MF 0011 Mergers and Acquisitions

Set- 1 Q.1 What are the basic steps in strategic planning for a merger? Ans. Basic steps in Strategic planning in Merger : Any merger and acquisition involve the following critical activities in strategic planning processes .Some of the essential elements in strategic planning processes of mergers and acquisitions are as listed here below : 1. Assessment of changes in the organization environment 2. Evaluation of company capacities and limitations 3. Assessment of expectations of stakeholders 4. Analysis of company, competitors, industry, domestic economy and international economies 5. Formulation of the missions, goals and polices 6. Development of sensitivity to critical external environmental changes 7. Formulation measurements of internal organizational performance

8. Formulation of long range strategy programs 9. Formulation of mid-range programmes and short-run plans 10. Organization, funding and other methods to implement all of the proceeding elements

11. Review and evaluation of all the processes In each of these activities. allowing the combined firm to become more cost-efficient and profitable. Economics of scales can be seen in mergers of firms in the same business For example : two banks combining together to create a larger bank. This synergy is . Proper identification of different phases and related activities smoothen the process of involved in merger Q. staff and line personnel have important Responsibilities in the strategic decision making processes. Sources of Operating Synergy Operating synergies are those synergies that allow firms to increase their operating income. Both the banks after combination can expect to cut costs considerably on account of sharing of their resources and thus avoiding duplication of facilities available.2 What are the sources of operating synergy? Ans. The scope of mergers and acquisition set the tone for the nature of mergers and acquisition activities and in turn affects the factors which have significant influence over these activities. Greater pricing power from reduced competition and higher market share. Merger of HDFC bank with Centurian bank of Punjab can be taken as an example of cost reducing operating synergy. 2.Economies of scale That may arise from the merger. This can be seen by observing the factors considered during the different stages of mergers and acquisition activities. We would categorize operating synergies into four types: 1 . increase growth or both. Information flow and feedback system for continued repetition of all essential elements and for adjustment and changes at each stage 12.which should result in higher margins and operating income.

This would be case when a US consumer products firm acquires an emerging market firm.Operating synergies can affect margins and growth. When there are more firms in the industry ability of firms toexercise relatively higher price reduces and in such a situation the synergy doesnot seem to work as desired. with an established distribution network and brand name recognition. The two companies were in the same line of business and were in direct competition with each other leading to a severe price war and increased marketing costs. This can be understood with the following example . In other words the two companies should get the advantage of the combination of their complimentary functional strengths.Another example is the acquisition of Tomco by Hindustan Lever 3.also more likely to show up in mergers of firms which are in the same line of business and should be more likely to yield benefits when there are relatively few firms in the business. After the acquisition blow past acquired astrong hold on the market and operated under near monopoly situation. combination of different functional strengths may enhance the revenues of each merger partner there by enabling each company to expand its revenues. and through these the value of the firms involved in the merger or acquisition . The phenomen on can be understood in cases where one company with an established brand name end s its reputation to a company with upcoming product line or a company. Higher growth in new or existing markets. A company with strong distribution network merges with a firm that has products of great potential but is unable to reach the market before its competitors can do so.Combination of different functional strengths .Synergy results from complementary activities. 4. An example of limiting competition to increase pricing power is the acquisition of universal luggage by Blow Plast. arising from the combination of the two firms. and uses these strengths to increase sales of its products .

If A and B combine with each other both can utilize each other strengths.Example : Consider a situation where there are two firms A and B. B and C . Some times. Firm A is having substantial amount of financial resources (having enough surplus cash that can be invested somewhere) while firm B is having profitable investment opportunities ( but is lacking surplus cash). Modes of purchase There are a number of types of financing which can be used in an LBO. unrated or low rated debt known as junk bond financing is utilized. note that this can happen only when the two firms are combined with each other or in other words they must act in a way as if they are one. The leveraged buyout are cash transactions in nature where cash is borrowed by the acquiring firm and the debt financing represents 50% or more of the purchase price. for example here A can invest its resource in the opportunities available to B. Generally the tangible assets of the target company are used as the collateral security for the loans borrowed by acquiring firm in order to finance the acquisition. These include : Senior debt : this is the debt which ranks ahead of all other debt and equitycapital in the business. a proportionate amount of the long term financing is secured with the fixed assets of the firm and in order to raise the balance amount of the total purchase price. mergers and acquisition s have assumed significant importance both with the country as well as across the boarders. Ans. Bank loans are typically structured in up to three trenches: A. Q.3 Explain the process of a leveraged buy out. LBO is a financing technique of purchasing a private company with the help of borrowed or debt capital. Such acquisitions need huge amount of finance to be provided. the concept of Leverage Buyout (LBO) has emerged. In the realm of increased globalized economy. In search of an ideal mechanism to finance and acquisition.

The terms of the subordinated debt are usually less stringent than senior debt. Repayment is usually required in one ‘bullet’ payment at the end of the term. An enhanced return is made available to lenders by the grant of an ‘equity kicker’ which crystallizes upon an exit. often listed on Indian markets. The bank loans are usually held by a syndicate of banks and specialized funds. therefore it has the lowest cost of debt. These obligations are usually quite stringent. A form of this is called a PIK which reflects interest ‘paid in kind’. which means the lender can automatically acquire these assets if the company breaches its obligations under the relevant loan agreement. and generally includes an attached equity warrant. They are fixed rate. Loan stock : This can be a form of equity financing if it is convertible into equity capital. lending costs are typically higher. An increasingly important form of subordinated debt is the high yield bond. long term securities with a looser covenant package than senior debt though they are subject to stringent reporting requirements. The question of whether loan stock is tax . Subordinated debt : This debt ranks behind senior debt in order of priority on any liquidation. Mezzanine finance : This is usually high risk subordinated debt and is regarded as a type of intermediate financing between debt and equity and an alternative of high yield bonds. Typically. the terms of senior debt in an LBO will require repayment of the debt in equal annual instalments over a period of approximately 7 years. High yield bonds can either be senior or subordinated securities that are publicly placed with institutional investors. or rolled up into the principal. publicly traded.The debt is usually secured on specific assets of the company. Since subordinated debt gives the lender less security than senior debt.

The following are the illustrative organizational diverse cultures which may have to be integrated during postmerger period :Strong top leadership versus Team approach· Management by formal paper work versus management by wandering around· Individual decision versus group consensus decision· Rapid evaluation based on performance versus Long term relationship based on loyalty· Rapid feedback for changes . norms. The technical integration is similar to the capability transfer discussed above. However. need to be integrated in order to achieve the value creation objectives of the acquirer. This integration process has three dimensions: the technical. ordinary shareholders will enjoy majority of the upside if the company is successful. Ordinary shares : This is the riskiest part of a LBOs capital structure. Preference share : This forms part of a company’s share capital and usuallygives preference shareholders a fixed dividend and fixed share of the company ’sequity. beliefs.deductible should be investigated thoroughly with the company’s advisers. The value chains of the acquirer and the acquired. At the time of integration. the acquirer should have regard to these political relationships. Give sufficient examples. political and cultural. ideologies myths and rituals. The culture of an organization is embodied in its collective value systems. An important aspect of integration is the cultural integration of the acquiring and acquired firms. if acquired employees are not to feel unfairly treated. The integration of social interaction and political relationships represents the informal processes and systems which influence people’s ability and motivation to perform. Ans. They can motivate people and can become valuable sources of efficiency and effectiveness. Q.4 What are the cultural aspects involved in a merger.

confusion and hopelessness and may have adys functional impact on organizational performance.The important features are: bureaucratic and hierarchical. emphasis on formalrules and procedures. values fast. efficient and standardized culture service· Task/achievement . negative evaluation of counterparts. Such stressful experience may lead to their loss of morale.The main characteristics are: essentially autocratic and suppressive of challenge.The important features are: emphasis on equality. loss of commitment. Mergers between certain types can be disastrous. There are four different types of organizational culture as mentioned below:· Power .The main characteristics are: emphasis on team commitment.)’· Learn from customer versus ‘We know what is best for the customer ’The above illustrative culture may provide basis for the classification of organizational culture. task determines organization of work. In assessing the advisability of . Differences in culture may lead to polarization.uncertainty and cultural ambiguity. seeks to nurture personal development of individual Members Poor cultural fit or incompatibility is likely to result in considerable fragmentation . flexibility and worker autonomy. or product quality improver etc.versus formal bureaucratic rules and procedures· Narrow career path versus movement through many areas· Risk taking encouraged versus ‘one mistake you are out’· Risky activities versus low risk activities· Narrow responsibility arrangement versus ‘Everyone in this company is salesman (or cost controller. emphasis on individual rather than group decision making· Role . anxiety and ethnocentrism between top management teams of the acquired and acquiring firms. which may be experienced as stressful by organizational members. needs creative environment· Person/support .

Economies of scale that may arise from the merger. increase growth or both. Financial synergy Operating Synergy Operating synergies are those synergies that allow firms to increase their operating income.an acquisition.which should result in higher margins and operating income. There are two main types of synergy Operating synergy. Thus. 2.Greater pricing power from reduced competition and higher market share. merging firms must consciously and proactively seek to transform the cultures of their organizations. Both the banks after combination can expect to cutcosts considerably on account of sharing of their resources and thus avoidingduplication of facilities available.The differences between the national and the organizational culture influence the crossborder acquisition integration. Economics of scales can beseen in mergers of firms in the same business For example : two banks combining together to create a larger bank. allowing the combinedfirm to become more cost-efficient and profitable. Q. This synergy is also more likely to show up in mergers of firms which are in the same line of business and should be more likely to yield benefits when there are relatively few firms in .5 Study a recent merger that you have read about and discuss the synergies that resulted from the merger. Ans. Merger of HDFC bank with Centurian bank of Punjab can be taken as an example of costreducing operating synergy. We would categorize operating ynergies into four types: 1. the acquirer must consider cultural risk in addition to strategic issues . Synergy is the additional value that is generated by the combination of two or more than two firms creating opportunities that would not be available to the firms independently.

After the acquisition blow past acquired as trong hold on the market and operated under near monopoly situation .the business. combination of different functional strengths may enhance the revenues of each merger partner thereby enabling each company to expand its revenues. with an established distribution network and brand name recognition. The two companies were in the same line of business and were in direct competition with each other leading to a severe price war and increased marketing costs.Combination of different functional strengths . An example of limiting competition to increase pricing power is the acquisition of universal luggage by Blow Plast. and uses these strengths to increase sales of its products.In other words the two companies should get the advantage of the combination of their complimentary functional strengths. The phenomenon can be understood in cases where one company with an established brand name lendsits reputation to a company with upcoming product line or a company.Higher growth in new or existing markets. arising from the combination of the two firms.Synergy results from complementary activities. A company with strong distribution network merges with a firm that has products of great potential but is unable to reach the market before its competitors can do so .Operating synergies can affect margins and growth. 3. This can be understood with the following example Example : . 4. and through these the value of the firms involved in the merger or acquisition. When there are more firms in the industry ability of firms to exercise relatively higher price reduces and in such a situation the synergy does not seem to work as desired. This would be case when a US consumer products firm acquires an emerging market firm.Another example is the acquisition of Tomco by Hindustan Lever.

Included are the following: 1. 26Tax benefits can arise either from the acquisition taking advantage of tax laws or from the use of net operating losses to shelter income. A combination of a firm with excess cash. because when two firms combine. This synergy is likely to show up most often when large firms acquire smaller firms. which creates a tax benefit for the combined firm. 25Debt capacity can increase. Firm A is having substantial amount of financial resources (having enough surplus cash that can be invested somewhere) while firm B is having profitable investment opportunities ( but is lacking surplus cash). a profitable firm that acquires a money-losing firm may be able to . for example here A can invest its resourcein the opportunities available to B. or cash slack. Financial Synergy With financial synergies. or when publicly traded firms acquire private businesses.in turn. or take the form of a lower cost of capital for the combined firm. (and limit e d project opportunities) and a firm with high-return projects (and limited cash) can yield a payoff in terms of higher value for the combined firm .The increase in value comes from the projects that were taken with the excess cash that otherwise would not have been taken.Consider a situation where there are two firms A and B. note that this can happen only when the two firms are combined with each other or in other words they must act in a way as if they are one. the payoff can take the form of either higher cash flow s or a lower cost of capital (discount rate). This. This tax benefit can either be shown as higher cash flows. 2. 3. Thus. If A and B combine with each other both can utilize each other strengths. allows them to borrow more than they could have as individual entities. their earnings and cash flows may become more stable and predictable.

such as distribution channels. two or more “parent” companies agree to share capital. A stronger test of synergy is to evaluate whether merged firms improve their performance (profitability and growth) relative to their competitors . Q. technology. The more important issues are whether that synergy can be valued and.use the net operating losses of the latter to reduce its tax burden. Ans:-As there are good business and accounting reasons to create a joint venture with a company that has complementary capabilities and resources . how to value it. a firm that is able to increase its depreciation charges after an acquisition will save in taxes. technology. however. It is thus a weak test of the synergy hypothesis. risks and rewards in a formation of a new entity under shared control. This result has to be interpreted with caution. explain with an example of a joint venture. and increase its value. if so. The existence of synergy generally implies that the combined firm will become more profitable or grow at a faster rate after the merger than will the firms operating separately.6 What are the motives for a joint venture. or finance. Clearly. as we show later in this chapter. many mergers fail. Broadly. there is potential for synergy in many mergers. human resources. Alternatively. In a joint venture. On this test. including under valuation and a change in corporate control.after takeovers. the important reasons for forming a joint venture can be presented below: Internal Reasons to Form a JV . since the increase in the value of the combined firm after a merger is also consistent with a number of other hypotheses explaining acquisitions. joint ventures are becoming an increasingly common way for companies to form strategical liances.

or vice versa. Bring your product to market cheaper where the customer can enjoy the cost savings. product development.Strategic Move Against Competition: A JV may be able to better compete against another industry leader through the combination of markets.Improving Access to New Markets: You and a JV partner can combine customer contacts and together even form a joint product that accesses new markets.and innovation. Improve Speed to Market: With shared access to financial. reducing your financial burden Opening Access to Financial Resources: Together you and a JV partner might have better credit or more assets to access bigger resources for loans and grants than you could obtain on your own. Develop Stronger Innovative Product: Together you and a JV partner may be able to share ideas to develop a product that is more competitive in your industry. . .Help Economies of Scale: Together you and a JV partner can develop products or services that reduce total overall production expenses.- Spreading Costs: You and a JV partner can share costs associated with marketing. as well as your own understanding of technological processes. .External Reasons to Form a JV - 1. - Connection to Technological Resources: You might want access to technological resources you couldn't afford on your own. 2.technological.Sharing innovative and proprietary technology can improve products. you and a JV partner can get your joint product to market faster and more efficiently. technology. . and distribution resources. and other expenses.

Analyze how your company can benefit internally. externally. and then find a joint venture partner that will fit with your needs . Small and big companies alike can benefit from the reasons listed above. Share and Improve Technology and Skills: Two innovative companie s can share technology to improve upon each other's ideas and skills. etc.There could be many diversification reasons: access to inverse markets. diversify the innovative working force. Don't let a JV opportunity pass you by because you don't think it will fit in with your own small business. which produces a greater result together than doing it on your own. development of diverse products. and strategically.Strategic Reasons - Synergistic Reasons: You may find a JV partner with whom you can create synergy. - .Diversification .

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