INTRODUCTION Pump A pump is a device used to move gases, liquids or slurries. A pump moves liquids or gases from lower pressure to higher pressure, and overcomes this difference in pressure by adding energy to the system (such as a water system). A gas pump is generally called a compressor, except in very low pressure-rise applications, such as in heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning, where the operative equipment consists of fans or blowers.

Centrifugal pump A centrifugal pump is a rotodynamic pump that uses a rotating impeller to increase the velocity of a fluid. Centrifugal pumps are commonly used to move liquids through a piping system. The fluid enters the pump impeller along or near to the rotating axis and is accelerated by the impeller, flowing radially outward into a diffuser or volute chamber, from where it exits into the downstream piping system. Centrifugal pumps are used for large discharge through smaller heads.

Figure 1.Basic element of a centrifugal pump

Centrifugal pump works

A centrifugal pump works by the conversion of the rotational kinetic energy, typically from an electric motor or turbine, to an increased static fluid pressure. This action is described by Bernoulli's principle. The rotation of the pump impeller imparts kinetic energy to the fluid as it is drawn in from the impeller eye (centre) and is forced outward through the impeller vanes to the periphery. As the fluid exits the impeller, the fluid kinetic energy (velocity) is then converted to (static) pressure due to the change in area the fluid experiences in the volute section. Typically the volute shape of the pump casing (increasing in volume), or the diffuser vanes (which serve to slow the fluid, converting to kinetic energy in to flow work) are responsible for the energy conversion. The energy conversion results in an increased pressure on the downstream side of the pump, causing flow.

Cavitations is the problems in the pump.It is defined as the phenomenon of formation of vapour bubbles of a flowing liquid in a region where the pressure of the liquid falls below its vapour pressure. Cavitation is usually divided into two classes of behavior: inertial (or transient) cavitation and non-inertial cavitation. Inertial cavitation is the process where a void or bubble in a liquid rapidly collapses, producing a shock wave. Such cavitation often occurs in pumps, propellers, impellers, and in the vascular tissues of plants. Non-inertial cavitation is the process in which a bubble in a fluid is forced to oscillate in size or shape due to some form of energy input, such as an acoustic field. Such cavitation is often employed in ultrasonic cleaning baths and can also be observed in pumps, propellers etc.

Due to the general complexity of flow through a centrifugal pump ,the actual performance of the pump cannot be predicted on a completely theoretical basis .Actual pump performance is determine experimentally through test on the pump and the result are presented as pump performance curve .Performance characteristics for a given pump geometry and operating speed are usually given in the form of plots of head rise ,efficiency and power versus flow rate ( commonly referred as capacity).This information is most helpful to the engineer responsible for incorporating pump into a given pipe flow system.

gained by the fluid is given by the equation The pump overall efficiency η. Figure 2. is the ratio of power actually gained by the fluid to the shaft power supplied W shaft as given by the equation .THEORY-Performance characteristics Consider the experimental arrangement for determining the head rise (or pressure rise) gained by fluid flowing through a pump. Experimental Arrangement for Pump Performance Characteristics. as show schematically below. The pump head rise can be expressed using the energy equation as ( ) Typically the differences in elevation and velocities (between inlet and outlet) are also small so that The power P.

Typical performance characteristic for a centrifugal pump of given size operating at a constant speed is shown below. Figure 3. . Typical Performance Characteristics of a centrifugal pump. OBJECTIVES The objective of the experiment is to obtain performance characteristics (as described above) for variable speed centrifugal pump operating at different impeller speeds.

APPARATUS The experimental set-up consists of I. Flow rate in the system can be measured relating the height of the water seen in the sight glass to graph and reading of the flow rate in liters per minute. Water-flow bench and centrifugal pump Instrumentation for data acquisition Instrument Panel. . Speed Control to change pump speed.Refer to the schematic diagram below I.Using “V” notch weir I. Pump speed can be varied over range Of 0-3000 rpm. Flow Measurement. II. Pump suction and delivery pressures Torque measurement. II. III.

The system is ensured to have no leaking. to give the first increment in volume flow. The final measurements corresponding to the valve being fully open. . iv) The discharge valve is opened slightly. take the measurements. iii) The discharge valve is closed (corresponding to no flow). vi) The entire experiment is repeated at pump speed corresponding to speed control position of 75% and 100%. The volume of flow indicator is noted and decides suitable increments in flow to give adequate sample points about 15 points between zero and maximum flow). The maximum speed N1 is selected by adjusting speed control to 50%. v) Step 4 is repeated. 3) The electrical supply and motor drive switch are switched on. All the gauges etc. When readings are steady. are checked to reduce the motor speed back to zero and it is ready for testing. Actual Experiment i) Suction valve is opened and the discharge valve is closed. 2) The pump discharge and suction valves were turned to fully open and the motor speed turned to zero. ii) Discharge valve is fully opened and water is allowed to circulate. The motor control knob is adjusted slowly to around half way position. When the measured readings are steady read all the measurements.Preliminaries 1) We were supervised adequately.

00 0.00 3.00 0.00 15.00 45.00 45.00 0.00 200.00 150.00 20.00 40.00 600.00 25.RESULT AND DATA ANALYSIS Pump Performance Curves (N=1439 rpm@ ω =150.00 100.50 Head 2.00 0 0.00 10.50 BHP 3.00 1.00 0.50 300.00 Efficiency 2.5 1 Head 1.00 35.50 1.00 25.5 Efficiency BHP 2 2.00 5.00 10.08 rad/s@75%) 50.00 40.00 400.00 50.00 20.00 0.5 0.00 500.00 100.00 200.00 5.00 Pump Performance Curves (N=2178 rpm@ ω =228.00 30.00 30.00 35.00 .00 15.69 rad/s@50%) 250.00 700.

Q is large. from shutoff to free delivery.00 10. we can see that the maximum volume flow rate through a pump occurs when its net head is zero. H is large but Q is zero.00 400. this flow rate is called the pump’s free delivery. the pump’s efficiency is again zero because the pump is doing no useful work.00 4.00 1600.00 Head Efficiency BHP 1. It is .00 20.00 0.00 0. the shutoff head is the net head that occurs when the volume flow rate is zero.00 40. The free delivery condition is achieved when there is no flow restriction at the pump inlet or outlet or when there is no load on the pump. At the other extreme.00 0.00 From the pump performance curve.00 3. the pump’s net head may increase from its shutoff value somewhat as the flow rate increases.00 2.00 1200.00 1000. but H is zero and the pump’s efficiency is zero because the pump is doing no useful work. Q=0.00 1400. H=0.00 5.00 50. this operating point of maximum efficiency is appropriately called the best efficiency point (BEP). Between these two extremes. The pump performance curves change with rotational speed as shown above from the three different rotational speeds (N = 50%. The pump’s efficiency will reaches its maximum value somewhere between the shutoff condition and the free delivery condition. 100%) that we do in the experiment. 75%. and is achieved when the outlet port of the pump is blocked off.00 800.Pump Performance Curves (N=2945 rpm@ ω =308.40 rad/s@100%) 60.00 30. but H must eventually decrease to zero as the volume flow rate increases to its free delivery value.00 200. At this operating point.00 -10. Under this condition.00 600.

Sample Calculation For N = 1439 rpm.69 rad/s-1 Torque = 1. a pump can operate only along its performance curve. Q Q = 90 L/min = 90 L/min / (1000L) (60s) = 1.1 Nm) = 165.5 x 10-3 m3/s . ( ) ω = 150.76 Watt Capacity.69 rad/s-1) ( 1.1 Nm = (150.important to realize that for steady conditions.

32 m) = 63.52 Watt) / (165.( ) = (41.32 m = (1000 kgm-3) (9.3% .52 Watt = = (63.81 ms-2) = 4.383 x 100% = 38.36 +0.81 ms-2) (1.98) kPa/ (1000 kgm-3) (9.5 x 10-3 m3/s)( 4.76 Watt) = 0.

50 1.83 180.61 2. (Watt) Volume flow rate l/min m3/s (10-3) Water head.55 150.75 1.7 .3 23.8 28.0 37.17 1.3 36.90 195.76 180.75 2.83 195.57 4.17 2.81 3.η (%) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 75.87 5.2 34.N : 1439 rpm @ 50% ω : 150.21 2.25 5.11 0 34.69 165.92 4.5 38.00 2.69 rad/s No BHP.35 120. h (m) Efficiency.TEST 1 PUMP SPEED.90 0 45 70 90 105 120 130 135 0 0.32 3.

TEST 2 PUMP SPEED.25 2.0 46.32 7.82 638.58 2.88 3.12 6.54 10.8 25.78 547.33 8.05 2. h (m) Efficiency.72 2.62 0 95 123 135 163 173 183 200 210 0 1.3 .05 3. (Nm) Volume flow rate l/min m3/s (10-3) Water head.33 3.N : 2178 rpm @ 75% ω : 228.2 42.08 rad/s No BHP.54 11.01 4.85 12.6 39.53 9.62 638.71 0 45.39 570.20 593.6 30.7 34.01 615.50 13.η (%) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 228.5 43.35 501.08 433.

h (m) Efficiency.0 49.13 10.63 2.63 4.64 1449.4 45.72 1171.33 4.42 3.05 4.04 12.40 rad/s No BHP.12 1356.55 0 24.60 1326.9 44.97 2.TEST 3 PUMP SPEED.97 3.N : 2945 rpm @ 100% ω : 308.5 . (Nm) Volume flow rate l/min m3/s (10-3) Water head.88 19.13 4.33 0 45.48 1480.3 34.46 15.17 17.η (%) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 493.1 39.3 48.75 14.19 22.8 30.16 0 118 158 178 205 218 243 248 260 273 0 1.68 20.92 1233.32 1511.44 1017.96 1418.9 50.

While for brake horsepower the average value is 165.383%. the efficiencies depend upon the design of the machine. the characteristics of this pump which is the efficiency.32 m. Q is between the ranges of 0 to 273 (liter/minutes). This is base on the characteristics of the pump at that instant speed. Since impeller blade have finite thickness. shape of the blade and. We can also determine all the parameters required. the capacity handled. Also.e. parallax error and human error. the average efficiency is equal to 0. hence. The efficiency of the pump tends to fall because of the increasing frictional losses in the long blade passages of these narrow impellers. some of the value of readings obtained may be inaccurate due to certain errors that occurred during the experiment i.76 Watt and the head is 4. From the three average of that value. It also can be concluded that the main objectives of this experiment have been achieved successfully. brake horsepower and the head can be defined by using a different speed of pump. the best operating range for the pump is from 1439 rpm . However. it is found that the flow rate. the objective of this experiment is achieved in order to define any centrifugal pump characteristics. we have chosen that the pump will operate efficiently between this range compare to the other two speeds. Yet it still leads and produced the expected results accordingly and as required. From our analysis. DISCUSSION: . Thus. it is to be noted that. CONCLUSION : From the experiment. an impellers with too many blades leads to passage losses due to excessive flow and large skin friction drag.DISCUSSION: From the experiment. Therefore due to this factor.

we can see the increased number of value in volume flow rate due to water height is increasing in the matter of time. Water Head Speed (rpm) Start N1=1439 N2=2178 N3=2945 5. all value for water head pump from the start to the end of the experiment is decreased. we have follow the procedure in order to obtain the performance characteristic of the pump by using variable speed operating centrifugal pump at three impeller speeds.91 2. where if the water head is decreased.33 46. we can say the more speed is occurred in the experiment.25 3. In these three speeds.3 30. Below is the obtain data result for the experiment. the bigger number of output power will produced. The pump performance characteristic.85 25.87 13. which is pressure (head) jump. we can see the overall data result obtained from the experiment from three different speed. we can see the inclined and declined number of data. For output power and volume flow rate obtain from the experiment. the output will be decreased.For this experiment.71 10. power requirement. By comparing with these three speeds. The output power is affected due to the water head value.11 4.70 460. flow rate influence and pump speed influence. For output power.5 (m) Output Power (W) Volume Flow Rate (m3/s) Efficiency (%) Based on the table above. .90 End 2. and as expected it effect the value of water head result. This is because due to starting point of the discharge pressure where we slowly decreased the amount of pressure in certain gap.7 25.5 4.55 23.47 161. it also can be put as increasing but if we see the data obtain from the experiment.

Based on the graph obtain from the data result. we can say that we have achieve our objective. we can see the difference of parameter calculated to achieving our objective. the rate of power output and input must be bigger. This may be due to the material of pipe which it cannot absorb the vibration. CONCLUSION: From the nut shell. To get the better efficiency. 75% and 100%.For the efficiency. we can see that we may have some error occurred in this experiment where our overall efficiency is low which is in 20-30% range. we conducted three tests which are at pump speed of 50%. torque. we are required to plot graph head pump vs flow rate. such as the discharge pipe is vibrating extremely hard. For each test. graph . the number of the effectiveness of the experiment data is increasing due to the increasing value of the speed. inlet pressure and discharge pressure. And when the adjusting the discharge water pressure. In this part. we can see the entire graph are inclined at first then slowly it started to declined. We can say the bigger number of efficiency. Based on these three speed performance. Other error that may occur during the experiment is parallax error when taking the data reading of water height. which is to obtain performance characteristics for variable speed centrifugal pump operating in three different impeller speeds. the machine cause other apparatus. and a steel pipe is recommended in this situation. the bigger effectiveness of the operated machine. The test requires us to record the values for water height. DISCUSSION: From the experiment. Also it happens in pressure gauge for inlet pressure.

85m to 4. The water head of pump is decrease slowly from 13. For the pump speed. For the pump speed. N2 = 2178 rpm:   The efficiency is proportional to the flow rate and it is increase until the maximum value of 46. of the order of 90% in the range.30%. From our inspection. N1 = 1439 rpm:   The efficiency is proportional to the flow rate and it is increase until the maximum value of 38. Below are the important details for 3 different speeds of pump. efficiency and shaft power.efficiency vs flow rate and graph shaft power vs flow rate. mainly because of the increased frictional losses in the long inter blade passages of these narrow impellers.71m For the pump speed N3 = 2945 rpm:   The efficiency is proportional to the flow rate and it is increase until the maximum value of 49.33 m. . The water head of pump is decrease slowly from 5. The water head of pump is decrease slowly from 25. They tend to fall of rapidly at lower type numbers.30%.2o%.90 m to 10.87 m to 2. we can see clearly the relationship between flow rate and head pump. it is found that the overall efficiencies of centrifugal pumps are high.11 m. From the graph.

Finally.   an impeller attached to a rotating shaft stationary casing which cover the impeller . the efficiencies depend upon the size of the machine and. hence.Also. DISCUSSION: According to my observation. the higher is the efficiency. we can conclude that the best performance of this centrifugal pump to operate is at speed N1 = 1439 rpm and flow rate. we can conclude that this experiment is success by achieve the objective. CONCLUSION: From the experiment. break horsepower and the head can be defined by using a different speed of pump. Q between the range of 0 to 130 (liter/minutes). it is known that the centrifugal pump is a type of turbo machines which has two main components. and thus the objective of this experiment is achieved already. all the characteristics of this pump which is efficiency. the capacity handled. By doing this experiment also. The larger the machine.

. Because of the no-slip condition. cavitations occur at the impeller blade. This happen because it takes some times for the water in the basin to achieve its steady state as the measurement meter can’t be read as long as the water still churning. I also learned new knowledge on the performance characteristics which is very useful for me as a future mechanical engineer in order for me to select an appropriate pump for several operations. The best operating range for the 3 different speed controls are determined from the graph at the highest pump efficiency that is the best condition for the pump to operate CONCLUSION: As a conclusion. elevation of the piping system. and also the pump head varies with the capacity or the flow rate. While doing the experiment. both pressure and absolute velocity are increased as the fluid flows from the eye to the periphery of the blades. Maybe there are several mistakes have been made s during the experiment such example by taking inaccurate data and etc. I have taken the data for several times in order to ensure that the data is accurate by taking average data for all readings. This layer also causes the fluid particle in adjacent layers to slow down gradually as a result of friction. All these need to be considered in selecting an ideal pump. the efficiency. it is not that far. For a fluid entering a circular pipe at a uniform velocity. what I get here is that I know what a centrifugal pump is and how it functioned. which depends largely on the brake horsepower. vibration of the centrifugal pump. valves. Theoretically. But the results obtained shows quite a great result and meet the objectives besides all the difficulties I had experienced during the experiment as to be compared with typical performance characteristics for a centrifugal pump.The impeller consists of a few blades arranged in a pattern around the shaft. etc. Otherwise maybe the machine itself is quite old and the efficiency of the equipment has dropped a little bit. the fluid particle in the layer in contact with the surface of the pipe comes to complete. DISCUSSION: There are major and minor losses in the piping system for example friction in the pipe surfaces.

for example. elevation and vibration losses. In a typical system with long pipes. tees. These components interrupt the smooth flow of the fluid and cause additional losses because of the flow separation and mixing they induce. and a theoretical analysis is generally not plausible. Flow through valves and a fitting is very complex. for example in system with several turns and valves in a short distance. The eyes must sharp and perpendicular to the scale of the water level. . The actions that we must consider during the experiment are: 1. as evidenced by the drop in the flow rate. This is the case. inlet. we can do some action to overcome this problems. 3. Although this is generally true. these losses are minor compared to the total head loss in the pipes (the major losses) and are called minor losses. The reading should be taken several times and the average value should be taken to know the average reading that more accurate. The head loss introduced by a completely open valve. may be negligible. and contractions in addition to the pipes. There is also an error that cause from the reading that we taken while undergo the experiment and to minimize this error. minor losses are determined experimentally. enlargement.For friction. bends. usually by the manufactures of the components. The reading at the pump suction and delivery pressure gauges must be read with more carefully to avoid any error. elbows. But a partially closed valve may cause the largest head loss in the system. exit. Therefore. The apparatus must be check carefully to make sure it is in a good condition before carrying the experiment because it may effects the results of the experiment. but we can prevent the cavitations by minimize the performance parameter which is called as the required net positive suction head (NPSHrequired) to give us a better result and increase the efficiency. we cannot avoid these losses but we can minimize it. the fluid in typical piping system passes through various fitting valves. 4. in some cases the minor losses may be greater than the major losses. For a minor losses. 2.

71m as the water flow rate increases until maximum flow rate .90W.05 m3/s. The different value from the theory is because of some errors and losses in the system and also a little bit error in reading process.CONCLUSION: From the experiment. N2 = 2178rpm. the efficiency increase as the flow rate increase until the maximum value of effeciency of 38.11m as the valve is opened.35W to 195. we can conclude that the performance characteristics of a centrifugal pump from the theory are a little bit similar with the result from the experimental value. DISCUSSION: This experiment has been carried out to differentiate and identify the properties of pump by different speed.85m to 4. For Test 2.5 m3/s. the efficiency is proportional to the flow rate and it increases until the maximum value of 46. the pump speed.3% and at the flow rate of 1. N1 = 1439rpm. For the pump speed. The reduction of head pump slowly decrease from 13. The brake horsepower (bhp) is increase proportionally to the flow rate from 75.2% and at the flow rate of 2. Three tests have been carried out to identify the properties of the pump at different speed.87m to 2. Test 1. The head of pump decrease slowly from 5.

The efficiency depends upon the size of machine and hence. brake horsepower (bhp) and the efficiency ().62W. Since the pump speed increase. overall. The larger the machine. the pump speed used is N3 = 2945rpm. CONCLUSION As the conclusion from this experiment.44 W to 1511. the capacity handled. hence. the capacity handled. For Test 1. The larger the machine. 50% and 75%.90m to 10. As for the average pump speed also. The brake horsepower is proportional to the flow rate and it is increased from 493. The head of pump decrease slowly from 25. the head value of the pump will also increase. The readings are different but the condition is almost the same. The maximum bhp is 638. the reading for Q is from 0 to 2. the higher is the efficiency. In the case of the torque. the values keep increasing for conditions.16W. the objective of the experiment has been achieved. we can see that in both conditions it increase first but later on it decreased because of the flow rates. From our observation. As for the efficiency. and 100% motor speed. and the best bhp with the highest effeciency for this operating speed of the pump is 501. In Test 3.5 m3/s. the same thing happens also because of the flow rates where the valve is fully opened causing less pressure. for the case of motor speed with the percentage with 50% and 75% the condition of the result is almost the same. followed by the brake horse power (bhp) and also the volume flow rate (Q). The effeciencies of the pump depends on the size of the machine and. The effeciency is proportional to the flow rate and it is increase until the maximum value of 50. the torque (T) increases. the higher is the efficiency. as for the bhp. In the other hand.78W. the values of the head keeps on decreasing.0%. The slope for the brake horsepower graph increases as the flow rate increase to maximum value. .of 3. both conditions stated the same result. From the experiment. 50%. In all cases. we know that the principal dependent variables in the pump are the head ( h ). 75%.33m. As the speed of pump increases.50 m3/s.25 m3/s and for Test 2 the value of Q is from 0 to 3. which keep on increasing.

4th Edition. R. M. F. New York. 5th Edition. Blevins.1984.. Fundementals of Fluid Mechanics.REFERENCES 1. D. Bruce R. John F. USA: Mc Graw Hill. (2006. Scotland: Pearson Prentice Hall. Frank M. Douglas. White. 3. New York. Fluid Mechanics. Munson. 2. J. (2003). Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Fluid Dinamics Handbook By. 4. Asia: John Wiley & Sons. . Fluid Mechanics. 5th Edition . D.). (2001).

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