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# Bird Electronic Corporation www.bird-electronic.

com (866) 695-4569 2/6/06 JN By: Jim Norton, Applications Engineer

RF Calculators

Calculators available include Power, VSWR & Return Loss, Frequency & Wavelength, Attenuation, Directivity, Cable Loss, Masking Effect, Field Strength, Free Space Loss and Metric Conversions.

000 W 1 W = 1.622.000.000 31.777 31.com (866) 695-4569 JN Power Calculator Enter power and select units to determine equivalent values.000 nW = 1.000 uW 1 W = 1.bird-electronic.622.000.622.623 0.776.032 1 dBm Picowatts (pW) Nanowatts (nW) Microwatts (uW) Milliwatts (mW) Watts (W) Kilowatts (kW) 1 kW = 1.684 31.Bird Electronic Corporation www.602 31.000 45.000.000.800 31.000 mW = 1.000.776.776.000 pW Power (dBm) = 10 x Log [ Power (Watts) ] + 30 dB .601.601.000.683. Enter Power = Power = Power = Power = Power = Power = Power = 45.622.

20 Watts Watts dB % Enter 1.12 Watts Power (dBm) = 10 x Log [ Power (Watts) ] + 30 dB VSWR = Voltage Standing Wave Ratio Pf = Forward Power (Watts) Pr = Reflected Power (Watts) VSWR = [1+Sqrt(Pr / Pf)] / [1-Sqrt(Pr / Pf)] Return Loss (dB) = 10 x Log ( Pr / Pf ) Match Efficiency (%) = 100% x (1 .98 96.00 1.00 Watts 46.00 dBm 50.99 dBm 47.50 -13.Pr / Pf) Rho = Sqrt ( Pr / Pf ) .979 Return Loss (dB) = 96.00 4.Bird Electronic Corporation www.500 VSWR = -13.000 Match Efficiency (%) = 0. Enter Enter Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Forward Power Reflected Power VSWR Return Loss Match Efficiency Rho 100.500 1 = 1.com (866) 695-4569 JN VSWR & Return Loss Calculator Enter forward and reflected power or match to determine equivalent values.bird-electronic.200 Rho Enter Calculates Enter Calculates Power Power Power Power 50.00 0.

150 2.com (866) 695-4569 JN Frequency & Wavelength Calculator Enter frequency or wavelength and select units to determine equivalent values.000.562 78. Enter Frequency = Frequency = Frequency = Wavelength = Wavelength = Wavelength = Wavelength = 150.000 6.000 MHz Wavelength (Meters) = 300 / Frequency (MHz) .000 150.000 150.000 0.740 2 Kilohertz (kHz) Megahertz (MHz) Gigahertz (GHz) Meters (m) Centimeters (cm) Feet (ft) Inches (in) 1 MHz = 1.bird-electronic.000 200.Bird Electronic Corporation www.000 kHz 1 GHz = 1.

99 43.00 25.12 Watts Enter Enter Calculates Calculates Calculates Output Power Attenuation Output Power Input Power Input Power 25.01 Watts Watts dBm dBm dB Enter Enter Calculates Calculates Calculates Input Power Attenuation Input Power Output Power Output Power 50.00 Watts 46.Attenuation (dB) Power (dBm) = 10 x Log [ Power (Watts) ] + 30 dB .98 49.00 3.00 dBm 50.00 43.06 Watts dB dBm dBm Watts Enter Calculates Enter Calculates Power Power Power Power 50.bird-electronic. Enter Enter Calculates Calculates Calculates Input Power Output Power Input Power Output Power Attenuation 50.Bird Electronic Corporation www.88 Watts dB dBm dBm Watts Output Power (dBm) = Input Power (dBm) .00 3.00 46.com (866) 695-4569 JN Attenuation Calculator Enter power or attenuation to determine values.98 46.00 46.99 25.98 3.99 dBm 47.99 43.

forward power and reflected power to determine directivity errors.bird-electronic.123 34. Directivity errors result in measurements which may vary between maximum and minimum values.000 Watts Pf = Forward Power Given Reflected Power 4.000 Directivity Power Ratio = 10 ^ (Dir / 10) Calculates Directivity Forward Power 0.000 100.739 101.100 Watts Prd = Pf / Directivity Power Ratio Calculates Forward Voltage 70.000 dB Dir = Directivity of Coupler Given Forward Power 100.269 2.com (866) 695-4569 JN Directivity Error Calculator Enter directivity.365 -29. dB dB dB The following is a step-by-step procedure to calculate the results which are displayed above: Given Directivity of Coupler 30.402 1.Bird Electronic Corporation www.608 -15.711 Volts Vf = Sqrt (Pf x 50 Ohms) Calculates Reflected Voltage 14.000 98.123 1.649 dB Watts Watts Watts Watts % % Watts Watts % % Directivity is a measure of the ability of a directional coupler to discern between the forward and reflected traveling wave in a transmission system.979 -12.236 Volts Vrd = Sqrt (Prd x 50 Ohms) Note. antenna monitors and analyzers are coupler based test equipment which are used to measure forward and reflected power as well as VSWR and return loss. Enter Enter Enter Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Directivity of Coupler Forward Power Reflected Power Forward Power Minimum Forward Power Maximum Forward Power Min Error Forward Power Max Error Reflected Power Minimum Reflected Power Maximum Reflected Power Min Error Reflected Power Max Error VSWR Minimum VSWR VSWR Maximum Return Loss Minimum Return Loss Return Loss Maximum 30. Power meters.261 1.142 Volts Vr = Sqrt (Pr x 50 Ohms) Calculates Directivity Forward Voltage 0. voltage vectors add when in phase or subtract when 180 degrees out of phase with each other .004 Watts Pfd = Pr / Directivity Power Ratio Calculates Directivity Reflected Power 0.269 -1.835 5.000 Watts Pr = Reflected Power Calculates Directivity Power Ratio 1.529 -13.500 1.447 Volts Vfd = Sqrt (Pfd x 50 Ohms) Calculates Directivity Reflected Voltage 2.000 4.

Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Forward Voltage Minimum Forward Voltage Maximum Reflected Voltage Minimum Reflected Voltage Maximum Forward Power Minimum Forward Power Min Error Forward Power Maximum Forward Power Max Error Reflected Power Minimum Reflected Power Min Error Reflected Power Maximum Reflected Power Max Error Rho Minimum Rho Rho Maximum VSWR Minimum VSWR VSWR Maximum Return Loss Minimum Return Loss Return Loss Maximum 70.365 34.378 98.261 101.269 2.123 0.Rho) VSWR (Max) = (1 + Rho (Max)) / (1 .608 -15.Rho (Min)) VSWR = (1 + Rho) / (1 .Pr) / Pr Rho (Min) = Sqrt (Pr (Min) / Pf (Max)) Rho = Sqrt (Pr / Pf) Rho (Max) = Sqrt (Pr (Max) / Pf (Min)) VSWR (Min) = (1 + Rho (Min)) / (1 .269 1.233 1.158 11.500 1.263 71.Pr) / Pr Pr (Max) = (Vr (Max) ^ 2) / 50 Ohms Error = 100% x (Pr (Max) .123 5.Rho (Max)) Return Loss (Min) = 10 x Log (Pr (Min) / Pf (Max)) Return Loss = 10 x Log ( Pr / Pf ) Return Loss (Max) = 10 x Log (Pr (Max) / Pf (Min)) .Pf) / Pf Pf (Max) = (Vf (Max) ^ 2) / 50 Ohms Error = 100% x (Pf (Max) .167 0.Pf) / Pf Pr (Min) = (Vr (Min) ^ 2) / 50 Ohms Error = 100% x (Pr (Min) .649 Volts Volts Volts Volts Watts % Watts % Watts % Watts % dB dB dB Vf (Min) = Vf .906 16.200 0.402 1.529 -13.Vfd Vf (Max) = Vf + Vfd Vr (Min) = Vr .739 -1.835 -29.Vrd (or 0 if Vrd > Vr) Vr (Max) = Vr + Vrd Pf (Min) = (Vf (Min) ^ 2) / 50 Ohms Error = 100% x (Pf (Min) .979 -12.

duplexer. jumper. jumper cables.00 0. Cable loss is the total insertion loss of your transmission cable system. connector and other loss parameters to determine transmission cable system insertion loss.23 10.32 3.10 0.05 8 0.Bird Electronic Corporation www.bird-electronic.13 230.23 20. VSWR/power monitor. Filter. connectors and lightning protection.65 0.00 4. Duplexer.40 0.00 2.07 dB m or ft dB dB m or ft dB dB m or ft dB dB dB dB dB dB dB Loss per 100 Meters or Feet at Frequency Length in Meters or Feet Transmission Cable Insertion Loss Loss per 100 Meters or Feet at Frequency Length in Meters or Feet Top/Antenna Jumper Cable Insertion Loss Loss per 100 Meters or Feet at Frequency Length in Meters or Feet Bottom/Tx Jumper Cable Insertion Loss Connector Insertion Loss Two Connectors per Pair Connector Insertion Loss Lightning Protection Insertion Loss VSWR/Power Monitor Insertion Loss Loss of Combiner. combiner or filter) may also come into play.g.60 3. This typically includes insertion loss of the transmission cable. etc. Enter Enter Calculates Enter Enter Calculates Enter Enter Calculates Enter Enter Calculates Enter Enter Enter Calculates Cable Loss/100 m or ft Cable Length (m or ft) Cable Loss Top Jumper Loss/100 m or ft Top Jumper Length (m or ft) Top Jumper Loss Bottom Jumper Loss/100 m or ft Bottom Jumper Length (m or ft) Bottom Jumper Loss Loss per Connector Number of Connectors Connector Loss Lightning Protection Loss VSWR/Power Monitor Loss Other Component Loss Total Cable System Loss 1. Loss of other components (e.00 0.com (866) 695-4569 JN Cable Loss Calculator Enter cable. Transmission Cable System Insertion Loss .00 0.

00 dB -8.30) / 10) Pra (Watts) = 10 ^ ((Pra (dBm) .com (866) 695-4569 JN Masking Effect Calculator Enter cable loss and match or forward and reflected power to determine the masking effect.40 2.Rhoa) RLa = 10 x Log (Pra / Pfa) .50 -13.33 -7.00 dB -14.(2 x CL) Enter Enter Enter Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Cable Insertion Loss Forward Power at Transmitter Reflected Power at Transmitter Rho at Transmitter VSWR at Transmitter Return Loss at Transmitter Forward Power at Transmitter Forward Power at Antenna Reflected Power at Transmitter Reflected Power at Antenna Forward Power at Antenna Reflected Power at Antenna Rho of Antenna VSWR of Antenna Return Loss of Antenna 3.CL Pfa (Watts) = 10 ^ ((Pfa (dBm) .00 36.98 0.00 4. Enter Enter Calculates Cable Insertion Loss Return Loss at Transmitter Return Loss of Antenna 3.00 dB CL = Cable Insertion Loss RLt = Return Loss at Transmitter RLa = Return Loss of Antenna = RLt .Bird Electronic Corporation www.02 39.bird-electronic.00 0.98 50.00 47.20 1.12 7. Enter Enter Calculates Cable Insertion Loss VSWR at Transmitter VSWR of Antenna 3.30) / 10) Rhoa = Rho of Antenna = Sqrt (Pra / Pfa) VSWRa = (1 + Rhoa) / (1 .00 dB 1.98 dB Watts Watts dB dBm dBm dBm dBm Watts Watts dB CL = Cable Insertion Loss Pft = Forward Power at Transmitter Prt = Reflected Power at Transmitter Rhot = Sqrt (Prt / Pft) VSWRt = (1 + Rhot) / (1 .00 100.33 Antenna measurements taken at the transmitter end of the cable will be masked by the cable loss.50 2.Rhot) RLt = 10 x Log (Prt / Pft) Pft (dBm) = 10 x Log (Pft (Watts)) + 30 dB Pfa (dBm) = Pft (dBm) + CL Prt (dBm) = 10 x Log (Prt (Watts)) + 30 dB Pra (dBm) = Prt (dBm) .02 50.

This may be calculated if the signal power level (dBm). frequency and the gain of the receive antenna are known.Bird Electronic Corporation www. frequency and antenna gain to determine field strength.bird-electronic.8 Signal Level (dBuV) = Signal Level (dBm) + 107 dB Signal Level (dBuV/m) = Signal Level (dBuV) + Antenna Factor (dB) Field Strength (uV/m) = 10 ^ (Signal Level (dBuV/m) / 20) 1 V/m = 1.138 25. Enter Enter Enter Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Signal Power Level Frequency Receive Antenna Gain Antenna Factor Signal Level Signal Level Field Strength Field Strength Field Strength -30.025 25.Antenna Gain (dB) -29.057 dBm MHz dB dB dBuV dBuV/m V/m mV/m uV/m The field strength of the signal emitted by a radio antenna is usually expressed in units of microvolts per meter (uV/m).000 155.007 0.007 77.138.com (866) 695-4569 JN Field Strength Calculator Enter signal power level.000 11.000 uVm .000.000 3.000 88. Antenna Factor (dB) = 20 Log (Frequency (MHz)) .000 mV/m = 1.

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bird-electronic.000 MHz 1.6093 Kilometers . buildings. Enter Enter Calculates Frequency Distance Free Space Loss 800.662 dB Free Space Loss is the power loss of a radio signal as it travels through free space.000 Miles 94.000 MHz 1. Enter Enter Calculates Frequency Distance Free Space Loss 800. cables and connectors as well as antenna gains are not considered.529 dB Free Space Loss (dB) = 36.000 Kilometers 90.6 + 20 x Log (Frequency (MHz) x Distance (Miles)) 1 Mile = 1. trees.Bird Electronic Corporation www. Losses due to sources such as earth.com (866) 695-4569 JN Free Space Loss Calculator Enter frequency and distance to determine free space loss.

022 0.400 63.550.32) R = F + 459.279.000 7 Centimeters (cm) Inches (in) Feet (ft) Yards (yd) Meters (m) Kilometers (km) Miles (mi) 1 mi = 1.000 0.54 cm 1 m = 3.934.000 4 Square cm Square in Square ft Square m Acres Square km Square mi Enter = = = = Temperature 0.360.205 1.28 ft 1 kg = 2.344 1.034 5.000 32.000 0.Bird Electronic Corporation www.6 km Enter = = = = = = = Weight 1.bird-electronic.005 10.979 1.000 491.69 K = C + 273.76 sq ft 1 sq mi = 2.001 0.000 160.6 sq km .000.000 1.15 1 sq in = 6.609.150 2 Fahrenheit (F) Celsius (C) Rankine (R) Kelvin (K) C = 5/9 (F .com (866) 695-4569 JN Metric Conversions Enter quantity and select units to determine equivalent values.1 ton 1 in = 2.274 2.000 35.000.35 g 4 Grams (g) Ounces (oz) Pounds (lb) Kilograms (kg) Hundredwt (cwt) Tons (ton) Tonnes (t) 1 t = 1.759. Length Enter = = = = = = = 1.2 lb Area Enter = = = = = = = 1.001 1 oz = 28.690 273.45 sq cm 1 sq m = 10.000 0.936 1.609 1.000 10.764 1.000 1.000 0.000 0.

06 qt 1 gal = 3.628 2.002 4 Milliliters (ml) Fluid Oz (fl oz) Quarts (qt) Liters (l) Gallons (gal) Cubic Ft (cu ft) Cubic M (cu m) 1 fl oz = 29.000.528 0.113 2.Volume Enter = = = = = = = 2.000 67.000 2.8 liters 1 cu m = 35.6 ml 1 liter = 1.000 0.3 cu ft .071 0.