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You are on page 1of 72

Durbin, 5E)

Jason Rosendale

jason.rosendale@gmail.com

December 21, 2011

This work was done as an undergraduate student: if you really dont understand something in one of these

proofs, it is very possible that it doesnt make sense because its wrong. Any questions or corrections can be

directed to jason.rosendale@gmail.com.

1 Mappings and Operations

1.26 Let : S S be a mapping that is one-to-one but not onto. Because the mapping is not onto, we cannot

directly dene an inverse mapping

1

because it would be undened for some elements in S. However,

we can dene a second function : S S as:

(s) =

_

1

(s) i s (S)

s i s , (S)

By showing that is onto but not one-to-one, the only if half of the proof will be demonstrated. First,

proof that the function is onto:

is well-dened assumed

(a S)(b S)((a) = b) denition of well-dened

(a S)(b S)((b) = a) denition of

is onto denition of onto

Proof that the function is not one-to-one:

is not onto assumed

(b S)(a S)((a) ,= b) denition of onto

(b S)(a S)((a) ,= b b , (S)) denition of image

Because is one-to-one, we know that (b) has an image in S. And because b , (S), we know

that (b) ,= b. So:

(b, c S)(a S)((a) ,= b b , (S) (b) = c c ,= b)

(b, c S)(a S)((b) = b (c) = b c ,= b) denition of

is not one-to-one denition of one-to-one

Now, assume that is some function that is onto but not one-to-one. Because the mapping is not one-to-

one, we cant directly dene an inverse mapping because it would be overdened for some elements of S.

However, we can dene a function : S S as:

(s) = minr S : (r) = s

This function maps each element s onto the smallest element r such that (r) = s.

The function is one-to-one. If we assume that (s

1

) = (s

2

), then by the denition of this means that

minr

1

S : (r

1

) = s

1

= minr

2

S : (r

2

) = s

2

. This equality just means that the two minimum

1

elements are the same: r

1

= r

2

. So there is some r such that (r) = s

1

and (r) = s

2

. Because is

well-dened, this shows that s

1

= s

2

. Therefore is one-to-one.

The function is not onto. Because is not one-to-one, there is some r, s S such that (r) = (s) even

though r ,= s. But the denition of causes there to be no element that maps to the larger of the two

elements r, s. This larger element is not in the image of (S), and therefore is not onto.

This shows that a function that is one-to-one but not onto can be used to construct a function that is onto

but not one-to-one, and vice-versa.

1.27 x (A B) assumed

(s A B)((s) = x) denition of the domain of

(s

1

A)((s

1

) = x) (s

2

B)((s

2

) = x) denition of set unions

x (A) x (B) denition of the domain of

x (A) (B) denition of set unions

1.28 x (A B) assumed

(s A B)((s) = x) denition of the domain of

(s

1

A)((s

1

) = x) (s

2

B)((s

2

) = x) denition of set intersection

Note that the previous step can not be justied in the other direction without assuming that s

2

= s

1

.

x (A) x (B) denition of the domain of

x (A) (B)

1.29 As noted in the previous problem, the proof is bidirectional if we can assume that (s

1

) = x (s

2

) = x

implies that s

1

= s

2

.

1.30 Let R represent the innite subset of S. If R is innite, then there is a mapping : R R that is

one-to-one but not onto. Dene a new function : S S to be:

(s) =

_

(s) i s R

s i s , R

This function is one-to-one. Assume that a ,= b:

case i) If a R and b R, then (a) = (a) and (b) = (b). And because is one-to-one, the fact that

a ,= b implies that (a) ,= (b) and therefore (a) ,= (b).

case ii) If a , R and b , R, then (a) = a and (b) = b. So the fact that a ,= b implies that (a) ,= (b).

case iii) If a R and b ,inR, then (a) = (a) and (b) = b. And the ranges of these functions means

that (a) R and b , R. So (a) ,= b, and therefore (a) ,= b.

case iv) Similar to case (iii)

So in all cases, a ,= b (a) ,= (b). By contrapositive, is one-to-one. It can also be shown that is

not onto: because is not onto, there is some r R that is not in the domain of (R). But the image of

is ((R)

R): so this r is not in the image of .

Therefore : S S is a function that is one-to-one but not onto: therefore, S is an innite set.

2 Composition

2.20 Let : A B be an invertible function with an inverse : B A. Then, by the denition of invertible,

=

B

and =

A

. But this is exactly the denition for a function : B A that is invertible

with an inverse : A B.

2.23 The domains and codomains of and are equal by denition. We need only show that (t) = (t) for

every t T. Proof by contradiction:

2

(t T)((t) ,= (t)) hypothesis of contradiction

(t T)((t) ,= (t)) (t

1

T)(s S)((s) = t

1

) denition of onto

(t T)((t) ,= (t)) (s S)((s) = t) choose t

1

= t

(t T)(((s)) ,= ((s))) algebraic replacement

(t T)( (s) ,= (s)) denition of

,= denition of mapping equality

And the last statement is false, since we are told that = .

2.24 The domains and codomains of and are equal by denition. We need only show that (s) = (s) for

every s S.

= given

(s S)( (s) = (s)) denition of mapping equality

(s S)(((s)) = ((s))) denition of composition

(s S)((s) = (s)) is one-to-one

= denition of mapping equality

2.27 (a) If both functions are invertible, they are both one-to-one and onto (theorem 2.2). Therefore, by 2.1,

their composition is both one-to-one and onto. Therefore, by theorem 2.2, their composition is invertible.

2.27 (b) The truth of this statement follows directly from theorem 2.1 parts (b) and (d).

9 Equivalence, Congruence, Divisibility

9.5a reexivity

(x, y) R R assumed

(x, y) R R y R denition of cartesian product

(x, y) R R y = y reexivity of =

(x, y) (x, y) denition of

symmetry

(x

1

, y

1

) (x

2

, y

2

) assumed

(x

1

, y

1

), (x

2

, y

2

) R R y

1

= y

2

denition of

(x

1

, y

1

), (x

2

, y

2

) R R y

2

= y

1

symmetry of =

(x

2

, y

2

) (x

1

, y

1

) denition of

transitivity

(x

1

, y

1

) (x

2

, y

2

) (x

2

, y

2

) (x

3

, y

3

) assumed

(x

1

, y

1

), (x

2

, y

2

), (x

3

, y

3

) R R y

1

= y

2

y

1

= y

3

denition of

(x

1

, y

1

), (x

3

, y

3

) R R y

1

= y

3

transitivity of =

(x

1

, y

1

) (x

3

, y

3

) denition of

9.5b Each equivalence class represents a horizontal line of the form y = c for some constant c R.

9.5c (x, y) R R : x = 0

9.6 It is not transitive: (1, 2) (1, 3) and (1, 3) (3, 3), but (1, 2) , (3, 3).

3

9.7 reexivity

a R assumed

a = a reexivity of =

[a[ = [a[ denition of absolute value

symmetry

[a[ = [b[ assumed

[a[ = b [a[ = b denition of absolute value

(a = b a = b) (a = b a = b) denition of absolute value

(b = a b = a) (b = a b = a) symmetry of =

(b = [a[) (b = [a[) denition of absolute value

[b[ = [a[ denition of absolute value

transitivity

[a[ = [b[ [b[ = [c[ assumed

([a[ = b [a[ = b) (b = [c[ b = [c[) denition of absolute value

([a[ = b = [c[) ([a[ = b = [c[) ([a[ = b b = [c[) ([a[ = b b = [c[) logical distributivity

([a[ = b = [c[) ([a[ = b = [c[) ([a[ = b b = [c[) ([a[ = b b = [c[)

([a[ = [c[) ([a[ = [c[) ([a[ = [c[) ([a[ = [c[) transitivity of =

It cannot be the case that [a[ = [c[ or [a[ = [c[ unless a = 0 = c,so:

([a[ = [c[)

One set of equivalence class representatives is x R : x 0.

9.8 reexivity

a N

a = a reexivity of =

a = 1a multiplicative identity of N

a = 10

0

a x

0

= 1 by denition

a a denition of

symmetry

a b assumed

(n Z)(a = 10

n

b) denition of

(n Z)(10

n

a = b) existence of multiplicative inverses in R

(n Z)(a10

n

= b) commutativity of multiplication in R

b a denition of

transitivity

a b b c assumed

(m, n Z)(a = 10

n

b b = 10

m

c denition of

(m, n Z)(a = 10

n

10

m

c algebraic replacement

(m, n Z)(a = 10

n+m

c

a c denition of

One set of equivalence class representatives is x : x ,= 0(mod 10).

9.9 The rst equivalence relation satises symmetry and transitivity, but not reexivity: 0 , 0. The second

relation satises reexivity and symmetry, but not transitivity: 1 0 and 0 1, but 1 , 1.

9.10 One set of equivalence classes would be the set of lines y = tan()x :

2

< <

2

x = 0.

9.11 One set of equivalence classes would be :

2

2

. The range of the inverse sine function is

usually restricted to this set of equivalence classes in order to guarantee that the function is well-dened

and one-to-one.

9.12 One set of equivalence classes would be : 0 .

4

9.15 reexivity

x R assumed

x x = 0 algebra

x x denition of

symmetry

x y assumed

(n Z)(x y = n) denition of

(n Z)(1(x y) = n) algebra

(n Z)(y x = n) algebra

y x denition of

transitivity

x y y z assumed

(m, n Z)(x y = m y z = n) denition of

(m, n Z)(x y = m y = n +z) algebra

(m, n Z)(x (n +z) = m) algebraic replacement

(m, n Z)(x z = m+n) algebra

x z denition of

Each equivalence class is a set of real numbers that are equivalent to one another modulus 1 (i.e., they have

identical digits following the decimal point). One set of equivalence class representatives is the half-open

interval (0, 1].

9.16 reexivity

(x, y) R R assumed

x R denition of cartesian product

x x Z reexivity of the relation in 9.15

(x, y) (x, y) denition of

symmetry

(a, b) (x, y) assumed

a x Z denition of

x a Z symmetry of the relation in 9.15

(x, y) (a, b)

transitivity

(a, b) (m, n) (m, n) (x, y) assumed

a m Z mx Z denition of

a x Z transitivity of the relation in 9.15

(a, b) (x, y) denition of

(0, 0) belongs to the equivalence class consisting of all points on vertical lines of the form x = c, c Z.

One set of equivalence class representatives is (x, 0) : 0 < x 1.

5

9.17 reexivity

(x, y) R R assumed

x R y R denition of cartesian product

x x = Z y y R reexivity of the relation in 9.15

(x, y) (x, y) denition of

symmetry

(a, b) (x, y) assumed

a x Z b y Z denition of

x a Z y b Z symmetry of the relation in 9.15

(x, y) (a, b) denition of

transitivity

(a, b) (m, n) (m, n) (x, y) assumed

a m Z mx Z b n Z n y Z denition of

a x Z b y Z transitivity of the relation in 9.15

(a, b) (x, y) denition of

(0, 0) belongs to the equivalence class of intersections of vertical lines of the form x = c, c Z and

horizontal lines of the form y = d, d Z. This can be thought of as the set of all points at which the

coordinate lines intersect on a piece of graph paper. One set of equivalence class representatives would be

(x, y) : 0 < x 1, 0 < y 1. This can be thought of as the set of all points in one unit square on a

piece of graph paper.

9.18 The mapping : S S dened as (x) = x is a bijective function for any set S. From theorem 2.2,

this means that S S: so is reexive. If S T, then the denition of invertibility guarantees that

T S: so is symmetric. If S T and T U, then from theorem 2.1 parts (a) and (c), S U: so is

transitive.

9.19 a) Let a be any element of S. For every b S, there is some permutation group (a b) S

n

. So a b

for every b. This shows that there is only one equivalence class in this case: that equivalence class

contains every element of S.

b) The equivalence classes are [1] = 1, [2] = [3] = 2, 3, [4] = 4. One set of equivalence class

representatives is 1, 2, 4.

c) The equivalence classes are [1] = [2] = [3] = 1, 2, 3, [4] = 4, [5] = 5. One set of equivalence class

representatives is 1, 4, 5.

9.20 The properties of are directly inherited from the properties of =, which is trivially an equivalence

relation. One set of equivalence class representatives is the set 0 + a

1

x + a

2

x

2

+ . . . + a

n

x

n

: a

i

R of

polynomials with a zero constant term.

9.21 a) . . . (a S)(a , a)

b) . . . (a, b S)(a b b , a)

c) . . . (a, b, c S)(a b b c a , c)

9.22 This proof is assuming that there is some x, y such that x y. If S consisted of only the element x, this

set would be trivially symmetric and transitive. But it might not be the case that x x (for instance, if

were dened as is greater than).

10 The Division Algorithm

10.9 This equivalence relation is equivalent to congruence modulo 10.

10.10 This is equivalent to congruence modulo 10

k

.

10.13 a[b b[c

(m, n Z)(am = b bn = c) denition of divisibility

(m, n Z)(amn = c) algebraic replacement

(a[c) denition of divisibility

6

10.14 a[b b[a

(m, n Z)(am = b bn = a) denition of divisibility

(m, n Z)(am = b bn = a amn = a) algebraic replacement

(m, n Z)(am = b bn = a mn = 1) uniqueness of identity element

(m, n Z)(am = b bn = a [(m = 1 = n) (m = 1 = n)]) given

(m, n Z)([a(1) = b b(1) = a] [a(1) = b b(1) = a]) algebraic replacement

(a = b) (a = b)

a = b

10.15 a b(mod n) c b(mod n) given

(u, v Z)([a = b +un] [c = d +vn]) denition of

n

(u, v Z)(a +c = b +d +n(u +v)) add both sides

a +c b +d(mod n) denition of

n

10.16 a b(mod n) c b(mod n) given

(u, v Z)([a = b +un] [c = d +vn]) denition of

n

(u, v Z)(ac = bd +bvn +dun +n

2

uv) multiply both sides

(u, v Z)(ac = bd +nbv +ndu +n

2

uv) commutativity of multiplication on R

(u, v Z)(ac = bd +n(bv +du +nuv)) distributivity of R

ac bd(mod n) denition of

n

10.17 Let a = 2, b = 4, n = 4. Then 2

2

4

0

4

4

2

, but 2

4

2 ,= 0

4

4.

10.18 a b(mod n)

(u Z)(a = b +un) denition of

n

(u Z)(a

2

= b

2

+ 2bun +u

2

n

2

) square both sides

(u Z)(a

2

= b

2

+n2bu +n

2

u

2

) commutativity of multiplication on R

(u Z)(a

2

= b

2

+n(2bu +nu

2

)) distributivity of R

a

2

b

2

(mod n)

10.19 a b(mod n) n[a

(u, k Z)([a = b +un] [nk = a]) denitions of

n

and divisibility

(u, k Z)(nk = b +un) algebraic replacement

(u, k Z)(n(k u) = b) algebra

n[b denition of divisibility

10.20 m[n a b(mod n)

(u, k Z)(mk = n a = b +un) denitions of

n

and divisibility

(u, k Z)(a = b +umk) algebraic replacement

(u, k Z)(a = b +m(uk)) commutativity of multiplication on R

a b(mod m) denition of

m

10.21 a b(mod n)

n[(a b) denition of equivalence modulo n

(u Z)(a b = un) denition of divisibility

(u Z)(a = b +un) algebra

The second part of the problem is true because a b = un implies both a = un +b and b = un +a.

10.22 a, b, n Z n > 0

(q, r Z)(a = nq +r) (s, t Z)(b = ns +t) division algorithm

(q, r, s, t Z)(a b = n(q s) + (r t) algebra

(q, r, s, t Z)(a (r t) = b +n(q s)) algebra

(q, r, s, t Z)(a + (t r) = b +n(q s)) algebra

(t, r Z)(a + (t r) b(mod n)) denition of

n

(x Z)(a +x b(mod n)) (t r) Z

10.23 Let a = 0, b = 1, n = 10. There is no x such that 0x = 1(mod 10).

7

10.24 a is an odd integer

(k Z)(a = 2k + 1) denition of odd

(k Z)(a

2

= 4k

2

+ 4k + 1) algebra

(k Z)(a

2

= 4(k)(k + 1) + 1) algebra

(k Z)(a

2

= 8(

(k)(k+1)

2

) + 1)

(k)(k+1)

2

Z because (k)(k + 1) is even

a

2

1(mod 8) denition of

n

10.25 (a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) k+1

10.26 (a) 2 (b) 3 (c) k+1

10.27 (a) The set of negative integers has no least element.

(b)

1

x

: x N has no least element.

10.28 i) (a, b Z) b > 0

(!q, r Z)(a = bq +r 0 r < b) division algorithm

ii) (a, b Z) b < 0

(!q, r Z)(a = (b)q +r 0 r < b) division algorithm

(!q, r Z)(a = b(q) +r 0 r < b) algebra

So, in either case, (!q, r Z)(a = bq +r, 0 r < [b[).

10.29a Let S = x : 10

x

1(mod 9). Proof by induction that S = N:

S is nonempty:

10 = 1 + 9

10

1

= 1 + 9(1)

10

1

1(mod 9)

1 S denition of S

induction:

n S hypothesis of induction

10

n

1(mod 9) denition of membership in S

(u Z)(10

n

= 1 + 9u) denition of

n

(u Z)(10

n+1

= 10 + 90u) algebra

(u Z)(10

n+1

= 1 + 9 + 90u) algebra

(u Z)(10

n+1

= 1 + 9(1 + 10u)) algebra

10

n+1

1(mod 9) denition of

n

n + 1 S denition of membership in S

Therefore S = N, which means 10

n

1(mod 9) for all positive integers.

10.29b Each base-10 integer k can be expressed in expanded decimal form as

k = a

0

(10

0

) +a

1

(10

1

) +. . . +a

n

(10

n

)

where a

i

is i

th

digit to the left of the decimal point. From the conclusion in part (a) of this problem, we

conclude that there exist u

0

, u

1

, . . . , u

n

Z such that:

k = a

0

(1 + 9u

0

) +a

1

(1 + 9u

1

) +. . . +a

n

(1 + 9u

n

)

k = (a

0

+a

1

+. . . +a

n

) + 9(a

0

u

0

+a

1

u

1

+. . . +a

n

u

n

)

k = (a

0

+a

1

+. . . +a

n

)(mod 9)

11 Integers Modulo n

11.7 The fact that its a group is given, so we need only prove commutativity:

[a] [b] = [a +b] denition of operation

= [b +a] commutativity of addition on Z

= [b] [a] denition of operation

8

11.8 [a] [b] = [ab] denition of operation

= [ba] commutativity of multiplication on Z

= [b] [a] denition of operation

11.9 [a] ([b] [c]) = [a] ([b +c]) denition of operation

= [a(b +c)] denition of operation

= [ab +ac] distributivity of Z

= [ab] [ac] denition of operation

= ([a] [b]) ([a] [c]) denition of operation

11.10 [a] + [a] = [a + (a)] denition of operation

= [0] property of negatives in Z

11.11 Proof by contradiction:

(a Z)([a] [0] = [1]) assumed

(a Z)([a0] = [1]) denition of operation

([0] = [1]) property of 0 in Z

The conclusion is only true for Z

1

: in any other case, our assumption must be false.

11.12 Associativity:

[a] ([b] [c]) = [a] ([bc]) denition of operation

= [a(bc)] denition of operation

= [(ab)c] associativity of multiplication on Z

= [ab] [c] denition of operation

= ([a] [b]) [c] denition of operation

Commutativity:

[a] [b] = [ab] denition of operation

= [ba] commutativity of multiplication in Z

= [b] [a] denition of operation

Existence of an identity element:

[a] [1]

= [a1] denition of operation

= [a] multiplicative identity in Z

= [1a] multiplicative identity in Z

= [1] [a] denition of operation

11.13 Associativity, commutativity, nonemptiness, and the existence of an identity element were shown in

problem 11.12. We need only show closure under the operation , which can be done with a Cayley table:

[1] [2]

[1] [1] [2]

[2] [2] [1]

11.14 Associativity, commutativity, nonemptiness, and the existence of an identity element were shown in

problem 11.12. But Z

#

4

is not closed, since [2] [2] = [0], and [0] / Z

#

4

.

11.15 The problem doesnt specify which operation it wants us to prove this for, but its only a group under

. The subgroup inherits associativity from Z

6

and its nonemptiness is given. We need to show closure

under , the existence of a unique identity element, and the existence of an inverse for each element. The

following Cayley table shows that all of these requirements are met:

[0] [2] [4]

[0] [0] [2] [4]

[2] [2] [4] [0]

[4] [4] [0] [2]

9

11.16 As in the previous problem, we need only to show closure, the existence of a unique identity element,

and the existence of an inverse for each element.

[0] [3] [6] [9]

[0] [0] [3] [6] [9]

[3] [3] [6] [9] [0]

[6] [6] [9] [0] [3]

[9] [9] [0] [3] [6]

11.17(a) Proof that there is no more than 1 nonidentity element that is its own inverse:

[a] is its own inverse assumed

([a] [a]

n

[0]) denition of inverse

([a +a]

n

[0]) denition of operation

(u Z)(a +a = 0 +un) denition of modular equivalence

(u Z)(2a = un) algebra

(u Z)(a = u

n

2

) algebra

(u, k Z)((a = u

n

2

) (u = 2k u = 2k + 1)) all integers are either even or odd

(u, k Z)((a = u

n

2

u = 2k) (a = u

n

2

u = 2k + 1)) logical distributivity

(k Z)((a = 2k

n

2

) (a = (2k + 1)

n

2

) algebraic replacement

(k Z)((a = kn) (a = kn +

n

2

) algebra

([a]

n

[0]) ([a]

n

[

n

2

]) denition of modular equivalence

So if [a] is its own inverse, there are only two possible values it may take. One is the additive identity, and

the other is [

n

2

]. And its only possible for [a] = [

n

2

] if

n

2

is an integer, which is only true if n is even. But

this only proves that there is at most one nonidentity element of Z

2k

that is its own inverse. To show that

there is always at least one if n is even:

(n is even) assumed

n

2

Z denition of even

[

n

2

] Z

n

denition of Z

n

[

n

2

+

n

2

] = [n]

n

[0]

[

n

2

] [

n

2

]

n

[0] denition of operation

11.17(b) (see previous proof)

11.17(c) [x] = [0] [1] . . . [n 1] assumed

[x] = [0 + 1 +. . . +n 1] denition of operation

[x] = [

n(n1)

2

] rules for series summation

(u Z)(x = nu +

n(n1)

2

) denition of modular equivalence

(u Z)(x = n(u +

1

2

n

1

2

)) algebra

If n is even, this last statement implies:

(u, k Z)(x = n(u +

1

2

n

1

2

) n = 2k)

(u, k Z)(x = n(u +k

1

2

))

(u, k Z)(x = n(u +k 1 +

1

2

))

(u, k Z)(x = n(u +k 1) +

n

2

)

[x]

n

[

n

2

]

Otherwise, if n is odd, the same statement implies:

(u, k Z)(x = n(u +

1

2

n

1

2

) n = 2k + 1)

(u, k Z)(x = n(u +k)

[x]

n

[0]

So [x] is equivalent mod n to either [0] or [

n

2

].

11.17(d) The modulus of the sum of the series is equal to the modulus of the median (centermost) element of

the series if n is odd, and [0] otherwise.

11.18 [0] [1] and [1] [1]. But [0] [1] = [1] and [1] [1] = [0], so is not well-dened.

10

12 Greatest Common Divisors

12.12 Theorem 12.2 proves that there is at least one choice of m, n such that (a, b) = am + bn. And for every

x Z, (a(m + xb) + b(n xa)) = am + bn. So there are an innite number of choices for m, n such that

(a, b) = am+bn.

12.13 x = gcd(a, b) assume gcd(a, b) is dened

x[a x[b (y[a y[b y[x) denition of gcd

(p

i

Z)(xp

1

= a xp

2

= b (yp

3

= a yp

4

= b yp

5

= x)) denition of divisibility

(p

i

Z)(xcp

1

= ac xcp

2

= bc (ycp

3

= ac ycp

4

= bc ycp

5

= xc)) algebra

xc[ac xc[bc (yc[ac yc[bc yc[xc) denition of divisibility

xc = gcd(ac, bc) denition of gcd

gcd(a, b)c = gcd(ac, bc) (x = gcd(a, b))

12.14 d = gcd(a, b) assumed

(m, n Z)(d = am+bn) theorem 12.2

(m, n Z)(1 =

a

d

m+

b

d

n) the fractions are dened because d[a, d[b.

1 = gcd(

a

d

,

b

d

) corollary of theorem 12.2

1 = gcd(

a

d

,

b

d

) assumed

(m, n Z)(1 =

a

d

m+

b

d

n) corollary of theorem 12.2

(m, n Z)(d = am+bn) algebra

(m, n Z)(d = am+bn) gcd(a, b)[a gcd(a, b)[b property of gcd

(m, n, r, s Z)(d = am+bn a = gcd(a, b)r b = gcd(a, b)s) denition of divisibility

(m, n, r, s Z)(d = gcd(a, b)rm+ gcd(a, b)sn) algebraic replacement

(m, n, r, s Z)(d = gcd(a, b)(rm+sn)) distributivity

gcd(a, b)[d denition of divisibility

gcd(a, b)[d d[a d[b given in the problem description

gcd(a, b)[d d[ gcd(a, b) d[a d[b d[ gcd(a, b)

d = gcd(a, b)

12.15 x = gcd(a, p)

x[a x[p partial denition of gcd

x[a (x = 1 x = p) denition of p prime

(x[a x = 1) (x[a x = p) logical distributivity

(1[a x = 1) (p[a x = p) algebraic replacement

(1[a x = 1) p ,[ a was given

x = 1

gcd(a, p) = 1 denition of x from rst step

12.16 gcd(a, c) = 1 gcd(b, c) = 1

(m, n Z)(1 = ma +nc) (r, s Z)(1 = rb +sc) theorem 12.2

(m, n, r, s Z)(1 = (ma +nc)(rb +sc)) multiply both equations

(m, n, r, s Z)(1 = ab(mr) +c(ams +bnr +cns)) algebra

gcd(ab, c) = 1 theorem 12.2

12.17 gcd(ab, c) = 1 assumption

(m, n Z)(1 = (ab)m+ (c)n) theorem 12.2

(m, n Z)((1 = (ab)m+ (c)n) (1 = (ab)m+ (c)n)) p p p

(m, n Z)((1 = (a)bm+ (c)n) (1 = (b)am+ (c)n)) associativity and commutativity

gcd(a, c) = 1 gcd(b, c) = 1 theorem 12.2

12.18 c[ab gcd(a, c) = d assumed

(r Z)(cr = ab) (s, t Z)(d = as +ct) denition of divisibility and theorem 12.2

(r, s, t Z)(cr = ab bd = abs +bct) algebra

(r, s, t Z)(bd = crs +bct) algebraic replacement

(r, s, t Z)(bd = c(rs +bt)) algebra

c[bd denition of divisibility

11

12.19 gcd(a, b) = gcd(bq +r, b) denition of a

= gcd(bq +r + (q)b, b) gcd(a, b) = gcd(a +nb, b), from the Euclidean algorithm

= gcd(r, b) algebra

12.20 gcd(a, b) = 1 c[a assumed

(m, n, p Z)(1 = ma +nb cp = a) theorem 12.2 and gcd

(m, n, p Z)(1 = m(cp) +nb) algebraic replacement

(m, n, p Z)(1 = c(mp) +b(n)) commutativity and associativity

gcd(c, b) = 1 theorem 12.2

12.21 gcd(a, m) = 1 assumed

(x, s Z)(1 = ax +ms) theorem 12.2

(x, s Z)(ax = (s)m+ 1) algebra

(x Z)(ax 1(mod m)) denition of mod m

12.22 n

nn(modp)

p

12.23 Let D = x N : x is a common divisor of a, b, and c. We know that this set is nonempty, since 1 D.

We also know that it is nite, since x must be less than the smallest of a, b, or c. Because D is a nite,

nonempty set of positive integers, we know that it must have a greatest element. So we know that a, b, and

c have a greatest common divisor. To prove that this divisor can be expressed as a linear combination:

x = gcd(a, b, c) assumed

(x[a x[b x[c) ((y[a y[b y[c) y[x) denition of gcd

((x[a x[b) x[c) (((y[a y[b) y[c) y[x) associativity

((x[ gcd(a, b)) x[c) ((y[ gcd(a, b)) y[c) y[x denition of gcd

x = gcd(gcd(a, b), c) denition of gcd

(m, n Z)(x = gcd(a, b)m+cn) Theorem 12.2

(m, n, r, s Z)(x = (ar +bs)m+cn) Theorem 12.2

(m, n, r, s Z)(x = arm+bsm+cn) algebra

12.24 (a) One of a, b is nonzero, so one of 0 +a, 0 a, b + 0, or b + 0 must be a positive integer.

(b) We know that S has a least element by the well-ordering principle. We know that this least element

can be express as d = am+bn because thats the denition of membership in S.

(c) We know that a, b S because a = 1a + 0b and b = 0a + 1b. So if we prove that d divides everything

in S, we will of course have proven that it divides a and b.

(d) We can assume that at least one such k exists because S is nonempty. We can assume the existence

of the integers q and r from the division algorithm of chapter 10. The remaining steps of part (d) are

basic algebra.

(e) r = 0 because we assumed that 0 r < d and then showed that it was a member of S. But weve

already assumed that d is the smallest positive element of S, so r cannot be a smaller positive element:

it must be 0. So the fact that each element k S can be written k = dq + r actually tells us that

k = dq + 0, or that d[k for all k S.

(f ) Let d = gcd(a, b):

c[a c[b (d = gcd(a, b)) assumed

(m, n, r, s Z)(cn = a cm = b d = ar +bs) denition of divisibility, Theorem 12.2

(m, n, r, s Z)(d = cnr +cms) algebraic replacment

(m, n, r, s Z)(d = c(nr +ms)) algebra

c[d denition of divisibility

13 Factorization, Eulers Phi Function

In all of the following problems, exponents of 0 are allowed in the standard form. For example:

12

7 = p

e

1

1

p

e

2

2

p

e

k

k

7 = 2

0

3

0

5

0

7

1

11

0

. . .

6 = p

f

1

1

p

f

2

2

p

f

k

k

6 = 2

1

3

1

5

0

7

0

11

0

. . .

7 6 = p

e

1

+f

1

1

p

e

2

+f

2

2

p

e

k

+f

k

k

42 = 2

1

3

1

5

0

7

1

11

0

. . .

Because each p

i

always represents the i

th

prime, this makes it easier to compare or multiply two standard

form numbers.

13.5 m[n

(u Z)(mu = n) denition of divisibility

(u Z)(p

s

1

1

p

s

2

2

p

s

k

k

)u = (p

t

1

1

p

t

2

2

p

t

k

k

) denitions of m and n

(u Z)u = p

t

1

s

1

1

p

t

2

s

2

2

p

t

2

s

2

k

algebra

(i N)(s

i

t

i

) standard form cannot have negative exponents

13.15 n is odd assumed

n = 2

0

p

e

2

2

p

e

k

k

FToA, p

1

= 2

2n = 2

1

p

e

2

2

p

e

k

k

algebra

(2n) = (2

1

p

e

2

2

p

e

k

k

) is well-dened

(2n) = (2

1

)(p

e

2

2

p

e

k

k

) theorem 13.3

(2n) = 2(1 1/2)(p

e

2

2

p

e

k

k

) theorem 13.1

(2n) = (p

e

2

2

p

e

k

k

) algebra

(2n) = (1p

e

2

2

p

e

k

k

) property of the identity element

(2n) = (2

0

p

e

2

2

p

e

k

k

) x

0

= 1 by denition

(2n) = (n) denition of n from rst step

13.16 n is even assumed

(u Z)(n = 2u) denition of even

n = 2(p

e

1

1

p

e

2

2

p

e

k

k

) FToA

2n = 2

2

(p

e

1

1

p

e

2

2

p

e

k

k

) algebra

2n = (p

e

1

+2

1

p

e

2

2

p

e

k

k

) p

1

= 2

(2n) = (p

e

1

+2

1

p

e

2

2

p

e

k

k

) is well-dened

(2n) = (p

e

1

+2

1

)(p

e

2

2

p

e

k

k

) theorem 13.3

(2n) = p

e

1

+2

1

(1 1/2)(p

e

2

2

p

e

k

k

) theorem 13.1

(2n) = 2p

e

1

1

(p

e

2

2

p

e

k

k

) algebra

(2n) = 2(p

e

1

1

p

e

2

2

p

e

k

k

) theorem 13.3

(2n) = 2(n) denition of n from rst step

13.17 gcd(a, b) = 1 a[m b[m assumed

(r)(gcd(a, b) = 1 ar = m b[m) denition of divisibility

(r)(gcd(a, b) = 1 ar = m b[ar) algebraic replacement

(r)(gcd(a, b) = 1 ar = m b[r) lemma 13.1

(r, s)(ar = m bs = r) denition of divisibility

(r, s)(abs = m) algebraic replacement

ab[m denition of divisibility

13.18(a) Proof by contradiction:

(n = p

e

1

1

p

e

2

2

p

e

k

k

) (i N)(e

i

2) assumption

(n = p

2

i

(p

e

1

1

p

e

2

2

p

e

i

2

i

p

e

k

k

) (i N)(e

i

2) algebra

p

2

i

[n denition of divisibility

n is not square free denition of square free

So, by contrapositive, if n is square free then there is no e

i

2. To prove that this holds in the other

direction, we use another proof by contradiction:

13

n is not square free assumption

(x Z)(x

2

[n) denition of square free

(u, x Z)(n = x

2

u) denition of divisibility

(u, x Z)(n = x

2

(p

e

1

1

p

e

2

2

p

e

k

k

)) FToA

(u, x Z)(n = x

2

(p

e

1

1

p

e

2

2

p

e

k

k

) [(p

i

)(x ,= p

i

) (p

i

)(x = p

i

)]) excluded middle

(u, x Z)(n = (x

2

p

e

1

1

p

e

2

2

p

e

k

k

) n = (p

e

1

1

p

e

2

2

p

e

i

+2

i

p

e

k

k

)) FToA

n = (p

e

1

1

p

e

2

2

p

e

k

k

) (i N)(e

i

2)

13.18(b) (x Z)(n = x

2

) assumption

n = (p

e

1

1

p

e

2

2

p

e

k

k

)

2

FToA

n = (p

2e

1

1

p

2e

2

2

p

2e

k

k

) algebra

each exponent of n, in standard form, is even

13.18(c) Let n = (p

e

1

1

p

e

2

2

p

e

k

k

). Let q be the product of every element in the set p

i

: e

i

is odd (note that if

p

5

k

is an element of n, it is only p

1

k

that is an element of q). Each element of q is raised only to the rst

power, so it is square-free from 13.18(a). Also,

n

q

has only even exponents, so it is a perfect square from

13.18(b). And since n = q

n

q

, this means n is the product of a perfect square and a square-free integer.

13.19

n is rational assumption

(q, r N)

n =

q

r

denition of rational

(q, r N)n =

q

2

r

2

algebra

(q, r N)r

2

n = q

2

algebra

(p

2r

1

1

p

2r

2

2

p

2r

k

k

)(p

n

1

1

p

n

2

2

p

n

k

k

) = (p

2q

1

1

p

2q

2

2

p

2q

k

k

) FToA, denition of squares

(p

2r

1

+n

1

1

p

2r

2

+n

2

2

p

2r

k

+n

k

k

) = (p

2q

1

1

p

2q

2

2

p

2q

k

k

) algebra

(i N)(2r

i

+n

i

= 2q

i

) properties of exponents

(i N)(n

i

= 2(q

i

r

i

)) algebra

(i N)(2[n

i

) denition of divisibility

(i N)(n

i

is even) denition of even

p

n

1

1

p

n

2

2

p

n

k

k

is a perfect square 13.18(b)

n is a perfect square denition of n

13.20 A general proof for all

x

n:

x

n is rational assumption

(q, r N)

x

n =

q

r

denition of rational

(q, r N)n =

q

x

r

x

algebra

(q, r N)r

x

n = q

x

algebra

(p

xr

1

1

p

xr

2

2

p

xr

k

k

)(p

n

1

1

p

n

2

2

p

n

k

k

) = (p

xq

1

1

p

xq

2

2

p

xq

k

k

) FToA, denition of squares

(p

xr

1

+n

1

1

p

xr

2

+n

2

2

p

xr

k

+n

k

k

) = (p

xq

1

1

p

xq

2

2

p

xq

k

k

) algebra

(i N)(xr

i

+n

i

= xq

i

) properties of exponents

(i N)(n

i

= x(q

i

r

i

)) algebra

(i N)(x[n

i

) denition of divisibility

(m N)(p

n

1

1

p

n

2

2

p

n

k

k

= m

x

) 13.18(b)

(m N)(n = m

x

) denition of n

This shows that

3

3

2 is not rational.

13.21 (see problem 13.20)

14 Elementary Properties

14.11(b) b = be

= b(aa

1

)

= (ba)a

1

= (ca)a

1

ba = ca was given

= c(aa

1

)

= ce

= c

14

14.12 xa = b

(xa)a

1

= ba

1

x(aa

1

) = ba

1

xe = ba

1

x = ba

1

14.13 axb = c

a

1

axb = a

1

c

a

1

axbb

1

= a

1

cb

1

(a

1

a)x(bb

1

) = a

1

cb

1

exe = a

1

cb

1

x = a

1

cb

1

14.14(a) o(a) = m o(b) = n assumed

a

m

= e b

n

= e denition of o(x)

a

mn

= e

n

b

mn

= e

m

algebra

a

mn

b

mn

= e

mn

algebra

(ab)

mn

= e

mn

commutativity, from G being abelian

(ab)

mn

= e

14.14(b) (ab)

mn

= e assumed

o(ab)[mn from theorem 14.3

o(ab)[o(a)o(b) from denition of o(a) = m, o(b) = n

14.14(c) In Z

4

, o([2]) = 2, o([2])o([2]) = 4, and o([2] [2]) = 1.

14.15 Let a, b be permutation groups with a = (1 2), b = (1 3). Both of these groups are order 2. But

(ab)

4

= (132)

4

= (132).

14.16(a) Let G be an abelian group, and let S be the elements of nite order in G. To prove that S is a subgroup:

e is in S:

e

1

= e

o(e) = 1 denition of o(x)

e S denition of membership in S

S is closed under its operation:

a S b S assumed

(m, n N)(o(a) = m o(b) = n) denition of membership in S

(m, n N)(a

m

= e b

n

= e) denition of o(x)

(m, n N)(a

mn

= e

n

b

mn

= e

m

) algebra

(m, n N)(a

mn

= e b

mn

= e) property of the unity element

(m, n N)(a

mn

b

mn

= e) algebra

(m, n N)((ab)

mn

= e) from the commutativity of abelian groups

(m, n N)(o(ab)[mn) theorem 14.3

(m, n N)(o(ab) mn) property of divisibility

o(ab) is nite

ab S denition of membership in S

15

existence of inverses in S:

a S assumed

(m N)(o(a) = m) denition of membership in S

(m N)(a

m

= e) denition of o(a)

(m N)(a

m

= e e

m

= e) property of the identity element

(m N)(a

m

= e (aa

1

)

m

= e) denition of inverses

(m N)(a

m

= e a

m

(a

1

)

m

= e) commutativity of abelian groups

(m N)(e(a

1

)

m

= e) algebraic substitution

(m N)((a

1

)

m

= e)

(m N)(o(a

1

)[m) theorem 14.3

(m N)(o(a

1

) m) property of divisibility

o(a

1

) is nite

a

1

S

14.16(b) The only positive rational with a nite order is 1, with o(1) = 1.

14.18(a) ab = ba assumed

(ab)(ab)

1

= ba(ab)

1

e = ba(ab)

1

property of inverses

(ba)

1

e = (ba)

1

ba(ab)

1

(ba)

1

= (ab)

1

property of inverses

a

1

b

1

= b

1

a

1

theorem 14.1

14.18(b) ab = ba assumed

a(ab) = a(ba)

a(ab)b = a(ba)b

(aa)(bb) = (ab)(ab) associativity

a

2

b

2

= (ab)

2

14.19 m n assumed

(x m x n) denition of subset

(j N)(x = m

j

) (k N)(x = n

k

) denition of membership in m or n

(j N)(k N)(m

j

= n

k

) quantication of the conditional

When j = 1, this means that m = n

k

. So m must be an integral power of n. This means that a

necessary condition is that (i N)(m = n

i

). Continuing the proof:

(j N)(k N)(m

j

= n

k

) (i N)(m = n

i

)

(j N)(i, k N)(n

ij

= n

k

) algebraic substitution

And this last condition can always be made true by choosing k = ij. So the condition that m = n

i

is both necessary and sucient for m n.

14.22(a) a = cb

1

a(bb

1

) = cb

1

property of inverses

ab = c right cancellation

ab = (aa

1

)c property of inverses

b = a

1

c left cancellation

14.22(b) (1 2 3)(1 2) = (1 3) ab = c

(1 2)(1 3) ,= (1 2 3) b

1

c ,= a

14.23 Let a represent the nonidentity element of the group.

a

2

= e assumed

aa = e denition of a

2

aa = aa

1

property of inverses

a = a

1

left cancellation

16

14.24 Assume G is a group with 2n elements. From the denition of a group, each a G must have a unique

inverse. Because the identity element is its own inverse, this means that the other 2n 1 elements must

have a unique inverse among themselves. Since a maximum of n 1 pairs can be formed from 2n 1

elements, at least one element must be its own inverse by the pigeonhole principle.

14.25 (a, b G)((ab)

1

= a

1

b

1

) assumed

(a, b G)((ab)

1

= (ba)

1

) theorem 14.1

(a, b G)((ab)

1

(ab) = (ba)

1

(ab))

(a, b G)(e = (ba)

1

(ab))

(a, b G)((ba)e = (ba)(ba)

1

(ab))

(a, b G)(ba = ab)

G is abelian denition of abelian

14.28 is onto G:

b G assumed

b G a G denition of a

b G a

1

G existence of inverses in groups

a

1

b G G is closed under its operation

(a

1

b) = a(a

1

b) = b denition of

b Rng()

is one-to-one:

(x) = (y) assumed

ax = ay denition of

x = y left cancellation

14.29 (a, b G)(o(a) = 2 o(b) = 2) assumed

(a, b G)(o(a) = 2 o(b) = 2 ab G) G is closed

(a, b G)(o(a) = 2 o(b) = 2 (o(ab) = 1 o(ab) = 2)) ab either is or isnt the identity

(a, b G)(a

2

= e b

2

= e (ab)

2

= e) in either case, (ab)

2

= e

(a, b G)(a

2

b

2

= e = (ab)

2

) algebra

(a, b G)(aabb = abab)

(a, b G)(abb = bab) left cancellation

(a, b G)(ab = ba) right cancellation

G is abelian dention of abelian

14.30 We will prove the seemingly unrelated claim that o(a

1

) o(a) and then show that this proves that

o(a) = o(a

1

).

Lemma: o(a

1

) o(a):

o(a) = m assumed

a

m

= e denition of o(x)

a

m

= e a

0

= e denition of a

0

a

m

= e a

mm

= e additive inverse

a

m

= e a

m

a

m

= e additive inverse

ea

m

= e algebraic substitution

a

m

= e algebraic substitution

(a

1

)

m

= e denition of negative exponents

o(a

1

)[m theorem 14.3

o(a

1

) m property of divisibility

o(a

1

) o(a) denition of m

This shows not only that o(a

1

) o(a), but also that o((a

1

)

1

) o(a

1

). So o(a

1

) o(a) o(a)

o(a

1

), which means that o(a) = o(a

1

).

17

14.31 o(a

1

ba) = m assumed

(a

1

ba)

m

= e denition of o(x)

a

1

(baa

1

)

m1

ba = e associativity

(If the justication for the previous step is unclear, see problem 14.32 for a clearer example.)

a

1

(b)

m1

ba = e property of inverses

aa

1

(b)

m1

baa

1

= aea

1

left and right multiplication

(b)

m1

b = aa

1

cancellation of inverses

b

m

= e property of inverses

o(b) m

And since m = o(a

1

ba), this last step tell us that o(b) o(a

1

ba). The steps of this proof can be followed

in reverse to justify the claim that (o(b) = n) (o(a

1

ba) o(b)). And, since o(b) o(a

1

ba) o(b),

this mean that o(b) = o(a

1

ba).

14.32 o(ab) = m assumed

(ab)

m

= e denition of o(x)

a(ba)

m1

b = e associativity

a

1

a(ba)

m1

b = a

1

e left multiplication

(ba)

m1

b = a

1

(ba)

m1

ba = a

1

a right multiplication

(ba)

m

= e

o(ba)[m theorem 14.3

o(ba) m property of divisibility

o(ba) o(ab) denition of m

And of course, taking o(ba) = n and following these same steps would prove that o(ab) o(ba), so

o(ab) = o(ba).

14.33 Every group G is a subgroup of itself, so if the claim were true then every group G would have a subgroup

with [G[ elements. In other words, every group would be a cyclic group. So every noncyclic group is a

counterexample. One specic example is S

3

, which is a subgroup of itself and has order 6 but has no

elements of order 6.

14.34 If e is the only element of G, then e = e = G and therefore G is cyclic. Otherwise, let a be a

nonidentity element of G. Then a ,= e, since a

1

a and a

1

,= e. And the only other subgroup of G

is G itself, so a = G and therefore G is cyclic.

14.35 G is nite given

(k N)([G[ = k) denition of nite

(a G)(k N)([a[ k) every subset of a nite set is nite

(a G)(k N)(o(a) k) corollary to theorem 14.3

(a G)(k, m N)(a

m

= e m k) denition of o(x)

(a G)(m N)(a

m

= e) we dont really care about the size of m

(a G)(m N)(aa

m1

= e)

(a G)(m N)(a

m1

= a

1

) uniqueness of inverse, or left multiplication

(a G)(b G)(b = a

1

) change of variable

So part (c) of theorem 7.1 is only necessary when analyzing an innite group like N which fullls require-

ments (a) and (b), but not part (c).

14.36 Let x =lcm[r, s]. The fact that , are disjoint means that they commute: = .

18

is an r-cycle is an s-cycle assumed

r

= e

s

= e denition of a cycle (p38)

r

= e

s

= e r[x s[x x =lcm[r, s]

(m, n N)(

r

= e

s

= e rm = x sn = x) denition of divisibility

(m, n N)(

rm

= e

m

sn

= e

n

rm = x sn = x)

x

= e

x

= e algebraic replacement

x

x

= e algebra

()

x

= e and are commutative

o()[x theorem 14.3

o() x property of divisibility

o() lcm[r, s] denition of x

So weve shown here that o() is no greater than the least common multiple of [r, s]. Now we prove

that it is a multiple of [r, s]:

o() = y assumed

()

y

= e denition of o(x)

y

y

= e commutativity of ,

y

= e

y

= e disjointness of ,

o()[y o()[y theorem 14.3

o()[o() o()[o() algebraic replacement of o() = y

o() is a multiple of both o() and o() denition of divisibility

o() is a multiple of both r and s denition of r, s

Since o() is a common multiple of (r, s) and its less than or equal to the least such multiple, it must

be equal to it. o() =lcm[r, s].

15 Generators, Direct Products

15.14 , by denition, is the intersection of all subgroups of G that contain . A subgroup H contains i

H. And this is true for all sets. So represents the intersection of all subgroups of G. And since

e is a subgroup of G and every subgroup of G must contain e, = e.

15.15 The necessary and sucient condition is that S is a subgroup of G. Proof:

If S is a group, rather than just an arbitrary set, then the smallest group that contains S is equal to S

itself: i.e., S = S. So S being a group is a sucient condition for S = S. If S is not a group, then at

least one of the following three things must be true:

i) S is lacking the identity element of G. But S must contain the identity element, since it is a union of

subgroups of G each of which contains the identity element. In this case, S ,= S.

ii) S does not contain the inverse for at least one element of S. But S is a union of subgroups of G

that contain every element of S, so each subgroup must also contain the inverse of each element of

S. Therefore S must contain the inverse of each element of S. In this case, S ,= S.

iii) S is not closed under the operation of G: there is some a, b S such that ab , S. But S is a

union of subgroups of G that are closed under the operation of G, so it cannot be the case that

a, b S ab , S. So S ,= S.

In each of these three cases, we see that S , = S. So S being a group is a necessary condition for S = S.

15.16 Let (a, x), (b, y), and (c, z) be elements of AB.

((a, x)(b, y))(c, z)

= (ab, xy)(c, z) denition of direct product operation

= ((ab)c, (xy)z) denition of direct product operation

= (a(bc), x(yz)) associativity of groups A and B

= (a, x)(bc, yz) denition of direct product operation

= (a, x)((b, y)(c, z)) denition of direct product operation

19

15.17 existence of an identity element:

e

A

A e

B

e

B

necessary property of groups

(e

A

, e

B

) Ae

B

denition of cartesian product

(a, e

B

)(e

A

, e

B

)

= (ae

A

, e

B

e

B

)

= (a, e

B

)

= (e

A

a, e

B

e

B

)

= (e

A

, e

B

)(a, e

B

)

completeness of inverses

(a, e

B

) Ae

B

assumed

a A e

B

e

B

denition of cartesian product

a

1

A e

B

e

B

existence of inverse elements

(a

1

, e

B

) Ae

B

denition of cartesian product

(a, e

B

)(a

1

, e

B

)

= (aa

1

, e

B

e

B

)

= (e

A

, e

B

)

= (a

1

a, e

B

e

B

)

= (a

1

, e

B

)(a, e

B

)

closed under the operation

((a, e

B

) Ae

B

) ((x, e

B

) Ae

B

) assumed

(a A e

B

e

B

) (x A e

B

e

B

) denition of cartesian product

ax A e

B

e

B

e

B

closure property of A

(ax, e

B

e

B

) Ae

B

denition of cartesian product

(a, e

B

)(x, e

B

) Ae

B

direct product operation

15.18 AB is abelian

(a, x A, b, y B)(a, b)(x, y) = (x, y)(a, b) denition of abelian

(a, x A, b, y B)(ax, by) = (xa, yb) direct product operation

(a, x A, b, y B)(ax = xa) (by = yb) denition of ordered pair equality

A is abelian B is abelian denition of abelian

15.19 [1]

2

= Z

2

and [1]

4

= Z

4

, so both of these groups are cyclic. But there is no element of A B that

can generate both ([0], [2]) and ([1], [2]) So AB is not a cyclic group.

15.20 existence of an identity element:

e

A

A e

B

B necessary property of groups

(e

A

, e

B

) AB denition of cartesian product

(a, b)(e

A

, e

B

)

= (ae

A

, be

B

)

= (a, b)

= (e

A

a, e

B

b)

= (e

A

, e

B

)(a, b)

completeness of inverses

(a, b) AB assumed

a A b B denition of cartesian product

a

1

A b

1

B existence of inverse elements

(a

1

, b

1

) AB denition of cartesian product

(a, b)(a

1

, b

1

)

= (aa

1

, bb

1

) direct product operation

= (e

A

, e

B

) property of inverses

= (a

1

a, b

1

b) property of inverses

= (a

1

, b

1

)(a, b) direct product operation

20

closed under the operation

((a, b) AB) ((x, y) AB) assumed

(a A b B) (x A y B) denition of cartesian product

ax A by B closure property of A and B

(ax, by) AB denition of cartesian product

(a, b)(x, y) AB direct product operation

At this point, the only operation dened for the group Z has been addition, which causes the notation of

properties like x[y to dier from their notations under multiplicative groups. The following table may make

the next several problems clearer:

expression notation in multiplicative groups: notation in additive groups:

x[a (m Z)(mx = a) (m Z)(x

m

= a)

x a (m Z)(am = x) (m Z)(a

m

= x)

x a, b (m, n Z)(x = am+bn) (m, n Z)(x = a

m

b

n

)

x = gcd(a, b) x[a x[b same, but note dierent meaning of [

x = gcd(a, b) (m, n Z)(x = am+bn) (m, n Z)(x = a

m

b

n

)

x = (a

m

)

n

x = a

mn

x = a

m

n

15.23 x a, b assumed

(m, n Z)(x = a

m

b

n

) denition of x a, b

(m, n Z)(x = a

m

b

n

d[a d[b) denition of d and the gcd

(m, n, r, s Z)(x = a

m

b

n

d

r

= a d

s

= b) def. of divisibility in additive group

(m, n, r, s Z)(x = (d

r

)

m

(d

s

)

n

) algebraic replacement

(m, n, r, s Z)(x = d

r

m

d

s

n

) algebra

(m, n, r, s Z)(x = d

r

m

s

n

) algebra

x d denition of d

x d assumed

(r Z)(x = d

r

) denition of x a

(r Z)(x = (gcd(a, b))

r

) denition of d

(m, n, r Z)(x = (a

m

b

n

)

r

) denition of gcd

(m, n, r Z)(x = a

m

r

b

n

r

) algebra

x a, b denition of x a, b

This shows that a, b d and d a, b, so a, b = d.

15.24 x m assumed

(r Z)(x = m

r

) denition of x a

(r Z)(x = m

r

a[m b[m) denition of m and the lcm

(r, s, t Z)(x = m

r

a

s

= m b

t

= m) denition of divisibility

(r, s, t Z)(x = (a

s

)

r

x = (b

t

)

r

) algebraic replacement

(r, s, t Z)(x = a

s

r

x = b

t

r

) algebra

x a x b denition of a, b

x a b denition of intersection

x a b assumed

x a x b denition of intersection

(r, s N)(x = a

r

x = b

s

)

a[x b[x denition of divisibility

m[x denition of m and the lcm

(r N)(m

r

= x) denition of divisibility

x m denition of x a

This shows that a b m and m a b, so a b = m.

21

15.25 1 = gcd(a, n) assumed

(r, s N)(1 = a

r

n

s

) corollary of theorem 12.2

(r, s N)(1 = a

r

(mod n)) denition of modular equivalence

(r N)([1]

n

= [a

r

]

n

) change of notation

(r N)([1]

n

= [a]

r

n

) [aaa] . . . = [a][a][a] . . .

[1]

n

[a]

n

[a] = Z

n

[1] is cyclic in all Z

n

15.26 x [a]

(r N)(x = [a]

r

) denition of x [a]

(r N)(x = [a]

r

d[a) denition of d and gcd

(r, s, t N)(x = [a]

r

d

s

= a) denition of divisibility

(r, s, t N)(x = [d

s

]

r

) algebraic replacement

(r, s, t N)(x = [d]

s

r

) algebra

x [d] denition of x [a]

x [d] assumed

(r N)(x = [d]

r

) denition of x [a]

(r, s, t N)(x = [d]

r

d = a

s

n

t

) theorem 12.2

(r, s, t N)(x = [a

s

n

t

]

r

) algebraic replacement

(r, s, t N)(x = [a]

s

r

[n]

t

r

) algebra

(r, s, t N)(x = [a]

s

r

[0]

t

r

) [n]

n

= [0]

(r, s, t N)(x = [a]

s

r

) [0] is the identity in Z

x [a] denition of x [a]

This shows that [a] [d] and [d] [a], so [a] = [d].

15.27 gcd(a, n) = gcd(b, n) assumed

(x Z)(gcd(a, n) = x = gcd(b, n))

(x Z)([a] = [x] = [b]) exercise 15.26

([a] = [b]) transitivity of =

For the second half of the proof, let x = gcd(a, n) and let y = gcd(b, n).

[a] = [b] assumed

[a] = [x] = [y] = [b] exercise 15.26

[b] = [x] commutativity of =

[b] [x] choice of specic element of [b]

(r Z)([b] = [x

r

]) denition of membership in [x]

(r, s Z)(b = n

s

x

r

) denition of modular equivalence

And we know that x[n because x = gcd(a, n), so :

(r, s, t Z)(b = n

s

x

r

x

t

= n) denition of divisibility

(r, s, t Z)(b = (x

t

)

s

x

r

) algebraic replacement

(r, s, t Z)(b = x

t

s

r

) algebra

x[b denition of divisibility

x[b x[n x = gcd(a, n)

x[ gcd(b, n) property of the gcd

gcd(a, n)[ gcd(b, n) denition of x

We know that gcd(a, n)[ gcd(b, n). If we use the same steps with [a] = [y] instead of [b] = [x],

it can also be shown that gcd(b, n)[ gcd(a, n). In Z, this means that gcd(a, n) = gcd(b, n).

22

15.28 existence of an identity element

e

A

A (e

A

, e

A

) AA

(a, a)(e

A

) = (ae

A

, ae

A

) = (a, a) = (e

A

a, e

A

a) = (e

A

, a)(e

A

, a)

existence of inverse elements

(a, a) A a A a

1

A (a

1

, a

1

) AA

(a, a)(a

1

, a

1

) = (aa

1

, aa

1

) = (e

A

, e

A

) = (a

1

a, a

1

a) = (a

1

, a

1

)(a, a)

closure

(a, a), (b, b) AA assumed

a A b A denition of cartesian product

ab A closure property of A

(ab, ab) AA denition of cartesian product

(a, a)(b, b) AA operation of direct products

The diagonal subgroup of A represents the set of points in the cartesian plane along the line y = x.

15.29 a) Every group must have an identity element. If the a subgroup H of Z has only one element, then

that element must be the additive identity. and 0 = 0 = H.

b) If H has more than one element, it must contain some nonzero element a. And, because H is a group,

it must also contain a. One of these two elements must be positive.

c) If a = bq +r, then a bq = r And since both a and b are elements of H, then r H.

d) b is the least positive element of H and r H, so 0 r < b implies r = 0.

e) By the division algorithm, all a H can be expressed as a = bq +r with 0 r < b. If r is always zero,

this means that all a H are multiples of b. This means that H = b.

16 Cosets

16.9 a Hb (c)

a hb : h H denition of Hb

(h H)(a = hb) (b)

(h H)(ab

1

= h)

ab

1

H (a)

a b denition of

a b b a transitivity of

(x H)((x a x b) (x b x a))

This last step is justied by the fact that is an equivalence relation. Because must be transitive,

a b is both a necessary and sucient condition for (x a x b). Similarly, b a is both a

necessary and sucient condition for (x b x a).

(x H)(x a x b)

(x H)(xa

1

H xb

1

H) denition of

(x H)(x Ha x Hb) already shown that (a) (c)

(Ha Hb Hb Ha) denition of subset

(Ha = Hb) denition of equality, (d)

23

16.10 reexive

a G assumed

a G a

1

G inverse property of groups

a

1

a G closure property of groups

a a

symmetric

a b assumed

a

1

b H denition of

(a

1

b)

1

H closure property of groups

b

1

a H

b a denition of

transitive

a b b c assumed

a

1

b H b

1

c H denition of

(a

1

b)(b

1

c) H closure property of groups

a

1

c H

a c denition of

16.11 b aH (c)

b ah : h H denition of aH

(h H)(b = ah) (b)

(h H)(a

1

b = h)

a

1

b H (a)

a b denition of

a b b a transitivity of

(x H)((x a x b) (x b x a)) a b is necessary and sucient for (x a x b).

This last step is justied by the fact that is an equivalence relation. Because must be transitive,

a b is both a necessary and sucient condition for (x a x b). Similarly, b a is both a

necessary and sucient condition for (x b x a).

(x H)(x a x b)

(x H)(a x b x) transitivity of

(x H)(a

1

x H b

1

x H) denition of

(x H)(x aH x bH) already shown that (a) (c)

(aH bH bH aH) denition of subset

(aH = bH) denition of equality, (d)

16.12 x Ha assumed

(h H)(x = ha) denition of Ha

(h H)(x = ah) commutativity of abelian groups

x aH denition of aH

16.16 Let H(x, y) be an arbitrary right coset of Ae

b

in AB.

(m, n) H(x, y) e

A

B

(m, n) (a

1

, e

B

)(x, y) : (a

1

, e

B

) H (m, n) e

A

B denition of H(x, y)

(m, n) (a

1

x, e

B

y) : (a

1

, e

B

) H (m, n) e

A

B direct product operation

(a

1

A, b B)((m, n) = (a

1

x, e

B

y) (m, n) = (e

A

, b))

(a

1

A, b B)(m = a

1

x m = e

A

n = e

B

y n = b)

m = e

A

n = e

B

y

(m, n) = (e

A

, e

B

y)

16.19 Let S be a subset of G. Let H, K be unique subgroups of G.

24

H ,= K assumed

(H , K) (K , H) denition of set inequality

(h H)(h / K) (k K)(k / H) denition of set membership

(h H)(ha / Ka) (k K)(ka / Ha)

(Ha , Ka) (Ka , Ha) denition of set inequality

Ha ,= Ka

So if H and K are unique subgroups, they have unique right cosets. Therefore S cannot be the right coset

of two unique subgroups.

16.20 If HaK and HbK are not disjoint, then there is some x that is a member of both groups. So there

exists elements of H and K such that h

1

ak

1

= x = h

2

bk

2

. A bit of algebraic manipulation shows that this

implies a = (h

1

1

h

2

)b(k

2

k

1

1

) and b = (h

1

2

h

1

)a(k

1

k

1

2

). And this shows that these two sets are identical,

since y HaK means that y = h

3

(h

1

1

h

2

)b(k

2

k

1

1

)k

3

which in turn implies that y HbK. And y HbK

means that y = h

3

(h

1

2

h

1

)a(k

1

k

1

2

)k

3

, which in turn implies that y HaK.

16 Lagranges Theorem

Construct the lattice thingies for 11 and 17.

17.1

[S

3

[ = 3! = 6 and [(1 2)[ = [(1 2), (1)[ = 2, so [S

3

: (1 2)] = 6/2 = 3.

17.2

[S

4

[ = 4! = 24 and [(1 2 3)[ = [(1 2 3), (1 3 2), (1)[ = 3, so [S

4

: (1 2 3)] = 24/3 = 8.

17.3

[Z

10

[ = 10 and [[2][ = [[2], [4], [6], [8], [0][ = 5, so [Z

10

: [2]] = 10/5 = 2.

17.7

From Lagranges theorem we know that both 4 and 10 divide [G[. From theorem 12.3, this means that [G[

is divisible by 20, the least common multiple of (4,10). Were also given that [G[ < 50. There are only two

multiples of 20 that are less than 50, so we know that

[G[ 20, 40

17.9

Were told that [H[ = 6 and that [G : H] > 4. From this we can infer that

[G : H] > 4

[G[/[H[ > 4 (denition of the index [G : H])

[G[/6 > 4 (were told that [H[ = 6)

[G[ > 24

We are also given an upper bound for [G[, so we know that 24 < [G[ < 50. We can further restrict the

possible values of [G[ with Lagranges theorem: the fact that [H[ = 6 tells us that [G[ is a multiple of 6. The

set of all multiples of 6 within this interval is

[G[ 30, 36, 42, 48

17.11

The subgroups are [0], [0], [2], [4], [0], [3], and Z

6

.

25

17.13

The subgroups are (0, 0), (1, 0), (0, 0), (0, 1), (0, 0), (1, 1), (0, 0), and (1, 1), (1, 0), (0, 1), (0, 0).

17.15

The subgroups are

(0, 0) (0, 0), (1, 0), (0, 1), (1, 1), (0, 2), (1, 2), (0, 3), (1, 3)

(0, 0), (0, 1), (0, 2), (0, 3) (0, 0), (1, 0)

(0, 0), (0, 2) (0, 0), (1, 0), (0, 2), (1, 2)

(0, 0), (1, 1), (0, 2), (1, 3) (0, 0), (1, 0), (0, 2), (1, 2)

17.17

The subgroups are

[0] = [0]

[1] = Z

36

[2] = [0], [2], [4], [6], [8], [10], [12], [14], [16], [18], [20], [22], [24], [26], [28], [30], [32], [34]

[3] = [0], [3], [6], [9], [12], [15], [18], [21], [24], [27], [30], [33]

[4] = [0], [4], [8], [12], [16], [20], [24], [28], [32]

[6] = [0], [6], [12], [18], [24], [30]

[9] = [0], [9], [18], [27]

[12] = [0], [12], [24]

[18] = [0], [18]

17.20

From the denition of the index and the fact that [M N[ = [M[ [N[, we know that

[GH : AB] =

[GH[

[AB[

=

[G[ [H[

[A[ [B[

From Lagranges theorem we know that [G[ = [A[ [G : A] and [H[ = [B[ [H : B] and therefore this becomes

[A[ [G : A] [B[ [H : B]

[A[ [B[

= [G : A] [H : B]

17.24

Let a be an arbitrary element of G other than the identity element. We are justied in assuming this element

exists: if G contained only the identity element, then e = G. But we are told that G is not cyclic, so this cant

be the case. Therefore we are justied in choosing a to be any non-identity element of G.

We now consider the generated subgroup a. By Lagranges theorem, the only possible sizes for subgroups

of G are 1, p, and p

2

. We can rule out the possibility of [a[ = 1, because this would force a = e and weve

already assumed that a was not the identity element. We can also rule out the possibility of [a[ = p

2

, because

this would imply that a = G and were told that G is not cyclic. So we are forced to conclude that [a[ = p.

Corollary 2 of theorem 14.3 tells us that o(a) = [a[, so it must be the case that o(a) = p. From this, we

can directly show that a

p

= e by appealing to the denition of the order of an element a: the denition (p78)

tells us that p is the smallest integer such that a

p

= e. We have shown that a

p

= e for any arbitrary nonidentity

element a.

To complete the proof we need only to show that a

p

= e when a is the identity element, which is trivially

true.

17.27

Proof by contradiction: assume that the intersection A B contains a non-identity element c and consider the

generated subgroup c. Because c is an element of both A and B, Lagranges theorem tells us that [c[ divides

26

both [A[ and [B[. From the properties of the GCD, we know then that [c[ must also divide gcd([A[, [B[) = 1.

The only group of size one is e, so the fact that o(c)[1 proves that c = e and therefore that c = e.

We assumed that we could choose a nonidentity element of AB and proved that this element must be the

identity: by contradiction, it must not be possible to choose a nonidentity element of A B.

17.34

Were told that H is a subgroup of G, so by Lagranges theorem we know that [G[ = [H[[G : H] or, equivalently,

that [G : H] =

|G|

|H|

. Were told that K H and that K is a group, so K is a subgroup of H. By Lagranges

theorem we know that [H : K] =

|H|

|K|

. We can now use these equivalencies to show that

[G : H][H : K] =

[G[

[H[

[H[

[K[

=

[G[

[K[

= [G : K]

which is what we were asked to prove.

18 Isomorphisms

18.1 Let : (Z, +) (2

m

: m Z, ) be dened as (x) = 2

x

.

(x +y) = 2

x+y

= 2

x

2

y

= (x) (y)

The proof that is a bijection is trivial.

18.2 Let : (Z Z, +) (2

m

3

n

: m, n Z, ) be dened as ((x, y)) = 2

m

3

n

.

((a, b) + (x, y)) = ((a +x, b +y))

= 2

a+x

3

b+y

= 2

a

3

b

2

x

3

y

= (a, b) (x, y)

The proof that is a bijection is trivial.

18.3 * a b c d

a a b c d

b b c d a

c c d a b

d d a b c

The isomorphism for this group is : (a, b, c, d, ) (Z

4

, +) dened as:

(a) = [0], (b) = [1], (c) = [2], (d) = [3]

18.4 * a b c d

a a b c d

b b a d c

c c d a b

d d c b a

The isomorphism for this group is : (a, b, c, d, ) (Z

2

Z

2

, +) dened as:

(a) = ([0], [0]), (b) = ([0], [1]), (c) = ([1][0]), (d) = ([1], [1])

18.7 The proof of theorem 18.1 does not assume that the function G H is one-to-one.

18.8 Let G = (a, b, c, ) and let H = (a, b, c, #). An isomorphic function can be dened as : G H with

(a) = b, (b) = c, and (c) = a.

18.10 Let ( : GH H G) be dened as ((g, h)) = (h, g).

27

((g, h)(i, j)) = ((g i, h#j)) denition of direct product operation

= (h#j, g i) denition of

= (h, g)(j, i) denition of the direct product operation

= (g, h)(i, j) denition of

The proof that is a bijection is trivial.

18.11 is one-to-one

(x

1

) = (x

2

) assumed

e

x

1

= e

x

2

denition of

e

x

1

x

2

= 1 division

e

x

1

x

2

= e

0

x

1

x

2

= 0

x

1

= x

2

is onto

x R

+

assumed

ln(x) R ln : R

+

R

(ln(x)) = e

ln(x)

= x

(k R)((k) = x)

is homomorphic

(x +y) = e

x+y

= e

x

e

y

= (x)(y)

18.12 [0] [1] [2] [3]

[0] [0] [1] [2] [3]

[1] [1] [2] [3] [0]

[2] [2] [3] [0] [1]

[3] [3] [0] [1] [2]

[1] [2] [3] [4]

[1] [1] [2] [3] [4]

[2] [2] [4] [1] [3]

[3] [3] [1] [4] [2]

[4] [4] [3] [2] [1]

An isomorphic function : (Z

4

, ) (Z

#

5

, ) can be dened as ([0]) = [1], ([1]) = [2], ([2]) = [4], ([3]) =

[3].

18.14 Let : (Z

mn

, ) (Z

m

Z

n

, ) be dened as ([a]

mn

) = ([a]

m

, [a]

n

).

is homomorphic

([a]

mn

[b]

mn

)

= ([a +b]

mn

) denition of

= ([a +b]

m

, [a +b]

n

) denition of

= ([a]

m

[b]

m

, [a]

n

[b]

n

) denition of

= ([a]

m

, [a]

n

) ([b]

m

, [b]

n

) denition of direct product operation

= ([a]

mn

) ([b

mn

]) denition of

28

is one-to-one

([a]

mn

) = ([b]

mn

) assumed

([a]

m

, [a]

n

) = ([b]

m

, [b]

n

)) denition of

([a]

m

= [b]

m

[a]

n

= [b]

n

) def. of ordered pair equality

(r, s Z)(a = mr +b a = ns +b) denition of modular equality

(r, s Z)(a b = mr a b = ns) algebra

m[(a b) n[(a b) denition of divisibility

lcm(m, n)[(a b) theorem 12.1, denition of lcm

mn[(a b) lcm of two primes is their product

(r Z)((a b) = mnr) denition of divisibility

(r Z)(a = mnr +b) algebra

[a]

mn

= [b]

mn

denition of modular equality

is onto

gcd(m, n) = 1 given

(r, s Z)(1 = mr +ns) Theorem 12.2 corollary

(a, b Z)(r, s Z)((a b) = mr(a b) +ns(a b)) algebra

(a, b Z)(r, s Z)((a b) = m(ra rb) +n(sa sb)) algebra

(a, b Z)(r, s Z)(a +m(rb ra) = b +n(sa sb)) algebra

(a, b Z)(r, s, z Z)((z = a +m(rb ra)) (z = b +n(sa sb))) algebra

(a, b Z)(z Z)([z]

m

= [a]

m

[z]

n

= [b]

n

) denition of modular equivalence

(a, b Z)(z Z)(([z]) = ([a]

m

, [b]

n

)) denition of

(([a]

m

, [b]

n

) Z

m

Z

n

)(z Z)(([z]) = ([a]

m

, [b]

n

)) change of variable

is onto Z

m

Z

n

denition of onto

18.15 existence of an identity element

e

G

G e

H

H necessary property of groups

e

G

G e

H

H e

H

B property of subgroups, lemma 7.1

(e

G

) = e

H

e

H

B theorem 18.2

(e

G

) B algebraic replacement

e

G

A denition of A

existence of inverses

a A assumed

(a G (a) B)) denition of A

(a

1

G ((a))

1

B) closure property of groups

(a

1

G ((a

1

)) B) theorem 18.2

a

1

A denition of A

closure

a A b A

(a G (a) B) (b G (b) B) denition of A

(a G b G) ((a) B (b) B) rearrangement of terms

(a b G) ((a)#(b) B) closure property of groups

a b G (a b) B homomorphism

a b A denition of A

18.16 This problem refers back to several examples from previous chapters. Here are the denitions of all the

groups involves in this problem:

4.2 The function

a,b

: R R is dened as

a,b

(x) = ax +b for some given value of a and b.

5.8 The set A is dened as A =

a,b

: a, b R: the set of all possible functions. This set forms a

group under the operation of function composition.

5.10 GL(2, R) is dened as the set of all 2 2 matrices with nonzero determinants. This set is a group

under the operation of matrix multiplication.

29

18.16 G is dened to be the set of all matrices of the form

_

a b

0 1

_

with a ,= 0. This is a subgroup of

GL(2, R).

Now, let the function : G A be dened as

__

a b

0 1

__

=

a,b

. The proofs that this function are

one-to-one, onto, and isomorphic are straightforward but incredibly tedious to typeset, so to hell with that.

19 More on Isomorphism

19.11 From theorem 19.3, any group of order 59 is isomorphic to Z

59

. Because Z

59

is cyclic, any group

isomorphic to it is cyclic. So there are no noncyclic groups of order 59.

19.12 39 is the product of distinct primes. Therefore, from the corollary of theorem 19.3 at the bottom of p99,

every group of order 39 is isomorphic to Z

39

. Because Z

39

is cyclic, from theorem 19.1(c) this means that

any group of order 39 is cyclic.

19.17 If G is cyclic, then (a G)(G = a = a

0

, a

1

, . . . , a

n1

). Dene the function : a

0

, a

1

, . . . , a

n1

Z

n

as (a

x

= [x]). The proof that this function is a bijection is trivial. To prove that this function preserves

operations:

(a

x

a

y

) = (a

x+y

) = [x +y] = [x] [y] = (a

x

) (a

y

)

19.18 If G is an innite cyclic group, then (a G)(G = a = a

n

: n Z). Dene the function : a

n

: n

Z Z as (a

x

= x). The proof that this function is a bijection is trivial. To prove that this function

preserves operations:

(a

x

a

y

) = (a

x+y

) = x +y = (a

x

) +(a

y

)

19.19 Let represent the isomorphic function from G H. G is cyclic, so let g represent the element for which

g = G.

G is cyclic assumed

(a G)(k Z)(a = g

k

)

(a G)(k Z)((a) = (g

k

)) is well-dened

(a G)(k Z)((a) = (g)

k

) theorem 18.2(c)

((a) (G))(k Z)((a) = (g)

k

) change of variable

((a) H)(k Z)((a) = (g)

k

) is onto H

H is cyclic denition of cyclic

19.20 For any subgroup S of G, we know that (S) is a subgroup of H from 18.2(d). Because is an isomorphism,

S (S) and therefore o(S) = o((S)).

19.21 G has a an element a of order n assumed

a is a cyclic subgroup of G of order n denition of o(a)

(a) is isomorphic to a 18.2(e)

(a) is a cyclic group of order n 19.1(a), 19.1(c)

(a) has an element of order n denition of cyclic

19.22 (x G)(x = x

1

)

(x G)(xx = e

G

) algebra

(x G)((xx) = (e

G

)) is one-to-one

(x G)((xx) = e

H

) 18.2(a)

(x G)((x)(x) = e

H

) isomorphism property of

((x) H)((x)(x) = e

H

) is onto

(y H)(yy = e

H

) change of variables

(y H)(y = y

1

) uniqueness of inverses

19.23 The truth of this claim is a direct consequence of exercise 19.21 combined with the bijection property of

.

30

19.25 Let , be arbitrary isomorophisms from G G. Let Aut

G

= f : f is an isomorphism G G.

existence of an identity element

Let i

g

be the identity function i

G

(x) = x. Then for all Aut

G

:

( i)(x) = (i(x)) = (x) = i((x)) = (i )(x)

existence of an inverse function

Because the members Aut

G

are isomorphisms, they are all bijective functions and therefore they

all have a well-dened inverse function

1

.

(

1

)(x) = (

1

(x)) = x =

1

((x)) = (

1

)(x)

closure

( )(x +y) = (((x +y))) = ((x) (y)) = ((x)) ((y)) = ( )(x) ( )(y)

19.26 We know that this function is one-to-one and onto because, by the properties of groups, each a G has

one unique inverse in G. So we need only prove that is operation preserving:

(xy) = (xy)

1

= y

1

x

1

= x

1

y

1

(from abelianism) = (x)(y)

31

19.27 lemma

[a] is a generator for Z

n

[a] = Z

n

denition of a generator

[a]

k

: k N = Z

n

denition of [a]

Z

n

[a]

k

: k N

Z

n

[a

k

] : k N

([x] Z

n

)(k N)([x] = [a

k

]) denition of subset

each [x] Z

n

can be expressed as [a

k

] for some k N conclusion for people who skipped to the

end

is one-to-one

([x]) = ([y]) assumption

(r, s N)([x] = [a

r

] [y] = [a

s

] ([x]) = ([y])) lemma

(r, s N)([x] = [a

r

] [y] = [a

s

] ([a

r

]) = ([a

s

])) algebraic replacement

(r, s N)([x] = [a

r

] [y] = [a

s

] ([a

r

a] = [a

s

a])) denition of

(r, s N, v Z)([x] = [a

r

] [y] = [a

s

] (a

r+1

= nv +a

s+1

)) denition of modular equivalence

(r, s N, v Z)([x] = [a

r

] [y] = [a

s

] (a

r

= n(va

1

) +a

s

)) multiply by a

1

(r, s N)([x] = [a

r

] [y] = [a

s

] [a

r

] = [a

s

]) denition of modular equivalence

[x] = [y] algebraic replacement

is onto (short, convincing, but possibly invalid proof )

([y] Z

n

)(([ya

1

] = [y]))

is onto (longer, baing, but valid proof )

[y] Rng() assumed

[y] Z

n

denition of Rng()

[y] Z

n

[e] Z

n

identity element of Z

n

[y] Z

n

([e]) Z

n

denition of Rng()

[y] Z

n

[a] Z

n

denition of

[y] Z

n

[a

1

] Z

n

inverse property of group Z

n

[ya

1

] Z

n

closure property of group Z

n

[ya

1

] Z

n

([ya

1

]) = [y] denition of

[ya

1

] Dom() ([ya

1

]) = [y] denition of Dom()

([x] Dom())(([x]) = [y]) quantication

is onto denition of onto

is isomorphic

([x] [y]) = ([x +y]) = [(x +y)a] = [xa +ya]

([x]) ([y]) = [xa] [ya] = [xa +ya]

19.28 This can be proven by the process of elimination. There are only four possible functions from Z

2

Z

2

.

Only two of the functions are bijections, and only one of those bijections maps the identity element onto

itself.

21 Homomorphisms of Groups

21.7 Let : G H be a homomorphism.

32

a, b (G) assumed

a (G) b (G) ab (G) closure property: (G) is a group by 18.2(d)

(x, y G)((x) = a (y) = b ab (G)) denition of a (G)

(x, y G)((x) = a (y) = b (x)(y) (G)) algebraic replacement

(x, y G)((x) = a (y) = b (xy) (G)) homomorphism property

(x, y G)((x) = a (y) = b (xy) = (yx)) abelian property of G

(x, y G)((x) = a (y) = b (x)(y) = (y)(x)) homomorphism property

(x, y G)((x) = a (y) = b ab = ba) algebraic replacement

ab = ba

21.8 Let G = g = g

0

, g

1

, . . ..

y (G) assumed

(x G)((x) = y) denition of y

(x G)(x G (x) = y)

(x G)(x g

n

: n Z (x) = y)

(x G, n Z)(x = g

n

(x) = y) denition of x x

(n Z)((g

n

) = y) algebraic replacement

(n Z)((g)

n

= y) 18.2(c)

y (g) denition of (g)

21.9 existence of identity

e

G

G true from group properties

e

G

A true from subgroup properties

(e

G

) (A) denition of images

e

H

(A) 18.2(a)

existence of inverse

x (A) assumed

(a A)((a) = x) denition of (A)

(a A)(a A (a) = x)

(a A)(a

1

A (a) = x) existence of inverses

(a A)(a

1

A (a)

1

= x

1

) existence of inverses

(a A)(a

1

A (a

1

) = x

1

) 18.2(c)

(a

1

A)((a

1

) = x

1

) change of variable

x

1

(A) denition of (A)

closed

x (A) y (A) assumed

(a, b A)((a) = x (b) = y) denition of (A)

(a, b A)((a) = x (b) = y ab A) closure property of A

(a, b A)((a)(b) = xy ab A) algebra

(a, b A)((ab) = xy ab A) homomorphism

(ab A)((ab) = xy) change of variable

xy (A) denition of (A)

33

21.10 existence of an identity element

e

H

B true by properties of subgroups

e

H

B (e

G

) = e

H

18.2(a)

e

H

B (e

G

) = e

H

e

G

G property of groups

(e

G

) B e

G

G algebraic replacement

e

G

1

(B) denition of

1

existence of an inverse

a

1

(B) assumed

a G (a) B denition of

1

a

1

G (a)

1

B inverse properties of groups G and B

a

1

G (a

1

) B 18.2(c)

a

1

1

(B) denition of

closure a

1

(B) b

1

(B) assumed

a G (a) B b G (b) B denition of

1

ab G (a) B (b) B closure property of G

ab G (a)(b) B closure property of B

ab G (ab) B homomorphism

ab

1

(B) denition of

1

21.11 ( )(xy)

= ((xy)) denition of composition

= ((x) (y)) homomorphism of

= ((x)) ((y)) homomorphism of

= ( )(x) ( )(y) denition of composition

21.12a x ker() assumed

(x) = e

H

denition of the kernel

((x)) = (e

H

) is well-dened

( )(x) = (e

H

) denition of composition

( )(x) = e

K

18.2(a)

x ker( ) denition of kernel

21.12b Let G = N, H = 2n : n N, and K = 0. Dene the function : G H to be (x) = 2x and

dene the function : H K to be (x) = 0. The kernel of is 0 while the kernel of is N.

21.13 (a +b) = [k(a +b)] = [ka +kb] = [ka] [kb] = (a) (b)

21.17 o(a) = n assumed

a

n

= e

G

theorem 14.3(a)

(a

n

) = (e

G

) is well-dened

(a

n

) = e

H

thoerem 18.2(a)

(a)

n

= e

H

thoerem 18.2(c)

o((a))[n theorem 14.3(b)

o((a))[o(a) denition of n

21.18 ([0]) = ([3]) = (1)

([1]) = ([4]) = (1 2 3)

([2]) = ([5]) = (1 3 2)

ker = [0], [3]

21.19 False. Let G = S

3

. G is obviously a normal subgroup of itself, but (1 3 2)(1 2)(1 2 3) ,= (1 2).

34

21.20 (n N, g G)(g

1

ng N) assumed

(n N, g G)((g

1

ng)

1

N) existence on inverses in group N

(n N, g G)((gn

1

g

1

) N)

And because every element in a group has a unique inverse, the set of all n

1

N is identical to

the set of all n N. So we can change the variables:

(n N, g G)((gng

1

) N)

The same justications can be easily used to show the converse.

21.23 Let h be an arbitrary element of H and let m be an arbitrary element of (N). Proof that hmh1 must

then be in (N):

h H m (N) assumed

(g G)((g) = h) (n N)((n) = m) def. of images, since G is onto H

(g G, n N)((g) = h (n) = m gng

1

N) normalcy of N

(g G, n N)((g) = h (n) = m (gng

1

) (N)) is well-dened

(g G, n N)((g)(n)(g

1

) (N)) def of images

(g G, n N)((g)(n)(g)

1

(N)) 18.2(c)

hmh

1

(N) algebraic replacement

21.24 (a, b) AB (e, ) e B assumed

(a, b) AB (e, ) e B (a

1

, b

1

) AB inverse property of AB

(a, b)(e, )(a

1

, b

1

) AB closure property of AB

(a, b)(e, )(a

1

, b

1

) = (ae, b)(a

1

, b

1

) algebra

(a, b)(e, )(a

1

, b

1

) = (aea

1

, bb

1

) algebra

(a, b)(e, )(a

1

, b

1

) = (e, bb

1

) algebra

(a, b)(e, )(a

1

, b

1

) = (e, bb

1

) (e, bb

1

) e B denition of e B

(a, b)(e, )(a

1

, b

1

) e B algebraic replacement

21.25 Theorem 15.1 tells us that this intersection is a subgroup. We need only verify that it is normal.

c

C g G assumed

(C

i

C)(c C

i

g G) denition of membership in

C

(C

i

C)(c C

i

g G C

i

G) denition of

C

(C

i

C)(gcg

1

C

i

) denition of normalcy

gcg

1

C denition of membership in

C

21.26 Recall the denitions of cosets: Ng = ng : n N, gN = gn : n N. If N is normal, then these two

cosets are subsets of each other:

N G assumed

(g G, n N)(m N)(m = gng

1

) denition of normalcy

(g G, n N)(m N)(mg = gn) algebra

(g G) [(n N)(m n)(gn = mg)] rearrangement of quantiers

(g G)(gN Ng)

N G assumed

(g G, n N)(m N)(m = g

1

ng) consequence of exercise 12.20

(g G, n N)(m N)(gm = ng) algebra

(g G) [(n N)(m n)(ng = gm)] rearrangement of quantiers

(g G)(Ng gN)

21.27 i) Because [G : N] = 2, we know that [N[ (the number of elements in N) is exactly one-half that of [G[.

ii) Let a be any element of G that is not in N. From the properties of cosets, we know that Na is disjoint

from Ne and also that aN is disjoint from eN. But since Ne = eN = N, this means that both Na

and aN are disjoint from N. Another property of cosets tells us that [Na[ = [N[ = [aN[.

35

iii) Because Na is disjoint from N and [Na[ + [N[ = [G[, we know that Na is the set of all elements of

G that arent in N:i.e., Na = GN. For the same reasons, we know that aN = GN. Therefore

Na = aN.

iv) From problem 21.26, we seen that Na = aN implies N G.

21.29 n H N g H assumed

n H n N g H denition of intersection

n H n N g H g G property of subgroups

(n N g G) (n H g H) rearrangement of terms

(gng

1

N) (n H g H) from N G

(gng

1

N) (n H g H g

1

H) inverse property of H

(gng

1

N) (gng

1

H) closure property of H

gng

1

H N denition of intersection

21.31 If every element of G can be expressed as some power of a

n

, then every element of (G) can be expressed

as (a

n

). By theorem 18.2(c) this is equivalent to saying that every element of (G) can be expressed as

(a)

n

, which means that the image of is equal to (a).

21.32 From property 18.2(a), we know that must map the identity element of Z

2

onto the identity element of

Z

3

: so ([0]

2

) = [0]

3

. In order to preserve homomorphism, it must be the case that ([0]

2

) = ([1]

2

[1]

2

) =

([1]

2

)([1]

2

) = [0]

3

. This means that ([1]

2

) must be its own inverse in Z

3

, which necessitates that

([1]

2

) = [0]

3

. (see exercise 11.17(b) for a full proof of this). So there is only one homomorphism, and that

is dened by ([0]

2

) = ([1]

2

) = [0]

3

.

21.33

(a +b) = e

H

= e

H

e

H

= (a)(b)

21.34 Note that the operation on Z Z is the direct product operation, and the operation on the group Z is

addition instead of multiplication. So with these two groups, (a, b)(c, d) = (a +c, b +d).

((a, b)(, )) = ((a +, b +)) = a + +b + = (a +b) + ( +) = ((a, b)) +((, ))

21.35 If is a homomorphic function Z Z, then it must be the case that (x +x) = (x) +(x) But this

indicates that must be a linear function (of the form (x) = ax +b), because:

(x + x) (x)

x

=

(x)

x

which means that (a +x) = (b +x) for any possible values of a, b. But we also know that must be

an odd function (as opposed to an even one), because:

(0) = (x + (x)) = (x) +(x) = 0

which means that (x) = (x). So not only must be a linear function, it must also be an odd linear

function. So the set of homomorphisms can be completely described by:

: (x) = ax, a Z

22 Quotient Groups

22.5 Let Na and Nb be arbitrary elements of G/N, with a, b G.

(Na)(Nb)

= N(ab) denition of quotient group multiplication

= N(ba) abelianism of G

= (Nb)(Na) denition of quotient group multiplication

36

22.6 G is cyclic

(a G)(G = a) denition of cyclic

(a G)(g G)(n N)(g = a

n

) denition of a

(a G)(g G)(n N)(Ng = N(a

n

)) N is well-dened

(a G)(g G)(n N)(Ng = (Na)

n

) denition of quotient group multiplication

(Na G/N)(Ng G/N)(n N)(Ng = (Na)

n

) change of variable

(Na G/N)(Ng G/N)(Ng Na) denition of a

(Na G/N)(G/N = Na) denition of set equality

G/N is cyclic denition of cyclic

22.7 G consists of n cosets of size [n[, or of m cosets of size [m[. So n[n[ = m[m[, which is equivalent to

n

m

=

|m|

|n|

= [m/n[.

22.8 Na(NbNc)

= Na(N(bc)) denition of the quotient product operation

= N(a(bc)) denition of the quotient product operation

= N(ab)c) associativity of the group G

= N(ab)Nc denition of the quotient product operation

= (NaNb)Nc denition of the quotient product operation

22.9a [G : N] represents the order of the group G/N. If it is prime, then G/N is isomorphic to Z

[G:N]

by

theorem 19.3. And each group Z

n

is cyclic.

22.9b Let G = Z

8

and let N = [4]. In this case, [G : N] is not prime even though G/N is cyclic (G/N is

generated by N[1]).

22.10 [G : N] = 12. In example 22.3, [3] [2] represented the direct product of two subgroups: one of order

4 and one of order 2. But ([3], [2]) is a single subgroup of order 4.

22.11 This is a direct consequence of problem 21.17. By theorem 22.2, we know that there is a homomorphism

: G G/N dened as (a) = Na. We are told that a G. Therefore, by exercise 21.17, o((a))[o(a),

which means o(Na)[o(a).

22.12a Note that the normal group in this problem is Z, not N. So the coset containing a is indicated by Za

instead of Na.

Za Q/Z assumed

(q Q)(Za = Zq) denition of membership in Q/Z

(r, s Z)(Za = Z

r

s

) denition of membership in Q

(r, s Z)((Za)

s

= (Z

r

s

)

s

) coset operation is well-dened

(r, s Z)((Za)

s

= Z(

r

s

)

s

) denition of coset operation

(r, s Z)((Za)

s

= z + (

r

s

)

s

: z Z) denition of Z

r

s

Remember that we are dealing with an additive group, so exponents are actually repeated addition:

in an additive group, 2

3

= 2 + 2 + 2 = 6. Technically, I should haved used the notation r

s

to

represent division instead of a fraction, but it made the ow of the proof less clear. But, despite the

sloppy notation, in an additive group its true that (

r

s

)

s

=

rs

s

= r. So this last step implies:

(r, s Z)((Za)

s

= z +r : z Z) algebra

(s Z)((Za)

s

= Z) closure of addition in Z

o(Za)[s Theorem 14.3 (Z is the identity element of Q/Z)

o(Za) s

o(Za) is nite

The dicult part of this problem is understanding exactly what the order of an element of Q/Z is even

referring to. Q/Z is a group consisting of an innite number of elements. Each of these elements is of the

form Za = z + a : z Z, a Q, so each Za Q/Z also has an innite number of elements. But Za

is not generally a group, so its order is not the number of elements it contains: the order of Za is the

37

number of distinct cosets in generated group Za. And the number of distinct cosets depends on what a is.

If a = 0, for example, then Z0 = z + 0 : z Z = Z and the order of Z0 is shown to be 1. If

a = 1/3, then Za = z +

1

3

: z Z, a Q, (Za)

2

= z

1

+ z

2

+

2

3

: z

1

, z

2

Z, a Q, and

(Za)

3

= z

1

+ z

2

+ z

3

+ 1 : z

1

, z

2

, z

3

Z = Z: so o(Z

1

3

) = 3. But no matter what a is chosen, the

order of Za is still nite.

22.12b Let n be some arbitrary integer, and let q =

1

n

. For the reasons given above, o(Nq) = n.

22.13 Let Za be an arbitrary element of R/Z. Remember that the only operation dened on this group is

addition, so a

3

is equivalent to 3a.

o(Za) is nite assumed

(p Z)(o(Za) = p) denition of nite

(p Z)((Za)

p

= e) theorem 14.3

(p Z)(Z(a

p

) = e) theorem 22.2 and 18.2(c)

(p Z)(Z(a

p

) = Z) Z is the identity of R/Z

(p Z)(z +a

p

: z Z, a R = Z) denition of Za

(p Z)(a

p

Z) closure property of Z

(p Z, q Z)(a

p

= q) denition of Z

Just as in the previous problem, note that exponents in additive groups are actually repeated

addition: in an additive group, 2

3

= 2 + 2 + 2 = 6. So the statement a

p

= q is equivalent to the

statement a p = q. So this last step implies:

(p Z, q Z)(a p = q)

(p Z, q Z)(a =

q

p

) algebra

a Q denition of Q

Za Q/Z denition of Q/Z

So we have shown that all the nite members of R/Z are members of Q/Z. Q is a subset of R. And

problem 22.12 showed that all members of Q/Z are nite. Therefore, the set of all nite members of R/Z

is Q/Z.

22.14 G/N is abelian

(a, b G)(N(a)N(b) = N(b)N(a)) denition of abelian

(a, b G)(N(ab) = N(ba)) denition of quotient group operation

(a, b G)(N(ab)N(ba)

1

= Ne) Ne is the identity element of G/N

(a, b G)(N(ab)N((ba)

1

) = Ne) Theorems 22.2 and 18.2(c)

(a, b G)(N(ab)N(a

1

b

1

) = Ne) algebra

(a, b G)(N(aba

1

b

1

) = Ne) denition of quotient group operation

(a, b G)(N(aba

1

b

1

) = N) denition of Ne

(a, b G)(aba

1

b

1

N) closure property of N

22.15 Let n be an arbitrary element of N and let g be an arbitrary element of G.

N(e) = N(n) n N i N(n) = N(e)

= N(gg

1

) identity property of G

= N(g)N(g

1

) def. of quotient group operation, N is well-dened

= N(ge)N(g

1

) identity property of G

= N(g)N(e)N(g

1

) def. of quotient group operation, N is well-dened

= N(g)N(n)N(g

1

) n N i N(n) = N(e)

= N(gng

1

) def. of quotient group operation, N is well-dened

N(e) = N(gng

1

) summary of the above equalities

gng

1

N n N i N(n) = N(e)

38

23 Fundamental Homomorphism Theorem

23.7 ( )(a) = ((a)) = (Na) = (a)

23.8 Let : G G be dened as the identity function, (g) = g. The kernel of this function is just K = e,

the identity element of G. So, by the fundamental homomorphism theorem, G/K G.

23.11 i) Let G be a simple abelian group. By the denition of simple, the only normal subgroups of G are

e and G itself. But all subgroups of an abelian group are normal (n = ngg

1

= gng

1

), so the only

subgroups of G, normal or otherwise, are e and G.

ii) But this means that G cannot be isomorphic to any direct product Z

m

Z

n

, m, n > 1 other than

e G. If it were, then G would have subgroups of size m and n.

iii) And we care about this because the fundamental theorem of nite abelian groups (section 19), tells us

that every abelian group G is isomorphic to the direct product of cyclic groups of prime order: i.e.,

that G = Z

p1

. . . Z

pn

.

iv) So we see that G is isomorphic to a direct product of cyclic groups of prime order, and that the only

direct product isomorphic to G is Ge. This implies that both G and e are cyclic groups of prime

order. And since G is obviously isomorphic to G, this means that G is isomorphic to a cyclic group

of prime order, which is what we wanted to prove.

23.12 Let : Z

18

Z

3

be dened as ([a]

18

) = [a]

3

.

is well dened

[a]

18

= [b]

18

assumed

(n Z)(a = 18n +b) denition of modular equivalence

(n Z)(a = 3(6n) +b) algebra

[a]

3

= [b]

3

denition of modular equivalence

([a]

18

) = ([b]

18

) denition of

is a homomorphism

([a]

18

[b]

18

)

= ([a +b]

18

) denition of

= [a +b]

3

denition of

= [a]

3

[b]

3

denition of

= ([a]

18

) ([b]

18

) denition of

is onto H

(trivial)

kernel of = [3]

([a]

18

) = [0]

3

assumed

[a]

3

= [0]

3

denition of

(n Z)(a = 3n + 0) denition of modular equivalence

Ker() = [3n] : n Z denition of kernel

Ker() = [3] denition of x

This shows that there is a homomorphic function : Z

18

Z

3

with a kernel of [3]. Therefore, by

the fundamental homomorphism theorem, Z

18

/[3] Z

3

.

23.13 Let : Z

n

Z

k

be dened as ([a]

n

) = [a]

k

.

is well dened

[a]

n

= [b]

n

assumed

(r Z)(a = nr +b) denition of modular equivalence

(r, s Z)(a = (ks)r +b) from the fact that k[n

(r, s Z)(a = k(sr) +b) associative property

[a]

k

= [b]

k

denition of modular equivalence

([a]

n

) = ([b]

n

) denition of

39

is a homomorphism

([a]

n

[b]

n

)

= ([a +b]

n

) denition of

= [a +b]

k

denition of

= [a]

k

[b]

k

denition of

= ([a]

n

) ([b]

n

) denition of

is onto H

(trivial)

kernel of = [k]

([a]

n

) = [0]

k

assumed

[a]

k

= [0]

k

denition of

(r Z)(a = rk + 0) denition of modular equivalence

Ker() = [rk] : r Z denition of kernel

Ker() = [k] denition of x

This shows that there is a homomorphic function : Z

n

Z

k

with a kernel of [k]. Therefore, by

the fundamental homomorphism theorem, Z

n

/[k] Z

k

.

23.16 We know that A is a subgroup from the proof in exercise 21.10. So we need only prove normalcy of AG:

n A g G assumed

(n) B g G denition of membership in A

(n) B (g) H range of is H

(n) B (g) H (g)

1

H closure property of H

(n) B (g) H (g

1

) H 18.2(c)

(g)(n)(g

1

) B normalcy of B H

(gng

1

) B property of homomorphism of

gng

1

A denition of A

23.17 Proof by contrapositive. Assume that G/N is not simple. This means that there exists some normal

subgroup M G/N such that M ,= G/N and M ,= Ne (the identity element of G/N). Because M is a

subgroup of G/N, it must contain the identity element of G/N: so N M.

Because : G G/N is a homomorphism and M G/N, exercise 23.16 tells us that we can construct a

normal set A = g G : (g) M. This tells us that A is a normal subgroup of G that contains every

element from every coset in M. But we know that N is one of the cosets in M, so N A. And A is a

normal subgroup of G, so we know that A G. So we know that N A G.

In order to prove the contrapositive and show that A is a subgroup strictly between N and G, we must

now rule out the possibility that A = N or that A = G. Because M ,= G/N, we know that there are some

elements of G that arent in any of the cosets in M. And since A is just the set of all elements of all cosets

of M, this means that A ,= G. For similar reasons, because M ,= Ne, we know that A ,= N. Therefore

N A G.

So by assuming that G/N is not simple, weve shown that there is a normal subset strictly between N and

G. This is the contrapositive of what we wanted to prove.

23.18 If G is simple, the only normal subgroups of G are G and e

G

. The kernel of (G) is a normal subgroup

of G by theorem 21.1, so the kernel is either G or e

G

. If the kernel is e

G

, then is one-to-one and onto

(G) which means that G (G). If the kernel is G then (G) = 0 which means that o((G)) = 1.

23.19 b) This is a direct consequence of theorems 21.2 and 23.1.

c) A is an extension of R by R

#

because A contains a normal subgroup B such that R B and A/B R

(It can be shown that R B with the function : B R dened as (

1,b

) = b).

d) C contains all the same subgroups that R does, but C , R (section 32).

23.20 a) Both H and K must contain the identity element of G, so e

G

e

G

HK. This is the identity element

of HK, since (hk)(e

G

e

G

) = hk = (e

G

e

G

)(hk) for all hk HK. And each hk HK has an inverse:

40

hk HK h H k K assumed

h

1

H k K existence of inverses in group H

h

1

H hkh

1

K from normalcy of K

h

1

H (hkh

1

)

1

K existence of inverses in group K

h

1

H hk

1

h

1

K theorem 18.2(e)

h

1

hk

1

h

1

HK denition of HK

k

1

h

1

HK cancellation of inverses

(hk)

1

HK theorem 18.2(e)

Note that ab HK does not necessarily imply that a H or b K. The most we can assume is

that there exist h H, k K such that hk = ab. For this reason both the preceeding and proceeding

proofs explicitly state not only that hk HK, but also that h H and k K. Next, proof that HK is

closed:

(h

1

k

1

HK) (h

2

k

2

HK) (h

1

, h

2

H) (k

1

, k

2

K) assumed

(h

1

H) (h

2

H) (k

1

K) (k

2

K)

(h

1

h

2

H) (k

1

K) (k

2

K) closure property of H

(h

1

h

2

H) (h

1

2

k

1

h

2

K) (k

2

K) normalcy of K, exercise 21.20

(h

1

h

2

H) (h

1

2

k

1

h

2

k

2

K) closure property of K

h

1

h

2

h

1

2

k

1

h

2

k

2

K denition of HK

h

1

k

1

h

2

k

2

K cancellation of inverses

(hk

1

HK) (h H) (k K) assumed

(j K)[(h H) (k K) (j K)]

(j K)[(h

1

H) (k K) (j

1

K)] existence of inverses in groups

(j K)[(h

1

H) (j

1

kj

1

K)] closure property of K

(j K)(h

1

j

1

kj

1

HK) denition of HK

(j K)((h

1

j

1

)kj

1

HK) associativity of operation on G

(j K)((jh)kj

1

HK) theorem 18.2(e)

(j K)(j(hk)j

1

HK) associativity of operation on G

K HK dention of normalcy

23.20 b)

(ab) = K(ab) = K(a)K(b) = (a)(b)

23.20 c) Proof that ker H K:

x ker assumed

x H (x) = K domain of is H, identity of codomain is K

x H Kx = K denition of

x H Kx K partial denition of set equality

x H (k K)(j K)(kx = j) quantication of

x H (k K)(j K)(k

1

kx = k

1

j) algebra

x H (k K)(j K)(x = k

1

j) cancellation of inverses

x H x K closure property of K

x H K denition of intersection

Proof that H K ker :

x H K assumed

x H x K denition of intersection

x H x K (x) = Kx denition of

x H (x) = K lemma 16.1, from fact that x K

x ker domain of is H, identity of the range is K.

41

Given the properties that were proven in steps (a-c), the isomorphism of the last two groups is a di-

rect consequence of the fundamental homomorphism theorem.

25 Integral Domains and Subrings

*Double-check 25.18. The rst assumption doesnt seem to be valid.

25.10 Let p be prime, and let [a] and [b] be arbitrary elements of Z

p

such that [a] [b] = 0. We can prove that

Z

p

is an integral domain by showing that one of these two elements must be the zero of Z

p

:

(a, b Z

p

)([a]

p

[b]

p

= [0]

p

) assumed

(a, b Z

p

)([ab]

p

= [0]

p

) denition of the operation

(a, b, n Z)(ab = np + 0) denition of modular equivalence

(a, b Z

p

)(p[ab) denition of divisibility

(a, b Z

p

)(p[a p[b) property of p being prime

(a, b, m, n Z)(pn = a pm = b) denition of divisibility

(a, b Z

p

)([0]

p

= [a]

p

[0]

p

= [b]

p

) denition of modular equivalence

25.11 Z[

since we are given that R is an integral domain, there must not be any such zero divisors. Therefore Z[

2]

is an integral domain.

25.12 Let f and g be piecewise dened functions such that f(1) = 1, f(x) = 0 otherwise and g(2) = 1, g(x) = 0

otherwise. Both of these functions are in M(R), neither of them are the zero function 0(x), but their

product is equivalent to the zero function.

25.13 Let R be a ring with zero element 0

R

, and let S be a ring with zero element 0

S

.

case i) If S is not an integral domain, then there are nonzero elements s

1

, s

2

such that s

1

s

2

= 0

S

. This

means that the nonzero elements (0

R

, s

1

)(0

R

, s

2

) = (0

R

, 0

S

) and therefore R S is not an integral

domain. Similar results occur if R is not an integral domain.

case ii) If R is an integral domain and S contains some other element than 0

S

, then the nonzero elements

(0

R

, s

1

)(r

1

, 0

S

) = (0

R

, 0

S

) and therefore R S is not an integral domain. Similar results occur if S

is an integral domain and R contains a nonzero element.

case iii) If R is an integral domain and S contains only the zero element 0

S

, then (r

1

, 0

S

)(r

2

, 0

S

) =

(r

1

r

2

, 0

S

). (r

1

r

2

, 0

S

) is the zero element of R S when and only when one of the terms on the

left-hand side of the equation is the zero element of RS: this means that RS has no zero divisors.

R S also has the nonzero unity element (1

R

, 0

S

) where 1

R

is the unity element of R. So in this

case, R S is an integral domain. Similar results occur if S is an integral domain and R contains

only the zero element 0

R

.

25.14 Let D be a commutative ring with a, b, c D, a ,= 0, and the property of left cancellation (ab = ac

b = c). Proof by contradiction:

D has at least one zero divisor

(a, b D)(ab = 0 a ,= 0 b ,= 0) denition of zero divisor

(a, b D)(ab = a0 a ,= 0 b ,= 0) property of zero

(a, b D)(b = 0 a ,= 0 b ,= 0) left cancellation

And this last statement is contradictory. So if all of our assumptions are true, it cannot be the case

that D has zero divisors. Note that this does not necessarily prove that D is an integral domain, since we

have not shown that it has a nonzero unity.

25.16 C(R) is nonempty because it contains 0x. For each continuous function f(x), its negative function f(x)

is also continuous and therefore f(x) C(R). The sum or product of two continuous functions is also

continuous, but I havent taken an analysis course and therefore have no idea how to prove this.

42

25.17 From theorem 15.1 we know that the intersection

C

i

is a subgroup of R, so we need only prove ring

properties.

nonemptiness

e

R

R necessary property of groups

(C

i

C

i

)(e

R

C

i

) property of subgroups, lemma 7.1

e

R

C

i

denition of intersection

closed under its operations

a

C

i

b

C

i

assumed

(C

i

C

i

)(a C

i

b C

i

) denition of intersection

(C

i

C

i

)(ab C

i

(a +b) C

i

) closure property of rings

ab

C

i

(a +b)

C

i

closure property of rings

existence of negatives

a R necessary property of groups

(C

i

C

i

)(a C

i

) property of subgroups, lemma 7.1

(C

i

C

i

)(a C

i

) property of subgroups

a

C

i

denition of intersection

25.18 Let S be any subset of a ring R, and let S denote the intersection of all of the subrings of R that

contain S. Then S is the unique smallest subring of R that contains S in the sense that

(a) S contains S

(b) S is a subring

(c) if T is any subring of R that contains S, then T contains S.

The proof of this follows directly from Theorem 15.2 and exercise 25.17. Because rings are just additive

groups with an extra operation dened on them, theorem 15.2 tells us that S is the smallest unique

subgroup of R that contains S. Exercise 25.17 tells us that this subgroup is also a subring. Together, they

tell us that S is the unique smallest subring.

25.19 Let

C

i

be an intersection of integral domains of ring R. We proved that this intersection is a subring

of R in exercise 25.17, so we need only prove that it is also an integral domain.

lemma 1:

C

i

is commutative

a

C

i

b

C

i

assumed

a

C

i

b

C

i

ab

C

i

closure of subrings

(C

i

C

i

)(a C

i

b C

i

ab

C

i

) denition of intersection

(C

i

C

i

)(ab C

i

ab

C

i

) closure of subrings

(C

i

C

i

)(ba C

i

ab = ba ab

C

i

) commutativity of integral domains

ba

C

i

ab = ba ab

C

i

denition of intersection

C

i

is commutative denition of commutative

lemma 2:

C

i

has no zero divisors (by contradiction)

C

i

has at least one zero divisor assumed

(a, b

C

i

)(ab = 0 a ,= 0 b ,= 0) denition of zero divisor

(C

i

C

i

)(a, b C

i

)(ab = 0 a ,= 0 b ,= 0) denition of intersection

(C

i

C

i

)(C

i

has at least one zero divisor) denition of zero divisor

The second lemma shows, by contradiction, that if none of the elements C

i

C

i

contain a zero di-

visor, then

C

i

itself has no zero divisors. So the fact of whether or not

C

i

is an integral domain rests

entirely on whether or not it contains a unity element. It turns out that it does: each element C

i

, being

an integral domain, has a unity element and the following proof shows that these unity elements must all

be identical:

Let C

1

and C

2

be two elements of

C

i

. Let e

1

and e

2

be their respective unity elements (which they must

43

have as a consequence of being integral domains):

(a C

1

, b C

2

)(a = ae

1

b = be

2

) denition of unity

(a C

1

, b C

2

)(ab = ab a = ae

1

b = be

2

)

(a C

1

, b C

2

)(ae

1

b = abe

2

) algebraic replacement on ab = ab

(a C

1

, b C

2

)(abe

1

= abe

2

) commutativity from lemma 2

Note that we cant just use the left-cancellation property of groups here, since left-cancellation

depends on the existence of inverses and integral domains dont necessarily have multiplicative

inverses. But it turns out that left cancellation also works in integral domains (albeit for a dierent

reason):

(a C

1

, b C

2

)((ab(e

1

e

2

) = 0) algebra

(a C

1

, b C

2

)(ab = 0 e

1

e

2

= 0) lemma 2

(a C

1

, b C

2

)(a = 0 b = 0 e

1

e

2

= 0) lemma 2 again

a = 0 b = 0 e

1

= e

2

algebra

And it cant be the case that (a C

1

)(a = 0): if every element were zero, then it wouldnt have

a unity element and therefore wouldnt be an integral domain. For the same reason, it cant be the

case that (b C

2

)(b = 0). This means that this last statement implies:

e

1

= e

2

algebra

Therefore each element of

C

i

contains the same unity element e, which means that

C

i

contains e.

This shows that

C

i

meets all criteria for an integral domain.

25.20 From exercise 25.18, we see that the smallest subring containing n is n. The only such subrings that

contains the multiplicative unity are 1 and 1, so these are the only subrings that are integral domains.

25.21 This subring does not contain zero divisors in Z. I had to use Mathematica to determine this. Im sure

theres some elegant proof that treats the roots as isomorphic to Z

3

, but I cant nd it.

25.22 Let C represent the center of R.

existence of an identity element

e

R

R identity element of group R

(a R)(e

R

r = re

R

) property of the identity element

e

R

C denition of the center

closure of multiplication

a C b C assumed

(c R)(ac = ca bc = cb) denition of the center

(c R)(acb = cab abc = acb) left and right multiplication

(c R)(abc = cab) algebraic replacement

ab C denition of the center

closure of addition

a C b C assumed

(c R)(ac = ca bc = cb) denition of the center

(c R)(ac +bc = ca +cb) algebra

(c R)((a +b)c = c(a +b)) left and right distributive property

(a +b) C denition of the center

44

existence of negatives

a C assumed

(c R)(ac = ca) denition of the center

(c R)(ac = ca c = c)

(c R)(ac = ca 0c = c0) property of the zero element

(c R)(ac = ca (a a)c = c(a a)) property of negatives

(c R)(ac = ca ac ac = ca ca) distributive property of rings

(c R)(ca ac = ca ca) algebraic replacement

(c R)((ac) = (ca)) left cancellation

(c R)((a)c = c(a)) 24.2(b)

a C denition of the center

The center is a commutative ring R is R itself.

25.23 The center is the subring consisting of all matrices of the form

_

x 0

0 y

_

.

25.24 M(R) is its own center because its multiplicative operation is commutative.

25.25 A subset S of integral domain R is itself an integral domain, by denition, if it is a commutative subring

of R with no zero divisors and a unity element. But as long as S is a ring, it inherits commutativity and

lack of zero divisors from R. So it is sucient that

(a) S is a subring of R

(b) S contains a unity element

26 Fields

26.11 By denition, a eld is a commutative ring whose nonzero elements form a group with respect to mul-

tiplication. If R is an integral domain, then it is by denition a commutative ring with a nonzero unity

element. Because R is a ring, multiplication is closed and associative. The only way R could fail to be a

eld is if the multiplicative operation is not closed on the set of nonzero elements. But if we assume that

each nonzero element has an inverse, then the operation is closed on this set. Proof by contradiction:

R 0 is not closed under multiplication hypothesis to be contradicted

(a, b R 0)(ab = 0) denition of closure

(a, b, b

1

R 0)(ab = 0 bb

1

= e) given:each nonzero element has an inverse

(a, b, b

1

R 0)(ab = 0 abb

1

= a) algebra

(a, b, b

1

R 0)(ab = 0 0b

1

= a) algebraic replacement

(a, b, b

1

R 0)(ab = 0 0 = a) property of zero

(a R 0)(a = 0)

This last statement is a contradiction, which means that our assumption is false: if R is an integral

domain with an inverse for each nonzero element, then the nonzero elements in R are closed with respect

to multiplication. And this was the nal property needed for R to be a eld.

26.12 As in the last problem, we need only prove that the multiplicative operation is closed on the set of nonzero

elements. And if there is a unique solution for ax = b, a ,= 0 then the operation is closed on this set. Proof

by contradiction:

R 0 is not closed under multiplication hypothesis to be contradicted

(a, b R 0)(ab = 0) denition of closure

(a, b R 0)(ab = 0 a0 = 0) property of zero

(b R 0)(b = 0) unique solution for ax = b

This last statement is a contradiction, which means that our assumption is false: if R is an integral

domain with a unique solution for ax = b, then the nonzero elements in R are closed with respect to

multiplication. And this was the nal property needed for R to be a eld.

26.13 Z

#

n

is a group with respect to when n is prime.

45

26.15 The commutativity of the eld along with the properties of zero and unity determine every product

involving 0 and e. The only other products are aa, bb, and ab. It cannot be the case that aa = 0, ba = 0, ab =

0, or bb = 0 (nonzero elements are closed w/r/t multiplication) or that aa = a, ba = a, ab = a, ba = b, ab = b,

or bb = b (uniqueness of the unity element). By elimination it must be the case that ab = ba = e. This

means that it cannot be the case that aa = e or bb = e (uniqueness of inverses), so by elimination it must

be the case that aa = b, bb = a.

26.16 (0,0) (0,1) (1,0) (1,1)

(0,0) (0,0) (0,1) (1,0) (1,1)

(0,1) (0,1) (0,0) (1,1) (1,0)

(1,0) (1,0) (1,1) (0,0) (0,1)

(1,1) (1,1) (1,0) (0,1) (0,0)

+ 0 e a b

0 0 e a b

e e 0 b a

a a b 0 e

b b a e 0

These two functions are isomorphic under the function (0) = (0, 0), (e) = (0, 1), (a) = (1, 0), (b) =

(1, 1).

26.17 ([1], [0]) and ([0], [1]) are two nonzero elements of R R, but their product is zero. This means that

the ring R R contains a zero divisor. This isnt in conict with 26.16 because weve merely created an

isomorphism between the additive group of the ring R R and the additive group of the eld. But the

function is not an isomorphism between their multiplicative groups, so there is no reason to expect that

R R should be a eld.

26.18 Let F = F

1

F

2

F

n

be a direct product of elds. Choose a F such that a = (0, a

2

, a

3

, . . . , a

n

)

where each element a

i

is an arbitrary element of F

i

. Choose b F such that b = (b

1

, 0, 0, . . . , 0). These

are both nonzero elements, but their product is zero.

26.19 If a set K meets all of the properties listed in theorem 26.2, then it already meets the denition of

a subring of F. This means that K inherits multiplicative associativity and commutativity from the

multiplicative group of F and additive associativity from the additive group of F. It also inherits the

distributive property and a lack of zero divisors from F. This meets all the requirements for K being a

eld.

26.20 Because each the eld F is also a ring, we know from problem 25.17 that

C

i

is a subring. As explained

in problem 26.19, this means that it inherits most of the necessary eld properties. In order to show that

C

i

is a subeld, we need only to show that it contains the zero and unity of F, is closed under both

operations, and that it contains negatives and inverses of each of its elements. Since every subeld in

C

i

contains the unity and zero of F, so must

C

i

itself. Proofs of the remaining properties:

additive and multiplicative closure

a

C

i

b

C

i

assumed

(C

n

C

i

)(a C

n

b C

n

) denition of intersection

(C

n

C

i

)(ab C

n

a +b C

n

) closure of both groups in the eld C

n

(ab

C

i

a +b

C

i

) denition of intersection

negatives and inverses

a

C

i

assumed

(C

n

C

i

)(a C

n

) denition of intersection

(C

n

C

i

)(a C

n

a

1

C

n

) completeness of inverses and negatives in the eld C

n

a

C

i

a

1

C

i

denition of intersection

26.21 Let S be a subset of a eld F, and let S denote the intersection of all of the subelds of F that contain

S. Then S is the unique smallest subeld of F that contains S, in that

(a) S contains S

(b) S is a subeld

(c) If T is any subeld of F that contains S, then T contains S

Property (a) is true, since each element of S contains S by denition. Property (b) was proven in exercise

26.20. Property (c) is true by the property of intersections that states (S

S

i

)(

S

i

S).

46

26.22 Let F be a eld containing Z. It must contain multiplicative inverses, so (n Z)(

1

n

F). And it must

be closed under multiplication, so (m, n Z)(

m

n

F). This eld describes Q.

26.23a Were asked to show that the set of invertible elements is a subgroup of the multiplicative group of

R. By theorem 7.1, we need to show that the set of invertible elements is nonempty, closed under mul-

tiplication, and contains inverses of each of its elements. Let H represent the set of invertible elements:

H = a R : (b R)(ab = e).

nonempty

e R given property of R

ee = e property of unity

e H denition of H

closed under multiplication

a H b H assumed

(r, s R)(ar = e bs = e) denition of H

(r, s R)(ar = e bs = e rs R) multiplicative closure of R

(r, s R)(ar(bs) = e rs R) multiply both equations

(r, s R)(ab(rs) = e rs R) commutativity of R

(rs R)(ab(rs) = e) change of variable

ab H denition of H

invertibility of all elements

a H assumed

(r R)(ar = e a H) denition of H

(r R)(ar = e a R) H is a subset of R

(r R)(ar = e ar R a R) closure property of R

(r R)(ar = e (ar)

1

R a R) existence of inverses in R

(r R)(ar = e (ar)

1

R arr

1

R) existence of inverses in R

(r R)(ar(ar)

1

= e arr

1

R) denition of inverses

(r R)(arr

1

a

1

= e arr

1

R) theorem 14.1

(r R)(a

1

(arr

1

) = e arr

1

R) commutativity of R

a

1

H denition of H

26.24 Let a be an arbitrary element of commutative ring R Proof by contradiction:

a is invertible and a is a zero divisor assumed

(b, c R 0)(ac = e ab = 0) denition of invertible, zero divisor

(b, c R 0)(bac = b ab = 0) algebra

(b, c R 0)(abc = b ab = 0) commutativity of R

(b, c R 0)(0c = b) algebraic replacment

(b R 0)(b = 0) property of zero

This last statement is a contradiction: it cannot be the case that b R 0 and b = 0.

26.25a Ker(

r

) ,= 0 i (a R 0)(ar = 0) i (r = 0 or r is a zero divisor). The is here are true by

consequence of the denitions of

r

, 0, and zero divisors.

26.25b The eld R, by denition, has no zero divisors. If r ,= 0, then Ker(

r

) = 0 by the result of 26.25a.

From theorem 21.1, this means that the function

r

is a one-to-one function. In order to show that it is

an isomorphism, then, we need only show that the function is homomorphic:

(a +b) = (a +b)r = ar +br = (a) +(b)

27 Isomorphism and Characteristic

27.1 If is an isomorphism between two rings R and S, then by denition it is also an isomorphism between

their multiplicative groups. So, by theorem 18.2, (e

R

) = e

S

. Note that is also an isomorphism between

the two additive groups, so the same theorem tells us that (0

R

) = 0

S

.

47

27.2 : R S is an isomorphism and R is commutative assumed

(s, t S)(a, b R)((a) = s (b) = t ab = ba) denition of onto, commutativity

(s, t S)(a, b R)((a) = s (b) = t (ab) = (ba)) is well-dened

(s, t S)(a, b R)((a) = s (b) = t (a)(b) = (b)(a)) homomorphism of

(s, t S)(a, b R)((a) = s (b) = t st = ts) algebraic replacement

(s, t S)(st = ts) removal of unnecessary quantiers

S is commutative denition of commutative

27.3 We know that S must contain a unity from exercise 27.1 We need only show that S contains no zero

divisors. Proof by contrapositive:

The ring S contains a zero divisor assumed

(s, t S 0

S

)(st = 0

S

) denition of a zero divisor

(s, t S 0

S

, a, b R 0

R

)(st = 0

S

(a) = s (b) = t) onto-ness of

(s, t S 0

S

, a, b R 0

R

)(st = 0

S

(a)(b) = 0

S

) algebraic replacement

(s, t S 0

S

, a, b R 0

R

)(st = 0

S

(ab) = 0

S

) homomorphism of

(s, t S 0

S

, a, b R 0

R

)(st = 0

S

ab = 0

R

) exercise 27.2

(a, b R 0

R

)(ab = 0

R

) removal of unnecessary quantiers

the ring R contains a zero divisor denition of a zero divisor

By contrapositive we have shown that if R contains no zero divisors, then S contains no zero divisors.

27.4 S is a eld if it is an integral domain with multiplicative inverses for each nonzero element. From exercise

27.3, guarantees that S is an integral domain. We need only show that it contains multiplicative inverses.

s S assumed

(a R)((a) = s) onto-ness of

(a R)((a) = s a

1

R) existence of inverses in R

(a R)((a) = s (a

1

) S) : R S

(a R)((a) = s (a)

1

S) 18.2(b)

(a R)((a) = s s

1

S) algebraic replacement

s

1

S removal of unnecessary quantiers

27.9 a E assumed

aa

1

= e

E

existence of inverses in E

(aa

1

) = (e

E

) is well-dened, a ,= 0

(a)(a

1

) = (e

E

) homomorphic

(a)(a

1

) = e

F

18.2(a)

(a)

1

(a)(a

1

) = (a)

1

e

F

algebra

(a

1

) = (a)

1

properties of inverses and unity

27.10 From theorem 25.2, we need only show that (R) is closed under both operations and that it contains

the negative of each of its elements.

multiplicative closure

a (R) b (R) assumed

(s, t R)((s) = a (t) = b) denition of (R)

(s, t R)((s) = a (t) = b st R) closure of R

(s, t R)((s)(t) = ab st R) algebra

(s, t R)((st) = ab st R) homomorphism of

(st R)((st) = ab) change of variable

ab (R) denition of (R)

48

additive closure

a (R) b (R) assumed

(s, t R)((s) = a (t) = b) denition of (R)

(s, t R)((s) = a (t) = b s +t R) closure of R

(s, t R)((s) +(t) = a +b s +t R) algebra

(s, t R)((s +t) = a +b s +t R) homomorphism of

((s +t) R)((s +t) = a +b) change of variable

a +b (R) denition of (R)

existence of negatives

a (R) assumed

(s R)((s) = a) denition of (R)

(s R)((s) = a ss

1

= e

R

) closure of R

(s R)((s) = a (ss

1

) = (e

R

)) is well-dened

(s R)((s) = a (s)(s

1

) = (e

R

)) homomorphism of

(s R)((s) = a (s)(s

1

) = e

S

) 18.2(a)

(s R)(a(s

1

) = e

S

) algebraic replacement

(s R)((s

1

) = a

1

) uniqueness of inverses

a

1

(R) denition of (R)

27.11 Let the function : Z

p

D be dened as ([a]) = ae. We wish to show that the image of is a subring

of D isomorphic to Z

p

. Exercise 27.10 showed that the image of a ring homomorphism is itself a subring,

so we need only the isomorphism Z

p

(Z

p

). In order to do this, we must show that is well-dened,

one-to-one and onto the image of , and preserves the operations of D.

is well-dened and one-to-one

[a]

p

= [b]

p

assumed

(r Z)(a = pr +b) denition of modular equivalence

(r Z)(a b = pr) algebra

(r Z)((a b)e = pre) property of unity

(a b)e = 0 D has characteristic p

ae be = 0 distributive property of D

ae = be algebra

([a]) = ([b]) denition of

Note that the right arrow of each step (the if direction) shows that is well-dened, and the left

arrow (the only if direction) shows that is onto.

preserves addition

([a] [b])

= ([a +b]) denition of

= (a +b)e denition of

= ae +be distributive property of D

= ([a]) +([b])

preserves multiplication

([a] [b])

= ([ab]) denition of

= (ab)e denition of

= (ae)(be) exercise 27.6

([a])([b]) denition of

And since is onto its image by denition, this is all that is necessary to prove that (Z

p

) is a subring of

D isomorphic to Z.

27.12 Theorem 19.2 can be applied to both the additive and multiplicative groups of rings.

27.13 Commutativity, lack of zero divisors, existence of a unity element, being an integral domain, having

characteristic 0

49

27.14 It must have either characteristic 1 (if it is isomorphic to Z

1

) or 2, since 2x = (x +x) = (x x) = 0.

27.15 Let : R S be an isomorphism between two rings.

R has characteristic m assumed

(r R)(mr = 0) denition of characteristic

(r R)(mr = 0) (s S)(r R)((r) = s) is onto

(r R)(mr = 0) (s S)(r R)(m(r) = ms) algebra

(r R)(mr = 0) (s S)(r R)((mr) = ms) 18.2(c) for additive groups

(s S)((0) = ms) algebraic replacment of mr = 0

(s S)(ms = 0) 18.2(a)

Because isomorphism is reexive, the same steps can be used to show that if S has characteristic n,

then (r R)(nr = 0). This shows that m : (r R)(mr = 0) = n : (s S)(ns = 0). The least

such shared element is the characteristic of both S and R.

27.16 Z

2

Z

2

has characteristic 2, while Z

4

does not.

27.17

([a] [b]) = ([ab]) = ([ab]

2

, [ab]

3

) = ([a]

2

, [a]

3

) ([b]

2

, [b]

3

) = ([a]) ([b])

27.18 In Z

4

: (2[2] = [2] [2] = [2 + 2] = [0]) but (2[1] = [1] [1] = [1 + 1] = [2]). Or, more trivially, let a = 0.

27.19 The subring [0], [2], [4] of Z

6

is a ring of characteristic 3, but it is not an integral domain and its nonzero

elements are not closed under the multiplicative operation.

27.20a Let m, n be integers and let z represent their least common multiple. Dene the function : Z

z

Z

m

Z

n

as ([a]

z

) = ([a]

m

, [a]

n

).

([a]

m

, [a]

n

) = ([b]

m

, [b]

n

) assumed

[a]

m

= [b]

m

[a]

n

= [b]

n

denition of ordered pair equivalence

m[(a b) n[(a b) denition of modular equivalence

z[(a b) z is the lcm: theorem 12.3

[a]

z

= [b]

z

denition of modular equivalence

The if portion of this proof shows that the function is well-dened, and the only if portion shows

that it is one-to-one. We showed that preserves both the additive and multiplicative operations in ex-

ercise 27.17. Because is one-to-one, it is onto if and only if [Z

z

[ = [Z

m

Z

n

[. Since mn = gcd(m, n)

lcm(m, n) (exercise 13.22), this means that is onto if gcd(m, n) = 1. This proves that is an isomorphism

if m and n are relatively prime.

27.20b The proof from 27.20a shows that Z

m

Z

n

Z

z

, where z is the least common multiple of m and n.

If the gcd(m, n) ,= 1, then the lcm(m, n) ,= mn (because mn = gcd(m, n)lcm(m, n)). But if z ,= mn,

obviously Z

z

, Z

mn

. And since Z

m

Z

n

Z

z

and isomorphism is an equivalence relation, we know that

Z

m

Z

n

, Z

mn

27.21 lemma: x = (-x)

x = x

2

denition of boolean ring

= (x)

2

theorem 24.2(c)

= x denition of boolean ring

commutativity

a +b = a +b

(a +b)

2

= a +b denition of boolean ring

(a

2

+ab +ba +b

2

) = a +b left and right distributive properties

(a +ab +ba +b) = a +b denition of boolean ring

(ab +ba) = 0 left and right additive cancellation

(ab ba) = 0 lemma

ab = ba

50

2x = 0

2x

= x +x

= x + (x) lemma

= 0 additive inverses

27.22 Let R be a nite ring of order p and let m be its characteristic.

(a, b Z)(pa +mb = gcd(p, m)) theorem 12.2

(r R)(a, b Z)((pa +mb)r = (gcd(p, m))r) algebra

(r R)(a, b Z)(p(ar) +m(br) = (gcd(p, m))r) algebra

(r R)(a Z)(p(ar) + 0 = (gcd(p, m))r) R is characteristic m

(r R)(0 = (gcd(p, m))r) p(ar) = 0 by 14.2 and Lagranges theorem: o(a)[p

So gcd(p, m) is a zero divisor for all elements of R. Because it is a divisor of m, we know that 1

gcd(p, m) m. And since m, by the denition of characteristic, is the least integer that is a zero divisor

for all elements of R, it must be the case that m = gcd(p, m). This of course means that m divides p = [R[,

which is what we wanted to prove.

27.23

(a +b

2)(c +d

2) = (a +b

3)(c +d

3)

((a +b

2)(c +d

3)

27.24a x

2

= e

R

+e

R

assumed

(x

2

) = (e

R

+e

R

) is well-dened

(x)(x) = (e

R

) +(e

R

) additive and multiplicative homomorphisms

[(x)]

2

= (e

R

) +(e

R

) algebra

[(x)]

2

= e

S

+e

S

theorem 18.2a or exercise 27.1

(s S)(s

2

= e

S

+e

S

) from the onto-ness of

27.24b (0 + 1

2)

2

= 2

27.24c Proof by contradiction: Assume that there exists an isomorphism : R S:

(x, y Q)((1 + 1

2) = (x +y

3)) is well-dened

(x, y Q)((1) +(1

2) = (x +y

3)) homomorphism of

(x, y Q)((1) +(1)

2 = (x +y

(x, y Q)(1 +

2 = (x +y

(x, y Q)(1 x = y

2) algebra

The left-hand side of this last equality is rational and the right-hand side contains the irrational square

root of 2, so there is no way for this equality to ever be valid. By contradiction, our assumption that an

isomorphism exists must be false.

27.26 Modify the proof in exercise 27.25, but use Z

p

instead of Z.

28 Ordered Integral Domains

28.1 x D assumed

x

2

D

p

x

2

= 0 theorem 28.2(f)

x

2

+e D

p

x

2

+e = e closure of D

p

x

2

+e ,= 0 trichotomy

28.2 a > b c < 0 assumed

(a b) D

p

(0 c) D

p

denition of <

(a b)(0 c) D

p

multiplicative closure of D

p

(ac +bc) D

p

distributivity of rings

(bc ac) D

p

additive commutativity of rings

ac < bc denition of <

51

28.3 lemma: a D

p

ab D

p

b D

p

case i)

a D

p

(b) D

p

assumed

a(b) D

p

closure of D

p

(ab) D

p

14.1

ab , D

p

trichotomy

case ii)

a D

p

b = 0 assumed

ab = 0 property of zero

ab , D

p

trichotomy

case iii)

a D

p

b D

p

assumed

ab D

p

closure of D

p

proof: ac > bc c > 0 assumed

(ac bc) D

p

c D

p

denition of >

(a b)c D

p

c D

p

distributivity of rings

(a b) D

p

lemma

28.4 a < 0 b < 0 assumed

(0 a) D

p

(0 b) D

p

denition of <

(0 a)(0 b) D

p

multiplicative closure of D

p

(a)(b) D

p

property of zero

ab D

p

theorem 14.1

ab > 0 denition of >

28.5 a > b assumed

(a b) D

p

denition of >

(a + (b)) D

p

((a) + (b)) D

p

(b (a)) D

p

b > a denition of >

28.6 a > b a D

p

b D

p

assumed

(a b) D

p

a D

p

b D

p

denition of >

(a b) D

p

a +b D

p

additive closure of D

p

(a b)(a +b) D

p

multiplicative closure of D

p

a

2

+ab ba b

2

D

p

left and right distributivity of rings

a

2

+ab ab b

2

D

p

commutativity of integral domains

a

2

b

2

D

p

a

2

> b

2

denition of >

28.8 Let E

p

= E D

p

.

52

additive and multiplicative closure of E

p

a E

p

b E

p

assumed

a E b E a D

p

b D

p

denition of E

p

ab E ab D

p

(a +b) E (a +b) D

p

closures of E and D

p

ab E D

p

(a +b) E D

p

denition of intersection

ab E

p

(a +b) E

p

denition of E

p

trichotomy of E

p

a E assumed

a E a D property of subrings

a E (a D

p

a = 0 (a) D

p

) trichotomy of D

(a E a D

p

) (a E a = 0) (a E (a) D

p

)

(a E

p

) (a = 0) (a E (a) D

p

) denition of E

p

(a E

p

) (a = 0) ((a) E (a) D

p

) existence of negatives in ring E

(a E

p

) (a = 0) ((a) E

p

) denition of E

p

28.9 The only subsets of D that are integral domains are Z

p

where p is prime (example 25.2, exercise 25.10)

or D itself. But for each nonzero a Z

p

, pa = 0 and p(a) = 0 (theorem 14.2 and Lagranges theorem).

So D

p

is not closed under multiplication for these nite groups. Therefore the only subset of D that is an

ordered integral domain is the one with characteristic 0: that is, the set of integers. And if D = Z, then

D

p

= N.

28.10b R is not ordered because R is not an integral domain: it is not an integral domain because it has zero

divisors. For each f M(R), dene a function f

0

for which f

0

(x) = 0 i f(x) ,= 0. If f(x) = 0 for any

value of x, then f

0

is a zero divisor of f.

28.12 Disproof: if a D

p

, then a > a but a

2

,> (a)

2

.

28.13 If b ,= a, then (b +a) ,= 0 and the following proof holds:

a > b assumed

(a b) D

p

denition of >

(a b) D

p

(a +b)

2

D

p

(a b)

2

D

p

28.2(f)

(a b) D

p

(a

2

+b

2

+ 2ab) D

p

(a

2

2ab +b

2

) D

p

algebra

(a b) D

p

(a

2

+b

2

) > 2ab (a

2

+b

2

) > 2ab denition of >

(a b) D

p

(a

2

+b

2

) > [2ab[ denition of absolute value

(a b) D

p

(a

2

+b

2

) > [2ab[ > [ab[

(a b) D

p

(a

2

+b

2

) > [ab[ transitivity of >

(a b) D

p

(a

2

+b

2

) > ab partial denition of absolute value

(a b) D

p

(a

2

+b

2

+ab) D

p

denition of >

(a b)(a

2

+b

2

+ab) D

p

closure of D

p

(a

3

b

3

) D

p

algebra, commutativity of integral domains

a

3

> b

3

denition of >

If b = a, then a > b implies a > a, which means that a D

p

. It must then be the case that

a

3

> (a)a

2

, from which algebraic replacement shows that a

3

> b

3

.

29 The Integers

29.1 Assume that there is some least positive element q Q. Then q D

p

and

1

2

D

p

since they are both

positive elements of Q. But then multiplicative closure of D

p

requires

q

2

D

p

, which contradicts our

assumption that q is the least element of D

p

.

29.2 Theorem 29.1 tells us that if D were an ordered integral domain, then it would be isomorphic to Z. Proof

by contradiction that there can exist no isomorphism : Z[

2] Z:

53

There exists an isomorphism : Z[

2] Z assumed

(a, b Z)(c Z)((a +b

2) = c) onto-ness of

Choose a, b such that a = 0 and b = 1.

(c Z)((1

2) = c) onto-ness of

(c Z)((1)

(c Z)(1

2 = c) 18.2(a)

But

2 is irrational and c is rational, so this last statement must be false. By contradiction, then, there

can exist no isomorphism between the two groups.

29.3 a D assumed

a D e D

p

lemma 28.1

a D 0 +e D

p

existence of additive identity in rings

a + (a) +e D

p

existence of additive inverses in rings

a + (a) + ((e)) D

p

14.1

a (a + (e)) D

p

14.1

a > a e denition of D

p

29.4 Proof by contradiction:

a > a

2

assumed

a a

2

D

p

denition of >

a(e a) D

p

left distributivity of rings

(a D

p

e a D

p

) (a D

p

(e a) D

p

) lemma from exercise 28.3

(a D

p

e a D

p

) (a D

p

(e a) +e +e D

p

) closure of D

p

(a D

p

e a D

p

) (a D

p

e (a) D

p

) algebra

(a D

p

a < e) (a D

p

(a) < e) denition of >

This last statement is false: neither of the conditions can be true, since they both imply the existence of

a member of D

p

smaller than e, which is the smallest member of D

p

by denition. So, by contradiction,

it cannot be the case that a > a

2

. Either a = a

2

(when a = 0 or a = 1) or a < a

2

(all other cases).

This proof is only valid for well-ordered integral domains. For example, Q is an ordered integral domain

and it is not the case that (

1

2

)

2

>

1

2

.

29.5 For every nonempty subset S of D

n

, dene a complementary set T = s : s S. Because T is a

nonempty subset of D

p

, it must have a least element. Let a represent this least element of T. Proof by

contradiction that a is the greatest element of S:

(a, b S)(b > a) hypothesis of contradiction

(a, b S)(b < a) exercise 28.5

( a, b T)(b < a) denition of T

But this last statement cannot be true, since we dened a as the least element of T. So our initial

assumption that there was some element in D

n

greater than a is false: a is the greatest element of D

n

.

29.6 Proof by contradiction that there is no integer between n and n + 1:

(m Z)(n + 1 > m > n) hypothesis of contradiction

(m Z)(n + 1 m D

p

mn D

p

denition of >

(m Z)(1 (mn) D

p

mn D

p

commutativity of addition

(m Z)(1 > mn mn D

p

denition of >

This last statement cannot be true, or 1 would not be the smallest element of D

p

. So by contradiction

there cannot be any integer between n and n + 1.

54

29.8 must be the identity mapping

(x)

= (xe) property of the identity element

= x(e) 18.2(d) for additive groups

= xe 18.2(a)

= x

(x) = 2x is an additive isomorphism

(x +y) = 2(x +y) = 2x + 2y = (x) +(y)

30 Field of Rational Numbers

30.1 ([2], [1]) ([0], [2]) and ([0], [2]) ([0], [1]). If were an equivalence relation on Z

4

Z

#

4

then transitivity

should guarantee that ([2], [1]) ([0], [1]) but this is not the case.

30.2 Let F = R R

30.5 reexive

(a, b) D D

assumed

a D b D denition of cartesian product and D

ab = ba commutativity of integral domain D

(a, b) (a, b) denition of

symmetric

(a, b) (c, d) assumed

ad = bc denition of

cb = da commutativity of integral domain D

(c, d) (a, b) denition of

transitive

(a, b) (m, n) (m, n) (x, y) assumed

an = bm my = nx denition of

an(my) = bm(nx) algebra

ay(nm) = bx(nm) commutativity of integral domain D

ay = bx theorem 25.1

note: this is not right-cancellation, since right-cancellation requires the

existence of inverse elements and multiplication is not necessarily a group.

This step would not be legal for rings that were not integral domains.)

(a, b) (x, y) denition of

30.6 [a

1

, b

1

] = [a

2

, b

2

] [c

1

, d

1

] = [c

2

, d

2

] assumed

(a

1

, b

1

) (a

2

, b

2

) (c

1

, d

1

) (c

2

, d

2

) denition of = equivalence

(a

1

b

2

= b

1

a

2

) (c

1

d

2

= d

1

c

2

) denition of equivalence

(a

1

b

2

)(c

1

d

2

) = (b

1

a

2

)(d

1

c

2

) algebra

(a

1

c

1

)(b

2

d

2

) = (b

1

d

1

)(a

2

c

2

) associativity

(a

1

c

1

, b

1

d

1

) (a

2

c

2

, b

2

d

2

) denition of equivalence

[a

1

c

1

, b

1

d

1

] [a

2

c

2

, b

2

d

2

] denition of = equivalence

55

30.7 zero of F

D

is [0, e

D

]

[0, e] + [a, b]

= [0b +ea, eb] denition of addition in F

D

= [ea, eb] property of zero in multiplicative groups

= [a, b] property of the unity element of D

= [ae, be] property of the unity element of D

= [ae +b0, be] property of zero in multiplicative groups

= [a, b] + [0, e] denition of addition in F

D

negative of [a, b] is [a, b]

[a, b] + [a, b]

= [ab + (a)b, bb] denition of addition in F

D

= [ab ab, bb] 14.1

= [0, bb]

= [0, e] from (0, bb) (0, e)

addition is associative

[a, b] + ([m, n] + [[x, y])

= [a, b] + [my +nx, ny] denition of addition in F

D

= [any +b(my +nx), bny] denition of addition in F

D

= [any +bmy +bnx, bny] left distributivity of the ring D

= [(an +bm)y +bnx, bny] right distributivity of the ring D

= [an +bm, bn] + [x, y] denition of addition in F

D

= ([a, b] + [m, n]) + [x, y] denition of addition in F

D

addition is abelian

[a, b] + [x, y]

= [ax +by, by] denition of addition in F

D

= [xa +yb, yb] commutativity of integral domain D

= [x, y] + [a, b] denition of addition in F

D

The previous four properties show that the additive operation on F

D

is an abelian group.

multiplication is associative

[a, b]([m, n][x, y])

= [a, b]([mx, ny]) denition of multiplication in F

D

= [a(mx), b(ny)] denition of multiplication in F

D

= [(am)x, (bn)y] associativity of multiplication in ring D

= [am, bn][x, y] denition of multiplication in F

D

= ([a, b][m, n])[x, y] denition of multiplication in F

D

multiplication is commutative

[a, b][x, y]

= [ax, by] denition of multiplication in F

D

= [xa, yb] commutativity of multiplication in integral domain D

= [x, y][a, b] denition of multiplication in F

D

left distributive property

[a, b]([m, n] + [x, y])

= [a, b][my +nx, ny] denition of addition in F

D

= [a(my +nx), bny] denition of multiplication in F

D

= [amy +anx, bny] distributive property of ring D

= [b(amy +anx), b(bny)] from (x, y) (nx, ny)

= [bamy +banx, bbny] distributive property of ring D

= [am(by) +bn(ax), bn(by)] commutative property of integral domain D

= [am, bn] + [ax, by] denition of addition in F

D

= [a, b][m, n] + [a, b][x, y] denition of multiplication in F

D

56

right distributive property

([m, n] + [x, y])[a, b]

= [my +nx, ny][a, b] denition of addition in F

D

= [(my +nx)a, nyb] denition of multiplication in F

D

= [mya +nxa, nyb] distributive property of ring D

= [b(mya +nxa), b(nyb)] from (x, y) (nx, ny)

= [bmya +bnxa, bnyb] distributive property of ring D

= [ma(yb) +nb(xa), nb(yb)] commutative property of integral domain D

= [ma, nb] + [xa, yb] denition of addition in F

D

= [m, n][a, b] + [x, y][a, b] denition of multiplication in F

D

The previous four properties show that the F

D

is a commutative ring

unity of [a, b] is [e

D

, e

D

]

[a, b][e, e]

= [ae, be] denition of multiplication in F

D

= [a, b] property of the unity element of D

= [ea, eb] property of the unity element of D

= [e, e][a, b] denition of multiplication in F

D

F

D

contains no zero divisors

[a, b][c, d] = [0, e] assumed

[ac, bd] = [0, e] denition of multiplication in F

D

(ac, bd) (0, e) denition of = equivalence in F

D

ace = bd0 denition of equivalence in F

D

ac = 0 properties of unity and zero

a = 0 c = 0 integral domain D has no zero divisors

a = b0 c = d0 property of zero

ae = b0 ce = d0 property of unity

(a, b) (0, e) (c, d) (0, e) denition of equivalence in F

D

[a, b] = [0, e] [c, d] = [0, e] denition of = equivalence in F

D

The previous two properties show that F

D

is an integral domain

inverse of [a, b] is [b, a]

[a, b][b, a]

= [ab, ba] denition of multiplication in F

D

= [ab, ab] commutativity of integral domain D

= [e, e] from (ab, ab) (e, e)

= [ba, ba] from (e, e) (ba, ba)

= [ba, ab] commutativity of integral domain D

= [b, a][a, b] denition of multiplication in F

D

This shows that F

D

is a eld.

30.8 A subring of a eld cannot have any zero divisors: if it did, they would also be zero divisors of the eld. Z

6

has zero divisors, and the existence of zero divisors is something that is preserved by isomorphism (section

27).

30.9 Theorem 30.1 tell us that the eld of quotients F

D

is the smallest eld into which the integral domain D

can be embedded. If D is already a eld, then the smallest eld into which it can be embedded is D itself,

in which case F

D

D.

30.10 (m D, n D

30.11 If K is any eld of prime characteristic p, then K contains a subeld isomorphic to Q

p

(the quotient

eld of Z

p

). Proof: Theorem 27.3 tells us that if K is a eld of prime characteristic p, then K contains a

ring isomorphic to Z

p

. So by theorem 30.1, K must also contain a subeld isomorphic to the equivalence

classes of Z

p

Z

p

. And by denition, this set of equivalence classes is Q

p

.

57

30.12 [1, 2] = [2, 4] and [0, 1] = [0, 1], but ([1, 2] + [0, 1]) = [1, 3] ,= [2, 5] = ([2, 4] + [0, 1]).

34 Polynomials: Denition and Elementary Properties

34.8 In order for R[x] to be a eld, it would have to have multiplicative inverses for each of its nonzero elements.

Let f(x) = 0 +r

1

x. In order for some other polynomial to be its multiplicative inverse, there would have

to be some (a

0

+a

1

x+. . . a

n

x

n

) such that ((a

0

0) +(a

1

r

1

)x+. . . (a

n

0)x

n

) = e. But there can be no a

0

R

such that a

0

0 = e, so there can be no multiplicative inverse for f(x).

34.9a False. Consider the sum of two nth degree polynomials a

n

x

n

+a

n

x

n

.

34.9b False. Consider two polynomials in Z

4

[x]. ([2]x

5

)([2]x

5

) is equal to [0], which certainly does not have

degree 10.

34.10 Let R be a commutative ring and let R[x] be an integral domain. If R is not an integral domain, then

there is some nonzero a, b R such that ab = 0. But ab is also represents the product of two nonzero

polynomials of degree zero in R[x]: any zero divisor of R is also a zero divisor of R[x].

This means that (R is not an integral domain R[x] is not an integral domain). By contrapositive, If

R[x] is an integral domain, then R is an integral domain.

34.11 If p is a zero divisor for every element of R, then it is a zero divisor for every element of R[x]. The

converse is also true. Proof:

p is a zero divisor of R assumed

(r R)(pr = 0) denition of zero divisor

(f R[x])(r

i

f)(pr

0

+pr

1

x

1

+. . . +pr

n

x

n

= 0) denition of a polynomial in R[x]

(f R[x])(r

i

f)(p(r

0

+r

1

x

1

+. . . +r

n

x

n

) = 0) distributive property of rings

(f R[x])(pf = 0) denition of a polynomial in R[x]

p is a zero divisor of R[x]

Since R and R[x] share all zero divisors, they also share the least such divisor. This least zero divisor is

the characteristic by denition.

34.12 Let : R S represent the isomorphism between R and S. Dened a second function : R[x] S[x]

as (a

0

+ a

1

x

1

+ . . . + a

n

x

n

) = (a

0

) + (a

1

)x

1

+ . . . + (a

n

)x

n

. The fact that is a bijection follows

directly from the bijection of . Proof of homomorphism:

additive homomorphism

((a

0

+a

1

x

1

+. . . +a

n

x

n

) + (b

0

+b

1

x

1

+. . . +b

n

x

n

))

= ((a

0

+b

0

) + (a

1

+b

1

)x

1

+. . . + (a

n

+b

n

)x

n

))

The previous step required the associativity and commutativity of addition on R and the distributive

property of R.

= (a

0

+b

0

) +(a

1

+b

1

)x

1

+. . . +(a

n

+b

n

)x

n

) denition of

= (a

0

) +(b

0

) +(a

1

)x

1

+(b

1

)x

1

+. . . +(a

n

)x

n

+(b

n

)x

n

additive homomorphism of

= (a

0

) +(a

1

)x

1

+. . . +(a

n

)x

n

+(b

0

) +(b

1

)x

1

+. . . +(b

n

)x

n

additive associativity of S

(a

0

+a

1

x

1

+. . . +a

n

x

n

) +(b

0

+b

1

x

1

+. . . +b

n

x

n

)) denition of

multiplicative homomorphism

((a

0

+. . . a

m

x

m

)(b

0

+. . . b

n

x

n

))

= (a

0

b

0

+. . . (horrifying binomial)x

?

. . . +a

m

b

n

x

m+n

)

= (a

0

b

0

) +. . . (horrifying binomial) . . . +(a

m

b

n

)x

m+n

= (a

0

+. . . a

m

x

m

)(b

0

+. . . b

n

x

n

)

34.14a D[x]

p

is closed under the operations of addition and multiplication: If p, q are two elements of D[x]

p

then they are of nite order with highest terms p

m

, q

n

D

p

(true by denition). So their sum is of degree

max(m, n) with a highest term of either p

m

, q

n

, or p

m

+ q

n

: all of which are D

p

(true by the additive

closure property of integral domain D). Their product is of degree m+n with highest term p

m

q

n

which is

58

in D

p

(true by the multiplicative closure property of integral domain D). Because a polynomial is member

of D[x]

p

i its highest coecient is a member of D

p

, the trichotomy of D[x]

p

follows directly from the

trichotomy of D.

34.14b Proof by contradiction:

there exists a positive polynomial less than 1 hypothesis of contradiction

(f Z[x]

p

)(f < 1) formalization of hypothesis

(f Z[x]

p

)(1 f Z[x]

p

) denition of >

(a

0

, . . . , a

n1

Z, a

n

Z

p

)(1 (a

0

+a

1

x

1

. . . +a

n

x

n

) Z[x]

p

) denition of f Z[x]

p

(a

0

, . . . , a

n1

Z, a

n

Z

p

)(1 a

0

a

1

x

1

. . . a

n

x

n

) Z[x]

p

) distribute property

If the degree n of f is greater than 0, then the highest term of (1 f) is a

n

for some a

n

Z

p

: this means

that (1 f) , Z[x]

p

. If the degree n of f is 0, then the highest term is (1 a

0

). This can only be positive

if a

0

< 1, which is not possible since a

0

Z

p

(it has to be to make f a member of Z[x]

p

) and 1 is the

least member of Z

p

by denition. So no matter what polynomial we choose for f, (1 f) , Z[x]

p

, which

contradicts our initial assumption that 1 > f.

34.14c If Z[x] were a well-ordered domain, then every nonempty subset of Z[x]

p

would have a least element.

Let S be the set of all polynomials of degree 2 in Z[x]. There can be no least element of S: If a

0

+ a

1

x

were the least positive element, then there is an immediate contradiction since a

0

+a

1

x > (a

0

1) +a

1

x

and (a

0

1) + a

1

x Z[x]

p

. In other words, S has no least element because a

0

Z and Z has no least

element.

34.16 Dene a function : R[x] R[X] as (a

0

+ a

1

x

1

+ . . . + a

n

x

n

) = (a

0

, a

1

, . . . , a

n

). The proof that

is a bijection follows directly from the denitions of equality for polynomials and sequences. Proof of

homomorphism:

additive homomorphism

[(a

0

+a

1

x

1

+. . . +a

n

x

n

) + (b

0

+b

1

x

1

+. . . +b

n

x

n

)]

= ((a

0

+b

0

) + (a

1

+b

1

)x

1

+. . . + (a

n

+b

n

)x

n

)

The previous step required the associativity and commutativity of addition on R and the distributive

property of R.

= (a

0

+b

0

, a

1

+b

1

, . . . , a

n

+b

n

) denition of

= (a

0

, a

1

, . . . , a

n

) + (b

0

, b

1

, . . . , b

n

) denition of sequence addition

(a

0

+a

1

x

1

+. . . +a

n

x

n

) +(b

0

+b

1

x

1

+. . . +b

n

x

n

) denition of

multiplicative homomorphism

((a

0

+. . . a

m

x

m

)(b

0

+. . . b

n

x

n

))

= (a

0

b

0

+. . . (horrifying binomial)x

?

. . . +a

m

b

n

x

m+n

) distributivity of R

= (a

0

b

0

, . . . , horrifying binomial coecients, . . . , a

m

b

n

) denition of

= (a

0

, . . . , a

m

)(b

0

, . . . , b

n

) denition of sequence multiplication

= (a

0

+. . . a

m

x

m

)(b

0

+. . . b

n

x

n

) denition of

35 Division Algorithm

35.11 Because the highest term of g(x) is b

n

x

n

, the highest term of the product g(x)a

m

b

1

n

x

mn

is a

m

x

m

.

Since this is also the highest term of f(x), we know that the degree of f(x) g(x)a

m

b

1

n

x

mn

is less than

or equal to the degree of f(x).

35.13 f([2]) = [30], which is equal to [0] for p 3, 5.

59

35.14 Let F

D

represent the set of equivalence classes of Z

p

[x] Z

p

[x]

. By lemma 30.3, F

D

is a eld. Proof

that F

D

and Z

p

share all zero divisors:

m is a zero divisor of every element in F

D

assumed

((f(x), g(x)) F

D

)(m(f(x), g(x)) (0, e)) lemma 30.3: (0,e) is the zero of F

D

(f(x) F

D

)(m(f(x)) = 0)) lemma 30.1: denition of

(f(x) F

D

)([a

i

] f(x))(m[a

0

] +m[a

1

]x +. . . +m[a

n

]x

n

= 0) denition of zero polynomial

This last statement tells us that ma = 0 every coecient a for every polynomial f(x) in F

D

. But

the set of every possible coecient is just Z

p

, so we know that:

(a Z

p

)(ma = 0)

m is a zero divisor of every element in Z

p

denition of zero divisor

Because F

D

and Z

p

share all elements with the characteristic property, they also share a least such

element: by denition, this least zero divisor is their common characteristic which we know to be p (theo-

rem 27.3).

35.15 Let f(x) = 3, g(x) = 2. In order for the division algorithm to be true, there would have to be some a Z

such that 3 = 2a + r, where the deg(r) < deg(2). The only integer with degree less than deg(2) is 0, and

there is no a Z such that 3 = 2a + 0.

35.16 Let f = a

0

and g = b

0

be two arbitrary nonzero polynomials of degree 0 in D[x]. In order for the division

algorithm to be true, it must be the case that:

(a

0

, b

0

D)(r, s D)(a

0

= b

0

r +s), deg(s) < deg(a

0

)

But since the degree of a

0

is zero, this means that s = 0. If we then choose a 1 as a specic value for a

0

,

the previous statement reduces to:

(b

0

D)(r D)(1 = b

0

r)

This tells us that every nonzero element b

0

in the integral domain D has an inverse, which makes D a eld

by denition.

35.17 From Lagranges theorem, we know that the multiplicative group of Z

5

is cyclic with order 5 and that,

for any [a] Z

5

, [a]

5

= [a]. So the equation f([a]) = [a]

6

[a] will be zero for any [a], which means that

every [a] is a root of f([a]) = [a]

6

[a].

35.18 See exercise 35.17.

37 Unique Factorization Domains

37.7a N(a +bi) = [a +bi[

2

= a

2

+b

2

, and the last term must be 0 from the lemma of theorem 28.1.

37.7b z = 0 + 0i assumed

N(z) = [0 + 0i[

2

denition of N

N(z) = 0

2

+ 0

2

denition of complex norm

N(z) = 0

37.7c N((a +bi)(c +di))

= N((ac bd) + (ad +bc)i) distributivity and commutativity of C

= (ac bd)

2

+ (ad +bc)

2

denition of N = (ac)

2

2(abcd) + (bd)

2

+ (ad)

2

+ 2(abcd) + (bc)

2

algebra

= (ac)

2

+ (ad)

2

+ (bc)

2

+ (bd)

2

algebra

= (a

2

+b

2

)(c

2

+d

2

) algebra

= N(a +bi)N(c +di) denition of N

37.8 Proof by contradiction:

60

2

5 is reducible in Z[

5] hypothesis of contradiction

(z, w Z[

5])(zw = 2

5) denition of reducibility

(z, w Z[

5])(N(zw) = N(2

5)) N is well-dened

(z, w Z[

5])(N(zw) = 2

2

+ 5 = 9) denition of N

(z, w Z[

(N(z), N(w) Z)(N(z)N(w) = 9) The range of N is Z

The only factors of 9 in Z are 1,3,and 9. In order for N(zw) =

9 to be reducible, it must have a divisor that is neither a unit

of Z nor an associate of N(zw) = 9. 1 is a unit and 9 is

an associate, so in order to be reducible, N(zw) must have a

factor of 3.

(N(z), N(w) Z)(N(z) = 3)

(a, b Z)(a

2

+b

2

= 3) denition of N

And this last statement is false: there are no such integers. So, by contradiction, 2

5 is irreducible.

37.10 No matter how the distance function d is dened, d(a) = d(b) for all a, b in the eld F. Proof:

d(a) d(aa

1

b) d(a) d(b)

d(b) d(bb

1

a) d(b) d(a)

This is odd, but it doesnt prove that F isnt a Euclidean domain: it just shows that d(x) is a constant

function. However, the second property of Euclidean domains is that all nonzero elements a, b F can be

expressed as a = bq + r where d(r) < d(b). But we know that d(r) = d(b) for any choice of b, r. This still

doesnt prove that F isnt a Euclidean domain: it might be the case that we can always nd a = bq with

r = 0. And in a eld, we can always do this: just choose q = b

1

a.

37.11a The unity of Z[x] is 1, which is divisible by 1.

37.11b Requirement (b) is not met because of the lack of multiplicative inverses in Z. Consider the polynomials

a(x) = 3x and b(x) = 2x. There are no polynomials in Z[x] such that 2x = 3xg(x) +h(x), deg(h) < 1.

37.12 a is a unit assumed

a[e denition of a unit

(b D)(ab = e) denition of divisibility

(b D)(ab = e d(a) d(ab) d(ab) d(aab)) property of Euclidean domains

(b D)(d(a) d(e) d(e) d(ae)) algebraic replacement

(b D)(d(a) d(e) d(e) d(a)) property of unity

d(a) = d(e)

37.13 ae = a, so a[a. a0 = 0, so a[0. And for any x D, if x[a x[0, then obviously x[a. And so both

conditions are met for a to be the gcd(a, 0).

61

37.14 a and b are associates assumed

a[b b[a denition of associate

(r, s D)(ar = b bs = a) denition of divisiblity

(r, s D)(bsr = b ars = a) algebraic replacement from last step

(r, s D)(b(sr e) = 0 a(sr e) = 0) distributivity, negatives. commutativity

We cant do any type of cancellation to simplify this equation because we cant assume the existence of

multiplicative inverses. Instead, note that D is an integral domain: by denition, there are no zero divisors.

In order for b(sr e) = a(sr e) = 0, it must be the case that:

(r, s D)([a = b = 0] [sr e = 0])

(r, s D)([a = be] [sr = e]) algebra

(r, s D)([a = be](s and r are units)) denition of unit

So either a = be or a = rs. But both e and r are units of D. So in either case, the lemma is true.

37.15 The GCD exists in Euclidean domains by virtue of the fact that the division algorithm applies to Euclidean

domains. See page 66 for the proof.

37.16 d

1

= gcd(a, b)

d

1

[a d

1

[b denition of gcd

d

1

[ gcd(a, b) second part of the denition of gcd

d

1

[d

2

d

2

= gcd(a, b)

The same proof with the variables exchanged shows d

2

[d

1

. Because d

1

and d

2

divide each other, they

are associates by denition.

37.17 b is a unit

(c D)(bc = e) denition of unit

(c D)(bc = e d(ab) d(abc) d(a) d(ab)) property of Euclidean domains

The only if () direction of this step is justied by algebraic replacement. To justify the if () step,

note that d(ab) d(a) is only true if d(a) = d(abc) for some c.

d(ab) d(a) d(a) d(ab) algebraic replacement

d(ab) = d(a)

37.18 gcd(a, b) = e a[bc assumed

(r, s D)(e = ar +bs a[bc) lemma 37.2

(r, s, t D)(e = ar +bs at = cb) denition of divisibility,commutativity

(r, s, t D)(ce = car +cbs) at = cb)

(r, s, t D)(c = car +ats) algebraic replacement

(r, s, t D)(c = a(cr +ts)) commutativity, distributivity

a[c denition of divisibility

37.19 Because p is irreducible, all of its divisors are either units or associates of p.

x[p [(r D)(xr = e) p[x]

Let x = gcd(p, a). Because the gcd is a divisor of p, it also must either be a unit or an associate of p.

case i) If x is an associate of p, then p[x and x[a (the former from x being an associate of p, the latter

from x being the gcd) which means p[a.

case ii) If x is a unit:

62

x is a unit assumed

(r D)(rx = e) denition of unit

(r D)(rx = e) (m, n D)(x = pm+an) property of gcd

(r D)(rx = e) (m, n D)(rx = rpm+ran) distributivity

(r, m, n D)(e = rpm+ran) algebraic replacement

(r, m, n D)(be = brpm+bran) distributivity

(r, m, n D)(b = p(brm) +ab(rn)) commutativity,property of unity

We see that p divides both terms on the right-hand side of this last equation: p[p(brm), for obvious reasons,

and we are told that p[ab in the description of the problem. This means that p[b. Weve shown that either

p[a or p[b, which is what we set out to prove.

37.21 u is a unit assumed

(r D)(ur = e) denition of unit

(r D)(ura = a) algebra

u[a denition of divides

37.22 Let U represent the set of all units of D. Each element of U has an inverse: (r D)(ru = e) is both

the necessary condition for being a unit and the necessary condition for having an inverse. The unity of

D is the unity of U, since ee = e. And U is closed under multiplication:

closure

a U b U assumed

a and b are units denition of membership in U

(r, s D)(ar = e bs = e) denition of unit

(r, s D)(ar(e) = e bs = e) property of unity

(r, s D)(ar(bs) = e) algebraic replacement

(r, s D)(ab(rs) = e) commutativity of D

ab is a unit denition of unit

ab U denition of membership in U

Therefore U meets all the requirements of being a multiplicative group.

38 Homomorphisms of Rings

38.8b

1

(a, b) = 0 i a = 0, b S. So the kernel of

1

is 0 S. Dene a function : S 0 S to be

(s) = (0, s). Proof that this function is isomorphic:

is well-dened and one-to-one

s

1

= s

2

s

1

= s

2

0 = 0

(0, s

1

) = (0, s

2

) denition of ordered pair equality

(0, s

1

) = (0, s

2

) denition of

is onto

(0, s

1

) 0 S assumed

s

1

S denition of cartesian product

(s

1

) = (0, s

1

) denition of

(s S)((s) = (0, s

1

)

is homomorphic

(s

1

+s

2

) = (0, s

1

+s

2

) = (0, s

1

) + (0, s

2

) = (s

1

) +(s

2

)

(s

1

s

2

) = (0, s

1

s

2

) = (0, s

1

)(0, s

2

) = (s

1

)(s

2

)

38.9 Let R be a commutative ring and let : R S be a homomorphic function.

63

a (R) b (R) assumed

(r, s R)((r) = a (s) = b) denition of image

(r, s R)((r)(s) = ab)

(r, s R)((rs) = ab) homomorphism of

(r, s R)((sr) = ab) commutativity of R

(r, s R)((s)(r) = ab) homomorphism of

(ba = ab) algebraic replacement from (s) = b, (r) = a

38.10 Let : R S be a homomorphic function.

(s (R))(r R)((r) = s) denition of image

(s (R))(r R)((r) = s re = r = er) unity of R

(s (R))(r R)((r) = s (re) = (r) = (er) is well-dened

(s (R))(r R)((r) = s (r)(e) = (r) = (e)(r) homomorphism of

(s (R))(s(e) = s = (e)s algebraic replacement

(e) is a unity of (R) denition of unity

The existence of a unity for (R) is also an immediate consequence of theorem 18.2

38.11 a)

n

2

: n Z

b) 2

n

: n Z

c) k2

n

: n, k Z

d) Q (see example 38.4)

e) Q. Because of additive closure, the smallest subeld must contain every integer. And because a eld

contains multiplicative inverses for each element, it must contain a

1

for every integer a. And because

of multiplicative closure, it must contain ab

1

for every integer a, b Z. And this is the denition of

Q from section 30.

38.12 Let S be a subring of Z.

s S assumed

(n Z)(

n

1

s S) additive closure

(n Z)(ns S) denition of integer multiplication

S is an ideal of Z denition of ideal

38.13 The fact that the constant polynomials of Z[x] form a ring follows directly from the fact that Z forms a

ring. That the constant polynomials arent an ideal of Z[x] can be shown by the fact that 3 is a constant

polynomial, x Z[x], but 3x is not a constant polynomial.

38.14 We can show that (a) is the smallest ideal containing a by showing that (a) must be a subset of any

other ideal containing a. Let I be any ideal of R containing a. Proof that (a) is a subset of I:

b (a) assumed

(r R)(b = ar) denition of (a)

(r R)(b = ar ar I) denition of ideal I

b I algebraic replacement

38.15 For each nonzero element a R, (a) is an ideal containing a. Since a (a), we know that (a) ,= 0, so

it must be the case that (a) = R. We will prove that R is a eld by proving that (a) is a eld. First, proof

that each element in (a) contains a multiplicative inverse:

64

(a R 0)((a) = R) true for reasons outlined above

(a R 0)(R (a)) partial denition of set equality

(a R 0)(x R x (a)) denition of subset

(a, x R 0)(x (a)) quantication

Because this last statement is true for all x R, it is still true when we choose any particular value of x.

Choose x to be the unity element of R (which is guaranteed to exist from the text of the exercise):

(a R 0)(e (a)) quantication

(a R 0)(r R)(e = ra) denition of membership in (a)

And this last statement is just the quantication of every nonzero a R has an inverse in R. So

we know that every element of R has an inverse, that R has a unity, and that multiplication on R is

associative (guaranteed from the properties of rings): this means that multiplication is a group on R. In

order for R to be a eld, though, we would have to show that the set of nonzero elements forms a group:

i.e., we need to show that R has no zero divisors. But this is true by virtue of the fact that each nonzero

element a has an inverse:

ab = 0 a ,= 0 assumed

a

1

ab = a

1

0 each nonzero a has an inverse

b = 0 properties of unity and zero

Weve shown that R is a commutative ring in which the set of nonzero elements form a multiplicative

group: this is the denition of a eld.

38.17 If I ,= (0), then it must contain some nonzero element a. Since the ideal is a ring, it must also contain

a. One of these two must be positive (from the trichotomy property of ordered integral domains). So the

set of positive ideals is nonempty, which means that it must contain a least element (from the well-ordered

property of Z, section 29). Let n represent this least positive integer in I.

Since ideals are subrings by denition, we know that I is closed under addition. This tells us that all

multiples of n are in I: (n) I. But its also true that I (n):

x I assumed

(r, s Z)(x = rn +s, 0 s < n) division algorithm

(r, s Z)(x = rn +s, s = 0) n is the least positive element

(r Z)(x = rn) property of zero

x (n) denition of (n)

And since (n) I I (n), we know that (n) = I.

38.18a f I

(a

i

Z)(f = 2a

0

+a

1

x +a

2

x

2

+. . .) denition of membership in I

(g Z[x])(a

i

, b

i

Z)(fg = 2a

0

b

0

+ horrifying binomial expansion)

(g Z[x])(fg I) denition of membership in I

Weve shown that (f I, g Z[x])(fgI) which is the denition of I being an ideal.

38.18b (x + 2) and (x + 4) are both members of I and are irreducible in Z[x]. Assume that I is equal to some

principal ideal (a). By the denition of principal ideal, both (x+2) and (x+4) would have to be multiples

of (a). But since (x + 2) and (x + 4) are irreducible, their only common divisor is 1, so 1 (a). But 1

clearly doesnt have an even number as the constant term, so 1 , I. So we have shown that no principal

ideal can contain all the members of I without also containing some members no in I: I cannot be a

principal ideal.

38.19 We will disprove this by constructing a homomorphism that is not an ideal. Dene : Z[x] Z[x] as

(a

0

+ a

1

x + . . . + a

n

x

n

) = (a

0

). The domain of this function is all polynomials, and its codomain is the

set of constant polynomials. That is a homomorphism is trivially veried, and exercise 38.13 shows that

the codomain is a subring that is not an ideal.

38.20 From theorem 38.1(b), we know that the kernel of is an ideal of F. From example 38.4, we know that

the only ideals of F are 0 and F itself. If the kernel is 0, then is one-to-one (theorem 28.1(c)). And

if the kernel is F, then by denition of kernel (a) = 0 for all a F.

65

38.21 From the denitions of Q given in section 30, we know that each element in Q can be expressed as

ab

1

, a Z, b Z 0. Let ab

1

be an arbitrary element of Q:

(ab

1

)

= (a)(b

1

) homomorphism of

= (a)(b)

1

theorem 18.2(b)

= (a)(b)

1

algebraic replacement with (x) = (x)

= (a)(b

1

) theorem 18.2(b)

= (ab

1

) homomorphism of

38.22 Let I represent the set of all nilpotent elements in R. We need to prove that I is a subring and also that

I is an ideal.

I is nonempty

0

2

= 0 0 I

I is closed under both operations

a I b I assumed

(m, n Z)(a

m

= 0 b

n

= 0)

(a +b)

mn

= 0 (ab)

mn

= 0

This previous step is justied because every term in the binomial expansion of (a +b)

mn

contains either a

m

or b

n

as a factor, which means that every term is zero. And the sole term of the multiplicative expansion of

(ab)

nm

also obviously contains a factor of a

m

. Note that both of these facts rely on the commutativity of R.

(a +b) I (ab) I denition of I

I contains negatives for each nonzero element

a I assumed

(m N)(a

m

= 0) denition of membership in I

(m N)(a

2m

= 0)

(m N)((a

2

)

m

= 0)

(m N)(((a)

2

)

m

= 0) theorem 28.1

(m N)((a)

2m

= 0)

a I denition of membership in I

39 Quotient Rings

39.6 (I +a)(I +b) = (I +b)(I +a) denition of commutativity

(I +ab) = (I +ba) denition of addition in R/I

(I +ab) (I +ba) = (I +i I) zero element of R/I

(I + (ab ba)) = (I +i I) denition of subtraction in R/I

ab ba I

So the set of elements a, b for which (I + a) and (I + b) commute is identical to the set of elements

a, b for which ab ba I. So R/I is commutative i ab ba I for every pair of elements in I.

39.7 Lemma: x (n) i n[x:

By the denition of principal ideal, (n) is the set of all multiples of (n). So x (n) i rn = x for some r.

And this is also the denition of divisibility, so x (n) i n[x.

i) Proof by contrapositive that n is prime if (n) is a prime ideal:

n is not prime

(a, b Z)(n = ab n ,[a n ,[b) denition of prime

(a, b Z)(n[ab n ,[a n ,[b) x[x for all x

(a, b Z)(ab (n) a , (n) b , (n)) lemma

(n) is not a prime ideal denition of prime ideal

66

ii) Proof by contrapositive that (n) is a prime ideal if n is prime:

(n) is not a prime ideal

(a, b Z)(ab (n) a , (n) b , (n)) denition of prime ideal

(a, b Z)(n[ab n ,[a n ,[b) lemma

(a Z)(gcd(n, a) ,= 1 n ,[a) contrapositive of theorem 13.1

n is not prime denition of prime

39.8 The proof is an immediate consequence of the dentions of prime ideal and integral domain. Remembering

that the zeroes of R/P are all elements of the from (P+p P): R/P is an integral domain

(P +a)(P +b) = (P +p P) [(P +a) = (P +p P) (P +b) = (P +p P)] denition of integral

domain

(P +ab) = (P +p P) [(P +a) = (P +p P) (P +b) = (P +p P)] denition of multi-

plication in R/P

(ab P) [a P b P] denition of equiva-

lence in R/P

P is a prime ideal

39.9 To show that

I

IJ

I+J

J

, dene a function : I (I +J)/J as (i) = Ji. The domain of this function is

I and the function is equal to 0 whenever i J. So the kernel of this function is I J. By the fundamental

homomorphism theorem for rings, then,

I

IJ

I+J

J

.

40 Quotient Rings of F[X]

40.2 p(x) is irreducible in F[x] assumed

divisors of p(x) must be units or associates denition of irreducible

(g(x) F[x])(g(x)[p(x) g(x)[e p(x)[g(x)) quantication of previous step

Choose g(x) such that g(x) = gcd(f, p). Since the gcd obviously divides p(x), the right-hand side of the

previous conditional gives us:

(gcd(f, p)[e p(x)[ gcd(f, g))

(gcd(f, p)[e p(x)[ gcd(f, g)) gcd(f, p)[f(x) denition of the gcd

(gcd(f, p)[e gcd(f, p)[f(x)) (p(x)[ gcd(f, g) gcd(f, p)[f(x)) logical distributivity

(gcd(f, p)[e gcd(f, p)[f(x)) (p(x)[f(x)) transitivity of divisibility

(gcd(f, p)[e) (p(x)[f(x)) p q p

gcd(f, p)[e) we are told that p(x) ,[f(x)

gcd(f, p) = e) denition of gcd from theorem 36.1

The last step (moving from gcd(f, p)[e to gcd(f, p) = e) is justied by the denition of gcd given in

theorem 36.1. By denition of gcd for polynomials, the greatest common divisor must be monic: and by

denition of monic, the highest coecient must be e.

40.11 (f) = (g) assumed

(f) (g) (g) (f) denition of set equality

(a (f))(a (g)) (b (g))(b (f)) denition of subset

f (f) and g (g), so we can choose a to be f and choose b to be g.

(f (g)) (g (f))

(q F[x])(f = gq) (r F[x])(g = fr) denition of (f), (g)

g[f f[g denition of divisibility

g and f are associates denition of associate

This proves that (f) = (g) only if g and f are associates. For the if portion of the proof, the same steps

can be used in reverse order. The same justications can be used for all of the steps except for the step

67

from f (g) to (f) (g). This step is justied because if f (g), then all multiples of f are in (g), which

means that (f) (g).

40.12 Theorem 40.3 tells us that there is some m F[x] such that (m) = I, but the theorem does not guarantee

this this polynomial is monic or that it is unique.

To show that there is at least one monic polynomial a such that (a) = I, note that theorem 36.1 tells

us that gcd(m, m) exists and is monic. From the properties of the gcd, we know that (gcd(m, m) (m)

(because gcd(m, m)[m) and (m) (gcd(m, m) (because m[ gcd(m, m)). So (gcd(m, m)) = (m) = I and

gcd(m, m) is monic.

To show that this monic polynomial is unique, assume that there a and b are two monic polynomials and

(a) = I = (b). Exercise 40.11 showed that a and b must be associates: (r, s F[x])(ar = b a = bs).

Because a and b are of the same degree, both r and s must be constant polynomials of degree 0 (note: this

fact depends on F being an integral domain). And because the highest term of a and b are both 1, this

means that r = s = e. Therefore a = b.

40.13a If we arent supposed to assume that these are polynomials in a eld F[x], then this is false. Let R[x]

be a subring of Z

4

[x] consisting of [0], [2]x, [2]x

2

, [2]x

2

+ [2]x. [2]x is not the same degree as ([2]x

2

), but

([2]x) = ([2]x

2

):

([2]x) = [4]x

2

, [4]x

3

, [4]x

3

+ [4]x

2

= [0]

([2]x

2

) = [4]x

3

, [4]x

4

, [4]x

4

+ [4]x

3

= [0]

This would not work in a eld, since there would be no zero divisors.

40.13b False. In the commutative ring of integers, 1 and 2 both have degree 0, but 1 , (2) so (1) ,= (2).

40.14 True for the same reason as above: 2 (1), deg(2) = deg(1), but (2) ,= (1).

41 Factorization and Ideals

41.1 Let I represent any ideal in Euclidean domain D. Because the division algorithm holds for Euclidean

domains, for any two elements a, b I we nd that gcd(a, b) I. Let x = gcd(i I), the greatest

element that divides every element of I. We want to show that (x) = I. First, assume that a (x).

Then a = rx for some r D (from the denition of (x)). But since x I, rx I (from the denition

of an ideal). And rx = a, so a I. Thus (x) I. Next, Assume that a I. By the division algorithm,

a = xq + r, d(r) < d(x) or, alternatively, a xq = r, d(r) < d(x). But x[a (from being the gcd of every

element of I) and x[xq (from the denition of division) so x[a xq = r. But it cant be the case that x[r

and d(r) < d(x) unless r = 0 (otherwise it would be the case that d(r = xm) < d(x), which would make

D not a Euclidean domain). So the fact that we could write a as a = xq +r means that r = 0 and a = xq.

And this means that a (x). Thus I (x). Weve shown that I (x) I, so I = (x).

41.2a (b) (a) assumed

b (a) (b) is an ideal containing b

(r D)(b = ar) denition of (a)

a[b denition of divisibility

a[b assumed

(r D)(b = ar) denition of divisibility

(s D)(r D)(bs = ars) algebra

(s D)(r D)(bs = a(rs)) associativity of rings

(s D)(bs (a)) denition of (a)

(b) (a) denition of (b)

41.2b a and b are associates assumed

a[b b[a denition of associate

(b) (a) (a) (b) exercise 41.2a

(a) = (b) denition of set equality

68

41.3a Principal ideal domains are commutative. So, for all r D, i I :

ri = r(ax +by) = rax +rby = a(rx) +b(ry)

So ri I as long as rx and ry are members of D. And because x, y, and r are members of D, closure of

D tells us that rx and ry are in D.

41.3b) This is true by denition, because D is a principal ideal domain.

41.3c) Proof that d is a divisor of both a and b:

I (d) true from part (b) of this exercise

(i I)(r D)(i = rd) denition of subset and of (d)

(x, y D)(r D)(ax +by = rd) denition of membership in I

We could choose x = 0, y = e to give us b = rd. Or we could choose x = e, y = 0 to give us x = rd.

And because we could make either choice, this implies:

(r D)(b = rd) (s D)(a = sd)

d[b d[a denition of divisibility

Proof that d is the greatest such divisor:

c[a c[b assumed

c[a c[b (d) I true from part (b) of this exercise

c[a c[b (r D)(i I)(dr = i) denition of (d)

c[a c[b (r D)(x, y D)(dr = ax +by) denition of membership in I

(m, n D)(cm = a cn = b) (r D)(x, y D)(dr = ax +by) denition of divisibility

(r D)(m, n, x, y D)(dr = cmx +cny) algebraic replacement

Choose r to be e:

(m, n, x, y D)(d = cmx +cny)

(m, n, x, y D)(d = c(mx +ny)) distributivity

c[d denition of divisibility

41.4 From problem 41.3, we know that the set I = ar + bs : r, s D = (gcd(a, b)). So we can prove that

e = ar + bs if we can show that e gcd(a, b). Although we dont know for certain that e = gcd(a, b),

we know that e[a and e[b, so e[ gcd(a, b). But this means that er = gcd(a, b) for some r D which, by

denition, means that e (gcd(a, b)).

41.5 If p is irreducible, then its only divisors are units and associates. Let g = gcd(p, a). Since g is a divisor

of p, then g must either be a unit (g[e) or an associate of p (g[p p[g). Assume g is an associate. Then

p[g (from being an associate) and g[a (from being the gcd(p, a)). So, because divisibility is transitive, p[a.

Assume that g is a unit. Then g[e, which implies:

g[e assumed

g[e (x, y D)(g = px +ay) lemma 2 of theorem 37.1

(r D)(gr = e) (x, y D)(g = px +ay) denition of divisibility

(r D)(gr = e) (x, y D)(gr = (px +ay)r) algebra

(r, x, y D)(e = pxr +ayr) algebraic replacement, distributivity

(r, x, y D)(be = bpxr +bayr) algebra

(r, x, y D)(b = pbxr +abyr) commutativity

We are told p[ab, so (S D)(ps = ab). Using this replacement:

(r, s, x, y D)(b = pbxr +psyr) algebraic replacement

(r, s, x, y D)(b = p(bxr +syr)) distributivity of rings

p[b denition of divisibility

So the fact that g is either a unit or an associate implies that either p[a or p[b.

41.6 Proof by induction. Let p be irreducible and let S = n : p[a

1

a

2

. . . a

n

(i)(p[a

i

). 1 S for trivial

reasons and exercise 41.5 showed that 2 S. Now, assume that n S. Then p[a

1

a

2

. . . (a

n

a

n+1

) implies

that p either divides a

i

for some i < n, or p[a

n

a

n+1

. And if the latter is true, then 2 S tells us that p[a

n

o p[a

n+1

. So n + 1 S. Therefore, by induction, S = N.

69

41.8 Exercise 41.7 shows that all nonzero, non-unit elements of a principal ideal domain can be written as a

product of irreducible elements. Exercise 41.6 can be used to prove uniqueness via the same steps as the

proof of the fundamental theorem of arithmetic on pp70-71.

41.9 a,b,c) Every eld is a Euclidean domain (example 38.4)

d,g,h) F[x] is a Euclidean domain for any eld F. (p175, below denition)

e) This is a Euclidean domain (example 37.2)

f ) This is an integral domain but not a unique factorization domain (example 37.1)

41.10 1,3,4,5,9

42 Simple Extensions

42.a This is an expanded proof of theorem 42.1. Dene a function : F[x] F[a] by (p(x)) = p(a). This

function can easily be shown to be a homomorphism, so by the fundamental homomorphism theory for

quotient rings, we know that:

F[x]/Ker() (F[x])

(F[x]), the range of , is the set of all linear combinations of elements of F and the element a. This range

is, by denition, the eld extension F(a). So we see that:

F[x]/Ker() F(a)

The kernel of is the set of all polynomials in F[x] for which p(a) = 0. And we know that kernels are

always normal subgroups and ideal subrings. And since F[x] is a principal ideal domain if F is a eld, we

know that the kernel is an ideal domain: it is equal to (p(x)) for some p(x) F[x]. So:

F[x]/(p(x)) F(a)

And since F(a) is a eld, that means that F[x]/(p(x)) is a eld and therefore, by theorem 40.1, p(x) is

irreducible over F.

42.2 R(a +bi) C

x R(a +bi) assumed

(r R)(x = r(a +bi)) unique representation from theorem 42.3 corollary 2

(r R)(x = ra +rbi) distributive property of R

(ra, rb R)(x = (ra) + (rb)i) multiplicative closure of R

x C denition of C

C R(a +bi) : x C assumed

(m, n R)(x = m+ni) denition of C

(m, n R)(x =

n

b

(a +bi) +

mbna

b(a

2

b

2

)

(a +bi)

2

) tons of algebra

x R(a +bi) unique representation from theorem 42.3 corollary 2

Note that the requirement that a+bi is imaginary forces b to be nonzero, so the fractions in the penultimate

step are all dened.

42.3 If Q(

2) = Q(

2) (including

2nd-degree linear combination of

p

r

not possible:

Q(

2) = Q(

3) assumed

Q(

2) Q(

2 Q(

3)

2 is an element of Q(

2)

(r, s Q)(

2 = r

(r, s Q)(2 = 3r

2

+ 2rs

3 +s

2

) algebra: square both sides

(r, s Q)(2 3r

2

s

2

= 2rs

3) algebra

(r, s Q)(

23r

2

s

2

2rs

=

3) algebra

The left-hand side of this equation is also a rational number, so:

(t Q)(t =

3)

3 is rational

70

And we know, from proving it a thousand times in every class since discrete math, that

3 is not rational.

42.4 a) 0 + 7a

b) 5 a

c) 8 + 2a

d)

1

6

+

1

6

a

42.5 a) x

2

2

b) x

4

4

c) x

4

2x

2

9

d) x

2

2

2x + 3

42.6 f(x) Q

3

5

(a

i

Q)(f(x) = a

0

+a

1

(

3

5) +. . . +a

n

(

3

5)

n

)

(a

i

Q)(f(x) = (

a

3k

(

3

5)

3k

) + (

a

3k+1

(

3

5)

3k+1

) + (

a

3k+2

(

3

5)

3k+2

))

(a

i

Q)(f(x) = (

a

3k

(5)

k

) + (

a

3k+1

(5)

k

)

3

5 + (

a

3k+2

(5)

k

)

3

25)

(a, b, c Q)(f(x) = a +b

3

5 +c

3

25)

42.7 If a

2

is algebraic over F, then there exists some function f(x) such that f(a

2

) = 0. Dene a new function

g(x) = f(x

2

). Then g(a) = f(a

2

) = 0, so a is algebraic over F.

42.8 The eld of quotients of F[x] is dened in section 30 as the unique smallest eld that contains a solution

in F[x] for the equation f(x)(x) = g(x) for all nonzero elements f(x), g(x) in F[x]. This eld is clearly

the eld containing all elements of the form f(x)/g(x).

42.12 By theorem 42.5, we can prove that F() F() just by showing that there exists an isomorphism

F F. And this is trivially done by the function (a) = a.

42.12 (alternate proof) From theorem 42.1, we know that Q() Q[x]/(p(x) = x

2

2) and Q() Q[x]/(q(x) =

x

2

4x+2). But note that x

2

4x+2 is equivalent to (x2)

2

2. So (p(x)) (q(x)) under the mapping

(f(x)) = f(x 2). And so, by the denition of extension at the start of the chapter, Q() Q().

42.13 x

3

5 = (x

3

5)(x +x

3

5 +

3

44 Splitting Fields

44.1 1,5,7, and 11 are roots. Z

12

is not a eld (it has zero divisors), so theorem 44.1 does not apply.

44.2 (x [3])

2

(x [1]) = ([1]x

3

+ [7]x

2

+ [15]x + [9]) = ([1]x

3

+ [3]x + [1])

44.3 (x i)

2

(x + 1) = (x

3

ix

2

+x i) = (x

3

+x) (x

2

+ 1)i

44.5 Use theorem 44.7 to generate the set of all possible rational roots, and then prove by exhaustion that none

of these possible rational roots are roots of 12x

3

3x + 2.

44.6 a) f(x) = (x

3

2

)(x +

1

2

)(x + 1), roots are

3

2

,

1

2

, 1.

b) roots are 2,

1

2

,

1

3

(found using theorem 44.7).

c) f(x) = 2(x

1

2

)(x

2

+ 4),

1

2

is the only root in Q.

44.7 a) f(x) = (x 1)(x

2

5), 1 is the root in Q

b) f(x) = 3(x

2

3

)(x

2

+ 1),

2

3

is the root in Q

c) f(x) = x(x

2

2x + 2), 0 is the root in Q

44.8 a) f(x) = (x 1)(x

2

5), 1,

5,

b) f(x) = 3(x

2

3

)(x

2

+ 1),

2

3

is the root in R

c) f(x) = x(x

2

2x + 2), 0 is the root in R

71

44.9 a) f(x) = (x 1)(x

2

5), 1,

5,

b) f(x) = 3(x

2

3

)(x

2

+ 1),

2

3

are the roots in C

c) f(x) = x(x

2

2x + 2), 0 is the only root in C

44.11 If f(x) has an imaginary root of degree two, then (a+bi)

2

is a root for some a, b R. From exercise 42.7,

it is also the case that (a +bi) is a root. And from the corollary to theorem 44.5, the complex conjugates

of (a +bi)

2

and (a +bi) are also roots. So the degree of f(x) is at least 4.

44.12 x

2

+ (2 + 2i)x + 2i = (x + (1 +i))

2

, so 1 i is a root of multiplicity 2.

44.13 [1]x

3

+ [1]x

2

+ [1]x + [1]

44.14 F(c

1

, . . . , c

n

) is by denition the smallest extension of F that contains all of the elements (c

1

, . . . , c

n

).

Since F(c

1

, . . . , c

n

) is the smallest eld containing those roots, we know that F(c

1

, . . . , c

n

) H. So if it is

also true that H F(c

1

, . . . , c

n

), then H = F(c

1

, . . . , c

n

).

72

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