name of another Indo-Greek king, Amyntas, is spelt A-Mi-Ta in Kharosthi and may fit in. Therefore, Menander remains the likeliest candidate for any advance east of Punjab. [edit] Consolidation Eucratides I toppled the Greco-Bactrian Euthydemid dynasty, and attacked the IndoGreeks from the west. The important Bactrian king Eucratides seems to have attacked the Indo-Greek kingdom during the mid 2nd century BC. A Demetrius, called "King of the Indians", seems to have confronted Eucratides in a four month siege, reported by Justin, but he ultimately lost.[90] In any case, Eucratides seems to have occupied territory as far as the Indus,

between ca. 170 BC and 150 BC.[91] His advances were ultimately checked by the Indo-Greek king Menander I,[92] Menander is considered to have been probably the most successful Indo-Greek king, and the conqueror of the largest territory.[93] The finds of his coins are the most numerous and the most widespread of all the Indo-Greek kings. Menander is also remembered in Buddhist literature, where he called Milinda, and is described in the Milinda Panha as a convert to Buddhism:[94] he became an arhat[95] whose relics were enshrined in a manner reminiscent of the Buddha.[96][97] He also introduced a new coin type, with Athena Alkidemos ("Protector of the people") on the reverse, which was adopted by most of his successors in the East.[98] [edit] The fall of Bactria and death of Menander From the mid-2nd century BC, the Scythians and then the Yuezhi, following a long migration from the border of China, started to invade Bactria from the north.[99] Around 130 BC the last Greco-Bactrian king Heliocles was probably killed during the invasion and the Greco-Bactrian kingdom proper ceased to exist. The Parthians also probably played a role in the downfall of the Bactrian kingdom. Coin of Philoxenus (c.100 BC), unarmed, making a blessing gesture with the right hand. The Indo-Greek states, shielded by the Hindu Kush range, were saved from the invasions, but the civil wars which had weakened the Greeks continued. Menander I, died around the same time, and even though the king himself seems to have been popular among his subjects, his dynasty was at least partially dethroned (see discussion under Menander I). Probable members of the dynasty of Menander include the ruling queen Agathokleia, her son Strato I, and Nicias, though it is uncertain whether they ruled directly after Menander.[100] Other kings emerged, usually in the western part of the Indo-Greek realm, such as Zoilos I, Lysias, Antialcidas and Philoxenos.[101] These rulers may have been relatives of either the Eucratid or the Euthydemid dynasties. The names of later kings were often new (members of Hellenistic dynasties usually inherited family names) but old reverses and titles were frequently repeated by the later rulers. While all Indo-Greek kings after Apollodotus I mainly issued bilingual (Greek and Kharoshti) coins for circulation in their own territories, several of them also struck rare Greek coins which have been found in Bactria. The later kings probably struck these coins as some kind of payment to the Scythian or Yuezhi tribes who now ruled there, though if as tribute or payment for mercenaries remains unknown.[102] For some decades after the Bactrian invasion, relationships seem to have been peaceful between the Indo-Greeks and these relatively hellenised nomad tribes. There are however no historical recordings of events in the Indo-Greek kingdom after Menander's death around 130 BC, since the Indo-Greeks had now become very isolated from the rest of the Graeco-Roman world. The later history of the IndoGreek states, which lasted to around the shift BC/AD, is reconstructed almost entirely from archaeological and numismatical analyses.[103] [edit] Later History Throughout the 1st century BC, the Indo-Greeks progressively lost ground to the Indians in the east, and the Scythians, the Yuezhi, and the Parthians in the West. About 20 Indo-Greek king are known during this period,[104] down to the last known Indo-Greek ruler, a king named Strato II, who ruled in the Punjab region until around 55 BC.[105] Other sources, however, place the end of Strato II's reign as late as 10 AD - see below in the list of coins. [edit] Loss of Mathura and eastern territories (circa 100 BC) Coin of the Yaudheyas. The Indo-Greeks may have ruled as far as the area of Mathura until sometime in the 1st century BC: the Maghera inscription, from a village near Mathura, records the

dedication of a well "in the one hundred and sixteenth year of the reign of the Yavanas", which could be as late as 70 BC.[106] Soon however Indian kings recovered the area of Mathura and south-eastern Punjab, west of the Yamuna River, and started to mint their own coins. The Arjunayanas (area of Mathura) and Yaudheyas mention military victories on their coins ("Victory of the Arjunayanas", "Victory of the Yaudheyas"). During the 1st century BC, the Trigartas, Audumbaras[107] and finally the Kunindas[108] also started to mint their own coins, usually in a style highly reminiscent of Indo-Greek coinage.[109][110][111][112] The Western king Philoxenus briefly occupied the whole remaining Greek territory from the Paropamisadae to Western Punjab between 100 to 95 BC, after what the territories fragmented again. The western kings regained their territory as far west as Arachosia, and eastern kings continued to rule on and off until the beginning of our era. [edit] Scythian invasions (80 BC-20 AD) Main article: Indo-Scythians Asia in 1 AD, showing last kingdom of the Indo-Greeks. Tetradrachm of Hippostratos, reigned circa 65-55 BC. Silver coin of the Indo-Scythian king Azes II (r.c. 35-12 BC). Around 80 BC, an Indo-Scythian king named Maues, possibly a general in the service of the Indo-Greeks, ruled for a few years in northwestern India before the IndoGreeks again took control. He seems to have been married to an Indo-Greek princess.[113] King Hippostratos (65-55 BC) seems to have been one of the most successful subsequent Indo-Greek kings until he lost to the Indo-Scythian Azes I, who established an Indo-Scythian dynasty.[114] Various coins seem to suggest that some sort of alliance may have taken place between the Indo-Greeks and the Scythians.[115] Although the Indo-Scythians clearly ruled militarily and politically, they remained surprisingly respectful of Greek and Indian cultures. Their coins were minted in Greek mints, continued using proper Greek and Kharoshthi legends, and incorporated depictions of Greek deities, particularly Zeus.[116] The Mathura lion capital inscription attests that they adopted the Buddhist faith, as do the depictions of deities forming the vitarka mudra on their coins. Greek communities, far from being exterminated, probably persisted under Indo-Scythian rule. There is a possibility that a fusion, rather than a confrontation, occurred between the Greeks and the Indo-Scythians: in a recently published coin, Artemidoros presents himself as "son of Maues",[117] and the Buner reliefs show Indo-Greeks and IndoScythians reveling in a Buddhist context. The Indo-Greeks continued to rule a territory in the eastern Punjab, until the kingdom of the last Indo-Greek king Strato was taken over by the Indo-Scythian ruler Rajuvula around 10 AD.[118] [edit] Western Yuezhi or Saka expansion (70 BC-) Main article: Yuezhi Silver bilingual drachm of Hermaeus (ruled 90-70 BC) with his wife Kalliope. King on horse, equipped with the recurve bow of the steppes. Around eight "western" Indo-Greek kings are known; most of them are distinguished by their issues of Attic coins for circulation in the neighbouring. One of the last important kings in the Paropamisadae was Hermaeus, who ruled until around 80 BC; soon after his death the Yuezhi or Sakas took over his areas from neighbouring Bactria. When Hermaeus is depicted on his coins riding a horse, he is

these bilingual coins of the IndoGreeks were the key in the decipherment of the Kharoshthi script by James Prinsep (1799–1840).[133] Kharoshthi became extinct around the 3rd century AD. It has been suggested. The historian Diodorus even wrote that the king of Pataliputra had "great love for the Greeks". In the Harivamsa the "Yavana" Indo-Greeks are . rather than the more eastern Brahmi. that their invasion of India was intended to show their support for the Mauryan empire which may have had a long history of marital alliances. No coins of him are known. With obverse in Greek "BASILEOS SOTĒROS MENANDROY" and reverse in Kharosthi "MAHARAJA TRATASA MENADRASA": "Of The Saviour King Menander". After the death of Hermaeus. a tremendous concession to another culture never before made in the Hellenic world. The later king Hippostratus may however also have held territories in the Paropamisadae. For instance. Sapadbizes. "Su" being explained as the Greek transliteration of the ubiquitous Kushan royal title "Shau" ("Shah". derived from Aramaic.[134][135][136] or Yonas (in Pali)[137] both thought to be transliterations of "Ionians". in modern Pakistan. In Indian literature. and minted vast quantities of posthumous issues of Hermaeus up to around 40 AD. Buddhism flourished under the Indo-Greek kings.[126][127] The Greek expansion into Indian territory may have been intended to protect Greek populations in India. those of Menander I and Appolodotus I bear the mention "Saviour king" (ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ).equipped with the recurve bow and bow-case of the steppes and RC Senior believes him to be of partly nomad origin. Indian-standard coin of Apollodotus I (180–160 BC). "King"). The last known mention of an Indo-Greek ruler is suggested by an inscription on a signet ring of the 1st century AD in the name of a king Theodamas. the Yuezhi or Saka nomads became the new rulers of the Paropamisadae. Menander and Apollodotus may indeed have been saviours to the Greek populations residing in India.[131] From the reign of Apollodotus II. and their rule.[129] The city of Sirkap founded by Demetrius combines Greek and Indian influences without signs of segregation between the two cultures.[120] [edit] Ideology Bilingual silver drachm of Menander I (160-135 BC). Kharoshthi letters started to be used as mintmarks on coins in combination with Greek monograms and mintmarks. which was used only once on coins of Agathocles of Bactria). when they blend with the coinage of the Kushan king Kujula Kadphises. and to some of the Indians as well.[132] Incidentally. suggesting the participation of local technicians to the minting process. especially that of Menander. and minted in Greek and in the same style as the western Indo-Greek kings. a title with high value in the Greek world which indicated an important deflective victory. written in Greek on the front and in Pali on the back (in the Kharoshthi script. Ptolemy I had been Soter (saviour) because he had helped save Rhodes from Demetrius the Besieger. but the signet bears in kharoshthi script the inscription "Su Theodamasa". Reverse shows Athena advancing left. around 80 BC. The first Greek coins to be minted in India. with thunderbolt and shield. from the Bajaur area of Gandhara. probably depending on Greek mints and celators. has been remembered as benevolent. although direct evidence is lacking.[130] Also.[123] exchange of ambassadors[124] and religious missions[125] with the Greeks.[121] exchange of presents. most of the coins of the Greek kings in India were bilingual.[122] demonstrations of friendship. and Antiochus I because he had saved Asia Minor from the Gauls. the Indo-Greeks are described as Yavanas (in Sanskrit).[119] The first documented Yuezhi prince. ruled around 20 BC. The title was also inscribed in Pali as ("Tratarasa") on the reverse of their coins.[128] and to protect the Buddhist faith from the religious persecutions of the Sungas.

Menander I. there were only two classes of people. On the contrary. and explains that upon his death. in a parallel with the historic Buddha:[143] "But when one Menander. the cities indeed by common consent celebrated his funerals. mentions in the form of a prophecy that Menander will build a stupa in Pataliputra.[140] and is described as a great benefactor of the religion.[141] The wheel he represented on some of his coins was probably Buddhist. 28. Pahlavas and Paradas as Kshatriyapungava i. taking delight in the wisdom of the Elder. died afterwards in the camp. and abandoning the household life for the house-less state. and they were enshrined in "monuments" (μνημεία.. Translation by T. together with the Sakas. but also with Hinduism and Zoroastrianism. but coming to a contest about his relics. who had reigned graciously over the Bactrians. most Gandharan Hellenistic works of art are usually attributed to the direct successors of the Indo-Greeks in India in 1st century AD. leaving the exact chronology open to interpretation. and they should all erect monuments to him.. In addition to the worship of the Classical pantheon of the Greek deities found on their coins (Zeus. probably stupas). The Majjhima Nikaya explains that in the lands of the Yavanas and Kambojas. "Political Precepts" Praec. inside Corinthian columns. and few works of art (apart from their coins and a few stone palettes) are directly attributed to them. The coinage of the Indo-Greeks however is generally considered as some of the most artistically brilliant of Antiquity.[138] and a palm of victory on the reverse (British Museum). everyone should carry away an equal share. in contrast with the numerous Indian castes. [edit] Religion Main article: Religions of the Indo-Greeks Indian-standard coinage of Menander I with a Buddhist eight-spoked wheel. they were difficultly at last brought to this agreement. the honour of sharing his remains was claimed by the various cities under his rule.e. Gandharan sculpture cannot be dated exactly. the "Saviour king". Buner relief. in an already decadent state. 6). the Indo-Greeks were involved with local faiths.[139] After the Greco-Bactrians militarily occupied parts of northern India from around 180 BC. Victoria and Albert Museum. Herakles. seems to have converted to Buddhism. holding plantain leaves. he (Menander) handed over his kingdom to his son. W. numerous instances of interaction between Greeks and Buddhism are recorded. Apollo. in purely Hellenistic style. Aryas and Dasas (masters and slaves). particularly with Buddhism. the art of the Indo-Greeks is poorly documented.[138] and he is famous for his dialogues with the Buddhist monk Nagasena.[145] The Hellenistic heritage (Ai-Khanoum) and artistic proficiency of the Indo-Greek world would suggest a rich sculptural tradition as well. Rhys Davids. the Kushans[146] In general. foremost among the Warrior caste. grew great in insight. Athena. the Stupavadana of Ksemendra. reip. or Kshatriyas. transmitted to us in the Milinda Panha.[144] [edit] Art Main article: Art of the Indo-Greeks Greek Buddhist devotees. Kambojas. on a par with Ashoka or the future Kushan emperor Kanishka.). that his ashes being distributed." —Plutarch. ger. In general.[142] Plutarch also presents Menander as an example of benevolent rule. and himself attained to Arahatship!" —The Questions of King Milinda. but traditionally very few sculptural remains have been attributed to them. Another Indian text. the Indo-Parthians and. which explain that he became a Buddhist arhat: "And afterwards. . such as the nomadic Indo-Scythians.qualified.

Gandhara. similar in form and style to the 2nd century BC Greco-Bactrian statues of Ai-Khanoum. beyond the omnipresence of Greek style and stylistic elements which might be simply considered as an enduring artistic tradition.. rather than the Indo-Scythians or the Kushans. or remaining Greek communities under the rule of the Indo-Parthians or Kushans in the 1st and 2nd century AD. Bussagli and McEvilley have taken the view that some of the most purely Hellenistic works of northwestern India and Afghanistan. may actually be wrongly attributed to later centuries. wine and music (Detail of Chakhil-i-Ghoundi stupa. holding contraptions which are characteristic of Greek culture (amphoras. say. Afghanistan. executed by artists fully conversant with far more than the externals of the Classical style". and an important monetary economy. from Asia Minor or Syria of the first or second century BC (. although it seems to have been rather vibrant. Boardman explains that both figures "might at first (and even second) glance. 1st century AD). The Indo-Greek did strike bilingual coins both in the Greek "round" standard and in the Indian "square" standard. to the time of the Indo-Greeks in the 2nd-1st century BC:[148] Indo-Greek princes may have been the models for the Bodhisattvas of the GrecoBuddhist art of Gandhara.[3]. with the reign of Strato II in the Punjab.. in situations which can range from festive (such as Bacchanalian scenes) to Buddhist-devotional. Tarn. and more recently. particularly in the mountainous area of the Hindu-Kush. it has been suggested that these works of art may have been executed by itinerant Greek artists during the time of maritime contacts with the West from the 1st to the 3rd century AD. 2nd century (Ostasiatische Museum. Hadda.[150] This is particularly the case of some purely Hellenistic works in Hadda. Boardman. Foucher. The adoption of Indo-Greek monetary conventions by neighbouring kingdoms. Berlin) Uncertainties in dating make it unclear whether these works of art actually depict Greeks of the period of Indo-Greek rule up to the 1st century BC.[160] suggesting that monetary circulation extended to all parts of society.[154] offers numerous depictions of people in Greek Classical realistic style.[161] would also suggest that Indo-Greek coins were used extensively for cross-border trade. such as the Kunindas to the east and the Satavahanas to the south. hairstyle). and instead belong to a period one or two centuries earlier. attitudes and fashion (clothes such as the chiton and the himation. pass as. [edit] Tribute payments . amphoras. Gandhara.[151] Referring to one of the Buddha triads in Hadda.[152] Alternatively. an area which "might indeed be the cradle of incipient Buddhist sculpture in Indo-Greek style".[155][156] Seated Boddhisatva.) these are essentially Greek figures. The possibility of a direct connection between the Indo-Greeks and Greco-Buddhist art has been reaffirmed recently as the dating of the rule of Indo-Greek kings has been extended to the first decades of the 1st century AD. "kantaros" Greek drinking cups).Hellenistic culture in the Indian subcontinent: Greek clothes.[149] This also seems to be corroborated by Ranajit Pal's suggestion that the Indo-Greek king Diodotus_I was the great Ashoka.[158][159] The abundance of their coins would tend to suggest large mining operations. may have been the models for the Bodhisattva statues of Gandhara[157] [edit] Economy Very little is known about the economy of the Indo-Greeks.[147] Also.[153] The Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara. Benjamin Rowland thinks that the Indo-Greeks. in which the Buddha is sided by very Classical depictions of Herakles/Vajrapani and Tyche/Hariti.

swords.5.[167] Although war elephants are never represented on coins.3. He is equipped with a cuirass. 236. with helmets being either round in the Greco-Bactrian style. in the questions of Nagasena to king Menander. Typical Hellenistic uniforms are depicted. Interestingly. When I asked the people how they had gotten such articles. II. Generally. they replied: "Our merchants go buy them in the markets of Shendu (northwestern India). none of these coins have ever been found south of the Hindu-Kush. Eudoxus of Cyzicus is reported (Strabo. II. lamellar armour for the thighs. Shendu. Geog. which have yielded quantities of Indo-Greek coins in the Hellenistic standard (Greek weights.Stone palette depicting a mythological scene. suggests that intense trade with Southern China was going through northern India. and leg protections (cnemids). Indo-Greek officer (on a coin of Menander II).4)[164] to have made a successful voyage to India and returned with a cargo of perfumes and gemstones. either Yuezhi or Scythian. O king. Greek language). around 130 BC the Central Asian recurve bow of the steppes with its gorytos box starts to appear for the first time on the coins of Zoilos I. up to 120 ships were setting sail every year from Myos Hormos to India (Strabo Geog. "I saw bamboo canes from Qiong and cloth (silk?) made in the province of Shu. 2nd-1st century BC.[163] [edit] Trade with China An indirect testimony by the Chinese explorer Zhang Qian.[168] The Milinda Panha.000 horsemen. today in the Hermitage Museum. who are said by Polybius to have faced a Seleucid invasion in 210 BC with 10. suggesting strong interactions (and apparently an alliance) with nomadic peoples. and live much like the people of Bactria". who visited Bactria around 128 BC.[166] The recurve bow becomes a standard feature of Indo-Greek horsemen by 90 BC. depicts a helmetted Greek combatant on an Indian war elephant. Zhang Qian explains that he found Chinese products in the Bactrian markets. Indo-Greek kings are often represented riding horses. a harness plate (phalera) dated to the 3-2nd century BC. The first contacts started when the Ptolemies constructed the Red Sea ports of Myos Hormos and Berenike. as early as the reign of Antimachus II around 160 BC. trans. Around 130 BC.[162] Conversely. with destination the Indus delta. —Sima Qian." Zhang Qian reported. may have been used to pay some form of tribute to the Yuezhi tribes north of the Hindu-Kush. they told me. [edit] Military technology Their weapons were spears. The equestrian tradition probably goes back to the Greco-Bactrians. It would also seem that some of the coins emitted by the Indo-Greek kings. longbow (on the coins of Agathokleia) and arrows. particularly those in the monolingual Attic standard. the Kathiawar peninsula or Muziris. which he incidentally describes as a civilization similar to that of Bactria: "When I was in Bactria. and further developed during the time of the Indo-Greeks together with their territorial expansion along the western coast of India. lies several thousand li southeast of Bactria. provides a rare glimpse of the military methods of the period: "(Nagasena) Has it ever happened to you. By the time Indo-Greek rule was ending. Burton Watson. although none of the kings represented in the hoard are known to have ruled so far north.12). The people cultivate land. or the flat kausia of the Macedonians (coins of Apollodotus I). and that they were transiting through northwestern India. that rival kings rose up against you as enemies and opponents? .[165] [edit] Armed forces The coins of the Indo-Greeks provide rich clues on their uniforms and weapons.[102] This is indicated by the coins finds of the Qunduz hoard in northern Afghanistan. as seen on some of the coins of Hermaeus. circa 90 BC. [edit] Indian Ocean trade Maritime relations across the Indian ocean started in the 3rd century BC. "Records of the Great Historian". p.

apart from a short-lived invasion of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom." —Megasthenes fragm. 21." (Milinda Panha." (Milinda Panha. and in the use of the war chariot.[174] The Kushans founded the Kushan Empire. Book I) [edit] Size of Indo-Greek armies The Greco-Bactrian king Eucratides (171-145 BC) is said to have vanquished 60.000 Indo-Greeks.-(Menander) Yes. and thus liberated after four months. Nat. The ruler of Kalinga. while weakened by them. he numbers at 60. king of the Indians. The Greek ambassador Megasthenes took special note of the military strength of Kalinga in his Indica in the middle of the 3rd century BC: "The royal city of the Calingae (Kalinga) is called Parthalis. the Greeks were under the rule of the Western Kshatrapas. 11. All that had been prepared beforehand.000 (although they allegedly lost to 300 Greco-Bactrians): "Eucratides led many wars with great courage. and watch towers erected. -Or you had yourself trained in the management of war elephants. I suppose. LVI. Book III. and stores of food collected? -Not at all.[169] An account by the Roman writer Justin gives another hint of the size of Indo-Greek armies. before being himself defeated by Menander. I had learnt all that before. VI.000 horsemen. XLI. and in horsemanship. Hist. which. which was to prosper for several centuries. -Then you set to work.000 and 200. and in archery and fencing? -Not at all.6[170] These are considerable numbers.000.[172] with customs identical to those of the Xiongnu. he put India under his rule" —Justin. and ramparts thrown up. [edit] Legacy of the Indo-Greeks Main article: Legacy of the Indo-Greeks The Indo-Scythian Taxila copper plate uses the Macedonian month of "Panemos" for calendrical purposes (British Museum). He made numerous sorties. from the usage of the Greek language and calendrical . to have moats dug. was put under siege by Demetrius. cavalry.[171] The Indo-Greeks were later confronted by the nomadic tribes from Central Asia (Yuezhi and Scythians). and soldiers on foot). in Plin. In the south. According to Zhang Qian. as large armies during the Hellenistic period typically numbered between 20. and managed to vanquish 60. The armed forces of the Indo-Greeks engaged in important battles with local Indian forces. 1. and that he induced him to retreat from Pataliputra to Mathura. bowmen. 8–23. in the case of the conflict between the Greco-Bactrian Eucratides and the Indo-Greek Demetrius II.000 enemies with 300 soldiers. the Yuezhi represented a considerable force of between 100. -But why? -With the object of warding off future danger. Kharavela. 700 elephants keep watch and ward in "procinct of war. It is unclear how much longer the Greeks managed to maintain a distinct presence in the Indian sub-continent. certainly. and strongholds built.000 mounted archer warriors.000 to 30. and.000-foot-soldiers. Over their king 60.[173] From the 1st century AD. Chap 7) The Milinda Panha also describes the structure of Menander's army: "Now one day Milinda the king proceeded forth out of the city to pass in review the innumerable host of his mighty army in its fourfold array (of elephants. The legacy of the Indo-Greeks was felt however for several centuries. claims in the Hathigumpha inscription that he led a "large army" in the direction of Demetrius' own "army" and "transports". the Greek communities of central Asia and northwestern India lived under the control of the Kushan branch of the Yuezhi.

but the majority are known through numismatic evidence only. with adjustments regular being made with new analysis and coin finds (overstrikes of one king over another's coins being the most critical element in establishing chronological sequences).[176] The Indo-Greeks may also have had some influence on the religious plan as well. tracable down to the period of the Gupta Empire in the 4th century. supplemented by the views of R C Senior and occasionally other authorities.[177] [edit] List of the Indo-Greek kings and their territories Today 36 Indo-Greek kings are known. especially in relation to the developing Mahayana Buddhism. The system used here is adapted from Osmund Bopearachchi. through a conflation of the Greek Democritean-Sophistic-Skeptical tradition with the rudimentary and unformalized empirical and skeptical elements already present in early Buddhism". Several of them are also recorded in Western and Indian historical sources. The exact chronology and sequencing of their rule is still a matter of scholarly inquiry. Mahayana Buddhism has been described as "the form of Buddhism which (regardless of how Hinduized its later forms became) seems to have originated in the Greco-Buddhist communities of India.methods.[175] to the influences on the numismatics of the Indian subcontinent.[178] INDO-GREEK KINGS AND THEIR TERRITORIES Based on Bopearachchi (1991) Territories/ Dates PAROPAMISADE ARACHOSIA GANDHARA WESTERN PUNJAB EASTERN PUNJAB 200-190 BCE Demetrius I 190-180 BCE Agathocles Pantaleon 185-170 BCE Antimachus I 180-160 BCE Apollodotus I 175-170 BCE Demetrius II 160-155 BCE Antimachus II 170-145 BCE Eucratides 155-130 BCE Menander I 130-120 BCE Zoilos I Agathokleia 120-110 BCE Lysias Strato I 110-100 BCE Antialcidas Heliokles II 100 BCE Polyxenios Demetrius III 100-95 BCE Philoxenus .

^ Mortimer Wheeler Flames over Persepolis (London. The latter however has become the general usage. However. A marriage treaty was arranged for the same Demetrius with a daughter of the Seleucid ruler Antiochus III (who had some Persian descent). who would have encountered it in Bactria. ^ Euthydemus I was. Some level of inter-marriage may also have occurred. "in the country of the Yonakas (Greeks)".10 CE Telephos Hippostratos Azes I (Indo-Scythian) Zoilos II Apollophanes Strato II Rajuvula (Indo-Scythian) [edit] Footnotes 1. Tarn. p.. . 4. pp. especially since the publication of Narain's book "The Indo-Greeks". ^ "Menander had his capital in Sagala" Bopearachchi.83.34.. citing Woodcock: "Menander was a Bactrian Greek king of the Euthydemid dysnasty. His son. 1968). 179) ascribes the initial move of Taxila to the hill of Sirkap to Demetrius I. not a polis or with a Hippodamian plan. founder of the Indo-Greek kingdom. Polybius 11. a Magnesian Greek. For example. 2. Journal of Hellenic Studies.. The ethnicity of later Indo-Greek rulers is less clear ("Notes on Hellenism in Bactria and India". according to Polybius11.34. Pp. as exemplified by Alexander III of Macedon (who married Roxana of Bactria) or Seleucus (who married Apama). "African-American" . so that "Greco-Indian" is normally a more accurate nomenclature than "Indo-Greek". "Monnaies". His capital (was) at Sagala (Sialkot) in the Punjab.95-90 BCE Amyntas Epander 90 BCE Peukolaos Thraso Diomedes Theophilos 90-85 BCE Nicias Menander II Artemidoros 90-70 BCE Archebios Hermaeus Yuezhi tribes Maues (Indo-Scythian) 75-70 BCE Apollodotus II 65-55 BCE Dionysios 55-35 BCE 55-35 BCE 25 BCE." McEvilley.377. Artemidoros (80 BC) may have been of IndoScythian ascendency. 3. W. the area of origin usually comes first. "Indo-European" etc. Vol. and the area of arrival comes second. 112 ff. was therefore of Greek ethnicity at least by his father. 137. 22 (1902). W. Demetrius I. ^ As in other compounds such as "French-Canadian". Tarn (1951. but sees this as "not a Greek city but an Indian one". It is unclear whether the Hellenistic street plan found by Sir John Marshall's excavations dates from the Indo-Greeks or from the Kushans. McEvilley supports Tarn on both points. p. pages 268–293).

Chandragupta and Seleucus exchanged presents. p. it does not seem to be Menander's capital for the Milindapanha states that Menander came down to Sagala to meet Nagasena. Sirkap and Sirsukh.89 19. the longest and most important of the edicts. "The Indo-Greeks" 2003.4 9.) random finds from the Sarnath. They merged with the people of the area and worked for the new masters." Narain. ^ "Thirteen. ^ "Three Greek ambassadors are known by name: Megasthenes. ^ "The very fact that both Megasthenes and Kautilya refer to a state department run and maintained specifically for the purpose of looking after foreigners. p. Deip. the Ancient Past. the king of the Indians. testifies to the impact created by these contacts. Burjor Avari. with a mixture of Greek profiles and Indian symbols. Basarth. Mentioned in McEvilley. Narain. Burjor Avari. but those back in the Mediterranean also". ambassador to Chandragupta's son Bindusara. McEvilley. seemingly outlandish t first glance. that Ashoka had sent missions to the lands of the Greek monarchs -not only those of Asia.278 7. Narain. the Ancient Past. the Ancient Past.367 13. p.0239&query=head%3D%23120.106-107 10.2.368 20. along with interesting sculptures and some monumental remains from Taxila. the Ancient Past.108-109 12. nor did they return to Greece. or Alexandria-of-the-Arachosians. And Phylarchus confirms him. ^ "It is also in Kandahar that were found the fragments of a Greek translation of Edicts XII and XIII. ^ India. Rock Edict Thirteen indicates the existence of a Greek principality in the northwest of Ashoka's empire -perhaps Kandahar. "The Indo-Greeks".". by reference to some of the presents which Sandrakottus. chapter 32 Ath. Bindusara's son". while some.01.368 21.112 17. was inscribed in two scripts. http://www. India.1(9)". I. p. ^ :"To the colonies settled in India. ^ "A vast hoard of coins. ^ "Within Ashoka's domain Greeks may have had special privileges.32. and Macedonia". just as the Ganges flows to the sea.130 6. who were mostly Yavanas and Persians.363 16.92-93 8. Syria. ^ Classical sources have recorded that following their treaty. was sent. . p. Greek and Aramaic". on the contrary. p. ^ "It also explains (." Justin XIII. contains the claim. Burjor Avari. which were to act like charms in producing a wonderful degree of affection. Bussagli.which was not ruled by him and for which he troubled to send Buddhist missionaries and published at least some of his edicts in Greek". ambassador to Chandragupta. McEvilley. and Patna regions of terra-cotta pieces of distinctive Hellenistic or with definite Hellenistic motifs and designs". the Ancient Past. Burjor Avari. and Dyonisius. India. p. perhaps ones established by the terms of the Seleucid alliance.363 15. ^ "Strabo 15. the Greek monarchs of Egypt. ^ India. p. were to banish love" Athenaeus of Naucratis. sent to Seleucus. ^ "A minor rock edict. his first thought was to despatch missionaries to his friends.. McEvilley. ^ "The second Kandahar edict (the purely Greek one) of Asoka is a part of the "corpus" known as the "Fourteen-Rock-Edicts"" Narain.367" 5. p. Python. "The deipnosophists" Book I. such as when Chandragupta sent various aphrodisiacs to Seleucus: "And Theophrastus says that some contrivances are of wondrous efficacy in such matters as to make people more amorous. whom Ptolemy Philadelphus sent to the court of Ashoka. such as the Seleucids. p. as well as the Aramean translation of another edict of Ashoka". p. "The Indo-Greeks" 2003. ^ India. "The Indo-Greeks" 2003. 11. the son of Agenor. ^ "When the Greeks of Bactria and India lost their kingdom they were not all killed."Even if Sagala proves to be Sialkot. point to a rich fusion of Indian and Hellenistic influences". recently discovered at Kandahar. ^ "When Ashoka was converted to Buddhism. p. Deimachus. Burjor Avari. contributing considerably to the culture and civilization in southern and central Asia. p. p.tufts.perseus.452 18.

p.52 29. McEvilley. p.tufts. after having made peace with Euthydemus I after the aborted siege of Bactra. (. Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus translated by J. Polybius speaks of Bactria. 39. revolted against the Seleucids. p118 28.130 33. The ancient past". p.368 23. India. ^ See Polybius. ^ "Antiochos III. Egypt. ^ "So far. Louvain-laNeuve 1988 (1958). as part of the Persian conquests of Alexander the Great.39".XII. ^ "Bactria. ^ "The Mahavamsa tells that "the celebrated Greek teacher Mahadharmaraksita in the second century BC led a delegation of 30.200 BC. Narain. Livy. and Parthia. The . 38. "The Buddhist art of Gandhara". 30. ^ "Polybius 11. p. p. Parthia. worked alongside the local craftsmen.55 25. and Diodorus. 1960 P200 37. (Atlanta 1994). Cassius Dio.01. the extent to which Strabo is citing Apollodorus is disputed.5 and 34)". p.. Monnaies. who drew on Trogus.39. p. ^ "General Pusyamitra. "India. ^ "The finest of the pillars were executed by Greek or Perso-Greek sculptors. ^ For the date of Trogus. 36. Institut Orientaliste. p. had become part of the Seleucid kingdom run from Syria.130-87 BC9.426 32.386 31. and Justin. He was supported by the Brahmins and even became the symbol of the Brahmanical turnover against the Buddhism of the Mauryas.370. notes and introduction by Robert Develin. Yardley. who will be discussed shortly. Senior.perseus. McEvilley. Burjor Avari. McEvilley. and some of their skills were copied with avidity" Burjor Avari. Arrian. with or without foreign supervision" Marshall. ^ Full text of the Mahavamsa Click chapter XII 26. In the middle of the third century BC Bactria. ^ Justin. Intercourse between India and the Western world. ^ "One of the most famous of these Dharmaraksita. p4 27.370 24. "The Greeks in India". who is at the origin of the Sunga dynasty.11). ^ E.368 22.000 monks from Alexandria-of-theCaucasus Alexandra-of-the-Yonas.99 34.0234&query=head%3D%23717.5. not of India. others by local craftsmen. the Ceylonese text actually says to the opening of the great Ruanvalli Stupa at Anuradhapura"". ^ Pushyamitra is described as a "senapati" (Commander-in-chief) of Brhadrata in the Puranas 35. Justin. since Trogus' father was in charge of Julius Caesar's diplomatic missions before the history was written (Justin 43. along with another Persian province. the Ancient Past. a post 87 BC writer". McEvilley. such as the Persians or even the Greeks. Strabo. quoted in McEvilley. quoting Woodcock. C. beyond the three places he names Apollodorus (and he may have those through Eratosthenes).x. Asia. p. http://www. ^ Asoka and the Decline of the Mauryas by Romila Thapar. p. ^ "The discovery of the Bactrian Greek city of Ai-Khanoum is surely one of the most significant gifts archaeology has given to history during the last thirty years". Indo-Scythian coins IV. Oxford University Press. a theater has been identified at Ai Khanoum".Rawlinson. a Greek born c. "The Indo-Greeks" 2003. ^ "A number of foreign artisans. p. p.. ^ "In Rock Edict Two Ashoka even claims to have established hospitals for men and beasts in the Hellenistic kingdoms". who was said to have converted thousands. The capital was then transferred to Pataliputra (today's Patna)". a Roman who drew on the lost history of Apollodoros of Artemita (c. p. p. 109. provides a summary of the histories of Hellenistic Macedonia. Bussagli. see the OCD on "Trogus" and Yardley/Develin. was a Greek (Mhv. Bopearachchi. or of-the-Greeks.) These Greco-Bactrian kings clashed with the Mauryans during their forays into northwest India". Senior's date in the following quotation is too early: "The Western sources for accounts of Bactrian and Indo-Greek history are: Polybius. renewed with Sophagasenus the alliance concluded by his ancestor Seleucos I". 2. Lamotte: History of Indian Buddhism. in Bactria.

^ "We think that the conquests of these regions south of the Hindu Kush brought to Demetrius I the title of "King of India" given to him by Apollodorus of . 136.130 51. "The Role of Demetrius in Arachosia and the Kabul Valley. in Afghanistan. and several sources for the Hellenstic East as a whole.".50. ^ "The Besnagar Garuda pillar inscription witnesses to the presence of the Yavana Heliodorus son of Dion in Vidisa as an envoy from Taxila of king Antialkidas around 140 BC". and "Demetrius. although actually made by Demetrius II. Bopearachchi (1991. p. Narain (1957) pp. gestae per Apollodotum et Menandrum. Geographia 11. The possibility of one Demetrius is attested by Develin and Brill's New Pauly. ^ Tarn and Narain postulate two Demetrii. reges eorum "some Indian matters. Tarn and Narain agreed on having them begin around 180. Richard Salomon "The Indo-Greek era of 186/5 B. in a Buddhist reliquary inscription". ^ Polybius 11. 41. he postulates a much later Demetrius III for the previously known coins. p.516 Casaubon. more coins of Euthydemus I than of Demetrius I have been found in the mentioned provinces. (Brepols 2005) discusses an inscription dedicated to Euthydemus. 43. Landes (ed). Bopearachchi.4.4. It is uncertain whether the Kabul valley or Arachosia were conquered first. namely the achievements of the Indian kings..284) saying Diodotus.64 45. "Greatest of all kings" and his son Demetrius. Eucratides and his unnamed parricidal son. The Yuga Purana. "Demetrius 4" 46. 2006) "Demetrius" §10.xii 48. 41.C. ^ "It would be impossible to explain otherwise why in all his portraits Demetrios is crowned with an elephant scalp". see Tarn's Index II. Tarn. Narain.2. The names of Theodotus I and II. ^ "Demetrius occupied a large part of the Indus delta. cit. and Trogus' tables of contents (the so-called prologues) survive (Develin and Yardley. Bopearachchi moved this back to 200. 50. 40. 1-11. ^ This reconstruction is adapted mainly from the works of Bopearachchi. "tribes" is Jones' version of ethne (Loeb) 42. See also Tarn (1951) p. ^ Justin. Burjor Avari. App. what event is commemorated is itself uncertain. p. and whether the latter province was taken from the Seleucids after their defeat by the Romans in 190 BC. ^ The first conquests of Demetrius have usually been held to be during his father's lifetime. Afghanistan Ancien Carrefour Entre L'Est Et L'Ouest.1998) 47. no coins support his existence. Mitchener. p.source for these paragraphs. Apollodotus and Menander. The calendar of the "Yonas" is proven by an inscription giving a triple synchronism to have begun in 186/5 BC. the difference has been over the actual date. who is not called king but "Victorious" (Kallinikos). but suggests that Demetrius I and II may be the same person." published in the volume: O.1. ed.5.) Theodotus in Justin's text is clearly an error for Diodotus. and have nothing to do with Demetrius I. ^ Strabo. 44. 156 et alii. but this covers India. p. Bopearachchi ascribes one more recent find to Agathocles. Indo-Scythian coins. 41. 15. 686 Casaubon.6. Ancien Carrefour cited. the two prefixes both mean "God". Bactria. This is taken to indicate that Demetrius was his father's general during the first conquests.53 52. D.34 49. they also include Indicae quoque res additae. ^ Tarn. ^ For a list of classical testimonia. although Justin does not mention Apollodotus. this result is now fairly widely accepted by numismatists. and Bopearchchi all correct to Diodotus.11. Monnaies. Saurashtra and Kutch". ^ Senior.1-5. Peculiar enough.1 p. 41. the former thinks the Demetrius Anicetus coins describe Demetrius I. and the next insofar as it is not Justin. the latter that they are entirely by Demetrius II. which places the invasion "probably in 184". and has been followed by much of the more recent literature.H. p. 20. Bopearachchi. MacDowall. is the Introduction pp. but see Brill's New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World (Boston. king of the Indians" (so Yardley: Indorum rex. but depicting Demetrius I.8-9. Develin's note implies this is Demetrius II.

Mentioned in Bopearachchi.". Indo-Scythian coins IV 55. Cuthbert Collin (1959).179 and Pl 8). 1978.63 61. and by it flows the river Arachotus. ISBN 3141009198. and Ekkehard Aner. Senior. Vol. 14. Tarn. 56. 1971). Monnaies. ^ "The Greeks. 286-302 (Both JSTOR). p. (1976). it is Greek. The Greeks in Bactria and India.85 64. 262.65: "In line with the above discussion. Narain. Eucratides I would have taken advantage of this opportunity to invade his kingdom. p. see also Senior.267. p.Artemita. Westermann. Chap IV. we may infer that such an event (the incursions to . p. the metropolis of Arachosia. 1st century BC. pp." Bopearachchi. A. ^ For Heracles. (1948). for Artemidorus.. Ares. 57. ^ "When Strabo mentions that "Those who after Alexander advanced beyond the Hypanis to the Ganges and Polibothra (Pataliputra)" this can only refer to the conquests of Menander. An Historical Atlas of the Indian Peninsula.. with the legend "Of king Agathocles" (Boppearachchi. Bopearachchi. ^ "There is certainly some truth in Apollodorus and Strabo when they attribute to Menander the advances made by the Greeks of Bactria beyond the Hypanis and even as far as the Ganges and Palibothra (.XIV 67. And the Parthians call this White India. 254267.xii. then Alexandropolis. ^ "The only thing that seems reasonnably sure is that Taxila was part of the domain of Agathocles". No. Monnaies. p." Strabo 11. The Coin Types of the Indo-Greek Kings. argues that Alexander did not assume as a title. Vol. but see Peter Green. on the rest of the coast.. "Monnaies".52 53. "The Indo-Greeks" p. The Yuga Purana. ^ "It now seeems most likely that Demetrios was the founder of the newly discovered Greek Era of 186/5". Altertum.11. with the legend DEMETRIOS ANIKETOS. ^ Pompeius Trogus. Tarn. Neuzeit. 66. ^ Hans Erich Stier. p. to the Ganges-Jamuna valley. p. 54. ^ Davies. 58.7. but also.1) 63. (Dec. The Hellenistic Age. When Menander was engaged in a bloody conquest of the Ganges valley. Ernst Kirsten. Prologue to Book XLI. not only of Patalena. p52. ISBN 0890051097. therefore. see K. Senior. 79.. which bear on the reverse the classical profile of Demetrius crowned by the elephant scalp.K. IndoScythian coins. 2004 59. Original text in paragraph 19 of Parthian stations 65. Monnaies." "Parthians stations". Bopearachchi. No undisputed coins of Demetrius I himself use this title. 3. ^ "The combination of textual and numismatic evidence allows to see what was the conflict between Eucratides and Menander. Walton Dobbins "The Commerce of Kapisene and Gandhāra after the Fall of Indo-Greek Rule" Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient. Grosser Atlas zur Weltgeschichte: Vorzeit. Lawler "Orchesis Kallinikos" Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association.132. 2000. there are the city of Biyt and the city of Pharsana and the city of Chorochoad and the city of Demetrias. of what is called the kingdom of Saraostus and Sigerdis. "Monnaies Greco-Bactriennes et Indo-Grecques". ^ Mitchener. about the middle of the second century BC is supported by the cumulative evidence provided by Indian sources". but it is employed on one of the pedigree coins issued by Agathocles. ^ MacDowall. Oxford University Press. Indo-Scythian coins and history. p. ^ Narain. and had to return hastily to face the aggressor".. and on the reverse Herakles crowning himself. the geographer Isidorus of Charax mentions Parthians ruling over Greek populations and cities in Arachosia: "Beyond is Arachosia. but was only hailed by it.59 60. took possession. Mittelalter. p. see Lillian B.1 (Strabo 11.11. pp. ^ Bopearachchi. p.) That the Yavanas advanced even beyond in the east. 62. this would explain that Menander had to stop his conquest of the Ganges valley. Georg Westermann Verlag. p. As far as this place the land is under the rule of the Parthians. This would be the "civil war" mentioned in the Yuga Purana. ^ In the 1st century BC.

and 190-171 BC as supreme ruler". and . Megasthenes informs us that this city stretched in the inhabited quarters to an extreme length on each side of eighty stadia. ^ indeed historical" Mitchener.further weight to the likelihood that this account of a Yavana incursion to Saketa and Pataliputra-in alliance with the Pancalas and the Mathuras. Gandhara and the Kabul Valley". p. not only of Patalena.11. Narain. ^ "For any scholar engaged in the study of the presence of the Indo-Greeks or Indo-Scythians before the Christian Era.76 74. The Asiatic Society. sub προέρχομαι. and." Strabo 11. Narain and Keay 2000 70..200 BC) and before that of Pusyamitra Sunga (187 BC). ^ "The greatest city in India is that which is called Palimbothra. Bussagli p101) 71. according to the LSJ this can. p.230-190 BC) or Demetrios (c.11. 2002 82.. but also. Indo-Scythian and Indo-Parthian coins in the Smithsonian institution". including the whole of Saurashtra and the harbour Barukaccha.K. ^ "Indo-Greek.112 81. gives an explicit clue to the period and nature of the invasion of Pataliputra in which the Indo-Greeks took part. on the rest of the coast. ^ "the account of the Periplus is just a sailor's story". ^ "A distinctive series of Indo-Greek coins has been found at several places in central India: including at Dewas. ^ Strabo on the extent of the conquests of the Greco-Bactrians/Indo-Greeks: "They took possession.145 84. the Persians called all of them Yauna. These therefore add further definite support to the likelihood of an Indo-Greek presence in Malwa" Mitchener. they extended their empire even as far as the Seres and the Phryni. p. In short. "The Yuga Purana".1) 73. The Yuga Purana. Bopearachchi. His territory also included Mathura. This would accordingly place the Yavana incursions during the reign of the Indo-Greek kings Euthydemus (c. after the reign of Salisuka Maurya (c. Narain. Apollodorus says that Bactriana is the ornament of Ariana as a whole.. in the dominions of the Prasians . and the Indians used Yona and Yavana for them".249 77.118-119) 75. ^ "Menander became the ruler of a kingdom extending along the coast of western India. p16. p. General Secretary. p. p. ^ "Because the Ionians were either the first ot the most dominant group among the Greeks with whom people in the east came in contact. more than that. it degenerated into a general term for a foreigner" Narain. some 22 miles to the east of Ujjain. Bopearachchi.64 76. Narain (p. when gradually its original meaning was lost and. p. The Indo-Greeks. as we have shown. Strabo 15-1-27 69. ^ ". for it says that the Pancalas and the Mathuras were the other powers who attacked Saketa and destroyed Pataliputra". ^ "But the real story of the Indo-Greek invasion becomes clear only on the analysis of the material contained in the historical section of the Gargi Samhita. p. ^ "The term (Yavana) had a precise meaning until well into the Christian era.205-190 as co-regent. 68. The word generally means "going forward". imply a military expedition. the Punjab. the Yuga Purana" Narain. the Yuga Purana is an important source material" Dilip Coomer Ghose. and the most illustrious of the Indo-Greek kings". but need not.147-149 72. "Monnaies". p110. if not the greatest. Kolkata.18 78. ^ According to Tarn. 79. ^ Tarn. ^ Tarn. Tarn. the word used for "advance" (Proelonthes) can only mean a military expedition. The Indo-Greeks. of what is called the kingdom of Saraostus and Sigerdis.65 83. See LSJ. ^ "Numismats and historians all consider that Menander was one of the greatest.1 (Strabo 11. p. ^ "The advance of the Greek to Pataliputra is recorded from the Indian side in the Yuga-purana". like the word Mleccha.145-146 80.Pataliputra) took place. Also "The text of the Yuga Purana.

94. ^ "(In the Milindapanha) Menander is declared an arhat". 10.Bernard thinks that these emissions were destined to commercial exchanges with Bactria. is significant and reminds one of the story of the Buddha". D.372 100. p76.that its breadth was fifteen stadia.269 98. who has suggested that Demetrius I died long before Eucratides came to power. p. 91. ^ Tarn. In a slightly different perspective (. as we have shown. king of the Indians" with a large army of 60. p. 1994. who were thus incentivized not to pursue their forays in the . Ind. ^ "By about 130 BC nomadic people from the Jaxartes region had overrun the northern boundary of Bactria itself". ^ "The name Dimita is almost certainly an adaptation of "Demetrios". for it says that the Pancalas and the Mathuras were the other powers who attacked Saketa and destroyed Pataliputra". "Of Pataliputra and the Manners of the Indians. note 5 90. "[132-133 INSERT TITLE]".123. McEvilley. "The Indo-Greeks" 2003.xi 102. perhaps after Eucratides had died (1991. ^ P. and that the wall was crowned with 570 towers and had four-and-sixty gates. and were post-Greek coins remained faithful to Greco-Bactrian coinage. ^ "The text of the Yuga Purana. "This is unmistakably Buddhist and recalls the similar situation at the time of the Buddha's passing away". Narain.Printworld. p. p.W.) agreeing that they should divide ashes equally and go away and should erect monuments to him in all their cities". ^ Senior. probably around the middle of the 1st century BC. Some scholars believe that it was Demetrius I.) G.." Arr. p. pp. certainly it has nothing to do with Demetrius I". "Monnaies". 87. ^ "Numismats and historians are unanimous in considering that Menander was one of the greatest.72 92. p. Le Rider considers that these emission were used to pay tribute to the nomads of the north.50 89. 93." Mitchener. and that a ditch encompassed it all round. The coins to the name of Menander are incomparably more abundant than those of any other Indo-Greek king" Bopearachchi.".Gupta: Kushâna Coins and History. p. p.88 101.377 97. Mac Dowall.".L. which was six hundred feet in breadth and thirty cubits in depth. Bopearachchi demonstrates that the transition in Menander's coin designs were in response to changes introduced by Eucratides". if not the greatest. "Monnaies Gréco-Bactriennes et IndoGrecques". ^ "The Hathigumpha inscription seems to have nothing to do with the history of the Indo-Greeks.86 99. ^ Bopearachchi. Menander was able to regroup and take back the territory that Eucratides I had conquered.378 96. gives an explicit clue to the period and nature of the invasion of Pataliputra in which the Indo-Greeks took part. ^ "The statement of Plutarch that when Menander died "the cities celebrated (. The Indo-Greeks. p.112 86. ^ "Justin refers to an incident in which Eucratides with a small force of 300 was besieged for four months by "Demetrius. and when the siege happened. then controled by the Yuezhi. p. and the inscription thus indicates a Yavana presence in Magadha. p. Monnaies. Narain.65 88. p.. Narain. ^ "Plutarch. 132-133. ^ a b "P. who talks of the burial of Menander's relics under monuments or stupas. seems to have been a Buddhist. The Yuga Purana.375 95. McEvilley.201-202. and his name belongs in the list of important royal patrons of Buddhism along with Ashoka and Kanishka". It is uncertain who this Demetrius was.184. quoting Megasthenes Text 85. p. ^ Bopearachchi. Eucratides managed to break out and went on to conquer India. the probable conqueror of Pataliputra. 84-6). ^ "Menander. Afghanistan.000. and the most famous of the Indo-Greek kings. D. Narain. The Indo-Greeks. ^ Bopearachchi. ancien carrefour entre l'est et l'ouest. Indo-Scythian coins and history IV.. p. ^ "As Bopearachchi has shown. "The Indo-Greeks" 2003. p. McEvilley."(Demetrius I) was probably the Demetrius who besieged Eucratides for four months". The numbers are obviously an exageration. had obviously read or heard some Buddhist account of the Greek king's death". p.. McEvilley.K. This analysis goes against Bopearachchi.

xxxvi 114. founder of the Kushan Empire. Kunindas.xxxiii 104.117 120. showed that.238 109. ^ Senior. 152–153: "It has been recently suggested that Asoka was grandson of the Seleucid princess. Apoloodotus II and Hippostratus were posterior. Tarn. R. 106.325 108. ^ "Around 10 AD. ^ "It is curious that on his copper Zoilos used a Bow and quiver as a type. to Maues. p. Indo-Scythian coins. Arjunayanas. which means that they had become independent kingdoms or republics. "Monnaies". le last Greek kingdom succumbed to the attacks of Rajuvula. Narain The Indo-Greeks.126-127. Tarn.". but because they started coining at the time which saw the end of Greek rule and the establishment of their independence".. pp. 126. ^ "The coinage of the former (the Audumbaras) to whom their trade was of importance. p..114 110.. p.324 112. Jenkins. See also this source.xxvii 116. p. p. Bopearachchi. also they adopted the greek types. by far.C. p. Did Zoilos use Scythian mercenaries in his quest against Menander perhaps?" Senior. in the first century a ruler of the Kunindas.direction of the Indo-Greek realm". not only because of their geographical position. ancien carrefour entre l'est et l'ouest". p. ^ The Kunindas must have been included in the Greek empire. p. p. in "Afghanistan. Bopearachchci. the Indo-Scythian satrap of Mathura. p.) probably a daughter of one of the Indo-Greek houses" Senior. (. Tarn. the first half of the first century AD. in a Buddhist reliquary inscription".began to coins in the first century BC.C. who used the Indian form of their names. "The Indo-Greeks" 2003.. Narain. "Monnaies". with the joint rule of Straton II and his son Straton in the area of Sagala. ^ Marital alliances: o Discussion on the dynastic alliance in Tarn.270 105. minted money with their own names". and Thedorus son of Theoros on two silver bowls from Taxila.. p. "Monnaies". using overstrikes and monograms. who we know had made a treaty with them.121 117. succeeded there (in the Paropamisadae) to the nomads who minted imitations of Hermaeus" Bopearachchi." Tarn. 118. p. issued a silver coinage "which would compete in the market with the later Indo-Greek silver"". Should this far-reaching suggestion be well founded. ^ Bernard (1994). Senior "The Decline of the Indo-Greeks" [1]. starts somewhere in the first century BC... King Theodamas on his signetring found in Bajaur.Salomon. it would not only throw light on the good relations between the Seleucid . ^ "Further evidence of the commercial success of the Greek drachms is seen in the fact that they influenced the coinage of the Audumbaras and the Kunindas". they occasionally imitate the types of Demetrius and Apollodotus I". Indo-Scythian coins and history IV. Amogabhuti. (. ^ The Sanskrit inscription reads "Yavanarajyasya sodasuttare varsasate 100 10 6". A quiver was a badge used by the Parthians (Scythians) and had been used previously by Diodotos. 115..325 113. whose era we now starts in 57 BC. contrary to what Narai would write two years later. "Monnaies". p. p. ^ "The Indo-Scythian conquerors.) He reveals an overstike if Azes I over Hippostratus. Tarn. ^ "We get two Greeks of the Parthian period. ^ Described in R. p. p. Trigartas. ^ "Maues himself issued joint coins with Machene. (." Bopearachchi.) Apollodotus and Hippostratus are thus posterior to Maues and anterior to Azes I. ^ G. ^ "During the century that followed Menander more than twenty rulers are known to have struck coins".K. p373 107. Yaudheyas.239 111. ^ "Kujula Kadphises. Tarn. ^ "The wealthy Audumbaras (. ^ "Later.76.) some of their coins after Greek rule ended imitated Greek types".125 119. Indo-Scythians. p. who. ^ "Most of the people east of the Ravi already noticed as within Menander's empire -Audumbaras. 103. "The Indo-Greek era of 186/5 B.389 121. whom Seleucus gave in marriage to Chandragupta.". Bopearachchi.

^ Exchange of presents: o Classical sources have recorded that Chandragupta sent various aphrodisiacs to Seleucus: "And Theophrastus says that some contrivances are of wondrous efficacy in such matters as to make people more amourous. he passed over first of all into Persia and later . if not as the next heir.39 124. until he had a hundred and fifty altogether. "The deipnosophists" Book I. "Deipnosophistae" XIV. as Aristophanes says. dried figs and a sophist: "But dried figs were so very much sought after by all men (for really. at any rate as the heir nearest at hand". and received in return five hundred elephants. And Phylarchus confirms him. Taxila. 125."Polybius 11. went to India in 209 BC. but it is not lawful for a sophist to be sold in Greece" Athenaeus. which formerly belonged to the Persians: Alexander deprived the Ariani of them. and some dried figs. T. o Description of the 302 BC marital alliance in Strabo 15. and having once more provisioned his troops. sent to Seleucus. then it would mean that a daughter or other female relative of Seleucus was given to the Indian ruler or to one of his sons. o Bindusara asked Antiochus I to send him some sweet wine. and at length. And since the king loved the Greeks ("Philhellenos") and devoted to learning he considered Iambulus worthy of cordial welcome. the king of the Indians.. so that Asoka may have had Greek blood in his veins. king Ashoka claims to have sent Buddhist emissaries to the Hellenistic west around 250 BC. Deip. 126.32 o Ashoka claims he introduced herbal medicine in the territories of the Greeks.1(9): "The Indians occupy in part some of the countries situated along the Indus. "The dry figs and the sweet wine we will send you. received more elephants. a city which was distant a journey of many days from the sea. having found his way to a certain village.and Maurya dynasties. ^ The historian Diodorus wrote that the king of Pataliputra. when the Mauryan line became extinct. by reference to some of the presents which Sandrakottus. wrote to Antiochus. and that Antiochus wrote to him in answer. he is said to have renewed his friendship with the Indian king there and received presents from him: "He crossed the Caucasus (Hindu Kush) and descended into India. were to banish love" Athenaeus of Naucratis." The Cambridge Shorter History of India. renewed his friendship with Sophagasenus the king of the Indians. that even Amitrochates. J. and a sophist. 122. ^ Religious missions: o In the Edicts of Ashoka. But Seleucus Nicator gave them to Sandrocottus in consequence of a marriage contract.2. on the contrary.. I. Dodwell. after having made peace with Euthydemus. and established there settlements of his own. H. "loved the Greeks": "Iambulus. "Deipnosophistae" XIV. Allan. he (Demetrius) may well have regarded himself. p33 Source. which were to act like charms in producing a wonderful degree of affection. p20. chapter 32 Ath. Also: "The Seleucid and Maurya lines were connected by the marriage of Seleucus' daughter (or niece) either to Chandragupta or his son Bindusara" John Marshall. while some.67 123. the king of the Indians. ^ Ambassadors: o Known ambassadors to India are Megasthenes. ^ Treaties of friendship: o When Antiochos III. This thesis originally appeared in "The Cambridge Shorter History of India": "If the usual oriental practice was followed and if we regard Chandragupta as the victor. Deimakos and Dionysius." The ambassador Megasthenes was also sent to the Mauryan court on this occasion. apparently a Mauryan king. upon receiving a permission of safe-conduct. Seleucus. was then brought by the natives into the presence of the king of Palibothra. entreating him (it is Hegesander who tells this story) to buy and send him some sweet wine. or anyhow connected with. "There's really nothing nicer than dried figs").67Athenaeus. Wolseley Haig. but would mean that the Maurya dynasty was descended from. set out again personally with his army: leaving Androsthenes of Cyzicus the duty of taking home the treasure which this king had agreed to hand over to him. for the welfare of humans and animals (Edict No2). H.

"India. ^ "The term Yavana may well have been first applied by the Indians to the Greeks of various cities of Asia Minor who were settled in the areas contiguous to north-west India" Narain "The Indo-Greeks". The portraits of Demetrius.appear extensively on the Indo-Greek coinage of the Western kings. may be connected with his adoption of the Buddhist faith. Demetrios must have appeared as a saviour" Mario 134. see what the Greek 'conquest' meant and how the Greeks were able to traverse such extraordinary distances. viz. and his name belongs in the list of important royal patrons of Buddhism along with Asoka and Kanishka". ^ Tarn p.375 142. seems to have been a Buddhist. ^ "It is not unlikely that "Dikaios".227 137. p.. "The Indo-Greeks". p. Antialcidas or Heliokles II. which is translated Dhramaika in the Kharosthi legend. ^ "We can now. 143. 180) 130. there are other forms and derivatives. and the common enimity of Greek and Buddhists to the Sunga king threw them into each other's arms". ^ Whitehead. p. Burjor Avari.. 140. ^ "Diodorus testifies to the great love of the king of Palibothra. 127. ^ McEvilley.. Chapter 57. p. Ya-ba-na etc.Seldeslachts.377 144. Yona is a normal Prakrit form from Yavana". a worshiper of Vshnu-Krishna as the supreme deity (. 175. the probable conqueror of Pataliputra. ^ "All Greeks in India were however known as Yavanas". p." Narain. p. ^ Bopearachchi p. of not decadent" Hellenism in Ancient India. the Indo-Scythian Kanishka had no direct influence on that of Indo-Greek Art. Also: "The people to be 'saved' were in fact usually Buddhists.124 141.228 138. p362 128. for the Greeks who survived in India and suffered from the oppression of the Sunga (for whom they were aliens and heretics). 178 131. Banerjee.Tarn p. for the Greeks" Narain. but as friends or 'saviors'. Narain "The Indo-Greeks". the ancient past".18. not as conquerors.. was undoubtedly Buddhist". Tarn p. ^ "Menander. ^ "Just as the Frank Clovis had no part in the development of Gallo-Roman art. p134 146. "Menander was coming to save them from the oppression of the Sunga kings". ^ Tarn. Yonaka. it degenerated into a general term for a foreigner" p. p. Javana.130 136. p. ^ "Obviously. Narain "The Indo-Greeks" 135.60.. McEvilley. ^ Stupavadana. "The Indo-Greeks" 2003. Antimachus and of Eucratides are among the most remarkable that have come down to us from antiquity" Hellenism in Ancient India. p147–148 Full text 145. ^ "Of the Sanskrit Yavana.122 139. they came.depicted with a radiated phrygian cap . Narain. ^ a b "It is probable that the wheel on some coins of Menander is connected with Buddhism". and besides. to the Buddhist world in particular they appeared to be its champions" (Tarn. ^ Plutarch "Political precepts". p 3-8 132. who established some relics of the Buddha "for the purpose of the security of many people".391: "Somewhere I have met with the zhole-hearted statement that every Greek in India ended by becoming a Buddhist (. I think. we have now the certain proofs that during his reign this art was already stereotyped. when gradually its original meaning was lost and. To parts of India.) Theodorus the meridrarch.arrived safe in Greece" Diodorus ii. "Indo-Greek coins". Yavana. Jonon or Jononka.) Heliodorus the ambassador was a Bhagavatta. v15. and a small protrusion on the top of the head representing the cap) on many coins of Hermaeus. p. p. Banerjee. Quotes in E. Images of the Zoroastrian divinity Mithra . 138 133. like the word Mleccha.. 175. ^ "The extraordinary realism of their portraiture. The Indo-Greeks.9 + note 1 "The term had a precise meaning until well into the Christian era. p. perhaps to large parts. ^ Whitehead. ^ "These Indo-Greeks were called Yavanas in ancient Indian litterature" p. apparently a Mauryan king. 101 129. This Zeus-Mithra is also the one represented seated (with the gloriole around the head. p147 . Yona.

2002. ^ On the Indo-Greeks and the Gandhara school: o 1) "It is necessary to considerably push back the start of Gandharan art.C. 1992).115 155. foreword to "The Dyasntic art of the Kushan". go back to the Greek presence. to the first half of the first century BC. de Bactres a Taxila". Benjamin Rowland JR. p141 152. p394). which has many affiliations with Parthian costume. princes of Indian or Indo-Greek race. p14 148. after the waning of Greek autonomy on the Northwest.. Scholia. 1967 150. which seems to have accompanied it" McEvilley. ^ Benjamin Rowland JR. 109-153 157.78-101 151. ^ "The survival into the 1st century AD of a Greek administration and presumably some elements of Greek culture in the Punjab has now to be taken into account in any discussion of the role of Greek influence in the development of Gandharan sculpture". 15. o 3) Also the recent discoveries at Ai-Khanoum confirm that "Gandharan art descended directly from Hellenized Bactrian art" (Chaibi Nustamandy. p143 153. quoting Benjamin Rowland "The art and architecture of India" p121 and A. (. foreword to "The Dyasntic art of the Kushan". to the preceding century. John Rosenfield. The Crossroads of Asia. and created for it a new form of expression in art" (Tarn..". "Depending on how the dates are worked out. p331–332 o 2) "The beginnings of the Gandhara school have been dated everywhere from the first century B. Soper "The Roman Style in Gandhara" American Journal of Archaeology 55 (1951) pp301–319) 154. "An Altar of Alexander Now Standing Near Delhi".388-390 156. The view is also supported by Sir John Marshall ("The Buddhist art of Gandhara". ^ Ranajit Pal. p393). "We have to look for the beginnings of Gandharan Buddhist art in the residual IndoGreek tradition.. pp5–6). very probably.) Gandharan iconography was already fully formed before. the spread of Gandhari Buddhism to the north may have been stimulated by Menander's royal patronage. It has been proposed that one of the embassies from Indian kings to Roman emperors may have brought back a master sculptorto oversee work in the emerging Mahayana Buddhist sensibility (in which the Buddha came to be seen as a kind of deity). ^ "Others. 149... o 4) On the Indo-Greeks and Greco-Buddhist art: "It was about this time (100 BC) that something took place which is without parallel in Hellenistic history: Greeks of themselves placed their artistic skill at the service of a foreign religion.) The origins of Gandharan art. or at least at the very beginning of our era" Mario Bussagli "L'art du Gandhara".C. vol. ^ Boardman. ^ Boardman. p124). 1993. ^ Boardman.)" (Boardman. The finery of the Gandhara images must be modeled on the dress of local native nobility. ^ "It is noteworthy that the dress of the Gandharan Bodhisattva statues has no resemblance whatever to that of the Kushan royal portrait statues. connect it instead with the Roman Imperial trade. (which was M.Foucher's view) to the Kushan period and even after it" (Tarn. which was just then getting a foothold at sites like Barbaricum (modern Karachi) at the Indus-mouth. dating the work to the first two centuries A...D.. p. ^ "Those tiny territories of the Indo-Greek kings must have been lively and . and in the early Buddhist stone sculpture to the South (Bharhut etc. ^ Boardman. 1967 158. Foucher's views can be found in "La vieille route de l'Inde. and that "bands of foreign workmen from the eastern centers of the Roman Empire" were brought to India" (Mc Evilley "The shape of ancient thought". "Crossroads of Asia".(. who had no blood connection with the Scythian rulers..147. p378. "The shape of ancient thought". pp340–341). as may the development and spread of the Gandharan sculpture. It is also evident that the facial types are unrelated to the features of the Kushans as we know them from their coins and fragmentary portrait statues. p. ^ McEvilley. pp. or even. John Rosenfield.

p.27 161. where they attacked and conquered the people of Daxia (Bactria) and set up the court of their king on the northern bank of the Gui (Oxus) river" ("Records of the Great Historian". ^ "No doubt the Greeks of Bactria and India presided over a flourishing economy. 168.275 160.htm. Indo-Scythian coins. p. the Greek presence in India and Bactria remained strong".1990.3. Num.forumromanum. At any rate.5. 171. and their customs are like those of the Xiongnu. ^ Tarn.commercially flourishing places". see accounts of Hellenistic battles by Diodorus. 165. p.4.. Sima Qian. ^ Bopearachchi. p. ^ "They are a nation of nomads. ^ "Though the Indo-Greek monarchies seem to have ended in the first century BC. ^ "Evidence of the conquest of Saurastra during the reign of Chandragupta II is to be seen in his rare silver coins which are more directly imitated from those of the Western Satraps. Chron. ^ McEvilley. they substitute the Gupta type (a peacock) for the chaitya with crescent and star. http://www.html.+10. information from Bopearachchi is taken from Monnaies Gréco-Bactriennes et Indo-Grecques. trans. A quiver was a badge used by the Parthians (Scythians) and had been used previously by Diodotos. Battle of the Arius". "Monnaies".cli 177. clxxxvi162. JA 1993. ^ Fussman. ^ "Since the merchants of Alexandria are already sailing with fleets by way of the Nile and of the Persian Gulf as far as India.. who we know had made a treaty with them.xxvii 167. ^ On the size of Hellenistic armies.130 159. p.000 or 200." Narain. ^ "Megasthenes Indica". ^ "Justin XLI". Did Zoilos use Scythian mercenaries in his quest against Menander perhaps?" Senior.*. circa 90 BC: Image:MenanderIIQ. http://www. moving from place to place with their herds. http://www. "The Shape of Ancient Thought". "Indo-Greeks" 2003. Catalogue Raisonné (1991) or occasionally SNG9 (1998). these regions also have become far better known to us of today than to our predecessors. p234) 173. whereas formerly. ^ Under each king. 178. ^ Rapson. and I learned that as many as one hundred and twenty vessels were sailing from Myos Hormos for India. "Monnaies"." Strabo II. they retain some traces of the old inscriptions in Greek characters. http://penelope.75 163. 170. ^ "The use of the Greek months by the Sakas and later rulers points to the conclusion that they employed a system of dating started by their predecessors. India: The ancient past. but after they were defeated by the Xiongnu they moved far away to the west. p503.12 166.. ^ Bopearachchi. books XVIII and XIX 172.379 175." Narain.mssu.uchicago. p.html#3.49. ^ "Polybius 10. "Graeco-Bactrian issues of the later Indo-Greek kings". p. when Gallus was prefect of Egypt. Burjor Avari.49. This is clearly indicated by their coinage and the monetary exchange they had established with other currencies.4 5 on Eudoxus"." in Rapson "A catalogue of Indian coins in the British Museum. p. "The Indo-Greeks" 2003. ^ "Strabo II. Senior's chronology is from The Indo-Greek and Indo-Scythian king .org/literature/justin/texte41.". under the Ptolemies. The Yuezhi originally lived in the area between the Qilian or Heavenly mountains and Dunhuang. I accompanied him and ascended the Nile as far as Syene and the frontiers of Megasthenes-Indika. only a very few ventured to undertake the voyage and to carry on traffic in Indian merchandise.. while on the reverse. pp79–104) 164.perseus.000 archer warriors. beyond Dayuan. p127 and Bopearachchi. The Andhras etc.tufts. They have some 100.494 174. ^ "It is curious that on his copper Zoilos used a Bow and quiver as a type. ^ Photographic reference on a coin of Menander II.jpg 169.190 176. Burton Watson.

John E. New York: St. India: The ancient past. Paris: Librairie générale française. • Errington. Osmund. Archéologie de l'Asie Centrale. Butkara I (Swāt. Domenico (1980) (in English). "The Greek Kingdoms of Central Asia. OCLC 1837954 ISBN 0-8364-2910-9. 250. Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-691-03680-2. Smithsonian Institution. pp. • Narain. • McEvilley.) (1993). NJ: Princeton University Press. its birth. Oxford: Clarendon Press.. growth. Harmatta. 99-129. [edit] References • Avari. • Faccenna." by B. The Yuga Purana: critically edited. Delhi: Munshi Ram Manohar Lal. • Marshall. to A. De l'Indus à l'Oxus. A Dictionary of Buddhism. Gauranga Nath (1961). Indo-Greek. ISBN 2-7177-18257. 1980. Taxila. New York: American Numismatic Society. 7000 BC to AD 1200. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 1-903296-91-9. ISBN 0-89722-273-3. John (1956) (in English). Catalogue Raisonné. with an English translation and a detailed introduction. Osmund (1991) (in French). ISBN 81-215-0967-X. . ISBN 0-19-860560-9. Musée Guimet. 1994. Osmund (2003) (in French). Washington: National Numismatic Collection. ISBN 0-9518399-1-8. The Diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity. whereas the comments (down to the time of Hippostratos) are from The decline of the IndoGreeks (1998). L'art du Gandhara. János. • Marshall. Mario. ISBN 0-312-23338-8. Elizabeth. The vision of the Buddha: Buddhism. "revised and supplemented. (1957) (in English). Lattes: Association imago-musée de Lattes.S. The Indo-Greeks. Fitzwilliam Museum (1992). ONS179 Supplement (2004). Osmund (1998)." In: History of civilizations of Central Asia. the path to spiritual enlightenment.C. The Shape of Ancient Thought. • Boardman. Tom (2002). OCLC 36240864. New York: Oxford University Press. R. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal. Comparative studies in Greek and Indian Philosophies. Thomas (2002). Allworth Press and the School of Visual Arts. The development of sedentary and nomadic civilizations: 700 B. ISBN 2-9516679-2-2. Martin's Griffin. India: Asiatic Society. Afghanistan. New Delhi. Maggie Claringbull. • Lowenstein. Rome: IsMEO (Istituto Italiano Per Il Medio Ed Estremo Oriente). Princeton. • Mitchiner. OCLC 15211914 ISBN 81-7236-124-6. Cambridge: Ancient India and Iran Trust. National Numismatic Collection (U.. Hellenism in ancient India. John (1994). A history of the Indian subcontinent from c. • Bopearachchi. Monnaies Gréco-Bactriennes et IndoGrecques. ed. Paul (1994). London: Duncan Baird. Sir John Hubert (2000). SNG 9. • Keown. An illustrated account of archaeological excavations carried out at Taxila (3 volumes). ISBN 9782711852185.K. les trésors retrouvés. Joe Cribb. Richard (2000). • Banerjee. Paris: UNESCO Publishing. The Buddhist art of Gandhara: the story of the early school. The Crossroads of Asia: transformation in image and symbol in the art of ancient Afghanistan and Pakistan. ISBN 92-3-102846-4. Garga (1986). • Foltz. • Cambon. • Bopearachchi.D. Ancient India and Iran Trust. Pierre (2007) (in French). • Bopearachchi. Volume III 1. Damien (2003). Religions of the Silk Road: overland trade and cultural exchange from antiquity to the fifteenth century. ISBN 0415356164. ISBN 1-58115-203-5. Bibliothèque Nationale de France. ISBN 2-253-13055-9. reissued (2003). Publishing Corporation. • Bopearachchi. Volume II. and decline. • Bernard. • Bussagli. 1967. Pakistan) 1956– 1962. Francine Tissot. Burjor (2007). A. Indo-Scythian and Indo-Parthian coins in the Smithsonian Institution.sequences in the second and first centuries BC. Béatrice Arnal (1996) (in French).. Calcutta. o reprinted by Oxford. Routledge. 1962.

(2006) (in English). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. California: University of California Press. with addenda and corrigenda. USA: Ares Publishing. A. Inc.. ancien carrefour entre l'est et l'ouest". ISBN 0-9709268-6-3. W. o Second edition. The end of the road for the IndoGreeks?. The Dynastic art of the Kushans. ISBN 81-215-0-579-9. Berkeley. 兵庫県立美術館 (Hyogo Kenritsu Bijutsukan) (2003). OCLC 53886263. (Also available online): Iranica Antica.. Alexander the Great: East-West cultural contacts from Greece to Japan. • Salomon. . Vol. Buddhism in Central Asia. Classical Numismatic Group. Baij Nath (2000). • Senior. Tokyo: 東京国立博物館 (Tokyo Kokuritsu Hakubutsukan).C. • Puri. John (1967) (in English). • Tarn. (1938).K. 102. W. Cambridge University Press. with updating preface by Frank Lee Holt (1985). ISBN 81-208-0372-8. Chicago ISBN 0-89005-524-6 • (in French/English) "Afghanistan. 2004. Indo-Scythian coins and history. • Rosenfield. • Seldeslachts. Chicago. Volume IV. Belgium: Brepols. (2003) (in English). The "Avaca" Inscription and the Origin of the Vikrama Era. E. The Greeks in Bactria and India. • 東京国立博物館 (Tokyo Kokuritsu Hakubutsukan). Ares Press.• Narain. Reissued. Richard. The coin types of the Indo-Greeks kings. ISBN 2503516815. (1951). (1976) (in English). ISBN 0-89005-109-7. Vol XXXIX. 2005. R.

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