This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Title Government Outsourcing; The Privatization of Today’s Military
The purpose of this project is to examine the complexity of outsourcing federal government goods and services, particularly within the United States Department of Defense. The use of Private Military Firms (PMF) has seen tremendous growth since the Persian Gulf War in 1991 and has continued to explode during Operation Iraqi Freedom. This project will trace the history of the PMF, often referred to as mercenary service, from its origins in Europe and the effects that service had for nations who utilized them. The outsourcing of government functions, particularly at the federal level to private entrepreneurs has provided empirical evidence that the unique connection between real assets controlled by private ownership versus those assets funded by the taxpayer and managed by bureaucratic oversight deliver much greater returns on productivity. Finally, examples of successful contemporary PMF are highlighted to demonstrate their entrenched position within the United States military and the global reliance of foreign governments to resolve domestic and regional issues through experienced training methods and actual fighting skills. III. Introduction to the Problem
The topic of privatization of military functions is not widely known among the public. The word mercenary conjure images of unscrupulous Rambo-type action figures loaded with the latest weaponry anticipating their next combat mission in some remote jungle or Third World assassination objective. This research project will attempt to lift the cloak
Page 1 of 32
from the black operations mythology and demonstrate the political - economic advantages of outsourcing traditional military functions. Mercenary service has historical documentation beginning with the Egyptian King Psammetichus I of the eighth century B.C. who incorporated Greek warriors into his military forces (Russell, 1942). These bands of individual warriors provided skilled military commodities to jurisdictions willing to compensate them for their services. As the craft grew, these fragmented groups began to implement the earliest business principles of negotiating work contracts based on services provided for specified compensation. In Italy, the mercenaries became known as “condotta”, the word-meaning contract. This was an example of their refinement of the craft of providing mercenary services and one of the earliest examples of the impact and influence on establishing business models still in use today. Today’s military downsizing and globalization is consistent with the goals of former Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, whose modern military’s “small footprint” has personally contributed to the reduction of military forces through outsourcing services (Scahill, 2007). The United States military has declined from about 2.1 million activeduty troops during the Cold War to about 1.4 million in 2004. An example of the complexity of the Iraqi campaign as it affects U.S. force numbers has been the inability to establish security measures within the country. From the fall of 2003 through April 2006, the security transition plan was modified numerous times because the Iraqi government and security forces proved incapable. Many Iraqi security forces around the country have collapsed, with some units abandoning their posts and in some cases assisting the insurgency (GAO, 2007).
Page 2 of 32
In addition to the smaller forces available, the demand for a technological fighting force has placed requests of PMF to operate systems and software in combat operations. Finally, in an effort to reduce budgets, the use of PMF limits the financial liability because the government is not responsible for the costs of immediate or long-term healthcare, retirement, or training of those individuals working on contract. Despite the obvious benefits to PMF outsourcing, the use of the PMF has revealed vulnerabilities in cost controls, performance evaluation and measurement, jurisdictional authority and military force application and coordination that have yet to be addressed. IV. Purpose of the Research To trace the historical origins and relevance of mercenary service. To identify the current operations of PMF. To provide empirical data documenting the advantages of outsourcing federal government responsibilities. To explore and anticipate the future applications of PMF globally and domestically. V. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Key Words Mercenary Private Military Firm Blackwater Consulting Service MPRI Condotta Privatization
Page 3 of 32
This “cash nexus” distinguishes a mercenary from a volunteer soldier.one engaged in military service. 4. Soldier . this phenomenon requires a close examination of the practical application as it exists and the potential for future services provided by PMF either internationally or domestically. 2. a skilled warrior. Private Military Firm . While still evolving. VII. Operational Definitions 1. Academic research is relatively limited on the topic and the covert business practices of the PMF make it equally difficult to discover the full Page 4 of 32 12/05/07 . 3. which has been the logic behind many traditional responsibilities of the federal government. an enlisted man or woman. The evolution of the PMF is increasingly encroaching on this practice and has entrenched itself as a legitimate option and alternative to staffing an entire national citizen army. Mercenary – Individual who fights for employers other than their home state’s government to achieve monetary gain. Rationale and Significance The importance of this project is to examine the paradigm shift from the ideal that the supreme objective of a government is to protect the nation and its people.Businesses that specialize in providing military services and skills for profit. Soldiers serve to prevent wars. mercenary service requires wars. Practice is based on principle that market competition in the private sector is a more efficient way to provide services and allows for greater citizen choice.VI. Privatization – Soliciting the private sector to provide services ordinarily delivered by the government.
The literature was categorized into four distinct classifications to represent Historical Origins. For the sake of focus.scope and effect of the private security industry on world conflict and militarized authority (Singer. This research topic will provide the historical legitimization of mercenary service and their benefits. both financially and politically. there are numerous directions within which to direct this study. Methodology This research project is based on the evaluation of secondary data relative to the history of mercenaries and their evolution into an organized business model referred to as PMF. 2004). Current Operations. Economic Advantages and Domestic Applications. research will examine the current and future PMF environment to highlight case studies of successful application. Empirical studies will also reveal the economic and force multiplier benefits of outsourcing federal government responsibilities. Since the use of PMF is currently fully entrenched in the ongoing campaigns in Iraq and Afghanistan. VIII. Page 5 of 32 12/05/07 . the examination of the outsourcing of military services will be limited to the military provider firms operating in the theater of combat. Empirical research is offered to confirm the economic principles of privatization for federal services and finally.
The spoken word was the main medium of communication and recorded history. the Carians of southern Asia Minor into his military forces (Russell.) Psammetik I utilized mercenaries from Lydia and Caria to defeat the Kushites and sustain his rule over Egypt. Greece is identified as the earliest supplier of mercenary soldiers to various nations and city-states beginning in the eighth and seventh centuries BC. The use of mercenaries to stabilize the land in a time of crisis additionally aided the relationship between the two countries and thus benefited humanity through the spreading of the sciences and arts that were so refined between both countries (Macfarquhar. 1966). A. This was crucial within the world of mercenary applications as exhibited by the contradictions surrounding the Greek word “epikouroi”. Page 6 of 32 12/05/07 . a group of heavily armed infantry formed in ranks with shields joined and long spears overlapping while wearing bronze body armor.IX. Relationships were fragile among countries and nation-states. Neither the Egyptians nor the Kushites had encountered a force fighting in phalanx. poems. Review of the Literature Historical Origins The evolution of military campaigns are recorded throughout history in literature. Mercenary service is included in Homer’s Iliad and the historian Herodotus’ The Histories and Thucydides historical account Peloponnesian War. 1942. academia and Biblical accounts that have established the trade of mercenary as a legitimate and critical practice for addressing force protection gaps in homeland security through specialized service and skill sets. The misunderstanding of a single term had the potential to break alliances. Psammetik I of Egypt was the first ruler to incorporate the use of early Greek mercenaries.
Greece has never been found wanting for conflict and war in its earliest history. political troubles. therefore it was important to discern the motivations that prompted men to leave their homeland to risk their lives for another. The rugged and desolate regions of the Peloponnesus that hindered agriculture.The term epikourous has been used to mean “fighter alongside” for reward or pay and as used to mean ally. The citizen-only army became too demanding as the battle campaigns lasted longer and the sheer size of the armies expanded. 1989). It was crucial to specify the intention of these terms as entire nationstate allegiances depended upon them. Obviously. Besides poverty. the crowded cities. This was a critical period for Greece’s democracy and the relationships established during these times helped elevate them from a scattering of states into a unified nation (Lavelle. the rule of a landed aristocracy and the hopes of gaining political position and appointment by the foreign ruling authority were also causes for able-bodied men to leave their homes. Manpower became the most pressing Page 7 of 32 12/05/07 . Prior to the Peloponnesian War. The question of how and why this service evolved must be addressed. It was tradition for every young man to participate in either the Greek army or navy beginning in the fifth and fourth centuries. Other mercenaries joined the foreign armies to serve with honor and to apply the tactics and trade taught to them since their youth. Poverty was the chief factor among them. the dynamics separating the fighter alongside versus the fighter for pay held the same importance in today’s geopolitical conflicts. For some. most cities fielded a fully equipped army consisting of citizens. quickly developed into a fertile recruiting ground for mercenaries recruited by foreign armies. being a soldier was all they knew.
Just as the origins of the mercenary trade continue today in the evolved fashion of PMF. the concept of the contractual agreement developed. costs of provisions were clearly detailed. 2003). as the Swiss Guard provides security to the Pope in Vatican City.challenge in maintaining domestic protection forces. so do the business model practices that began during these early times as a necessity of the warriors to protect their interests against unscrupulous financiers. Once military recruiters began actively seeking mercenary service. while also supplying occupying forces abroad. as did the ability to fill certain skill positions within the armies. Each condotta was led by a condottiere. who in service with the Athenian expedition provided the best slingers who were highly recruited throughout Europe (Russell. These men were recruited by armies to fill the gaps in their traditional military forces. 2008). The mercenaries first hired by Italian noblemen to defend their territories were known as condotta (“contract” for services rendered) (Gat. As soldier shortages became more pressing. details such as payment. length of service. Other specialized weapon skills were developed by the Rhodians. Within this agreement. Rome (Singer. 1942). 1988). Page 8 of 32 12/05/07 . The skilled Swiss pikemen tradition of mercenary service continues to this day. Cretan mercenaries were renowned for their archery skill and have been documented as providing service to all large Greek states since the fifth century. which became synonymous with the term captain (Merriam-Webster. Certain countries produced soldiers of particular weapon skills.
a group of mercenaries as his personal bodyguards. 2000). Regardless of the outcome. Little more than a century later. Despite that superior force. Mercenary service historically. these were doubtless rewards given to them for their military services (High. Additional documentation of mercenary service to Ramses II was of his rescue from a Hittite ambush as his Sherden bodyguards joined by the Semtic mercenaries joined to provide specialized military services to facilitate his escape (Himelfarb. His findings have since been challenged and unfortunately. just as PMF today. his personal bodyguards. the pharaoh used the Sherden.These business-like practices eventually meant that only those cities with a wellorganized financial system could afford to retain the specialized services of these soldiers for any length of time (Russell. what is relative to the scope of this project is that Ramses II’s powerful army consisted mainly of Egyptians. finds their mention in the accounts of influential militaristic events. Page 9 of 32 12/05/07 . 1942). the Sherden stood their ground to fiercely defend the pharaoh and earn honors and rewards (Santosuosso. 2001). 1996). 1966). The Sherdens were a race of people known as the “Sea People” and were fearsome pirates thought to originate from the coast of Turkey. Though many of his men fled and were later slaughtered as punishment. many Sherden were documented as cultivating plots of their own in Egypt. the Egyptian account may not be entirely accurate (Goedicke. The battle at Kadesh was fought between the invincible Egyptian army and the Hittites and recorded as an overwhelming victory for pharaoh Ramses II as documented by the long accepted scholarly version presented by American James Breasted in 1903.
Machiavelli promoted the organization of the national army of citizens to become the sole defenders and conquerors for Italy. This questioned his credibility relative to fighting theory and his veracity for discontinuation of mercenary service (Gat. due to the introduction of the firearm. the works of Machiavelli are revealed as inaccurate and unfairly tainted against mercenary warriors who served Italy and more particularly. Machiavelli’s drive to staff an all citizens’ army may have explained his disdain for the mercenary service as it was considered so enmeshed in military culture at the time that he felt compelled to critique it and avoid it at all costs. Florence. It was presented at a time when war itself was experiencing the most dramatic revolution seen to date. he attributed the decline of Greece and Rome to their dependence upon the mercenary soldier. Machiavelli published an extensive collection of military history and models in the Art of War. although historical research would dispute his claims. who was usually most insightful. Page 10 of 32 12/05/07 . He claimed that firearms were only useful for terrorizing peasants. He believed the militia was the only proper force with which to fight for ones own nation. uncharacteristically dismissed the significance of firearms on the battlefield and refused to amend his doctrine relative to the new strategies of war. To support this. 1988).In another example of biased historical accounting. Machiavelli.
was also aware of the government’s inability to manage capital resources.1985 and Henig. 1990). Peter Singer’s work is credited with being the first and most comprehensive scholarly examination of the burgeoning privatized military industry. 2003). Current Operations The dynamic and evolving version of today’s PMF has had little academic study relative to their effectiveness as a mass supplier of services to the United States military. President Ronald Reagan. If any were. business would steal them away” (Singer. Although there is empirical evidence to show that the properly managed privatization of federal government is a more economically feasible alternative (Hanke. The outsourcing of traditional military services to the PMF claims to be more operationally effective and economically efficient. which is included in the portfolios of Fortune 500 companies. the Bush administration continues to promote the increased presence of PMF to supplant the numbers of military soldiers on the ground in the Middle East. policy to outsource military functions claim that financial oversight is only a fraction of the required remedy to this operational error. whose actions were so merciless that they earned the moniker “The Terrible Ones”(Singer. Some believe that the Page 11 of 32 12/05/07 . Within the United States. He said.S.B. is still very different from the post-colonial African experience with PMF. The evolution of the current PMF model. “The best minds are not in government. the problems arise from the government’s failure to properly manage the massive contracts awarded to these PMF. who first created an executive office to promote federal government privatization. 2003) Critics of the U. The one hundred billion dollar phenomenon of today’s PMF began after the Cold War as private companies offered specialized military services for hire.
S.S. PMF have evolved to the point of providing service deliverables applicable to every aspect of fundamental military services and in other cases. Outsourcing affects the effort to legitimize a national government as long as PMF are allowed to operate outside of their authority and has caused policymakers to change planning strategies because of uncoordinated activities in combat areas. Observations as to why mass outsourcing is detrimental to the U. but contractor loss is acceptable because they chose to take the mission and were being highly compensated for their efforts. 2007).government has gone too far in allowing PMF to assume duties traditionally exclusive to military forces. objective in Iraq include the ability of policymakers to avoid key decisions that may have political ramifications. 2006). It is argued that the government must reconsider the current damages and future liabilities caused by the over-extended outsourcing practices and return the traditional military roles to the citizens who volunteered to serve and protect their country (Singer. Despite the critics. beyond those capabilities of the basic military into areas of highly technical weapons and software applications. Critics claim that the use of PMF enables a bigger is better operations approach that is often contrary to military strategy. Independently operating PMF turn indigenous peoples against the U. Americans do not want to see soldiers returned in body bags.S. Marines to alter their strategy in the Sunni Triangle (Neff. The ambush of Blackwater contractors in Fallujah caused the U. Page 12 of 32 12/05/07 . efforts and damages efforts to win the “hearts and minds” of the Iraqi people. particularly in the area of armed combat and counterinsurgency efforts.
Page 13 of 32 12/05/07 . The survey shows that the numbers. The results of this census have provided more evidence before Congress initiating oversight of this explosive population of private employees on the battlefield. The first survey conducted by the U. military force. 1991 saw a ratio of military personnel to PMF contractors at 10 to 1.200. as compared to 2003 numbers during the war in Iraq where the ratio is almost 1 to 1.000 security contractors. Kellogg. over 100. By 2007.000 are significantly higher and wider in scope than the Pentagon had previously estimated at around 25. Most important is the ability of military commanders to know who is on their battlefield and to allow them the opportunity to marshal the resources needed for coordinating efforts (Merle. 2006). Afghanistan and Kuwait.S. which number at about 650 since 2003.S.The Persian Gulf War. Labor Department has identified that the force of contractors working in Iraq is nearly equal to the size of the U. Brown and Root is one of the largest contractors in Iraq and claims to have over 50. That number has grown 10 times since the Pentagon’s post-Cold War reliance on contractors. The only accurate numbers received about contractors has been through the Department of Labor statistics relative to contractor deaths. the Pentagon estimated that there were more than 160. An accurate accounting is required to allow for financial oversight and personal accountability. The Persian Gulf War had previously marked the largest application of private security contractors on the battlefields with an estimated 9.000 employees working in Iraq.000 private contractors in Iraq from more than 180 private military firms conducting training of Iraqi police and military to providing the highest levels of intelligence gathering and actual combat operations.
These ruthless PMF were most successful while operating outside of internationally televised conflict and within the global margins of intra-national and civil warfare (Singer. the Reconstruction Operations Center (RCO) was established in October 2004. Military consulting firms provide strategic advisory and military training expertise. military units are not trained prior to deployment on the operating procedures of private security providers in Iraq and the mission and role of the ROC (GAO. Each provides a specific purpose and the individual companies often overlap in deliverables or merge with firms to offer an expanded menu of services. Interviews with military commanders advise that PMF are still entering the battlefield without coordinating with military forces. and maintenance services to the varied military service forces. putting both the military and security providers at a greater risk. 2003). most notably in Africa. known as PMF are situated at the Tip-of-the-Spear typology in Singer’s description (Singer. including combat operations. The current industry is segmented primarily into three types of service providers. intelligence. and military support firms. military consulting firms.S. the obvious advantage to the Page 14 of 32 12/05/07 . The military provider firms. The first of these PMF was the Executive Outcomes. the military provider firms. Although the scope of this project focuses on the military provider firms. a former South African company was known for dealing ruthlessly with those who opposed their clients’ authority and exercising heavy influence over developing-world conflicts. They provide logistics. 2006).To assist in coordinating these efforts. 2003) to provide direct tactical military assistance. while the final category of PMF is the military support firms. Another issue detrimental to the coordination between military and PMF is that U.
Recently Blackwater has received negative press surrounding the actions of their contractors. Although the Iraqi government called for the expulsion of Blackwater from its country and the prosecution of those involved. the PMF allow the soldiers to concentrate on combat Many governments. see the PMF as a means of saving money and a way to use low-profile force to solve awkward. Eric Prince. the government was powerless to discipline these contractors under Order 17 issued by U. the PMF is usually free to provide their services to the highest bidder. Because there are no national issues of allegiance or loyalty. most notably weak-nation states. resulted in the shooting deaths of seventeen Iraqi civilians by Blackwater guards. the risk of states losing control of military policy to militaries outside the state systems.S. potentially embarrassing situations that develop on the fringes of policy. This media attention has turned the spotlight onto an enterprise that benefits from operating in the shadows. fourteen were without justification and violated the rules governing deadly force (Jakes.S.entirety of military operations is that in an era of mandated streamlining of services and personnel. responsible only to their clients. 2007). Baghdad’s Nisour Square incident on September 17. 2004. administrator L. Navy SEAL. owned by former U. A subsequent inquiry by the Federal Bureau of Investigations found that of those killed by Blackwater’s guards. managers. Paul Bremer in June 30. thus prompting the initiation of a federal grand jury to fully explore the matter and recommend bills of indictment for anyone complicit in the wrongful acts (Johnston and Broder. Page 15 of 32 12/05/07 . The largest military provider firm operating in Iraq is Blackwater USA. and stockholders is a major concern. Therefore. although they do not always choose their clients with care. 2007). 2007.
taxpayers about $1. Paul Bremmer III. contractors had been declared “immune from the Iraqi legal process. Prince and a host of high-power consultants have masterfully handled the spike in negative attention and continue to operate at demands for service increasing regularly. It was disclosed that the nearly 1. More specifically. The Iraqi government has also charged that Blackwater security guards killed Iraqi civilians. S). the true impact of these killings was that it put the spotlight on the costs of private military firms. 2004). as head of the Coalition Provisional Authority in occupied Baghdad by signing a legal document referred to as “The Law” on the eve of his departure from Iraq.000 Blackwater security guards in Iraq were each costing U. L. Order 17 created an International Zone within Baghdad and more importantly for the PMF operating within that zone.all U.S.S.” (CPA. The above-mentioned immunity provided by the Order 17 was a result of the former proconsul.200 a day and that Blackwater had earned nearly $1 billion in federal contracts. Although the loss of civilian life was unfortunate. including the bodyguard of one of Iraq’s vice presidents in December 2006 and were involved in the killing of another nine civilians in Baghdad without provocation (Fainaru. including $830 million from the State Department. This extended to every foreigner connected to the Page 16 of 32 12/05/07 . total absolution for all actions while operating in Iraq. the United States Army investigations into the Abu Ghraib detention center provided the legal loophole to prevent contractors from prosecution although military personnel were charged and convicted of those same actions. Besides Blackwater’s benefiting from the immunity of Order 17.
In a decision that has further enraged Iraqi leaders. 2007). While in Baghdad. Page 17 of 32 12/05/07 . Drafting the language for Order 17 was Bremmer’s staff advisor Lawrence Peter. 07).S. 2004). troops will maintain immunity from prosecution by Iraqi courts after the occupation ends by extending Order 17 as executed (Wright. particularly at the federal level. economists. Sept. Economic Advantages While the PMF conduct combat missions to legitimatize their industry on the battlefield. The relationships such as these cast such speculation over an industry already shrouded in mystery. Blackwater served as Bremmer’s personal bodyguards and not U. Peter advised that the order clarified the status of security consultants relative to their standing under foreign government rule and local courts (Engelhardt. bureaucrats and corporations carry out theoretical deliberations armed with empirical evidence and antidotal objections relative to the operational effectiveness and economic efficiency of federal government privatization of military functions.S. military soldiers.S. official traveling to Iraq are protected by Blackwater and are complimentary of the dedication to keeping their principle safe while in country (Fainaru. now the director of the Private Security Company Association of Iraq that oversees at least 50 security companies.occupation enterprise who was allowed the full freedom of the land and to not be interfered with in any way by Iraqis or their political institutions. the Bush administration has ensured that U. Hanke’s study provides empirical data relative to the theory that privatization of goods and services are delivered at a more economical and efficient manner than those provided by public sectors. Most U.
The ability to keep costs lower than those of public service deliverables is due in large part to the flexibility of the private enterprise and the oversight it provides for the workforce to ensure maximum efficiency of productivity. military support and maintenance. electricity. little incentive is placed on public managers and employees to operate in the most efficient manner.State and local governments have been successfully utilizing privatization for many years. Taxpayers are the true owners of public assets and they do not provide sufficient and direct supervision of the public service behaviors. Page 18 of 32 12/05/07 . again operates more efficient. The connection between use of private assets and their owner’s wealth has profound consequences. The driving theory behind private enterprises having an advantage over the public sector is that they have a unique incentive for delivering services in the most efficient and economical manner. but produce much less in comparable skill sets. fire protection services. The evidence continues with categories to include custodial service and maintenance. forestry. Hanke provides numerous cost comparative examples of goods and services delivered by public and private enterprises. Profit is gained by the private sector when services are delivered at a price lower than market standards. The benefits of privatization realized by these public bodies has been the efficient delivery of goods and services at lower prices. Administrative comparisons show private business. Examples of productivity and pay between private and public sectors show federal employees earning more than their civilian counterparts do. Therefore. the freeing of revenues for operating budgets. day care centers. hospitals and health services. control over future budgets and allowing the private sector to maintain unused or underused public assets.
housing. 1985). This theory became more receptive during the early 1970s. In every instance examined. San Francisco franchised garbage collection as early as 1932 and bridge and highway tolls have existed as long as the services have been established. guiding and motivating their constituents’ wishes. The Reagan administration initiated the first focused effort to move the theory of privatization into federal practice. if placed into practice would allow the citizens to act as a consumer of government services. They would have the ability to compare the services among various private service providers and choose those most conducive to their needs. when the nation sensed that the Great Society programs had failed to address poverty. The theory. The hands-off approach of government was not producing the effects of efficient and effective government as promised by countless political regimes. Privatization had been successfully commonplace on the local level for many years. and the privatization theorists were prepared to strike. A second critical study of outsourcing examines the emergence of the role of privatization as a legitimate national policy for federal government operations. the private sector outperformed the public agency by delivering a better product at a lower cost with more efficiency (Hanke. Empirical evidence was established through two research studies conducted by Roger Page 19 of 32 12/05/07 . The time was ripe for a new direction. education and unemployment. This environment of competition was thought to promote the best mechanism for providing a diverse package of public services. Theorists promoting the privatization application helped to refurbish the laissez faire philosophy of the current political attitude by defining government’s role in explaining.prisons and security.
it is not without opposition. it has been positive and effective progression in service deliverables.S. This is more than $200 million over budget.Ahlbrandt on the privatization of fire service and E. Army Corps of Engineers. An example of the need for fiduciary oversight has been the massive amounts of overpayments made to the security contractors. programmatic and politicized. as the main criticism of the PMC is accountability and jurisdictional oversight (Henig. Page 20 of 32 12/05/07 . President Eisenhower authorized in 1955 the Bureau of the Budget Bulletin 55-4 that required no government service be undertaken that can be provided by private enterprise. but both studies showed that privatization worked. Opposition to the movement capitalized on examples where the ideals of personal freedom. Before Reagan advocated the use of private companies for public service deliverables. Maintaining a covert nature towards PMF business models and client contracts has potentially been the cornerstone of their success. Both services were traditional city government products. Although privatization has been successful.S. Privatization is most successful in its operations when it is least visible. The U. antisocialism and creativity were pushed to the extremes. These findings nearly twenty years ago remain relevant today. This marked a distinctive paradigm shift in the role of the federal government and helped pave the way for privatization. but in the majority of federal government experiences with privatization. military has paid $548 million over the past three years to two British companies that protect the U. 1990). Savas on refuse collection.S. The 1970s experienced the Carter administration and their efforts at deregulation and public-private partnerships.
Unfortunately. The size of the PMF companies operating in Iraq has never been documented.The cost overruns are attributed to the increasing security demands of protecting a largely civilian workforce. The Corps of Engineers has requested additional manpower and armor in the field. Although PMF have been used in previous wars. humanitarian organizations and other private companies. Page 21 of 32 12/05/07 . Domestic Applications August 29. and abuse. Iraqi government. The enormity of scale has also exposed weaknesses in the DOD’s attempted $15. its long-standing contract and contract management problems. Their presence in New Orleans. An example of the waste attributed to limited visibility on the part of the DOD has allowed an estimated $43 million loss each year on free meals provided to contractor employees at deployed locations who also receive a per diem food allowance. the DOD’s reliance on contractors in Iraq. D. Immediately following Hurricane Katrina. Due to lack of troops and growing violence. State Department. it has never been to this scale (Fainaru. which has naturally driven the cost upwards.4 billion program aimed at supporting the development and sustainment of Iraqi security forces. 2007). security contractors have flourished with contracts signed with the Department of Defense. and poor security conditions provide opportunities for fraud. This is just on food! (GAO. Aug. waste. the PMF had one hundred and fifty contractors based in the French Quarter. 2005 marked the first time Blackwater USA had deployed forces on domestic soil. known as Baghdad on the bayou prompted many questions regarding their legitimacy and jurisdictional authority to operate heavily armed missions inside the United States. 2007). The complexity and lucrative nature of these contracts are highly sought after and not easily eliminated. media.
suggesting that the role of policing and border enforcement could be outsourced and subcontracted. The group received Congressional acceptance and opened the door for the entrance of organized for profit assistance to the boarder effort.S. the antiimmigrant cause received support as the Minutemen Project Civil Defense Corps arrived on the U. As part of a no-bid contract through DHS to protect federal construction projects for FEMA. The culture post-9/11 made the anti-immigrant campaign popular throughout the United States as a way for the citizens to realize local benefits to anti-terrorism by stemming the tide of the illegal immigrants flooding the country. the foundation for the domestic application of PMF was laid as the BushRumsfeld Doctrine announced on September 10.Within days of arrival. Although Katrina marked the first official deployment of private contractors for Blackwater. Their mission was to provide volunteers to assist the outmanned Boarder Patrol Agency in preventing illegal boarder crossings. Blackwater had been paid over seventy-three million dollars for services provided by June 2006. – Mexican boarder. May 18. 2001. it was discovered that Blackwater was under DHS contract and additionally carried authorization from the state of Louisiana to carry weapons and exercise force if necessary. In 2005. Considering that free market ideologies germinate in spaces that are inhospitable to democracy. 2005 the DHS Security Authorization Bill approved the hiring of two thousand new boarder patrol agents. the issue of training these agents was addressed by a Senate sub-committee focusing on the cost and feasibility of contracting out the training of the new hires. One week later. Alabama Congressman Mike Rogers (R) Page 22 of 32 12/05/07 . there is no better place to experiment with privatizing federal policy than with immigration.
they are symbolic of a much larger immigration industrial complex.” The decision to include immigration within Homeland Security was no accident. 2002) to establish an advisory council.was critical of the government’s cost to training these new employees and advised. According to San Diego Congressman Bob Filner. Blackwater is positioning itself to move into the border security business. 2007). Rogers questioned Blackwater’s Gary Jackson if his company could provide equal or better training at a cheaper rate. he replied yes and all within one years time (Scahill. The bureaucratic linking of immigration to the war on terror was accomplished with the creation of DHS.S. which would include the Border Patrol. The official authorization for the intermingling of immigration and security began with President Bush’s Homeland Security Presidential Directive 2. “Combating Terrorism through Immigration Policies. Blackwater reported it was expanding their base of operations in U. privatizing decades of border militarization and low intensity conflict waged against border crossers and residents since the 1970s. While they are not the first to intermingle domestic privatization and immigration.-based immigration control. as reconstituted by statute in the Page 23 of 32 12/05/07 . Recently. “It’s going to cost more to train a boarder patrol officer in a ten-month program than it is to get a four year degree at Harvard University. port of entry inspectors from Customs and INS. Blackwater West is planned as an 824-acre military-style training complex just 45 miles east of San Diego and will be located in the heart of one of the most active regions in the United States for illegal border crossings.” During the Senate Security Committee’s meeting. The next step in bringing the PMF to the domestic security table was the Bush Administration’s Executive Order 13260 (March 21.
Brown and Root (KBR). Corrections Corporation of America (CCA) announced a contract with Immigration. private incarceration has become a boom industry. Beyond the activity of detaining illegal immigrants. Private prison companies are also competing for an immigrant “super jail” facility in Laredo Texas that would hold two thousand eight hundred detainees. This $385 million KBR contract would set-up temporary processing. Texas.DHS where government formed and private actors gained direct access to the immigration control policy process. boarder. Lockheed Martin. During the early 1980s. Page 24 of 32 12/05/07 . to oversee the expansion of the federal government's capacity to detain immigrants. the federal government has deployed the National Guard and plans to construct over seven hundred miles of fencing along the southern U. CCA signed its first deal with the federal government to operate INS detention centers in Houston and Laredo. Texas. ground surveillance satellites. In December 2005. Since then. Ericsson and Northrop Grumman. Privatizing immigrant detention is nothing new. detention and deportation facilities. Customs Enforcement (ICE) to hold up to six hundred immigrant detainees in Tyler. In 1984. Raytheon. motiondetection video equipment and databases to store information of the identity of millions of non-citizens along the border. the federal government began experimenting with incarcerating people for profit. for a multibillion-dollar contract to build a "virtual fence" of unmanned aerial vehicles. To support this fencing project the federal government in May 2006 solicited bids from military contractors Boeing. the Customs and Border Protection's Expedited Removal Program has contracted with Kellogg.S. As an outcome.
Beyond costs. Boeing. Immigration is such a volatile situation that many politicians are attempting to avoid directly going hands-on with the issues. they also refer to their contractors as “global stabilization professionals. Further. In the wake of the media attention cast upon Blackwater following the September 2007 massacre in Iraq. To make the mercenary image more marketable.The stage is set for the PMF to apply their for-profit-practices upon domestic soil as they appeal to the patriotic duty of protecting America. The recognizable company logo was altered by removing the sniper scope and changing their name to Blackwater Worldwide. Accenture. With Blackwater out front. privatization removes the government from having to assume responsibility over the legal process that defines a country’s sovereignty. the National Guard and Border Patrol welcoming newcomers at ports of entry. The reality is. This premise of conflicting allegiances continues to grow as the goal of profitability must be weighed against what is best for national security. The outsourcing of immigration Page 25 of 32 12/05/07 . which is also seeking to put “feet on the ground” along the border. one of the benefits of privatizing is that the masters of this virtual domain are less accountable for mistakes and outright abuse. Anteon. CCA and others in a position of effecting important immigration and security policy. guns for hire. you get a virtual fence that has private contractors. they are better prepared than the federal government or military to efficiently assume command over the boarder patrol functions.” The privatization of immigration control places Blackwater. along with DynCorp. particularly as it pertains to how immigrants are treated as they seek to regularize their status. they remain skilled at using the publicity to generate an opportunity to re-brand itself and expand its mission.
Government estimators have researched cost analysis that formed the contractual basis for issuing request for proposals and identifying within that RFP. prohibitions or expanded capabilities will develop. It is expected that because of the superior service and product delivery potential. Eric Prince speaking at the January 11.control. it has been the failure of the initiating government to effectively manage and measure the operations of these massive contract awards. ANALYSIS Research particular to federal government outsourcing expects that although the practice of PMF implementation into traditional combat and close campaign support roles is not without fault. though economically superior to federal government services. These contracts have been developed and awarded with efficiency of economics and superior service response times included. a scope of work. the actual services performed and individual competencies and qualifications are not criticized. it is unclear what regulations. the overarching application will prove successful. To quote Blackwater founder. 2006 West Conference. With little exception in the literature. Because the latest evolutionary version of the PMF is still dynamic. The objection to PMF has been the absolute oversight of product accountability and clarification of jurisdictional authority. Unfortunately. 2007). IX. Page 26 of 32 12/05/07 . relative to the efficient and flexible provisioning of military deliverables. the PMF will continue to entrench itself in military and civil law enforcement disciplines. more importantly must address the question of national policy determinism over PMF contractual obligations (Koulish. 2007). “Our corporate goal is to do for the national security apparatus what FedEx did to the postal service” (Scahill.
Finally. military services through the use of PMF.X. Page 27 of 32 12/05/07 . These comparative data themes are used to increase the level of validity through the cross-verification of data sources. The very nature of state controlled violence used to maintain order or effect a desired result requires secrecy and operations of a covert nature. not to advance the accumulation of knowledge or academic research.S. Feasibility and Limitations This research topic will rely upon relevant literature and articles related to the privatization of U. The first limitation to empirical research is the historic accounts of the earliest applications for mercenary use and the chronology of their professional evolution that are dependent upon examination of ancient records and drawings as interpreted by historical and anthropological scholars. The PMF are private corporations and are under no obligation to reveal the details of contracts and services with their clients. the most limiting factor to validity is the information relative to the operations and contractual agreements of the PMF. The vast number of resources used for this research project is valuable in providing parallel data in comparing the similar PMF data available. Studies relative to the benefits of federal privatization are presented through empirical research and are determined as offering a high degree of validity with regard to qualitative examination and application. The information discovered and shared by the PMF is provided to sustain and support the viability of the business.
org/ regulations/ 20040627_CPAORD_17_Status_of_Coalition__Rev__with_ Annex_A.0. From Errand to Fatal Shot to Hail of Fire to 17 Deaths.S. Retrieved February 07. 2008 from World Wide Web: http://www. S. September 20.cpairaq. Order Number 17 (Revised) – Status of the Coalition Provisional Authority. Page 28 of 32 12/05/07 .jstor. S. A. Machiavelli and the Decline of the Classical Notion of the Lessons of History in the Study of War. Certain Missions and Personnel in Iraq. Glanz. Retrieved February 5.XI.com/2007/10/03/world/middleeast/03firefight. Where Military Rules Don’t Apply.com. Vol. New York Times. October 1988.. Iraq. Order 17. Washington Post Foreign Service. Retrieved December 03. No. 4.. 2008 from World Wide Web:http://www. August 12.thenation.com/doc/20071008/engelhardt Fainaru. Blackwater’s Security Force in Iraq Given Wide Latitude by State Department.org/sici?sici=0026-3931%28198810%2952%3A4%3C20 3%3AMATDOT%3E2. The Nation.washingtonpost. Military Affairs. T.. 2007 from World Wide Web: http://links. 2007. U. 52. A. Pays Millions In Costs Overruns for Security in Iraq.html Gat. June 27. 2007. Fainaru. References Cited Coalition Provisional Authority.. 2007.CO%3B2-X. September 24. 2008 from World Wide Web: http://www.nytimes. and Rubin. pp.html. 2007. Washington Post Foreign Service.com/wp-dyn/content/article/ 2007/09/19/ AR2007091902503_pf. 2007 from World Wide Web:http://www. Retrieved December 03.pdf Engelhardt. Washingtonpost. Retrieved February 05. October 3. 2004. J. 203-205.
0..go. pp. 2008 from World Wide Web:http://www.com/Politics/wireStory?id=3862287. J. D.org/sici?sici=> High. Prosecutors Subpoena Blackwater Employees. 2007. html?ref=us.jstor. No.htm Himelfarb. Privatization: Theory. The Archeological Institute of America. Retrieved January 21. Retrieved February 05. Retrieved December 03. 2008 from World Wide Web:http://abcnews. H. Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science. 101-113. 4.archaeology. The New York Times.Goedicke. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. 35. 1. 2007. Control Federal Spending. Johnston. No. ABC News. 2008 from World Wide Web:http://www. The Associated Press.com/2007/11/20/washington/20blackwater.jstor.nytimes. 53. Winter 1989-1990. pp. 2000. Evidence and Implementation. 2007 from World Wide Web:http://links.. Vol. E. J. Report: Blackwater Killings Unjustified. Page 29 of 32 12/05/07 . January/February 2000. Political Science Quarterly. 4.. 1985. Retrieved January 21. 2007 from World Wide Web:http//links. 52.and Broder. Washington.CO%3B2-A Henig.org/sici?sici?=0065-0684%281985%2935 %3A4%3C 101%3APTEA1%3E2. Egyptology Online. Vol. The Army in Ancient Egypt. Jakes. 104.html. T. 2008 from World Wide Web:http://www.com/ the_army _in_ ancient_ egypt. S. 649-670. U.S.egyptologyonline.org/0001/newsbriefs/egypt. November 19. No. 71-80 Hanke. Vol. Retrieved February 05. November 14. First Alphabet Found in Egypt. Considerations on the Battle of Kadesh.. (1966). Privatization in the United States: Theory and Practice. 2001.. L.J. Retrived December 03.
2008 from World Wide Web:http://www.com /511/story/492323. Spring1989. Russell.html. Census Counts 100. Army Disavows Blackwater Work. A. Early Greek Travellers in Egypt. Greece & Rome. No. January 2008.m-w.org/sici?sici> Macfarquhar. R..Koulish.cgi?article=1002&context= robert_koulish. Lavelle.htm. Retrieved December 03. The American Journal of Philology. 2006. Vol.jstor. 2007. April 1966. Vol 4.org/sici?sici>. 2007 from World Wide Web: http://links. Retrieved February 23. C. The News & Observer. No. Retrieved December 03. 33.org/security/issues/iraq/contract/2006/ 1205census. Journal for Migration and Refugee Issues. 1. July 22.. France Merrick Professor of Service-Learning. 2007 from World Wide Web: Page 30 of 32 12/05/07 . J. Greece & Rome. 110.. December 05. R. Merle. Blackwater and the Privatization of Immigration Control. Duties Are Issues. 2008 from World Wide Web:http://works. May 1942. Vol. pp.F.. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved December 03. Condottieri. pp. 108-116. Civilian Number.bepress. Retrived March 28. 2007 from World Wide Web:http://links.000 Contractors In Iraq. 103 – 112. September 29.G. 13.. 2008 from World Wide Web:http://globalpolicy. 11. Vol.jstor. pp.36-39.M. B. 2006.newsobserver. Epikouroi in Thucydides.com/dictionary/condottieri Neff. 2008 from World Wide Web: http://www. Goucher College. No. The Greek as a Mercenary Soldier.com/cgi/viewcontent.. Retrieved February 05. Retrieved January 17. 1. No 4. Washington Post.
Retrieved April 02. The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry. J. The Washington Post. Government Accountability Office.org/sici?> Scahill.jstor. 60. U.S. 2007. ISBN 0-8014-4114-5.items /d06865t. Stabilizing and Rebuilding Iraq: Conditions in Iraq Are Conducive to Fraud. 2008 from World Wide Web:http://www. 2008 from World Wide Web:http://www.brookings. pp. Singer. Retrieved December 03. P.edu/ papers/ 2007/0927militarycontractors. Retrieved March 28. and Abuse. 423-444.. GAO-07-525T. The Rise of the World’s Most Powerful Mercenary Army. Rebuilding Iraq: Actions Still Needed to Improve the Use of Private Security Providers. Nation Books. Vol. Cornell University Press. 2008 from World Wide Web:http://www. Avalon Publishing Group. Retrieved February 5. Publication No. A. New York.gov /new. Ithica. No. July 1996. Immunity in Iraq Will Go Beyond June 30. Sage House.pdf Wright. R.aspx?p=1 U.gov /new. June 2006..Santosousso. Waste. Military Strategy. 2007 from World Wide Web: http://links. 3.S. Can’t Win With ‘Em.W. April 2007. GAO-06865T. Can’t Go to War Without ‘Em: Private Military Contractors and Counterinsurgency. Iraq. September 2007. Defense Industry. Kadesh Revisited: Reconstructing the Battle Between the Egyptians and the Hittites.pdf. June 24. ISBN 1-56025-979-5. U. P.items/d07525t.gao.S.S. Corporate Warriors. U. Government Accountability Office. Page 31 of 32 12/05/07 . The Washington Post. Journal of Military History. Revolution in Military Affairs. Publication No. 2004.gao.. New York. Inc. 2003. Blackwater. Singer.
He has earned a Master of Public Administration from UNO with a concentration in hazards planning. His research interests include emergency management. Investigator’s Biography L. criminal justice and law enforcement operations. homeland security. Page 32 of 32 12/05/07 . Scott Silverii (email@example.com) is a PhD candidate in the University of New Orleans’ Urban Studies program.XII.