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Islamic_work Ethics and Committment

Islamic_work Ethics and Committment

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Personnel Review 30,2 152
Received September 1998 Revised February 1999 Accepted May 1999

A moderator between organizational commitment and job satisfaction in a cross-cultural context
United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates
Keywords Work ethic, Commitment, Job satisfaction, National cultures, Islam, United Arab Emirates Abstract This study investigates the moderating impacts of the Islamic work ethic on the relationships between organizational commitment and job satisfaction. It uses a sample of 425 Muslim employees in several organizations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The empirical results indicate that the Islamic work ethic directly affects both organizational commitment and job satisfaction, and that it moderates the relationship between these two constructs. Results further reveal that national culture does not moderate the relationship between the Islamic work ethic and both organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Results also point out that support of the Islamic work ethic differs across age, education level, work experience, national culture, organization type (manufacturing or service), and ownership (private or public). Furthermore, empirical results suggest that there is a positive and significant relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Implications, limitations and lines of future research are discussed.

Islamic work ethic
Darwish A. Yousef

Personnel Review, Vol. 30 No. 2, 2001, pp. 152-169. # MCB University Press, 0048-3486

Introduction Work ethic and its linkages with organizational commitment, job satisfaction as well as individual and organizational variables have received considerable attention in the literature (e.g. Putti et al., 1989; Oliver, 1990; Aldag and Brief, 1975; Blood 1969; Kidron, 1978; Abboushi, 1990; Furnham and Rajamanickam, 1992; Jones, 1997; Yavas et al., 1990; Beutell and Brenner, 1986; Elizur et al., 1991; Wayne, 1989). Such attention might be attributed to the fact that work ethic, in particular, is believed to reflect an individual's attitudes towards various aspects of work, including preference for activity and involvement, attitudes toward monetary and non-monetary rewards, and the desire for upward career mobility (Cherrington, 1980). Additionally, work ethic facilitates economic development (Congleton, 1991). It also induces employees to be highly involved in their jobs (Randall and Cote, 1991; Fodor, 1990). Nonetheless, much of the research on the work ethic has been carried out in the West, with the focus on the Protestant work ethic (PWE). The concept of the PWE was advanced by Weber (1958) who proposed a causal relationship between the Protestant work ethic and the development of capitalism in Western society. Weber's theory related success in business to religious belief. He proposed that the Protestant-Calvinistic faith had a spiritual thrust towards capitalism and was based on the assumption that work and financial success were means to achieve not only personal goals but religious goals as well (Kidron, 1978).

In addition. which is seen as obligatory for a capable individual. Ahmad (1976) argued that the Islamic work ethic stands not for life denial but for life fulfilment and holds business motives in the highest regard. Also. competition is encouraged in order to improve quality. The Quran encourages humans to acquire skills and technology. It emphasizes that justice and generosity in the workplace are necessary conditions for society's welfare and that no one should be denied his full wage. The Islamic work ethic emphasizes cooperation in work. 1997). the main objectives of the present study are: to explore the direct effects of the Islamic work ethic on both organizational commitment and job satisfaction. and highly praises those who strive in order to earn a living. Consequently. job satisfaction. Social relations at work are encouraged in order to meet one's needs and establish equilibrium in one's individual and social life. as well as the moderating Islamic work ethic 153 . according to Ali (1988) the value of work in the Islamic work ethic is derived from the accompanying intentions rather than from the results of work. The ethics of Islam counsels against begging and against living as a parasite on the labors of others (Abeng. Despite its importance. the Islamic work ethic argues that life without work has no meaning and engagement in economic activities is an obligation. and it calls for an equitable and fair distribution of wealth in the society. Conversely. satisfaction and self-fulfillment. The IWE stresses creative work as a source of happiness and accomplishment. Islam is one of the most influential factors which have shaped current Arab value systems. Hard work is seen as a virtue. 1990). Besides constant hard work to meet one's responsibilities. the Quran often speaks about honesty and justice in trade.Weber's theory was introduced into psychology by McClelland (1961). Nasr (1984) argued that the Islamic work ethic deserves a serious inquiry because it is the ideal which Muslims seek to realize. 1988). who offered a social-psychological explanation for the link between Protestantism and capitalism. not working hard is seen to cause failure in life (Ali. However. job performance. The Quran is against laziness and waste of time by either remaining idle or engaging oneself in unproductive activity. Sufficient effort should go into one's work. He subsumed the PWE concept into the need for achievement concept which he saw as a basic dimension of personality (Furnham. it is more likely that those who believe in Islam and practice it tend to be more committed to their organizations and presumably more satisfied with their jobs. The Islamic work ethic views dedication to work as a virtue. little research has been devoted to an in-depth study of the Islamic work ethic and its impacts on job-related outcomes such as organizational commitment. the sayings and practice of Prophet Mohammed.'' For instance. work is considered to be a source of independence and a means of fostering personal growth. the concept of the Islamic work ethic (IWE) has its origin in the Quran. Additionally. and the like. as Ali (1986-87) argued. and consultation is seen as a way of overcoming obstacles and avoiding mistakes. In brief. who preached that hard work caused sins to be absolved and that ``no one eats better food than that which he eats out of his work. self-respect. Thus. and those who work hard are more likely to get ahead in life.

unlike the PWE. The results indicated that work ethic is related more to moral commitment than calculative involvement. cooperation and competitiveness at the work place. In addition. The present study is potentially useful for both academicians and practitioners alike.'s Scale. the IWE places more emphasis on intention than on results. For instance. and also. the IWE emphasizes justice and generosity in the workplace. thus hopefully stimulating further research in this area. Furthermore. investigated the relationship between work ethics. this study is expected to enhance academicians' understanding of the role of the Islamic work ethic in moderating the relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction in a non-Western context. were derived from a factor analysis of Wollack et al. namely. organizational commitment and job satisfaction A number of previous studies have investigated the relationship between work ethic or Protestant ethic and organizational commitment. this study could provide practitioners. For instance. and commitment to organization. Two major dimensions of work ethic. and it views engagement in economic activities as an obligation. it is expected that the present study would also be of some benefit for those who teach Islamic work ethic and related topics.Personnel Review 30. defined as the Protestant ethic of workers. work creativity. commitment and dedication to work. The Protestant ethic was measured using the Mirels and Garrett Scale. with valuable information for making better decisions regarding recruitment and selection as well as improving organizational commitment and job satisfaction. However. especially managers in multinational corporations considering doing business in Islamic markets. Work ethic. Putti et al. and man will be rewarded or punished accordingly. Kidron (1978) using three diverse samples. The analysis suggested that intrinsic work ethic relates more closely to organizational commitment than either the global measure of work ethic or extrinsic work ethic. intrinsic and extrinsic. avoidance of unethical methods of wealth accumulation. to determine the factors which might contribute to variations in the support of the Islamic work ethic among individuals. Oliver (1990) also .2 154 effects of the Islamic work ethic on the relationship between these two constructs. to examine the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. to examine the influence of national culture (nationality) on the relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction. From a practical standpoint. (1989) investigated the association between work ethic and organizational commitment in the Asian context. From an academician perspective. Protestant work ethic (PWE) vs Islamic work ethic (IWE) Both the Islamic work ethic (IWE) and the Protestant work ethic (PWE) place considerable emphasis on hard work. Prophet Mohammed stated ``actions are recorded according to intention.'' It also stresses social aspects in the workplace and duties toward society.

Aldag and Brief.. Therefore. 1990). Jones. Abboushi. 1988. using a sample of 145 temporary employees of a large Canadian theme park. 1987. Ali. Work ethic showed significant relationships to commitment. It could also be argued that those employees who are of certain national cultural groups and are highly supportive of the Islamic work ethic are more likely to be more committed to their organizations and also more satisfied with their jobs. Ralston et al. it is hypothesized that: H3: National culture moderates the relationship between the Islamic work ethic and both organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Islamic work ethic 155 . Morrow and McElory. Randall and Cote. Thus. 1983. 1987. (1995) pointed out that culture is one of the forces which form one's ethics. In contrast. 1988. 1996. Brief and Aldag. The findings of these studies indicate that work ethic is strongly related to job satisfaction. Morrow and McElory. 1975. 1969. Chusmir and Koberg. It could be argued that those employees who strongly support the Islamic work ethic and who are highly satisfied with their jobs are more likely to be more committed to their organizations. Fisher and Gitelson. 1980. Chusmir and Koberg. 1991. Bokemeir and Lacy. Elizur et al. For instance. 1975. with the use of Blood's pro-Protestant ethic scale to measure the Protestant work ethic (PWE). Meglino et al. (1996) also examined the relationship between work ethic and organizational commitment.examined the influence of employee work ethic on level of organizational commitment in a UK employee-owned firm. it is hypothesized that: H2: The Islamic work ethic moderates the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The influence of national culture on work ethic has thus far received little attention in the literature. Morrow and Goetz. suggesting that Indians endorse the work ethic more than Britons. 1984. Furnham and Muhiudeen (1984) also argue that the degree to which people believe in the Protestant work ethic differs between cultures. Furnham and Rajamanickam (1992) found highly significant and dramatic nationality differences. while those with strongly instrumental ethic showed relatively lower commitment. Other Western scholars have also found a positive relationship between the work ethic and organizational commitment (e. Cherington. It is hypothesized that: H1a: The Islamic work ethic is directly related to organizational commitment. 1987. Stone. The results indicated that a strong support of the work ethic was directly related to higher organizational commitment. 1989. H1b: The Islamic work ethic is directly related to job satisfaction. Saks et al.g. 1987. 1988). (1991) noted the presence of cultural difference in relative importance for a limited range of ethics. Employees who showed strong participatory ethic exhibited relatively high commitment. The relationship between work ethic and job satisfaction has also been investigated in previous studies (Blood. Saks et al. particularly work ethic. 1980.. Furthermore. despite the significant role culture plays in shaping an individual's ethics.

Work experience influenced the work ethic of upward striving. For instance. Wong et al. Women and men managers reported strikingly similar work ethic. Oliver and Brief (1977-1978). (1996) reported a positive association between the two variables. McNeilly and Russ (1992). Fletcher and Williams (1996). Work ethic.Personnel Review 30. and found that work ethic differs across age. using a slightly modified version of Hofstede's Values Survey Module. Dubinsky and Borys (1981). Occupational fields and levels also were significant. Bedeian and Armenakis (1981). age and work experience on the work ethic of Palestinian Arabs. The results demonstrated that educational fields and levels were the most important demographic variables related to work ethic considerations. job involvement. Baugh and Roberts (1994). . Igbaria and Guimaraes (1993). occupational. (1995). social status. Rizzo et al. (1970). sex. Clark and Larkin (1992). and Bhuian et al. Ali et al. Dipboye and Anderson (1959) and Wijting et al. 131 men) in two separate worlds: work and personal life. whereas gender differences were not significant. Vandenberg and Lance (1992) investigated the causal order of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Frick (1995) investigated the relative importance of cultural. using Rokeach's Value Survey Scale. DeConinck and Bachmann (1994). In contrast. Liou (1995). The level of formal education had a significant influence on pride in work. gender and performance as moderators. Therefore. job involvement. organizational and education levels. it is hypothesized that: H4: There is a positive and significant relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. while age had significant influence on the social prestige connotations of work. Porter and Steers (1973). (1995b) examined work ethic in the USA and Canada. (1986) found no relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction. For instance. education.2 156 Organizational commitment and job satisfaction A number of previous studies focused on the relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction. using Wollack and colleagues' Survey of Work Values (SWV). Curry et al. Chusmir and Parker (1991) examined gender differences in ethics of 258 managers (127 women. and attitude toward earnings. but personal ethics rankings showed substantial differences. Results indicated that occupation influences pride in work. Abboushi (1990) investigated the impact of occupation. They discovered that experience and performance moderate the relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction. (1978) also reported a significant association between work ethic and education. Russ and McNeilly (1995) looked into the relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction using experience. They found that organizational commitment causes job satisfaction. and attitude toward earnings. and gender differences in work ethic. individual and organizational variables Several previous studies have examined the impact of individual variables on work ethic.

(1990) examined the relationship between work-related ethics (work environment and harmony/discord) and selected leadership contingencies. including gender. Gomez-Mejia (1983) and Whelen (1972) found a significant relationship between work ethic. Adeyemi-Bello (1994) also examined work ethic of males and females. Results indicated that gender has a significant effect on work environment. tenure and work experience. On the other hand. males were less concerned about the work environment than females. Taylor and Thompson (1976) discovered a significant association between age and work ethic. the results indicate that managers working in organizations with more than 250 employees are more egocentric than managers working in smaller organizations. For instance. Ali et al. (1975) and Goodale (1973) argued that work ethic differs across sector of enterprise and size of the organization. Their evidence suggests that ownership significantly influences all ethics (tribalistic. Similarly. with females rating 12 of these ethics higher than males.079 managers in a large. manipulative. age and ownership. egocentric. conformist. with the use of Manhardt's Scale. He reported that Nigerian males and females in general have similar work ethics. Significant sex differences were found on eight of 25 ethics. Jensen et al. Similarly. hierarchical position. Islamic work ethic 157 . using a sample of 1. Beutell and Brenner (1986) also investigated sex differences in work ethic. using a convenience sample of 29 males and 43 females from the southwestern part of Nigeria. (1974). The results did not support the notion of differences between men and women in work ethic. experience. with the use of Manhardt's Scale. longterm health care organization with the use of Hofestde's Values Survey Module. (1995a) also investigated the influence of management level on work ethic. Thus. Davidson (1983) discovered a significant association between personality and work ethic. sociocentric and existential). using a sample of 202 advanced undergraduate business students. Ali et al. England et al. Flowers et al. education level. H5b: The Islamic work ethic differs across an organization's type. Results indicated that management level influences tribalistic. Furthermore. Fruehling (1980) reported a significant association between work ethic and gender. national culture. it could be hypothesized that: H5a: The Islamic work ethic differs across age. and job type. conformist and existential ethics. using Wollack and colleagues' Survey of Work Values (SWV). several prior studies have investigated the influence of a number of organizational variables on work ethic. (1995a) investigated the impact of an organization's ownership and size on work ethic. gender. Ali and Al-Shakis (1985). and preferred and actual supervisor leadership style. Similarly.Mannheim (1993) also investigated gender differences in ethics of 209 working men and 136 working women drawn as a systematic 25 per cent sample from the list of parents in four high school districts in a metropolitan area in Israel. Rowe and Snizek (1995) found no significant differences between males and females in terms of work ethic.

pp. 1988. Measures Islamic work ethic (IWE) was measured using an instrument developed by Ali (1988). 53 per cent had up to ten years experience. with the assistance of a number of experts. 53 per cent were Arab expatriates. Since most respondents speak only Arabic. The internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's Alpha) for this scale in this study was 0. ``Creative work is a source of happiness and accomplishment'' and ``Those who do not work hard often fail in life''. For a full listing of IWE items see (Ali. This instrument consists of 46 items. The total sample of this study was 600 individuals. 579-80). ``I talk up this organization to my friends as a great organization to work for'' and ``I am extremely glad I chose this organization to work for over others I was considering at the time I joined''. This procedure has been adopted because of the absence of any listings that can serve as sampling frames for drawing random samples.85 .89 (Ali. ``Laziness is a vice''. Scores on the 46 items were averaged to yield a summary score reflecting the Islamic work ethic. 425 were collected resulting in a 71 per cent response rate. A total of 30 organizations were selected randomly from this list. Of the subjects. A seven-point agreement scale was employed ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). Results indicated that Cronbach's Alpha is 0. The author. Then a random sample of Muslim employees in each organization of the selected 30 organizations was drawn. A seven-point scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree) was employed. ``Work is an obligatory activity for every capable individual''. The main characteristics of the sample are presented in Table I. 1992). The questionnaire was administered in both Arabic and English. and 71 per cent worked in organizations which have been in operation for over 20 years. and was validated by translation-back-translation to ensure that both versions are equivalent. compiled a list of 50 major organizations in four main districts in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). the questionnaire was translated from English into Arabic. Of the subjects.2 158 Method Sample and data collection The author. Of the 600 questionnaires distributed. About 58 per cent had college or graduate education. This questionnaire is composed of nine items. using drop-off and pick-up methods. over 85 per cent were male and 64 per cent were over 30 years old. Examples of these items include: ``Cooperation is a virtue in work''. over 80 per cent worked in administrative jobs and 81 per cent were married. 72 per cent worked in government organizations. Of the subjects. (1979) Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ). About 82 per cent were working in service organizations.Personnel Review 30. distributed 600 questionnaires. Organizational commitment was measured using Mowday et al. Scores on the nine items were averaged to yield a summary score reflecting . Examples of these items include: ``I am willing to put in a great deal of effort beyond that normally expected in order to help this organization be successful''. The validity and reliability of this scale were tested using 117 managers in Saudi Arabia.

A seven-point scale was employed.5 63.82 .Frequency Organization ownership Government sector Private sector Joint sector Organization type Manufacturing Service Both Organization age 20 years or less Over 20 years Gender Male Female Nationality UAE Arab Asian Age 30 years or less Over 30 years Experience Ten years or less Over ten years Job type Administrative Technical Both Marital status Married Single Educational level General education Graduate Post graduate Note: n = 425 304 61 60 49 349 27 123 302 363 62 153 227 45 155 270 225 200 342 56 27 345 80 180 213 32 (%) 71.5 82.4 10.9 47.0 53. Job satisfaction was measured using 24 items adopted from the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) developed by Weiss et al.4 14. The main characteristics of the sample organizational commitment.9 71.4 50. Scores on the 24 items were averaged to yield a summary score reflecting overall job .2 18.5 52.4 81.1 11.5 14. The internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's Alpha) for this scale in this study was 0.6 36.1 6.4 14.6 36.1 80. ``The way your boss handles his men''. ranging from 1 (strongly dissatisfied) to 7 (strongly satisfied). (1967). ``The chance to develop close friendships with your co-workers'' and ``Your job security''.5 13.3 28.5 Islamic work ethic 159 Table I. ``The amount of pay for the work you do''. Examples of these items are: ``The physical surroundings where you work''.1 7.2 6.8 42. ``The chance of getting ahead on this job''.1 85.

92 . The models The present study is based on the following models: Model 1 C ˆ  ‡ 1 S ‡ 2 E ‡ 3 S à E ‡  Model 2 S ˆ  ‡ 1 E ‡ 2 IN ‡ 3 IA ‡ ‡4 IN à E ‡ 5 IAà E ‡  & IN ˆ 1 if Nationals IA ˆ 0 Otherwise & 1 if Arabs 0 Otherwise Model 3 C ˆ  ‡ 1 E ‡ 2 IN ‡ 3 IA ‡ 4 IN à E ‡ 5 IAà E ‡  & IN ˆ where: C S E IN and IA 1 if Nationals IA ˆ 0 Otherwise & 1 if Arabs 0 Otherwise = = = = organizational commitment. Demographic variables were included in the analysis. indices of national culture. Stone-Romero and Anderson (1994) recommended the use of moderated multiple regression in research concerned with the detection of moderating effects. Analysis Descriptive statistical analysis including frequencies and percentages was used to present the main characteristics of the sample. national culture (UAE nationals/Arabs/ Asians).Personnel Review 30. They include age (30 years or less/above 30 years). The internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's Alpha) for this scale in this study was 0. Additionally. F-statistics and moderated multiple regression were utilized to test the validity of the hypotheses. experience (ten years or less/above ten years). intercorrelations. and an organization's ownership (private or government). . marital status (married/single). education (general education/graduate or postgraduate). Islamic work ethic.2 160 satisfaction. type (manufacturing or service) and age (20 years or less/above 20 years). job type (administrative/technical). gender (male/female). job satisfaction.

IA (Arabs) Table III. which stated that the Islamic work ethic is directly related to organizational commitment and to job satisfaction respectively. Variables 1 2 3 Organizational commitment Job satisfaction Islamic work ethic 2 0. E (Islamic work ethic). standard deviations and intercorrelations for the variables of interest are reported in Table II.29** 0. Moderated multiple regression results .63 ±0. Results show that employees in the organizations investigated are moderately satisfied with their jobs and committed to their organizations.05* 1. Results Means.04 0. ** p < 0.89 SD 0. Results further show that there is a significant and positive correlation between organizational commitment and both job satisfaction (0.29) and between job satisfaction and the Islamic work ethic (0.01.85 0.26* 1.72 ±0. Model 2 explains the moderating effects of national culture on the relationship between the Islamic work ethic and job satisfaction.04 Notes: * p < 0.49) and the Islamic work ethic (0.43* 0. ** p < 0.16 0. S (job satisfaction).44 ±0.21 0.03 Model 3 S 0. standard deviations and intercorrelations of the variables of interest Dependent Model 1 C Model 2 C Independent variables S E E*S E IN IA E*IN E*IA E IN IA E*IN E*IA R2 0.47 Islamic work ethic 161 Notes: * p < 0. C (organizational commitment).64 ±0. These results and the results of the regression models (models 2 and 3 in Table III) support H1a and H1b.Model 1 examines the moderating effects of the Islamic work ethic on the relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction.63* 0.01 Table II. Means.05.87 5.17).49* 3 0.95 0. Model 3 explains the moderating effects of national culture on the relationship between the Islamic work ethic and organizational commitment.13 B 1.001. but highly committed to the Islamic work ethic.43** 0.97 4.17* M 4. Moderated multiple No. IN (nationals).30 0.

83) or x x Asian expatriates (" = 5. thus supporting H2. It might be worthwhile noting that the Duncan test revealed that there are no significant differences among the three national culture groups in terms of job satisfaction. and that of national culture on the relationship between the Islamic work ethic and both job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Arab expatriates showed stronger support of the Islamic work ethic (" = 6. work experience. an individual's job type and gender do not contribute to variations in support of the Islamic work ethic among individuals. The results of moderated regression indicate that the Islamic work ethic and job satisfaction interact in their effects on organizational commitment. However. employees with long experience (more than ten years) showed stronger support of the Islamic work ethic than those with short experience (ten years or less). therefore not supporting H3. there are significant differences between UAE nationals (" = 4.00) than UAE nationals (" = 5. education level.18) expatriates in terms of organizational commitment.2 162 regression was employed to detect the moderating effects of the Islamic work ethic on the relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction. national culture. but x there are no significant differences between Arab and Asian expatriates in terms of organizational commitment. The previous results largely support H5a. experience. The result of the Duncan test confirmed the x differences between the three national culture groups in terms of support of the Islamic work ethic. It was found that support of the Islamic work ethic increases with increase in age. Nonetheless.77) and Arab (" = 5. or in other words.54).06) x x and Asian (" = 5. Employees with graduate or postgraduate degrees showed stronger support of the Islamic work ethic than those with below university degrees.Personnel Review 30. which suggested that support of the Islamic work ethic differs across age. which suggested that national culture moderates the relationship between the Islamic work ethic and both organizational commitment and job satisfaction. thus confirming H4. Results of the ANOVA test suggested . The results of correlation (see Table II) indicate that there is a strong and positive relationship between the two constructs (0.49). experience. gender and job type. The results of moderated multiple regression analyses are shown in Table III. On the other hand. Older employees (above 30 years) showed stronger support of the Islamic work ethic than younger employees (30 years or less). the results of moderated multiple regression analysis show that national culture and the Islamic work ethic do not interact in their effects on both job satisfaction and organizational commitment. and the results of multiple regression analysis confirmed this relationship. education level and national culture. national culture does not moderate the relationship between the Islamic work ethic and both job satisfaction and organizational commitment. and education level. H4 states that there is a significant and positive relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The results of ANOVA test revealed that support of the Islamic work ethic differs across age. which stated that the Islamic work ethic moderates the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

.99 5.79 5. The results of the ANOVA test are reported in Table IV.67). 1995. Wong et al.85 F-statistic 7.96 5. Oliver. Such positive attitudes might result in several advantages including hard work.that support of the Islamic work ethic differs across an organization's type (manufacturing or service) and ownership (private or government). 1989. Kidron.67 5.90 6. Bhuian et al. 1990.g. 1996.19* 8. commitment and dedication to work.g. 1989. Ali and Azim. 1987.13* 3. ** p < 0. Abboushi. The result that the relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction is positive and significant is in line with the findings of previous studies (e.83 6. 1989.. Saks et al. 1969. 1980.00 5.. Putti et al. These results suggest that those who strongly support the Islamic work ethic are more committed to their organizations and more satisfied with their jobs. 1978.02 5.10 Table IV. x x Those who work in government organizations showed stronger support of the Islamic work ethic (" = 5. thus supporting H5b. Ali.. cooperation and fair competitiveness at the work place. work creativity. 1992. Variable Age Experience Education National culture Type of organization Ownership Group 30 year > 30 year 10 year > 10 year General education Graduate and above UAE nationals Arabs Asians Manufacturing Service Government Private Mean 5. Cherrington. Employees working in service organizations showed stronger support of the Islamic work ethic (" = 5.46** Islamic work ethic 163 Notes: * p < 0. 1996.34* 3.85). 1994).97 5. would benefit both the individual as well as the organization.12** 21.80 5. Ali. Fisher and Gitelson. This. Meglino et al.97) than those who work in private organizations (" = x x 5. 1990.22* 8.01.. The results that the relationships between the Islamic work ethic and both organizational commitment and job satisfaction are positive and significant are consistent with previous findings (e.98 5. 1983. Blood.g. of course. Bokemeir and Lacy. Results of one-way ANOVA test of IWE with personal and organizational variables . which stated that support of the Islamic work ethic differs across an organization's type.54 5. Fletcher and Williams.96) than those who work in manufacturing organizations (" = 5. Discussion The results that individuals in the organizations investigated are highly committed to the Islamic work ethic are consistent with previous research (e. age and ownership. 1996). 1987.

Moreover. (1995a). with regard to the significant relationship between an organization's ownership and support of the Islamic work ethic (IWE). Ali et al. It also supports the finding of Furnham and Rajamanickam (1992) who reached a similar conclusion. 1995. Abboushi. DeConinck and Bachmann. Igbaria and Guimaraes. Additionally. The results also show that national culture does not moderate the relationship between the Islamic work ethic and both job satisfaction and organizational commitment. those who work in service organizations showed stronger support of the Islamic work ethic than those who work in manufacturing organizations. It also explores the moderating effects of the Islamic work ethic on the relationships of organizational commitment and job satisfaction. 1994. This result indicates that those who are more satisfied with their jobs are more committed to their organizations. Mannheim. 1995. education level and work experience. Conclusion This study examines the relationships between the Islamic work ethic and both organizational commitment and job satisfaction. the evidence reported by this study is consistent with the results of Frick. and Adeyemi-Bello. Those who work in government organizations showed stronger support of the Islamic work ethic than those who work in private organizations.g. there is a positive and significant relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment.Personnel Review 30. Regarding the significant relationship between individuals' age. education level. and that it moderates the relationship of organizational commitment and job satisfaction. These results demonstrate that improving organizational commitment requires enhancing both job satisfaction and support of the Islamic work ethic. our findings are consistent with some previous studies (e. 1993). (1995) and the finding of Furnham and Muhiudeen (1984) who concluded that the degree to which people believe in the Protestant work ethic differs between cultures. 1994. 1993. Also with respect to the insignificant relationship between individuals' gender and support of the Islamic work ethic.. it was found that support of the Islamic work ethic increases with increase in age. Furthermore. Arab expatriates showed stronger support of the Islamic work ethic than UAE nationals or Asian expatriates. 1991. our inferences accord well with those discussed in Ali et al. 1990.2 164 Liou. The results that the Islamic work ethic moderates the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment can be considered a major contribution of this study. and that of national culture (nationality) on the relationship between the Islamic work ethic and both job satisfaction and organizational commitment. . work experience and support of the Islamic work ethic. We obtained evidence that the Islamic work ethic directly affects both organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Furthermore. Furthermore. 1995b). the result of this study in terms of the relationship of national culture with support of the Islamic work ethic supports the argument of Ralston et al. Chusmir and Parker.

Third. the findings that support of the Islamic work ethic increases with the increase in age. the limited size of each cultural group does not permit further investigation and analysis for each group independently. and both organizational commitment and job satisfaction. this might limit the generalizability of the findings of this study. A detailed comparison between the IWE and the PWE that shows similarities and differences between the two constructs would be worthwhile. It would be of interest to explore if there is a linear or non-linear relationship between the IWE and demographic variables such as age and experience. Islamic work ethic 165 It would be of interest to study the impact of the Islamic work ethic on job stress. the findings that the Islamic work ethic moderates the relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction would benefit those managers. In order to enhance the levels of organizational commitment. . turnover intentions. direct their efforts toward improving the levels of support of the Islamic work ethic for those employees. It might be useful to speculate as to whether the relationship with age is due to aging or whether it is due to society having had stronger work values in the past. . married. First. job performance and job insecurity. work in administrative jobs. As shown in Table I. It would also be worthwhile to investigate the impact of organizational culture in addition to the national culture on the relationships between the Islamic work ethic. The findings and conclusions of this study are only suggestive and should be interpreted keeping in mind the following limitations. one must be cautious in interpreting the findings of this study due to possible non-response bias. efforts should be directed first toward improving levels of both job satisfaction and support of the Islamic work ethic. the generalizability of the findings of the present study might be questionable due to the nature of the sample. Thus. male. work experience and education level and that support of the Islamic work ethic differs across national cultural groups would also be useful in the sense that they would draw managers' attentions to those employees who might be less supportive of the Islamic work ethic. in which case the survey estimates will be biased. the majority of the individuals in the sample are working in government and service organizations.The results of this study may have some implications for managers of multinational corporations considering doing business in Islamic markets. . The potential problem with respect to non-response is the possibility that non-respondents will differ from respondents with respect to the variables in question. and hold graduate degrees. Likewise. . and therefore. . For instance. Second. Several lines of future research suggest themselves: .

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