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Hausa

Familiarization Course

Nigeria

Niger

Table of Contents
Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Lesson 9 Lesson 10 Lesson 11 Lesson 12 Lesson 13 Lesson 14 Lesson 15 Lesson 16 Lesson 17 Lesson 18 Lesson 19 Lesson 20 Introduction People and Geography Living and Working Days of the Week, Numbers, and Ages Daily Activities Meeting the Family Around Town Shopping Eating Out Holidays Customs and Cultural Traditions Around the House Weather and Seasons Personal Appearance and Clothing Transportation Travel At School Recreation and Leisure Health and Human Body Political and International Events The Military In the Hospital 1 15 34 48 58 80 94 107 126 137 155 167 182 197 211 230 245 261 276 293 307

Developed by I Corps Foreign Language Training Center, Fort Lewis, WA For the Special Operations Forces Language Office United States Special Operations Command

HAUSA FAMILIARIZATION COURSE Introduction

Hausaland
Hausa is one of the most widely spoken languages in Africa. It stands on par with Swahili in terms of the number of speakers and use as a trade language. Although it is not generally very well known in the West, it is the most spoken African language in West Africa. In addition to being the native language of a large number of people in West Africa, it is also a trade language and a universal language of communication for West African Muslims. The Hausa speaking world is situated in West Africa in the climatic zone known as the Sahel. The Sahel is a sub-desert region that lies between the Sahara Desert and the forested regions that lie further south in West Africa. The majority of Hausa speakers live in Northern Nigeria, but it is also the native language of over half of the population of Niger. There are also smaller Hausa communities in Cameroon, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Burkina, Chad, and Sudan. In this book we focus on the core area that is the traditional home of Hausa. This area, where the Hausa language is the native language of most of the population, lies in present day Northern Nigeria and Southern Niger. It is sometimes referred to as Hausaland. It is estimated that the total number of native Hausa speakers ranges from 25 million to over 40 million. And there are at least an additional 15 to 20 million people who speak 1

Hausa as a second language. These second language speakers of Hausa are generally nonHausas living in a Hausa area, people who use Hausa as a trade language, or Muslims who use Hausa as a language of Islam. In Northern Nigeria, where the vast majority of Hausa speaker reside, Hausa is the main language used on a day to day basis. English is the administrative language of Nigeria, and there are other smaller language groups that exist there, but Hausa is the main language of communication in the entire northern part of Nigeria. In South Central Niger, where the northern part of Hausaland lies, Hausa holds a similar status. Here French is the administrative language, and other language groups exist as well, but Hausa is the main language used. Although the Hausa population in Niger is perhaps as little as a quarter of that in Nigeria, it represents over half of the total population of this much less populace country. Hausa is also the largest trade language in Niger, even in non-Hausa areas, and it is estimated that in total about eighty percent of the population of Niger speaks Hausa as either a native or foreign language. The Sahelian geography is flat, dry, and hot. The sandy soil of this semi-arid grassland and savanna manages to support some trees such as the Gao and the Baobab, but the trees are few and far between, with sandy soil and shrubs filling the space between them. The Hausas are historically farmers, and they still manage to coax some crops to grow in the bleached soil, even as the Sahara encroaches from one year to the next.

Climate
The climate in the Hausa speaking world is hot. During the hot season, Niger registers some of the hottest temperatures in the world, and Nigeria is not far behind. There are seasons in the Sahel, but they are less differentiated than temperate seasons. The main seasons are: the rainy season, from May through September, the cold season from October through February, and the hot season, from late February through May. The seasons are not always clearly defined, and there are periods within the seasons that are recognized and named by the locals, but these three periods give a broad picture of the seasons. Annual rainfall in the Sahel ranges from 20 to 60 cm, and most of that comes in bursts during the dramatic thunderstorms of the rainy season. The usual scarcity of rainfall is punctuated by drought years which can have catastrophic results for a population already on the brink of starvation. There is some variation in the climate of Hausaland according to latitude. In the southern part of Hausaland, in Northern Nigeria, there is much more annual rainfall and vegetation than at the northern edge of Hausaland. The far north of Hausaland lies in the region where the Sahel borders the Sahara.

History
It is believed that the original Hausa people were located in Nubia (in present day Sudan). They began moving westward over 1,500 years ago in a migration that would eventually lead them to the area that is now divided between Nigeria and Niger: Hausaland. By 500 CE to 700CE they had thoroughly mixed with the other races of the region, with many other people adopting the Hausa language as a lingua franca. It was during this time that the Hausa states were born.

The Hausa Bakwai: The City States


The Hausa states were a cluster of strong city states that comprised a sort of empire that ruled over Hausaland. This empire took the place of the declining power of the Nok and Sokoto that had previously ruled the area. The Hausa states, known as The Hausa Bakwai in Hausa (the Hausa seven), were as follows: Biram, Daura, Gobir, Kano, Katsina, Rano and Zazzau (Zaria). The Hausa aristocracy began to adopt Islam in the 11th century, and by the 12th century the Hausa Empire had become one of the greatest powers in Africa of that time. Although the aristocracy had begun to accept Islam, it was not until around the 14th century that Islam was truly established as the de facto religion of the aristocracy, and even at this time there were many dissenters. After the leadership had become truly Islamic, the population continued to embrace their animistic beliefs, or a mixture of animism and Islam. The more radical shift to a strictly Islamic population did not take place until the Jihad of the Fulan Usman Dan Fodio in 1810. At this point, a new hierarchy was established in which the Fulani people were the official aristocracy. But, even as the Fulani were the leading class, they were also becoming hausaized. Today many of the Fulani identify themselves more with Hausa than with their Fulani roots. Shortly after the Jihad, however, the British began to take control of present day Nigeria, and in the first years of the 20th century they established a protectorate in the area. The British continued to rule indirectly through the Fulani aristocracy for a time, but after the establishment of the unified Nigerian colony in 1914, the rule became more direct. The colonial leaders encouraged the use of Hausa, and it continued to establish itself as the lingua franca of Northern Nigeria. With the integration of the Muslim North and the Christian South, Hausa also became the language of Islam in the country. With independence in 1960, Hausa remained one of the three official national languages and continued to dominate the Muslim North of Nigeria. Along with independence, significant autonomy was given to the three major regions of the country, the Yoruba speaking area, the Igbo speaking area, and the Hausa speaking area. Through this autonomy, the North has maintained its Islamic and Hausa heritage. The area of Hausaland that falls in present day Niger was conquered by the French in the late 19th century as well. The French were somewhat less supportive of local languages than the British in Nigeria, but Hausa remained the dominant language in the area. After independence in 1960, Hausa was declared one of Nigers national languages. In Niger, French remains the language taught in schools and used in all administrative situations.

The Hausa People


Hausa is not technically a racial group, it is merely a language. There are, in fact, a number of different races that together make up the majority of the people now known as Hausas. All the same, Hausa has become the equivalent of an ethnicity in that it is how people identify themselves. The simplest definition of a Hausa person is a person whose native language is Hausa and who does not identify himself with any other racial group and does not have any facial scarification that identifies him as non-Hausa. There were distinct Hausa people in early history, but through migration and racial mixing this status as a distinct ethnicity was lost. Today people from very different racial roots refer to themselves as Hausa. Hausas are generally sedentary people, living in villages and farming the land. The culture and lifestyle is built around this sedentary life. Community is very strong in a Hausa village. Generally every villager knows every other villager, and although this is somewhat different in the city, even their neighbors establish close relationships. This closeness has the positive effect of creating a support network in which people can turn to their neighbors for help and advice, or just for someone to talk to. Of course there is also the downside, this being that everyone is entwined in everyone elses life, and this can lead to arguments, unpaid debts, and disagreements that involve the whole village. A village in Hausaland never lacks drama. Even in the smallest village there is usually enough daily intrigue to feed a constant flow of gossip around the well.

Religion
For most Hausas, to be Hausa is to be a Muslim. Hausa culture and language is so intertwined with Islam that it is difficult to imagine a non-Muslim Hausa. There are, of course some Hausas who are Christian, or Bahai, or members of another foreign religion, but these people represent a miniscule percentage of the population. There are also some people who continue to practice pre-Islamic animistic religions in the area. A small number of these people do so overtly, and many more do so while publicly assenting to Islam. Evidence shows that Islam was present in Hausa culture as early as the 11th century, but it was not until the 14th century that it became a dominant force. It was the conquest of the Hausa by the forces of the Fulani leader Usman Dan Fodio in the early 1800s that brought a massive islamification among the Hausa. Under the rule of the Fulani, Islam became essentially the state religion in Hausaland. Even so, however, the process of islamification was an ongoing one even into the last century. There are villages in Hausaland that date their conversion to Islam at a mere 40 or 50 years ago, or even less. There even remain a few Hausa villages that have yet to convert to Islam. It is interesting to note that in Hausa culture religion is not really a personal decision. When villagers talk about their conversion to Islam they are referring to the date when the village as a whole converted to Islam. The village leaders made the decision to convert to Islam and as in all other areas of life, the village must act in unison. 4

Today, Islam is the heart of Hausa culture. The version of Islam practiced in Hausaland has a distinct African flavor to it, but it is unmistakably Islam. All of the major events birth, naming, marriage, deathare observed with Islamic prayers and according to Islamic rules. Some of the celebrations, however, still contain visible pre-Islamic remnants. There is some conflict between the extreme traditional Islam that has been gaining ground especially in Northern Nigeria and the more moderate traditionalism practiced by another segment of the population. Issues such as the cloistering of wives and the full covering of women are emblematic of this division. While many religious leaders in the area are promoting this Saudi style approach to the behavior of women, the majority of villagers still have a much more relaxed take on the rules. It is, however, generally seen as an acceptable practice to cloister wives, require women to cover themselves in public, or follow many of the other more extremist practices of traditional Islam. Even if the majority of the population does not practice this sort of Islam, they consider it acceptable in Islam. The truly modernist urban fringe of society is a distinct minority, albeit an increasingly vocal one.

Culture & Customs


Although Hausa is not a distinct racial group in the proper sense, it has developed into a culture with which people identify themselves. It has its own traditions and customs, many of which have pre-Islamic roots and survive today in syncretistic form.

Festivals and Holidays


The main festivals in Hausaland are the Islamic holidays of Eid Al-Adha and Eid Al-Fitr and the month of Ramadan. These are the major holidays that punctuate the year. The central ritual for Eid Al-Adha (the biggest holiday) is the ritual slaughter of a Ram. Every family that can afford it will buy a ram to slaughter. The meat is then preserved, and some is distributed to friends, family, and the poor, and the rest is saved to be eaten over time. The children all dress in their best clothes and circulate the village asking for a treat, which the adults provide. Later in the evening there is usually drumming and celebration well into the night.

Scarification
Like many African peoples, the Hausas practice facial scarification. For some, especially in urban areas, this tradition is now being abandoned, but for many it remains a tradition that is very much alive and well. Infants are given a pattern of cuts on the face soon after birth to form the scars that will mark them for life. There are many different patterns that are considered Hausa. Different groups and regions within the Hausa have their own distinctive marks, and which are recognizable to others as belonging to the Hausa family. The other neighboring peoples such as the Fulani and Kanuri people each have their own set of distinguishing scar patterns as well. 5

Work
Hausas are farmers and traders. Of course there are exceptions to this statement, but it is how they generally identify their place in society. Historically there were many Hausa hunters as well, but today farming is the main occupation of Hausas. Hausas also have a long history of being merchants. It was through trading, in fact, that Hausa first became such a widely spoken language. Hausa merchants were constantly traveling, and eventually Hausa became something of a trade language for the region. Almost every major West African city still has a Hausa sector, and a section of the market where Hausa merchants will be plying their wares. The work of farmers involves clearing, planting, tilling, and harvesting, as well as building granaries for food storage. In the off seasons they care for animals, build or mend houses, fix fences, garden, or get involved in some other small income producing job such as making ropes. Also, many will travel to the cities during the off season to seek work until the next farming season. The women spend most of their days pounding grain with a mortar and pestle and carrying water from the well one bucket at a time. They cook the meals, take care of the household and the children, and sometimes care for their own livestock. During the farming season they help with the planting and bring food and water to the men.

Home Life
Hausa households usually have several generations living together. There is a strong sense of social hierarchy and family obligation, and the grandfather remains the patriarch even after his sons are grown and have families of their own. Grown men will often live in the family home long after marriage, or even for life, and the bride will move into the family household of the husband. Gender roles remain very firm, and women and men generally socialize with their own gender. Women and men have very distinct functions, and rarely would one do the work of another.

Music
Drumming is a central part of Hausa culture. Almost every event is accompanied by a group of drummers, and sometimes a stringed instrument called a garaya or a wind instrument called an algaita. Although there are some radicalized Hausa Muslims who see music as something to be avoided, for the most part it is embraced by Hausas. The role of musician is often passed down through generations as a family occupation, and villagers generally have a good idea of who are the designated drummers in the village.

Education
Hausas consider Quranic education to be traditional Hausa education. A large percentage of boys, and some girls, are given instruction in Quranic recitation and religious practice. Few actually go on to learn to read Arabic, however, and thus remain functionally illiterate. Hausas continue to place a high value on religious education, and some efforts are being made to integrate Quranic education with literacy training and other secular education. State schools are meanwhile working toward the goal of Universal Basic Education, meaning that all children receive at least a grade school education in English in Nigeria or French in Niger. While this goal is far from being reached at the moment, there is significant progress, especially in Nigeria. Every year new schools are being built. There is also a movement to expand the use of education in Hausa in the regions where Hausa is the lingua franca, and as a result, there have been some experiments with integrating Hausa into the curriculum, and there has been a large growth in the number of rural adult education classes that focus on teaching adults to read and write in their native language.

Naming Ceremonies
Six days after the birth of a child is the day of the naming ceremony. During these six days the family is able to prepare for the ceremony. They acquire the food stuffs needed to have food for the guests, and arrange with the religious leader to lead the prayer and assign the name. With the crowd gathered, the prayer is said. At the end of the prayer the religious leader pronounces the name. Usually the parents choose the name and then tell it to the religious leader, but it is possible for the religious leader to declare a name of his choosing, if the parents dont have any input. In any case, the name is only official once it is declared in the prayer.

Marriage
Traditionally marriages are arranged through a negotiation between the fathers. This, however, is not usually a blind arranged marriage as it often was in the past. These days it is more commonly the case that the young man pursues a young woman who gives him the signs of being agreeable to marriage, and it is only at this point that the parents get involved. Although parents often play a part in the decision, truly forced marriage is now rare. It is also becoming less common for extremely young girls to be married. In the past it was not uncommon for a girl to be married before her tenth birthday. In the present day there are some villages that see it as acceptable to marry off a six year old girl, but this is an illegal and dying practice. Today it is more common that a girl will not be married until she is at least 14 or 15 years old, and many stay unmarried until they are 17 or 18. In the cities you will even find many young women who remain single into their 20s. During the wedding the bride and groom are in different places. The bride is prepared at her family house, and usually placed on a horse. After the prayer is said binding the man and woman together, the woman is taken in a procession to the house of the grooms

family. This will become her new home. Polygamy is the norm in Hausaland, and a man may have up to four wives.

Funerals
A funeral in a Hausa village is a public event. It is assumed that everyone knew the deceased or his family, and so it is an act of simple propriety to make an appearance at the funeral. After the body is prepared, the deceased is wrapped in a white cloth and carried to a burial site outside of the village. All in attendance participate in a prayer, and the body is buried. After returning to the village the immediate family of the deceased will essentially hold court at their house while people come by to extend their condolences. Many people will spend the day with the family. It is normal to give a small amount of money to the family as a token of sympathy.

THE LANGUAGE
Hausa belongs to the Western subgroup of the Chadic language group. The Chadic group is part of the Afro-Asiatic language family. It is thought to have originated in Nubia (Sudan) before a migration carried the language to its present location. It is related to the Semitic languages, such as Arabic. Hausa was first written, using Arabic script, around 1500 CE. This written language was used by religious leaders and political aristocracy, and a few works have survived, the most well known being The Kano Chronicle. As mentioned above, it is one of the most widely spoken languages in Africa. If we exclude the use of colonial languages (such as English and French), Hausa and Swahili are the two most spoken languages in Sub-Saharan Africa. And, of the hundreds of languages spoken in West Africa, Hausa is the most spoken. Hausa also holds the status of the language of Islam in West Africa. Across West Africa, Hausa is recognized as being a language of Islam, and many Muslims in non-Hausa areas have some knowledge of the language.

Writing Systems
Hausa is written using two distinct writing systems, one based on the Latin alphabet, and the other based on the Arabic alphabet. The Latin based Boko systemthe one used in this courseis the most commonly used by publishers and Hausa literacy classes. The Arabic based version is used mainly for the publication of Islamic religious pamphlets by small publishers in Northern Nigeria. Modern written Hausa generally uses the boko Latin-based script, but this can come in several forms. The form used in this book is the standard for most Hausa publications today, and looks like this:

<<an-uwana suna da aki a wani auye>> This form of written Hausa makes use of several hook letters to indicate the glottalized sounds that do not exist in English. Many publications, however, do not use these hooked letters. This is especially common on the internet. Instead they will use an apostrophe before the letter to indicate the glottalized form. See the example below. Yan-uwana suna da daki a wani kauye. Many will even leave out the apostrophes, leaving it to the reader to determine by context whether the letter is glottalized. See the example in this form. Yan-uwana suna da daki a wani kauye. Even when the glottalized letters are indicated, however, there remains some information that is not included. The tone pattern and vowel length are not indicated. There is a form of proper Hausa that not only uses the hooked letters, but also includes tone and length markers. These markers consist of accents, or diacritics, placed over the vowels. Rarely would a whole book or article be written in this form, but it is generally used in dictionaries and often in Hausa learning textbooks to eliminate the guesswork with unfamiliar words. See a Hausa dictionary such as Nicolas Awdes Hausa-English / English-Hausa Dictionary for a more complete explication of this system.

Literature and Media


Hausa has a relatively short history as a written language. Although the earliest written Hausa texts (in the Arabic-based, or Ajami, script) date back to about the year 1500 CE, these were limited to a few court records, letters, and religious materials. In subsequent centuries there was some use of written Hausa for poetry, representing the first true literary use of written Hausa, but this also remained limited. It was only with the arrival of the British colonialists to Northern Nigeria that there began to be a concerted effort to promote the use of written Hausa in a widespread manner. It was during the beginning phases of this effort that the administration decided to use the Latin-based script as the standard for written Hausa rather than the Arabic-base Ajami. During the 20th century the British colonial administration set up a publishing house for the purpose of publishing in Hausa. There was a concerted effort to seek out and support Hausa authors, and the result was the beginning of a Hausa literary movement. This literary movement continues today, and although the number of great works of literature remains limited, there have been a large number of small books published in Hausa. The number continues to grow. These books are generally published by small publishing houses in Northern Nigeria, and usually go out of print quickly, making them difficult to obtain outside of Hausaland. Hausa also has a growing web presence with web-based magazines and news sites.

But perhaps the most important Hausa language media comes in the form of short-wave radio broadcasts. The national radio stations of America, England, Germany, Iran, and China all broadcast news in Hausa to West Africa via shortwave. Nearly all men, and a large number of women, in Hausaland have access to a shortwave radio, and so this has become a window to the outside world for Hausas in the villages as well as in the cities. Meanwhile more and more Hausa books are available in the market as more people become literate. Most of these are either simple love stories or religious instructions, but other genres are making some inroads.

Tonality
Hausa is a tonal language, although not to the degree of some other African languages. In this course we will not use the tone and vowel length markers that are found in some dictionaries and language learning texts. The aspect of tonality is very important. It is worthwhile to mimic the intonation and speech rhythm of the native speaker in order to properly pronounce words and phrases.

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Alphabet
The Latin-based Hausa alphabet is very similar to the one used in English, with just a handful of exceptions and differences in pronunciation. Consonants Hausa Letter A/a B/b / C/c D/d / E/e F/f G/g H/h I/i J/ j K/k / L/l M/m N/n O/o R/r S/s Sh / sh T/t Ts / ts U/u Name of Letter in Hausa hamza a ba a ca da a e fa ga ha i ja ka a la ma na o ra sa sha ta tsa u English Example ____ long: father short: cat ball ____ church dad ____ long: stayed short: set fed (pronounced somewhat differently than the English) go head long: see short: sin job kid ____ lag mother nip toe ring sing shock timid hats true

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W/w Y/y / Z/z Vowels

wa ya a za

want year ____ zit

When the vowels are taught in Hausa, two diphthongs are included. The short i and the short u are often interchangeable. A/a E/e I/i O/o U/u Ai / ai Au / au a e i o u ai au long: father short: cat long: stay short: set long: see short: sin long: slow long: true long: sky long: cow

Pronunciation
Pronunciation of written Hausa is actually fairly simple. The words generally follow the rules in a fairly uniform manner. The vowel length and tonal pattern have to be memorized since they are not normally written, but there are no confusing spelling rules to deal with. Overall, it can be said that Hausa has a nasal and rhythmic sound. Word Patterns Although Hausa words are generally not written with the tone and vowel length indicated, you will become increasingly able to guess the pronunciation even if the word is not familiar. This is because there are tone and vowel length patterns that accompany certain types of words in Hausa. From the prefix, suffix, root, or context of the word it is often possible to make an educated guess as to the proper pronunciation.

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Doubled Letters There are some doubled letters, but this is done according to the sound of the word, not just as a spelling convention. A doubled consonant is pronounced with emphasis. You must almost stop on the consonant to give it its full emphasis. As in English it is important to differentiate between words with doubled letters and words without double letters. They will have different pronunciation and different meanings. Doubling ts and sh The consonants ts and sh are doubled by doubling the first letter. Thus, ts becomes tts and sh becomes ssh. The letter f The letter f is pronounced somewhat differently in Hausa than in English. It is pronounced by pronouncing the fa sound of English without placing your teeth on your lip. It ends up sounding more like hwa. Sometimes it is even written as hw rather than f. It is also common for the h to replace the f entirely in certain words. This is often a dialectical difference. Also note that some Hausas will pronounce the f more like a p. The letter p which does not exist in Hausa is usually pronounced as an f in Hausa when a loanword with a p is used in Hausa. The letter p is, however sometimes written when transcribing foreign words, and the majority of Hausa readers will recognize the letter as an equivalent of f. The letter r The r in Hausa can be either rolled or flapped. The rolled r is pronounced in such a way as to trill the tongue against the roof of the mouth. The flapped r is produced with a quick flap of the tongue against the roof of the mouth. A doubled r is pronounced as a long rolled r. For those familiar with Spanish, these will all be recognizable. The terminal n An n at the end of a Hausa word is usually pronounced with the nasal ng sound much like the sound created by the ing in English. Thus nan is pronounced nang. The letters , , , and These letters have no English equivalent. Linguistically speaking, they are glottalized sounds pronounced implosively, or sometimes explosively. In more practical terms one

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should learn them by duplicating the pronunciation of a native Hausa speaker. It is important to distinguish them from their non-glottalized counterparts because they are different letters and can thus change the meaning of the word. Thus, afa (foot) is entirely different than kafa (to establish). The letter Hamza The hamza () is ignored when listing words in alphabetical order. In terms of pronunciation it is simply a stop. Thus, the word aa (no) is pronounced as two short ah sounds with clear break between them.

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Lesson 1 People and Geography


Mutane da Wurare

This lesson will introduce you to the following: - Simple greetings and basic introductions in Hausa - How to greet people in formal and informal situations in the Hausa speaking world - Personal pronouns - Possessive pronouns - How to express to be and to live in the present tense - Basic geographical names in Hausa-speaking Africa.
PEOPLE

1. Listen to these simple greetings and phrases in Hausa and repeat them after the speaker

Hello. Hi. Hi. (response to Sannu)


Good morning. Good day. Good evening. Thanks, same to you. (response to Barka from a man) Thanks, same to you. (response to Barka from a woman) How are you? (morning) How are you? (noon 2 p.m.) How are you? (afternoon/evening) Very well, thanks. OK, goodnight.

Sannu. Yawwa! Sannu. Barka da safe. Barka da rana. Barka da yamma. Yawwa! Barkarka dai. Yawwa! Barkarki dai. Ina kwana? Muna lafiya? Ina wuni? Lafiya lau. To, a kwana lafiya.

Greetings are the essence of the Hausa language. Even with relative strangers, you will find yourself in extensive exchanges asking about family members, destinations, and other information in a way that would seem a bit intrusive in Western culture. We introduce a few of the most essential questions in this chapter and will build upon these in subsequent chapters.While sometimes seeming superficial or time consuming, it is this ritual of greeting that establishes trust. Someone who consistently cuts short the greetings will not encounter as warm of a welcome as they would hope. This is especially so in rural areas.

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2. Exchange greetings with your teacher and your partner. What would you say at 7 a.m., at 10 a.m., at 2 p.m., at 5 p.m., and at 10 p.m.?

3. Familiarize yourself with personal pronouns. Listen to the audio and repeat after the speaker.

I You He She We You (plural) They

Ni Kai (masc.) Ke (fem.) Shi Ita Mu Ku Su

The pronouns in Hausa play a very important role and require much attention. This is because, in Hausa, it is the pronoun that is conjugated rather than the verb.You will have to learn all of the conjugations of the pronouns in order to speak the language correctly. On a positive side, Hausa is one of the rare languages where you will not have to memorize extensive verb conjugation charts. Examine the chart of continuous (present tense) pronouns below and the examples that follow. I You (masc.) You (fem.) He She We You ( pl.) They One Examples: Ina tafiya = I am going. Muna tafiya = We are going. Suna tafiya = They are going. Note that the verb remains the same; only the pronoun changes. We will introduce other pronoun forms as we progress.
Ina Kana Kina Yana Tana Muna Kuna Suna Ana

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4. Listen to the following dialogues and repeat after the speaker. Read the dialogues in pairs.

In the morning Umaru: Good morning! Mariama: Good morning to you too. During the midday (noon - 2 p.m.) Umaru: Good day! Mariama: Good day to you too. How are you? Umaru: Very well. How is the tiredness? Mariama: There is no tiredness. And you, how are you? Umaru: Very well. Mariama: Wonderful. In the Evening Umaru: Mariama! Good evening. Mariama: Thanks! Same to you. Umaru: How are you? Mariama: Very well. How are you this evening? Umaru: Very well. Mariama: Wonderful. OK, good night. Informal Umaru: Hi, Mariama. Mariama: Hi! Umaru: How are you? Mariama: Good. And you? Umaru: Excellent! Mariama: All right, see you later. Umaru: OK, see you later

Barka da safe! Barkarka dai!

Barka da rana! Yawwa! Barkarka dai. Muna lafiya? Lafiya lau. Ina gajiya? Babu gajiya. Kai fa, kana lahiya? Lafiya lau. To madalla. Mariama! Barka da yamma. Yawwa! Barkarka dai. Ina wuni? Lafiya lau. Kana wuni lafiya? Lafiya lau. To madalla! To, a kwana lafiya.

Sannu Mariama. Yawwa! Sannu. Kina lafiya? Lafiya lau. Kai fa, kana lafiya? Lafiya lau wallai! To, sai an jima. Mu jima da yawa!

A. Use the dialogues above as a model and compose your own similar dialogues. Work in pairs or in small groups.

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GEOGRAPHY

Gender: As with many other languages, nouns in Hausa are either masculine or feminine. The Hausa gender system is actually quite simple and can be summarized in the following manner. Almost all nouns ending in a are feminine. Almost all nouns ending in any other vowel are masculine. All plural nouns are treated as masculine. As we proceed, we will take note of certain exceptions, including a few notable nouns and certain categories of proper nouns. For the moment, however, the above explanation will suffice. To Be: Note that Hausa does not have a verb that correlates to the English to be. There are, instead, ways of implying the idea without the use of a verb. The ne/ce stabilizer is used to express to be in certain nominal sentences. See the examples below: It is a horse. = Doki ne. It is a car. = Mota ce. They are cars. = Motoci ne. The ne in the first sentence is used to refer to the masculine noun doki (horse). The ce in the second sentence is used to refer to the feminine noun mota car. The ne in the third sentence is used to refer to the plural noun motoci (cars). All plurals are treated as masculine.

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-ke Form Pronouns Another way the to be is often expressed in Hausa is through the relative continuous form of the pronoun, often referred to as the -ke form. Like the continuous pronoun, the relative continuous pronoun is also used to express an idea in the present tense. As we proceed, pay special attention to which types of sentence structures use which type of pronoun. In the chart below, you will find the full conjugation of this form. I am from You are from (masc.) You are from (fem.) He is from She is from It is from We are from You are from They are from One is from
Daga nike Daga kake Daga kike Daga yake (or variable shike) Daga take Daga yake / take Daga muke Daga kuke Daga suke Daga ake

6. Listen to the following sentences and repeat after the speaker.

1. I am Nigerien. I am from Niger. 2. He is Nigerian. He is from Nigeria. 3. She is Nigerien. She is from Niamey. 4. We are Nigerian. We are from Abuja. 5. You are Nigerien. You are from Zinder. 6. They are Nigerian. They are from Kano.

Ni mutumin Nijar ne/ce. Daga Nijar nike. Shi mutumin Nijeriya ne. Daga Nijeriya yake. Ita mutumniyar Nijar ce. Daga Yamai take. Mu mutanen Nijeriya ne. Daga Abuja muke. Ku mutanen Nijar ne. Daga Zinder kuke. Su mutanen Nijeriya ne. Daga kano suke.

Note: In English, Nigerian is used to indicate a person from Nigeria while Nigerien is used to indicate a person from Niger.

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7. Pretend you and your classmates are from Nigeria or Niger. Introduce yourself and your classmates to your friend in Hausa. Use the model below and the map. Model:
Ni mutumin Nijeriya ne. Daga Kano nike. Maazu mutumin Nijar ne. Daga Marai yake. Su Abdu and Mariama mutanen Nijeriya ne. Daga Abuja suke.

Where Questions: Ina kake? = Where are you? Daga ina kake? = Where are you from? The words ina (where) and daga ina (from where) are used to introduce questions. These words, as well as a number of other such question words must be used with the ke form of the pronoun. Where are you from? Where is he (she/it) from? Where are we (they) from? Tonality: You may have noticed that there are two very different uses of ina in Hausa. Actually, they are two completely different words. This is because Hausa is a tonal language, and thus what appears to be the two instances of the same word can in fact be two different words that are differentiated by tonal pattern and/or vowel length. In order to fully use a Hausa dictionary, it is necessary to learn to read the tone and vowel length markings. For the moment, however, listen carefully to the sound recordings and/or your instructor in order to hear how the words are differentiated.
Daga ina kake / kike? Daga ina yake / take? Daga ina muke (suke)?

8. Listen to the following dialogues in Hausa. Repeat after the speaker. Follow along in your workbook.

1. A. I am from Kano. Where are you from? B. I am from Niamey. 2. A. Zara is from Maradi. Where is Kabiru from? B. He is from Zaria.

Daga Kano nike. Daga ina kake/kike? Daga amai nike. Zara, daga Marai take. Daga ina Kabiru yake? Daga Zaria yake.

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3. A. I am from Sokoto. Where are you and Hadiza from? B. We are from Maiduguri. 4. A. Ali is from Konni. Where are Amadu and Saude from? B. They are from Lagos.

Daga Sakkwato nike. Daga ina kuke kai da Hadiza? Daga Maiduguri muke. Ali, daga wanni yake. Amadu da Saude, daga ina suke? Daga Lagos suke.

9. Role-play the dialogues above using the maps of Nigeria and Niger.

We have already introduced the ke form of the pronoun and the formula for introducing the question from where (daga ina). In the following chart, take note of the way in which the form ba ba is used to negate this type of sentence.
Am I from? Daga nike? Are you from? Daga kake/kike? Is he from? Daga yake? Is she from? Daga take? Is it from? Daga yake/take? Are we from? Daga muke? Are they from? Daga suke? Yes, I am. I, daga nike. Yes, you are. I, daga kake/kike. Yes, he is. I, daga yake. Yes, she is. I, daga take. Yes, it is. I, daga yake/take. Yes, we are. I, daga muke. Yes, they are. I, daga suke. No, I am not. Aa, ba daga nike ba. No, you are not. Aa, ba daga kake/kike ba. No, he is not. Aa, ba daga yake ba. No, she is not. Aa, ba daga take ba. No, it is not. Aa, ba daga yake/take ba. No, we are not. Aa, ba daga muke ba. No, they are not. Aa, ba daga suke ba.

Read the following dialogues and role-play them.

1. A. Are you from Kano? B. No, I am not. I am from Niamey. 2. A. Is Ousmane from Nigeria? B. Yes, he is. 3. A. Are Audu and Zara from Kaduna? B. Yes, they are from Kaduna.

Daga Kano kake? Aa, daga amai nike. Usman, daga Nijeriya yake? I, daga Nijeriya yake. Audu da Zara daga Kaduna suke? I, daga Kaduna suke.

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Introductions: Greetings and introductions in Hausa are very important. The easiest way to offend a Hausa person is to neglect to take the time to greet them properly. I would like to introduce Audu = Ga Audu (literally: Here is Audu) There is no phrase in Hausa that translates as pleased to meet you, but the word madalla (Great! Wonderful!) is often used in that capacity. First names are commonly used in conversations regardless of the status of the speaker, but titles are often attached to names, especially when the speaker is speaking to someone of a higher status than himself. Those who have made the pilgrimage to Mecca are referred to as Alhajji (masc.) or Hajjia (fem.). This title must be used regardless of your status. It is as if it becomes the persons first name. For instance, Alhajji Ayuba could simply be called Alhajji, but he COULD NOT simply be called Ayuba (except perhaps by a few old friends). The title Malam (masc.) or Malama (fem.) can be translated as Mr. or Ms. in many situations, but literally it refers to a learned person. A teacher of a Koranic school, or someone who is known to be a scholar of the Koran, is referred to as a malam. Likewise, the term can be applied to a school teacher or any other sort of educator. When introduced to an older man, you can never go wrong by bowing and referring to him as Malam. In this case, it is simply a mark of respect. In addition, nicknames are very common; almost everyone has at least one. This is often very useful since there are some very common names and people have large circles of acquaintances. The pattern of first name followed by profession, race, or defining characteristic is something that the Hausa learner will quickly become accustomed to seeing. Additionally, people are often commonly referred to as son of (an) or daughter of (ar). A common male example is Dan Hajjia (son of the Hajjia). This sort of name is especially common for young people, but very often the nickname sticks and is used all the way into old age. For many people this is the only name that you will ever hear them referred to by.

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What is your name? My name is Amadou.


Independent Pronouns I You (masc.) You (fem.) She He It You They Ni Kai Ke Ita Shi Shi. Ita Ku Su

Mi sunanka Sunana Amadu. Possessive Pronouns (Suffixed) My Your (masc.) Your (fem.) Her His Its Your Their

What is your name? Mi sunanki My name is Amina. Sunana Amina.


Referring to feminine noun -ta -rka -rki -rta - rsa (-rshi) -rsa (-rshi) -rta -rku -rsu

Referring to masculine noun -na -nka -nki -nta -nsa (-nshi) -nsa (-nshi) -nta -nku -nsu

Possessive Pronouns (Independent) Mine Yours (masculine) Yours (feminine) Hers His Its Yours (plural) Theirs

Referring to masculine noun


Nawa Naka Naki Nata Nasa (Nashi) Nasa (Nashi) Nata Naku Nasu

Referring to feminine noun


Tawa Taka Taki Tata Tasa (Tashi) Tasa (Tashi) Tata Taku Tasu

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What is her name?


Mi sunanta?

What is his name?


Mi sunansa?

Her name is Zara.


Sunanta Zara

His name is Dan Ladi.


Sunansa an Ladi

11. Listen to the following dialogue and repeat after the speaker. A. Good morning! B. Thanks, same to you! A. My name is Ayuba. What is your name? B. My name is Usman. A. Wonderful.
Barka da safe! Yawwa! Barka kadai. Sunana Ayuba. Kai fa mi sunanka? Sunana Usman. To madala.

12. Work in pairs or in small groups. Look at the pictures and make up similar dialogues.

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13. Listen to the following statements and repeat after the speaker.

My name is Kabiru. Sunana Kabiru. I live in Bauci. Bauci nike da zama.

His name is Sani. Sunansa Sani. He lives in Kano. Kano yake da zama.

Her name is Awa. Sunanta Awa. She lives in Zaria. Zaria take da zama.

We live in Niamey. A amai muke da zama

They live in Kaduna. A Kaduna suke da zama.

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14. Read the following sentences. Translate them into English. Check your answers with the Answer Key.
Audu, a Kaduna yake da zama. A Kano kake da zama? I. Aisha, ba ta zaune a Abuja. Ina kake da zama? A Bauci nike da zama. Lawali da Nura, ina suke da zama? A Zinder suke da zama.

15. Listen to the following dialogue and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in your workbook. Make up a similar dialogue. Work in pairs or in small groups.
Saude: Barka da rana! Audu: Yawwa! Barkarki dai. Saude: Sunana Saude. Kai fa, mi sunanka? Audu: Sunana Audu. Saude: To madala. Daga ina kake Audu? Audu: Daga Kano nike. Ke fa, daga ina kike? Saude: Daga Zinder nike.

16. Imagine that you are new to the class. Ask your partner about the rest of the students (their names and where they live). Use the model below. Work in pairs or in small groups.
Model: A. Mi sunansa? B. Sunansa Audu. A. Daga ina yake? B. A Kano yake da zama.

17. What is the question? Read the answers below and reproduce the questions in Hausa. Check your answers with the Answer Key.
1. ____________________________? Aa, daga Katsina nike. 2. ____________________________? I, a Kano nike da zama.

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3. ____________________________? I daga Sakkwato yake. 4. ____________________________? I, a Zinder take da zama. 5. ____________________________? Aa, daga Bauci yake. 6. ____________________________? I sunana Amadu. 7. ____________________________? Aa, sunansa Usman. 8. ____________________________? I, daga Marai nike.

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End-of-Lesson Tasks 1. Read the following sentences and translate them from English into Hausa. Check your translations with the Answer Key. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. My name is Tanya. I am from Moscow. Do you live in Seattle? Yes. His name is Joe. He lives in Berlin. We are from Vancouver. My name is Maurice. I am from Chicago His name is Bob. He lives in Boston. Her name is Susan. She lives in San Diego. What is your name? My name is Tony.

2. Pretend that you are at a party. Introduce yourself to other people and ask them their names, where they are from, and where they live. Work in pairs or in small groups. Use the model below.
Model: A. Gaisuwa, sunana Abdu. Mi sunanka? B. Sunana Mue. A. Daga Nijeriya nike. Kai fa, daga ina kake? B. Ni, daga Nijar nike. A. Ina zaune a Kano. Ina kake da zama? B. Ina zaune a Zinder.

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3. Introduce your friend to your classmates. Use the model below.


Model: Sunansa Hadi. Daga Nijar yake. Shi mutumin Nijar ne. A Marai yake da zama.

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Vocabulary List
Greetings Hi Good morning Good afternoon Good evening Good night Good-bye To pass the day Tiredness Goodnight. Sleep well. To sleep. To spend the night. Where How are you? (morning) Well. Health. Very well Thank you You are welcome Excellent! Thanks! Very much so. Really. I swear. Ok. Well. My name is Son of Daughter of One who has been to Mecca I He She You We You (plural) They To live (in) No Yes To be (+ noun) From
Gaisuwa. Barka. Sannu Barka da safe Barka da rana Barka da yamma A kwana lafiya Sai an jima Wuni Gajiya A kwana lafiya Kwana Ina Ina kwana? Lafiya Lafiya lau Na gode Babu laifi Madalla Wallai. (Wallahi) To Sunana an ar Alhajji (m.) Hajjia (f.) Ni Shi Ita Kai (masc.) Ke (fem.) Mu Ku Su Zama (a) Aa I (often pronounced E) Ne/Ce Daga

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From where Where are you from? What is your name? Where do you live? I live in Zinder. Mine Yours Yours (fem.) His Hers Ours Yours Theirs

Daga ina Daga ina kake/kike? Mi sunanka/ki? Ina kake da zama? or Ina kake zaune? A Zinder nike da zama. or Ina zaune a Zinder. Nawa/Tawa Naka/Taka Naki/Taki Nasa (Nashi)/Tasa (Tashi) Nata/Tata Namu/Tamu Naku/Taku Nasu/Tasu

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ANSWER KEY
Activity 14 1. Audu lives in Kaduna. 2. Do you live in Kano? Yes, I do. 3. Aisha does not live in Abuja. 4. Where do you live? I live in Bauci. 5. Where do Lawali and Nura live? They live in Zinder.
Audu, a Kaduna yake da zama. A Kano kake da zama? I. Aisha, ba ta zaune a Abuja. Ina kake da zama? A Bauci nike da zama. Lawali da Nura, ina suke da zama? A Zinder suke da zama.

Activity 17
Your questions should be similar in grammatical form to those below although some city and people names may be different. 1. Daga Kano kake? 2. Kana zaune a Kano? 3. Daga Sakkwato? 5. Daga amai yake? 6. Sunanka Amadu? 7. Sunansa Kabiru? 8. Daga Marai kake? -------(Aa, daga Katsina nike.) (I, a Kano nike da zama.) (I daga Sakkwato yake.) (I, a Zinder take da zama.) (Aa, daga Bauci yake.) (I sunana Amadu.) (Aa, sunansa Usman.) (I, daga Marai nike.)

4. A Zinder take da zama? --

End of Lesson Activity 1


A. Sunana Tanya. Daga Moscow nike. B. Kana zaune a Seattle? I. C. Sunansa Joe. A Berlin yake da zama. D. Daga Vancouver muke. E. Sunana Maurice. Daga Chicago nike. F. Sunansa Bob. Yana zaune a Boston. G. Sunanta Susan. A San Diego take da zama. H. Mi sunanka? Sunana Tony.

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A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H.

My name is Tanya. I am from Moscow. Do you live in Seattle? Yes. His name is Joe. He lives in Berlin. We are from Vancouver. My name is Maurice. I am from Chicago His name is Bob. He lives in Boston. Her name is Susan. She lives in San Diego. What is your name? My name is Tony.

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Lesson 2 Living and Working


Harkoki da aiki

This lesson will introduce you to the following: Typical housing arrangements of most people living in Nigeria and Niger Using or in questions about living arrangements and professions The verb to have in the present tense Names of professions (singular and plural forms). The living conditions of the Hausa world are very much defined by poverty. As we approach the subject of housing and living conditions, it is important that we do so with an adequate understanding of how Hausas live. The first point to understand is that the vast majority of Hausa people are still rural subsistence farmers. Their homes are mud brick huts; their dirt compounds (delineated by mud brick or grass mat fencing) accommodate not only a large family, but often extended family and even animals. Even in the cities, a large percentage of people live in mud brick housing and in a similar fashion to the rural people. This being the case, there are many terms that resist concise translation, and often we find that the Hausa speaker in urban areas will simply resort to English (or French in Niger) to describe that which lacks an adequate Hausa translation. You will find that the Hausa gida (house/home) is fairly universally applied to all sorts of structures. It also describes the entire household, encompassing everything inside the compound walls (including the people). There is no good Hausa translation for apartment, and the same is true for a good number of other terms that describe types of housing or rooms and features of houses. Below are some useful Hausa terms for describing living spaces.

House/Home Room (inside of a aki or inside of a shigifa) Round grass hut Small round grass hut in a farm Rectangular mud brick room Round mud hut with a grass roof Multistory house Rental Upper story

Gida aki aki Bukka Shigifa Kago Soro Gidan haya Gidan sama /soro

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1. Look at the pictures below and listen to the words. Repeat the words after the speaker.

Apartment
aya daga gidajen da ke cikin wani babban soro.

Babban soro da ya unshi gidaje dayawa.

Apartment building

Room
aki

House
Gida

Military camp
Sansani

Tent
Tanti

Barracks
Bariki

Hotel
Masauka/Hotal

2. Match the Hausa words on the left with their English equivalents on the right. Replay the audio from the previous section if necessary.
Tanti aki Gida aya daga gidajen da ke cikin wani babban soro. Masauka Babban soro da ya unshi gidaje dayawa. Bariki Sansani

Hotel Tent Barracks Room Military camp House Apartment Apartment building

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3. Read the following sentences and translate them into English. Check your work with the Answer Key.
1. Lawali yana zaune cikin tanti a sansani. 2. Malama Hadiza tana zaune cikin wani aramin gida. 3. Mariama da Hadi suna zaune cikin wani babban gida a Kano. 4. Nura yana zaune a wata masauka. 5. Sale da Mamadu suna zaune a bariki. 6. Ni da Hajiya muna zaune a gidanmu.

4. Listen to the following dialogues and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in your workbook. Then, make up similar dialogues. Work in pairs or in small groups.

1. A.

I live in a big house. Where do you live?

B.

I live in a tent in a military camp.

Ina zaune a wani babban gida. Ina kake da zama? 2. A. Audu lives in the hotel. Where does Amina live? Audu yana zaune a masauka. Amina fa, ina take da zama? 3. A. We live in the barracks. Where do Audu and Amina live? Muna zaune a bariki. Audu da Amina fa, ina suke da zama.

Ina zaune cikin tanti a wani bariki. B. Amina lives upstairs in a big house. Amina tana zaune a gidan sama cikin wani soro. B. They live in the military camp. Suna zaune a sansani.

Grammar Notes: The Hausa ko is used very much like its English counterpart or. In the following examples, you will see how it is used in basic sentences. Daga ina kake? Nijar ko Nijeriya? Where are you from, Niger or Nigeria? Sunanta Amina ko Hadiza? Is her name Amina or Hadiza? It is, however, worth noting that ko is also used in many idiomatic phrases and constructs in addition. You will become accustomed to the many uses of this word.

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5. Read the following dialogues and translate them into English. Check your translations with the Answer Key. Make up similar dialogues using the words below. Work in pairs or in small groups.
1. A. Kana zaune cikin kago ko soro? B. Ina zaune a soro. 2. A. Suna zaune cikin masauka ko gidan haya? B. Suna zaune cikin masauka.

6. Compose choice questions using the model and the words below. Check your work with the Answer Key.
Model: Kana zaune cikin tanti ko bariki? Kai Su Shi Ita Mu Tanti / Bariki Masauka / Gida Bene / Sansani aki/ Gida Gidan haya / Masauka

7. Listen to the speaker and circle the words you hear. Check your work with the Answer Key.
1. Bariki 2. Gida 3. Sansani 4. Apartment Tanti Babban soro da ya umshi gidaje dayawa aki Masauka

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<<To Have>> As with <<to be>> is no Hausa verb for <<to have>>. Rather, the following construct is used: the pronoun plus the preposition DA (with). This non-verb construct takes some getting used to for the English speaker, but it is actually quite simple once one gets accustomed to it.

I have You have (masc.) You have (fem.) He has She has We have You (plural) have They have One has

Ina

da

Kana da Kina da Yana da Tana da Muna da Kuna da Suna da Ana da

8. Listen to the following sentences and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in your workbook. 1 I have a house in Kano. 2 We have a room in an apartment building. 3. Audu has an apartment in Zinder. 4. Audu and Mariamas house is in Kaduna.
Ina da gida a Kano. Muna da aki cikin wani soro. Audu yana da gida cikin wani soro a Zinder. Gidansu Audu da Mariama, a Kaduna yake.

9. Make up sentences using the correct form of the verb to have.

Model: Ina da gida.


Ina Kana Yana Tana Yana/Tana Muna Suna aki da Gidan haya Gida

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Work: The vast majority of Hausas are subsistence farmers, growing millet, sorghum, rice, cassava, beans, peanuts, and other field and garden crops for their family to eat. A large percentage of people also raise animals, such as goats, sheep, cows, and chickens. In addition, there are many other professions that people engage in to earn money. Common village professions include tailoring, cooking food to sell in the village, running a small shop that sells sugar, tea, batteries, and such., and of course the highly respected teachers of Koranic schools. There are also butchers, carpenters, barbers, healers, and religious leaders in almost every village. Most villages have market traders who import goods from large markets to sell at the smaller local weekly markets. In the cities, you will find that in addition to these trades, there are white collar professionals working for companies and non-governmental development organizations. Nigeria and Niger also both have large public sectors that employ many people in careers such as soldiers, police officers, agricultural agents, and school teachers. To work for the government or an organization is a very different life from that of the average villager. A strict schedule and an office environment are foreign imports to Hausa culture. It is important to understand that the Hausa language developed in this traditional rural setting and has only very recently begun to adapt to modern ways. Thus, as we speak of modern professions, it should be understood that the Hausa language is still in the process of forming and adopting words to describe these new concepts.

10. Listen to the new vocabulary related to professions and repeat after the speaker. Profession Doctor Nurse Laborer Teacher Student Soldier Mechanic Farmer Police Officer Waitress Interpreter
Sanaa Likita (Dakta) Lebura Malami (Niger: Mushe) alibi / aliba Soji Makanike Manomi an Sanda Sabis Tafinta (Niger: Antamfereti) Nas / Majiyyaciya (f.)/ Mai jiyya

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11. Circle the more likely profession of the two choices under the photo.

Nas ko malama?

an sanda ko manomi?

Sabis ko likita?

Soji ko tafinta?

12. Match the Hausa words on the right with their English equivalents on the left. Check your work with the Answer Key. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Profession Doctor Nurse Laborer Teacher Student Soldier Mechanic
A. Sabis B. Manomi C. Tafinta D. Sanaa E. Nas F. an Sanda G. Likita H. Lebura

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9. Farmer 10. Police Officer 11. Waitress 12. Interpreter Plurals:

I. alibi J. Soji K. Makanike L. Malami

Below you will find your first introduction to Hausa plurals. You will quickly notice that there is more than way to make a word plural in Hausa. For some words, it requires a change in the internal structure of the word, while for others it may require a different ending or even repeating the word. In fact, there are 15 patterns, or classes, of plurals in the Hausa language. Because of this complex system of plural forms, the best way to learn Hausa plurals is to memorize them when you learn the word. As time goes on, you will begin to notice patterns, and you will be able to guess the plurals of some words. There is logic to the pluralizing patterns, even if they are sometimes inscrutable, and eventually the patterns will start to seem natural. Remember that all plurals, grammatically speaking, are treated as masculine. Malama is feminine, but its plural is Malamai, the same as for the masculine plural. Loanwords: Hausa, like most languages, has not developed in a cultural vacuum. The language has adopted many words from English, French, and Arabic, as well as from neighboring African languages Fulani, Kanuri, and others. Of particular interest to us are the English and French borrowed words. While most of the Arabic loanwords are now fully integrated into the language, some of the English and French loanwords are more recent, and thus they are often not fully integrated in parts of the Hausa language. These words will often have a very non-Hausa sound to them and will often require the speaker to employ slightly different grammatical tools. They will sometimes have an awkward plural or even no real plural. It is also the case that certain English or French words that are used in urban Hausa may be absent from the more pure rural Hausa. Sometimes words that would be universally comprehensible in the city may draw vacant stares in the village. This fact can also have class implications as the Westernized urban Hausas will sometimes employ these words to show that they are of a more refined and educated urban class. There is no need to speak in depth on loanwords at this point, but the student, even at the elementary level, should be aware of this feature of the language. One final important note is that the border between Niger and Nigeria has a real and tangible effect on the language in terms of loanwords. The English loanwords of Nigeria are very often replaced in Niger by French loanwords. See for instance the word Tafinta, which is clearly the Hausa pronunciation of interpreter; likewise, its Nigerien counterpart (antamfareti) is simply the Hausa pronunciation of the French.

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13. Listen to the plural form of nouns that are the names of professions, and repeat after the speaker. Profession
Sanaa

- Professions
Sanaoi

Doctor
Likita

- Doctors
Likitoci

Nurse
Nas

- Nurses
Nas-nas

Laborer
Lebura

- Laborers
Leburori

Teacher
Malami

- Teachers
Malamai

Student
alibi

- Students
alibai

Soldier
Soji

- Soldiers
Sojoji

Mechanic
Makanike

- Mechanics
Makanikai

Farmer
Manomi

- Farmers
Manoma

Police officer
an Sanda

- Police officers
an Sanda

Waitress
Sabis

- Waitresses
[no normal plural] an Sabis, Masu aikin sabis.

Interpreter
Tafinta

- Interpreters
Tafintoci

14. Listen to the speaker and put a circle around each word you hear. Replay the audio as many times as you need. Check your answers with the Answer Key. A. mechanic / farmer. B. teachers / doctors. C. interpreter / student. D. officers / soldiers.

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End-of-Lesson Tasks 1. Give a brief introduction of yourself, listing your name, where you are from, where you live, and what your occupation is, in Hausa.
Model: Sunana Ali. Ni mutumin Nijeriya ne. Daga Nijeriya nike. A Kano nike da zama. Ni malami ne. Ina zaune cikin

2. Circle the Hausa equivalents for the professions below. Check your work with the Answer Key. Interpreter, teacher, and student
A. 1. sabis 2. an sanda 3. tafinta B. 1. nas 2. malami 3. manomi C. 1. likita 2. nas 3. alibi

3. Reproduce the questions to the following answers. Compare your questions with those in the Answer Key. 1. ____________________?
Sunana Ali.

2. ____________________?
Daga Nijar nike.

3. ____________________?
I, ina zaune a Seattle.

4. ____________________?
Aa, ba ni da gida. Ina da aki.

5. ____________________?
I, ni makaniki ne.

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Vocabulary List
Apartment Apartment building Barracks Military camp House Rental Home Square mud hut Round mud hut Multistory house Tent Room Big Small Profession Farmer Doctor Nurse Laborer Teacher Student Soldier Mechanic Waitress Interpreter Police officer With To have And you? (masc.)
aya daga gidajen da ke cikin wani babban soro mai gidaje dayawa. Babban bene da ya umshi gidaje dayawa. Bariki Sansani Gida Gidan Haya Soro Kago Bene Tanti aki Babba arami Sanaa Manomi Likita Nas Lebura Malami, Mushe, Malamin Makaranta, Mushen Lakwal alibi Soji Mekaniki Sabis Tafinta an Sanda Da Pronoun + da Kai fa ?

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ANSWER KEY
Activity 3 1. Lawali lives in a tent at the military camp. (Lawali yana zaune cikin tanti a sansani.) 2. Malama Hadiza lives in a small house. (Malama Hadiza tana zaune cikin wani aramin 3. Mariama and Hadi live in a big house in Kano. (Mariama da Hadi suna zaune cikin wani 4. Nura lives in a hotel. (Nura yana zaune a wata masauka.) 5. Sale and Mamadu live in the barracks. (Sale da Mamadu suna zaune a bariki.) 6. Hajiya and I live in our house. (Ni da Hajiya muna zaune a gidanmu.) Activity 5 1. A. Do you live in a round hut or a square hut? B. I live in a square hut. 2. A. Do they live in a hotel or in a rental home? B. They live in a hotel.
1. A. Kana zaune cikin kago ko soro? B. Ina zaune a soro. 2. A. Suna zaune cikin masauka ko gidan haya? B. Suna zaune cikin masauka. babban gida a Kano.) gida.)

Activity 6
Kana zama cikin tanti ko bariki? Suna zama a masauki ko gida? Yana zama cikin soro ko a sansani? Tana zama cikin aki ko gida? Muna zama a gidan haya ko masauka?

Activity 7 1. tent 2. house 3. military camp 4. hotel

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Activity 12 1. Profession 2. Doctor 3. Nurse 4. Laborer 5. Teacher 6. Student 7. Soldier 8. Mechanic 9. Farmer 10. Police Officer 11. Waitress 12. Interpreter Activity 14 A. B. C. D. farmer teachers interpreter soldiers
Manomi Malamai Tafinta Sojoji D. Sanaa G. Likita E. Nas H. Lebura L. Malami I. alibi J. Soji K. Makanike B. Manomi F. an Sanda A. Sabis C. Tafinta

End of Lesson Tasks Activity 2 A. 3 Tafinta B. 2 Malami C. 3 Dalibi Activity 3


1. Mi sunanka? 2. Daga ina kake? 3. A Bauci kake da zama? 4. Kana da gida ko aki? 5. Kai makanike ne?

interpreter teacher student

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1. ____________________?
Sunana Ali.

2. ____________________?
Daga Nijar nike.

3. ____________________?
I, ina zaune a Seattle.

4. ____________________?
Aa, ba ni da gida. Ina da aki.

5. ____________________?
I, ni makaniki ne.

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Lesson 3 Days of the Week, Numbers, Ages of People


Ranukan Sati, Lambobi, Shekaru da Haifuwa

This lesson will introduce you to the following: - Days of the week - Numbers from 0 to 100 - How to understand and respond to questions about what day it is - How to find out somebodys age and tell how old you are.

1. Listen to the days of the week and repeat them after the speaker.

Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday

ran Litinin ran Talata ran Laraba ran Alhamis ran Jummaa ran Subdu (Niger) ran Asabar ran Lahadi

Read the days of the week several times, practicing pronunciation. Replay the audio if necessary.

2. Listen to the following dialogues and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in the workbook. Role-play the dialogues using the names of the other days of the week. Work in pairs or in small groups.
ran Ladi ran Talata ran Alhamis ran Subdu Yau wacce rana ce? Yau ran Litinin ce. Yau ran Litinin ce? I, yau ran Litinin ce. Yau ran Litinin ce? Aa, yau ran Talata ce. ran Laraba ran Jumaa

1. What day is it today? Today is Monday. 2. Is today Monday? Yes, today is Monday. 3. Is today Monday? No, today is Tuesday.

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3. Listen to the pronunciations and read the numbers from 0 to 10.

0
Sifili

1
aya

2
Biyu

3
Ukku

4
Huu

5
Biyar

6
Shidda

7
Bakwai

8
Takwas

9
Tara

10
Goma

4. Practice using the numbers. Work with a partner and tell them in Hausa your home telephone number, work number, address number, and so on. 5. Read the following dialogue. Pay attention to the numbers. A. B. A. B. What is your telephone number? My telephone number is (360) 984 0217. What is your house number? My house number is 10456.
Mece ce lambar wayarka? Lambar wayata (360) 984-0217 ce. Mece ce lambar gidanka? Lambar gidana 10456 ce.

6. Role-play the dialogue with a partner using Exercise 5 as a model. Pretend one of you is a receptionist who wants to know the name, telephone number, and house number of the other person. Ask each other questions and use as many numbers in your answers as you can.

7. Listen to the sentences and write down the missing numbers you hear. Check your work with the Answer Key. Model: My telephone number is 567_8__4.
1. Lambar wayata 67_____653 ce. 2. Lambar wayata 432_____01 ce. 3. Lambar wayata 89645_____ ce. 4. Lambar wayata 4____0692 ce. 5. Lambar wayata 978____645 ce.

The Numbers 11-19 The numbers from 11 through 19 follow a simple formula in Hausa. All of these numbers follow the pattern of goma sha, plus the number in the ones place. The only other point to remember simply sha aya. This abbreviated form is very common in day to day spoken Hausa. is that in spoken Hausa, the goma is often left out. The result is that goma sha aya becomes

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8. Listen as the speaker recites the numbers 11 to 19. Repeat after the speaker. 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 eleven twelve thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen seventeen eighteen nineteen
Goma sha aya Goma sha biyu Goma sha ukku Goma sha huu Goma sha biyar Goma sha shidda Goma sha bakwai Goma sha takwas Goma sha tara

9. Practice saying the following numbers in Hausa: 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 12, 14, 16, 18 The Numbers 20-29 The numbers from 20 through 29 follow essentially the same pattern as 11 through 19. The only difference is that sha is replaced by da. Also, remember that only 11 through 19 can be shortened by leaving off the tens place. 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 twenty twenty-one twenty-two twenty-three twenty-four twenty-five twenty-six twenty-seven twenty-eight twenty-nine
Ashirin Ashirin da aya Ashirin da biyu Ashirin da ukku Ashirin da huu Ashirin da biyar Ashirin da shidda Ashirin da bakwai Ashirin da takwas Ashirin da tara

10. Read the texts and translate into English. Check your work with the Answer Key.
1. Sunana Hadiza. A Zaria nike da zama. Ni sabis ce. Ina da gida. Lambar gidana 21 ce. 2. Ali soji ne. Yana da aki cikin wani babban soro. Lambar akinshi 25 ce. 3. Sunanta Zara. Ita malama ce. Tana zaune a wani gida. Lambar gidanta 16 ce. 4. Amadu da Nuri suna da gida a Zinder. Lambar gidansu 14 ce.

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The Numbers 30-100 The numbers from 30 through 100 all follow the same pattern as with 20 through 29. The only difficulty lies in memorizing the numbers for twenty, thirty, forty, and so on. These numbers are borrowed from Arabic and thus bear no resemblance to the Hausa numbers that were previously Introduced. Also note that there are two common words for <<ninety>>. Tisain - is perhaps the more standard lexical word, but Gomiya tara is also not uncommon. 11. Listen to the next set of numbers. Repeat after the speaker. 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 thirty forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety one hundred
Talatin Arbain Hamsin Sittin Sabain Tamanin Tisain, Gomiya tara (In Niger) ari

12. Practice saying the following numbers in Hausa. 30, 31, 40, 42, 50, 53, 60, 64, 70, 75, 80, 86, 90, 97, 100. How old are you? Hausas are much less likely to find a question about age uncomfortable than Westerners for the simple reason that, in Hausaland, getting old is generally perceived in a positive light. There is an incredible respect for the aged in the Hausa world; an old man or woman is given very high status simply because of his or her age. However, although they are unlikely to be offended by a question about age, the fact is that a large percentage of Hausasespecially in rural areasdont actually know how old they are. Generally speaking, Hausas do not celebrate or even remember their birthdays, and in a large percentage of cases, age is only spoken of as an approximate. Below are a few useful phrases for discussing age.
Shekara nawa gareki? Shekaru nawa gareki? Shekara nawa gareki da haihuwa?

How old are you? How old are you? (alternate using the plural) How old are you? (lit., how many years do you have from birth)

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More on Plurals In Hausa, a singular will often be used where a plural would have been used in English. Specifically, in sentences in which the noun is quantified by a number, or in questions demanding a number (how many?), we find that the noun is more often than not left in the singular form rather than pluralized. This is not a colloquial abbreviation of proper Hausa; rather, it is a feature of proper Hausa. This is not an absolute rule, and thus there are many cases in which the plural is accepted or even preferred. See for example the above phrases for asking someones age. The plural shekaru is an acceptable alternative to the more usual shekara. The one major exception to remember is that with human nouns the plural is generally used. Example: Ina da gida. = I have a house Ina da gida ukku. = I have three houses NOT: Ina da gidaje ukku. (gidaje being the plural of gida) 13. Listen to several short exchanges asking about ages. Repeat after the speaker. 1. A. How old are you? B. I am 32 years old. 2. A. How old is he? B. He is 11. 3. A. How old is she? B. She is 86 years old. 4. A. Is she 34 years old? B. No, she is 35. 5. A. Are you 21? B. Yes, I am 21. 6. A. What is your age? B. I am 47.
Shekara nawa gareka? Ina da shekara 32. Shekara nawa gareshi? Shekara 11 gareshi. Shekara nawa gareta? Tana da shekara 86. Ita, tana da shekara 34? Aa, tana da shekara 35. Shekara 21 gareka? I, ina da shekara 21. Shekara nawa gareka? Ina da shekara 47.

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14. Tell your classmates in Hausa how old you are and ask about their ages.

15. Listen and match the age with the name. Check your work with the Answer Key. Play Audio Saude Nura Ali Aisha Mamadu 11 72 52 29 43

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End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Listen to the following statements in Hausa. Answer the questions for each statement. Pause or replay the audio as necessary until you understand the relevant information. 1. What is his or her name? 2. How old is he or she? 3. What is his or her profession?

2. Recite the following in Hausa. Ask what day it is. Say what day it is today. Ask someones age. Say how old you are.

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Vocabulary List
Day Today Year Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Telephone What is Wire (telephone) Number Age How many To, with Birth And, from, with To reach / attain How old are you? What day is it today? Today is Monday. I am 25 years old. 0 zero 1 one 2 two 3 three 4 four 5 five 6 six 7 seven 8 eight
Rana Yau Shekara (ran) Litinin (ran) Talata (ran) Laraba (ran) Alhamis (ran) Jummaa (ran) Asabar (ran) Subdu (Niger) (ran) Lahadi Talho (Niger: Tarho) Mene ne (masc.) Mece ce (fem.) Waya Lamba Shekara Nawa Gare Haihuwa Da Kai Shekara nawa gareka? Yau wace rana ce? Yau litinin ce. Shekara 25 gareni. Sifili aya Biyu Ukku Huu Biyar Shidda Bakwai Takwas

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9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

nine ten eleven twelve thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen seventeen eighteen nineteen twenty twenty-one twenty-two twenty-three twenty-four twenty-five twenty-six twenty-seven twenty-eight twenty-nine thirty forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety

Tara Goma Goma sha aya Goma sha biyu Goma sha ukku Goma sha huu Goma sha biyar Goma sha shidda Goma sha bakwai Goma sha takwas Goma sha tara Ashirin Ashirin da aya Ashirin da biyu Ashirin da ukku Ashirin da huu Ashirin da biyar Ashirin da shidda Ashirin da bakwai Ashirin da takwas Ashirin da tara Talatin Arbain Hamsin Sattin Sabain Tamanin Gomiya tara Tisain ari

100 one hundred

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ANSWER KEY
Activity 7 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 4 5 0 3 2

Activity 10 1. My name is Hadiza. I live in Zaria. I am a waitress. I have a house. My house number is 21. 2. Ali is a soldier. He has a room in a large building. His room number is 25. 3. Her name is Zara. She is a teacher. She lives in a house. Her house number is 16. 4. Amadu and Nuri have a house in Zinder. Their house number is 14.
1. Sunana Hadiza. A Zaria nike da zama. Ni sabis ce. Ina da gida. Lambar gidana 21 ce. 2. Ali soji ne. Yana da aki cikin wani babban soro. Lambar akinshi 25 ce. 3. Sunanta Zara. Ita malama ce. Tana zaune a wani gida. Lambar gidanta 16 ce. 4. Amadu da Nuri suna da gida a Zinder. Lambar gidansu 14 ce.

Activity 15 Saude is 52 years old. Aisha is 11 on Friday. Is Nura 30 years old? No, he is 29. Mariama is 72 years old. How old is Ali? He is 43.
Saude, shekara 52 gareta. Aisha, Rar Jumaa za ta kai shekara 11 da haihuwa. Nura yana da shekara 30? Aa, shekara 29 gareshi. Mariama, shekarunta 72 da haihuwa. Ali, shekara nawa gareshi? Yana da shekara 43.

End of Lesson Tasks Activity 1 A. Hi, my name is Amadu. I am 26 years old. I am a police officer. B. His name is Ashiru. He is 40. He is a soldier. C. Her name is Zaharia. She is 44. She is a teacher.

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Lesson 4 Daily Activities


Harkokin Yau da Kullum

This lesson will introduce you to the following: - How to ask for and tell time - Typical daily activities in Niger and Nigeria - The verbs to go, to study, to play, to work, to watch, to read, to eat, and to get up - The past tense of the verbs. Telling Time: The Hausa speaking world is not an area known for punctuality. Time is generally a relaxed concept, and efficiency is usually given less importance than propriety and conversation. All the same, people tend to discuss time, and everyone wants to own a watch. Generally speaking, the 12-hour clock is used in Hausa. In Niger, the 24-hour clock is occasionally used, but this is usually only used when speaking French. It is fairly easy to get a grasp of telling the time of day, but to truly understand how to tell time in Hausa, one must understand how to speak about the Islamic prayer times. It is often the case that, rather than telling an exact time, one will refer to one of the five daily prayers, each of which has a time of day and a name in Hausa. The five daily prayers are listed below with their Hausa name.
Asuba - dawn Azahar about 2 p.m. Laasar about 4 p.m. Magariba dusk (about 6 p.m.) Lisha nightfall (about 7 p.m.)

As with English, there are words in Hausa for quarter till, half past, and so on. Quarter to four = arfe huu saura kwata. Quarter after four = arfe huu da kwata. Half past three = arfe ukku da rabi. Ten till five = Karfe biyar saura minti goma. Is it three yet = Ukku ta yi? Yes, its three = I, Ukku ta yi.

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You will also note that, rather than using a.m. or p.m., Hausa has several ways to break up the day. Da safe is the best translation for a.m., and da yamma is perhaps the closest translation for p.m., but there are a few other words that are used. Da safe is used in the morning, da rana is often used from about noon until about 4 p.m., da marece is often used from about 4 p.m. until dinnertime, and da dare is often used from after dinnertime until about 2:00 or 3:00 in the morning. In all of these forms, you will sometimes hear na used instead of da. The meaning is essentially the same. Note also that in the following examples there are longer and shorter ways of saying the same thing, and that it is acceptable to leave off the word arfe and/or the ne/ce stabilizer in many cases.

1. Listen as the speaker tells time in Hausa. Repeat after the speaker.

What time is it now? It is four oclock. arfe nawa ne yanzu? arfe huu ne.

What time is it? It is 4:15. arfe nawa ne? Huu da minti goma sha biyar.

What time is it? It is 4:30. arfe nawa ne? arfe huu da minti talatin ne.

What time is it? It is 4:45. arfe nawa? Huu da minti arbain da biyar.

What time is it? It is 3:20. arfe nawa ne? arfe ukku da minti ashirin.

What time is it? It is 3:40. arfe nawa ne? Ukku da minti arbain.

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2. What time is it? Fill in the clock faces with the correct times according to how they are listed in Hausa below.
A. Ukku da rabi da rana. B. Takwas da minti arbain da biyar da safe. C. Shidda da minti goma da safe. D. arfe tara da safe. G. arfe goma sha biyu da rana or tsakar rana. H. arfe huu da minti sha biyar da safe. E. Goma sha aya da minti talatin da dare. F. arfe aya da minti hamsin da biyar.

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

F.

G.

H.

3. Listen to the following exchanges and identify the clock time mentioned in each. Check your work with the Answer Key. A. B. C. D. E. 8:15 9:50 5:10 4:13 7: 50 9:00 9:15 8:50 4:30 7:10

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4. Compose dialogues according to the model below. Work in pairs or in small groups. Use the times listed below.
Model: A. - arfe nawa ne yanzu? B. - arfe biyu da rana ne.

8:00 a.m., 7:15 a.m., 10:30 a.m., 2:10 p.m., 4:45 p.m., 6:50 p.m., 12:00, 11:05 Verbs in Hausa: There are not as many verbs in Hausa as there are in English, at least not in day to day Hausa. As a result, the verb to do takes on a special importance in Hausa. For instance, rather than saying I work, in Hausa we say, I do work. This use of nouns to express verbal concepts is widespread in Hausa and something that you will become very much accustomed to. In the following set of explanations and examples we will explain the basic rules that govern the use of present tense verbs in Hausa. In the continuous tense, the verbal noun is used in place of the verb unless there is a direct or indirect object after the verb. This is somewhat confusing on first glance, but it is actually quite easy to get used to. In the following example, note that karatu (reading) is the verbal noun of karanta (to read). (note that you will also see the verbal noun.
karantawa used at times) Ina karatu = I am reading. Ina karanta wani litafi = I am reading a book (direct object). Ina karanta wa yaro litafi = I am reading the book to the boy. (indirect object)

As we progress, we will add information about this construct and the ways in which the verbal noun is formed and manipulated, but the basic principle is encapsulated in the above example. In a large number of cases, verbs will form their verbal noun by simply. adding wa to the end of the verb. In other cases, there is no change in the letters. And in some case, as with the above example, the verb is changed in some other way. The verb yi (to do) is often used to express a verbal concept with a noun where Hausa lacks an actual verb. For instance, yi aiki is used to express to work using the noun aiki (work). The tricky part of this is that in normal Hausa, it is acceptable to leave out the verb yi, leaving only the pronoun and the noun. For example:
Mi kake yi? = What are you doing? Ina (yin) aiki. or Aiki nike (yi). = I am working. (Note that the parenthetical yi or yin is

often left out and just implied).

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As we see above with yi, certain verbs will take an n suffix in the continuous tense when referring to a direct object. It is best just to memorize which verbs apply this rule. Verbs that we have seen thus far that fit in this category include yi and ci. Certain verbs will change their ending vowel depending on whether they refer to a direct object, a direct object pronoun, or no direct object. Again, we will expound on this point further as we progress. For the moment it will suffice to say that changing the ending vowel is a feature of certain verbs (class 2). Verbs that we have seen thus far in this category include kalla. The continuous (ina, kana, etc) and the relative continuous (nike, kake, etc.) often represent different ways of expressing the same sentence. For example:
Ina (yin) aiki. = Aiki nike (yi).

In the second sentence, we have moved work to the beginning of the sentence, putting greater focus on it. In some cases you will find that one form is distinctly better than the other. In other cases, however, it is a matter of shades of meaning and emphasis. Remember, though, that when you are asking questions that start with words such as what, how, when, and who, the relative pronoun will be used. Finally, note that there is an almost endless list of exceptions and dialectical variations. It is good to have the rules in the back of your mind, but you should always learn first and foremost by listening to native speakers.
Ina tafiya Kana tafiya Kina tafiya Yana tafiya Muna tafiya Kuna tafiya Suna tafiya Ana tafiya

I go You go (m) You go (f) He goes We go You go They go One goes

I study You study (m) You study (f) He studies We study You study They study One studies

Ina yin karatu Kana yin karatu Tana yin karatu Yana yin karatu Muna yin karatu Kuna yin karatu Suna yin karatu Ana yin karatu

I work You work (m) You work (f) He works We work You work They work One works

Ina yin aiki Kana yin aiki Kina yin aiki Yana yin aiki Muna yin aiki Kuna yin aiki Suna yin aiki Ana yin aiki

I watch You watch (m) You watch (f) He watches We watch You watch They watch One watches

Ina kallo Kana kallo Kina kallo Yana kallo Muna kallo Kuna kallo Suna kallo Ana kallo

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I eat You eat (m) You eat (f) He eats We eat You eat They eat One eats I play You play (m) You play (f) He plays You play They play We play One plays

Ina cin abinci Kana cin abinci Kina cin abinci Yana cin abinci Muna cin abinci Kuna cin abinci Suna cin abinci Ana cin abinci Ina yin wasa Kana yin wasa Kina yin wasa Yana yin wasa Kuna yin wasa Suna yin wasa Muna yin wasa Ana yin wasa

I read You read (m) You read (f) He reads We read You read They read One reads I get up You get up (m) You get up (f) He gets up You get up They get up We get up One gets up

Ina (yin) karatu Kana (yin) karatu Kina (yin) karatu Yana (yin) karatu Muna (yin) karatu Kuna (yin) karatu Suna (yin) karatu Ana (yin) karatu Ina tashi Kana tashi Kina tashi Yana tashi Kuna tashi Suna tashi Muna tashi Ana tashi

Ina tafiya Kana tafiya Kina tafiya Yana tafiya Tana tafiya Suna tafiya Muna tafiya Kuna tafiya Ana tafiya

Ba ni tafiya Ba ka tafiya Ba ki tafiya Ba ya tafiya Ba ta tafiya Ba su tafiya Ba mu tafiya Ba ku tafiya Ba a tafiya

Negation of Verbs: Before proceeding any further, we should take a little time to discuss negation of verbs somewhat more in depth. We briefly touched upon the use of the particle ba for negation in an earlier chapter, now we need to explain the rules that govern this construct. With the continuous pronoun the negation is as follows: In the first row, we see I am going on the left, and the negation I am not going on the right.

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The Habitual Pronoun: The following chart shows the conjugation of the habitual pronoun. This is used to express habitual actions. For example, I wake up at 7:00 expresses a habitual action, as does I play soccer on the weekends. In a great number of cases, a Hausa speaker will use the regular continuous rather than the habitual, but it is still important to at least be able to recognize the habitual. The habitual pronoun will be used only occasionally in this book. I you you he she we you they one
Nikan (nakan) Kakan Kikan Yakan Takan Mukan Kukan Sukan Akan

Example: Yakan tashi a arfe takwas da safe. = He gets up at 8 a.m. Generally speaking, rather than negating the habitual pronoun, the negative continuous (see above) will be used.

5. Listen to the short statements that describe each activity in the pictures below. Repeat after the speaker. Pay attention to new verbs and other new vocabulary.

Suna yin wasan wallon kwando

Tana tafiya kasuwa.

They are playing basketball.

She is going to the market.

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Suna yin karatu a makaranta.

Tana aiki a asibiti.

They are studying at school.

She works in the hospital.

Yana yin wasan wallon afa.

Yarinya tana cin abincin rana.

He is playing soccer.

The girl is eating lunch.

Namiji yana karanta littafi.

Mace tana kallon talabijan.

The man is reading a book.

The woman is watching television.

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Prepositions: Prepositions in Hausa are often multi-purpose and do not always translate perfectly to English equivalents. Below, we will introduce some common Hausa prepositions with their approximate English translations. You will need to take careful note of how they are used in the texts and sound files in order to fully understand how these prepositions are used. To
Zuwa Zuwa ina kike tafiya? = To where are you going? Ina tafiya kasuwa. = I am going (to) the market. Ina zaune a gida. = I live at home. Yana cikin mota. = He is in the car. Tana bisa doki. = She is on the horse. Yana zaune a kan doki. = He is sitting on the horse.

(often implied) At In On
A Cikin Bisa A kan

Note that the prepositional meaning of to is different from the other meanings attached to the word in English. The Hausa zuwa is a translation of only the prepositional meaning. 6. Listen to the following statements in Hausa and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in the workbook. Replay the audio if necessary. Take note of how the word kullum (always) or kowacce rana (every day) is used in certain sentences rather than the habitual pronoun. This is very common in Hausa. 1. The boy goes to school at 7:30. 2. The man eats breakfast at seven oclock. 3. The woman watches television in the evening. 4. The girl studies at home in the afternoon. 5. Ladi goes to the market in the morning. 6. Lami plays soccer on Friday. 7. I get up at 7:00.
Kullum yaro yana tafiya makaranta a arfe 7:30 da safe. Namiji yana karya kumallo a arfe 7:00. Mace, tana kallon talabijin da dare. Yarinya tana karatu a gida kullum da marece. Ladi tana tahiya kasuwa kullum da safe. Lami yana yin wallon afa kowacce Jumaa. Ina tashi a arfe 7:00.

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7. Match the following sentences with the pictures below. Check your answers with the Answer Key.
1. Kullum ina tafiya makaranta a arfe 9:30. 2. Kullum suna karya kumallo a arfe 7:00. 3. Muna yin karatu da safe. 4. Tana karanta wani littafi da marece.

A #______________

B #_______________

C #____________

D #_________________

8. Read the following text and answer the questions below in complete sentences in Hausa. If you have any difficulty, you may go to the Answer Key to check the text or the questions in English. Then, check your answers to the questions with the Answer Key.
Amadu alibi ne. Yana yin karatu a makaranta. Kullum da safe yana tashi a arfe 7:15. Yana karya kumallo a arfe 7:30. Yana tafiya zuwa makaranta a arfe 8:00. Bayan ya tashi daga makaranta yana yin wasan wallon kwando. Kullum yana karanta littattafai da kallon talabijin da dare. Amadu, ba ya yin karatu Subdu ko Lahadi. 1. Amadu malamin makaranta ne? 2. Ina yake yin karatu? 3. Mi yakan yi a arfe 7:15? 4. Yaushe yake karya kumallo? 5. Mi yake yi a arfe 8:00? 6. Yaushe yake yi wasan wallon kwando?

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7. Mi yake yi da dare? 8. Yana yin karatu Subdu ko Lahadi ?

9. Rearrange the following statements into a logical order for a daily schedule. Check your work with the Answer Key.
1. Ina tafiya wurin abinci da rana tare da abokaina. 2. Ina kallon talabijin. 3. Ina tafiya makaranta. 4. Ina cin abincin dare tare da abokina. 5. Ina yin wasan wallon kwando. 6. Ina karya kumallo. 7. Ina yin karatu a gida.

10. Tell your partner about your daily schedule. Use the words and word combinations given below.
Kowace rana Yi wasan wallon kwando Tashi Tafiya kasuwa Karya kumallo Karanta wani littafi Tafiya wurin aiki Yin kallon telebijin Cin abincin rana Da dare

11. Listen to the five short statements. Circle the English statement that is the equivalent of each Hausa statement you hear. Replay the audio as many times as you need. 1. A. I play soccer after school. B. I play soccer after dinner. C. I play soccer after work. 2. A. She goes to the market in the evening. B. She goes to the market in the afternoon. C. She goes to the market in the morning. 3. A. I go to work in the morning. B. I go to school in the morning. C. I go to the market in the morning. 4. A. I study at home on Saturday. B. I play soccer at home on Saturday. C. I eat breakfast at home on Saturday. 5. A. He watches television in the afternoon. B. He watches television in the evening. C. He watches television in the morning. 68

The Past (completive) Tense Pronoun: Below, we introduce the simple past tense in Hausa, also known as the completive. It is perhaps the simplest form of the pronoun to use, and it is used constantly. No conjugation chart is needed; simply study the conjugations of the following verbs to see the pattern. I went You went You went He went We went You went They went One went I worked You worked You worked He worked We worked You worked They worked One worked I ate You ate You ate He ate We ate You ate They ate One ate I played You played You played He played
Na tafi Ka tafi Kin tafi Ya tafi Mun tafi Kun tafi Sun tafi An tafi Na yi aiki Ka yi aiki Kin yi aiki Ya yi aiki Mun yi aiki Kun yi aiki Sun yi aiki An yi aiki Na ci Ka ci Kin ci Ya ci Mun ci Kun ci Sun ci An ci Na yi wasa Ka yi wasa Kin yi wasa Ya yi wasa

I studied You studied You studied He studied We studied You studied They studied One went I watched You watched You watched He watched We watched You watched They watched One watched I read You read You read He read We read You read They read One read I got up You got up You played He got up

Na yi karatu Ka yi karatu Kin yi karatu Ya yi karatu Mun yi karatu Kun yi karatu Sun yi karatu An yi karatu Na kalla Ka kalla Kin kalla Ya kalla Mun kalla Kun kalla Sun kalla An kalla Na karanta Ka karanta Kin karanta Ya karanta Mun karanta Kun karanta Sun karanta An karanta Na tashi Ka tashi Kin tashi Ya tashi

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We played You played They played One played

Mun yi wasa Kun yi wasa Sun yi wasa An yi wasa

We got up You got up They got up One got up

Mun tashi Kun tashi Sun tashi An tashi

Negation of Completive: The completive pronoun is negated using the formula ba ba. Note that while the first half of this construct is syntactically fixed, the second ba has some flexibility. Positive
Na tafi Ka tafe Kin tafi Ya tafi Ta tafi Mun tafi. Kun tafi. Sun tafi. An tafi.

Negative
Ban tafi ba Ba ka tafi ba Ba ki tafi ba Ba ya tafi ba./ Bai tafi ba. Ba ta tafi ba. Ba mu tafi ba. Ba ku tafi ba. Ba su tafi ba. Ba a tafi ba.

The Relative-Completive: (and its negation) The completive pronoun (above) is the past tense of the regular continuous pronoun. In the same way the relative-completive pronoun is the past tense of the relative continuous pronoun. Below are a few examples showing the use of this pronoun form and a conjugation chart. I You You He She We You They One
Na Ka Kika Ya Ta Muka Kuka Suka Aka

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Examples:
Mi kike yi? = What are you doing? Mi kika yi? = What did you do?

Note that the negation of the relative completive is formed essentially like the regular completive. Ba tahiya ba kika yi? Or Ba tahiya kika yi ba? 12. Read the following sentences and translate them into English. Check your work with the Answer Key.
1. Jiya na tafi makaranta. 2. Bara ni da abokaina mun yi wasan wallon kwando. 3. Sun ci kasuwa sati da ya wuce. 4. Na tafi gida a arfe 9:00 jiya. 5. Jiya mun ci abincin dare a arfe 6 :00. 6. Yaro ya yi karatun kia da lissafi a makaranta bara. 7. Yarinya ta yi kallon telebijin jiya. 8. Ran Lahadin da ta wuce na karanta wani littafi. 9. Bara war haka na tafi Paris. 10. Ya yi shekara biyu muna da gida a amai.

Yesterday Jiya Last year Bara Last week- Sati da ya wuce / makon jiya Last Sunday Rar Lahadi da ta wuce A year ago ya yi shekara aya 13. Complete the following sentences using the verbs located in the box below. Check your answers with the Answer Key.

Studied
Yi karatu

played
Yi wasa

watched
Kalli

got up
Tashi

went
Tafi

worked
Yi aiki

ate
Ci

1. Na ________________ a arfe 7:00 jiya. 2. Na ________________ abincin rana tare da uwayena. 3. Na ________________ kasuwa rar Lahadi da ta wuce. 4. Na ________________ wasan wallon kwanda ran Litinin da ta wuce. 5. Na ________________ telebijin jiya.

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6. Na ________________ a Hotal bara. 7. Ya yi shekara ukku na ________________ a makaranta

14. Listen to the following dialogue and repeat after the speaker. Make up similar dialogues using the words and word combinations given below. Work in pairs or in small groups.
A. Mi kika yi jiya? B. Jiya na kalli talabijin. A. Awa nawa ka kalli talabijin jiya? B. Awa aya.

15. Make up similar dialogues using the words and word combinations given below. Work in pairs or in small groups.
1. Jiya kalli talabijin awa aya 2. Jiya yi sayayya awa biyu 3. Bara yi aiki a masauki sati huu 4. Bara yi karatu a makaranta sati takwas 5. Ran lahadi da ya wuce karanta wani littafi awa aya 6. Ya yi shekara aya yi wasan wallon kwando sati shidda 7. Ya yi shekara aya zama a Nijeriya sati biyu

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End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Listen to the following statements read in Hausa. Circle the times you hear. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 6:30 6:00 9:30 5:30 5:30 7:00 8:30 5:45

in the morning - in the evening 6:00 8:00

2. Read the following text in Hausa. Put T (True) or F (False) next to the statements that are written below the text. Check your work with the Answer Key.
Sannu. Sunana Nuri. A Katsina nike da zama. Ina da wani aramin gida. Ni malamin makaranta ne. Ina koyan lissafi da kia. Kowacce rana ina tashi a arfe 6:00 da safe. Bayan karin kumallo ina tafiya makaranta. A arfe 8:00 ina makaranta. Ran Talata da ran Alhamis ina yin wasan wallon afa awa biyu. Bayan mun tashi daga makaranta ina tafiya sayayya. Ina a gida a arfe 5:00. Da dare ina kallon telebijin awa aya kuma ina karanta littittafai awa biyu.

1. _______ The man lives in Katsina. 2. _______ He lives in small house. 3. _______ He is a student. 4. _______ He studies math and music. 5. _______ Everyday he gets up at 6:00 a.m. 6. _______ He does not have breakfast. 7. _______ He is at school at 8:00. 8. _______ Nuri plays soccer on Saturday and Monday for 3 hours. 9. _______ He goes shopping after school. 10. _______ In the evening he works for 2 hours.

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3. Describe your daily schedule of activities, including the times, in Hausa. For example, start with what time you get up, then eat breakfast, etc. I get up at 6:00 and eat breakfast at 6:30. I go to school at ..

4. Find out what your partner did yesterday at 7 a.m., 7:30 a.m., 10 a.m., 1 p.m., 4 p.m., and 8 p.m., and how long each activity lasted. Work in pairs or in small groups.

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Vocabulary List
After In the morning In the afternoon In the evening Everyday Last week A year ago Last Sunday (Monday, Tuesday, etc.) At school Math Music (instrumental) Music (singing) Book Breakfast Lunch Dinner Home Place At home Market On Sunday (Monday, Tuesday) To do To go (to) To go shopping To play soccer To play basketball To watch television Breakfast To eat breakfast To eat To get up To wake up To read To study To work
Bayan Da safe Da rana/ da marece Da marece/ da dare Kowacce rana/ kullum Sati da ya wuce/ makon jiya Ya yi shekara aya Rar Lahadin da ta gabata/ da ta wuce A makaranta Lissafi Kia Waa Litafi (pl., littattafai) Karin kumallo Abincin rana Abincin dare Gida (pl., gidaje) Wuri (pl., wurare) A gida Kasuwa (pl., kasuwowi) Rar Lahadi Yi Tafi / je Ci kasuwa Yi wasan wallon afa Yi wasan wallon kwando (Niger: Basket) Kallo/ kalla Karin kumallo Karya kumallo Ci Tashi Farka Karanta/ karatu Yi karatu Yi aiki

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To sit To come, arrive Horse Small Time Oclock Remainder Quarter Half What time is it? It is three oclock. In the morning In the midday In the late afternoon/ evening At night Noon When Now Also, again, and To At In On If, when Man Woman Boy Girl

Zauna Zo/ zowa Doki (pl., dawaki) arami Lokaci arfe Saura Kwata Rabi arfe nawa ne? arfe ukku ne? Da safe Da rana Da marece/ Da yamma Da dare Tsakar rana Yaushe Yanzu Kuma Zuwa A Ciki, cikin Bisa, a kan In Namiji (pl., Maza) Mace (pl., Mata) Yaro (pl., Yara) Yarinya (pl., an mata)

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ANSWER KEY
Activity 3 A. B. C. D. E. 8:15 a.m. 9:50 5:10 4:30 p.m. 7:10

Activity 7 A 3. B 1. C. 2. D 4. We study in the morning. (Muna yin karatu da safe.) I go to school at 9:30. (Kullum ina tafiya makaranta a arfe 9:30.) They eat breakfast at 7:00. (Kullum suna karya kumallo a arfe 7:00.) She reads a book in the evening. (Tana karanta wani littafi da marece.)

Activity 8 Amadu is a student. He studies at school. Everyday he gets up at 7:15. He has breakfast at 7:30. He goes to school at 8:00. After school he plays basketball. He reads books and watches TV in the evening. He does not study on Saturday and Sunday. 1. Is Amadu a teacher? 2. Where does he study? 3. What does he do at 7:15? 4. When does he have breakfast? 5. What does he do at 8:00? 6. When does he play basketball? 7. What does he do in the evening? 8. Does he study on Saturday and Sunday?
Aa Amadu alibi ne. Yana yin karatu a makaranta. Kullum da safe yana tashi a arfe 7:15. Yana karya kumallo a arfe 7:30 Yana tafiya zuwa makaranta a arfe 8:00. Bayan ya tashi daga makaranta yana yin wasan wallon kwando. Kullum yana karanta littattafai da kallon talabijin da marece. Amadu, ba ya yin karatu Subdu ko Lahadi.

Activity 9 Your answers may vary. However, did you understand the statements? 6. I eat breakfast. (Ina karya kumallo.) 3. I go to school. (Ina tafiya makaranta.) 1. I go to lunch with my friends. (Ina tafiya wurin abinci da rana tare da abokaina.) 5. I play basketball. (Ina yin wasan wallon kwando.) 4. I eat dinner with my friend. (Ina cin abincin dare tare da abokina.)

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7. I study at home. (Ina yin karatu a gida.) 2. I watch television.(Ina kallon talabijin.) Activity 11 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. B C A B A I play soccer after dinner. She goes to the market in the morning. I go to work in the morning. I play soccer at home on Saturday. He watches television in the afternoon.

Activity 12 1. Yesterday I went to school. 2. Last year my friends and I played basketball. 3. They went shopping last week. 4. I was at home at 9:00 yesterday. 5. We ate dinner at 6:00 yesterday. 6. The boy studied music and math at school last year. 7. The girl watched television yesterday. 8. Last Sunday I read a book. 9. I was in Paris a year ago. 10. We had a house in Niamey two years ago.
1. Jiya na tafi makaranta. 2. Bara ni da abokaina mun yi wasan wallon kwando. 3. Sun ci kasuwa sati da ya wuce. 4. Na tafi gida a arfe 9:00 jiya. 5. Jiya mun ci abincin dare a arfe 6 :00. 6. Yaro ya yi karatun kia da lissafi a makaranta bara. 7. Yarinya ta yi kallon telebijin jiya. 8. Ran Lahadin da ta wuce na karanta wani littafi. 9. Bara war haka na tafi Paris. 10. Ya yi shekara biyu muna da gida a amai.

Activity 13
1. tashi 2. ci 3. tafi 4. yi wasan 5. kalli

I got up at 7:00 yesterday. I ate breakfast with my parents. I went shopping last Sunday. I played basketball last Monday. I watched television yesterday.

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6. yi aiki 7. yi karatu

I was at the hotel last year. I studied at school three years ago.

1. Na ________________ a arfe 7:00 jiya. 2. Na ________________ abincin rana tare da uwayena. 3. Na ________________ kasuwa rar Lahadi da ta wuce. 4. Na ________________ wasan wallon kwanda ran Litinin da ta wuce. 5. Na ________________ telebijin jiya. 6. Na ________________ a Hotal bara. 7. Ya yi shekara ukku na ________________ a makaranta

End of Lesson Tasks Activity 1 1. 6:30 2. 7:00 3. 9:30 4. 5:45 5. in the morning 6. 8:00 Activity 2 1. T 2. T 3. F 4. F 5. T 6. F 7. T 8. F 9. T 10. F The man lives in Katsina. He lives in small house. He is a student. He studies math and music. Everyday he gets up at 6:00 a.m. He does not have breakfast. He is at school at 8:00. Nuri plays soccer on Saturday and Monday for 3 hours. He goes shopping after school. In the evening he works for 2 hours.

Hello. My name is Nuri. I live in Katsina. I have a small house. I am a teacher at this school. I teach math and music. Everyday I get up at 6:00 a.m. I eat breakfast and go to school. I am at school at 8:00 a.m. On Tuesday and Thursday I play soccer for 2 hours. After school, I go shopping. I am home at 5:00. In the evening I watch TV for an hour and read books for 2 hours.

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Lesson 5 Meeting the Family Gabatarwa da an Gida


This lesson will introduce you to the following: - The kinship terms used for immediate and extended family - How to ask and answer simple questions about family members - The pronouns who, this, that, these, and those Talking about Family There is no way that we could place too much emphasis on the importance of family relationships in the Hausa culture. The family is the core of a persons social network, the forum for all decision making, and a financial security net for the majority of Hausas. Therefore, it should not be surprising that when speaking Hausa, one spends a lot of time discussing family affairs and, yes, family gossip. The Hausa family organization is patriarchal, a traditional patriarchy that has long since adjusted to Islamic rules. Polygamy is the norm in the Hausa culture. Men are allowed up to four wives according to the version of Islam that is prevalent in Africa. In the case of divorce, children go to the father - as soon as they are old enough to be independent of their mother. This patriarchal view of family is also reflected in the naming system. Rather than a last name, the fathers name is used. Thus, if Lawali is the son of Audu, his name is Lawali Audu. And, if this Audu is the son of Ali, then Lawalis full name is Lawali Audu Ali. This is why professions and characteristics are often used to differentiate between people and to identify them with a certain family. For instance, Lawali may be the son of the village forager, and so rather than using his fathers name, one would simple refer to him as Lawali of the Foragers. Sons and daughters generally live with their families until they are married, and even then it is normal for them to section off an area of the family household and continue to live with the larger family. Thus, there will very often be large extended families living together. This traditional approach is fading somewhat among some young upwardly mobile men in the cities, but it continues to be the norm. An ordinary family, meaning the nuclear family of a man and his wives, may have anywhere from five or six children to twenty or more depending on the number of wives, vitality, and health. The father continues to be the head of the household until death, not only over his immediate family, but second and third generations as well. Below are some useful terms for talking about family in Hausa.

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1. Look at these photos of families. Listen to the kinship terms and repeat after the speaker.

Family Family (all household members) Relatives Parents Mother Father Children Daughter Son Grandparents

Iyali an gida Dangi Uwaye Uwa Uba aa/ Yara iya a Kakanni

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Grandfather Grandmother Sister* Older sister Younger sister Sisters Brother* Older brother Younger brother Older siblings Younger siblings Brothers

Kaka Kaka aruwa Ya anwa anuwa mata anuwa Wa ane Yaya anne anuwa maza

*Note: Although there is a generic word for brother and sister in Hausa, it is much more common to use the more specific words denoting younger brother or sister, and older brother or sister. Also, the generic words for brother and sister are often used to denote a more general relationship, somewhat like relative. Also, note that the words for grandmother and grandfather are the same. They are differentiated either by the pronoun that is attached to them or by some other external indication such as a subject pronoun. Determiners/ Pronouns: The Hausa words for who, this, these, that, and those will now be introduced. First look at the following list, and then study the examples below:
Wa Wane Wace Wannan Wancan Waccan Waanan Waancan

Who (m/f) Who (m) Who (f) This (m/f) That (m) That (f) These Those

As in English, these words can often be used interchangeably with he, she, or they, depending on the situation.
Wannan namiji ne. = This is a man. Wannan mace ce. = This is a woman. Wancan namiji ne. = That is a man.

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Waccan mace ce. = That is a woman. Wane ne? = Who is it? (masculine) Wace ce? = Who is it? (feminine) Wa ya zo? = Who arrived?

Waanan an gidanmu ne. = These are members of our household.

Note: In some dialects wanga will be used in place of wannan. 2. Listen to the following dialogues and repeat them after the speaker. Role-play the dialogues using the pictures above. 1. A. Who is this? B. This is my mother. 2. A. Who is that? B. That is my younger sister.
Wace ce wannan? Ita uwata ce. Wace ce waccan? Waccan anwata ce.

3. A. Who are they? Su wane ne? B. They are my parents. Su uwayena ne. 4. A. Who are they? B. They are my grandparents.
Su wane ne? Su kakannina ne.

3. Translate the following sentences into English. Check your work with the Answer Key.
1. Uwata da ubana suna da a guda da iya biyu. 2. Ina zaune tare da kakannina cikin wani babban gida. 3. Uwayensa suna zaune a Kaduna. Su leburori ne. 4. Ina da wa da ane. Su sojoji ne. A wani sansani suke da zama. 5. Tana da anwa. Sunanta Hadiza. 6. Wana yana da shekara 30. Yana da a guda da iya guda.

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4. Talk about your mother/father/sister/brother/grandfather/grandmother according to the scheme below: 1. Name 2. Age 3. Occupation 4. Where they live (city and type of residence)
Model: Wannan ubana ne. Sunansa Amadu. Shekara 48 gareshi. Shi malamin makaranta ne. A Marai yake da zama. Yana da wani aramin gida.

5. Create questions in Hausa to the following answers. Check your work with the Answer Key for some suggested questions. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. __________________?
I, wannan anena ne.

__________________?
Sunansa Amadu

__________________?
A Maiduguri yake da zama.

__________________?
Shi Likita ne.

__________________?
Yakan tafiya wurin aiki ranar Litinin.

__________________?
Aa, yana yin wasan wallon gora ta baseball kowace ranar Talata.

6. Listen to the audio. Circle the word you hear. Check your work with the Answer Key. 1. Mother 2. Daughter 3. Family 4. Children 5. Younger sister 6. Grandmother Father Son Parents Grandparents Older brother Mother

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7. Listen and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in the workbook. Husband Wife Married Unmarried young woman Previously married woman Previously married man Unmarried man (older) Unmarried Young man
Miji Mata Da aure Budurwa Zawara / Bazawara Gwauro Tuzuru Marar aure Saurayi

8. Fill in the blanks using the words written in the boxes below. Check your answers with the Answer Key. 1.
a shekara 5 shekara 30 -sa da aure -ta likita

anena yana ___________. Matarsa _________ ce. Sunan____ Saadiya. Tana da _________________. Suna da ____________. Yana da _____________. Sunan____ Mamadu.

2.
da aure -sa shekara 8 iya -ta anwa shekara 10 soji -su

Bello yana da ________. Sunan___ Hadiza. Tana ________. Mijinta _________ ne. Sunan______ Ali. Suna da __________ biyu. Sunan____ Hawa da Saude. Hawa ce baba. Tana da _________. Saude tana da ____________.

9. Make up short stories in Hausa about the people listed below.


1. Aisha da aure, da shekara 31, mijinta, lebura ne, a guda da iya guda. 2. anladi da aure, da shekare 28, matarsa, malama ce, babu aa. 3. Mariama budurwa, da shekara 20, tare da uwayenta, aliba ce, da ane.

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10. Listen to several short dialogues as people answer questions about their family members. Circle the correct answer for each question. Check your work with the Answer Key.
1. A. Wace ce? B. Ita uwata ce / anwata ce / kakata ce. 2. A. Tana da aure? B. Aa, ita budurwa ce / likita ce / zawara ce. 3. A. Shi wane ne? B. Shi matata ce / mijina ne / ubana ne. 4. A. Su wane ne? B. Su uwayena ne / aana ne / kakannina ne. 5. A. Ina suke da zama? B. Suna zama a bariki / cikin tanti / cikin gida. 6. A. Kana da yaya ko anne? B. I, ina da wa biyu / a biyu / a biyu. 7. A. Wace ce wannan? B. Wannan matata ce / uwata ce / mijina ne. 8. A. Tana da aa? B. I, tana da ane biyu / anwa biyu / a biyu.

11. Read and translate the text. Put T (True) or F (False) next to the statements below. Check your answers with the Answer Key.
Lawali yana da kakanni biyu, kakansa da kakarsa. Suna zaune tare da Alhajji Saidu da iyalinsa. Lawali ba ya da wa ko ane. Amma yana da a da anwa. Su alibai ne. Lawali yana da aure. Matarsa likita ce. Lawali da matarsa suna da iya guda da a guda.

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1. ________Lawali yana da uwaye. 2. ________Lawali yana da aure. 3. ________Yana da a da anwa. 4. ________Lawali da matarsa alibai ne. 5. ________Lawali likita ne. 6. ________Lawali yana da aa biyu.

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End-of-Lesson Tasks 1. Give a brief description in Hausa of your immediate family. Include the age, name, and profession of each person, and tell whether each person is married or single, and where he or she lives. If you want to, use real pictures of your family members.

2. Ask your classmate in Hausa about his or her family (mother, father, sister, brother, etc.) What are their names, how old are they, where do they live, and what are their professions?

3. Work in small groups. Describe the pictures below. Use new vocabulary.

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Vocabulary List
Parents Father Mother Children Son Daughter Brother (relative) Older brother Younger brother Sister (relative) Older sister Younger sister Older siblings Younger siblings Grandparents Grandmother Grandfather Husband Wife Married Unmarried Unmarried/ Single young woman Divorced single woman Young man Previously married man Unmarried man (older) Who is he/she? Who are they? He is She is These/ Those are One/ A single This (m/f) Who (in questions) That (m)
Uwaye Uba Uwa aa a iya anuwa Wa ane aruwa Ya anwa Yaya annai Kakanni Kaka Kaka Miji Mata Da aure Marar aure (f)/ Maras aure (m) Budurwa Zawara/ Bazawara Saurayi Gwauro Tuzuru Shi wane ne? Ita wace ce? Su wane ne? Shi ne. Ita ce. Su ne. Guda Wannan Wa Wancan

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That (f) These Those Baseball Occupation/ Profession Owner of/ the one with Big (f) Note:

Waccan Waanan Waancan Wasan wallon gora ta baseball Sanaa Mai Babba

Note that the word guda is used very much like aya in many cases. These words have overlapping uses, and they are both very common.

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ANSWER KEY
Activity 3 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. My mother and father have one son and two daughters. I live with my grandparents in a big house. His parents live in Kaduna. They are laborers. I have two brothers. They are soldiers. They live in a military camp. She has a sister. Her name is Hadiza. My brother is 30 years old. He has a son and a daughter.

1. Uwata da ubana suna da a guda da iya biyu.

2. Ina zaune tare da kakannina cikin wani babban gida.) 3. Uwayensa suna zaune a Kaduna. Su leburori ne. 4. Ina da wa da ane. Su sojoji ne. A wani sansani suke da zama. 5. Tana da anwa. Sunanta Hadiza. 6. Wana yana da shekara 30. Yana da a guda da iya guda. Activity 5 These are some possible questions.Yours may vary slightly.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Mi sunansa? Wannan anenka ne? Ina yake da zama? Mine ne sanaarsa? Yaushe yakan tafiya wurin aiki? Yana aiki ran Talata?

What is his name? Is this your brother? Where does he live? What is his occupation? When does he go to work? Does he work on Tuesday?

Activity 6 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Father Daughter Family Grandparents Older sister Younger sister Grandmother

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Activity 8
1. anena yana da aure. Matarsa likita ce. Sunanta Saadiya. Tana da shekara 30. Suna da a guda. Yana da shekara 5. Sunansa Mamadu..

1. My brother is married. His wife is a doctor. Her name is Saadiya. His wife is 30 years old. They have a son. He is 5 years old. His name is Mamadu.
2. Bello yana da anwa. Sunanta Hadiza. Tana da aure. Mijinta soji ne. Sunansa Ali. Suna da iya biyu. Sunansu Hawa da Saude. Hawa ce babba. Tana da shekara 10. Saude tana da shekara 8.

2. Bello has a sister. Her name is Hadiza. She is married. Her husband is a soldier. His name is Ali. They have two daughters. Their names are Hawa and Saude. Hawa is older and is 10 years old. Saude is 8 years old. Activity 10
1. Ita wace ce? Ita anwata ce. 2. Tana da aure? Aa, ita budurwa ce. 3. Shi wane ne? Shi mijina ne. 4. Su wane ne? Su aana ne. 5. Ina suke da zama? Suna zama cikin gidan haya. 6. Kina da wa ko ane? I, ina da wa guda da ane guda. 7. Wace ce wannan? Ita matata ce. 8. Tana da aa? I, tana da a biyu.

1. Who is she? She is my sister. 2. Is she married? No, she is single. 3. Who is he? He is my husband. 4. Who are they? They are my children. 5. Where do they live? They live in the apartment. 6. Do you have any brothers? Yes, I have two brothers. 7. Who is that? That is my wife. 8. Does she have any children? Yes, she has two sons. Activity 11 1. F 2. T 3. T 4. F 5. F 6. T Lawali has parents. Lawali is married. He has two sisters Lawali and his wife are students. Lawali is a doctor. Lawali has two children. 92

Lawali has a grandfather and a grandmother. They live with Lawali and his family. Lawali has no brothers. He has two sisters. They are students. Lawali is married. His wife is a doctor. Lawali and his wife have a daughter and a son.

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Lesson 6 Around Town Cikin Gari

This lesson will introduce you to the following: - Cardinal directions - Names of urban buildings and landmarks - How to ask and answer questions about locations of places and buildings.

1. Listen to and repeat the cardinal directions. North Arewa Northeast Northwest Arewa maso yamma
Arewa maso gabas

West

Yamma

East Gabas

Southwest Kudu maso


yamma

Southeast

Kudu maso gabas

South

Kudu/ Gusum

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2. Listen to the following sentences and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in your workbook.

Zinder is north of Kano. Niamey is west of Maradi.

Zinder tana arewa da Kano. Yamai tana yamma da Marai.

3. Work with a partner. Tell each other where certain cities or locations are in relation to other cities or locations. Compose sentences according to the exercise above and the model below. Model: Los Angeles is south of San Francisco.
Los Angeles tana kudu da San Francisco.

The building is east of the military camp.


Gini yana gabas da sansani.

4.Topographical features, urban buildings and landmarks are useful reference points when getting to know a new area or for giving and receiving directions. Listen to a list of common sites and features. Repeat after the speaker while following along in your workbook. Airport Town City Small rural village Bank
Filin jirgin sama Gari Birni/ Maraya auye Banki

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Building House Road Small street, alley Neighborhood Bush taxi station Car Bus station Train station Police station Caf Restaurant Church Mosque Movie theater Hospital Market Street vendor Pharmacy Post office Store Park (city park) Park (game park) Factory Bridge Farm, field The Bush Tropical Forest Lake Mountain Hill River Tree Open bush, rural area

Gini/ Soro Gida Hanya Titi Unguwa Tasha Mota Tashar bas (Niger: Tashar kar) Tashar jirgen asa Ofishin an sanda Gidan gahuwa Gidan abinci Coci Masallaci Siliman/ Gidan siliman Asibiti/ Majiyyata Kasuwa Mai tebur Kantin Magani (Niger: farmasi) Gidan waya Shago/ Kanti Wurin Shaatawa Gandun daji Masanaanta Gada Gona Daji Kurmi Tafki (tabki) Dutsi (literally, rock) Tudu Kogi Icce Karkara

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5. Match the English word in the left column with the Hausa equivalent in the right column. Check your work with the Answer Key. 1. Airport 2. Bank 3. Bus Station 4. Caf 5. Church 6. Movie Theater 7. Factory 8. Hospital 9. Park 10. Pharmacy 11. Post Office 12. Restaurant Directions: Before continuing on to section six, we will introduce a second way of stating cardinal directions. You have already been introduced to the direction + da formula. Now, we will introduce the second common formula. Below are the same sentences that were used previously with their equivalents using the words arewacin, kudancin, yammacin, and gabashin.
Zinder tana arewa da Kano. = Zinder tana arewacin Kano. Niamey tana yamma da Marai. = Niamey tana yammacin Marai. Abuja tana kudu da Zaria. = Abuja tana kudancin Zaria. Maiduguri tant gabas da Katsina. = Maiduguri tana gabashin Katsina. A. Masanaanta B. Asibiti C. Filin jirgin sama D. Kantin magani E. Gidan abinci F. Wurin shaatawa G. Gidan waya H. Tashar bas I. Banki J. Gidan gahuwa K. Siliman L. Coci

6. Translate the following sentences from Hausa into English. Check your work with the Answer Key.
1. Kasuwa, tana kudancin banki. 2. Kogi, yana gabas da tudunan nan. 3. Filin jirgin sama, yana yammacin masauka. 4. Duwatsu da tafkuna, suna gabas da daji. 5. Kogi yana kudancin gona. 6. Siliman yana gabas da asibiti. 7. Tafki yana arewa da wurin shaatawa.

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7. Practice composing and pronouncing the vocabulary. Create sentences according to the model. Use the words below. Model:
Wurin shaatawa yana gabashin gidan waya. 1. Filin jirgin sama 2. Banki 3. Kantin Magani 4. Gada 5. Tashar bas 6. Masanaanta 7. Gona 8. Wurin shaatawa -gabas da -kudancin -yamma da -arewacin -gabas da -kudancin -yamma da -arewacin -tafki -asibiti -gidan waya -kogi -ofishin an sanda -gona -gari -tafki

8. Listen to the speaker and circle the term you hear. Check your answers with the Answer Key. 1. north 2. bank 3. train station 4. restaurant 5. post office 6. church 7. lake 8. building west park bus station caf pharmacy movie theater river bridge south bridge airport factory hospital factory farm mountain

9. Listen to the following words and word combinations and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in your workbook. Where is ? Questions of location or direction in Hausa are formed using the word ina, which means where. We have already seen this word in earlier chapters and noted that it is differentiated by tone and vowel length from the pronoun ina. In the examples in the next section, there is a series of where questions and their answers. Note that a question such as Ina coci yake? can also be shortened to Ina coci? in most cases.

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In front of Next to Between and Across the street Facing Near Far from Turn left Turn right Go straight Turn the corner Follow the road Where is the bank? The bank is over there. Here There Is it far? By foot By car How many minutes to From here On the right On the left

Gaban Dab da Tsakanin da etaren hanya Fuskantar (kallon ) Kusa da (kusan) Nesa da Yi hagu Yi dama Mie Sha kwana Bi hanya Ina banki? Ina banki yake? Banki yana can. Nan Can Yana da nisa? A asa A mota Minti nawa da zuwa Daga nan Hannun dama Hannun hagu

10. Listen to the following sentences and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in your workbook. Then translate them into English. Check your work with the Answer Key.
1. Ina tafki yake? Tafki yana dab da daji. 2. Ina kasuwa take? Kasuwa tana tsakanin ofishin an sanda da coci. 3. Ina gidan waya yake? Gidan waya yana kusa da asibiti. 4. Ina tashar jirgin asa take? Tashar jirgin asa tana fuskantar wurin shaatawa. 5. Ina gidan gahuwa yake? Gidan gahuwa yana gaban hotal.

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11. Work with a partner. Compose similar dialogues using the words below. Role-play your dialogues. Model:
A. Gafara dai Malam. Ina wurin shaatawa yake? B. Wurin shaatawa yana gaban asibiti. A. To, na gode. B. Babu laifi.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

wurin shaatawa filin jirgin sama daji ofishin an sanda coci

gaban fuskantar dab da kusa da tsakanin

asibiti tashar bas dutsi siliman masanaanta da wurin shaatawa

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End-of-Lesson Tasks 1. Translate each phrase into Hausa. Check your work with the Answer Key. A. The restaurant is next to the hotel. B. The park is north of the lake. C. The bank is between the church and the bus station. D. The market is south of the bridge. E. The caf is across from the bookstore. F. The field is in front of the town.

2. Work with a partner or in small groups. In Hausa, come up with a list of the facilities on your base. Then draw a schematic map of the base. Now describe the location of each facility. Use the following vocabulary: shago, asibiti, ofishin an sanda, siliman, wurin shaatawa, masauki, coci, filin jirgin sama, gidan abinci, daji, and your language training facility. Use these prepositions: tsakanin, dab da, fuskantar, and gaban.

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Vocabulary List
Where (interrogative) North South East West North of South of East of West of Town City Small rural village Neighborhood Mountain Hill Lake River Forest Bridge Road / Street Small street / alley Store Street vendor Market Church Mosque Restaurant Caf City park Game park Bank Car Airport Train station Bus station Bush taxi station
Ina Arewa Kudu / Gusum Gabas Yamma Arewacin Kudancin / gusumcin Gabashin Yammacin Gari (pl. garuruwa) Birni (pl. birane) auye (pl. auyuka) Unguwa (pl. unguwowi) Babban tudu / Dutsi Tudu (pl. tuduna) Tafki / Tabki (pl. tafkuna) Kogi (pl. Kogaye) Daji (pl. dazuzzuka) Gada (pl. gadoji) Hanya (pl. hanyoyi) Titi (pl. tituna) Shago (Niger: kanti) Mai tebur Kasuwa (pl. kasuwanni / kasuwowi) Coci Masallaci (pl. masallatai) Gidan abinci (pl. gidajen ) Gidan gahuwa Wurin shaatawa (pl. wuraren ) Gandun daji (pl. gandayen daji) Banki (pl. bankuna) Mota (pl. motoci) Filin jiragen sama (pl. filayen ) Tashar jiragen asa (pl tashoshin ) Tashar bas Tasha (pl. tashoshi)

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Pharmacy Hospital Movie Theater Factory Farm / field Post office Police station Bookstore Right Left In front of Next to Between Close to Across from Far (adv) Far (noun) Problem No problem / Youre welcome

Kantin magani (pl. kantunan ) Asibiti (pl. asibitoci) Siliman / Gidan siliman Masanaanta (pl. masanaantu) Gona (pl. gonaki) Gidan waya (pl. gidajen ) Ofishin an sanda (pl. ofisoshin ) Kantin Littattafai Dama Hagu Gaban Dab da Tsakanin Kusa da Fuskantar Nesa Nisa Laifi Babu laifi / Ba Laifi

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ANSWER KEY
Activity 5 1. Airport 2. Bank 3. Bus Station 4. Caf 5. Church 6. Movie Theater 7. Factory 8. Hospital 9. Park 10. Pharmacy 11. Post Office 12. Restaurant
C. Filin jirgin sama I. Banki H. Tashar bas J. Gidan gahuwa L. Coci K. Siliman A. Masanaanta B. Asibiti F. Wurin shaatawa D. Kantin magani G. Gidan waya E. Gidan abinci

Activity 6 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The market is south of the bank The river is east of the mountains. The airport is west of the hotel. The mountains and lakes are east of the forest. The river is south of the farm. The movie theater is east of the hospital. The lake is north of the park.

1. Kasuwa, tana kudancin banki. 2. Kogi, yana gabas da tudunan nan. 3. Filin jirgin sama, yana yammacin masauka. 4. Duwatsu da tafkuna, suna gabas da daji. 5. Kogi yana kudancin gona. 6. Siliman yana gabas da asibiti. 7. Tafki yana arewa da wurin shaatawa.

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Activity 8 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. north arewa bridge gada bus station tashar bas caf gidan gahuwa post office gidan waya church coci farm gona mountain dutsi

Activity 10 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Where is the lake? The lake is next to the forest. Where is the market? The market is between the police station and the church. Where is the post office? The post office is near the hospital. Where is the train station? The train station is across from the park. Where is the caf? It is in front of the hotel.

1. Ina tafki yake? Tafki yana dab da daji. 2. Ina kasuwa take? Kasuwa tana tsakanin ofishin an sanda da coci. 3. Ina gidan waya yake? Gidan waya yana kusa da asibiti. 4. Ina tashar jirgin asa take? Tashar jirgin asa tana fuskantar wurin shaatawa. 5. Ina gidan gahuwa yake? Gidan gahuwa yana gaban hotal.

End of Lesson Tasks Activity 1 A. B. C. D. E. F.


Gidan abinci yana dab da masauki. Wurin shaatawa yana arewacin tafki. Banki, yana tsakanin coci da tashar bas. Kasuwa, tana kudancin gada. Gidan gahuwa, yana fuskantar kantin littattafai. Gona, tana gaban gari.

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A. B. C. D. E. F.

The restaurant is next to the hotel. The park is north of the lake. The bank is between the church and the bus station. The market is south of the bridge. The caf is across from the bookstore. The field is in front of the town.

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Lesson 7 Shopping Sayayya

This lesson will introduce you to the following: - Customs and practices accepted in the marketplaces of Nigeria and Niger - Names of foods and stores - How to make purchases in Nigeria and Niger - The verbs to want, to buy, to pay, and to take - The modal verb can.

Economy:
Hausas have traditionally been merchants. It was, in fact, largely because of the many traveling Hausa merchants that Hausa became such a widespread trade language in West Africa. To this day, Hausa remains a trade language far beyond the borders of Hausaland proper. It is not uncommon to hear the meat vendors on the streets of Ghana calling out suya (a Hausa word meaning cooked meat) or to see the rows of Hausa money changers at the border. The traditional economy of Niger and Northern Nigeria remains largely unchanged today. Although currency is now used in place of gold, cowry shells, and other means of bartering, the basic system is the same. For the majority of the population, buying and selling take place in large open air markets, where the primary goods are locally grown and made. These goods include items such as millet, corn, milk, and livestock. There are some stores where the prices are listed on items, but for the most part bargaining is expected. For the outsider, bargaining is absolutely necessary. The average Hausa is poor by global standards, considering that he or she lives a subsistence lifestyle with relatively few luxuries. The cost of living in this area of the world is extremely cheap by Western standards; it is one of the cheapest in the world, in fact, but for locals it can still prove impossible to find money for food. The season before harvest is sometimes referred to as the hunger season, and many children do not make it through this period. In 2005, in fact, Niger won the dubious distinction of being at the very bottom of the Human Development Index. Nigeria is significantly better off economically, but is plagued by high crime rates and systemic corruption. The standard of living in urban areas is significantly higher than average, but still not high.

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Currency in Nigeria: The currency in Nigeria is called the Naira. The following chart shows the denominations of this currency and their Hausa names. Note that most of the bills and coins have a Hausa nickname in addition to their proper Hausa name.

Coins: 1k Kwabo 5k Kwabo biyar / sisi 10k Kwabo goma / sule 25k 50k
Kwabo ashirin da biyar / dala Kwabo hamsin / sule biyar

Notes: 1 5 10 20
Naira Naira biyar / mai Tafawa Balewa Naira goma / balama Naira ashirin / ar Murtala

The abbreviation k in the above chart denotes kobo, which is to the Naira what the cent is to the dollar. The Hausa kwabo is derived from this word. Currency in Niger: The currency in Niger is the CFA Franc (tamma in Hausa), which is the currency of the majority of francophone West Africa. Due to the devaluation of the CFA franc, it has become standard in Hausa to count money with fives (dala) as the base increment, and it is rare that one would have any reason to refer to a tamma in day to day Hausa. When the counting is done in French, however, the base increment is the franc. There are nicknames for many of the coins, but as they are somewhat regional in nature, they are left out of this chart. Counting by fives looks a bit intimidating at first, but it is actually a fairly convenient way to talk about the currency.

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Coins: CFA 5 CFA 10 CFA 25 CFA 50 CFA 100 CFA 200 CFA 250 CFA 500
Dala Dala biyu Dala biyar Dala goma Dala ashirin Dala arbain Dala Hamsin Dala ari

Notes: CFA 1,000 CFA 2,000 CFA 5,000 CFA 10,000


ar jika ar jika biyu ar jika biyar ar jika goma

Using the dala and the jika as your base, you must learn to talk about money in Hausa. See below some examples of this system. CFA 125 CFA 300 CFA 1,500 CFA 290 CFA 900
Dala ashirin da biyar Dala sittin ari ukku / jika da rabi Dala sittin ba biyu Jika ba ashirin / ari da tamanin

In these examples, take note of the fact that 1,500 is generally referred to as a jika and a half or three hundred. Note also the use of ba to indicate minus. Thus, rather than saying fiftyeight, one generally says sixty minus two. This is usually used when the amount is just a bit shy of a round number.

1. Listen to the following vocabulary and repeat after the speaker.

Ayaba

Mangworo

Tumatir

Dankali

Madara

Man shanu

wai

Cuku

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Millet
Shinkafa Burodi Sukari Hatsi

Sorghum

Masara

Kifi

Naman kaza

Dawa

Millet drink

Millet mush

Fura

Tuwo

Alkama

Kabewa

Nama

Ruwa

Wake

Gujiya

Salati

Kabeji / Shu

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2. Work in pairs or in small groups. Ask your partner what foods he or she has at home. Use the model below. Model: A. Wane irin abinci kake da shi a gida?
B. Ina da ayaba da tumatir da dankalin turawa.

3. Familiarize yourself with the new vocabulary. Listen to the speaker and follow along in the workbook. Look at the pictures and try to guess the meaning of the underlined words.

Wannan kantin kayan cefane ne.

Hadiza, tana aiki a kantin kayan cefane. Ita kashiya ce.

Nura yana aiki a kantin kayan cefane. Shi mai jiran kanti ne.

Awa tana aiki a kantin tufafi. Ita mai jiran kanti ce.

Amadu yana aiki a kantin tufafi. Shi kashiya ne.

Did you understand the underlined words?


Kantin kayan cefane means grocery store. Kashiya means cashier. Mai jiran kanti means salesclerk (usually referring to a person who runs a shop). Kantin tufafi means clothing store.

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Shops, Stores, and Street Vendors In Nigeria and Niger, there are some shops and markets that resemble Western shops and markets, especially in the urban areas. However, the majority of economic activity still takes place in open air markets or through street vendors who vend their wares from a table or even a mat by the side of the road. The informal sector makes up a large part of the economy, and small vendors predominate. Except in the expensive shops that specialize in Western goods, do not expect to find prices marked. Below are a few terms and words for describing businesses.
Mai Tebur Mai saida Mai an kasuwa (m.) ar kasuwa (f.) Kanti/ Shago

A street or market vendor who sells goods from a table or even a mat by the roadside or in the market. This title translates as one who sells and is commonly used to distinguish a particular vendor specializing in a particular product. Similar to the above example; one who This is used to describe various professions such as one who repairs radios. Market trader. Any person involved in commerce. A small shop that usually sells an assortment of basic goods but sometime specializes in a particular type of product. Kanti tends to refer more to shops selling Western or modern goods, while shago tends to refer more to traditional shops that can be found in most villages. Wandering salesperson (often a young child) who sells food or other small goods. Usually this person carries the product on his or her head.

Mai talla

Another thing to remember is that the word kanti has a very broad range of application. This is because Hausa does not have words for different types of stores. Traditionally, there were no gift stores, bookstores, grocery stores, and such, and so the language has not formed words for these distinctions. One way that words are formed for these types of shops is to use the word kanti followed by the type of item that is sold. For example, Kantin littattafai is a bookstore. This is the simplest approach, and the one used in this textbook. But, one should bear in mind that often the descriptions are longer and more convoluted. For instance, rather than saying Kantin kyaututtuka for gift shop, one might say Kanti inda ake saida kyaututtuka, meaning the shop where gifts are sold. Likewise there is no set word for department store. The simplest translation, and the one used here, is simply babban kanti, meaning a large shop. Other possible translations would take the form of a description of a large shop where many different types of things are sold under one roof. The third option, one that is used often in the cities, is to simply refer to the place in English or French. All of this is something that one must bear in mind when learning Hausa, because on the street, and depending on where you live, the terminology may vary.

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4. Work in pairs or in small groups. Make up dialogues using the model below. Model: A. A. B. B.
Dan Ladi, ina yake aiki?

Where does Dan Ladi work?


an Ladi yana aiki a kantin kayan cefane.

Dan Ladi works at the grocery store.

I want to: (introduction to the subjunctive) In English, when a transitive verb refers to another verb, we use the second verb in the infinitive. The result is I want to play or I need to go. This same principle is true for many Western languages. In Hausa, however, the infinitive is not used. Rather, the subjunctive form of the pronoun is used to connect the verbs. The subjunctive is used a lot in Hausa, and this is one of the most common of its uses. Below is a table showing the full conjugation of the phrase I want to buy. By studying this chart, you can see the full conjugation of the subjunctive pronoun. In the first sentence below, note that the first part, ina so, translates as I want. The second part, in saya, translates as to buy, but it literally translates as I buy. Therefore, the full sentence would literally translate as I want I buy. This use of the subjunctive is fairly easy to remember, however, as we can simply place the subjunctive pronoun where we would place to in English. Look over the following chart, focusing on the conjugation of the subjunctive pronoun. Keep in mind that while many of these pronouns appear to be the same as the past tense, they are differentiated from other similar pronouns by tone and vowel length. The subjunctive also acts as the imperative.
Ina so in saya Kana so ka saya Kina so ki saya Yana so ya saya Tana so ta saya Muna so mu saya Kuna so ku saya Suna so su saya Ana so a saya

Note: Saya is a verb that changes its ending, depending on what kind of object it takes. When it takes a pronoun direct object, it ends in i. When it takes a direct object, it ends in e. And, the verbal noun is saye.

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5. Familiarize yourself with the new vocabulary. Listen to the speaker and follow along in your workbook. Look at the pictures and try to guess the meaning of the underlined words.

Nadia, tana so ta sayi littafi. Tana a kantin littattafai.

Sule, yana so ya sayi agogo. Yana a wani kantin kyaututtuka.

Did you understand the underlined words?


Kantin littattafai means bookstore. Agogo means clock. Kantin kyaututtuka means gift store.

6. Match each Hausa sentence in the left column with the English equivalent in the right column. Check your answers with the Answer Key.
1. Ina so in sayi burodi da man shanu. 2. Abubakar, yana so ya sayi littafi. 3. Amadu yana so ya sayi kifi. 4. Kabiru, yana so ya sayi agogo. 5. Muna so mu sayi kyauta. 6. Suna so su sayi cuku. 7. anwata tana so ta sayi tufafi.

A. Amadu wants to buy fish. B. They want to buy cheese. C. I want to buy bread and butter. D. My sister wants to buy clothes. E. Kabiru wants to buy a clock. F. Abubakar wants to buy a book. G. We want to buy a gift.

Grammar Note There is no exact translation in Hausa for the English word of. However, the endings n and r play a very similar role. The n is attached to masculine nouns and the r to feminine nouns. See the following examples, many of which you have already seen. This is the same principle as the attached possessive pronouns except tht it applies to nouns instead of pronouns.

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Sunanka = your name (the name of you) Ruwan Lawali = Lawalis water (ruwa is masculine) asar Niger = the country of Niger (asa = country)

Buying Things: Amounts In the Hausa marketplace, units of measurement differ somewhat from what we are used to in America. The terms pound or kilo are used for some things, just like in English, but there are many terms which would not normally be used in English. One must simply get used to which units of quantity are used in regard to different items. Below is a list of terminology that should give an idea of what terms are common and how they are used. Note that the term pile is used a lot. This is because the market vendors lay out their goods on a mat or table in little piles and charge per pile. It is also common to see a large pile of an item, in which case you would just tell the vendor how many francs (or Nairas) worth you would like. To say this, you simply say the item followed by na for a masculine noun, or ta for a feminine noun and then the amount that you hope to spend. If the amount given is too small, just ask the vendor to add some. Grains, flour, sugar, and other such items are often sold by the kwano. This is a standard sized bowl that is used as an increment of measure. A kilo of rice A box of sugar A mango A packet A bowl of sorghum A pile of sweet potatoes A loaf of bread A bottle of water A carton of milk A dozen eggs 50 worth of meat
Kilon shinkafa Kwalin sukari Mangworo guda Fakiti (Niger: fake) / unshi / kwali (kwalin sukari) Kwanon dawa Dankali, kashi guda Burodi guda Kwalbar ruwa Kwalin madara wai dozen/ wai goma sha biyu Nama na 50

7. Work with a partner or in small groups. Pretend that you are planning to have a surprise birthday party for one of your classmates. You need to buy some food and gifts. Make a shopping list and tell your partner in Hausa what you want to buy. How much is it? To ask how much something costs in Hausa, the interrogative nawa is used. However, because bargaining is usually necessary, there are a few more useful words that will be needed in order to get the right price. The following dialogue shows a simple bargaining scene and gives examples of some essential bargaining terminology. This dialogue uses some words and grammar that you 115

are not yet familiar with, but it will give you a good idea of how bargaining sounds in Hausa, and there are certain terms used that should be memorized. Below, you will see the doubling of nawa to indicate each or a piece. And, you will notice that the last word in a given number is repeated to indicate each or a piece in the response.

Ali: Mai tebur, ina kwana? Mai Tebur: Lafiya lau. Ina rana? Ali: Kai! Akwai rana. Mai Tebur: To, mi zan baka? Ali: Tumatir nike so. Mai Tebur: To, nawa zan ba ka. Ali: Guda biyar nike so. Nawa nawa ne? Mai tebur: Dala goma goma ne. Ali: Ka rage mini. Mai Tebur: To, nawa za ka bada ? Ali: Zan ba ka shidda shidda. Mai Tebur: To kawo. Ali: Ga shi. Mai Tebur: To, na gode. Sai an jima. Ali: Sai an jima.

Ali: Mai tebur, how are you? Mai tebur: Im good. Hows the heat. Ali: Man! It is hot out. Mai Tebur: Ok, so what can I get you? Ali: I would like some tomatoes. Mai Tebur: Ok, how many would you like? Ali: I would like five. How much each? Mai Tebur : Fifty francs a piece. Ali: Reduce the price for me. Mai Tebur: Ok, how much will you pay? Ali: Ill give you 30 francs a piece. Mai Tebur: Deal, give me the money. Ali: Here is it. Mai Tebur: Ok, thanks. See you later. Ali: See you later.

How much is it? = Nawa ne? How much each? = Nawa nawa? It costs CFA 25. = Kuinsa dala biyar. 25 francs each. = Dala biyar biyar. Reduce the price for me. = Rage mini. Its a deal; give me the money. (lit., Ok, bring the money.) = To, kawo kuin. CFA 125 each. = Dala ashirin da biyar biyar. Give me more. = Ka ara mini.

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8. Listen to the following dialogue and repeat after the speaker. A. Excuse me. I want to buy cheese. How much is a pound? A. Gafara dai. Ina so in sayi cuku. Nawa ne kuin laba? B. B. A. A. B. B.
uin laba Naira hamsin ne.

A pound is 50. OK, thanks.

To, na gode.

No problem.
Ba laifi.

9. Pretend you want to buy the items listed below. One of your classmates is a salesperson. Role-play an In the Shop dialogue using the dialogue above as a model. Work in pairs or in small groups.
1. Mangworo ukku 2. Kifi, laba guda 3. Buhun dankali 4. Ruwan kwalba, guda 5. Kwalin madara 6. Burodi guda 7. wai goma sha biyu CFA 275 65 CFA 12,000 35 CFA 1,050 25 CFA 600

10. Complete the sentences using the words in the box. Check your answers with the Answer Key.
Kantin tufafi Kantin kayan cefane Kantin littattafai Kantin kyautuka Babban kanti

1. Uwayena suna sayen kyatuka a __________________. 2. Suna sayen tomatir da dankalin turawa a _______________________. 3. Kanena yana sayen littattafai a ______________________. 4. Ni da yata muna sayen tufafi a ______________________. 5. Mun iya sayen tufafi da littattafai da kyautuka a __________________.

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11. Listen to the following sentences and circle the words you hear. Check your answers with the Answer Key. 1. I buy books in the clothing store / bookstore. 2. My sister buys gifts at the gift store / grocery store. 3. My mother buys sugar at the gift store / grocery store across from the bank. 4. My grandparents buy milk and butter at the bookstore / grocery store. 5. We buy clothes, books, and gifts at the department store/ bookstore.

The verb can: The verb iya (can/ to be able to) in Hausa has two features which must be remembered in order to use it correctly. First of all, it is usually used in the past tense, even when referring to the present. Note that in the following chart, the English present tense is used to translate the past tense of the Hausa. This is a feature of Hausa verbs that will reappear frequently as we continue. I can You can You can He can She can We can You can They can One can
Na iya Ka iya Kin iya Ya iya Ta iya Mun iya Kun iya Sun iya An iya

<<To Take>> The Hausa verb to take is one that will teach you to pronounce the glottalized D. You must also remember that this verb has endings that change depending on the type of object it takes. I take You take (m) You take (f) He takes She takes We take You take (pl) They take One takes
Ina auka Kana auka Kina auka Yana auka Tana auka Muna auka Kuna auka Suna auka Ana auka

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I took. = Na auka. I took it. = Na aukeshi. I took a tomato. = Na auki tumatir.

12. a) Listen to the following dialogue and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in the workbook. A. Hello. I want to buy a loaf of bread. How much is it? A. Barka da rana. Ina so in saye burodi guda. Nawa ne kuinsa? B. It is 50. B. Naira hamsin ne. A. Can I pay with a credit card? A. Na iya biya da katin bashi? B. Im sorry, but we take cash. B. Gafara, sai kuin hannu. b) Role-play the dialogue. Make up similar dialogues using the words below.
1. Ruwa, kwalba biyu 2. Littafi 3. Madara, kwali guda 4. Cuku, laba guda 5. wai, dozin guda

13. Read along as you listen to the dialogue and then answer the follow-up questions. Check your work with the Answer Key. Lawali: Barka da rana Ali! Ali: Yawwa Lawali! Barkarka dai! Lawali: Ina za ka? Ali: Ina tafiya zuwa kantin kayan cefane. Lawali: Mi kake so ka saya? Ali: Ina so in sayi burodi, ruwan kwalba guda biyu, kuma mangworo biyar. Kai fa, ina Lawali: Ina tafiya babban kanti. Ali: Mi kake so ka saya? Lawali: Ina so in saya wa kakana kyauta. Ina so in sayi littafi ko agogo. Ali : Ni, ina sayen kyaututtuka a kantin kyaututtuka.
za ka?

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Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. Where is Ali going? What does she want to buy? Where is Lawali going? What does he want to buy?

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End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Translate the following into Hausa. Check your work with the Answer Key. A. Where do you buy tomatoes and potatoes? B. Can I pay with a credit card? No, we take cash. C. I will buy the gift for my sister in the clothing store. D. How much is a loaf of bread? - 25 2. In Hausa, explain where you buy groceries/gifts/books/clothes.

3. What would you tell a salesclerk in Nigeria if you wanted to buy a carton of milk/a watch/a dozen eggs? How would you ask the price of each item? Role-play the dialogue.

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Vocabulary List
How much ? It is I want to buy sugar As well Banana Butter Meat Chicken Fish Sweet potato Milk Traditional millet drink/food usually with nono mixed in (This is a Hausa staple food.) Cooked pounded grain (usually millet) food (This is the traditional staple of the Hausa diet, and it is also a generic term for food.) The traditional yoghurt that is usually mixed with fura Tomato Squash Beans Peanuts Lettuce/ Salad Cabbage Mango Potato Sugar Millet Sorghum Wheat Rice Cheese Eggs A pound/kilo of cheese A sack of sweet potatoes A loaf of bread A bottle of water
Nawa ne ? Kuinsa Ina so in sayi sukari Kuma Ayaba Man shanu Nama Naman kaza Kifi Dankali Madara Fura Tuwo Nono Tomatir Kabewa Wake Gujiya/ Gyaa Salati Kabeji (Niger: Shu) Mangworo (pl., mangworori) Dankalin turawa Sukari Hatsi Dawa Alkama Shinkafa Cuku wai (pl., wayoyi/ wayaye) Cuku, laba guda Buhun dankali (pl. buhunhunan) Burodi Ruwan kwalba guda

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A dozen eggs A box of A carton of milk Department Store Clothing Store Clothing Grocery Store Bookstore Bread To reduce For me Half Credit card Cash Cashier Salesclerk To buy To take To pay for Only, just

wai goma sha biyu/ wai dozin Akwatin Kwali guda na madara Babban kanti Kantin tufafi Tufafi/ Kayan jiki Kantin kayan cefane Kantin littattafai Burodi Rage Mini Rabi Katin bashi (pl., katunnan) Kuin hannu Kashiya Mai jiran kanti Saya auka Biya kuin Sai

Note that in future lessons, we will explore the various uses of the word sai. In this lesson, we used this word to express only or just, but in future lessons, you will see that it has many other uses.

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ANSWER KEY
Activity 6 .
1. Ina so in sayi burodi da man shanu. 2. Abubakar, yana so ya sayi littafi. 3. Amadu yana so ya sayi kifi. 4. Kabiru, yana so ya sayi agogo. 5. Muna so mu sayi kyauta. 6. Suna so su sayi cuku. 7. anwata tana so ta sayi tufafi.

C. I want to buy bread and butter. F. Abubakar wants to buy a book. A. Amadu wants to buy fish. E. Kabiru wants to buy a clock. G. We want to buy a gift. B. They want to buy cheese D. My sister wants to buy clothes.

Activity 10
1. kantin kyaututtuka 2. kantin kayan cefane 3. kantin litttattafai 4. kantin tufafi 5. babban kanti

My parents buy gifts at the gift store. They buy tomatoes and potatoes at the grocery store. My brother buys books at the bookstore. My sister and I buy clothes at the clothing store. We can buy clothes, books and gifts at the department store.

1. Uwayena suna sayen kyatuka a __________________. 2. Suna sayen tomatir da dankalin turawa a _______________________. 3. Kanena yana sayen littattafai a ______________________. 4. Ni da yata muna sayen tufafi a ______________________. 5. Mun iya sayen tufafi da littattafai da kyautuka a __________________.

Activity 11
1. Ina sayen littattafai a kantin littattafai. 2. anwata tana sayen kyaututtuka a kantin kyaututtuka. 3. Uwata tana sayen sukari a kantin kayan cefane da yake kallon banki.

I buy books in the bookstore. My sister buys gifts at the gift store. My mother buys sugar at the grocery store across from the bank.

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4. Kakannina suna sayen madara da man shanu a kantin kayan cefane. 5. Muna sayen tufafi da littattafai da kyaututtuka a babban kanti.

My grandparents buy milk and butter at the grocery store. We buy clothes, books, and gifts at the department store.

Activity 13 1. 2. 3. 4. Ali is going to the grocery store. She wants buy bread, two bottles of water, and a pound of pears. Lawali is going to the department store. He wants to buy a book or a clock.

Lawali: Barka da rana Ali! Ali: Yawwa Lawali! Barkarka dai! Lawali: Ina za ka? Ali: Ina tafiya zuwa kantin kayan cefane. Lawali: Mi kake so ka saya? Ali: Ina so in sayi burodi, ruwan kwalba guda biyu, kuma mangworo biyar. Kai fa, ina Lawali: Ina tafiya babban kanti. Ali: Mi kake so ka saya? Lawali: Ina so in saya wa kakana kyauta. Ina so in sayi littafi ko agogo. Ali: Ni, ina sayen kyaututtuka a kantin kyaututtuka. End of Lesson Tasks Activity 1
A. Ina kake sayen tumatir da dankalin turawa? (Where do you buy tomatoes and potatoes?) B. Na iya biya da katin bashi? Aa, sai kui hannu. (Can I pay with a credit card? No, we za ka?

take cash.)
C. Ina saya wa anwata kyauta a kantin tufafi. (I will buy the gift for my sister in the

clothing store.)
D. Nawa ne burodi? Naira ashirin da biyar. (How much is a loaf of bread? - 25)

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Lesson 8 Eating Out


Tafiya Zuwa Gidan Abinci

This lesson will introduce you to the following: - Eating out in a restaurant in Nigeria and Niger - Various menu items - How to order menu items - Different table service items.

Eating Out:
Eating out in Nigeria or Niger is completely unlike how it is done in America. For the majority of the people, eating out at an actual sit-down restaurant is rare, and many rural people have never gone to such a restaurant. What is more common is to eat food that is sold by street vendors. In the markets and in every village, there are a variety of street vendors selling food. These range from young girls selling snacks from a tray on their head, to the sedentary vendors who sell hot foods on a plate for those who are looking for more of a meal. The actual restaurants with menus are usually located in the cities and are frequented mainly by urban professionals, mainly men. The next section shows a sample of a menu from a restaurant of this sort, but before moving on to the menu, take a look at the following list of common street foods and vendors. Bean cakes (fried) Grain cakes (fried) Meat skewer Meat Millet porridge (watery and hot) Fermented millet drink Traditional Yoghurt (to mix with fura) Rice and beans Deep fried dough (wheat flour) Food made from bean flour and oil Tofu Hot pepper seasoning (used on all of the above)
osai Waina Tsire Nama Kunu/ Koko Fura Nono Shinkafa da wake an wake Awara Yaji Fanke (from pancake)

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1. Look at the restaurant menu below. Repeat the words after the speaker while following along in the workbook.

Small World Restaurant


Item Rice with sauce Shinkafa da miya Rice based dish with Shinkafa dafa-duka other ingredients mixed in Salad Salati Pounded rice mash Rice and beans Fried sweet potatoes Pasta noodles with sauce Beans Chicken Mutton Goat Fish Orange juice Drinking water Soft drink Coffee Milk Tea Beer Wine
Tuwon shikafa Shinkafa da wake Soyayyen dankali Taliya da miya Wake Naman Kaza Naman Tunkiya Naman akuya Kifi Ruwan lemun-zai Ruwan sha Lemu Gahuwa (Niger: Kafe) Madara Shayi Giya Giya (Niger: duban)/Mai

Price 500 / CFA 2000 500 / CFA 2000 250 / CFA 1000 300 / CFA 1200 400 / CFA 1600 350 / CFA 1400 400 / CFA 1600 250 / CFA 1000 600 / CFA 2400 500 / CFA 2000 500 / CFA 2000 750 / CFA 3000 150 / CFA 600 25 / CFA 100 150 / CFA 600 100 / CFA 400 100 / CFA 400 100 / CFA 400 200 / CFA 800 350 / CFA 1400

2. Imagine that you have 4,500 (CFA 18,500). What would you order at the Small World Restaurant?

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3. A) Listen while reading along with the following dialogue between a waiter and a patron. A. A. B. B. A. A. B. B.
Sabis.

Waiter.
Mi kuke so?

What would you like?


Ina so in sha gahuwa.

I want to drink coffee.


To, ba mu da gahuwa. Sai shayi.

We do not have coffee, only tea.

B) Make up similar dialogues using the words and word combinations that are in the box.
1. kofin gahuwa shayi 2. tambulan madara shayi/gahuwa 3. tambulan ruwan lemun zai lemu 4. kifi da taliya naman kaza da soyayyen dankalin turawa

4. Listen to the following dialogue that takes place at a restaurant. Follow along in your workbook. Pay attention to the new words. Role-play the dialogue. You can substitute some words with any food from the Small World Restaurant menu. A. A. B. B. A. A. B. B. A. A. B. B. A. A. B. B.
Barka malam! Mi kake so ka ci?

Hello, sir. What do you want to eat?


To, mi yake da dai yau?

Well, whats good today?


Muna da soyayyen naman kaza da kuma taliya. Suna da dai sosai.

We have fried chicken and pasta. They are delicious.


To. A kawo soyayyen naman kaza da taliya.

Very well. Fried chicken and pasta, please.


Mi za ka sha?

What do you want to drink?


Shayi da sukari da lemun tsami.

Tea with sugar and lemon.


Kuma, kana son kayan zai?

And would you like dessert?


I, a kawo gutsuren kyat.

Yes, bring a piece of cake.

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A. A. B. B. A. A.

Ga lissafi, malam.

Here is your bill, sir.


Na iya biya da katin bashi?

Can I pay with a credit card?


I, babu matsala.

Yes, no problem.
Ina sha Kana sha Kina sha Yana sha Muna sha Kuna sha Suna sha Ana sha

I drink You drink You drink He drinks We drink You drink They drink One drinks

I drank You drank You drank He drank We drank You drank They drank One drank

Na sha Ka sha Kin sha Ya sha Mun sha Kun sha Sun sha An sha

Note that this is a verb that takes a terminal n in the continuous tense when it is followed by a direct object. Saying Please As you may have noticed by now, there is no word in Hausa that truly translates the English please. The Hausa term that is most often used to translate please is don Allah, and while in certain situations it is a good translation for please, it is usually not quite the right word. In reality, don Allah (literally, for God) carries a more emphatic meaning than please. Often times it would be translated more precisely as for Gods sake, for the love of God, really, Im serious, or I beg of you. Fortunately, however, in Hausa, the word please is not usually necessary. Hausa is a very direct language, and native speakers generally speak in commands. To the English speaker it can, in fact, sound like a very rude language, but once you become accustomed to the flow of the language, you will find that the subtleties, albeit not easily explained, are what determine whether one is speaking rudely or not. 5. Using the restaurant menu above, tell your classmates in Hausa what you ate and drank at a restaurant the last time you were there.

6. Listen and read along with the dialogue. Fill in the blanks with the missing word in English. Check your answers with the Answer Key.
Ina ka ci abinci _____________ da ta wuce? Na ci abinci a ______________. Ka ci kai aya? Aa, ___________ ya zo tare da ni. Mi ya ci?

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Ya ci taliya da _____. Mi ya ____? Ya sha _____. Mi ka ____? Na ci _____________ da soyayyen dankalin turawa. Mi ka sha? Na sha ___________.

7. Below are some table service items. Listen and repeat after the speaker.

Plate
Faranti

Bowl (metal)
Kwano

Cup
Kofi

Glass
Tambulan (Niger: Finjali)

Knife
Wua

Fork
Cokali mai yatsa

Spoon
Cokali / koshiya

Handkerchief
Hankici

Ladle
Ludayi

Mug
Moa

Clay Bowl
Kasko

Cooking Pot
Tukunya

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8. Match the English words in the left column with the Hausa equivalents in the right column. Check your work with the Answer Key. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Plate Metal bowl Cup Glass Knife Fork Spoon Handkerchief
A. Cokali B. Tambulan C. Wua D. Cokali mai yatsa E. Kwano F. Faranti G. Hankici H. Kofi

9. Listen to the following model. Repeat after the speaker. Compose similar sentences using the words below. Model: A. Ba ni da cokali. Don Allah ka kawo mini cokali. A. I do not have a spoon. Can I please have a spoon. B. To babu laifi. Ga shi nan. B. Yes, no problem. Here you are.
1. Hankici 2. Kofi 3. Cokali mai yatsa 4. Wua 5. Tambulan

10. Listen to the speaker and circle the words you hear. Check your answers with the Answer Key. 1. I want a glass of milk / juice. 2. We drank orange juice / soft drink at a restaurant. 3. Did you eat salad / pasta? 4. They ate fried potatoes and chicken / fish. 5. She had soup and hamburger / salad and beef. 6. Can I have a knife / fork? 7. He does not have a glass / plate.

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End-of-Lesson Tasks 1. Say in Hausa what you usually eat and drink for breakfast / lunch / dinner. 2. Say in Hausa what you ate and drank at a restaurant the last time you were there. 3. Pretend that you are at a restaurant now. What would you say in Hausa if you wanted to eat salad and fried potatoes? You also want a cup of coffee, and you need a fork and a napkin. What would you say in Hausa if you did not know what to choose? Your classmate is a waiter. Role-play the dialogue. Work in pairs or in small groups. 4. Read and translate the following text into English. Answer the questions that follow in complete sentences, in Hausa. Check the Answer Key to review your translation and to check your answers.
Ran Jumaa da ta wuce, bayan na sauka daga aiki, ni da wana da uwayenmu muka tafi gidan abinci mai suna Small World. aramin gidan abinci ne da ke fuskantar banki. Shi sabis ya ce a ganinsa naman kaza da salati da kuma taliya da miya suna da dai sosai. Wana ya ci naman shanu da dankali; ya kuma sha shayi da sukari da lemun tsami a ciki. Uwata ta ci naman shanu da miya. Ta sha lemu. Daga baya ta ci gutsuren kyat. Ubana ya ci naman shanu da soyayyen dankalin turawa da kuma tumatir. Shi ma ya ci gutsuren kyat, kuma ya sha gahuwa. Ni, na ci naman kaza da salati. Ya yi dai sosai! So na yi in biya da katin bashi, amma ubana ya biya da kuin hannu. Mun yi nishai sosai! 1. Yaushe iyali suka tafi gidan abinci? 2. Ina gidan abinci yake? 3. Da mi da mi sabis ya ce suna da dai sosai? 4. Wana, mi ya ci? 5. Mi ya sha? 6. Uwata ta ci naman shanu da miya ? 7. Ta sha ruwan lemun zai ko lemu? 8. Ta ci gutsuren kyat ? 9. Mi ubana ya ci? 10. Ya sha giya? 11. Ubana ya biya da katin bashi? 12. Mun yi nishai a gidan abinci?

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Vocabulary List
Metal bowl Clay bowl Cake Coffee Cup Mug Ladle Fork Fried Glass Knife Handkerchief Rag Orange juice Mango juice Piece Plate Please* Salad Soup Spoon Tea Beef Bring to me Here you are To Drink/ Drank To eat/ Ate In his opinion Very much Delicious Very well Lemon Dessert Bill Wine
Kwano (pl., kwanoni) Kasko (pl., kasake) Kyat (Niger: gato) Gahuwa (Niger: kafe) Kofi Moa (pl. moaye) Ludayi Cokali mai yatsa (pl. cokula masu ) Soyayye (pl., soyayyu) Tambulan (Niger: Finjali) Wua (pl., wuae) Hankici Tsumma (pl., tsummoki) Ruwan lemun zai Ruwan mangworo Gutsure/ Yanki (pl., yankuna) Faranti Don Allah Salati Miya Cokali (pl., cokula) Shayi Naman shanu Kawo mini Ga shi nan/ Ga tan an Sha Ci A ganinsa Sosai Da dai/ mai dai Da kyau Lemun tsami Kayan zai Lissafin kui Giya (Niger: duban)/ Mai

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Beer I wanted to What all (lit., what and what?) [interrogative] A piece of Afterwards To get off work (lit., to step down from work) Thats what she did Only To enjoy oneself By yourself Please*

Giya So na yi in Da mi da mi Gutsuren Daga baya Sauka daga aiki Haka ta yi Kaai Yi nishai Kai aya Don Allah

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ANSWER KEY
Activity 6 Where did you eat last Sunday? I ate at a restaurant. Did you eat alone? No, my brother was with me. What did he eat? He ate pasta and fish. What did he drink? He drank tea. What did you eat? I ate chicken and fried potatoes. What did you drink? I drank coffee. Activity 8 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Plate Metal bowl Cup Glass Knife Fork Spoon Handkerchief
F Faranti E Kwano H Kofi B Tambulan C Wua D Cokali mai yatsa A Cokali G Hankici Ina ka ci abinci _____________ da ta wuce? Na ci abinci a ______________. Ka ci kai aya? Aa, ___________ ya zo tare da ni. Mi ya ci? Ya ci taliya da _____. Mi ya ____? Ya sha _____. Mi ka ____? Na ci _____________ da soyayyen dankalin turawa. Mi ka sha? Na sha ___________.

Activity 10
1. Madara 2. Ruwan lemun zai 3. Taliya 4. Kifi 5. Salati da naman shanu 6. Wua 7. Tambulan

Milk Orange juice Pasta Fish Salad and beef Knife Glass

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End of Lesson Tasks Activity 4 Check your translation of the text. Then compare your answers to the questions below. Last Friday after work, my brother, our parents, and I went to the restaurant Small World. Its a small restaurant across from the bank. The waiter said that in his opinion the fried chicken, salad, and pasta with sauce were very good. My brother ate beef and sweet potatoes; he drank tea with sugar and lemon in it. My mother ate beef and soup. She drank a soft drink. Afterwards she had a piece of cake. My father ate beef, fried potatoes, and tomatoes. He also ate a piece of cake, and he drank coffee. I ate chicken and salad. It was delicious! I wanted to pay with a credit card, but my father paid cash. We enjoyed ourselves very much. 1. When did the family go to the restaurant?
Iyali sun tafi gidan abinci ran Jumaa da ta wuce.

2. Where is the restaurant?


Gidan abinci yana fuskantar banki.

3. What did the waiter suggest?


Ya ce soyayyen naman kaza, da salati, da taliya da miya suna da dai sosai.

4. What did my brother eat?


Ya ci naman shanu da dankali.

5. What did he drink?


Ya sha shayi da sukari da lemu a ciki.

6. Did my mother eat beef and soup?


I, haka ta yi.

7. Did she drink orange or mango juice?


Aa, ta sha lemu kaai.

8. Did she eat a piece of cake?


I, ta ci gutsuren kyat.

9. What did my father eat?


Ya ci naman shanu da soyayyen dankalin turawa, da tumatir.

10. Did he drink wine?


I, ya sha giya.

11. Did my father pay with a credit card?


Aa, ya biya da kuin hannu.

12. Was it a wonderful evening?


I, mun yi nishai sosai.

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Lesson 9 Holidays, Customs, and Cultural Traditions Salloli, Bukukuwa, da Aladu


This lesson will introduce you to the following: - How to read dates - How to use ordinal numbers - Names of the months - Holidays, customs, and cultural traditions of Nigeria and Niger.

Holidays: As we have mentioned, the vast majority of Hausas are Muslim, and thus the main holidays are Muslim holidays. A religious holiday (Salla) is thought of in a very different light than a secular holiday like Ranar Hutu. Generally, the religious and cultural holidays are the most celebrated, while the secular holidays are just given a nod, except by the urban elite for whom a national holiday constitutes a day off from work. Below is a list of the major holidays, and notes regarding their celebration. The major secular and non-Muslim holidays that are celebrated in both Nigeria and Niger are listed in a separate list. In addition to certain more specific greetings, one can say barka da ... followed by the name of just about any holiday or event, meaning greetings on ... In the case of Muslim religious holidays, their celebration always centers around some sort of prayer or benediction that is given by the limam, the religious leader.

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Hausa/ Muslim Holidays: English / Arabic Eid Al-Adha Hausa Notes This is the holiday celebrated on the 10th day of the month of Zulhajji. Every head of household that is able, will slaughter a ram on this holiday. The meat will be preserved and then divided up. Some will be given to friends, some to the poor, and the rest will be kept for the family to eat over the coming months. Children circulate the village asking for a barka da salla, which in this case means candy or some money. This is the holiday celebrating the end of the Ramadan fast (azumi). This is a celebration that is marked by good food and energetic people who are enjoying the privilege of eating during the daytime. Celebration of the birthday of the Prophet Muhammad

Babbar Salla/ Sallar Layya

Eid Al-Fitr

aramar Salla/ Sallar Azumi

Eid Al Maulud

Mauludi

During the entire month of Ramadan, Muslims do not eat or drink from dawn till dusk. People rise at about 4:30 a.m. during this time in order to ensure that they have drunk plenty of water and eaten food before the ladan begins the call to prayer (kiran salla) at dawn. After this, they do not eat or drink anything until dusk. At dusk, as soon as the call to prayer rings out, everyone drinks a bland watery porridge that is easy on the stomach before eating solid food. Other Nigerian and Nigerien Holidays: October 1: Nigerian Independence Day January 1: New Years Day August 3: Nigerien Independence Day December 25: Christmas Day
Bikin Mulkin Kai (na Nijeriya) Sabuwar Shekara Bikin Mulkin Kai (na Nijar) Krisimati (Niger: Nowal)

Also, there are several other national holidays which are secular in nature in each nation. Additionally, both countries celebrate (officially) May Day and Easter. These holidays, while officially recognized, are barely noticed in the rural Hausa environment.

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Ordinal Numbers: Ordinal numbers are extremely easy to use in Hausa. You simply add na or ta before the cardinal number, and then you have the ordinal number. Na is used for an ordinal number that describes a masculine object, and ta is used for an ordinal number that describes a feminine object. As always, plurals will be treated as masculine. The ordinal number is an adjective and generally follows the noun that it describes.

1. Listen and repeat after the speaker. Follow along in the workbook. 1 one First 2 two Second 3 three Third 4 four Fourth 5 five Fifth 6 six Sixth 7 seven Seventh 8 eight Eighth 9 nine Ninth 10 ten Tenth
aya na aya/ ta aya biyu na biyu/ ta biyu ukku na ukku/ ta ukku huu na huu/ ta huu biyar na biyar/ ta biyar shidda na shidda/ ta shidda bakwai na bakwai/ ta bakwai takwas na takwas/ ta takwas tara na tara/ ta tara goma na goma/ ta goma

2. Fill in the blanks to complete the sentences. Use the words located in the box. Check your answers with the Answer Key.
ta biyar ta biyu ta farko ta shidda ta ukku ta bakwai ta huu ta bakwai

1. Ran Litinin ita ce rana ___________________ cikin sati. 2. Ran Talata ita ce rana __________________ cikin sati. 3. Ran Laraba ita ce rana ___________________ cikin sati. 4. Ran Alhamis ita ce rana _______________________ cikin sati. 5. Ran Jumaa ita ce rana __________________ cikin sati.

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6. Ran Asabar ita ce rana _______________________ cikin sati. 7. Ran Lahadi ita ce rana ____________________ cikin sati.

Ordinal Numbers (11-19): The ordinal numbers from 11 through 19 are grammatically identical to those from 1 through 10.

3. Listen and repeat after the speaker the ordinal numbers 11 through 19. Follow along in the workbook. 11 eleven eleventh 12 twelve twelfth 13 thirteen thirteenth 14 fourteen fourteenth 15 fifteen fifteenth 16 sixteen sixteenth 17 seventeen seventeenth 18 eighteen eighteenth 19 nineteen nineteenth 20 twenty twentieth
goma sha aya na (ta) goma sha aya goma sha biyu na (ta) goma sha biyu goma sha ukku na (ta) goma sha ukku goma sha huu na (ta) goma sha huu goma sha biyar na (ta) goma sha biyar goma sha shidda na (ta) goma sha shidda goma sha bakwai na (ta) goma sha bakwai goma sha takwas na (ta) goma sha takwas goma sha tara na (ta) goma sha tara ashirin na (ta) ashinin

4. Practice saying the following ordinal numbers in Hausa. 11th, 13th, 15th, 17th, 19th, 12th, 14th, 16th, 18th Ordinal Numbers (20-100): The ordinal numbers from 20 through 100 are grammatically identical to the previous ordinal numbers.

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5. Listen to the ordinal numbers 20-30 and repeat after the speaker. 20 twenty Twentieth 21 twenty-one twenty-first 22 twenty-two twenty-second 23 twenty-three twenty-third 24 twenty-four twenty-fourth 25 twenty-five twenty-fifth 26 twenty-six twenty-sixth 27 twenty-seven twenty-seventh 28 twenty-eight twenty-eighth 29 twenty-nine twenty-ninth 30 thirty Thirtieth 40 forty Fortieth 50 fifty Fiftieth 60 sixty Sixtieth 70 seventy Seventieth 80 eighty Eightieth 90 ninety Ninetieth
ashirin na (ta) ashirin ashirin da aya na (ta) ashirin da aya ashirin da biyu na (ta) ashirin da biyu ashirin da ukku na (ta) ashirin da ukku ashirin da huu na (ta) ashirin da huu ashirin da biyar na (ta) ashirin da biyar ashirin da shidda na (ta) ashirin da shidda ashirin da bakwai na (ta) ashirin da bakwai ashirin da takwas na (ta) ashirin da takwas ashirin da tara na (ta) ashirin da tara talatin na (ta) talatin arbain na (ta) arbain hamsin na (ta) hamsin sittin na (ta) sittin sabain na (ta) sabain tamanin na (ta) tamanin tisain/ gomiya tara na (ta) tisain/ na (ta) gomiya tara

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100 one hundred one hundredth

ari na (ta) ari

6. Listen to the names of the months and repeat after the speaker. January February March April May June July August September October November December
Janairu Febrairu Maris Afrilu Mayu Yuni Yuli Agusta Satumba Oktoba Nuwamba Disamba

Islamic Calendar Especially in rural areas, the lunar Islamic calendar is often used alongside the Gregorian calendar. These months do not correspond to Gregorian months because the year is about 11 days shorter by the Islamic calendar, and thus the correspondence of months is slightly different each year. You will not need to keep track of the Islamic date; however, it is good to be able to recognize the Islamic months when you hear them. You will also hear much more talk of the Islamic calendar as the month of Ramadan approaches. This is the month of fasting that is observed throughout the Hausa speaking world. See below the names of the months in the Islamic calendar.
Muharram Safar Rabiu Lawwal Rabiu Lahir Jimada Lawwal Jimada Lahir Rajab Shaaban Ramadan (Ramazan) Shawwal Zulida Zulhajji

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7. Look at the picture and say the dates and days of the week in Hausa. Practice the different dates, days, and months through the year.
Model : Yau ranar 15 ga watan Afrilu na shekarar 1999. Yau Alhamis ce.

8. Listen as the speaker reads the following years. Repeat after the speaker. 1925 - nineteen twenty-five alif da ari tara da ashirin da biyu 1900 - nineteen hundred alif da ari tara 2004 - two thousand four dubu biyu da huu Dates in Hausa: Telling dates in Hausa is fairly straightforward. The numbers are said in the same order as in English and connected by da (and). One thing that must be remembered is that rather than using the Hausa dubu to express one thousand in the dates from 1000 through 1999, the Arabic loanword alif is generally used. From the year 2000,however, the Hausa dubu is generally preferred. When writing dates in Hausa, you must use the European (dd/mm/yyyy) system although you will often find that Hausa speakers prefer to write out the name of the month. Also, note that the ne/ce stabilizer is often left out in these sentences. This is not uncommon in Hausa, and you will get used to identifying the places in which the stabilizer can be left out. In the same way, the word ran or ranar is often left out before the name of the day of the week. Thus, rather than saying, Yau rar Jumaa ce, one could simply say, Yau Jumaa. Finally, the ordinal numbers in dates can take an alternate form. Rather than saying rana ta goma ga wata, one could say ranar goma ga wata.

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9. Read the following years in Hausa. 2001 1987 1960 1945 2000 1700 1516

10. Listen and repeat after the speaker the names of Nigerian and Nigerien holidays. Follow along in the workbook. 1. Eid al-Kabir: Zulhajji 10th 2. Eid al-Fitr: Shawwal 1st 3. Christmas: December 25th 4. Independence Day Nigeria: October 1st Niger: August 3rd
Babbar Salla: rana ta 10 ga watan Zulhajji aramar Salla: rana ta farko ga watan Shawwal Sallar Krisimati (Niger: Nowal): rana ta 25 ga watan Disamba Bikin Mulkin Kai: Nigeria: rana ta 1 ga watan October, Niger: rana ta 3 ga watan Agusta

11. Listen to the speakers talk about their dates of birth. Follow along in the workbook.

1. When were you born?


Yaushe aka haifeka?

2. When were you born?


Yaushe aka haifeka?

3. When were you born?


Yaushe aka haifeki?

I was born on the 11th of June, 1936.


An haifeni a ranar 11 ga watan Yuni na shekarar 1936.

I was born on the 31st of July, 1960.


An haifeni a ranar 31 ga watan Yuli na shekarar 1960.

I was born on the 23rd of January, 1987.


An haifeni a ranar 23 ga watan Janairu na shekarar 1987.

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12. Work in pairs or in small groups. Ask your partner when he was born. Use the model below. Model: A. I was born on the 15th of February, 1982. And you, when were you born? A. An haifeni a ranar 15 ga watan Febrairu a shekarar 1982. Kai fa, yaushe aka B. I was born on the 4th of September, 1979. B. An haife ni a ranar 4 ga watan Satumban shekarar 1979. 13 Look at the picture below and imagine that this is your family. Describe each member. Use the model below. You can use real pictures of your family. Model: This is my brother. His name is He is years old. He was born on the of19 Model: Wannan anena ne. Sunansa Zabairu. Yana da shekara 12. An haifeshi a ranar
21 ga watan Maris na shekarar 1994. haife ka?

14. Read and translate the following text into English. Answer the questions below in English. Check your work with the Answer Key.
Sunana Hama. Daga Nijeriya nike. A Kaduna nike da zama. Ina da babban iyali: mata guda, yara biyu, kuma da uwayena. Muna zaune a wani babban gida. Matata tana da shekara 30. An haifeta a ranar 23 ga watan Nuwamba a shekarar 1970. Ita likita ce, kuma tana da aiki a asibiti. Yaranmu alibai ne. Suna yin karatu a makaranta. An haifi

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iyata a ranar 26 ga watan Afrilu na shekarar 1992. ana yana da shekara 8 da haifuwa. An haifeshi a ranar farko ta watan Mayu na shekarar 1996. Uwata ta tsufa sosai. Shekarunta 78 da haifuwa. An haifeta a ranar 22 ga watan Nuwamba na shekarar 1926. Ubana yana da shekara 79. An haifeshi a ranar 25 ga watan Agusta na shekarar 1925. Ba su aiki. Su, suna karanta littattafai da kallon talabijin ko kuma suna yin wasa da yaranmu. A gaskiya ina da iyalin kirki!

1. Where does the family live? 2. How old is the wife? 3. When was she born? 4. What is her occupation? 5. Where does she work? 6. How many children do they have? 7. How old is the son? When was he born? 8. How old is the daughter? 9. When was she born? 10. How old is the grandmother? 11. When was she born? 12. How old is the grandfather? 13. When was he born? 14. What do the grandparents do? Visits and Greetings: Paying a visit or dropping in are very important parts of Hausa culture. A good community member is someone who makes an appearance at all of the celebrations for birth, naming, marriage, death, and so on. To neglect to go and greet someone you know on any of these occasions is very rude. It is not necessary to have an extravagant gift, but a greeting and a little money as a gift are important. These greetings can be very simple. It is not necessary to spend the afternoon at the celebration of someone who is not a good friend, but a quick greeting goes a long way, especially for a foreigner. Each occasion has its own greetings that are appropriate, and it is important to know at least the basic greeting for each occasion. Below is a list of the most common occasions and a proper greeting for each.

English Birth

Hausa
Haifuwa

Greeting
Ina an bao?/ Ina ar bauwa? These questions ask, How is the

little guest? Also, Allah ya raya could be added if you want to say, May God grant the child life. A small gift of money usually accompanies this greeting. Naming
Suna Barka da suna. The naming ceremony takes place six days after

the birth. On this day, the father serves food, and friends and neighbors come to eat and take part in the prayer. The religious 146

leader says a prayer for the child and pronounces the name of the child. The parents usually take part in the choosing of the name, but the choice is sometimes left to the religious leader. In any case, the name is only official once it is announced in this way. Marriage
Aure/ Arme Barka! Allah ya bar ku tare. (May God leave you together.) Allah ya sa ku yi zaman lafiya. (May God cause you to live together

in peace.) In Muslim Hausa culture, a man is allowed up to four wives. Women generally marry young and are taken to live with their new husband. There is a separate ceremony that takes place before the wedding in which the marriage is agreed to and a bride price is set. At the actual marriage ceremony, the bride is prepared and taken to her husbands house. The groom has a separate celebration with friends during this time. Death
Mutuwa Ina abin da ya samu? means How is the thing that has

happened? After the bereaved has responded, one could add Allah ya bada hauri, (May God grant you patience). Beyond this, one could add Sannu several times, which in this situation means my condolences or Im so sorry. Again, money is often given. This use of money as a condolence gift may seem somewhat crass to our Western sensibilities, but it is truly acceptable and expected.

15. Listen to the following conversation between two people and repeat after the speakers. Follow along in the workbook, and then answer the questions that follow. Check your work with the Answer Key.
A. Barka da rana Zabairu! Akwai bikin ranar tuna haifuwa a ranar 6 ga watan Mayu. B. To, na gode Ashiru. A arfe nawa? A. A arfe biyar ko biyar da rabi. B. To, mene ne adireshinku? A. 10459, Hanyar Malamai. B. Yaya zan tafi can. A. Ka bi babbar hanya har ka kai Hanyar Malamai. A nan sai ka yi hagu. Ka bi Hanyar Malamai tsawon layi biyu. B. To, mi ya kamata in kawo? A. Aa, babu komi. B. To, na gode da ka gayyace ni haka. Gidanmu shi ne na ukku a hannunka na dama. Ina gayyatarka ka zo ka kawo mana ziyara, ni da iyalina.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

What is the occasion for the invitation? What is the date? What time should he arrive? What is the address? What directions is he given to get there? What should he bring?

16. Work with a partner. Invite him or her to your house to celebrate a holiday. Give him
or her directions how to get to your house. Use the dialogue above as a model.

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End-of-Lesson Tasks 1. Tell in Hausa the date when: you were born you graduated from high school your wedding was your child was born you joined the military

2. Give the names of holidays in Niger and Nigeria and tell when they are celebrated (in Hausa). 3. Invite your roommate to a Christmas party and give him/her directions how to get there.

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Vocabulary List
first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelfth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth eighteenth nineteenth twentieth twenty-first twenty-second twenty-third twenty-fourth twenty-fifth twenty-sixth twenty-seventh twenty-eighth twenty-ninth one thousand one thousand (in years) January February March April
na (ta) aya na (ta) biyu na (ta) ukku na (ta) huu na (ta) biyar na (ta) shidda na (ta) bakwai na (ta) takwas na (ta) tara na (ta) goma na (ta) goma sha aya na (ta) goma sha biyu na (ta) goma sha ukku na (ta) goma sha huu na (ta) goma sha biyar na (ta) goma sha shidda na (ta) goma sha bakwai na (ta) goma sha takwas na (ta) goma sha tara na (ta) ashirin na (ta) ashirin da aya na (ta) ashirin da biyu na (ta) ashirin da ukku na (ta) ashirin da huu na (ta) ashirin da biyar na (ta) ashirin da shidda na (ta) ashirin da bakwai na (ta) ahsirin da takwas na (ta) ashirin da tara dubu alif Janairu Febrairu Maris Afrilu

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May June July August September October November December Was born To grow old Kindness / goodness To invite Invitation How I will I should ... Address Drive To follow a road Two blocks Turn right Turn left Come over To visit To pay a visit Birthday Birthday party Wedding Funeral Death Religious holiday Non-religious holiday Muezzin (the one who chants the call to prayer) Imam (Muslim religious leader) The Muslim call to prayer To bring I want to invite you

Mayu Yuni Yuli Agusta Satumba Oktoba Nuwamba Disamba haifa, haife, haifi tsufa kirki gayyata gayya yaya/ aa zan Ya kamata in ... adireshi/ lambar gida /masama tua mota/ tafi bi hanya layi biyu/ hanya biyu yi dama yi hagu zo ziyarta kawo ziyara ranar tuna haifuwa bikin ranar tuna haifuwa bikin aure (pl., bukukuwan aure) janaiza mutuwa salla (pl., salloli) ranar hutu Ladan/ Ladani Limam/ limami kiran salla kawo(wa) Ina so in gayyace ka

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Holidays
Eid al-Adha / Tabaski Eid al-Fitr Christmas Ramadan Prophet Mohammeds birthday Nigerien Independance Day Nigerian Independance Day

Salloli da ranaikun hutu Babbar Salla/ Layya aramar Salla Sallar Krisimati (Niger: Nowal) Ramadan (Ramazan) Mauludi Bikin Mulkin Kai (na Nijar) Bikin Mulkin Kai (na Nijeriya)

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ANSWER KEY
Activity 2
1. ta biyu 2. ta ukku 3. ta huu 4. ta biyar 5. ta shidda 6. ta bakwai 7. ta aya

Second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth Seventh First

1. Ran Litinin ita ce rana _________________cikin sati. 2. Ran Talata ita ce rana __________________cikin sati. 3. Ran Laraba ita ce rana _________________cikin sati. 4. Ran Alhamis ita ce rana ________________cikin sati. 5. Ran Jumaa ita ce rana _________________cikin sati. 6. Ran Asabar ita ce rana _________________cikin sati. 7. Ran Lahadi ita ce rana _________________cikin sati.

Activity 14 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Where does the family live? -- Kaduna, Nigeria How old is the wife? -- 30 When was she born? -- November 23, 1970 What is her occupation? -- Doctor Where does she work? -- Hospital How many children do they have? -- 2 How old is the son? When was he born? -- 8 years old, May 1, 1996 How old is the daughter? -- 12 years old When was she born? -- April 26, 1992 How old is the grandmother? -- 78 When was she born? -- November 22, 1926 How old is the grandfather? -- 79 When was he born? -- August 25, 1925 What do the grandparents do? -- Read books, watch television, and play with the grandchildren

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My name is Hama. I am from Nigeria. I live in Kaduna. I have a big family: a wife, two children, and my parents. We live in a big house. My wife is 30. She was born on November 23, 1970. She is a doctor and works at the hospital. My children are students. They study at school. My daughter was born on the April 26, 1992. My son is 8 years old. He was born on the 1st of May, 1996. My mother is very old. She is 78. She was born on the 22nd of November, 1926. My father is 79. He was born on the 25th of August, 1925. They do not work. They read books, watch television, or play with our children. I have a wonderful family. Activity 15 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is the occasion for the invitation? A birthday party What is the date? May 6 What time should he arrive? 5:00 or 5:30 What is the address? 10459 Hanyar Malamai What directions is he given to get there? Drive north on the main road to Hanyar Malamai and turn left. Drive along Hanyar Malamai two blocks and turn right. My house is the third house on the right. 6. What should he bring? Nothing A. Hi, Zabairu. There is birthday party the 6th of May. I invite you to come over and visit my family. B. Thank you, Ashiru. What time? A. Five or five thirty. B. What is your address? A. It is 10459 Hanyar Malamai. B. How can I get there? A. Drive north on the main road to Hanyar Malamai and turn left. Drive along Hanyar Malamai two blocks and turn right. My house is the third house on the right. B. What can I bring? A. Nothing, thanks. B. Thank you for the invitation.

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Lesson 10 Around the House Cikin Gida

This lesson will introduce you to the following: - Basic vocabulary related to the home - Rooms around the house - Furniture items you may see.,

Hausa Houses:
Traditionally, Hausas have lived in several types of mud huts. This is a way of life that remains largely unchanged to the present day. Although there is now an urban elite in the Hausa culture that live a more Western lifestyle, the majority of Hausas still live very much as they have for most of the last millennium. As we have already touched upon in an earlier lesson, the majority of Hausa people live in either a kago or a shigifa of some sort, and a few live in a soro. These are all generally characterized by mud brick construction and the use of straw and sticks for roofing. In modern times, many people have begun to integrate cement and plastic sheeting into these methods, but the general techniques remain the same. Furnishings are generally quite sparse. The most ubiquitous pieces of furniture are the grass or plastic woven mat for sitting on the ground, the bed, and perhaps a chair or two. In a more urban setting, there would also be a latrine, a few more chairs, perhaps a sofa, curtains, and maybe even an actual bathroom. Generally, the term gida includes the yard, and the yard is considered part of the living space rather than separate from the house. When someone refers to your house, they usually mean everything inside the fence rather than any particular building or set of buildings. In a normal village household, the equivalent of the living room and dining room would be the area in the yard where there is a good shade tree to hang out under. The equivalent of the bathroom would be either the pit latrine or just the open bush outside of the village. Concepts like office and garage just wouldnt have any meaning. The word floor in Hausa is still the same as the word for ground, and so it can be awkward to speak of the floor as an object rather than as a place. The terminology for multistory buildings is also awkward at times because this is also a new concept for the language. Many devices such as a microwave or a toaster must be described. For instance rather than saying toaster one would say naura da take gasa burodi (the device that grills bread). In short, describing modern living situations can seem somewhat unnatural in Hausa. In the village, however, there is no such problem.

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1. Listen to the vocabulary below and repeat after the speaker. Bathroom Bedroom Door (the opening/ the place) Door (the actual object) Floor Window Wall Roof Antenna Office Basement Yard Kitchen (traditional) Kitchen (modern) Living room One-story Two-story First floor Second floor
Makewayi/ bayan gida/ bayan aki/mawanka aki (pl., akuna) ofa (pl., ofofi) Kyaure/ tufaniya Balbali Taga (pl., tagogi) Bango (pl., bangwaye) Rufi Eriya Ofis (niger: buro) (pl., ofisoshi) Gidan asa (pl., gidajen ) Filin gida (pl., filayen ) Madafa/ murhu Nigeria: kicin Niger: kizin Falo Daddali (wanda ba ya da gidan sama) Soro mai hayi biyu/ ori biyu Hayin fari Hayi na biyu

2. Match the Hausa words in the left column with their English equivalents in the right column. Check your answers with the Answer Key.
1. Makewayi 2. aki 3. ofa 4. asa 5. Taga 6. Falo 7. Ofis 8. Gidan asa 9. Filin Gida 10. Kicin

A. B. D. E. F. G. H. J. K. L.

Basement Yard Living room Bathroom Kitchen Bedroom Door Floor Office Window

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Akwai ko Babu (Are there any, or not?) Two of the most important words in the Hausa language are akwai (there is/are...) and babu (there is/are no...). They are simple words to use, and make many expressions much more concise than they might otherwise be. Remember that these are not to be treated as verbs, just partials that imply a verb-like concept. Below are some examples of important phrases that show how these terms are used. Note that babu is often shortened to ba and that da akwai is used rather than just akwai in some situations. These words are invariable and do not change according to gender or number.
Akwai ruwa? I, akwai. Akwai rana. Babu laifi. / Ba laifi. Kana da akwai? Ina da akwai. Ba ruwana.

Is there water? Yes, there is. Its hot. (lit., There is sun.) No problem. Do you have one? / Do you have any? I have one. / I have some. Its not my concern. (lit., Its not my water.)

3. Complete the following sentences by filling in the blanks from the list of words written in the box below. Check your work with the Answer Key.
aki eriya filin gida kicin falo da makewayi

1. Akwai _______________a kan gida. 2. Akwai __________________ tsakanin ofis da makewayi. 3. Akwai _________________ a gaban gida. 4. Akwai kicin tsakanin __________________________.

4. Draw a plan of your house and tell your partner, in Hausa, the types of rooms you have and where they are located. Work in pairs or in small groups. 5. Match the following questions with the correct answers. Check your work with the Answer Key.
A Ina makewayi? 1. aki yana dab da falo. 2. I, akwai babban gidan asa. 3. Muna da aki ukku. 4. Kicin yana dab da palo. 5. Makewayi yana dab da aki.

B. Ina kicin? C. Ina aki? D. akin kwana nawa gareku? E. Akwai gidan asa?

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<<How Many?>> We have already introduced the interrogative nawa, which can mean how much or how many. As with akwai and babu, this word is invariable. It does not change according to gender or number. Below is a list of some common uses of this word. Words in parentheses are often left out.
aki nawa (gareku)? (Akwai) aki nawa? Nawa ne (kuin)? Su nawa (ne)? Akwai su nawa? Nawa nawa ne? Akwai mota nawa a garinku.

How many rooms do you have? How many rooms are there? How much does it cost? How many are there? How many are there? How much each? How many cars are there in your town?

6. Pretend that you want to buy a house, and your classmate is a real estate agent. Make up a dialogue using the model below. Work in pairs or in small groups. Model: A. I want to buy a two-story house. A. Ina so in sayi gida mai hayi biyu. B. There is a nice small house next to the market. B. Akwai wani aramin gida mai kyau kusa da kasuwa. A. How many bedrooms does the house have? A. Wannan gida, yana da aki nawa? B. It has one bedroom. B. Yana da aki aya. A. How many bathrooms are there in the house? A. Makewayi nawa cikin gida? B. There is a big wonderful bathroom in the house. B. Akwai wani babban makewayi na kirki cikin gida. A. Is there a kitchen in the house? A. Akwai kicin cikin wannan gida? B. Yes, there is. B. I, akwai.

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7. Familiarize yourself with these terms for furniture and furnishings. Listen and repeat after the speaker.

Bathtub
baho/ wurin wanki

Bed
gado

Bookcase
kanta

Chair
kujera

Table
tebur

Refrigerator
firji

Lamp
fitila

Microwave oven
naurar zazafa abinci

Radio
rediyo

Carpet
kafet/ darduma

Kitchen sink
wurin wankin kwanuka

Sofa
babbar Kujera

Telephone
tarho

Television
talabijin

Toilet
salanga

Mat
tabarma

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Curtain
labule

Bench
banci

Stove (traditional)
murhu

Cell Phone
salula

Closet
an kabad

Stove (modern)
kuka (Niger: resho/ murhun zamani)

8. Below is a chart with rooms you would find in a typical home. Under each room, list in Hausa the furniture and furnishings (from the list above) that you would expect to find there. Some items will be used more than once.
Kicin Falo aki Makewayi

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9. Using the chart above, ask each other questions, in Hausa, about the furniture in your rooms. Model: 1. What do you have in the kitchen?
1. Da mi da mi kuke da su cikin kicin?

I have a stove, a. in the kitchen.


Ina da kuka da obin ... cikin kicin.

2. What do you have in the living room? 2. Da mi da mi kuke da su cikin falo?

I have a table, a.in the dining room.


Akwai tebur da tabarma da kuma fitila cikin falo.

10. Listen and read along as a speaker talks about his home and then answer the questions about the passage. Check your work with the Answer Key.
Sunana Suleman. Ina zaune a Kano tare da matata guda da yaranmu biyu. Muna da wani an aramin gida mai hayi biyu. Ubana shi ma yana zama a gidanmu. Gidan yana da aki biyu cikin hayin sama, akwai na ubana da kuma na yara. Ni da matata muna kwana cikin akin da yake kusa da kicin. Muna da makewayi biyu. Muna da kicin babba inda akwai kuka da wurin wankin kwanuka da firji. Cikin kicin akwai babban tebur inda muke cin abinci. Ba mu da akin cin abinci. Cikin falo akwai babbar kujera da tebur da ananan kujeru biyu da kuma aramin talabijin. Da marece bayan an ci abinci ni da iyalina mukan kallon talabijin.

A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H.

Where does the family live? How many people live in the house? Is the house one story or two stories? How many bedrooms are there? How many bedrooms are on the first floor? Who sleeps there? How many bathrooms are there in the house? Where do they eat their meals? What does the family do in the evening after dinner?

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End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Listen to the speaker and circle the terms that you hear. Check your work with the Answer Key. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. bedroom lamp toilet sofa carpet chair garage bathroom oven bathtub chair floor dresser basement living room stove kitchen sink bed window radio roof

2. You have a guest in your home. Give him or her answers, in Hausa, to the following questions. Where is the bathroom?
Ina makewayi yake?

Where is the kitchen?


Ina kicin yake?

How many bedrooms do you have?


aki nawa gare ku?

Where is the telephone?


Ina tarho yake?

Can I watch television?


Don Allah in kallo talabijin?

When do you eat dinner?


Yaushe kuke cin abincin dare?

When do you get up in the morning?


Yaushe kake tashi da safe?

What time do you go to work?


A arfe nawa kake tafiya wurin aiki?

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Vocabulary List
Basement Bathroom Bathtub Bed Bedroom Bookcase Chair Closet Table Door (location / opening) Door (object) Floor Kitchen Kitchen (modern) Lamp Living room Microwave oven One-story Oven (modern) Oven (traditional mud) Radio Carpet Second floor Sink Sofa Stove (modern) Stove (traditional) Television Toaster Toilet Two-story Small chairs Window Where (not in questions) May I please ...
gidan asa (pl., gidajen ) wurin wanki/ baho gado (pl., gadaje) aki (pl., akuna) kanta (ta littattafai) (pl., kantuna ) kujera (pl., kujeru) an kabad (Niger: almuwar or kwaba) tebur (pl., teburori) ofa kyaure kasa/ balbali wurin girki/ akin girki/ madafa kicin (Niger: kizin) fitila (pl., fitiloli) falo naurar zazzafa abinci/ mazazafin abinci/ mazazafi. gidan da ba ya da gidan sama obin (Niger: huru) tanda rediyo (pl., rediyoyi) kafet/ darduma (Niger: tapi)/ gyauda gidan sama/ hawa ta biyu mawankar kwanuka babbar kujera (pl., Manyan kujeru) kuka (Niger: resho) murhu (pl., murahu) talabijin naurar gasa burodi (pl., naurorin ...) salanga bene/ mai gidan sama/ mai hawa biyu ananan kujeru taga (pl., tagogi) inda don allah in ... makewayi (also: bayan aki, ban aki, or bayan gida)

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On top of ... The one that ... (m) The one that ... (f) The one belonging to ... (m) The one belonging to ... (f)

a kan ... wanda ... wadda ... na ... ta ...

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ANSWER KEY
Activity 2 1. E 2. G 3. H 4. J 5. L 6. D 7. K 8. A 9. B 10. F Activity 3
1. Akwai eriya a kan gida. 2. Akwai aki tsakanin ofis da makewayi. 3. Akwai filin gida a gaban gida. 4. Akwai kicin tsakanin falo da makewayi.

Bathroom Bedroom Door Floor Window Living room Office Basement Yard Kitchen

Makewayi aki ofa asa Taga Falo Ofis Gidan asa Filin Gida Kicin

Activity 5
A Ina makewayi? 5. Makewayi yana dab da aki. 4. Kicin yana dab da palo. 1. aki yana dab da falo. 3. Muna da aki ukku. 2. I, akwai babban gidan asa.

B. Ina kicin? C. Ina aki? D. akin kwana nawa gareku? E. Akwai gidan asa?

Activity 10 My name is Suleman. I live with my wife and two children in Kano. We have a small two-story house. My father lives with us. The house has two bedrooms on the second floor; one for our two sons and one for my father. My wife and I sleep in the bedroom near the kitchen. We have two bathrooms. We have a large kitchen with a stove, oven, sink and refrigerator. In the kitchen there is a large table where we eat. We do not have a dining room. Our living room has a sofa, a table, two chairs, and a small television. In the evening after dinner, my family and I watch television.

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Sunana Suleman. Ina zaune a Kano tare da matata guda da yaranmu biyu. Muna da wani an aramin gida mai hayi biyu. Ubana shi ma yana zama a gidanmu. Gidan yana da aki biyu cikin hayin sama, akwai na ubana da kuma na yara. Ni da matata muna kwana cikin akin da yake kusa da kicin. Muna da makewayi biyu. Muna da kicin babba inda akwai kuka da wurin wankin kwanuka da firji. Cikin kicin akwai babban tebur inda muke cin abinci. Ba mu da akin cin abinci. Cikin falo akwai babbar kujera da tebur da ananan kujeru biyu da kuma aramin talabijin. Da marece bayan an ci abinci ni da iyalina mukan kallon talabijin.

a. kano b. biyar c. mai hayi biyu d. ukku e. aya, miji da mata f. biyu g. cikin kicin h. kallon talabijin

Where does the family live? How many people live in the house? Is the house one story or two stories? How many bedrooms are there? How many bedrooms are on the first floor? Who sleeps there? How many bathrooms are there in the house? Where do they eat their meals? What does the family do in the evening after dinner?

End of Lesson Tasks Activity 1


1. makewayi 2. fitila 3. wurin wankin kwanuka 4. gado 5. taga 6. rediyo 7. gidan asa

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

bathroom lamp kitchen sink bed window radio basement

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Lesson 11 Weather and Seasons Yanayi da Lokutan Shekara

This lesson will introduce you to the following: - Vocabulary related to weather, seasons, and climate - How to ask for and give temperatures - How to understand weather reports - How to discuss the weather and climate in Hausa.

1. Listen to the weather terms as they are read aloud. Repeat the weather terms after the speaker.

Rain
Ruwan sama

Sun
Rana

Wind
Iska

Snow
urwa

Fog
Hazo

Clouds
Gizagizai

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2. Match the pictures with the correct weather term. Check your answers with the Answer Key.

Iska Rana Ruwan sama urwa

3. What do you hear? Circle the terms you hear spoken by the native speaker. Check your answers with the Answer Key. PLAY AUDIO snow wind rain cloud fog sun

4. Familiarize yourself with the following terms related to the weather. Pause the recording as many times as you need. Repeat after the speaker. Temperature Fahrenheit Celsius Weather Weather forecast Weather report Rainy Season Dry Season Hot Season Harvest Season It is clear It is cloudy (light clouds) It is cloudy (storm clouds) It is overcast Windy Cold It is freezing
Yanayi, yawan zafi/sanyi Fahrenheit Celsius Yanayi Hasashen Yanayi Rahoton yanayi Damina Rani Bazara Kaka Gari ya yi garau Akwai gizagizai Akwai hadari Gari ya lumshe Iska ari, Sanyi Akwai sanyi har ruwa ya daskara

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Warm High temperature It is hot It is dry (lit., there is no moisture) It is sunny It is rainy

umi, zafi-zafi Zafi Akwai zafi Babu Lema Akwai rana Akwai ruwan sama/ ana yin ruwa

Talking About the Weather Given what we know about the Hausa emphasis on greetings, it should be no surprise to learn that talking about the weather is a central part of Hausa dialogues. Many of the greetings in Hausa involve a question about the weather, and even though the weather in Hausaland is notable only for its unchanging predictability, the topic is of genuine interest to most people. The general themes are fairly predictable, even if the language has a wide range of ways to express the ideas. See some common greetings listed below that refer to the weather. Question Answer OR Question Answer Question Answer OR How is the heat? It is the time for heat Thanks be to God. How is the moisture? (after a rain) The water has fixed things (for the crops). How is the sunshine? There is really some sun today! It really is beating down today!
Ina zafi? Zafi, lokacinshi ne. Zafi, alhamdulilah Ina lema? Lema ta yi gyara. Ina rana? Akwai rana yau! Rana tana bugawa!

The climate in Hausaland has also naturally dictated what kind of terminology is common. For instance, the thermometer is not really an everyday devise in Nigeria or Niger, and thus, terms like degrees are uncommon. The terms Fahrenheit and Celsius are likewise rarely used in Hausa, and if so, they are used as borrowed words. Hot and Cold are spoken of in a general sense, and rarely quantified by reference to a thermometer. Also, snow and freezing are somewhat foreign to the language. The word for snow is sometimes the same as the word for ice, and often requires some explanation. However, when it comes to talking about rain and sun and how people and crops are affected by rain and sun, synonyms abound. Note that, as is common in Hausa, nouns are used in phrases which would require adjectives in English. The word akwai (there is) is used in combination with the noun to express the adjectival concept in a nominal manner. See the examples of this form:

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It is raining It is sunny It is hot It is muggy/ hot and humid It is windy It is cloudy (light white clouds) It is stormy It is cold

Akwai ruwa (ana ruwa) Akwai rana Akwai zafi Akwai gumi Akwai iska Akwai gizagizai Akwai hadari Akwai sanyi

There are other forms and phrases, however, which do not follow this pattern. See below for a few examples. It is overcast It is raining It is clear
Gari ya lumshe Ana (yin) ruwa Gari ya yi garau

5. Listen to typical questions and responses about the weather. Repeat them after the speaker. - How is the weather in December? - Its cold, and there is no rain. - How is the weather in April? - Its hot and humid. - How is the weather in July? - Its very rainy. - How is the weather in October? - Its cool.
Yaya yanayi yake a watan Disamba? Akwai sanyi, kuma babu ruwan sama. Yaya yanayi yake a watan Afrilu? Akwai zafi da gumi. Yaya yanayi yake a watan Yuli? Akwai ruwan sama dayawa. Yaya yanayi yake a watan Oktoba? Akwai sanyi-sanyi.

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6. Read the following short dialogues on weather and match each one to a picture below. Check your work with the Answer Key.
1. Yaya yanayi yake yau? Gari ya lumshe, kuma ana ruwa. 2. Yaya yawan zafi yau? Akwai rana da zafi sosai. Zafi ya kai awu 44 a maaunin zafi na Celsius! 3. Yaya yanayi yake a can? Akwai urwa da sanyi sosai. 4. Akwai rana? Aa, akwai hazo da sanyi.

A #____________

B #_______________

C #_____________

D #_____________

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7. Work with a partner. Complete the dialogues according to the models in Exercise 5 and Exercise 6. Use the vocabulary given below.
Akwai rana Akwai hazo Yaya yanayi yake a watan Janairu? Akwai da . Yaya yanayi yake a watan Mayu? Akwai da .. . Yaya yanayi yake a watan Agusta? Akwai da . Yaya yanayi yake a watan Nuwamba? Akwai .. da Akwai gumi Akwai gizagizai Akwai ruwan sama Akwai zafi Akwai sanyisanyi Akwai sanyi Akwai iska Akwai hadari

8. Work with a partner. Put the given words in a correct order so that you can ask a question and give an answer about the weather in different places. Check your work with the Answer Key. Model: a / Moscow / ana yin ruwa / watan Disamba / aa / yin urwa / ana / a Student 1: Ana yin ruwa a Moscow a watan Disamba? Student 2: Aa, ana yin urwa a Moscow a watan Disamba.
1) Kano / zafi / a / akwai / I / watan Yuni / a / da / rana 2) Agadas / a / sanyi / watan Nuwamba / akwai / aa / akwai / da / zafi-zafi / a / iska 3) Watan Maris / ruwa / ana / a / I / a / Paris

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9. Listen to the speaker. Mark the statement that you hear. Check your work with the Answer Key. 1. A. The weather in September is clear and sunny. B. The weather in September is rainy and warm. C. The weather in September is foggy and cold. A. What is the temperature today? It is 35 degrees Celsius. B. What is the temperature today? It is 35 degrees Fahrenheit. C. What is the temperature today? It is 35 degrees. A. Is it cold in the hot season? No, its sunny and hot. B. Is it raining in hot season? No, its cold and sunny. C. Is it windy in hot season? No, its warm and cloudy. A. What is the weather forecast for tomorrow? Overcast and cold. B. What is the weather forecast for tomorrow? Cloudy and cold. C. What is the weather forecast for tomorrow? Sunny and cold. A. The cold season is cool and rainy. The hot season is hot and sunny. B. The hot season is hot and rainy. The cold season is cool and sunny. C. The hot season is hot and sunny. The cold season is cool and rainy.

2.

3.

4.

5.

10. Familiarize yourself with the following terms related to weather and natural disasters. Pause the recording as many times as you need. Repeat after the speaker.

Lightning
Waliya

Thunderstorm
Hadari

Tornado
Jansami/ Babbar Guguwa

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Hurricane
Guguwar iska mai arfi

Flood
Ambaliyar ruwa

11. What do you hear? Circle the three terms you hear spoken by the native speaker. Check your answers with the Answer Key. PLAY AUDIO hurricane flood tornado thunderstorm lightning

12. Answer the questions. Check your work with the Answer Key.

A. Hadari ne?
Aa, .. ce.

B. Ambaliya ce?
Aa ce.

C. Guguwar iska mai arfi ce?


Aa ne.

D. Babbar guguwa ce?


Aa ce.

E. Waliya ce?
Aa ce.

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End-of-Lesson Tasks

1. Listen to the following weather report for four different cities in Nigeria and Niger. In English, fill in the chart below with the weather and temperature for each city. Pause or replay the audio if needed. Check your work with the Answer Key. Play Audio

City 1. 2. 3. 4.

Weather

Temperature

2. Listen to the following weather report and answer the questions below. Check your work with the Answer Key.

Play Audio 1. 2. 3. 4. What city is the weather report for? What is the date? What day of the week is this? What is the forecast for today? 175

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

What will be the high and low temperatures for today? What is the forecast for tomorrow? What will be the high and low temperatures for tomorrow? What time of the day tomorrow is the high temperature expected? Are the temperatures in Fahrenheit, Celsius, or was it not mentioned?

3. Working in pairs or small groups, describe the pictures. Use the vocabulary youve learned in this lesson to compose a story to match the pictures. (Include the season of the year, the name of the month, the type of weather it seems to be, etc).

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Vocabulary List
Weather Weather forecast Weather report Rain Sun Wind Snow Fog Lightning Thunderstorm Tornado Hurricane It is rainy It is sunny It is cloudy It is freezing It is clear Temperature Fahrenheit Celsius It is hot It is cold It is warm Dry It is overcast It is windy Rainy Season (June Sept) Harvest Season (Sept Nov) Dry Season (Sept March) Hot Season (March June) It is muggy/ hot and humid High Low Here is Maybe In regards to
Yanayi Hasashen yanayi Rahoton Yanayi Ruwan sama Rana Iska urwa Hazo Walkiya Hadari Babbar Guguwa Guguwar iska mai arfi Akwai ruwan sama/ ana ruwa Akwai rana Gari ya lumshe Akwai sanyi har ruwa ya daskara Gari ya yi garau Awon zafi Fahrenheit Celsius Akwai zafi Akwai sanyi Akwai zafi-zafi/ akwai umi Babu laima Gari ya lumshe Akwai iska Damina Kaka Rani Bazara Akwai gumi Tsanani aranci Ga Watakila Wajen

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To turn out to be So much so that

Kasance Har da

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Answer Key
Activity 2 Wind Sun Rain Snow Activity 3 A. Sun B. Wind C. Clouds Activity 6 A 4 B 1 C 2 D 3 Its foggy and cold. -- Aa, akwai hazo da sanyi. It is overcast and raining. -- Gari ya lumshe, kuma ana ruwa. It is 44 degrees Celsius! It is very hot and sunny. -- Akwai rana da zafi sosai. Zafi ya
kai awu 44 a maaunin zafi na Celsius! Rana Iska Gizagizai Iska Rana Ruwan sama urwa

Its snowing and cold. -- Akwai urwa da sanyi sosai.

Activity 8 1) Is it hot and sunny in Kano in June? Yes, it is hot and sunny in Kano in June. 2) Is it warm in Agadas in November? No. it is cold and windy. 3) Is it rainy in Paris in March? Yes, it is rainy in Paris in March. Activity 9 1. B 2. B 3. A 4. C The weather in September is rainy and warm. -- A watan Satumba akwai ruwan sama
da umi.

What is the temperature today? It is 35 degrees Fahrenheit. -- Yaya awon zafi yake
yau? Yau ya kai awu 35 a maaunin zafi na Fahrenheit.

Is it cold in hot season? No, its hot and sunny. -- Akwai sanyi a lokacin azaar? Aa,
akwai zafi da rana.

What is the weather forecast for tomorrow? Sunny and cold. -- Yaya as ashen yanayi

na gobe yake? Rana da sanyi.

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5. C

The hot season is hot and sunny. The cold season is cool and rainy. -- A lokacin bazara
akwai zafi da rana. A lokacin damina akwai sanyi-sanyi da ruwan sama.

Activity 11 thunderstorm lightning flood Activity 12 A. B. C. D. E. Is it a thunderstorm? No, it is lightning. Is it a flood? No, it is a tornado. Is it a hurricane? No, it is a thunderstorm. Is it a tornado? No, it is a flood. Is it lightning? No it is a hurricane.
Hadari Waliya Ambaliyar ruwa

End of Lesson Tasks Activity 1


Ga hasashen yanayi. A birnin Kano akwai hadari, kuma ana samun ruwan sama. Zafi ya kai awu 44 a maaunin zafi na Celsius. A birnin Agadas gari ya lumshe kuma ana samun ruwan sama da sanyi-sanyi. A tsakar rana zafi yan kai awu 19. A Zinder kuma akwai zafi, kuma gari ya yi garau. Zafin ya kai awu 40. A Zaria ma akwai rana da zafi, kuma akwai iska sosai. Zafin ya kai awu 41.

1. 2. 3. 4.

City Kano Agadez Zinder Zaria

Weather Thunderstorms, rain Overcast, cool, rain Hot, clear Sunny, hot, windy

Temperature 44 degrees C 19 degrees 40 degrees 41 degrees

Here is the weather forecast. In the city of Kano, there are thunderstorms and it is raining. The temperature is 44 Celsius. In the city of Agadez, it is overcast and cool and raining. At noon, the temperature reached 19 degrees. In Zinder, it is hot and clear. The temperature there is 40 degrees. In Zaria, it is also sunny and hot, and also windy. The temperature is 41 degrees.

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Activity 2 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. What city is the weather report for? Paris. What is the date? April 21. What day of the week is this? Friday. What is the forecast for today? Rainy with a chance of a thunderstorm this evening. What will be the high and low temperatures for today? High of 18 and low of 8. What is the forecast for tomorrow? Cloudy in the morning but sunny in the afternoon. What will be the high and low temperatures for tomorrow? High of 22 and low of 12. What time of the day tomorrow is the high temperature expected? 3:00 pm. Are the temperatures in Fahrenheit, Celsius, or was it not mentioned? Celsius.

Ga rahoton yanayi na Paris a yau Jumaa, ranar 21 ga watan Afrilu. Yau za a yi ruwa, kuma watakila za a ga hadari da marece. Gobe gari zai lumshe da safe, amma da marece zai yi garau. Kuma za a yi iska. Wajen awon zafi, karanci zai kai awu 8 kuma tsananci zai kai awu 18 ta maaunin Celsius. Ran Subdu tsanani zai kai 22 a karfe 3:00 da rana kuma karanci zai kasance 12.

This is the weather report for Paris for Friday the 21st of April. Todays weather will be rainy with a chance of a thunderstorm this evening. Tomorrows weather will be cloudy in the morning but sunny in the afternoon. It will also be windy. The low temperature for today will be 8 degrees Celsius with a high temperature of 18. Saturdays high temperature will be 22 at 3:00 in the afternoon and the low temperature will be 12 degrees.

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Lesson 12 Personal Appearance and Clothing Surar Mutane da Kayan Jiki

This lesson will introduce you to the following: - Ones physical features (hair color, weight, height, etc.) - Articles of clothing - Colors - Description of a persons physical appearance, including the clothing - Appropriate ways to ask about someones appearance.

1. Look at the pictures below and familiarize yourself with the new vocabulary. Listen to the descriptions of peoples appearances.

Tall
Dogo (m) Doguwa (f)

Short
Gajere (m) Gajera (f)

Heavy
Jibgege (m) Jibgegiya (f)

Thin
Siriri (m) Siririya (f)

Young
Matashi (m)

Old
Tsofo (m)

Matashiya (f) Tsofuwa (f)

Short
Gajere (m) Gajera (f)

Long
Dogo (m) Doguwa (f)

Blond
Fari (m) Fara (f)

Red
Ja

Gray
Furfura

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2. Look at the pictures below and listen to the descriptions of peoples appearances.

This is a young woman.


Wannan budurwa ce.

This man is young.


Wannan saurayi ne.

She is tall and thin.


Ita doguwa ce siririya.

He has an average height and medium frame.


Yana da matsakaicin tsawo da jiki.

Describing People The Hausa people tend to be quite comfortable talking about how people appear and their differences. Of course, focusing excessively on someones disability or deformity would be rude, but people do tend to discuss openly their appearance and characteristics. Race, skin color, hairstyles, clothing, and culture are all up for discussion. Additionally, being heavy is generally seen in a positive light, and it is not at all taboo to mention someones weight. Another peculiarity of Hausa is that there are only a few words that specifically refer to a color. The rest of the colors are referred to by a reference to some other thing that shows the intended color. These constructs will require different grammatical treatment than the proper color words. In some cases, the word ruwan is used before this reference to express the concept of water mixed with ... See the list of color words below. Proper Colors Red Blue Green Black White Derived Colors Yellow Brown
Ja Shui (Bula) Tsanwa Bai Fari Rawaya/ Ruwan masara (Lit., corn water) asa-asa (Lit., dirt-like)

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Pink Gray Orange

Ruwan hoda (Lit., powder water) Toka-toka (Lit., ash-like) Ruwan Goro (Lit., Kola nut juice)

Reduplicating the proper color words can result in what would translate in English to the suffix ish. Accordingly, Bai-Bai is a blackish color that is not pure black, and fari-fari is whitish or off-white. You will see further examples in this chapter and upcoming chapters. Here are some examples of terms referring to age. He is middle-aged. She is a young woman/ girl. (not yet married) She is a young woman. He is a young man. They are adults. / They are important people. They are young people. They are children. They are elderly people. He is an old man. He is old. Old woman
Yana tsakar arfinsa. Ita budurwa ce. Ita matashiya ce. Shi saurayi ne. / Shi matashi ne. Su manya ne. Su matasa ne. Su yara ne. Su tsofi ne. Shi tsofo ne. Ya tsufa. Tsofuwa

3. Look at the pictures below and familiarize yourself with the new vocabulary. Listen to the speaker and repeat as you follow along in the workbook. Blond hair Brown hair Red hair Gray hair Curly hair Straight hair
Farin gashi Gashi asa-asa Jan gashi Furfura Nannaaen gashi Miaen gashi

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This woman has short brown hair.


Wannan mace tana da gajeren gashi asaasa.

This young man has short dark hair.


Wannan saurayi yana da gajeren gashi bai-bai.

The young girl has long blond hair.


Yarinya tana da farin gashi dogo.

The old man has gray hair.


Tsofo, gashinsa ya yi furfura.

4. Work with a partner. Look at the pictures and describe each of the people. See if your partner can correctly identify the body type and their color and style of hair from your description.

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5. Look at the pictures below and familiarize yourself with the new vocabulary. Listen to the speaker and repeat as you follow along in the workbook.

Ear
Kunne/ kunya

Nose
Hanci

Eye
Ido

Mouth
Baki

Glasses
Tabarau

Beard
Gemu

Light Skin
Farin fata

Medium Skin
Fata mai wankan tarwaa

Dark Skin
Baar fata

6. From the lists above, choose the characteristics and adjectives that are used to describe each feature. Fill in the chart below in Hausa. Check your answers with the Answer Key. Hair Skin Height Frame Facial Features

7. In each line of text below, cross out the term that does not logically belong. Check your work with the Answer Key.
Shui Gajere Hanci Fari Tsanwa Tabarau Gemu Furfura Siriri Dogo Babba Tsawo asa-asa Matsakaici Idanu Bai-bai

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8. Listen to the descriptions of different peoples appearances while you read the following dialogues. Answer the questions. Check your answers with the Answer Key.
1. Wane launi ne gashin Amira ? - Launin gashinta asa-asa ne. - Gashin Amira dogo ne ko gajere ? - Gajere ne. - Gashin Amira nannaae ne ko miae? - Mikakke ne. 2. Shaibu yana san tabarau? - Aa, ba ya san tabarau. - Wane launi ne idanun Shaibu. - Idanunsa shui ne. 3. Ali dogo ne? - Yana da matsakaicin tsawo. - Shi babba ne, mai iba ? - Aa, shi siriri ne.

Questions: 1. How many people were described? 2. What were their names? 3. What kind of hair does Amira have? 4. Does Shaibu wear glasses? 5. Does Shaibu have brown eyes? 6. Is Ali short and heavy?

9. Familiarize yourself with the new vocabulary on clothing and colors. Listen and repeat after the speaker. Black Gray Green Red Blue Yellow White Reddish Orange
Bai Toka-toka Tsanwa Ja Shui (Bula) Rawaya Fari Jawa

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Red Coat
Jar kwat

Gray Suit
Riga da wando, toka-toka

Brown Pants
Wando asa-asa

Blue Jeans
Jin shui

Headscarf
Kallabi

Brown Sweater
Rigar sanyi asaasa

Orange Shirt
Riga jawa

Blue T-Shirt
Riga mai gajeren hannu, bula

Green Skirt
Tsanwan buje

Womans Gown
Rigar mata

Mens Robe
Riga zaleka

Yellow Shorts
Gajeren wando rawaya

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Brown Boots
Kuuttai asa-asa

Blue Shoes
Kwandran shui

Black Hat
Bain hula Baar tagiya

Gray Uniform
Kayan aiki toka-toka

Black Socks
Bain suseti, Baar safa

White Socks
Farin suseti, Farar safa

11. Match each description with the corresponding picture. Fill in the blank with the correct letter. Note that there could be more than one match. Check your work with the Answer Key.

1. . tsofuwa ce. 2. . Tana da farin gashi. 3. . Tana da dogon gashi asaasa.

4. .. yana sanye da riga da wando, toka-toka 5. .. Yana sanye da wando bula. 6. .. uwa ce arama.

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7. doguwa ce siririya. 8. ...tana sanye da rigar mata ruwan masara.

9. tana sanye da wani riga mai gajeren hannu, bula. 10. yana da iba.

12. Translate the following descriptions into English. Check your work with the Answer Key.
1. Amina doguwa ce siririya. Tana da shekara 30. Tana da farin gashi nannaae, tsanwan idanu, da farar fata. 2. Ali dogo ne babba. Yana da shekara 45. Gashinsa gajere ne kuma ya yi furfura. Yana da idanu bula kuma farin fata. 3. Soji yana da gajeren gashi bai-bai. Shi gajere ne siriri. 4. Akwai yarinya mai shekara 10. Doguwa ce siririya. Tana da dogon gashi asa-asa, kuma idanunta ma asa-asa ne. Tana da fata mai wankan tarwaa.

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End-of-Lesson Tasks 1. Describe the people you see in the pictures. For each person, include the approximate age, skin tone, color and length of hair, and what he or she is wearing. Use the model:

2. Come up with a simple description for each of the people listed below. (You may substitute any individual you wish for those listed.) Be sure to include hair color and length, approximate height and age, eye color, and skin tone. Example: My mother is 63 years old. She is tall and has a medium frame. She has short gray hair and brown eyes. She has light skin. She wears glasses. A. Mother B. Father C. Co-worker

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D. President of the United States E. Your next door neighbor 2. Work in pairs. Pretend that you and your partner are roommates. When you went to the store, someone came to visit you. Now you are back. Ask your roommate questions about that persons appearance. Your partner will describe the visitor. In Hausa, say how he or she looks (Is he or she tall or short? Heavy or thin? What kind of hair does he or she have? What was he wearing? What colors were the clothes?).

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Vocabulary List
Average Beard Black Blond Blue Blue jeans Boots Brown Color Curly Dark Womans gown Ears Eyes Face Frame Glasses Gray Green Hair Hat Jacket Large Light Heavy, Fat (person) Man Medium Mouth Nose Old Pants Red Shirt Shoes
Matsakaici (m.) Matsakaiciya (f.) Gemu, Gemuna (pl.) Bai (m.), Baa (f.), Baae (pl.) Fari Shui (m.), Shuiya (f.), Shua (pl.) Jin Kuuttai/ shuhuddai asa-asa Launi, Launuka (pl.) Nannaae (m.); -iya (f.); -I (pl.) Mai duhu, bai-bai Rigar mata, Rigunan mata (pl.) Kunne, Kunnuwa (pl.) Ido, Idanu (pl.) Fuska, Fuskoki (pl.) Jiki, Jikuna (pl.) Tabarau, Gilashi, Luleti Furfura (hair), toka-toka (general) Tsanwa Gashi Hula, Huluna (pl.) Kwat, Babbar riga Babba, Manya (pl.) Maras nauyi Mai iba, Masu ia (pl.) Namiji, maza (pl.) Madaidaici Baki, Bakuna (pl.) Hanci, Hantuna (pl.) Tsofo (m.), tsofuwa (f.) Wando, Wanduna (pl.) Ja, Jajaye (pl.) Riga, Riguna (pl.) Takalmi, Takalma (pl.)

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Short Skin Skirt Small Straight Suit Headscarf Sweater To go gray (hair) Tall Thin To wear Wearing T-shirt White Woman Yellow Young Orange Reddish orange Pink Medium skin color Big, old, important He is middle aged. Appearance (of a person) Clothing

Gajere (m.), Gajera (f.), Gajeru (pl.) Fata Siket arami (m.), arama (f.) Miae (m.), Miaiya (f.), Miau (pl.) Riga da wando Kallabi, Kalluba (pl.) Suweta, Rigar Sanyi Yi furfura Dogo (m.), Doguwa (f.), Dogaye (pl.) Siriri (m.), Siririya (f.), Sirara (pl.), Sa Sanye da Riga mai gajeren hannu Fari (m.), Fara (f.), Farare (pl.) Mace, Mata (pl.) Ruwan masara arami (m.), arama (f.), anana (pl.) Ruwan goro Jawa Ruwan hoda Mai wanken tarwaa Babba (m/f), Manya (pl.) Yana tsakar arfinsa. Sura/ Kama Kayan jiki

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ANSWER KEY
Activity 6 Hair
Gajere

Skin
Fari

Height
Dogo

Frame
Babba

Facial Features
Kunne

Dogo

Mai wankan tarwaa

Gajere

Siriri, Siririya

Hanci

Fari Ja Furfura

Bai

Ido Baki Tabarau Gemu

Activity 7 1. 2. 3. 4. thin glasses heavy height


Siriri Tabarau Jibgege/ mai nauyi Tsawo

Activity 8 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. How many people were described? Three. What were their names? Amira, Shaibu, and Ali. What kind of hair does Amira have? Short, straight, brown. Does Shaibu wear glasses? No. Does Shaibu have brown eyes? No, he has blue eyes. Is Ali short and heavy? No, average height and thin.

Activity 11 1. D is an old woman. 2. E has blond hair. 3. B has long brown hair. 4. A is wearing a gray suit 5. E is wearing blue pants. 6. C is a young mother. 7. C is tall and thin. 8. C is wearing a yellow dress. 9. B is wearing a blue t-shirt. 10. A is heavy. 195

Activity 12 1. 2. 3. 4. Amina is tall and thin. She is 30 years old. She has blond curly hair, green eyes, and fair skin. Ali is tall and heavy. He is 45 years old. He has short gray hair, blue eyes, and light skin. The soldier has dark short hair. He is short and thin. There is a young girl who is 10 years old. She is tall and thin. She has long brown hair, brown eyes, and dark skin.

1. Amina doguwa ce siririya. Tana da shekara 30. Tana da farin gashi nannaae, 2. Ali dogo ne babba. Yana da shekara 45. Gashinsa gajere ne kuma ya yi furfura. Yana 3. Soji yana da gajeren gashi bai-bai. Shi gajere ne siriri. 4. Akwai yarinya mai shekara 10. Doguwa ce siririya. Tana da dogon gashi asa-asa,
kuma idanunta ma asa-asa ne. Tana da fata mai wankan tarwaa. da idanu bula kuma farin fata. tsanwan idanu, da farar fata.

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Lesson 13 Transportation Sufuri

This lesson will introduce you to the following: - Verbs of motion - Ways of asking questions regarding the different modes of transportation - Different types of transportation available in Niger and Nigeria.

On the Road in West Africa


The first word that comes up when discussing travel in West Africa is bush taxi. These ubiquitous jalopies of all sorts dominate the roads in this part of the world and provide the most common and readily available mode of transportation. The bush taxis are (officially) government regulated and operate out of stations in every town, but they also make stops wherever there is a passenger waiting by the road. They are notoriously slow and unsafe, but they can get you where you want to go for a reasonable price. Buses are also very common; however, they are generally more expensive and thus not used by the working class very much. These are much more scheduled and organizednot to mention saferand tend to be the preferred mode of transport for foreign travelers. There are no trains in Niger, but there are some train lines in Nigeria. This is a much less common mode of transportation. There are a few ferry boats in the Hausa speaking world, as well as river boats. Only a small percentage of the populations of Nigeria and Niger own private cars. A more common possession would be a bicycle or an ox-cart. In the cities, small motor scooters are often used as taxis. There is room for only one passenger on each, but there are usually swarms of these taxis available. Air travel is, of course, very uncommon among the Hausa, except for among the very elite class. The only exception to this is that many Hausa men and women do manage to make the pilgrimage to Mecca at some point in their life, and this requires a flight to Saudi Arabia. The transportation system in this part of the world is organized around the tasha, the station where one can catch a car, truck, or bus. The driver or a sales person who works a section of the station will accept the money and give you a place. After that, you must wait (a few minutes or half a day) until the car is full to depart. The vehicles are generally very overcrowded and in disrepair, but inexpensive. In every village there is a small tasha which is often no more than a log to sit on or a shade hangar by the side of the road. At most of these stations there will be a an kamasho (station manager) who will take money and talk to the driver. (Note that if you are unsure of the status of the person taking the money, you can always insist upon paying the driver personally). You will also find these tashas at unpopulated points along the road where trails from bush villages come to the road. It is also possible to flag a bush taxi anywhere along the road provided that there is room in the taxi. The loading and juggling of baggage is the job of the karen mota (dog of the car). This is usually a young man or teenager who rides in the least comfortable spot in the car and arranges the luggage of the people who come and go at each of the all-to-frequent stops that the car makes.

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1. Listen and repeat the following words as you read along.

Airplane
Jirgin sama

Bicycle
Keke

Ship
Jirgin ruwa

Bus
Bas

Car
Mota

Ferry Boat
Jirgin fito

Helicopter
Jirgin sama mai saukar angulu

Motorcycle
Moto, Babur

Taxi
Tasi

Train
Jirgin asa

Truck
Babbar Mota

Ox cart.
Amalanke

Horse
Doki

Camel
Raumi

Donkey
Jaki

Traveling Verbs: By far, the most important verb to know when it comes to traveling is tafiya (to go/ travel). This word is used to express to travel, to walk, and to go. The word tua is used to express to drive with vehicles that you can get inside of. The word hau (to get on) is used to express to ride on a bicycle or motorcycle, as well as on an animal or as a passenger on an ox-cart.

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The verb tura (to push) is used to express to drive in the case of an ox-cart. With modes of travel, a is generally used to express by, and it is sometimes interchangeable with the word cikin (in). See the examples below: I am going by foot to the library. I am going by car. I am going to the concert in a car. The driver is driving the car to the gas station. The child is riding a motorcycle. I will drive the truck. Lawali is driving the ox-cart. Amiru rides a horse.
Ina tafiya a asa zuwa gidan littattafai. Ina tafiya a mota. Ina tafiya zuwa wasa cikin mota. Direba yana tuin mota zuwa gidan mai. Yaro yana hawan moto. Zan tua babbar mota. Lawali yana turin amalanke. Amiru yana hawan doki.

2. Listen to the questions and answers about using different forms of transportation. Repeat after the speaker as you read along. How do you go to work? Yaya kake tafiya zuwa wurin aiki? by car a mota by bus cikin bas I go by train cikin jirgin asa Ina by bicycle a keke tafiya by boat cikin jirgin ruwa by motorcycle a moto by truck cikin lori car mota bus bas train jirgin asa bicycle keke boat jirgin ruwa motorcycle moto truck lori

I take the
Ina aukan

I walk
Ina tafiya a asa

Model: who + the verb of motion + mode of transportation + destination Example: I ride a bus to school. Model: wa + fiili + abin da ake hawa ko shiga + wurin da ake tafiya

Example: Ina hawan keke zuwa makaranta. Note that in Hausa, there are many different ways to express this sentence, and it varies as to which is more correct. The simplified model above will serve as a starting point, but be prepared to see many alternate word orders.

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3. Read each statement below and match it with the correct picture. Check your work with the Answer Key.

A. Ina tafiya makaranta cikin bas kowacce safiya. B. Sojoji suna hawan babbar mota ta soji. C. In an yi ruwa, mukan shiga tasi. D. Ina tuin motata zuwa wurin aiki. E. Abokina yana hawan kekensa zuwa aiki. F. anena yana hawan moto.

4. Practice creating complete sentences out of the words below. Use the following model. Model: who + the verb of motion + mode of transportation + destination Example: Ina hawan keke zuwa makaranta.
Ina filin jirgin sama moto abokina wana wasa hawan gidan littattafai zuwa tua makaranta jirgin asa keke tasi uwayenmu bas mota tafiya asa

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Asking Directions: In the Hausa speaking world, you will rarely encounter any problem in trying to find someone to give you directions. In fact, people are generally so eager to help that they will give directions even if they are really not sure; thus, it is usually good to ask people a few times along the way to confirm your directions. See the exchange below to get an idea of how one asks directions in Hausa. Pay special attention to how one approaches people in Hausa. This is very important. Speaker approaches a group of men sitting by the side of the street drinking tea and chatting.
Speaker: Salama alekum. Men: Amin, alekum asalam. Speaker: Ina wuninku? Men: Lafiya lau! Kana lafiya? Speaker: Lafiya lau wallai! Men: To madalla. Speaker: Ya yi kyau To, don Allah, ina gidan waya yake daga nan? Man: To, gidan waya yana da nisa. Sai ka shiga tasi ka tafi. Speaker: To, ina zan samu tasi? Man: Ga taksi nan. Bari in kira direba ku je. Speaker: To na gode sosai. Man: Ba laifi.

The greeting salama alekum is used whenever entering a house or approaching a group of people, anywhere. The response amin, alekum asalam is the standard response. Although this is technically a Muslim greeting, it has been adopted as a standard part of Hausa propriety. This formula is considered good manners, and is taught to children from a young age. Foreigners are accorded a lot of leeway for not knowing to use this greeting, but it makes a very good impression if you remember. Likewise, it is generally best to exchange a few greetings before asking for help.

5. Listen to while reading along the following exchanges. Repeat after the speaker.
Gafara dai. Ina so in tafi gidan litattafai. Yaya ake tafiya can daga nan? A shiga bas mai lamba 14. To, na gode. Ba komi.

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Yaya ake tafiya zuwa asibiti daga nan? A shiga tasi. To, na gode sosai. Babu laifi. Don Allah yaya za ni tafi masauki daga nan? A shiga jirgin asa. Wace lamba? Jirgi mai lamba 22.

6. Working with a partner, make up similar exchanges. Use the words from Exercise 5 and the pictures below to choose the destination.

7. Now listen to the dialogues and mark the statements that you hear. Check your answers with the Answer Key. 1. A. Do you take a taxi to the concert? No, I take my car. B. Do you take a bus to the concert? No, I take my car. C. Do you take a train to the concert? No, I take my car. A. What bus should I take to the post office? Bus number 18. B. What street should I take to the post office? 18th Street. C. What exit should I take to the post office? Exit 18. A. My parents drive their cars to work, but we ride our bicycles. B. My parents drive their cars to work, but we walk. C. My parents drive their cars to work, but we take the train.

2.

3.

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At a Service Station

8. Familiarize yourself with the following vocabulary. Listen to the speaker and follow along in your book. Gas Gas station Diesel Oil Tires Air Water Flat tire To wash a car
Mai, fetur Gidan mai Gas, gazwal (Niger), bain mai Mai, man fetur, luwul (Niger) Taya, tayoyi (pl.) Iska Ruwa Faci Wanke mota

Note that the word mai can be used to indicate either gas or oil in a general sense. Remember not to use the logical bain mai (black oil) to distinguish oil from gas, as this term generally refers to thick engine grease for lubricating moving parts.

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Measurement: Niger and Nigeria use the metric system for all measurements. However, it is still useful to at least be able to recognize the English measurement terms as well. See below a list of some of the most common terms. Kilometer Mile Meter Foot Yard Gallon Liter Kilogram Gram Pound Ounce
Kilomita Mil Mita afa Yadi Galan Lita Kilo Giram Laba Oza

In the Hausa marketplace, however, you will also need to know some otherand generally more abstractterms of measurement. Review Chapter 7 for some of these terms. 1 gallon = 3.785 liters 1 quart = .946 liters 1 liter = 2.1 pints 10 liters = 2.63 gallons

9. Listen to the people at a service station and find out what each needs. Circle the English equivalents of the terms you hear. Check your answers with the Answer Key. A. B. C. D. Air Air Air Air Gas Gas Gas Gas Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel Tires Tires Tires Tires Oil Oil Oil Oil Car Wash Car Wash Car Wash Car Wash

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10. Familiarize yourself with these terms identifying infrastructure. Road Highway City street (on grid) Small city street Railroad
Hanya Babbar Hanya Layi Titi Reluwe, hanyar jirgin asa

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End-of-Lesson Tasks
1. Explain how you would get to the following places using various modes of transportation. Try to make your story interesting and include as many details as you can.

2. Listen and write down the responses to the questions below. Check your work with the Answer Key.
A. Ba ni da mai. Ina gidan mai yake? --_________________________________. B. Ina da matsala wajen tayar motata. Mi ya kamata in yi? -______________________________. C. Nawa ne kuin litar na mai ? - _______________________________. D. Lita nawa kake so?

- _______________________________.

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Vocabulary List
Air Airplane Bicycle Boat Bus Car Concert Diesel Ferry boat Gallon Gas Helicopter Highway Library Liter Small city street Motorcycle Oil Railroad Service station School Ship Taxi Station worker / manager Assistant (in bush taxi) Take (taxi, bus, etc...) Take / get on (motorcycle, bike, car, etc) Morning Drive Very well! Call Driver Very much
Iska Jirgin sama, jiragen sama (pl.) Keke, kekuna (pl.) Jirgin ruwa, jiragen ruwa (pl.) Bas Mota, motoci (pl.) Wasa, kia da wae-wae Gas, gazwal Jirgin fito, jiragen fito (pl.) Galan Mai, fetur (mai is the more general term used, while fetur is more specific) Jirgin sama mai saukar angulu, jiragen (pl.), helikafta Babbar hanya, manyan hanyoyi (pl.) Gidan Littattafai, Gidajen littattafai (pl.) Lita Titi, tituna (pl.)/ rariya Babur, Baburori (pl.)/ Moto (niger) Mai, man fetur Reluwe, Hanyar jirgin asa Gidan mai, Gidajen mai (pl.) Makaranta, Makarantu (pl.) Jirgin ruwa, Jiragen ruwa (pl.) Tasi, Taksi an kamasho Karen mota Shiga Hau, Hawa Safe, safiya Tua, Tui Lafiya lau wallahi ! Kira Direba, Direbobi (pl.)/ matui Sosai

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Tire/tires Train Truck Water Work Ox Cart Horse Camel Donkey Workplace Taxi Driver To push (or drive an ox-cart)

Taya, tayoyi (pl.) Jirgin asa, jiragen asa (pl.) Babbar mota, Manyan motoci (pl.), Lori, Kamiyo (niger) Ruwa, Ruwaye (pl.) Aiki Amalanke, Amalankai (pl.) Doki (m.), Goiya (f.), Duwaki (pl.) Raumi (m.), Rauma (f.), Raumai (pl.) Jaki (m.), Jaka (f.), Jakai (pl.) Wurin aiki, Wuraren aiki (pl.) an tasi, an tasi (pl.) Tura, Turin

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ANSWER KEY
Activity 3 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. F. My brother rides a motorcycle. - anena yana hawan moto. D. I drive my car to go to work. - Ina tuin motata zuwa wurin aiki. E. My friend rides his bike to work. - Abokina yana hawan kekensa zuwa aiki. B. Soldiers ride in an army truck. - Sojoji suna hawan babbar mota ta soji. C. When its raining, we take a taxi. - In an yi ruwa, mukan shiga tasi. A. I take the bus to school every morning. - Ina tafiya makaranta cikin bas kowacce
safiya.

Activity 7 1. A. Do you take a taxi to the concert? No, I take my car. -- Kuna shiga tasi in za ku 2. B. What street should I take to the post office? 18th Street. -- Wace hanya ya kamata 3. C. My parents drive their cars to work, but we take the train. -- Uwayena suna tafiya
wurin aiki cikin motocinsu, amma muna shigan jirgin asa. in bi in tafi gidan waya? Hanya ta 18. tafi wasa? Aa ina tafiya cikin motata.

Activity 9 A. B. C. D. Air Gas Oil Gas Car Wash Diesel Oil

End of Lesson Tasks Activity 2 A. - I have no gas. Where is the gas station? - Two kilometers down the freeway. B. I have a problem with my tire. What should I do? - Ill put some air in the tires. C. - How much is the gas per liter? - CFA 1200 a liter. D. How much gas do you want? - 12 liters.

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A. Ba ni da mai. Ina gidan mai yake? - Kilomita biyu nan gaba a kan wannan babbar hanya. B. Ina da matsala wajen tayar motata. Mi ya kamata in yi? - Zan ara wa tayoyi iska. C. Nawa ne kuin lita na mai ? - 1200 CFA / jika da arbain. D. Lita nawa kake so? - A ba ni lita 12.

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Lesson 14 Travel Tafiya

This lesson will introduce you to the following: - Vocabulary related to travel - How to buy a train, bus, or airplane ticket - How to understand schedules - Border crossing and roadblock procedures.

Buying Tickets: Buying tickets for trains and buses in Niger and Nigeria is usually a simple matter of going to the ticket window and buying a ticket. However, this only applies to the more formal train and bus lines. Bush taxis can be a little more complicated. In some cases there is a ticket window where you are supposed to purchase tickets, but in other cases you must figure out whether you need to pay the driver or another person who is taking money for the driver. Bush taxis do not really have a first and second class, but the front seat can carry a premium. Note that when buying something in Hausa, it is normal to be quite direct. Rather than to say, I would like or Could I please have as we do in English, it is normal in Hausa to simply say, Give me You will see many examples of this in these lessons. Below are a few of the most common ways to ask for something that you want to buy.

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Give me one. I need millet. Pour some for me. (with something that is measured out) I need to buy a shirt. Cut me off 150 CFA of meat. How many do you want? I want three. Give me one ticket. Get in the front seat.

Ba ni guda. Ina bukatar hatsi. Ka zubo mini shi. Ina bukata in sayi riga. A yanko mini nama na talatin. Nawa kake so? Ukku nike so. Ba ni tikiti guda. Ka shiga gaba.

1. Listen to the following dialogue about buying a ticket at a train station while reading along in the workbook. Soldier:
Soji

Excuse me, maam.


Gafara dai, malama.

Ticket Seller:
Mai saida tikitoci

Can I help you?


Mi zan ba ka?

Soldier:
Soji

I need to buy a ticket to Zaria.


Ina bukata in yanki tikiti zuwa Zaria

Ticket Seller:
Mai saida tikitoci

Departing on what day?


Wace rana za ka tashi?

Soldier:
Soji

Today.
Yau.

Ticket Seller:
Mai saida tikitoci

One-way or roundtrip?
Tikitin zuwa, ko zuwa da dawowa?

Soldier:
Soji

Roundtrip.
Zuwa da dawowa.

Ticket Seller:
Mai saida tikitoci

First class or second class?


Tikitin faskila ko gama-gari

Soldier:
Soji

Second class, please.


Gama-gari

Ticket Seller:
Mai saida tikitoci

Returning on what day?


Yaushe za ka dawo.

Soldier:
Soji

Friday.
Ran Jumaa

Ticket Seller:
Mai saida tikitoci

Morning, afternoon, or evening?


Da safe, da rana, ko da marece?

Soldier:

Afternoon.

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Soji

Da rana.

Ticket Seller:
Mai saida tikitoci

Twenty-two dollars, please. The next train leaves in one hour from platform number 5.
To, kuinsa jika tara. Jirgi mafi kusa zai tashi bayan awa aya daga wurin shiga jirgi mai lamba 5.

Soldier:
Soji

Thank you. What is the train number?


To, an gode. Mine ne lambar jirgi?

Ticket Seller:
Mai saida tikitoci

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Sabain da shidda.

Soldier:
Soji

Is this an express train?


Jirgin ujila ne.

Ticket Seller:
Mai saida tikitoci

Yes, it is an express train.


I, jirgin ujila ne.

Verbs for the Road: The verbs in Hausa for boarding, departing, arriving, and so on are fairly simple to learn, but they do have some nuances that can be a little confusing. Note that the verb hau is fixed in the past and future tenses, but in the present tense, hawa is used. Also, this verb applies especially to things that one rides on, while shiga is used for something that you get into. That said, however, it should be noted that hau is often used in places where shiga would be the proper verb, such as a car or bus. The verb iso/isowa is the verb that most accurately translates to to arrive, but it is also common for people to simply use zo/zuwa (to come) instead. The verb tashi (to get up/set out) is generally used for departure, but tafiya is also often used in this capacity.

Get on! (for a bike, motorcycle, truck bed, or animal or ox-cart) Get in the car. I ride a bike. I am going by train. The train has arrived. The plane is arriving now. When is the car departing? When will the car come? How much is the fare? (for a car or truck) Pay the fare?

Hau! Ka shiga mota. Ina hawan keke. Zan shiga jirgin asa in tafi. Jirgi ya iso. Jirgin sama yana isowa yanzu. Yaushe mota za ta tashi? Yaushe mota za ta zo? Nawa ne kuin mota? Ka biya kuin mota.

2. Read the dialogue with a partner. Take turns being the ticket seller and the soldier.

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3. Role-play the dialogue. You can substitute the name of a city where you need to buy a ticket to, the time and day of arriving and departing, and the price of the ticket. The Simple Future Tense: We have already seen many examples of the future tense in this lesson. Now we will provide a complete explanation of this tense and its conjugation. See below the conjugation of the future tense pronoun. I will You will (masc.) You will (fem.) He will She will One will We will You will (pl.) They will
Za ni / Zan Za ka Za ki Za ya / Za shi / Zai Za ta Za a Za mu Za ku Za su

Now see the following examples of the future tense in use. It is relatively straightforward. I will come home. They will eat.
Zan dawo gida. Za su ci abinci.

Note also that future pronouns can be used without a verb to imply the verb to go. See the following examples of the use of this alternate form. Where are you going? I am going to the market.
Ina kake tafiya? Ina tafiya kasuwa. Ina za ka? Kasuwa za ni.

The Indefinite Future Tense: Any Hausa learner needs to know how to recognize the indefinite future tense. This is an alternate future tense that indicates that something will happen at some unspecified time in the future. It is somewhat complicated to explain the exact differences between the two different future tenses, and it is even more difficult to teach the pronunciation. At this point, however, we will only provide a brief introduction to this form so that the student will be able to recognize the form when hearing it. The student at the elementary level does not need to use this form. In any place where this form could be used, the simple future tense would also be perfectly acceptable. See below the conjugation chart. Bear in mind that while this form has a strong resemblance to the past tense, it is differentiated by a distinctive extended falling tone.

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I will You will (masc.) You will (fem.) He will She will One will We will You will (pl.) They will

Na Ka Kin/ kya Ya Ta A Mun/ ma Kun/ kwa Sun/ sa

4. Listen to the following statements while reading along in the workbook. Attention, travelers! The next express train to Zaria will depart from platform 10 in 15 minutes.
Masu tafiya, a saurara! Jirgin ujila mafi kusa zuwa Zaria zai tashi wurin shiga jirgi mai lamba 10 bayan minti 15.

Attention, travelers! The next local train will arrive at platform 10 in 5 minutes.
Masu tafiya, a saurara! Jirgin daddawa mafi kusa zai iso wurin shiga jirgi mai lamba 10 bayan minti 5.

Attention, travelers! Flight number 92 from Kano will be one hour late. Please check the screen for updates.
Masu tafiya, a saurara! Jirgi mai lamba 92 daga Kano zai makara da awa guda. A duba allo na bidiyo don samun arin bayyani.

Attention, travelers! The bus from Abuja will arrive at platform 3 in 10 minutes.
Masu tafiya, a saurara! Bas daga Abuja zai iso wurin shiga jirgi mai lamba 3 bayan minti 10.

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5. Match each picture with the correct Hausa term by writing the term below the correct picture. Check your work with the Answer Key.

A__________

B__________

C__________

D__________

E__________

F__________

G__________

H__________

Fasinjoji Kaya Wurin shiga jirgi Takardar tsari Tikiti Wurin saida tikitoci Wurin jira ofa

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Necessity: There are several ways of expressing must, have to, should, and similar concepts in Hausa. I need to go. I should go. I must go. I must go. Should I go? You should rest.
Ina bukata in tafi. Ya kamata in tafi. Dole ne in tafi. Tilas ne in tafi. In tafi? Sai ka huta.

In this category of words, special attention should be paid to ya kamata. This is a fixed construct that precedes a sentence, and it is especially common. Thus, the literal translation of ya kamata in tafi would run something like It should be that I go. Also note that the word sai, in addition to its other uses, can imply should. The subjunctive in Hausa: The above examples provide us with an ideal segue to a discussion of the Hausa subjunctive. While the subjunctive in used relatively little in modern English, it is very important in Hausa. The subjunctive is used in all of the above examples, and it is also used to form the imperative and several other types of phrases. Without getting into an exhaustive grammar lesson, we will go over a few important functions of the subjunctive in Hausa. First of all, look over the following conjugation chart for the subjunctive pronoun in Hausa. I You (masc.) You (fem.) You (pl.) He She They We
In Ka Ki Ku Ya Ta Su Mu

Note that with the exception of the first person singular, these are spelled like other conjugations that we have already seen in this book. Note also, however, that there is a tonal/tone length difference that distinguishes them as subjective. You will become accustomed to this difference as you go along. For now, it will suffice to say that the subjunctive pronouns have a short low tone. We have already seen how the subjunctive is used with certain terms in the preceding section. Now, we will look at how the subjunctive is used to form the imperative. The imperative is formed by simply placing the subjunctive pronoun before the verb. The pronoun can also be omitted, but the implication remains. See the following examples.

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Go! (to a man) Be careful! (to a woman)

Ka tafi! Ki yi hankali!

Another rather unique feature of the Hausa language is that when the imperative construct is stated as a question, the meaning becomes much like a question beginning with should in English. Remember that in this case, the pronoun cannot be omitted. See the following examples: Should I go? Should we stop?
In tafi? Mu tsaya?

The subjunctive is also used to express what in English would be expressed using the word to; an example would be a sentence that uses the English infinitive, such as Do you want to go? In Hausa, this sentence would be expressed as Kana so ka tafi? (You want you go?). In this sentence, the verb conjugated in the subjunctive is used to express what would be expressed by the infinitive (to go) in English. In grammatical terms, this is somewhat confusing, but it should be fairly clear in the below examples. English Do you want (yourself) to go? Do you want (us) to go? I want to buy this. Hausa
Kana so ka tafi? Kana so mu tafi? Ina so in sayi wannan.

Literal translation You want you go? You want we go? I want I buy this.

6. Listen to the following statements while reading along in the workbook. You must have a ticket to board the train.
Dole ne kana da tikiti in za ka shiga jirgin asa.

You must have a ticket to board the airplane.


Dole ne kana da tikiti in za ka shiga jirgin sama.

Passengers for flight number 25 must go to gate 14.


Fasinjoji na jirgin sama mai lamba 25 ya kamata su tafi ofa 14.

You must pay for your ticket.


Dole ne ka biya kuin tikiti.

Passengers have to wait in the waiting area.


Dole ne fasinjoji su jira a wurin jira.

You have to wait for your luggage at the baggage claim area.
Dole ne ka jira kayanka a wurin amsar kaya.

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7. Fill in the blanks with the correct term from the list below. Check your answers with the Answer Key. Listen! Baggage claim area Express First class Platform Schedule Second class Ticket window Gate
A saurara! Wurin amsar kaya Ujila Faskila Wurin shiga jirgi Takardar tsari Gama-gari Wurin saida tikitoci ofa

A. Tafi ______________ ka yanki tikitoci. B. Za ka iya amsar kayanka a _____________________. C. _________________! Dole ne kowanne fasinja yana da tikiti in zai shiga bas. D. Duba ____________________ domin ka ga yaushe jirginka zai tashi. E. Jirgin ______________ ya fi saui saboda ba ya tsayawa. F. Kowanne jirgi yana isowa _______________ daban. G. Masu tafiya, a saurara! Jirgin sama mai lamba 725 zai tashi daga _____________ A17.

8. For each question below, there is a corresponding answer. Match them by writing the letter of each question on the blank line in front of the appropriate answer. Check your answers with the Answer Key.
A. Ina za ni iya yankan tikitin jirgin daddawa? B. Bas mafi kusa zuwa Kano, yaushe zai tashi? C Nawa ne kuin tikitin faskila zuwa Kaduna? D. Kana son wurin zama dab da taga? 2. ______ Bas mafi kusa zuwa Kano zai tashi bayan minti 20. 3. _____ A wurin saida tikitoci da yake dab da wurin shiga jirgi. 4. _____ Wancan jirgi zai iso wurin 16 bayan minti 10. shiga jirgi mai lamba 1. ________ I, sannu.

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E. Jirgin ijila daga Kano, wane wurin shiga jirga zai iso?

5. _____ Kuinsa CFA 30,000.

9. Role-play the short dialogues from Exercise 8. Change the cities and numbers.

10. What do you hear? Listen to the speaker and determine which statement is spoken. Check your work with the Answer Ky. 1. A You must have a ticket to board the bus. B You must have a ticket to board the ferry. 2. A I need a first-class roundtrip ticket to Niamey. B I need a first-class one-way ticket to Niamey. 3. A. The next express train will depart from platform 15 in 10 minutes. B The next local train will depart from platform 15 in 10 minutes.

At Border Crossings and Roadblocks

11. Listen to these new words and phrases. Border Customs Checkpoint Roadblock Passport Drivers license Documents
Iyaka Kwastan, Duwan (Niger) Wurin duba motoci Wurin tsai da motoci Fasfo Lasin tui Takardu

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Papers ID card Show me Give me Search Inspect Inspection Trunk (of a car) Proceed Rental (car) Citizen

Takardu Katin shaida Nuna mini Ba ni Caje Duba Duba But, Kyas (Niger) Ci gaba Motar haya an asa

12. At roadblocks and border crossings, officials usually ask questions about driver identification and vehicle documents. Try to match the Hausa border crossing requests and questions with their English equivalents. Check your work with the Answer Key.
1. Nuna mini takardun motarka. 2. Ba ni fasfonka. 3. Daga ina kake. 4. Saboda mi kake bukata ka tafi can? 5. Ba ni lasin tuinka. 6. Kana da katin shaida? A Give me your drivers license. B Do you have an ID card? C Why do you need to go there? D Show me your car papers. E Give me your passport. F Where are you from?

13. Listen to and read the following dialogue at a border crossing, and then answer the questions below. Try to guess the meaning of unknown words from the context. Check your work with the Answer Key.

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Maaikacin kwastan Direba Maaikaci Direba Maaikaci Direba Maaikaci Direba Maaikaci Direba Maaikaci Direba Maaikaci Direba Maaikaci

Ba ni fasfonka da lasin tui. To. Kai mutumin Amirka ne? I. Kana da takardun mota. I. Motar haya ce. Ina za ka? amai za ni. Kwana nawa za ka yi a can? Kwana goma. Mi za ka yi can? Zan ziyarci dangi. Ka bue but. Muna bukata mu caje mota. To. To, an gode. Ka ci gaba.

Did you understand the words trunk and search? A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Where is the driver from? Does the driver own the vehicle he is driving? Where is the driver going? Why is he going there? How long will he be there? What does the guard ask the driver to do at the end? Why?

14. Work with a partner. Take turns role-playing the Customs Official and the Car Driver.

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End-of-Lesson Tasks 1. Translate the following sentences into English. Check your work with the Answer Key.
A. Ina bukata in yanki tikitin tafiya da dawowa zuwa Kaduna. Zan tashi a rana 12 ga watan Nuwamba kuma zan dawo a rana 3 ga watan Disamba. Ina so wurin zama da yake dab da taga. B. Wannan jirgin ujila ne? C. Daga wace tasha bas mai zuwa Kaduna yake tashi. D. Jirgi mai lamba 34 zai tashi daga wurin shiga jirgi mai lamba 3 bayan minti 5.

2. Work with a partner or in a small group. Look at the pictures and come up with a story. Do you think these people are arriving or departing? Do you think they are on time? Is their flight late? Mention their name, age, profession, what they are wearing, and where and why they need to fly or where they are arriving from. Also, tell how they got to the airport (by car, by bus, by train).

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Vocabulary List
Arriving/Arrivals Attention! (listen) Travelers Baggage Border Bus station Checkpoint Citizen Customs Delay/ed Departing/Departures Documents Drivers license Express First class Flight Fly Give me ID card Inspect Inspection Inspector To be late One-way On-time Papers Passenger Passport Platform Proceed Rental car Roadblock Roundtrip Schedule Large video screen
Masu isowa/ Masu zowa A saurara! Masu tafiya Kaya Iyaka, Iyakoki (pl.) Tashar Bas, Tashoshin bas (pl.) Wurin duba motoci, Wuraren (pl.) an asa (m.), ar asa (f.), an asa (pl.) Kwastan, Duwan Makara, jinkiri Masu tashi Takardu Lasin tui Ijila Fasakila Jirgi, Jirage (pl.) Tafi cikin jirgin sama, tashi sama Ba ni Katin shaida, Katunan (pl.) Duba, caje Caje Mai duban motoci, Masu (pl.) Makara Zuwa A lokaci Takardu Fasinja, Fasinjoji (pl.) Fasfo Wurin shiga jirgi, Wuraren (pl.) Ci gaba, Motar haya, Motocin (pl.) Wurin tsai da motoci, Wuraren (pl.) Tafiya da dawowa/ Zuwa da dawowa Takardar tsari, Takardun (pl.) Allo na bidiyo, Alluna (pl.)

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Second class Show me . Drivers assistant Local train Ticket The next Ticket window To buy a ticket To board, get in To board, get on To leave, set out, depart To return/come back To pay To accept / receive Baggage Claim To visit Taxi fare Fare for train / plane / bus To arrive (somewhere else) To arrive (where you are) To rest Why? Train station Trunk (of a car) Waiting area Window seat

Gama-gari Nuna mini Karen mota (Literally: Dog of the car) Jirgin daddawa, Jiragen (pl.) Tikiti, Tikitoci (pl.), Tike (Niger) ... mafi kusa Wurin saida tikitoci, Wuraren (pl.) Yanki tikiti/ Sayi tikiti Shiga Hau, Hawa Tashi Dawo, Dawowa Biya Amsa / Kara Wurin amsar kaya, Wuraren (pl.) Ziyarta/ Ziyarci/ Ziyarce Kuin mota Kuin shiga Isa, Isawa Iso, Isowa Huta, Hutawa Saboda mi? / Mi ya sa? / Dommi? Tashar jirgi, Tashoshin (pl.) But, Kyas Wurin jira, Wuraren (pl.) Wurin zama dab da taga

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ANSWER KEY
Activity 5 A B C D E F G H Schedule Ticket Window Platform Ticket Passengers Baggage Gate Waiting area
Takardar tsari Wurin saida tikitoci Wurin shiga jirgi Tikiti Fasinjoji Kaya ofa Wurin jira

Activity 7
A. Wurin saida tikitoci B. Wurin amsar kaya C. A saurara! D. Takardar tsari E. Ujila F. Wurin shiga jirgi G. ofa

Go to the ticket window to buy the tickets. You can get your baggage at the baggage claim area. Attention! All passengers must have a ticket to board the bus. Check the schedule to find out when your flight departs. The express train is faster because it does not make local stops. Each train arrives at a different platform. Attention, passengers! Flight #725 is departing from gate A17.

A. Tafi ______________ ka yanki tikitoci. B. Za ka iya amsar kayanka a _____________________. C. _________________! Dole ne kowanne fasinja yana da tikiti in zai shiga bas. D. Duba ____________________ domin ka ga yaushe jirginka zai tashi. E. Jirgin ______________ ya fi saui saboda ba ya tsayawa. F. Kowanne jirgi yana isowa _______________ daban. G. Masu tafiya, a saurara! Jirgin sama mai lamba 725 zai tashi daga _____________ A17.

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Activity 8 1. D. Do you want a window seat? Yes, please 2. B. When is the next bus to Kano? The next bus to Kano departs in 20 minutes. 3. A. Where can I buy a local train ticket? At the ticket window next to platform one. 4. E. At which platform is the express train from Kano arriving? That train will arrive at platform 16 in ten minutes. 5. C. How much is a first class ticket to Kaduna. It is 64 dollars.

D. Kana son wurin zama dab da taga? B. Bas mafi kusa zuwa Kano, yaushe zai tashi? A. Ina za ni iya yankan tikitin jirgin daddawa? E. Jirgin ijila daga Kano, wane wurin shiga jirga zai iso? C. Nawa ne kuin tikitin faskila zuwa Kaduna?

1. ________ I, sannu. 2. ______ Bas mafi kusa zuwa Kano zai tashi bayan minti 20. 3. _____ A wurin saida tikitoci da yake dab da wurin shiga jirgi. 4. _____ Wancan jirgi zai iso wurin shiga jirgi mai lamba 16 bayan minti 10. 5. _____ Kuinsa CFA 30,000.

Activity 10 1. A You must have a ticket to board the bus.


A. Dole ne kana da tikiti in za ka shiga bas.

2. B I need a first-class one-way ticket to Niamey.


B. Ina bukata tikiti zuwa Niamey.

3. A. The next express train will depart from platform 15 in 10 minutes.


A. Jirgin asa ujila mafi kusa zai tashi daga 15 nan da minti 10.

Activity 12
1. Nuna mini takardun motarka. 2. Ba ni fasfonka. 3. Daga ina kake. 4. Saboda mi kake bukata ka tafi can? D Show me your car papers. E Give me your passport. F Where are you from? C Why do you need to go there?

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5. Ba ni lasin tuinka. 6. Kana da katin shaida?

A Give me your drivers license B Do you have an ID card?

Activity 13 A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Where is the driver from? U.S. Does the driver own the vehicle he is driving? No, it is a rental car. Where is the driver going? Niamey Why is he going there? To visit family How long will he be there? Ten days What does the guard ask the driver to do at the end? Open the trunk Why? To do an inspection
Maaikacin kwastan Direba Maaikaci Direba Maaikaci Direba Maaikaci Direba Maaikaci Direba Maaikaci Direba Maaikaci Direba Maaikaci Ba ni fasfonka da lasin tui. To. Kai mutumin Amirka ne? I. Kana da takardun mota. I. Motar haya ce. Ina za ka? amai za ni. Kwana nawa za ka yi a can? Kwana goma. Mi za ka yi can? Zan ziyarci dangi. Ka bue but. Muna bukata mu caje mota. To. To, an gode. Ka ci gaba.

End of Lesson Tasks Activity 1 A. I need to buy a roundtrip ticket to Kaduna, please. I leave on November 12 and return on December 3. I want a window seat. B. Is this an express train? C. What platform does the bus to Kaduna leave from? D. Train 34 is departing from platform three in five minutes.

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A. Ina bukata in yanki tikitin tafiya da dawowa zuwa Kaduna. Zan tashi a rana 12 ga watan Nuwamba kuma zan dawo a rana 3 ga watan Disamba. Ina so wurin zama da yake dab da taga. B. Wannan jirgin ujila ne? C. Daga wace tasha bas mai zuwa Kaduna yake tashi. D. Jirgi mai lamba 34 zai tashi daga wurin shiga jirgi mai lamba 3 bayan minti 5.

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Lesson 15 At School A Makaranta

This lesson will introduce you to the following: - Vocabulary related to classroom activities - Vocabulary related to being a student - The education system in Nigeria and Niger.

Education
The educational systems in Niger and Nigeria reflect two different colonial pasts. While education in Nigeria is based upon the English system of education that was inherited from England during colonial rule, education in Niger is based upon the French system. The border between Niger and Nigeria was once the border between French West Africa and English West Africa. In Niger, all education continues to be conducted in French, while in Nigeria it is in English. All of the terminology is different, as are the texts used and the methods employed. In Nigeria, the school year runs January through December. There are three quarters, with a one month break between each. English is the language of instruction, although some local languages are taught. Uniforms are required. For those who go on to university, there are a number of

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universities in Nigeria. Nigeria is attempting to create a situation in which a basic education is a universal obligation, but currently only about 65 percent of school age children are enrolled in school, and the adult literacy rate is about the same. In Niger, the schools run on a schedule that much more closely mirrors the American schedule. School starts in September or October, unless the teachers are on strike (a common situation) in which case the start of school may be delayed for months. Education is conducted in French, although there is some experimentation with using local languages and even Arabic. Primary level education is officially compulsory, but in reality the enrollment rate in primary school stands at about 25 percent of the school age children. The adult literacy rate is under 20 percent. Throughout the Hausa speaking world, the Western educational system is still in some ways a newcomer to the area. The Islamic education system, centered on the traditional madrasas, predates the Western system by several centuries and is seen by Hausas as the native form of education. This education system is one in which children (especially young men) are sent to a makaranta where a malam teaches them to recite the Quran and provides some explanation of the meaning of the versesalthough not always full translations. This is an accepted form of education, which is encouraged but is not officially accepted as a replacement for state education. Because of this traditional use of the word makaranta, the Western style school is often distinguished from the traditional one by use of the term boko (secular).

1. Familiarize yourself with the new vocabulary. Listen to the speaker and read the following text under each of the pictures.

A student writes on the blackboard with chalk.


aliba tana rubuta wani abu a kan allo da alli.

A student raises her hand to ask a question.


aliba ta aga hannunta domin ta yi tambaya.

A teacher teaches students math.


Malami yana koya wa alibai lissafi.

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Students study chemistry in middle school.


alibai suna koyon kimiyyar harhaa magunguna a makaranta.

First grade students read a textbook.


aliban aji na aya suna karanta littafi.

Students will study art in this class.


alibai za su koyi fasahar zane-zane cikin wannan aji.

There is a book, a notebook, and a calculator.


Akwai littafi, littafin rubutu, da naurar lissafi.

There is a desk and a chair in the classroom.


Akwai teburin rubutu da kujera cikin wannan akin aji.

Students write with pens and pencils.


alibai suna rubutawa da biruna da fensirori.

2. Work with a partner. Look around the classroom. Name the items you see. Class Desk Chair Blackboard Chalk Pen Pencil Notebook Computer Printer
Aji Teburin rubutu Kujera Babban allo Alli Biro Fesur Littafin rubutu Naura mai wawalwa Mai buga takardu

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Keyboard Monitor Teacher Student

Tafintar kwanfyuta Allon Kwanfyuta Malami (m.), Malama (f.) alibi (m.), aliba (f.)

3. Working with a partner, name the items you bring with you to class and the items found in your classroom.

Naura mai wawalwa

Babban Allo

Gulob

LIttafi

Naurar lissafi

Kasat

4. Listen to the dialogue while you read along in the workbook. Underline the new vocabulary. What is your name?
Yaya sunanka?

My name is Salisu.
Sunana Salisu.

How old are you?


Shekara nawa gareka?

I am 16 years old.
Ina da shekara 16.

What grade are you in? Wane aji ne kake ciki?

I am in 10th grade.
Ina cikin aji na 10.

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What subjects do you study?


Waanne fannoni kake karatu?

Math, biology, music, literature, and history.


Lissafi, ilimin halittu, kii da waa, adabi, da tarihi.

What is your favorite subject?


Wane fanni ka fi so?

My favorite subject is biology.


Ilimin halittu ne wanda na fi so.

Are you a good student?


Kai kyakyawan alibi ne?

Yes, Im a good student.


I, ni kyakyawan alibi ne.

What will you do after school?


Mi za ka yi bayan makaranta?

I will go to the college; I want to be a doctor.


Zan tafi jamia; ina so in zama likita.

What do you like to do after school?


Mi kake son yi bayan ka sauka daga makaranta?

After school I like to listen to music.


Bayan makaranta ina son sauraron waa da kii.

5. Read along while listening to some of the new words you might have underlined in Exercise 4. Grade Subject My favorite Math Biology Music Literature History College Like Listen to
Aji Fanni Wanda na fi so Lissafi Ilimin halittu Waa da kii Adabi Tarihi Jamia So Saurara

The Verb fi (Comparatives and Superlatives) In this chapter, we have introduced some new vocabulary for expressing likes and dislikes in Hausa. When discussing likes and dislikes, it is important to be able to express that you like one thing more that another. To do this in Hausa, requires use of the verb fi. This word can be somewhat awkward at first for an English speaker, but once learned it is simple to use. Essentially the verb fi translates as to exceed, and it modifies a word that usually follows it. In this way, it expresses what would be expressed in English using a comparative or superlative. See below some examples of the various uses of this word. 234

English Math is harder than Literature. I prefer this one. This one is the best.

Hausa
Lissafi ya fi Adabi wuya. Na fi son wannan. Wannan shi ne wanda ya fi.

Studying is harder than farming. Karatu ya fi noma wuya. I am taller than you.
Na fi ka tsawo.

Literal Translation Math exceeds literature in difficulty. I exceed in liking this one. This one is the one that exceeds. Studying exceeds farming in difficulty. I exceed you in height.

Note that generally speaking, the past tense is used in these sentences, even when it is placed in the present. You should also be able to recognize the word mafi (the most ), which is a conjunction of the prefix ma- (the owner of, that which) and fi. Note that if what is being described is feminine, mafi becomes mafiya. Here are a few examples. English The kindest person The longest road The most expensive Hausa
Mutum mafi kirki Hanya mafiya tsawo Mafi tsada

Likes and Dislikes The most common word for expressing that you like something is so. This word expresses both to like and to love. There are also a few other terms that are used to express similar concepts. See the below examples. English I like this music. She made a big impression on me! I like her. / I love her. Hausa Ina jin dain wannan kii.
Ta burge ni sosai! Ina son ta.

Literal Translation I feel the goodness of this music. She impressed me a lot!

6. Work with a partner. Make up a dialogue similar to the one in Exercise 4. List your favorite subjects, say how good you think you are at each of them, tell what profession you are going to choose, and say what you like to do after school.

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7. Familiarize yourself with the new vocabulary. Listen to the speaker as you go over the dialogue. A. Listen to the recording and take notes.
A. A saurara magana kuma a rubuta abubuwan lura da ke ciki.

B. Put your pencils down.


B. Ajiye fensirorinku.

C. Write your answer on the blackboard.


C. A rubuta amsarka a allo.

D. Open your textbooks.


D. Bue littattafanku.

E. Raise your hand if you have a question.


E. In kana da tambaya, sai ka aga hannunka.

F. Write down the homework.


F. A rubuta aikin gida.

8. Role-play s a teacher. Have the students follow your directions. Use the expressions from Exercise 7.

9. Listen to the following questions and mark the answers that you hear. Check your answers with the Answer Key.
1. Mi kake yi a makaranta?

A. I read the textbooks at school. B. I write letters and numbers in Hausa. C. I study many subjects.
2. Wane aji ne kake ciki?

A. I am in 5th grade. B. I am in 6th grade. C. I am in 8th grade.

3. Waanne fannoni kake karatu?

A. Math, Hausa, science, geography, and English. B. Math, history, science, geography, and English. C. Math, chemistry, science, geography, and English.
4. Wane fanni ka fi so?

A. English B. Geography C. Science

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5. Kai kyakyawan alibi ne?

A. Im very good at English, but Im bad at math. B. Im very good at geography, but Im bad at math. C. Im very good at chemistry, but Im bad at math.

10. Work with a partner and make up similar dialogues using expressions from Exercise 9. 11. Work in small groups and describe the following pictures. Come up with ages for the students and the teacher, their names, the subjects they study/teach, what theyre doing right now, what they are wearing, if they seem to like their class and their teacher, etc.

12. Listen to and read the following text about the students schedule, and then answer the questions below. The new word busy is introduced in the text. Try to guess this and other new words from the context. Check your answers with the Answer Key.
Sunana Aminatu Ayuba. Ni aliba ce a Jamiar Kaduna. Ina karatun Inglishi. Ina so in zama tafinta. Kullum ina da ayyuka dayawa. Ranaikun Litinin da Laraba da Jumaa nikan tashi zuwa makaranta a arfe takwas da safe. In na sauka daga makaranta, a arfe huu da marece, ina tafiya aiki. Ina aiki kamar sabis a wani gidan abinci. Bayan na sauka daga aiki a arfe goma da dare, sai na koma gida. Ranaikun Talata da Alhamis ina tafiya makaranta a arfe 10 da safe. Bayan makaranta, a arfe 12 ina tafiya gidan littattafai. Ina yin karatu a gidan littattafai awa ukku da rana. Ina yin aikin gida da safe kuma a arshen mako, watau Asabar da Lahadi.

A. B. C. D. E.

What is the students name? Where does she go to school? What does she study? What is her school schedule on Monday, Wednesday and Friday? What is her schedule on Tuesday and Thursday?

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F. What job does she have and when does she work? G. When does the student do homework? H. What does the student want to do after finishing school?

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End-of-Leson Tasks 1. Go over the text from Exercise 12 again. Tell the class about your schedule. Use the questions after the text as an outline for your story.

2. Look at the pictures and tell a story about what you see. Include the grade the students are in, the subjects they are studying, what the teacher is doing, what the students and teachers are wearing, and so on.

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3. Read and compare the following texts and find the errors in the English translations. Make corrections so that the translation is accurate. Check your work with the Answer Key.
1. A. Sunana Ali Isaka. Daga Kano nike, amma yanzu ina zama a Kaduna. Ina cikin aji na 6 a makaranta. Ina da abokai dayawa. Ina son harshen Inglishi da karatu da kuma wasan wallon kwando.

B. My name is Ali Isaka. Im from Kano, but now I live in Kaduna. Im in fifth grade. I have many friends. I like music, reading, and basketball.
2. A. Sunana Yau Muhammadu. Daga Matamai nike, amma ina zama a amai. Ina son koyon lissafi da kimiyya.

B. My name is Yau Muhammadu. Im from Magaria, but I live in Niamey. I like math and geography.
3. A. Sunana Hadiza. An haifeni a ranar 8 ga watan Afrilu a shekara 1989. Ina cikin aji na 8 a makaranta. Ina son aji na kii da waa, da na fasahar zane-zane, da na aukar hotuta. Ina so in zama mai zane, ko likita, ko mai aukar hotuna.

B. My name is Hadiza. I was born on August 4, 1989. Im in the ninth grade. I like music class and photography. I want to be a doctor or a photographer.

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Vocabulary List
Art Artist (painting / drawing) Basketball Biology Blackboard I am busy Affair, Business Chair Chalk Chemistry Class College/University Computer Desk Globe Elementary School English Grade High School Secular / Western education History Homework Literature Math Middle School Music Photo Notebook Pen Pencil Photography
Fasahar zane-zane Mai zane Wasan wallon kwando Ilimin halittu Babban allo, Manyan alluna (pl.) Ina harkoki, ina cikin aiki Harka, Harkoki (pl.) Kujera, Kujeru (pl.) Alli, Farin Kasa Kimiyyar harhaa magunguna Aji, Azuzuwa (pl.), Kilas Jamia, Jamioi (pl.) Naura mai wawalwa, Naurori masu wawalwa (pl.), Kwamfyuta Teburin rubutu, Teburorin rubutu (pl.) Gulob, Gwalaf (Niger) Firamare, Firimar (Niger) Inglishi Aji, Azuzuwa (pl.) Sakandare, Lise (Niger) Boko Tarihi Aikin gida Adabi Lissafi Midil, seeje (niger) Kii da waa Hoto, Hotuna (pl.) Littafin rubutu, Littattafan rubutu (pl.) Kaye (niger) Biro, Birori (pl.), Bik (Niger) Fensir, Fensirori (pl.) aukar hotuta

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Reading Student Subject(s) Tape recorder Teacher To like To read Reading To study To write Letter (of alphabet) Number To exceed I like To impress / To make a good impression To prefer Good I can / I am good at When (not in questions) To become As (I worked as a reporter) Which (questions) Listen to the recording and take notes. Put your pencils down. Write your answer on the blackboard. Open your textbooks. Raise your hand! Write down your homework, please That is to say

Karatu alibi (m.), aliba (f.), alibai (pl.) Fanni, Fannoni (pl.) Rakoda, Rakododi (pl.) Malami (m.), Malama (f.), Malamai (pl.) So, Son Karanta Karatu Karanta, Yin karatu Rubuta Bai, Baae (pl.) Lamba, Lambobi (pl.) Fi Ina jin dain Burge Fi so Kyakaywa Na iya In Zama Kamar Wane (m.), Wace (f.), Waanne (pl.) Sauraren nai (sautin da ake ji daga rakoda) kuma rubuta dukan abubuwan lura da ke ciki. Ajiye fensirorinku Rubuta amsoshinka a allo. Bue littattafanku. aga hannunka! Rubuta aikinka na gida. Wato, Watau

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Answer Key
Activity 9
1. Mi kake yi a makaranta? C. Ina karatun fannoni daban daban.

1. What do you do at school? C. I study many subjects. 2. What grade are you in? B. I am in 6th grade.
2. Wane aji ne kake ciki? B. Ina cikin aji na 6. 3. Waanne fannoni kake karatu? A. Lissafi, Hausa, kimiyya, labarin asa, da Inglishi.

3. What subjects are you studying? A. Math, Hausa, science, geography, and English.
4. Wane fanni ka fi so? B. Labarin asa.

4. What is your favorite subject? B. Geography


5. Kai kyakyawan alibi ne? C. Na iya kimiyyar harhaa magunguna sosai, amma ban iya lissafi sosai ba.

5. Are you a good student? C. Im very good at chemistry, but Im bad at math. Activity 12 A. What is the students name? Her name is Aminatu Ayuba. B. Where does she go to school? She goes to Kaduna University. C. What does she study? She studies English. D. What is her school schedule on Monday, Wednesday and Friday? She goes to school from 8:00am until 4:00pm. E. What is her schedule on Tuesday and Thursday? She goes to class at 10am then at 12:00 she goes to the library to study for three hours. F. What job does she have and when does she work? She works as a waitress in a restaurant from 4:00 to 10:00pm on Monday, Wednesday and Friday. G. When does the student do homework? She does homework on weekends and in the mornings. H. What does the student want to do after finishing school? She wants to be an interpreter. My name is Aminatu Ayuba. I am a student at Kaduna University. I study English. I want to be an interpreter. I have a busy schedule. On Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, I go to school at 8:00. After school, at 4:00pm, I go to work. I work at a restaurant as a waitress. After work, at 10 pm, I go home. On Tuesday and Thursday, I go to class at 10am. After school, at 12:00, I go to the library. I study at the library for three hours in the afternoon. I do my homework in the mornings and on the weekends, that is, Saturdays and Sundays.

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Sunana Aminatu Ayuba. Ni aliba ce a Jamiar Kaduna. Ina karatun Inglishi. Ina so in zama tafinta. Kullum ina da ayyuka dayawa. Ranaikun Litinin da Laraba da Jumaa nikan tashi zuwa makaranta a arfe takwas da safe. In na sauka daga makaranta, a arfe huu da marece, ina tafiya aiki. Ina aiki kamar sabis a wani gidan abinci. Bayan na sauka daga aiki a arfe goma da dare, sai na koma gida. Ranaikun Talata da Alhamis ina tafiya makaranta a arfe 10 da safe. Bayan makaranta, a arfe 12 ina tafiya gidan littattafai. Ina yin karatu a gidan littattafai awa ukku da rana. Ina yin aikin gida da safe kuma a arshen mako, watau Asabar da Lahadi.

End of Lesson Tasks Activity 3 Your English translation should be as follows. The terms in bold are the corrected errors. 1. My name is Ali Isaka. Im from Kano, but now I live in Kaduna. Im in sixth grade. I have many friends. I like English language, reading, and basketball. 2. My name is Yau Muhammadu. Im from Matamai, but I live in Niamey. I like math and science. 3. A. My name is Hadiza. I was born on April 8, 1989. Im in 8th grade. I like music class, art, and photography. I want to be an artist, doctor or a photographer.
1. A. Sunana Ali Isaka. Daga Kano nike, amma yanzu ina zama a Kaduna. Ina cikin aji na 6 a makaranta. Ina da abokai dayawa. Ina son harshen Inglishi da karatu da kuma wasan wallon kwando.

2. 2. A. Sunana Yau Muhammadu. Daga Matamai nike, amma ina zama a amai.
Ina son koyon lissafi da kimiyya.

3. 3. A. Sunana Hadiza. An haifeni a ranar 8 ga watan Afrilu a shekara 1989. Ina


cikin aji na 8 a makaranta. Ina son aji na kii da waa, da na fasahar zane-zane, da na aukar hotuta. Ina so in zama mai zane, ko likita, ko mai aukar hotuna.

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Lesson 16 Recreation and Leisure Wasa da Shaatawa

This lesson will introduce you to the following: - Vocabulary related to recreational and leisure activities - Ways to discuss hobbies in Hausa. 1. Read the sentences with the new vocabulary and try to guess the meaning of any unknown words.

Namiji da mace suna rawa. Rawa, ita ce abin da suke yi domin su shaata.

Tana kian biyano kamar sanaa. Makaiyar biyano tana yin kii a wasan kie-kie.

Wannan namiji yana aukar hotuna. Shi mai aukar hoto ne.

Sunansa Andrew. Wasan wallon afa ne abin da yakan yi domin ya shaata.

Waannan maza biyu suna yin dambe a dandali. Dambe ne abin da sukan yi domin su shaata.

Abokiyata Sandy takan yi gudu kowacce rana bayan ta sauka daga karatu.

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anena yana son kokowa. Kokowa ce abin da yake yi domin ya shaata.

In da akwai zafi, yara suna yin iyo kowacce rana a lokacin bazara.

Wannan saurayi yana yin wasan tanis a filin tanis.

anwata tana son yin zane-zane.

Sojoji suna yin karta cikin tanti. Suna jin dain yin karta.

Kullum da marece wannan namiji da matarsa suna yin yawo.

Sojoji biyu suna dara (yin wasan shaaranji). Ita ce abin da sukan yi domin su shaata.

Wannan namiji yana kia garaya tare da yin waa.

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2. Now listen to the speaker. Check to see if your guesses were correct. Repeat the new words as many times as you need to feel comfortable with the pronunciation. Play Cards To ski Hobby To dance Tennis Tennis Court Play piano Musician To take photos Photographer To play guitar To sing Songs Chess To walk To swim Swimming pool To run To wrestle (traditional) Soccer To paint To play the garaya To box (traditional) To play the talking drum To play dara
Yi wasa Karta Yi gudun urwa/ gudun anara Abin da ake yi domin a shaata Yi rawa Wasan tanis Filin tanis Kia biyano Makai (m.), Makaiya (f.) auki hotuna / aukar hotuna Mai aukar hoto Kia garaya Yi waa Waoi Dara / Shaaranji Yi yawo Yi iyo Wurin wanka Gudu Yi kokowa Wasan wallon afa Yi zane-zane Kia garaya Yi dambe Kia kalangu Yi wasan dara

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3. Listen to the dialogues as you read them.


1. Mi za su yi bayan makaranta? A. Za su yi iyo bayan makaranta. B. Za su yi rawa bayan makaranta. C. Za su yi waa bayan makaranta. 2. Wane wasa ne yake yi? A. Yana yin wallon afa da wallon kwando. B. Yana yin wallon afa da wallon raga C. Yana yin wallon afa da tanis. 3. Mi take yi yau? A. Tana yin waa. B. Tana yin zane-zane. C. Tana aukar hotuna. 4. Ka iya shaaranji? Ka iya garaya? Ka iya biyano? 5. Mi kake yi domin ka shaata. A. I, na iya shaaranji. B. Aa, amma na iya biyano. C. I na iya biyano. A. Ina son yin gudu da aukar hotuna. B. Ina son yin karatu da iyo. C. Ina son yin yawo da wasan wallon afa.

4. Work with a partner. Take turns reading the dialogues in Exercise 3.

5. Work with a partner or in a small group. Make up exchanges using the models and phrases from Exercise 3. 6. Reconstruct the questions in Hausa. Check your work with the Answer Key.

A. - .?
- I, na iya shaaranji.

B. - .?
- I, na iya garaya.

C. -?
- Ina yin gudu da aukar hotuna domin in shaata.

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D. - ?
- Yana yin wallon afa da kokowa.

E. - ?
- Ina yin karatu da iyo domin in shaata.

F. - .?
- Tana son yin yawo da kian garaya.

7. Read and translate the following text, noting the new vocabulary. Do you understand all the words in bold? Check the grammar note for some explanations. Check the Answer Key for an English translation. Grammar Notes In the following text, take special note of the following words and how they are used: kuma, zuwa, ma. Kuma generally translates as also or sometimes and. There are some cases in which the difference between kuma and da is subtle, as you will see in the examples below. Kuma also has many other uses that change its meaning. Ma translates as too. Here are some examples:

From one oclock to three oclock. Me too. I also speak French. OR - And I speak French. Also, I speak French. OR - And, I speak French.

Daga arfe aya zuwa arfe ukku. Ni ma. Na kuma iya Faransanci. Kuma na iya Faransanci.

Sunana Amadu Yahayya. Daga Magarya nike a Nijar. Ina yin karatu a Jamiar Amadu Bello a Kano, Nijeriya. Kullum ina da harkoki dayawa, ga karatu ga wasanni. Ina koyon ilimin kwamfiyuta kuma ina cikin tim in wallon afa na Jamia. Ina da azuzuwa daga arfe 8:30 da safe zuwa arfe 3:00 da rana. Bayan haka muna yin faratis in wallon afa kowacce rana daga arfe 4:00 zuwa 6:00 da marece. Ina jin dain yin wasan wallon afa. A arshen mako ma ni da Abokaina mukan yi wallon afa. Ina kuma son yin iyo da kain garayar bature, wato gitar. Ban iya gitar sosai ba. Wannan arshen sati abokaina da ni za mu tafi wani wasa da ake yi a filin wasan Zinder, cikin Nijar. Mawai duk da muka fi so shi zai yi waa. Bayan wasa za mu tafi gidan abinci mu ci abincin dare.

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8. Now read the text as many times as you want and mark the following statements as either True or False. Check your work with the Answer Key.

A. _____Amadu Yahaya is from Magaria, Niger. B. _____He is a high school student at Amadu Bello University in Kano, Nigeria. C. _____ Amadu studies chemistry. D. _____ Amadu plays on the university soccer team. E. _____ He has class every day from 8:30 to 3:00. F. _____ Amadu likes to swim and play the piano. H. _____ After the concert Amadu will go home to do his homework.

9. Work with a partner or in a small group and make up a description of a busy schedule. Use the statements from Exercise 8 as an outline for your story. The pictures given below can help you choose the activities to describe.

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Games, Sports, and Pastimes Few of the games that are common in America are widely known or played in Nigeria and Niger. In fact, soccer is the only game that is really popular in both places. Hausas, however, have their own sports and games that few Americans have ever heard of but which are very popular in the Hausa speaking world. The most popular sport in Hausaland is kokowa, or traditional wrestling. This sport is the main sport of rural villages, where it is performed in the village center, or dandali. Champions from rural matches go to the city for the championship rounds, and it is one of the few undertakings where the rural villagers are able to be truly competitive against the city people. Traditional boxing, or dambe, is practiced in a similar manner in the villages and cities alike. Soccer, or wasan wallon afa, is popular as well. However, in the rural villages, it is more of a pastime for children and young men, and the rules are only loosely followed. It is only practiced in a serious manner in the larger towns and cities. Music is also very different. The traditional instruments that still dominate the scene in Hausa music are completely unlike those that are common in America. In the urban areas, certain Western instruments have long since become popularespecially the guitarbut for the vast majority of Hausas, the traditional instruments remain the ones that are used and seen on a regular basis. Drums, or ganguna, remain the core of Hausa music, and at many events, they are the only instrument. The most popular drum is the talking drum, or kalangu. This instrument is a ubiquitous part of nearly all Hausa events. The most popular instrument other than drums is the garaya, a two stringed guitar made with a gourd. This instrument is often played while singing or to accompany a singer. There are many popular childrens games that are played with nothing but sticks and rocks on the ground. A common adult (young men) game to play is dara. This is a game that has similarities to chess and checkers, but has many variants. Cards, karta, are also popular, but generally among the more educated or urbanized men.

10. Listen to the vocabulary as you look at the pictures. Try to match the Hausa words with the pictures. Check your answers with the Answer Key.

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5
Wurin waha Filin wasa Filin tanis Dandali akin motsa jiki Hanya

11. Read the statements below and think about their meanings. Cross out the words or phrases that do not make sense and replace them with an appropriate word from the list below. Check your work with the Answer Key.

Gymnasium
akin motsa jiki

Stadium
Filin wasa

Village square
Dandali

tennis courts
Filin tanis

swimming pool
Wurin waha

playing field
Filin wasa

A. alibai suna yin wasan wallon raga cikin gida. B. Yara suna yin iyo a filin wasa. C. an mata suna yin gudu a dandali. D. Abokaina suna yin wasan tanis a kan hanya. E. Yara suna yin wasan wallon afa a wurin waha.

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12. Listen to the statements and mark the ones that you hear. Check your answers with the Answer Key. 1. A. She will swim after school. B. She will dance after school. C. She will sing after school. A. He likes to play soccer and basketball. B. He likes to play soccer and volleyball. C. He likes to play soccer and tennis. A. She doesnt sing, but she plays piano. B. She doesnt paint pictures, but she takes photographs. C. She doesnt dance, but she sings. A. Do you play dara? B. Do you play garaya? C. Do you play piano? A. What are your hobbies? B. What are your hobbies? C. What are your hobbies? No, I play checkers. No, I play piano. Yes, I play piano. I like to run and sing. I like to read and dance. I like to walk and play cards.

2.

3.

4.

5.

13. Work with a partner. Look at the pictures and make up dialogues about someones hobbies. Use the models and phrases from Exercise 12.

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End-of-Lesson Tasks. 1. Answer the following questions in Hausa. A. What is your favorite sport or recreational activity? B. How often do you participate in your activity? C. What is your favorite hobby? D. What did you do last weekend? E. What will you do next weekend?

2. Work with a partner or in a small group. In Hausa, describe the pictures below, using the vocabulary you have learned in this lesson.

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Vocabulary List
Cards Chess Computer science Gymnasium Hobby Paint pictures Playing field To dance To play chess To play dara To play cards To play soccer To play guitar (traditional) Guitar (western) Drum To play piano To wrestle (traditional) To box (traditional) To run To sing To ski To swim To take pictures Soccer field Song Stadium Swimming pool Tennis Tennis court Town square Talking Drum While (at the same time) Our favorite singer
Karta, Kwaf (Niger) Shaaranji Ilimin naura mai wawalwa, ilimin kwamfiyuta akin motsa jiki, akunan (pl.) Mashaata / Abin da ake yi domin shaatawa Yin zane-zane Filin wasa, filayen (pl.) Yi rawa Yi shaaranji Yi dara Yi karta Yi wasan wallon afa Kia garaya Garayar bature, Gitar Ganga, Ganguna (pl.) Kia biyano Yi kokowa Yi dambe Yi gudu Yi waa Yi gudun anara Yi iyo auki hotuna Filin wasa, Filayen wasa (pl.) Waa, Waoi (pl.) Filin wasa, filayen (pl.) Wurin waha Tanis Filin tanis, filayen (pl.) Dandali Kalangu, Kalanguna (pl.) Tare da Mawai duk da muka fi so

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Team

Tim (English loanword), ungiya (pure Hausa), ungiyoyi (pl.)

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ANSWER KEY
Activity 6 A. - Kana yin shaaranji?
- I, na iya shaaranji.

B. Ka iya biyano?
- I, na iya garaya.

C. Mi kake yi domin ka shaata?


- Ina yin gudu da aukar hotuna domin in shaata.

D. - Wane wasa ne yake yi?

- Yana yin wallon afa da kokowa.

E. - Mi kake yi domin ka shaata? F. - Mi take son yi?

- Ina yin karatu da iyo domin in shaata. - Tana son yin yawo da kian garaya.

Activity 7 My name is Amadu Yahaya. I am from Magaria. I go to college at Amadu Bello University in Kano, Nigeria. I am very busy with my classes and my hobbies. I study computer science, and I play on the university soccer team. I have class every day from 8:30 to 3:00 in the afternoon. After school I have soccer practice every day from 4:00 to 6:00. I like to play soccer. My friends and I play on the weekends too. I also like to swim and to play the guitar. Im not very good at the guitar. This weekend my friends and I will go to a concert at the stadium in Zinder, Niger. Our favorite singer will sing. After the concert we will go to a restaurant and have dinner.
Sunana Amadu Yahayya. Daga Magarya nike a Nijar. Ina yin karatu a Jamiar Amadu Bello a Kano, Nijeriya. Kullum ina da harkoki dayawa, ga karatu ga wasanni. Ina koyon ilimin kwamfiyuta kuma ina cikin tim in wallon afa na Jamia. Ina da azuzuwa daga arfe 8:30 da safe zuwa arfe 3:00 da rana. Bayan haka muna yin faratis in wallon afa kowacce rana daga arfe 4:00 zuwa 6:00 da marece. Ina jin dain yin wasan wallon afa. A arshen mako ma ni da Abokaina mukan yi wallon afa. Ina kuma son yin iyo da kain garayar bature, wato gitar. Ban iya gitar sosai ba. Wannan arshen sati abokaina da ni za mu tafi wani wasa da ake yi a filin wasan Zinder, cikin Nijar. Mawai duk da muka fi so shi zai yi waa. Bayan wasa za mu tafi gidan abinci mu ci abincin dare.

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Activity 8 A. B. C. D. E. F. H. T Amadu Yahaya is from Magaria, Niger. F He is a high school student at Amadu Bello University in Kano, Nigeria. F Amadu studies chemistry. T Amadu plays on the university soccer team. T He had class every day from 8:30 to 3:00. F Amadu likes to swim and play the piano. F After the concert, Amadu will go home to do his homework.

Activity 10 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Village Square Gymnasium Soccer field Road Swimming pool Tennis court
Dandali akin motsa jiki Filin wasa Hanya Wurin Waha Filin tanis

Activity 11
A. alibai suna yin wasan wallon raga a akin motsa jiki.

A. The students play volleyball in the gymnasium.


B. Yara suna yin iyo a wurin waha.

B. The children swim in the swimming pool.


C. an mata suna yin gudu a kan hanya.

C. The girls go running on the road.


D. Abokana suna yin wasan tanis a filin tanis.

D. My friends play tennis at the tennis court.


E. Yara suna yin wasan wallon afa a filin wasa.

E. The kids are playing soccer in the playing field. Activity 12 1. 2. 3. 4. C. She will sing after school.
Za ta yi waa bayan makaranta.

A. He likes to play soccer and basketball.


Yana son wasan wallon afa da wallon kwando.

B. She doesnt paint pictures, but she takes photographs.


Ba ta yi zane-zane, amma tana aukar hotuna.)

B. Do you play garaya?


Ka iya kiin garaya?

No, I play piano.


Aa, amma na iya biyano.

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5.

B. What are your hobbies?


Mi kake yi kamar abin shaatawa?

I like to read and dance.


Ina jin dain yin karatu da rawa.

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Lesson 17 Health and the Human Body Lafiya da Jikin Mutum

This lesson will introduce you to the following: Vocabulary related to the human body Asking questions about a persons state of health Answering questions about health conditions Typical exchanges at the doctors office

1. Listen as the speaker recites the vocabulary. Then study the diagram and match the Hausa terms for each body part with the diagram. Abdomen Arm Back Chest Chin Ear Elbow Eye Face Fingers Foot/Feet Genitals Groin Hair Hand Head Heart Hip Knee Leg Mouth
Ciki, Tumbi Hannu Baya irji Haa Kunne Gwiwar hannu Ido Fuska Yatsu afa / afafuwa Alaura Kwankwaso Gashi Hannu Kai Zuciya uwawu Gwiwa afa Baki

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Neck Nose Pelvis Shoulder Stomach Toes Tooth/Teeth Waist

Wuya Hanci Kwatangwalo Kafaa Ciki Yatsun afa Haori / Haora ugu, Gindi

2. In Hausa, name the body parts that come in pairs. Check your work with the Answer Key. 3. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate body part in Hausa. Check your answers with the Answer Key. Idanu Kunnuwa afafuwa Zuciya Kai Hannuwa Wuya Baki

A. I use my ____________ to read a book. B. I listen to music with my _____________. C. Walking is good for my ____________. D. I wear shoes and socks on my _____________. E. In the winter, I wear a hat on my __________, gloves on my ___________ , and a scarf around my __________. F. I eat and drink with my __________________.

Talking About Health In Hausa culture, there is a lot of talk about health. Many of the standard greetings involve asking the person how his or her health is. For instance, the greeting kana lafiya literally means You are in health? and many other greetings carry this same meaning. It is also an unfortunate fact of life in the Hausa speaking world that poor health is a very common occurrence, and so it is important to be able to talk about health. Health is often spoken of very openly in Hausa culture. It is important, however, to understand a few of the nuances of these discussions. For instance, when a person inquires about your health in the form of a greeting, it is normal to answer that you are well even if you are on deaths door. Only after the greeting phase of the conversation has passed will a person reiterate the question in hope of a real answer. Also,

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it is very important in Hausa culture to go and greet anybody you know who is sick. The Western habit of leaving the sick person alone does not apply in Hausa culture. If you are sick, you can expect all of your acquaintances and neighbors to come and inquire about your health. In fact, it would be rude if they didnt. The same will be expected of you. See below some common phrases about health with explanatory notes.

How are you?

Ina lafiya? / Yaya lafiya?

This is generally just a greeting to which you just answer lafiya lau. This is usually asked of a person who is known to be sick. The person will then answer jiki da saui (the body is getting better) or jiki ya yi saui as a courtesy. Only after further inquiry will you talk about what is really wrong. This is similar to the above question, but it is asked of someone who is known to have a loved one who is ill. Note how jin jiki is an idiomatic phrase meaning to feel ill. Note that this phrase can mean either I am not feeling well or I am not happy, depending on context. Literally to drink medicine.

How is the body?

Ina jiki?

How is the sick one?

Ina mai jiki?

is somewhat better. Are you feeling ill?

da saui-saui. Kana jin jikinka?

I am not felling well.

Ba ni jin dai.

To take medicine

Sha magani

Here is a short dialogue that portrays a typical house visit to someone who is not feeling well. Ali: Salama alekum. Usman (mai jiki): Wa alekum assalam Ali: Ina wuni? Usman: Lafiya lau. Salama alekum Wa alekum assalam How are you? Good.

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Ali: Ina jiki? Usman: Jiki ya yi saui. Ali: Allah ya ara saui. Usman : Amin, amin. Ali : Allah ya ara saui. Usman : Amin, amin, amin. Ali : Mi ya sameka ne ? Usman : Zazzai ne. Ali : Kai ! Babu dai! Usman: Wallai! Ali: Ka sha magani? Usman: Aa ban sha ba. Ali: To, mi ya sa ba ka sha magani ba? Usman: Wallai, ba ni da kuinsa. Da ina da
kui, da sai in sayi magani, amma babu.

How is the body? It is getting better. May God add to that. Amen, Amen. May God add to that. Amen, amen, amen. What do you have? Yes, its a fever. Oh ! Thats no fun ! Seriously ! Did you take any medicine? No, I didnt take any. Well, why didnt you take any medicine? Seriously, I dont have the money. If I had the money, I would buy medicine, but I dont have any. Oh, well, hold on. Ill go buy you some. Ok, thank you. Oh no, not a problem. Thank you very much. No problem. See you when I get back.

Ali: Ai, to, bari in je in sayo maka magani. Usman: To na gode. Ali: Aa, ba komi. Usman: Na gode sosai. Ali: Ba komi, sai na dawo.

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Usman: To sai ka dawo.

Ok, see you then.

Here are some additional question and responses. How do you feel?
Yaya jiki?

I feel sick.
Ba ni da lafiya.

I feel weak right now.


Ba ni da arfi yanzu.

I feel bad.
Ba ni jin dai.

What symptoms do you have?


Mine ne alamun rishin lafiyarka?

I have a sore throat.


Ina da ciwon wuya.

I have a fever.
Ina da zazzai.

I have a headache.
Ina da ciwon kai.

Where does it hurt?


Ina yake maka ciwo.

My left ankle hurts.


afata ta hagu tana yi mini ciwo.

My back hurts.
Ina da ciwon baya.

My stomach hurts.
Ina da ciwon ciki.

4. Listen to the following questions and answers, and read along in the workbook. A. How do you feel?
A. Ina jiki?

I feel sick.
Ba ni da lafiya.

B. What is the matter with her?


B. Mi yake mata ciwo?

Her leg hurts.


Tana da ciwon afa.

C. How do you feel?


C. Ina jiki?

My head hurts.
Ina da ciwon kai.

D. Are you in pain?


D. Kana jin ciwo?

Yes, my arm is broken.


I, hannuna ya karya.

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E. Where does it hurt?


E. Ina kake jin ciwo?

My stomach hurts.
Ina jin ciwon a ciki.

F. Are you sick?


F. Ba ka da lafiya ne?

No, Im pregnant.
Aa, ina da ciki ne.

G. Are you OK?


G. Lafiya?

I dont feel good. I feel nauseous and have a stomachache.


Ba ni jin dai. Ina jin tashin zuciya da ciwon ciki.

H. Are you taking any medication?


H. Kana shan magani?

Yes, over-the-counter ones.


I, waanda ake saya a kasuwa.

5. Work with a partner and role-play the dialogues from Exercise 4. 6. Match each picture with the corresponding statement. Check your work with the Answer Key.

1. Mace ba ta da rishin lafiya. Ta auki ciki ne. 2. Yarinya tana da zazzai, ciwon wuya, da tsamin jiki, kuma tana yin attishawa da tari. Sanyi-jiri ne ya kama ta. 3. Yaro yana da tashin zuciya da ciwon ciki.

7. Work with a partner. Role-play the doctor and patient. Use the questions from Exercise 5 as a model. Use the phrases from Exercise 6 to describe your symptoms.

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8. Listen to and read the list of the typical symptoms for each ailment. Flu Fever Congestion (mucus) Sore throat Body aches Sneezing Coughing Head cold Congestion Sore Throat Sneezing Coughing Severe Pain Broken Bone Swelling Bruise Bleeding Sprain Swelling Pain
Sanyi-jiri Zazzai Majina Ciwon wuya Tsamin jiki Attishawa Tari Mura Majina Ciwon wuya Attishawa Tari Tsananin ciwo Karyayyan ashi Kumburi urma Zubar jini Targae, gure Kumburi Ciwo

9. Look at the chart of symptoms in Exercise 8. Work with a partner or in a small group and develop questions the doctor might ask about ones symptoms in order to diagnose the problem. Use the following model to create a dialogue. Model: Do you have fever? No, I dont. Do you have a cough and body aches? No, doctor. Thats very good. You dont have the flu. Its a cold. Thank you, doctor. You are welcome.

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Conversion of Measurements 1 foot = 30 centimeters 1 inch = 2.5 centimeters 100 centimeters = 1 meter 1 pound = 0.454 kilograms
afa 1 = santimeta 30 inci 1 = santimeta 2.5 santimeta 100 = meta 1 laba 1 = kilo 0.454

- How tall is he, and how much does he weigh? - Mine ne tsawonsa, kuma mine ne nauyinsa. - He is 175 centimeters tall and weighs 90 kilograms. - Tsawonsa santimeta 175 kuma nauyinsa kilo 90. - How tall are you? How much do you weigh? - Mine ne tsawonka? Mine ne nauyinka? - I am 160 centimeters tall and weigh 60 kilograms. - Tsawona santimeta 160, kuma nauyina kilo 60. 10. Work with a partner. Take turns asking each other about your height and weight. Do not forget to use the units of measure appropriate for Niger and Nigeria.

11. Listen to the speaker while you read the statements below. Translate each exchange. You can check the English translation in the Answer Key.
A. Yaya kake jin jikinka? - Ba ni jin dai. Akwai tashin zuciya. B. Yaya kike jin jikinki? - Lafiya lau, amma da tashin zuciya kaan. C. Yaya kake jin jikinka? - Ba ni lafiya, amma babu tashin zuciya. D. Ina tsammani na karya afata. Don Allah a kira motar asibiti! E. Ina tsammani ya karya afarsa. Don Allah a kira motar asibiti! F. Ya karya afarsa ne ? I, ina tsammani. Don Allah a kira motar asibiti!

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12. What do you hear? Listen to the speaker and mark the statement that you hear. Check your work with the Answer Key. 1. A. Where does it hurt? My stomach hurts. B. Where does it hurt? My back hurts. C. Where does it hurt? My neck hurts. 2. A. What are your symptoms? I have a fever and a headache. B. What are your symptoms? I have a fever and a stomachache. C. What are your symptoms? I have a fever and my body aches. A. How do you feel? I dont feel well. Im nauseous. B. How do you feel? I feel fine, but Im a little nauseous. C. How do you feel? I dont feel well, but Im not nauseous.

3.

4. A. I think I broke my leg. Please call an ambulance! B. I think he broke his leg. Please call an ambulance! C. Did he break his leg? I think so, please call an ambulance!

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End-of-Lesson Tasks 1. Ask and answer the following questions in Hausa. Check the Answer Key for a translation of the questions. A. B. C. D. E. When you have the flu, what are your symptoms? Are you taking any medications? Have you ever broken a bone? If yes, which one(s)? What is your height and weight? How often do you see a doctor? Every month? Every year? Every 3 years?

2. Tell the class what you do in order to keep a healthy weight? Do you exercise? What types of exercise do you do? How often and for how long do you exercise? Do you have a special diet? What kind? What do you eat and not eat? Give an example of your menu. What do you order when you eat out? How does it affect your diet the next day?

3. Work with a partner or in a small group. Describe the picture below.

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Vocabulary List
Allergy Ambulance Arm Forearm Chest Chin Are you in pain? Are you taking any medication? Body aches Broken bone Bruise Call an ambulance! Congestion Coughing Ear Elbow Eye Finger Foot Feel Fever Flu/Influenza Hand Head Hip Knee Help! How do you feel? Hurt, Pain Leg Thigh Calf Mouth Nose
Saminya (Rishin lafiyar a ci wani abu ko a taa shi). Motar asibiti, Motocin asibiti (pl.), Ambulan Hannu, Hannuwa (pl.) Damtse, Damatsa (pl.) irji Haa, Haoi Kana jin ciwo? Kana shan wani magani? Tsamin jiki Karyayyan ashi urma, Je-ka-huda A kira motar asibiti! Mura Tari Kunne, Kunnuwa (pl.) Gwiwar hannu, Gwiwowin hannu (pl.) Ido, Idanu (pl.) Yatsa, Yatsu (pl.) afa, afufuwa (pl.) Ji Zazzai Sanyi-jiri Hannu, Hannuwa (pl.) Kai, Kawuna (pl.) uwawu, uwaiwai (pl.) Gwiwa, Gwiwowi (pl.) A taimakeni! Yaya kake jin jikinka? Ciwo, Ciwace-ciwace (pl.) afa, afafuwa Cinya, Cinyoyi Sha-raa Baki, Bakuna Hanci, Hantuna

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Neck Medicine Nausea Pain Pregnant To get pregnant Shoulder Toe Waist Sick Sneezing Sore throat Stomach Stomach cramps Cramps (pregnancy) Strain Swelling (noun) To swell Symptoms Illness (general) What is the matter? Where does it hurt? Centimeter To buy and bring back Betterness (noun) To add To take medicine Medicine Time (one time ) Coughing To return See you when I get back. How are you feeling? I caught a cold.

Wuya, Wuyoyi Magani, Magunguna Tashin zuciya Ciwo Mai ciki, da ciki auki ciki Kafaa, Kafau Yatsar afa, Yatsun afa (pl.) Gindi, ugu (esp. with clothes) Rishin lafiya, marar lafiya Attishawa Ciwon wuya Ciki, Cikkuna (pl.) Murar ciki Ciwon mara Gure Kumburi Kumbura Alama, Alamu (pl.), Bayyanar cuta Rishin lafiya Mi ya sameka? Ina yake maka ciwo? Santimeta Sayo Saui ara Sha magani Magani Sau Tari Dawo Sai na dawo. Yaya kake jin jikinka? Mura ta kama ni.

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ANSWER KEY
Activity 2
Kunnuwa Gwiwowin hannu Idanuwa afafuwa Hannuwa Gwiwowi Kafau Hannuwa afafuwa uwaiwai

Activity 3 A. B. C. D. E. F. eyes ears heart feet head, hands, neck mouth


A. Idanu B. Kunnuwa C. Zuciya D. afafuwa E. Kai, hannuwa, wuya F. Baki

Activity 6
A. 2 The little girl has a fever, a sore throat, body aches, and she is sneezing and coughing. She has the flu. (Yarinya tana da zazzai, ciwon wuya, da tsamin jiki, kuma tana yin B. 1 The young woman is not sick. She is pregnant. (Mace ba ta da rishin lafiya. Ta auki C. 3 The little boy is nauseous and has a stomachache. (Yaro yana da tashin zuciya da
ciwon ciki.) ciki ne.) attishawa da tari. Sanyi-jiri ne ya kama ta.)

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Activity 11 A. How do you feel? - I dont feel well. Im nauseous. B. - How do you feel? - I feel fine, but Im a little nauseous. C. How do you feel? - I dont feel well, but Im not nauseous. D. I think I broke my leg. Please call an ambulance! E. I think he broke his leg. Please call an ambulance! F. Did he break his leg? I think so. Please call an ambulance!
A. Yaya kake jin jikinka? - Ba ni jin dai. Akwai tashin zuciya. B. Yaya kike jin jikinki? - Lafiya lau, amma da tashin zuciya kaan. C. Yaya kake jin jikinka? - Ba ni lafiya, amma babu tashin zuciya. D. Ina tsammani na karya afata. Don Allah a kira motar asibiti! E. Ina tsammani ya karya afarsa. Don Allah a kira motar asibiti! F. Ya karya afarsa ne ? I, ina tsammani. Don Allah a kira motar asibiti!

Activity 12 1. B. Where does it hurt? My back hurts.


Ina yake miki ciwo? Ina jin ciwo a baya.

2. 3. 4.

A. What are your symptoms? I have a fever and a headache.


Mine ne alamun rishin lafiyarki? Akwai zazzai da ciwon kai.

A. How do you feel? I dont feel well. Im nauseous.


Yaya kake jin jikinka? Ba ni jin dai. Akwai tashin zuciya.

C. Did he break his leg? I think so, please call an ambulance!


Ya karya afarsa ne? I, ina tsammani. Don Allah a kira motar asibiti!

End-of-Lesson Tasks Activity 1


A. In kana da sanyi-jiri, mine ne alamunsa? B. Kana shan magani? C. Ka taa karya ashi? In ka taa yin haka, wane ashi ne ka karya? D. Mine ne tsawonka da nauyinka? E. Sau nawa kakan tafiya likita? Kowanne wata? Kowacce shekara? Kowaanne shekaru ukku?

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A. B. C. D. E.

When you have the flu, what are your symptoms? Are you taking any medications? Have you ever broken a bone? If yes, which one(s)? What is your height and weight? How often do you see a doctor? Every month? Every year? Every 3 years?

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Lesson 18 Politics and International Affairs Siyasa da Harkokin Waje


This lesson will introduce you to following: - Vocabulary associated with politics and international issues - How they are reported in Hausa news - How to read and understand political events written in Hausa language newspapers.

Politics:
Both Nigeria and Niger are, at least nominally, democratic countries. Democratic institutions are in place and voting takes place at regular intervals. Both of these democracies, however, have their own share of problems. Nigeria is so rife with corruption as to sometimes be referred to as a kleptocracy (rule by theft). Niger has had numerous coups dtat since independence was declared, and more recently an extended rebellion in the northern part of the country. In both countries, there is a constant tension between traditionalist Islam and modernist tendencies, and this tug-of-war has manifested in every election that has taken place. Hausa culture tends to be very traditional, and thus the leaders that have been chosen are usually fairly conservative in their values. Northern Nigeria is known for its more extremist leanings, and often chooses leaders that even their fellows Hausas in Niger find to be frighteningly radical in their ultratraditional Islamic form of governing. Human rights issues continue to be one of the major issues in the Hausa speaking world, at least according to outside observers. Niger is one of the last places in the world still suspected of having traditional hereditary slavery taking place. And, the Tuareg rebels in the north continue to show discontent (often in the form of highway banditry) at the treatment of the northern people of Niger by the government. The Muslim majority in northern Nigeria, meanwhile, is constantly at odds with the wealthier Christian majority in the South, and these tensions frequently flare up in the form of interfaith violence.

1. Familiarize yourself with the political terms. Government Prime minister President Leader Dictator Parliament Ministry Election Officials
Gwamnati Firayim Minista Shugaba Shugaba / magabaci Mai mulkin kama-karya Majalisar dokoki Maaikata Zae Maaikata

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Political Party Vote Republic State (country) Democracy Democratic Term of office Policy Human Rights Religious Racial Radical World Conflict War Invade Nuclear weapons

Jamiyya Yin zae, Jefa uria Jamhuriya asa Dimokaraiya Na dimokaraiya Ajalin iko Siyasa / Manufa Hakkin an Adam Addini Na launin fata Mai tsaurin raayi Duniya Rikici, Rigima Yai Kai wa hari Makamashin nukiliya

2. Listen to and read the following terms and statements. While reading, note the use of new vocabulary. The Iraqi leader The Russian officials The South African government Religious differences Middle East conflict The war in Iraq The radical political party Islamic fundamentalism
Shugaban Irai Jamian Rasha Gwamnatin Afirka ta Kudu Bambance-bambancen addini Rikici a gabas ta tsakiya Yai cikin Irai Jamiyyar siyasa mai tsaurin raayi Musulumci na masu raayin riau

The President of the United States is George Bush.


George Bush, shi ne shugaban Amirka.

Japan and Great Britain have prime ministers.


Japan da Ingila suna da firayim ministoci.

This was the first political election in that country.


Wannan shi ne zae na farko a wannan asa.

Human rights are a very important issue in the world today.


Hakkokin an Adam lamiri ne mai muhimmancin gaske a duniya yau.

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The News:
The news in Nigeria is generally reported and written in English, while in Niger it is in French. There are a few Hausa language newspapers in Nigeria, as well as some Hausa language radio stations in Nigeria and Niger. One of the main sources of news for the Hausa speaking public, however, is shortwave radio. In any Hausa village, you can expect to hear the familiar theme songs of BBC, Deutsche Welle, and Voice of America, as people tune in to the Hausa language reports several times a day. The British, German, American, Chinese, and Iranian national radio stations all broadcast daily Hausa language programming to Africa via shortwave. Hausa news reporters generally have a very specific tone and cadence to their speech that is easily recognized to a Hausa speaker as radio speech. There are also some words and expressions that are common on these international news broadcasts that are not part of everyday speech for most Hausas. It is sometimes seen as a dialect of its own, referred to playfully as Bibisanci, meaning the language of the BBC (British Broadcasting Network). One very noticeable characteristic of this style of speech is that rather than borrowing a word from English or French, the news stations will seek out a genuine Hausa term even at the expense of using less common terminology. This is done intentionally in order to strengthen the Hausa language as it attempts to adapt to new situations and technology. However, this can sometimes result in a language that is quite unlike what is normally used on the street. That being said, however, you will notice many words relating to politics that are clearly derived from English but have become so integrated in the Hausa language as to be considered proper Hausa.

3. Listen to and read the following transcript of a radio news report from Nigeria. Then answer the questions that follow. Check your answers with the Answer Key.
To, masu sauraro, yanzu za mu koma Nijeriya inda Salifu Ayuba ya shirya mana wannan rahoto a kan zanga-zangar da aka yi jiya a birnin Kano. Jiya da safe aliban jamia masu umbin yawa suka fito tituna su yi zanga-zanga domin su nuna rishin gamsuwarsu da cewa gwamnatin jahar Kano ta kasa biyan kuin tallafi ga daliban jamia tun wata ukku. Fiye da mutune dubu 15 suka haa a wurin domin su kai wa gwamnatin koke-kokensu cewa gwamnati ba ta kula da su kamar yadda ya kamata. Mai magana da yawun gwamnati Abdu Sale ya ce a halin yanzu gwamnati kanta ba ta da kui. Ya ce maaikitan gwamnati su ma ba su sami cikakken albashinsu ba. Amma kuma ya ce in sha ma Allahu gwamnati zai sami kuin ba da daewa ba. Domin haka ya ce ya kamata su alibai su bar wannan zanga-zanga su yi hauri. Amma su alibai a nasu angare suka ce ba za su bar yin zanga-zanga sai gwamnati ta cika alkawarinta. Salifu Ayuba, daga Kano, Nijeriya.

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Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Where is the reporter reporting from? What happened? When did it happen? How many people came out? What did the government spokesperson think the students should do?

4. Work in small groups. Pretend that you are a crew working for a news program. Make up a short description of a political event. Use the questions from Exercise 3 as an outline for your report. 5. Work in a small group or with a partner. Go over the information on the political system in the Nigeria and Niger one more time. Recall the information in the Hausa. Report to your teacher and to the class.

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International Geography

Geography:
The Hausa speaking world is located primarily in a hot, flat, and dry sub-desert region known as the Sahel. Northern Nigeria and Southern Niger both lie in this climatic zone, the Sahel, which extends from Senegal to Sudan south of the Sahara Desert. There are no real mountains in the Hausa speaking areas, just a few hills and rock outcrops. There are few major lakes, and many of the rivers and small lakes are seasonal. There are many dry river beds, especially in Niger; a sign of the encroachment of the Sahara Desert into the Sahel. This process of desertification has devastated the farmlands of the Sahel and contributed to the diminishment of the species of animals and plants that live in the region. The diminishing yields of the farms (caused by the

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encroachment of sands and reduction in annual rainfall) represent a major dilemma for the Hausas. They have farmed this land for centuries. Fortunately, in the last couple of decades governments and the global community have undertaken some real efforts to stem the advance of desertification, and there is some evidence that these efforts are having an effect. Some native trees, such as the Gao tree, are now protected, and new methods of clearing the fields are improving the nutrient quality of the soils. It must be noted, however, that this fragile land also faces an imminent threat from the population boom that is taking place in the region and the specter of overpopulation. Kano is often considered the cultural center of Hausaland, but there are several other major population centers in Hausaland, including Katsina, Sokoto, Zaria, Maiduguri, Kaduna, Bauci, Zinder, Maradi, Tahoua, Daura, and several others. The area sometimes called Hausaland, where the Hausa city-states once formed a sort of Hausa kingdom, has now been bisected by the border between Niger and Nigeria, a line which follows no culturally significant boundary. Historically the line divided French West Africa (including what is now Niger) and British West Africa (including what is now Nigeria). The border has gained real cultural significance over the years because of differing governments and, more importantly, different colonial languages. The rainy season, also the season for farming, runs May through September. These are the most important months of the year as the rainfall largely determines the crop output for the year. A drought year is a real life and death crisis for many families, and thus the rains are anticipated anxiously as May rolls around each year. The high temperatures in the hot seasonusually March and Aprilcan top 115 degrees in the shade; another reason why the rains are so welcome. 6. Now that you have read the information about Nigeria and Niger, answer the following questions. Check your answers with the Answer Key. 1. Which Nigerian city is often considered the cultural center of Hausaland? 2. Name three Hausaland cities that lie in Niger. 3. What is the name of the climate zone in which Hausaland lies? 4. What was the colonial era name of the area in which modern day Niger lies?

7. Listen to the speaker while following along in your book.

Afghanistan Canada China Burkina Egypt England Finland

Afganistan Kyanada (asar) Sin/ Caina Burkina Masar/ Misira Ingila Finland

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France Germany Great Britain India Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Japan Jordan Korea Sudan Senegal Netherlands Norway Pakistan Ethiopia Russia Saudi Arabia Cameroon South Africa Spain Sweden Syria Ghana Vietnam Chad North America Central America South America Western Europe Central Europe Eastern Europe Middle East Southwest Asia Southeast Asia

Faransa Jamus Britaniya Indiya Indunisiya Iran/ Farisa Ira/ Irai Ireland Israila Italiya Japan Jordan Koriya Sudan Senegal (asar) Holan Norwai Pakistan (asar) Habasha Rasha Saudiya / asar Maka Kamaru Afirka ta Kudu Spain Swidin Siriya / Sham Gana Vietnam (asar) Cadi Amirka ta Arewa Amirka ta Tsakiya Amirka ta Kudu Yammacin Turai Tsakiyar Turai Gabashin Turai Gabas ta Tsakiya Asiya ta Kudu Maso Yamma Asiya ta Kudu Maso Gabas

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Africa Australia Eastern Asia

Afirka Ostareliya Asiya ta gabas

Nations and Nationalities:


In Hausa, it is fairly simple to form the name of the nationality once you know the name of the nation. See the example below using America. The same basic rules apply to most other countries. America /
Amirka

American

American (more an implication of race rather than just nationality)


Baamrike Baamrikiya Amrikawa

American Citizen

Masculine Feminine Plural

Mutumin Amirka Mutumniyar Amirka Mutanen Amirka

an asar Amirka ar asar Amirka an asar Amirka

Note that the ba form for describing race and/or nationality can be difficult to use and is not commonly used with certain countries or peoples.

8. Listen to and read the dialogues about nationality. Note the ways to determine ones nationality. Are you from Syria?
Daga Siriya kake?

No, Im from Egypt. Im an Egyptian.


Aa, daga Masar nike. Ni mutumin Masar ne.

Are you American?


Ke mutumniyar Amirka ce?

No, Im Canadian.
Aa ni mutumniyar Kyanada ce.

What are you?


Kai an ina ne?

Im Vietnamese.
Ni mutumin Vietnam ne.

Where are you from?


Daga ina kake?

Im from India. Im Indian.


Daga Indiya nike. Ni mutumin Indiya ne.

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Are you Indonesian?


Kai mutumin Indunisiya ne?

Yes, Im Indonesian. I live in Jakarta.


I, ni mutumin Indunisiya ne. Ina zaune a Jakarta.

Are you from Afghanistan?


Daga Afganistan kike?

I live in Afghanistan, but I am Pakistani.


Ina zaune a Afganistan, amma ni mutumniyar Pakistan ce.

9. Create questions in Hausa that are appropriate to the answers provided. Check your work with the Answer key.
1. - ..? I, ni mutumin Vietnam ne. 2. - ? Aa, ni ba mutumniyar Amirka ce. Ni mutumniyar Kyanada ce.

3. - or ..?
A Pakistan nike da zama, amma ni mutumin Afganistan ne. 4. - ..? I, mu mutanen Irai ne.

10. What do you hear? The speaker will read one word from each line of text. Mark the word that you hear. Check your answers with the Answer Key. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Afghanistan Ireland Vietnam Saudi Arabia Kuwait Pakistan Thailand Indonesia Syria Iraq Iran Netherlands Japan Israel Egypt India England China Jordan Russia

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End-of-Lesson Tasks 1. Translate the following headlines into English. Check your work with the Answer Key.
1. Kofi Annan ya ziyarci birnin Tehran 2. Shugaban Amirka George Bush ya yi jawabi a kan manufofin Gwamnatin Amirka a game da Irai 3. Shugabannin asashen Afirka ta Yamma sun hau a Bamako domin su halarci wani babban taro a kan tattalin arziki 4. Jawabi A kan yai da jahilci a Nijar 5. Hukumar zae a asar Jamus ta fai sakamakon zae

2. Listen to and read the following news report from Nigeria, and then answer the questions that follow. Check your answers with the Answer Key.
An jinkirta fain sakamakon zae a Kongo Hukumar zae ta asar Kongo ta bayar da sanarwar jinkirta fain sakamakon zaen an majalisar dokoki, har zuwa ranar alhamis ta jibi idan Allah ya kaimu. Sakamakon zaen da aka shirya fai a farko farkon makon nan, an age shi ne a cewar hukumar zaen bayan gano magui da wasu jamiai 10 suka yi, don ba wa jamiyyun adawa nasara. Ya zuwa yanzu dai sakamakon bayan fage na nuni da cewa jamiyyar hain gwiwa da shugaba Joseph Kabila ke wa jagoranci ce a kan gaba da yawan uriun da aka kidaya. Idan dai an iya tunawa, shugaba Joseph Kabila ne a kan gaba a yawan uriu na zaen shugaban asa, to amma ya gaza samun uriun da ake bukata domin lashe zaen. Hakan yasa a watan gobe zasu sake arawa, a zagaye na biyu da mai rufa masa baya a yawan uriun , wato Jean Pierre Bemba.
(From Deutsche Welle Hausa Section)

Questions:

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1. What did the electoral commission announce that it was doing? 2. Who is the leader of the party that is currently in the lead? 3. When will the runoff vote take place? 4. What was the reason for the delay? 5. When will the results be announced? 3. Work with a partner or in a small group. From the list of the countries above, choose one and give a briefing on its location and political system. Pretend that you are giving a press conference. Your classmates will role-play the news reporters by asking you questions. The following questions may help you in your work: 1. Does this country have a president? Who is the current president? 2. How many political parties are there in this country? 3. Is there a war in this country now? 4. Does this country have a parliament? 5. Is there a democracy in this country? 6. Does this country have a prime minister? 7. Is the leader of this country a dictator? 8. Is this country a republic? 9. What is a specific geographical feature of this country?

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Vocabulary List
Conflict Democracy/democratic Dictator Dispute Election Government Human Rights Invade/invasion Leader Ministry Nuclear weapons Official Parliament Policy Political Party President Prime minister Racial Radical Religious Republic State Term of office To kill To vote To invade War World Vocabulary for Radio Transcript A great number of To come out into the streets Discontentment Support money Since
Rikici/ Rigima Dimokuraiyya Mai mulkin kama karya Rikici/gardandami Zae Gwamnati, gwamnatoci (pl.) Hakkokin an Adam Kai wa hari/ Hari Shugaba, shugabanni (pl.) Maaikata, Maaikatu (pl.) Makamai nukiliya Jamii, jamiai (pl.)/ Maaikaci, maaikata (pl.) Majalisa, majalisu (pl.) Manufa, manufofi (pl.) Jamiyyar Siyasa, Jamiyyun Siyasa Shugaba, Shugabanni (pl.) Firayim Minista Na launin fata Mai tsaurin raayi Na addini Jamhuriya, jamhuriyoyi (pl.) asa, asashe (pl.) Ajalin iko Kashe Yin zae, jefa uria Kai wa hari Yai, yae-yae (pl.) Duniya, Duniyoyi (pl.)

masu umbin yawa Fito tituna Rishin gamsuwa Kuin tallafi Tun

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More than To join, connect, meet up Complaint To take care of How (not in questions) Government spokesperson At the current time Itself (fem.) Full, complete Pay, salary To linger, To take a long time Because of that To leave (someone or something), or to stop doing something Area, Section Promise Vocabulary for Article from Deutsche Welle If The day after tomorrow To delay Electoral commission To give Announcement Results One week from Thursday (it is Tuesday) If God takes us there To prepare The very beginning of ... To postpone According to Fraud Opposition party Success/ Victory To the present time

Fiye da Haa Kuka, Koke-koke (pl.) Kula da Yadda, Yanda Mai magana da yawun gwamnati A halin yanzu Kanta Cikakken Albashi Daewa Domin haka Bari, Bar angare Alkawari

Idan/ In Jibi Jinkirta Hukumar zae Ba da/ Bayar da Sanarwa Sakamako Ranar Alhamis ta jibi Idan Allah ya kai mu Shirya Farko farkon... age A cewar Magui Jamiyyar adawa Nasara Ya zuwa yanzu

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Unofficial results To show Coalition party Leadership In the lead Votes Counting Remember To fail (followed by verb) To win Next month To repeat To add Second round His runner up Number of votes

Sakamakon bayan fage Nuna/ Nuni Jamiyyar hain gwiwa Jagoranci A kan gaba uriu Kidaya Tunawa Gaza Lashe Watan gobe Sake arawa Zagaye na biyu Mai rufe masa baya Yawan uriu

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ANSWER KEY
Exercise 3

Transcript for radio report on the student strike in Kano.


Alright, listeners, now we turn to Nigeria where Salifu Ayuba has prepared this report on the protest that took place yesterday in the city of Kano. Yesterday morning a large number of university students took to the streets to show their unhappiness, claiming that the government has failed to pay them their support money for the past three months. More that fifteen thousand people gathered in order to bring the complaint to the government, that it is not taking care of them as it should. The government spokesperson, Abdou Sale, said that at the current time the government itself lacks money, and that even government workers have not received their full pay. But he said that the government is expecting to receive funds in the near future. Because of that, he said the students should put an end to the protest and be patient. But the students, for their part, responded that they will continue to protest until the government fulfills its promise. Salifu Ayouba, Kano, Nigeria. Answers for questions: 1. Kano, Nigeria 2. There was a student strike. 3. Yesterday morning 4. More that 15,000 5. He said that they should quit striking and be patient
To, masu sauraro, yanzu za mu koma Nijeriya inda Salifu Ayuba ya shirya mana wannan rahoto a kan zanga-zangar da aka yi jiya a birnin Kano. Jiya da safe aliban jamia masu umbin yawa suka fito tituna su yi zanga-zanga domin su nuna rishin gamsuwarsu da cewa gwamnatin jahar Kano ta kasa biyan kuin tallafi ga daliban jamia tun wata ukku. Fiye da mutune dubu 15 suka haa a wurin domin su kai wa gwamnatin koke-kokensu cewa gwamnati ba ta kula da su kamar yadda ya kamata. Mai magana da yawun gwamnati Abdu Sale ya ce a halin yanzu gwamnati kanta ba ta da kui. Ya ce maaikitan gwamnati su ma ba su sami cikakken albashinsu ba. Amma kuma ya ce in sha ma Allahu gwamnati zai sami kuin ba da daewa ba. Domin haka ya ce ya kamata su alibai su bar wannan zanga-zanga su yi hauri. Amma su alibai a nasu angare suka ce ba za su bar yin zanga-zanga sai gwamnati ta cika alkawarinta. Salifu Ayuba, daga Kano, Nijeriya.

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Exercise 6 1. 2. 3. 4. Kano Zinder, Maradi, Tahoua The Sahel French West Africa

Exercise 9 1. 2. 3. 4. Are you Vietnamese? Are you American? Are you Pakistani? Are you Iraqis?
1. Kai mutumin Vietnam ne? 2. Ke mutumniyar Amirka ce? 3. Kai mutumin Pakistan ne? 4. Ku mutanen Irai ne?

1. - ..? I, ni mutumin Vietnam ne. 2. - ? Aa, ni ba mutumniyar Amirka ce. Ni mutumniyar Kyanada ce.

3. - or ..?
A Pakistan nike da zama, amma ni mutumin Afganistan ne. 4. - ..? I, mu mutanen Irai ne.

Exercise 10 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. India England Indonesia Israel Russia


Indiya Ingila Indunisiya Israila Rasha

End of Lesson Exercise 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Kofi Annan Visits Tehran. American President George Bush Gives a Speech About American Policy on Iraq. Leaders of West African Countries Gather in Bamako to Attend an Economic Summit. A Report on The Literacy Campaign in Niger. The German Electoral Commission Announces Election Results.

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1. Kofi Annan ya ziyarci birnin Tehran 2. Shugaban Amirka George Bush ya yi jawabi a kan manufofin Gwamnatin Amirka a game da Irai 3. Shugabannin asashen Afirka ta Yamma sun hau a Bamako domin su halarci wani babban taro a kan tattalin arziki 4. Jawabi A kan yai da jahilci a Nijar 5. Hukumar zae a asar Jamus ta fai sakamakon zae

Exercise 2

Announcement of Election Results in Congo Delayed


The electoral commission in Congo has announced that the announcement of the results of the parliamentary election will be delayed until Thursday of next week. The announcement of the election results was scheduled for the beginning of this week, but it was delayed, according to the electoral commission, after the discovery of election fraud that was committed by 10 election officials in an attempt to give an advantage to certain parties. At the present time, the unofficial results show the coalition party of Joseph Kabila in the lead with the majority of the votes that have been counted so far. It should be remembered, however, that although President Joseph Kabila is leading, according to the initial ballot count, he does not have the majority required in order to win the presidency. For this reason, there will be a runoff vote next month between Joseph Kabila and the presidential runner up Jean Pierre Bemba. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Delaying the announcement of the election results Joseph Kabila Next month Election fraud by 10 election workers Thursday of next week

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Lesson 19 The Military Soja

This lesson will introduce you to the following: - Basic military vocabulary - The rank structure of the U.S. Army and Nigerian and Nigerien military forces - Names of weapons and army vehicles. 1. What do soldiers do? What do soldiers use? What do soldiers wear? The pictures will help you guess the meaning of unknown terms.

Sojojin nan suna sanye da kayan soja. Suna da shuhuddai a afa da huluna na kwano a kai. Hular kwano tana kare kansu daga igwa da harsashi da nakiyoyi. Sojoji suna da makamai a hannu.

Wannan soji yana yin magana da Wannan soji yana harba bindigarsa. kwamandansa a rediyo. Wannan soji yana da maharbin roka.

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2. Now listen to the new words and repeat them after the speaker. Soldier Uniform Boots Helmet To protect Artillery Ammunition Explosive Weapons Radio Commander To fire Rifle Rocket launcher
Soji Kayan soja Manyan Takalma / shuhuddai Hular kwano Kare, Yi tsaro Igwa Harsashi Nakiya Makamai Rediyo Kwamanda Harba Bindiga Maharbin roka

Military Terminology You will notice that the Hausa military language contains a lot of English loanwords that have been thoroughly integrated into Hausa speech. The rank titles are a good example of this borrowing. Even so, a Hausa vocabulary has been formed for discussing military issues, and the terminology used in this chapter is of the type that will be heard in the Hausa news broadcasts. For those who will be working alongside Nigerian soldiers, however, it is important to note that there is a style of Hausa that is particular to the military. This style is often referred to as barikanci (barracks speech), and it is full of English words that the majority of Hausas would not know. It is a style of speech that is not looked upon very favorably by the rural Hausas. In addition to being known as an unattractive form of Hausa, it is also associated with soldiers who try to use English to pull status while bullying civilians and with the barroom talk of drunken soldiers. Nevertheless, it is something that is prevalent in military circles, and it may be interesting to learn. The important thing to remember is that what is comprehensible in the barracks may not be understood in the villageor worse yet, it may be misconstrued. This prevalence of English (or French in Niger) in military circles is natural, however, considering that it is the language in which the military is conducted. Soldiers will use Hausa with each other or with people who do not speak English, but all documents and official orders will be in English, or French in Niger.

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3. Read the statements and match each one with the correct picture. Check your answers with the Answer Key.

1.

2.

3.

A. Farar hula ne. Ba ya da makamai. Yana da yara. B. Soji ne. Yana da makami. C. Soji yana caje farar hula domin ya gane ko yana da makamai.

Do you understand what caje means? 4. Listen to the new words and repeat them after the speaker.

1.
Waannan motoci ana kiransu HUMMVEE.

2.
maharbin roka mai tafiya da kansa.

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3.
Tanki/ Shar da kwamba

4.
Igwa mai tafiya da kansa

5.
Mota mai garkuwa

5. Now cover the names of the vehicles with a sheet of paper and name them. Repeat Exercise 4 as many times as you need to feel comfortable with the new terms. 1. .. 2. .. 3. .. 4. .. 5. .. 6. ..

6. Listen to the new words and repeat them after the speaker.

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1 Sword 2 Rifle 3 Machine gun 4 Grenade

Takobi Bindiga Bindiga mai ruwa Gurnat, Nakiya

5 Mine 6 Pistol 7 Missile 8 Weapons cache

Nakiya da ke hae da waya aramar bindiga Harsashi Maajiyar makamai

7. Look at the pictures in Exercise 6. Cover the Hausa translations and the English words in Exercise 6. Match each term with the correct picture. Replay the sound as many times as you need. Check your work with the Answer key.
A. Nakiya da ke hae da waya B. Harsashi mai linzami C. Gurnat, Nakiya D. Wurin ajiye makamai E. aramar bindiga F. Takobi G. Bindiga mai ruwa H. Bindiga

8. In the following lists of items, three belong to the group, but the fourth does not logically belong. Cross it out. Check your answers with the Answer Key. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Tanki Bindiga Kayan soja Rediyo Hular kwano Hafsa Gurnat Takobi Soji Taswira Igwa Soji Babar mota Hular kwano Mai farar hula Wuri mai dasasshen nakiyoyi Kayan soja Farar hula Humbee Bindiga mai ruwa Kwamanda Makami Manyan takalma Kwamanda

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9. Translates the following statements into English. Check your answers with the Answer Key.
1. Sojoji sukan sa huluna na kwano domin su kare kansu daga harsashi. 2. Sojoji sukan sa huluna na kwano domin su kare kansu daga nakiyoyi da igwoyi. 3. Muna caje dukan fararen hula domin mu nemo makamai. 4. Muna caje dukan sojoji na magabcinmu domin mu nemo makamai.

10. What do you hear? Listen to the speaker and mark the statements that you hear. Check your answers with the Answer Key. 1. A. Soldiers wear helmets for protection from ammunition. B. Soldiers wear helmets for protection from explosives and artillery. 2. A. We are searching all vehicles for weapons. B. We are searching all enemy soldiers for weapons.

11. Listen and repeat the new words after the speaker. Army base Be careful! Curfew In charge of Minefield Roadblock Checkpoint Identification Patrol Base Barracks
Sansanin soja Yi hankali! Dokar hana fitar dare Mai shugabancin Wuri mai dasasshin nakiyoyi Wurin tsaida motoci Wurin duba motoci Katin shaida Sintiri Sansani Bariki

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12. Fill in the blanks with the correct word from the vocabulary list above. Check your answers with the Answer Key.
A. Wane ne ____________________ an sintiri? Shi kwamandan an sintiri. B. Akwai _____________________? I, daga 8:00 PM zuwa 6:00 AM. C. _______________________! Akwai ____________________ can gabanmu! D. Dole ne kowa ya nuna __________________ a _________________. E. Ina _____________yake? A wancan angaren sansani.

13. Work with a partner and take turns reading and role-playing the dialogues from Exercise 12. 14. Work in a small group and come up with similar dialogues, and then role-play them. 15. Study the list of U.S. Army ranks. Compare them with the Nigerian and Nigerien military equivalents. Enlisted Private Corporal Sergeant Sergeant Major Officer Lieutenant Captain Major Lt. Colonel Colonel General
Farabiti Kofur Saja Samanja Hafsa Laftanan Kyaftin Manja/ Manjo Laftanan-kanar Kanar Janar Farman-kilashi Kafaran Sarjan Sarjan-majar hafsa Litinan Kaftan Majar Litinan-kwalanal Kwalanal Janaral

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End-of-Lesson Tasks 1. Work with a partner or in a small group. In Hausa, come up with a caption for each picture below.

1. . 2. . 3. .

2. a) Translate the following sentences into English. Check your work with the Answer Key.
A. Ina wurin ajiye makamai yake? B. Wane ne mai shugabancin waanan an sintiri? C. Dole sai ka nuna katin shaida in za ka wuce wannan wurin duba motoci. D. Dole sai a caje dukan masu fararen hula a nemo makamai. E. Dokar hana fitar dare ta fara aiki daga arfe 9:00 pm. arfe 9:45 ne yanzu. Ka koma gidanka. F. Sojoji kaai suna da izini su shiga sansanin soja.

b) Work with a partner or in a small group. Come up with situations where you can use sentences C, D, E, and F as a reply. Create the first part of the conversation so that you have short dialogues. Role-play them.

3. a) Translate the following into Hausa. Compare your translation against the Answer Key.

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A. Please step out of the car. We must search the vehicle for weapons. B. It is after curfew. You must come with me for questioning. C. The weapons cache is on the other side of Checkpoint Delta. D. Be careful. There is a minefield east of the railroad. E. Every soldier needs to have a radio and a map. F. You must know all the checkpoints and roadblocks in this area.

b) Work with a partner or in a small group. Come up with situations where you can use these sentences as a reply. Create the first part of the conversation so that you have short dialogues. Role-play them.

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Vocabulary
Ammunition Army base Artillery Barracks Base Be careful! Boots Checkpoint Civilian Commander Curfew Enemy Explosive Grenade Gun Helmet In charge (of a patrol, base) Machine gun Map Area (region) Section Military Mine Minefield Missile Sword Officer Planted (mines) Protection Radio Rank Rifle Roadblock Rocket
Harsashi Sansanin soja Igwa, Igwoyi Bariki Sansani, Sansanoni (pl.) Yi hankali! Manyan talakma Wurin duba motoci Farar hula, Fararen hula (pl.) Kwamanda Doka hana fitar dare Abokin gaba, Magabci Nakiya, Nakiyoyi (pl.) Gurnat, Nakiya Bindiga, Bindigogi (pl.) Hular kwano, Huluna na kwano (pl.) Mai shugabancin Bindiga mai ruwa, Bindigogi masu ruwa Taswira, Taswirori (pl.) Lardi angare, angarori (pl.) Soja Nakiyar da ke hae da waya Wuri mai dasasshen nakiyoyi Harsashi mai linzami Takobi, Hafsa, Hafsoshi (pl.) Dasasshe Tsaro Rediyo, Rediyoyi (pl.) Ranki, Muami Bindiga Wurin tsaida motoci Roka

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Rocket launcher Search Soldier Tank To take effect Uniform Weapon Weapons cache You must Enlisted Private Corporal Sergeant Sergeant Major Officer Lieutenant Captain Major Lt. Colonel Colonel General

maharbin roka Caje, bincika Soji, Sojoji (pl.) Tanki, Shar da kwamba Fara aiki Kayan soja Makami, Makamai (pl.) Wurin ajiye makamai Dole sai ka Farabiti/ Farman-Kalashi Kofur/ Kararan Saja/ Sarjan Samanja/ Sarjan-majar Hafsa Laftanan/ Litinan Kyaftan/ Kaftan Manja, Manjo/ Majar Laftanan-kanar/ Litinan-kwalanal Kanar/ Kwalanal Janar/ Janaral

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ANSWER KEY
Activity 3 1. C. The soldier searches the civilian for weapons. -- Soji yana caje farar hula domin ya 2. B. He is a soldier. He has a weapon. -- Soji ne. Yana da makami. 3. A. He is a civilian. He does not have weapons. He has children. -- Farar hula ne. Ba ya da
makamai. Yana da yara. gane ko yana da makamai.

Activity 7 A. 5 B. 7 C. 4 D. 8 E. 6 F. 1 G. 3 H. 2 mine missile grenade weapons cache pistol sword machine gun rifle
Nakiyar da ke hae da waya Harsashi mai linzami Gurnat, Nakiya Maajin makamai aramar bindiga Takobi Bindiga mai ruwa Bindiga

Activity 8 1. Grenade 2. Helmet 3. Uniform 4. Minefield 5. Artillery 6. Civilian Activity 9 1. 2. 3. 4. Soldiers wear helmets for protection from ammunition. Soldiers wear helmets for protection from explosives and artillery. We are searching all vehicles for weapons. We are searching all enemy soldiers for weapons.
Gurnat Hular kwano Kayan soja Wuri mai dasasshen nakiyoyi Igwa Farar hula

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Activity 10
1. A. Soldiers wear helmets for protection from explosives. 2. B. We are searching all enemy soldiers for weapons. A. Sojoji sukan sa huluna na kwano domin su kare kansu daga nakiya. B. Muna caje dukan sojoji na magabcinmu domin mu nemo makamai.

Activity 12 A. Who is in charge of the patrol? The patrol leader is. (Mai shugabancin) B. Is there a curfew? Yes, from 8:00pm to 6:00am. (Dokar hana fitar dare) C. Be careful! There is a minefield across the road! (Yi hankali! Wuri mai dasasshin
nakiyoyi)

D. Everyone must show their identification at the checkpoint. - (Wuri mai dasasshin E. Where are the barracks? They are on the other side of the base. (Bariki)
A. Wane ne ____________________ an sintiri? Shi kwamandan an sintiri. B. Akwai _____________________? I, daga 8:00 PM zuwa 6:00 AM. C. _______________________! Akwai ____________________ can gabanmu! D. Dole ne kowa ya nuna __________________ a _________________. E. Ina _____________yake? A wancan angaren sansani. nakiyoyi, Wurin duba motoci)

End of Lesson Tasks Activity 2a A. B. C. D. E. F. Where is the weapons cache? Who is in charge of this patrol? You must show your identification when you pass the checkpoint. All civilians must be searched for weapons. Curfew starts at 9:00pm. Its 9:45 now. Go back to your home. Only soldiers may enter the army base.

A. Ina wurin ajiye makamai yake? B. Wane ne mai shugabancin waanan an sintiri? C. Dole sai ka nuna katin shaida in za ka wuce wannan wurin duba motoci. D. Dole sai a caje dukan masu fararen hula a nemo makamai.

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E. Dokar hana fitar dare ta fara aiki daga arfe 9:00 pm. arfe 9:45 ne yanzu. Ka koma gidanka. F. Sojoji kaai suna da izini su shiga sansanin soja.

Activity 3a A. Please step out of the car. We must search the vehicle for weapons.
A. Ku sauko daga mota. Muna bukata mu caje mota domin mu nemo makamai.

B. It is after curfew. You must come with me for questioning.


B. Dare ya yi. Ka taka dokar hana fitar dare. Sai ka zo mu yi maka wasu tambayoyi.

C. The weapons cache is on the other side of Checkpoint Delta.


C. Wurin ajiye makamai yana can bayan wurin duba motoci mai suna Delta.

D. Be careful. There is a minefield east of the railroad.


D. Yi hankali. Akwai wuri mai dasasshen nakiyoyi a gabashin reluwe.

E. Every soldier needs to have a radio and a map.


E. Kowane soji yana bukatar radio da taswira.

F. You must know all the checkpoints and roadblocks in this area.
F. Dole sai ka san dukan wuraren duba motoci da wuraren tsaida motoci a wannan yankin.

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Lesson 20 In the Hospital Cikin Asibiti

This lesson will introduce you to the following: - Vocabulary related to medical emergencies and life-saving measures - Terminology related to internal organs - Ways to ask questions about vital signs.

Health Care:
Health care in Nigeria and Niger is, on average, quite dismal. As in most countries there is an elite class that can afford decent health care, but for the majority of the population such services are far out of reach. Clinics are available to the population at large, which offer a few basic services at a minimal charge. However, even that charge can be prohibitive for the poor. Also, these clinics only offer a few basic services. In Niger, it is estimated by the World Health Organization (WHO) that only 50 percent of the population has access to health care at all. Malaria and malnutrition are major killers in Niger, and the infant mortality rate is one of the highest in the world. A large percentage of pre-mature deaths are due to preventable illness. In short, health care in Niger is in a desperate situation. The situation in Nigeria is somewhat better, but there remains a high infant mortality rate and high mortality levels due to malaria, malnutrition, and preventable illness. The health care system in Nigeria is more advanced that that of Niger, but it remains inaccessible and/or insufficient for much of the population. In both countries there is a continuous effort to have universal childhood immunization and to eradicate polio. This is done through rural tourneys for vaccination and low cost maternal checkups as well as training of midwives. For the time being, though, the system remains under-funded and far from universal, and sanitary conditions in health care facilities leave much to be desired.

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Emergencies:
The point bears repeating here that a large percentage of Hausas do not speak English or French. When there is an emergency or disaster, one cannot choose with whom to speak or whom to work with. It may not be possible to resort to any other language than Hausa to communicate vital information. Also, there may not be time to seek out a translator when trying to ascertain vital information. Therefore, a working knowledge of Hausa terminology regarding health emergencies can be a valuable skill. Also, remember that auto accidents are tragically common in this area of the world and that these accidents often involve people from all walks of life, many of which will not speak English or French. It is also possible that the military will be called upon to carry out emergency health assistance. In this case, it would be very important to verify that the aid is going to those in need. Grammar Note: na and ke We will add just one final grammar note for now. The regular continuous and the relative continuous pronoun forms are commonly abridged. This is done by simple removing the first syllable, leaving only na or ke. Note that this is only done when the subject is already stated in the sentence. See the examples below, and look for the use of this form throughout this lesson. Abdou is going. The gun that is in your hand. Everyone is feeling good. Where is Nura going?
Abdu na tafiya. Bindiga da ke a hannunka. Kowa na jin dai. Ina Nura ke tafiya?

In Lesson 17, you already learned the names of human body parts, how to ask questions about a persons state of health, and how to describe health conditions and symptoms of sickness. You also know how to handle a visit to the doctors office. In this lesson, you will familiarize yourself with the vocabulary used for life threatening health conditions, such as heart attacks, gunshot wounds, severe bleeding, and head injuries. 1. Go over the text with the pictures. Try to guess the meaning of the words in bold from the context.

1
Wannan namiji ya yi rauni a damtse.

2
Wannan mace tana da rauni a hannunta.

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3
Wannan namiji yana da raunananniyar afa.

4
Wannan mace tana da raunanannen wuya.

Did you understand the words in bold rauni and raunananne/ raunananniya?
Rauni means wound or injury Raunananne means wounded or injured (masc. object) Raunananniya means wounded or injured (fem. object) Raunanannu means wounded or injured (pl. object)

Note that in everyday usage, the noun rauni (examples 1 and 2) will be used more often than the adjectival form (examples 3 and 4). 2. Look at the pictures in Exercise 1 and match the number of the picture with the correct definition. Check your answers with the Answer Key. A. Raunananniyar afa B. Raunanannen wuya C. Raunananen hannu D. Rauni a hannu picture number _____. picture number _____. picture number _____. picture number _____.

3. Tell your classmates in Hausa if you ever had an injury or wounds.

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4. Listen to and read the dialogue between the doctor and the nurse in the emergency room of a military hospital. Note the use of new vocabulary. Doctor: How does Sergeant Lawali feel?
Likita: Yaya jikin saja Lawali?

Nurse: He feels bad, Doctor Amadou.


Nas: Ba ya jin dai, Malam Amadu.

Doctor: What is the matter with him?


LIkita: Mi ya same shi?

Nurse: His leg hurts.


Nas: Yana jin ciwo a afarsa.

Doctor: Is it injured?
Likita: Akwai rauni?

Nurse: Yes. He has a gunshot wound. He is bleeding.


Nas: I. An harbe shi da bindiga. Yana zubda jini.

Doctor: Does he have fever?


Likita: Akwai zazzai.

Nurse: Yes, he does.


Nas: I, akwai.

Doctor: Is he taking any medications?


Likita: Yana shan magani?

Nurse: Yes, antibiotics and painkillers.


Nas: I, maganin rigakafi da magungunan ciwo.

5. Work with a partner. Role-play the dialogue from Exercise 4. 6. Match each of the pictures with the corresponding statement. Try to guess the meanings of unknown words from the context. Check your answers with the Answer Key.

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1. An aura wa namiji raunin da ke a hannu. 2. Namijin bai sa hula ba. Ya yi zafi sosai yau. Shi kuma, yana fama da zufa sosai har da ya kai shi ya yi rishin lafiya. 3. Sojin nan yana da rauni a afarsa.

Did you understand the meanings of the words in bold?


Fama da zufa means to suffer from heat. aura rauni means to dress a wound.

7. Listen to the speaker and read along in your textbook. Check the translation in the Answer Key for the meanings of unknown words.

Waannan bandeji da filasta ne. Ana bukatar su in za a aura rauni. Amma sai a yi aiki da masu tsabta.

8. Familiarize yourself with some new medical terminology. Listen as the speaker recites the names of internal organs. Repeat after the speaker.

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1. heart 2. brain 3. lung 4. kidney 5. liver

Zuciya wawalwa Huhu wada / oda Hanta

9. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate name of the organ in Hausa. Check your answers with the Answer Key.
Zuciya Hanta Huhu wada wawalwa

A. The human ____________ is in charge of all body system functions. B. The _________ is a very important organ because it helps our body get rid of fat. C. Exercising is very important for my ____________. D. Smoking can cause ____________cancer. E. Drinking a lot of water is necessary for the ___________ .

10. Listen to and read the dialogue between a doctor and a patient in a military hospital emergency room. In the Military Hospital Emergency Room

Doctor: Hello, Major Zakari.


Likita: Barka da safe, Majar Zakari.

Major: Good morning, Doctor Yau.


Maja: Yawwa barka kadai Malam Yau.

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Doctor: What happened to you?


Likita: Mi ya same ka?

Major: I dont know. I didnt feel well. I had chest pain, a headache, and dizziness.
Maja: Ban sani ba. Ban ji dai ba. Na yi ciwon irji, ciwon kai, da jiri.

Doctor: For how long did you have your symptoms?


Likita: Tun yaushe ne kake fama da matsalolin nan?

Major: For about two days.


Maja: Tun wajen kwana biyu.

Doctor: Did you take any medications?


Likita: Ka kuma sha magani?

Major: Yes, I took painkillers.


Maja: I, na sha magungunan ciwo.

Doctor: For how long?


Likita: Tun yaushe?

Major: For about two days What happened to me, doctor?


Maja: Wajen kwana biyu Mi ya same ni Malam likita?

Doctor: Well, when you came into the ER, you couldnt breathe. We had to do CPR.
Likita: To, da ka zo nan akin haari, ba ka iya lumfashi ba. Sai muka farfao da kai ta hanyar CPR.

You had abnormal blood pressure. It was 230 over 180. You had a heart attack.
Majar: arfin bugawar jininka ya fi abinda ya kamata. Ya kai 230 kan 180. Ciwon zuciya ne ka yi.

How do you feel now?


Likita: Yaya kake ji yanzu?

Major: I feel weak.


Majar: Ba ni jin arfi.

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Doctor: Are there any medications that you are allergic to?
Likita: Akwai magungunan da bai kamata ka sha su ba.

Major: Yes, Im allergic to penicillin.


Majar: I, bai kamata ba in sha penicillin ba.

Doctor: Do you have any kidney, liver, lung, or brain diseases? Diabetes? Cancer?
Likita: Kana da cuta a wada, hanta, huhu, ko wawalwa ? Cutar sukari? Cutar kansa?

Major: No, I dont.


Majar: Aa, babu.

Doctor: Do you smoke?


Likita: Kana shan taba?

Major: No, I dont.


Majar: Aa, ba ni sha.

Doctor: Have any members of your family had heart disease or had a heart attack?
Likita: Kana da an uwa waanda suna da cuta ta zuciya, ko waanda suka taa yi ciwon zuciya?

Major: Yes, my father died three years ago from heart disease.
Majar: I, ubana ya rasu shekara ukku da suka wuce saboda ciwon zuciya.

Doctor: Well, I think you must stay in the hospital and rest for a few days.
Likita: To, ina ji ya kamata ka yi an kwanaki kaan a nan asibiti domin ka huta.

Major: But I need to get back to my unit!


Majar: Amma ina bukata in koma rukunina.

Doctor: No, you have to stay in the hospital, rest, and take aspirin.
Likita: Aa, kana bukata ka tsaya a asibiti, ka huta, kuma ka sha asfirin.

11. Work with a partner. Pretend to be a doctor and a patient and role-play the dialogue from Exercise 10.

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12. Match the questions and answers. When you have finished, check your work with the Answer Key.
A. Yaya kake jin jikinka? B. Mi ya sameka? C. Mi kake ji? D. Kana jin ciwo? E. Ina yake maka ciwo? F. Ka samu rauni? G. Kana shan magani? 1. I, na samu raunin harsashi a hannuna. 2. Ina jin rishin arfi da jiri. 3. Raunina na yin jini. 4. Ina jin ciwo a ciki. 5. I, akwai ciwon irji. Ba ni iya lumfashi. 6. I, maganin ciwo. 7. Ba ni jin dai ko kaan.

13. What do you hear? Listen to the speaker and mark the statement that you hear. Check your answers with the Answer Key. 1. A. What are your symptoms? I have a fever and a pain in my arm. B. What are your symptoms? I have a fever and a pain in my leg. C. What are your symptoms? I have a fever and a pain in my neck. 2. A. How do you feel? I dont feel well. I have a chest pain. B. How do you feel? I dont feel well. I feel dizziness. C. How do you feel? I dont feel well. I cant breathe. 3. A. Is there a doctor here? This man just had a heart attack. B. Are you a doctor? This man just had a heart attack. C. I am a doctor. This man just had a heart attack.

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End-of-Lesson Tasks 1. Practice answering the following questions in Hausa: A. B. C. D. E. What is your normal pulse? What is your normal blood pressure? Are you allergic to any medications? Have you ever had a head injury? Have you ever had heat stroke?

2. Work with a partner or in a small group. Look at the picture and tell in Hausa what you think has happened with a patient. You might want to mention the following things: Is the patient a man or a woman? What is his/her age? Is he/she a soldier? Is he/she wounded? Is he/she injured? Is he/she in pain? Does he/she have bleeding? Does he/she have a fever? Will he/she need to stay in the hospital? Does he/she have high blood pressure? Does he/she have chest pain? Is he/she having a heart attack? Can he/she breathe? Will he/she need CPR? Is he/she allergic to the medications? Does he/she take any medications?

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Vocabulary list
Abnormal (bad) Antibiotic Aspirin Bandage Band-aid Bleeding Brain Breathing Cancer Perform CPR on Cut Diabetes To dress a wound ER Gunshot wound Head injury Heart Heart attack Heart disease To suffer from the heat High blood pressure I am allergic to Injured Injury Kidney Liver Lungs Organ (in body) Painkiller Penicillin Pulse Sterile (clean) To die To stay
Ba lafiyayye ba, Ba cikin daidai yadda ya kamata ba Magani rigakafi, Magunguna (pl.) Asfirin Bandeji, Bandejoji (pl.) Filasta Yin jini, Zub da jini walwa / wawalwa Yin lumfashi Cutar kansa Farfao da ta hanyar CPR Rauni, Yanka Cutar sukari aura rauni akin haari / akin taimako Raunin harsashi Rotsi Zuciya, Zukata (pl.) Ciwon zuciya Cuta ta zuciya Fama da zufa arfin bugawar jini fiye da yadda ya kamata Ina da rishin lafiyar cin ko taa shi. / Bai kamata in sha Raunananne (m.), Raunananniya (f.), Raunanannu (pl.) Rauni, raunuka (pl.) oda, odoji (pl.) Hanta, Hantuna (pl.) Huhu, Huhuna (pl.) Halitta, Halittu (pl.) Maganin ciwo, magungunan ciwo (pl.) Penicillin Bugun zuciya Mai tsabta, Masu tsabta (pl.) Mutu Zama

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Unit (military) Wound

Rukuni, rukunai (pl.) Rauni, raunuka (pl.)

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ANSWER KEY
Activity 2 A. 3 B. 4 C. 1 D. 1 Wounded leg (Raunananniyar afa) Injured neck (Raunanannen wuya) and/or 2 Wounded arm (Raunananen hannu) Injured arm (Rauni a hannu)

Activity 6 A. 3 This soldier has an injured leg. B. 2 This man didnt wear his hat. It was very hot today. He suffered from the heat to the point where it made him sick. (i.e. he has heat stroke) C. 1 This man has a dressing on his wounded arm. A. 3. Sojin nan yana da rauni a afarsa. B. 2. Namijin bai sa hula ba. Ya yi zafi sosai yau. Shi kuma, yana fama da zufa sosai
har da ya kai shi ya yi rishin lafiya.

C. 1. An aura wa namiji raunin da ke a hannu.

Activity 7 These are bandages and band-aids. You need them to make a dressing for a cut or wound. But you have to use sterile ones.
Waannan bandeji da filasta ne. Ana bukatar su in za a aura rauni. Amma sai a yi aiki da masu tsabta.

Activity 9 A. B. C. D. E. brain liver heart lung kidneys


walwa Hanta Zuciya Huhu wada

Activity 12 A. B. C. D. How do you feel? What is the matter with you? What do you feel? Are you in pain? 7. I feel really bad. 3. My wound is bleeding. 2. I feel weak and dizzy. 5. Yes, I have a chest pain. I cant breathe. 319

E. Where does it hurt? 4. My stomach hurts. F. Are you injured? 1. Yes, I have a gunshot injury in my arm. G. Are you taking any medication? 6. Yes, painkillers.
A. Yaya kake jin jikinka? B. Mi ya sameka? C. Mi kake ji? D. Kana jin ciwo? E. Ina yake maka ciwo? G. Kana shan magani? 7. Ba ni jin dai ko kaan. 3. Raunina na yin jini. 2. Ina jin rishin arfi da jiri. 5. I, akwai ciwon irji. Ba ni iya lumfashi. 4. Ina jin ciwo a ciki. 6. I, maganin ciwo.

Activity 13 1. C. What are your symptoms? I have a fever and a pain in my neck.
Mine ne alamun rishin lafiyarka? Akwai zazzai da kuma ciwo a wuyana.

2. A. How do you feel? I dont feel well. I have a chest pain.


Yaya kake jin jikinka? Ba ni jin dai. Akwai ciwon irji.

3. B. Are you a doctor? This man just had a heart attack.


Kai likita ne? Wannan namijin nan yanzu ya yi ciwon zuciya.

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