a Mumbaikar·s heart-throb

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Mahim. The bigger island in the North of Mumbai islands was Sashti (renamed by Portuguese as Salsette). Worli.The Origin of Mumbai  Made up of seven isles: Kolbhat (Colaba). Pandurang Shivaji Sonar A Kolin selling fish   Mumbadevi Mandir  . also constituted of seven other smaller islands. The temple miraculously escaped destruction during the Muslim & Portuguese rules. Mazgaon (derived from Sanskrit word Matsya Gram ² fishing village. worshipped by the Kolis The Mumbadevi temple was built originally by a Koli in 14th century atop Dongri hill. And the other island to the East was Turbhe (called as Trombay by Portuguese) Deep-sea fishermen called the Kolis and salt makers called the Aagris were the chief inhabitants The name Mumbai was derived from the form of Maha Amba (Great Mother) Mumbadevi. Parel. But British demolished it in 18th century. Palva Bunder (renamed by British as Apollo Bunder). It was rebuilt at Pydhonie by a goldsmith. Chhota Kolbhat (little Colaba).

The present Sanjay Gandhi National Park also existing in this era & was earlier called Krishnagiri National Park 185 BC: Satvahanas of Telgu region ruled the islands along with Konkan coast 1st century : Satvahana. The Walkeshwar temple was destroyed by the Portuguese & rebuilt by Rama Kamath in 1715 Gharapuri Caves (called as Elephanta by Portuguese) (900 AD) Mahakali Caves (300 BC). Traikutaka. Mandapeshwar caves). then Shaka era AD 415.Ancient Period        Artifacts found near Kandivali shows evidence of human civilisation since 250 BC 300 BC: Maurya Empire (Kanheri caves. Kalachuri dynasty (coins of the Kalachuri king Krishnaraja were found in the village Kavel present day Kalbadevi road) build the Jogeshwari caves dedicated to Lord Shiva 6th ± 7th century: Chalukya dynasty (king Pulakeshin) established their capital on Gharapuri island 9th . Banganga Tank. Andheri Jogeshwari Caves . Walkeshwar temple.12th century : Shilahara era (Elephanta caves. Ambarnath temple). Kanheri is derived from the word Krishnagiri (means black mountain in Sanskrit). Mahakali Caves.

Medieval Period       13th century: When Devgiri was besieged by the invader Allaudin-Khilji. Portugal handed over the islands of Mumbai to Britain as dowry. 15th century: Mohemmedan invader Mubarak Shah destroyed many temples & cities after defeating Raja Nagardev in a battle at Byculla and thus conquered Mumbai. In 1661. The temple of Walkeshwar & Mahalakshmi were cast down. but retained Sashti islands In the year 1668. during the marriage treaty of Infanta Catherine of Portugal with Charles II of Britain. during the 13th century. the English East India Company took over the command of these money-minting islands under a lease agreement of 10 Pounds per annum In 1737 Sashti was captured from the Portuguese by the native Marathas. Raja Bhimdev & his son Pratap Bimb transformed the island into a city of temples & settlements flourishing with plantations. groves & woods. but finally lost it to the British in 1774. Raja Bhimdev the son of Ramdev (the Yadav king of Devgiri). established his capital Mahikawati on isle of Mahim. demolished temples & built churches in their place. and was formally ceded to the East India Company in the 1782 Treaty of Salbai View of the ghat. The Haji Ali tomb & the Mahim mosque were built around this time 16th century : Portuguese defeated the Muhameddans in a battle near the Bandra creek. Banganga tank & ancient temple of Walkeshwar . They imposed their feudal system on the natives. fishing hamlets & vegetal cover.

construction workers from Andhra Pradesh arrived here and set up base. Ratan Tata.Major Settlements of Mumbai          During the Shilahar era (800-1000AD) GharaPuri (present day Elephanta) was the capital and flourishing trade center was established in sashti island During Raja Bhimdev·s reign the main inhabitants were various Maharashtrian castes viz. The printing press was introducted to Mumbai by Bhimji Parikh. Bhois. They carried conversion in the area of Caval. The Bhandaris were originally toddy trappers. Kutchis & marwaris arrived to mumbai to oversome droughts & famine in their homeland. migrated to other parts of Mumbai & thus Konkanis became a part of the oldest inhabitants of Mumbai. the Vadvals were gardeners The Portuguese had the primary goal of proselytizing rather than development of mumbai. Vadvals. locality of pydhonie physically sperated Hindu & Muslim settlements The Sindhis who were a resident of the state of Sindh. Pathare Prabhus and Brahmins. Bassein & Thane. The region became known as Kamathipura.g. These communities spearheaded the development of commerce & trade in the city Almost all settlements were largely along the religious lines. The region was the low-lying area near present day Mahalaxmi. Jemshetji Tata. Palshis. The Parsi community has contributed significantly to the development of the nation. Kamathis. many Gujrathis. thus introducing Christianity in this region. lost their homes during the partition since and took shelter in Mumbai & settled in Sindhunagar (Ulhasnagar) & contributed to the progress of trade & commerce. Parsis were one of the earliest immigrants to move to Mumbai. Kathiawaris. For e. During the 17th century. Chaul. . Agris. The Hindus (primarily konkanis) who did not succumb to the oppressions for conversions. Pachkalshis. Kunbis. Famous Parsis are Dadabhai Naoroji. Bhandaris. a Parsi trader in 1670 In 1757. Around the same time.

The ancient Kanheri caves. with an area of 435 sq. then Governor of Bombay Presidency. The present day area from Bandra to Dahisar are a part of Sashti island. initiated the Hornby Vellard project of connecting the isles.km. despite resistance from East India Company. Jogeshwari caves. Mahakali caves fall in this region  (right): Mumbai after reclamation (left): Fort area after reclamation Fact: It took 60 yrs (17841845) to merge the 7 islands of Mumbai into one landmass . The channels separating Mumbai and Turbhe islands from Sashti Island were filled in the early 20th century. By 1845 the seven southern islands had been connected to form Old Mumbai. and Sashti to the mainland. The old railway bridges over the Bhayandar & Naigaon creeks can still be seen from the Virar locals.Greater Mumbai Reclaimed from the Sea  In 1782 William Hornby. Railway viaducts and road bridges were built in the 19th century to connect Mumbai island to Sashti.

the chief engineer. 1784. He searched the waters & actually found an idol of the Goddess & built the Mahalakshmi temple in the sea. a Pathare Prabhu. dreamt of Goddess Lakshmi in the sea near Worli. it was financed by Cotton entrepreneur and banker Premchand Roychand in the late 19th century . when the Hornby Project kept failing to fill the breach at worli. Only then did the Hornby Project work resumed without failures Right: Mahalakshmi mandir Marine Drive. standing 260 ft tall and endowed with amazing sculptures.British Raj (1700²1947 AD) As per the legend. 1930 Below: Rajabai Towre under construction: Mumbai University Building & Rajabhai tower.

now renamed as Tilak Marg ± notice the Crawford market in the back ground Oval Maiden.Some Old Memories Kalbadevi Road Carnac Road. check the Rajabai Tower in the backgrond .

Some Old Memories Queens Road Church gate station with Marine drive in the background View from Malabar hill Bullock cart on Mumbai streets .

1885 ‡ ‡ ‡ Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak. arrived in Bombay in 1915 after giving a spirited fight against inhuman apartheid in South Africa and thus the concept of ³Swadeshi´. Editor. Tilak spoke out to the world as to what was in the minds of the Indian people . 1942 by the Congress Party in a public meeting at Gowalia Tank Maidan (now renamed August Kranti maidan). 1 crore to ³Tilak Swaraj Fund´ which gave a immense boost to entire freedom struggle The Quit India Movement took off from Mumbai on August 7. ³Ahimsa´ & ³Satyagraha´ were introduced in India In 1921 (after the death of Tilak) Mumbai¶s citizens contributed over Rs.000 sailors. This is was the last straw that broke the camel¶s back and forced the mighty British empire to finally announce India¶s independence ‡ First Indian National Congress. Freedom Fighter. the mutiny spread and found support through India.Mumbai and Indian Independence ‡ ‡ Indian National Congress was founded in 1885 in a hall overlooking the Gowalia Tank Maidan In the historical trial of Bal Gangadhar Tilak under the Bombay High Court (for charges of sedition put forth by british).³Swaraj (independence) is my birthright and I shall have it´. from Karachi to Calcutta and ultimately came to involve 78 ships. The Mumbai Mutiny of 18th Feb 1946 marked the first and most serious revolt by the Indian military personnel of the Western naval fleet against the British rule. 20 shore establishments and 20. From the initial flashpoint in Mumbai. This statement aroused a sleeping nation to action making them aware of their political plight under foreign rule Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Social Reformer Gowalia Tank (The tank has been buried and a ground created over it) .

bunder is port. Elephanta island ² original name was Gharapuri (or Puri. The britishers made a failed attempt to move take the elephant to British museum (fortunately their crane broke down and the elephant today sits just outside the buyculla zoo)  Dhobi Talao ² washerman·s pond until 17th century. from the Koli name Kolwar. its been buried since then  Parel ² derived from the Parali Vaijanath Mahadev temple of the 13th century dedicated to Shiva. Vadvals or Malis (were gardeners). Port where sacks are offloaded & stored  Old Mumbai . Nearby was the shrine of Gav-devi (the deity of the village). The Kolis of this village were converted to Christianity by the Portuguese in the 16th century. place of caves). Bhandaris (who were toddy trappers). Thus there were a variety plantations on the islands which gave name to quite a few places in mumbai. which was called by Portuguese as Elephanta after seeing a monolithic basalt sculpture of an elephant at the entrance.in front of tamarind tree. The Portuguuese demolished this & built a Jesuit church & convent in its place  Elphinstone circle ² original name Amliagal (meaning .  Adjoining Phanaswadi is Cavel (derived from Koli name Kolwar) is located to the north-east of Dhobitalao near the Chira Bazaar area. It was founded by a local named Khot who leased plots to east indians  Girgaum ² gir (mountain in Sanskrit). Agris (salt-makers).Interesting Nomenclature (origins) « Some of the earlier most inhabitants were Kolis (whose major occupation was fishing). gaum (village) ² village at the foot of mountain (Malabar hill). even today a Tamarind land exists)  Chinch Bunder (south of Dongri near the shore) ² chinch means tamarind in Marathi  Bhendi Bazar ² derived from a bhendi plantation  Umerkhadi ² derived from a couple of umbar (Ficus Glomerata) trees which existed along the shore of the khadi (creek in Marathi) The entrance to the Gharapuri Caves (Elephanta) in  On the shores of Umerkhadi was a hamlet Pydhonie (which means foot-wash in ancient days Marathi) A comparatively narrow belt of land to the hills were thickly grown with plantations:  Phanaswadi ² phanas (jackfruit in Marathi) plantations  Kelewadi ² plantain (banana) groves in Marathi  Khetwadi ² khet means farm in Marathi  Khotachiwadi ² meaning Khot·s place. Cavel thus became a Christian enclave  Bori Bunder ² bori means sacks in Marathi.

Potters from Saurashtra lived here Sewri derived from Sivawadi Versova ² original name Vesaave which was a koli hamlet Bandra ² original name Vandre (which means Bunder or port) Santa-cruz ² named by Portuguese. The Portuguese demolished this & built a Jesuit church & convent in its place North of Parel was the boat hamlet Naigaon derived from Nyaya-gaon (nyay means justice). capital of Shilaharas. derived from the Parali Vaijanath Mahadev temple built by the Brahmins of the 13th century dedicated to Shiva. Slabs & copper plates of this era were discovered in Thane Mazgaon ² derived from Machchagram (machcha ² fish. It was called as Salsette by Portuguese Thane ² derived from Sthan or Sthanaka. Local name Shantinagar Goregaon is named after the Gore family who lived there since ages . There were tad (brab) palms below the hills which gave the name to Taddeo (Tardeo) Byculla ² derived from Bhaya (Cassia fistula) & khala means at ground level At extreme south of Parel island was a tamarind covered valley. Trombay given by Portuguese Pydhonie ² feet-wash in Marathi ² indicating that this was once a creek. hence the name Chinchpokli Parel ² pronounced as Paral. which gave the name Vadala (vad means banyan in marathi Bamnoli (between Vadala & Parel) derived from Baman-aali (baman is Brahman & aali means row) which was a Brahmin settlement The name of the 7th island was also derived from the rows of banyan (vad) as Vad-ali (aali means row) or Varali (Worli) The northern most main island (present day Bandra-to-Bhayandar) was called Sashti (which means 66). Further north were rows of banyan trees. This was one of the first piece of land to be reclaimed from the sea Khar ² (salty in Marathi) for its vicinity to the sea near Khar Danda Dharavi derived from daar (which means the door of the island) Khumbarwada ² kumbhar means potter.Interesting Nomenclature (origins)                        Up the Malabr hill was a plantation of babul trees which lend the name to famous Babulnath temple. The Worli creek to the north of this island was called Kshirsagar & the khind in the hills got denigrated to Breach Candy. gram-village) Bhuleshwar ² named after the temple of Shiva (Bholenath) Trombay ² original name Turbhe. since it comprised of group of 66 villages. which was the court of justice in the days of Raja Bhimdev.

. Greater Mumbai district (smallest in Maharashtra) & covers an area of 437. & pushing the sea outward through dykewalls like those of the Back Bay reclamation Greater Mumbai (satellite image) Mumbai lies over more than 10 seismic fault lines.Geography & Topology of Greater Mumbai      Mumbai peninsula is 2 meters above sealevel the area of Greater Mumbai is 603 km2. upto 7. km.71 sq. comprising Bombay City 157 km2 and Suburbs 446 km2.14 per cent of total area of Maharashtra Greater Mumbai comprises the Mumbai. South Sashti and Turbhe Islands. The entire Greater Mumbai is made of Deccan basalt flows & their acid & basic variants and also some fossiliferous sediments mainly of tufaceous & partly of fresh water origins rich in fauna Almost 50% of the city area and 23% of the suburban area has been reclaimed from below sea-level by infilling. that constitutes 0. The coastal plain to the east of Mumbai is prone to earthquakes of even higher intensity.5 on the Richter scale.

along the coast of Dockyard Road on the Eastern seafront of Mumbai. The wharf serves as the port for numerous fishermen who bring in their daily catch. Ferry services link up JNPT.  Henery and Kenery. Ferry Wharf is a wharf along the Thane Creek. (situated opposite the Victoria Dock)  Butcher island  Elephanta island  Oyster Rock  Hog island (1km east of Elephanta).Mumbai·s Harbours The Harbour Bay is studded from south to north with many islands:  Kansa or Gull islet (easter side)  Karanja islan. Borivali Right centre: Mumbai·s Harbours in present days Right below: Oyester rock in the background . Uran to the west. and Rewas and Mandwa to the south Apollo Bunder (area before Gateway of India was erected) Kanheri Caves (300 BC).  Cross or Gibbet island.

and Marve. with numerous rain torrents washing down its slopes in all directions. Marshes. They are widest to the west and south of the central hilly region. The largest of them is the Dahisar river that rises on the southern flanks of the Kanheri hills. and resting on knolls. and drains west to join the Marve creek. especially around Bhandup. that are reclaimed tidal marshes and flats just above tidal levels. the river today is mostly a storm drain and a gutter of sewerage. Tidal Swaps. sizable stretches of tidal swaps and salt pan areas. Juhu. has been blocked to form the Dahisar project. this river. Varsova. the Tulsi. the Vihar and the Powai. that supply the city with 3 per cent of its domestic and other needs of water supply. off the Ulhas mouth. along the Thane creek. This river has been dammed in its upper reaches. and narrowest to the north. Lakes. The Kanheri hill complex has a radial drainage system. Below Powai. one below the other. still survive Tulsi lake Powai lake Harbour in monsoon . are extensive lowlying plains. In the east. Surrounding the central hilly region. . Today they form together a single land mass. however. Hills The central horse shoe valley in the hills used to be drained south by the Mahim river in the past. The lower reaches is a shallow. Dharavi and Rai Murdhe. to augment the water supply to the city to a small extent. are sand bars pushed inland by the sea.Creeks. so mruch so this valley today accommodates three small fresh water lakes. blocked off by the construction of the Santacruz airpoit at its Kurla end. fastly silting up drain of industrial wastes emptying into the Mahim Bay.

The Bombay Baroda and Central India Railway (BBCI) was started in 1855. BEST is now The Brihanmumbai Electric Supply & Transport Undertaking. The first motor car appeared on Mumbai roads in 1901.. Double deck buses were introduced in 1937 in order to cope better with the growing traffic.P. The Bombay Electric Supply & Tramways Company Limited started the first electrically operated tram-car appeared on Mumbai·s roads in 1907. In 1905. . 1920. Old Churchgate Rlwy Station Its first train. then known as The Great Indian Peninsula Railway Company (G. The tramcars were of two kinds³those drawn by one horse and those drawn by two.I. double decker trams were introduced in September. ran from Mumbai to Thane on 16th April 1853. Mumbai saw its first bus run on 15 July 1926 between Afgan Church and Crawford Market. By 1870 Calcutta and Madras had been linked with Mumbai by rail. The passing years aggravated the problem of rush-hour traffic and to ease the situation. the first in the country. for short) was established in 1849. In 1865. Dadar TT is Dadar Tram Terminus Early Trams Top: BEST· first bus Left: a gas street lamp.Old Mumbai·s Transport System The Bombay Tramway Company Limited was set up in 1873. Mumbai Suburban Railway is the oldest in Asia established in 1847. the railway went over the Borghat.

He landed with his precious load of mail on a grass strip at Juhu. 1932. in a tiny.Mumbai and Civil Aviation It all began on October 15. . It was on this day that J.R. Tata.D. the father of Civil Aviation in India and founder of Air India. Karachi. light single-engined de Havilland Puss Moth on his flight to Bombay via Ahmedabad. took off from Drigh Road Airport.

Homi Bhabha. since 1857. He built his palace & temple of goddess Prabhadevi in Naigaon (between Wadala & Parel). Social Reformer. He was instrumental in campaign of reformation without the some of the major reconstruction efforts alienating the more orthodox of the city. the father of Indian Cinema Jamshetji Tata ² the first pioneer entrepreneur who strived for economic independence of India during the British rule. the same place is called Bhima Raja·s wadi. school of physics in the world Social Reformer Founder member of Prarthana Samaj Bhau Daji Lad. present day Mahim. He built a court of justice in Prabhadevi. which is one of the best Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade. He started an industrial revolution for swadeshi manufacturing of iron. including coconut palms to the island Dadasaheb Phalke. Even today. in Mumbai which engaged in a Sheriff of Mumbai. ´betµ in Marathi means island). Freedom Fighter & Founder of the Indian Nation Congress in Mumbai . electrical power generation. as well as the first Babulnath temple. founder of the Indian Atomic Energy Independence at a Socialist Confernce programme. He founded TIFR. pioneer of nuclear science. dedicated to Lord Shiva named after the Babul trees which were the main components of a forest covering the low-lying areas of this island. He introduced many fruit-bearing trees. While India was striving for in Germany & was very active in the independence.Pioneers of Mumbai « Raja Bhimdev became the earliest pioneer of Mumbai in the 13th century who established his capital Mahikawati on one of the isles called Newale or Barad-bet (deserted island. steel. textile. elements of the society Dadabhai Naoroji. he spearheaded the country Indian freedom struggle in an advanced field of science & technology. Educationist. The Tata brand is his tribute to the nation Madame Bhikaji Cama She raised the First Flag of Indian Dr.

Social Reformer. Finance Minister of India He was member of Board of Governers of IMF & IBRD. D. He spent his whole life fighting against social discrimination. businessman & entrepreneur He was an Indian philanthropist and educationalist. An active supporter of Unified Maharashtra Movement . Social worker). He was the chief architect of Indian Constitution Dr. Though he was a Brahmin. He established the first university for women in India in 1916. Jurist. Freedom Fighter. He was the Pioneer of Women·s Education & Upliftment & the right for widows to remarry in India. There are many more who had a hand in the making of Mumbai as one of the leading cities of Free India Bharat Ratna Maharshi Keshav Karve. C. which earned him the title ´Senapatiµ Acharya Pralhad Keshav Atre (Literaturist. An active leader in many arenas in Mumbai life. An active member of the Unified Maharastra Movement. Social Reformer Major figure in the Indian Independence struggle. He founded many schools.Nana Jagannath Shankarshet. Deshmukh first Governor of RBI . Sanskrit library in Mumbai. Babasaheb Ambedkar. Scholar. which is currently known as SNDT Women· University Dr. he worked for removing the curse of untouchability These are just a few representational pioneers of Mumbai. member of Mumbai Education Board Senapati Pandurang Mahadev Bapat.

5 million passengers daily over 340 routes .3 million passengers every day BEST runs a total of 3.Mumbai·s Life-line Mumbai Suburban Railways·s operate on 2 zones: CR & WR carry a total of 6.408 buses. ferrying 4.

Dadar Mumbai·s faithful ´night-watchmenµ Shoepolish boys Rajabai Tower .Mumbai Today « Siddhivinayak mandir. Prabhadevi Juhu Beach Hutatma Chowk Shivaji Park.

In retaliation. Gateway Fact: Jamshetji Tata was denied access to Watson Hotel since he was an Indian. a Parsi visionary . he set up the Taj Hotel Marine Drive Fact: Nariman Point was named after Khursheed Framji Nariman.Mumbai Today « Wankhede Stadium Taj Hotel.

Worli Mantralaya BMC Haji Ali tomb High Court Central Library Dhobi Ghat.India·s Business Capital « Hanging Garden. Malabar Hill Stock Exchange. Dalal Street Dadar Flower Market Vidhan Bhavan Nehru Science Center. Mahalakshmi .

Mumbai Invincible « Clockwise from right: 1) Dahi handi 2) Women riding bikes during Gudi Padva parade 3) Ganesh Chaturthi festival .

Mayor Harish Kapadia Himalayan Explorer .Sachin Tendulkar Little Master Sunil Gavaskar A Dabbawala The dutiful BEST bus conductor Dr. Nitu Mandke.Aamhi Mumbaikar « Master Blaster. Balasaheb Thackeray. Surgeon Lata Mangeshkar with Amitabh Bacchan. Sachin Tendulkar Shubha Raul.

terror-attacks Where there is always scope for adjusting one more commuter continuously even in a jam-packed local. strikes. defying the laws of Mass & Volume Where distance is measured in minutes/hours . Locals. instead of Marathi Which does not rest for a moment even after being hit by worst disasters ² riots.. Mumbai has crossed all limits & adjusted herself to accommodate all those who beseeched her A confluence of many varied cultures of the country ² a mini India in the true sense Where two natives (Maharashtrians) tend to speak Mumbaiyya with each other.The Mumbaikar Spirit «             Like a mother whose heart always has space for any number of children. even while manouvering around a pothole Where you need to be skilled in jumping off/on a bus/train few secs before it stops. if you happen to be in the first row near the door while alighting/boarding a bus/train Where 8 people can share a 6ftx6ft kholi & can still make space for more Where you don·t need a reason to play/talk cricket Where you don·t need your own vehicle to commute from one end of the city to another at any time (thanks to the nearly 24hr coverage of BEST buses. For eg. quickest & most exciting shopping of varied items can be done in the train itself « this is Aamchi Mumbai Language Spoken: Mumbaiyya Staple Food: Vada-pav Staple Drink: Cutting Fact: Vada-paav was born 35yrs back when Ashok Vaidya a snack seller outside Dadar station decided to experiment . bomb-blasts. floods. accidents. the distance b/w work-place & home is usually 2hrs Where your driving skill ought to achieve a precision of 0. black-n-yellow metered rides) Where the cheapest.5mm (bumper-to-bumper) with 0% tolerance.

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