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Turmeric

Turmeric

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Published by: Vineeth Alikhan on Dec 21, 2011
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TURMERIC

INTRODUCTION
Turmeric, Curcuma domestica Val., was probably domesticated in southern or south-east Asia and is no longer found in a truly wild state. It has been suggested that it first reached East Africa in the eighth century AD, carried by the Bornean people who settled Madagascarand some of whose descendants on the latter island still cultivate turmeric. However, despite the long history of contacts between the Malagasy and the Swahili (who founded settlements on the north Madagascar coast), there is no firm evidence from other sources to indicate that turmeric was grown in Zanzibar or other places on the Swahili coast until relatively recently. Turmeric as a crop is not mentioned in the literature prior to the nineteenth century, and on Pemba in particular there are no unambiguous traces or records of its cultivation before its recent introduction in Mwambe. The linguistic evidence suggests that turmeric was first encountered on the East African coast and islands as a processed trade item, or perhaps in the form of harvested rhizomes ready for pounding. The turmeric powder, and was only later extended to include the plant which provides it .Although ground turmeric is principally used as a spice to impart both flavour and colour to food, and is one of the main ingredients in curry powders, one of its chief early uses among the Swahili-speakers of Zanzibar appears to have been as a dye for colouring mats and other in edibles .This practice has given rise to the Swahili term for the colour yellow, rangi ya manjano, which literally means ‘the colour of turmeric powder’. Curry powder, however, is given a quite different Swahili name –bizar i – suggesting that it was introduced separately, also as a processed item of trade.

sauces. . yoghurts. etc.USES Food Additive  Turmeric is a mild aromatic stimulant used in in the manufacture of curry powders.  Sometimes in pickles and mustard. margarine. cakes. salad dressings. turmeric is used to compensate for fading.  The oleoresin component of turmeric is used for oil-containing products. biscuits. popcorn.  The curcumin solution or curcumin powder dissolved in alcohol is used for water containing products. cereals.  Turmeric is used in products that are packaged to protect them from sunlight.  Turmeric is also used for coloring cheeses.  Turmeric also forms a substitute for mustard in the cattle feed.

 The juice of raw turmeric also acts as a blood purifier.  Raw Turmeric juice is used to treat hyper acidity and indigestion.an active component of turmeric. .  Curcumin .  Turmeric also has a protective effect on the liver and also in atherosclerosis.  The flouride present in turmeric is essential for teeth. has anti-oxidant properties and so turmeric is used in alternative medicine.Medicinal  Turmeric is used for treating digestive disorders.  Curcumin also has an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing histamine(hormone) levels.  Turmeric is used for cuts and burns as it is believed to have antiseptic effects and promotes healing.

 It is believed that regular bathing in water containing turmeric reduces growth of body hair. . It adds glow to the skin.  Turmeric is used for spots caused due to pigmentation or blotches and also for diseases like eczema.Cosmetics  The juice of raw turmeric is applied to the skin as a paste.  It is an essential ingredient of the traditional bathing ritual of Indian marriages where it is applied along with sandal wood paste before the bath. kept for around thirty minutes and then washed off. soft and smooth.  Regular turmeric use is said to make the skin fair.

When dried. Paper that has been turned to orange by boric acid will assume a blue color when it is moistened with diluted alkali. . it turns orange-red. This color becomes violet upon drying and the original yellow color is restored with acids.As a tester for Acids and Alkalies  Unglazed white paper is saturated with an alcoholic solution of curcumin.  Alkali and Acid Test : The paper turns red-brown with alkalies. acids and boric acid. this paper is used for testing of alkalies. The color remains so even when it is moistened with free mineral acid.  Boric Acid Test : When the paper is dipped into a solution of boric acid.

 It has been recently discovered that in water cooled type of radiators.  The turmeric paste is used in Indian medicine for snakebites. .  Turmeric is used as a coloring agent for filter paper used in scientific tests. plugs any leaks.  Turmeric is also believed to ward off snakes and the presence of turmeric plants around the house acts as a barrier for them. So anyone swimming in crocodile infested waters should apply turmeric paste to protect himself.  The leaves of turmeric are said to act as mosquito repellents.Miscellaneous Uses  Ayurveda states that turmeric is poisonous for crocodiles. a spoonful of turmeric added to the water.

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The harvested rhizomes are cleared of mud and other extraneous matter adhering to them. Turmeric can be grown in diverse tropical conditions from sea level to 1500 m above sea level. commencing in mid February to May and second season is mid August to October.Climate & Soil Turmeric is a tropical herb and can be grown on different types of soil under irrigated and rainfall conditions. the crop becomes ready for harvest in 7 to 9 months after planting during January and March. The land is ploughed and the rhizomes are gathered by hand picking or the clumps are carefully lifted with a spade. under rain fed or irrigated conditions. it thrives best in well‐drained sandy or clay loam soils. . Early varieties mature in 7 to 8 months. at a temperature range of 20 to 30oC with an annual rainfall of 1500 mm or more. Turmeric is a seasonal product which is available in the market mainly in two seasons. medium varieties in 8 to 9 months and late varieties after 9 months. It is a shade tolerant crop with shallow roots suitable for intercropping and as a component crop in the homesteads where low to medium shade is available. Though it can be grown on different types of soils. Harvesting Depending upon the variety.

constant care right from pre harvest operations till the products reach the consumers become imperative.sidues by the importing countries. care should be taken not to cause any damage to the rhizomes. the dosage and schedule recommended by them. roots removed to the . In the case of agricultural products. therefore. While harvesting. Pre-harvest operation-some critical aspects The planting material may be treated with suitable insecticide / fungicide. Pesticides banned in the countries importing turmeric from India should never be used. .Harvest Operations in Turmeric The quality of any product depends upon the quality of raw. storing and transportation. but only at the recommendation and supervision of experts.Pre-Harvest and Post . only after consulting experts and at . In case the crop is affected by diseases or infested by pests apply fungicides or insecticide. The leafy stems are then cut off. Harvesting-important points Harvest the crop only when it is fully matured. l'1atUrity is indicated by the drying up of the plant including the base of the stem. packing. materials and the practices adopted in processing. It is to be borne in mind that turmeric is being checked for the presence of pesticide rp.

Sudarsana and Salem local. the important varieties cultivated are Erode local. The fingers are separated from the bulbs. Varieties A number of cultivars are available in the country and are known mostly by the name of locality where they are cultivated. The important varieties used in India are: ʹAlleppey Fingerʹ (Kerala) and ʹErode and Salem turmericʹ (Tamil Nadu). BSR‐1.adhering earth shaken off. Suguna. ʹRajaporeʹ and ʹSangli turmericʹ (Maharashtra) and ʹNizamabad Bulbʹ (Andhra Pradesh). . In Tamilnadu. Roma. Among these varieties. The rhizomes are washed well with water to remove the mud and dirt adhering to them. 70‐75% is occupied by the local varieties. PTS‐10.

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Chamarajnagar Belgaum Mysore Bagalkote Gulbarga Turmeric 7 . The major Turmeric producing districts in Karnataka are as follows: 1. Tamil Nadu and Orissa contributing about 65% of the total production in the year 2006‐07. Duggirala Zone (Krishan & Guntur Districs) Cuddapath Zone ( Cuddapath and Kurnul districts) Nizamabad Zone( Nizamabad & Karimnagar districts) Godavari zone (East and west godabari districts) Agency Zone (Srikakulam & Vishakhapattanam districts).The major turmeric producing states in India are Andhra Pradesh. In Andhra Pradesh Turmeric cultivation is largely confined to five agro climatic zones.

The major producing districts of Tamil Nadu are: 1. Erode Coimbatore Salem Namakkal Dharmapuri INDIAN SCENERIO PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTVITY TREND .

The yield has varied from year to year over the decade rising and falling in alternate years. and at the same time the production has also risen. within which Andhra Pradesh occupies the largest area coverage (36%) with 47% production share in India.The total area under turmeric has increased gradually over the past decade. That means Andhra Pradesh topped in both area and production of Turmeric. . New Delhi and State Departments of Economics & Statistics) (Area: ‘000 ha. In 2006‐07 India had approximately 186 thousand hectares under Turmeric cultivation. (Source: Directorate of Economics and Statistics. Yield : kg/ha) Total area under Turmeric in India rose gradually from 150 thousand hectares in 2002‐03 to 186 thousand hectares in 2006‐07. Production:’000 tonnes. At the same time the production has also risen from 522 thousand MT in 2002‐03 to 837 thousand MT in 2006‐07. The yield increased from 3479 kg/ha in 2002‐03 to 4952 kg/ha in 2005‐06 and declined to 4501 kg/ha in 2006‐07.

Second largest area is covered by Tamil Nadu at 16% with a share in production in 21%. West Bengal. Karnataka. Domestic consumption accounts for nearly 93%‐94% of total production. Consumption Not only India is the largest producer of turmeric in the world but also largest consumer. Kerala etc. . Other major states were turmeric is cultivated includes Orissa.

Major importers are the Middle East and North African countries. Burma (Myanmar). and are mostly supplied by the Asian producing countries Exports . consumer and exporter of Turmeric. Other producers in Asia include China. These importing countries represent 75% of the turmeric world trade. Bangladesh. and Brazil. India is the largest producer. Peru. Turmeric is also produced in the Caribbean and Latin America: Jamaica.Global scenerio India accounts for about 78% of world turmeric production. Iran. and Nigeria. Costa Rica. Japan and Sri Lanka. Haiti.

Turmeric grown in Erode region is preferred for grinding but due to cross contamination of different varieties and improper post‐harvest practices followed. Still India accounts 60% of the world turmeric exports. 2003‐04 and 2004‐05 years respectively. UK. Latest data reveals that 1313 MT. South Africa. Sri Lanka. Domestic price scenario of turmeric . Malaysia. Import Occasional imports of Turmeric takes place in India with meager amount depending upon domestic production level of it. Out of the production in India. United States imports 97% of its turmeric requirement from India and remaining portion from the Islands of the Pacific and Thailand. the acceptance level of Erode turmeric has declined sharply in the recent times. Now most of the turmeric produced in the Erode belt is used for domestic consumption and on the other hand. All these countries together account for 75% of the world trade. 3005 MT & 1620 MT imported in during 2002‐03. the quality of Salem turmeric is comparatively better and has acceptance in the international market for grinding and blending purposes. 4025 MT of Turmeric was imported in 2005‐06. Central and Latin American countries. Netherlands and Saudi Arabia. Japan. India exports Turmeric to other countries in a range of 5‐6% of its total production since 1995 ‐2005. As per Spices Boards of India. 90% is consumed locally and the rest is exported. The other leading importers are Bangladesh. and Asian countries supplies to the entire world. Remaining 25% is met by Europe and North America.United Arab Emirates (UAE) is the major importer of turmeric from India accounting for 18% of the total exports followed by United States of America (USA) with 8%.

000 levels. Cleaning Turmeric 13 . Method of Processing Seed treatment Whole or split mother rhizomes are used for planting.The above price data shows that Erode prices peaked in November 2003 and currently hover around above 2. Select well developed. while the Sangli prices topped in February 2003. Treat the rhizomes in any of the copper oxychloride fungicides and store in cool. dry place or in earthen pits plastered with mud and cow dung. healthy and disease free rhizomes. Sangli prices have remained above Erode prices since January 2006.

Artificial drying at a maximum temperature of 65ºC gives a bright coloured product than that of sun drying especially for sliced turmeric. Polishing In order to smoothen the rough and hard outer surface of the boiled dried turmeric and also to improve its colour. Drying The fingers are then dried in the sun by spreading them as a thin layer on bamboo mats or drying floor. the sides of which are made of expanded metal mesh. Boiling Fingers and mother rhizomes will have to be boiled separately.Harvested turmeric rhizomes are cleaned off mud and other extraneous materials. The cooked rhizomes are taken out of the pan by lifting the trough and draining the solution into the pan. adhering to them and subjected to curing within 2‐3 days after harvest so as to ensure the quality of the end product. The correct stage of cooking can be judged by piercing a wooden needle through the rhizome. it is subjected to polishing. Hand polishing: The method of hand polishing is simple.48 m) containing clean water sufficient to immerse the rhizomes. The improved method is by using hand‐operated barrel or drum mounted on a central axis. There are two types of polishing.62 m x 0. Boiling is usually done in MS pans of suitable size. Turmeric 14 . hand polishing and machine polishing.55 m x 0. polishing is effected by abrasion of the surface against the mesh as well as by mutual rubbing against each other as they roll inside the drum. When the drum filled with turmeric is rotated.4 m made of GI or MS sheet with extended handle. which consists of rubbing turmeric fingers on hard surface or trampling them under feet wrapped in gunny bags.9 m x 0. Cleaned rhizomes (approximately 50 kg) are taken in a perforated trough of size 0. If the rhizomes are properly cooked. The whole mass is boiled till the rhizomes become soft. the needle will pass through the rhizome without resistance. The trough containing the rhizomes is then immersed in MS pan (1 m x 0.

9 to 10. Rhizomes for seed purpose are generally stored by heaping in well ventilated rooms and covered with turmeric leaves. ethylene dichloride and ethanol for 4‐5 hours. The seed rhizomes can also be stored in pits with saw dust. Colouring: Boiled. The pits are to be covered with wooden planks with one or two openings for aeration. leaves of Glycosmis pentaphylla (panal). turmeric rhizomes and powder should be stored away from light and in a very dry environment. the curcuminoid pigments in turmeric powder and oleoresin are stable. etc. It is orange red in colour. Turmeric 15 . tartrazine. One kg of oleoresin replaces 8 kg of ground spice.100 such pews in Haripur and Sangalwadi in Maharashtraʹs Sangli district ‐‐ the centre of turmeric trading. Oleoresin yield ranges from 7. Each pew can store 175 quintals of the commodity for almost three years. When fingers are uniformly coated with turmeric powder.075% solution for 15 minutes if scale infestations are observed and in mancozeb 0. There are over 2.3% to avoid storage losses due to fungi. Therefore. they are dried in the sun. sand. For coating 100 kg of half polished turmeric 200 g of turmeric powder is required. Turmeric oleoresin This is obtained by the solvent extraction of the ground spice with organic solvents like acetone. Turmeric is stored in huge underground pits called pews. However.4 per cent. The rhizomes are to be dipped in quinalphos 0. if protected from light and humidity.Machine polishing This method consists of an octagonal or hexagonal wooden drum mounted on a central axis and rotated by power. dried and half polished turmeric fingers (half polished turmeric is more suitable since colour does not stick to the rhizomes that have been polished fully to smooth finish) are taken in bamboo basket and shaken with turmeric powder. Preservation of seed rhizomes Turmeric pigment is highly unstable as compared to the yellow synthetic colorant.

A large group of market participants are engaged in different activity in the entire value chain of turmeric right from production to its consumption. At present there is no risk management tool available for the traders. farmers. Prices show considerable volatility that could pose profit risk to different stakeholders. In such a scenario offering future trading would provide an opportunity to the hedge risk for market participants against volatile price movements. .Need of Futures in Turmeric Turmeric is widely grown and consumed spice that has got good international market demand. Turmeric price is quite volatile and showing marked fluctuations in daily price. exporters. industry. As India is having major share in the international turmeric export market thus it is equally exposed to global uncertainly that affects trade time to time and thus on price. farmers. Other factors that indicate success of future trading is well developed spot market and large number of participants such as traders. Due to high volatility it reinforces the need of future trading to allow traders to hedge their risk. industrial consumer etc that provide depth and width to the market. exporters to hedge their risk out of price uncertainty.

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Japan and Sri Lanka. These importing countries represent 75% of the turmeric world trade. and are mostly supplied by the Asian producing countries Exports United Arab Emirates (UAE) is the major importer of turmeric from India accounting for 18% of the total exports followed by United States of America 86$. Iran.DQG1LJHULD7XUPHULFLVDOVRSURGXFHGLQWKH &DULEEHDQDQG/DWLQ$PHULFD-DPDLFD+DLWL&RVWD5LFD3HUXDQG%UD]LO Major importers are the Middle East and North African countries.

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