“Cradock, get out!

”” [kqu
kd m _Adwo
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H kd ol&,
d owif;pm
rSaeI ajymifajymifwif;wif;ESifxkwfcJhol/ &cdkif/ Arm trsdK;om;rsm;
twGufomru tm&SwdkufwpfcGifvHk; u|efoabmufb0rS vGwfajrmuf
a&;twGuf rem;rae}udK;yrf;cJI
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vyfa&;.zcif[kwifpm;cHcJh&aom AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk,fwdkifu
“e,fcsJ‹bkif&ifcHcsKyfudk Armjynfu xGufoGm;zdk‹ yxrqHk; &J&Jawmuf
pd e f a c:ajymqd k o l [ m q&mawmf t o#if OD ; OwW r yJ jzpf w ,f ” [k
0efcHxkwfazmf csD;usL;cJh&ol/ ArmjynftESH‹tjym;wGif ausmif;om;oydwf/
tvkyform;oydwfESifh awmifolv,form;ta&;awmfyHkrsm;ay:aygufzdk‹
EdkifiHa&;rsufpdzGifhay;cJhol/ vufeuftm;udk;jzifh rw&m;zdESdyfaom e,fcsJ‹
udk t-urf;rzuf/ tEkenf;jzifh &J0HhajymifajrmufpGm qef‹usifcJhojzihf “Arm
jynf.*END}uD;””[k wifpm;cHcJh&ol/ Home Rule (ac: ) udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyf
a&;twGuf jywfom;pGmawmif;qdkcJhol aus;Zl;awmf&Sif q&mawmfOD;OwWr
um; ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;&cgeD;tcsdefwGif e,fcsJ‹tpdk;&. n‡Of;yrf;ESdyf
pufr+'%f/ &kyfydkif;/ pdwfydkif;qdkif&m yifyef;r+'%f/ a&mausmf/ cGwkyf/ azmfvH
zm;EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;. wpfyGJwdk; toHk;csaom'%fponfh EdkifiHa&;avm
u"Hudk ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm cg;pnf;cHcJh&I rD;pmukef/ qDcrf;vkacs_yD? rdrdwdk‹yg
wD/ rdrdwdk‹tkyfpk tEdkif&a&;twGuf pnf;&Hk;a&;umvY EdkifiHa&;/ yk*~dKvf
a&;-oZmwduUr-uD;rm; aomq&mawmfudk a&S‹wef;wifum rJqG,fay;zdk‹
tyluyfcJh-uaomfvnf; rdrdwdk‹tm%m&&Sdvmcsdef/ q&mawmf tdkrif;rpGrf;
jzpfvmcsdefwGif “zkwfav onfh iyd &Sdonfr# rxif” qdkovdk ypfy,fxm;
cJh-uonf? bk&m;r_yD;cifrSmyif jirf;zsufcJh-uonf?
Todk‹jzifh wpfcsdefu “vdyfqdk&if b,fvdyfrS raumif;bl;””[k
tpcsDum e,fcsJ‹qef‹usifa&;w&m;/ ra-umufw&m;a[mum jAdwdo#
tifyg,m.tkycf sKyfa&;,EW&m;udk wpfu,
kd af wmfb0jzifh tjrpfru
S ikd v
f y+ f
cJah om Armhvw
G v
f yfa&;.a&S‹wef;wdu
k pf pfrLS ;-uD;onf b0ae0ifcsdew
f iG f
&kyfa0'em/ pdwfa0'em cHpm;vsuf touf&Sif&yfwnfa&;twGuf &efukef
_rdK‹tESH‹ ol&l;wpfa,muf/ olawmif;pm;wpfa,mufyrm vSnfhvnf &kef;
uef&if; (1939) -o*kwfv wpf&ufwGif odrfjzLvrf;ESifh AdkvfcsKyfvrf;
axmifhwGif rdk;onf;xJY owdvpf arhajrmoGm;cJh&mrS &efukefaq;±Hk}uD;
wGif aq;0g;ukor+cH,lcJhonfhwdkif jyefvnfemvHxlEdkifjcif;r&SdawmhbJ
(1939) ck pufwifbmv (9) &ufae‹wGif b0ewfxH ysHvGefawmfrlcJh
onf? ysHvGefawmfrlcsdefY q&mawmfrSm oufawmf (60)/ 0gawmf (41)om
&Sdayao;onf?
q&mawmfum; uEWm&vGifwD;acgifudk a&S‹aqmif ckwfxGif &Sif;
vif;um ESpfv&Snf-um tyifysdK;cJhygvsuf ,if;uxGufaomtusdK;
tjrwfudk cHpm;rnfxm; tyGifhyGifh/ toD;oD;onfudkyif rjrifcJh&&Smonfh
ArmhvGwfvyfa&; c&D;&SnfcsDwufyGJrS tarhcHO,smOfrSL;-uD;wpfOD; jzpfay

onf? vGwv
f yfa&;&_yD; ArmjynfwiG f tkycf sKyfco
hJ nfh tpd;k & tqufquf
uvnf; q&mawmftay: rnfonfhta-umif;a-umifh rnfodk‹t_idK;xm;&Sd
onf rod? q&mawmf uG,fvGeftedpPa&mufonfhae‹udkvnf; EdkifiHawmf
tm;vyf&uftjzpf todtrSwfrjyK? q&mawmftxdrf;trSwf&kyfwk/
ausmufwkdif/ yef;_cHponfwdk‹udkvnf; jyKvkyfray;? q&mawmf.aus;Zl;
udk atmufarhwoaomtm;jzifh &kyfwk/ ausmufwdkif/ taqmufttHk/
yef;_cHponfwdk‹ aqmufvkyfcGifh/ q&mawmftm; *k%fjyKaomtm;jzifh vrf;/
wHwm;ponfwdk‹udk q&mawmftrnfjzifh rSnfhac:cGifhponfwdk‹udk awmif;
qdkaomjynfolvlxktm;vnf; axmifoGif;/ tusOf;cs ESdyfpufjcif; tp&Sd
onfwdk‹udkom pOfqufrjywf jyKvkyfcJh-uayonf?
tkyfpdk;olrsm;uomru wpfcsdK‹jynfolESifh twdkuftcH EdkifiHa&;
orm;rsm;rSmvnf; q&mawmftm; y,fvsuefjyKxm;-uonfrSm txl;
&ifemzG,f aumif;vSayonf? q&mawmf.0HomEk&uQdwpdwf"mwfESifh
e,fcsJ‹qef‹usifa&;pdwf"mwfudk tm;ustwk,lI ArmhvGwfvyfa&;ordkif;
rSm xif&Sm;cJhaom q&mawmfOD;0dpm& txdrf;trSwfvrf;ESifh ausmufwdkif
udk &efukefjrdK‹v,fwGif pdkufxlay;cJhaomfvnf; &efukef_rdK‹&Sd uefawmfrif
yef;_cHudk OD;OwWryef;jcHtjzpf owfrSwfay;&ef/ q&mawmftxdrf;trSwf
&kyfwk pdkufxlay;&ef awmif;qdkcJh-uaom jynfolvlxk.qENudk vspfvsL
&+jcif;/ vrf;ab;"mwfwdkifudk vpOf aq;okwfaeygvsuf ppfawGOD;OwWr
yef;jcH&dS q&mawmf.&kyw
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awmf&kyfwka&S‹wGif qDrD;xGef;n‡dylaZmfjcif;/ yef;acGcstav;jyKjcif;udk &mZ
0wfjypfr+ usL;vGefonfh udpP&yfwpfckyrm wm;jrpfta&;,ljcif;ponfh
udpP&yfrsm;udk vkyfaqmifae-uonfrSm &cdkiftrsdK;om;wpfa,mufjzpfI
wrifoufouf zdESdyfcsdK;ESdrfjcif;vm;[k pOf;pm;p&mjzpf&ayonf?
odk‹jzpfygI rdrdwdk‹&cdkifjynfvHk;qdkif&mausmif;om;ESifhvli,f
rsm;tpnf;t&Hk;rS pufwifbmv (9) &uf/ (2008) ckESpfwGif usa&muf
aom (69)ESpfajrmuf q&mawmfOD;OwWrae‹wGif 'Drdkua&pDESifh vl‹tcGifh
ta&;udk cspfjrwfEdk;ol/ rsdK;cspf/ jynfcspfpdwf"mwf&Sdol wdkif;&if;om;
jynfolwpf&yfvHk; &cdkiftrsdK;om;rsm;ESifh vufwGJI q&mawmfto#ifjrwf
.*k%faus;Zl;udk azmfxkwfcGifh&zdk‹ awmif;qdk wdkufyGJ0if-uygpdk‹[k awmif;
qdk yef-um;vkduf&ayonf?

qufoG,f&ef
AASYC (GHQ)-Thailand P.O.Box - 178, Mae Sod , Tak,
63110,Thailand Phone: 055-506618, 0816808934
Email: aasyc.ghq@gmail.com
AASYC (HQ) - Bangladesh Phone: +8801817078133
Email: aasyc.hq.bd@gmail.com

(69) ESpaf jrmuf q&mawmfO;D OwWrae‹ txdr;f trSwf
pufwifbmv (9) &uf/ 2008?

'Drdkua&pDESifh vl‹tcGifhta&;udk vufcHav;pm;onfh/ trsm;
tusdK;twGuf pGef‹v$wf tepfemcHwwfonfh/ &dk;&dk;usifhusifh jrifhjrifh}uH
aexdkifwwfonfh/ [kwfwdkif;rSef&mudk ajymqdk&Jonfh/ tzdESdyfcHrsm; b0
vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf urBmwpfjcrf;eD;eD;udk vufeuftm;udk;jzifh
e,fcsJ‹u|efjyKcJhonfh _Adwdo#tpdk;&udk tyfwdkwpfacsmif;rS raqmifbJ
pdwf"mwftiftm;jzifh t-urf;rzuf qef‹usifcJhonfh ArmhvGwfvyfa&;
.rD;&SL;wefaqmif/ tm&Sae0ef;&Sif q&mawmfto#ifOD;OwWrtm; tpOf
OD;nGwfvsuf
q&mawmf aumif;&mok*wdvm;ygap?
q&mawmfukd &cdkifjynfe,f ppfawG_rdK‹/ ±ly&GmwGif zcif OD;jr/
rdcif a':atmifausmfolwdk‹rS (1879) ck/ 'DZifbm (27) &uf/ we*FaEG
ae‹wGif arG;zGm;cJhonf? i,frnfrSm armifay:xGef;atmif jzpf_yD; arG;csif;
(3) OD;teuf t}uD;qk;H om;jzpfonf? touf (9) ESpt
f &G,w
f iG f rlvwef;
ausmif;tkyf}uD;u oli,fwef;rSpI ynmoif,l&ef t}uHay;aomfvnf;
rdrdudk,fudk,Hk-unfr+&Sdaomq&mawmfonf twef;wifay;&ef ausmif;
tkyf}uD;udk awmif;qdkcJhonf? ynmukd q&mxHrSomru oli,fcsif;rsm;
xHrSvnf; oif,lcJhonf? q&mawmfonf yOPrwef; twef;wifpmar;yGJ
wGif *%ef;ocFsmY 'kw,
d qk&&So
d jzifrh sufEmS jzLt*Fvyd f &ckid w
f idk ;f rif;}uD;

ukd,fwkdif vma&muf qkcsD;jr‡ifhcJhonf? 'kwd,qkudk vufrcHvdkaom
q&mawmfonf q&m}udrf;armif;I oGm;a&mufqk,lcJh&aomfvnf; qk,l
tjyD;wGif qkudk csdK;zJhqkwf_zJvsuf ±ly&Gmacsmif;odk‹ v$ifhypfum nDi,ftm;
“fyxrqkom,l 'kwd,wdk‹/ wwd,wdk‹qdk b,fawmhrS r,leJ‹” [kvnf;
qdkcJhavonf?
(13) ESpfom;t&G,fwGif ppfawG_rdK a&$apwDausmif;q&mawmf
xHY zdk;olawmftjzpfESifh r*FvokwfrS o'Ng&Spfapmif/ o_*FKvfudk;ydkif;txd
oif,lcJhonf? (16) ESpfom;t&G,fwGif &Sifomra%0wf&m &SifOwWr [k
wGifavonf? xdkrSwzef yckuULpmoifwdkuf}uD;wGif oGm;a&mufoif-um;
vdkojzifh vl0wfvJI "m;awmifq&mawmfOD;*EQmESifh vdkufoGm;cJhonf?
awmifilwGif &Sifomra% pmjyefyGJwpfckY 0ifa&mufajzqdk&m yxr&&Sd
cJhonf? q&mawmf.ynmt&nftcsif;udk oabmusaom awmifil_rdK‹&Sd
csrf;om-uG,f0aom&Srf;trsdK;orD;}uD;wpfOD;u om;tjzpf arG;pm;um
umvuwWm;_rdK‹odk‹ ynmoif&ef ydk‹ay;cJhonf? (3) ESpft-umwGif t*F
vdyf=Arm q,fwef;tqifhudk atmifjrifcJh_yD; Armjynfokd‹ jyefvmcJh&m
oufawmf (19) ESpfESifh (2) vwGif aqGrsdK;awmfpyfol bHkabbm;rm;
udk,fpm;vS,f OD;xGef;atmifausmfu &[ef;cHay;cJhonf?
xkd‹aemuf umvuwWm;odk‹ jyefoGm;cJh_yD; trsdK;om;aumvdyf
wpfckwGif ygVdESifh Ak'<bmomqdkif&m {nfhygarmuQtjzpf aqmif&Guf&if;
ooFu±dkuf/ b*FgvD/ em*&Dpaom a&S;a[mif; [dENLpmayrsm;udk oif
-um;avhvmcJhonf? ,if;umvu tdENd,uGefu&uftoif;}uD;_yD;v#if
'kw,
d tiftm;t}uD;qH;k jzpfonfh [dELN r[mqyftoif;}uD;.OuU@ ae&m
udk r'&yfjynfe,frS emrnfausmf acgif;aqmif}uD; y¾dwfrmvAD,m;ESifh
,SOf_ydKifta&G;cH&m q&mawmfyif tEdkif&cJhonf? (1904=05) ckESpfwGif
EkdifiHt&G,ftpm;ao;i,f/ ordkif;rSmvnf; rxif&Sm;/ udk,fcEQmt&G,f
tpm;vnf;ao;i,faom*syefu tiftm;-uD;rm;aom&k&Sm;udk tEdkif&
vdkufjcif;udk q&mawmftaejzifh txl;pdwf0ifpm;cJhonf? (1907) ESpfwGif
Armjynfodk‹ jyefvmum &efukefrS puFmyl/ xdkrSwqifh *syefodk‹ -uGa&muf
cJhjyD; *syefbmompum;udk wpfESpfcef‹oif,lcJhonf? rdrdynmoif,l&m
*syefwuUodkvfrSmyif ygVdESifh ooFu±dkufbmom ya&mfzufqmtjzpf
wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhonf? *syefjynfwGif &SdaepOf *syefjynfa&muf w±kwf
ausmif;om;rsm;rSwqifh w&kwftrsdK;om;acgif;aqmif a'gufwmqGef
,ufqifESifh cifrif&if;ESD;cJh&m ‚if;rS txl;-unfndKav;pm;ojzifh w&kwf
EdkifiHodk h yifhzdwfoGm;cJhonf? q&mawmfonf *syefjynfESifh E+dif;,SOfvsuf
w±kwfjynfvGwfajrmufa&;udk rnfodk‹rnfyHkaqmif&Gufoifha-umif; enf;
ay;vrf;n$efjyocJhonf?
(1911) ckESpfwGif &efukefodk‹jyefa&muf_yD; YMBA (ac: )
Ak'b
< momuvsm%,k0toif;wGif pdwt
f m;xufoefpmG 0ifa&muf ulnD

vkyfaqmifcJh&m tpdk;&pHkaxmufrsm;u waumufaumufvdkuf-uawmh
onf? EdkifiHa&;q&mawmfyDyD jywfjywfom;om; ajymqdkwwfaom q&m
awmfukd t&[wWZ*k%Ef iS hf rnD!w
G [
f q
k u
kd m rnfonfah usmif;urS vuf
rcHojzifh ordkif;(,ck r&rf;ukef;&Sd) tdrfwpftdrfwGif oD;oef‹oDwif;oHk;
aexkid cf &hJ onf? q&mawmf.e,fcsJ‹ra-umufw&m;rsm;rSm wpwp vlod
rsm;vm_yD; w&m;yGJrsm;vnf; pnfum;vmcJhonf? q&mawmfonf oHCm
awmfrsm;tm;vnf; “ausmif;wGifom usdef;I rae-u&efESifh wdkif;jynf
onf u|efb0odk‹a&mufaeygu wdkif;oljynfom;rsm;onf u|efrsm;jzpf
-uI u|efrsm;udk;uG,faom bmomonfvnf; u|efbmomESifh u|ef
omoemomyif jzpfrnf? u|efb0rS vGwfajrmufI omoemjyKrif;
ay:aygufrSomv#if omoemawmfvnf; }uD;yGg;xGef;um;vmrnf” jzpf
a-umif; rdef‹-um;awmfrlcJh_yD; oHCmhor*~Drsm;zGJ‹pnf;um vGwfvyfa&;
&atmif }udK;yrf;oifha-umif; a[m-um;cJhonf? (1912) rS (1919)wGif
*syefjynfY oDwif;oHk;cJhonf?
(1919) ckESpfwGif Armjynfodk‹ jyefvnf-uGa&mufvm_yD; ol&d,
owif;pmwdkufwGif oDwif;oHk;um “*syefjynfta-umif;” pmtkyfwpf
tkyf a&;om;xkwfa0cJhonf? xdk‹jyif ol&d,owif;pmY trsdK;udkapmifh
a&Smuf&rnfh 0HomEk&udQww&m;rsm;udkvnf; v+H‹aqmfa&;om;cJhonf?

xdk‹aemuf ArmwpfjynfvHk;odk‹vSnfhvnfum e,fcsJ‹qef‹usifa&;w&m;rsm;
a[majymcJh&m (1920) 'DZifbmvwGif yxr &efukefausmif;om;oydwf
ay:aygufcJhonf? oydwft_yD;wGif e,fcsJ‹tpdk;&u owif;pmrsm;udk
tmrcHa-u;rsm; awmif;jcif;/ ydwfyifjcif;rsm; jyKvkyfcJh&m ol&d,/ jrefrmh
tvif;/ ynmhtvif;/ AE<Kv*sme,fwdk‹omusefcJhonf? xdkpOf a0vrif;
om; Armjynfodk‹ vmrnfjzpf&m (YMBA) toif;rS r}udKqdkbJ oydwf
arSmuf&ef qk;H jzwf-uonf? acgif;aqmiftcsdK‹uzkd rf;_yD; oydwaf rSmufv#if
tjypfay;Edkifaom “bGdKif;aumufOya'” udkxkwfjyefcJhonf? xdkodk‹
bk&ifcHu wif;wif;rmrm aqmif&Gufvmaomtcg q&mawmfonf ol&d
,owif ; pmY “qm&,f * sif e ,f u &uf a 'guf Armjynf u xG u f
oGm;”
;”[lI a-ujim_yD; e,fcsJ‹t*Fvdyfukd pdefac:cJh&m wpfwdkif;jynfvHk;u
q&mawmf.owWdESifh e,fcsJ‹qef‹usifa&;pdwf"mwfudk todtrSwfrjyKbJ
raeEdkifjzpfcJh&onf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk,fwdkifu“q&mawmf. xdk
pmud k z wf & I -uuf o D ; arG ; !S i f ; rsm;xvmcJ h & yga-umif ; ”a&;om;

cJhzl;ayonf?
(1920) rwfv (23) &ufae‹u zsmyHkc±dkif/ a';'&J_rdK‹e,f/ ql;u
vyfaus;&GmwGif “vdyf tcGHcGgrnf” [laomacgif;pOfjzifh w&m;a[majym
aoma-umifh tvkyf-urf;ESifh axmif'%f (12) v tjypfay;cH&onf? q&m

awmfonf tusOf;pHb0jzifh axmift0wfudk 0wfqifcJh&aomfvnf;
&[ef;oduQmyk'fudk apmifhxdef;cJh&m axmifr+;/ axmifom;wdk‹u bk&m;xl;
vsuf oHCmawmfwpfyg;tjzpf qufvuftodtrSwfjyKcJh-uonf?
(1922) Zlvdkifv (2) &ufae‹wGif *sLAvDa[mY axmifrSvGwfajrmufvm
aomq&mawmfukd uefawmhyo
JG bifusif;y&m vlwpfaomif;ru pnfum;
cJhonf? rw&m;r+udk acgif;iHkrcHwwfaom q&mawmfonf &efolukd vuf
ajr‡muft±+H;ray;bJ EdkifiHtESH‹vSnfhvnfum ra-umufw&m; qufvuf
a[m-um;cJhonf? (1923) ZlvdkifvrS pufwifbmvwGif Oa&myEdkifiHrsm;
odk‹ vSnfhvnfum EdkifiHwumA[kokw &SmazGcJhonf? (1924) atmufwdk
bmvwGif &efukef_rdK‹ usKH;}uD;vrf;&Sd eef;awmf±kyf&Sif±HkY “tpdk;&raumif;
v#if raumif;[k a0zefcGifh[m vl‹tcGifhta&;yJ? 'DtcGifhta&;[m igwdk‹
rSm&Sdw,f? iHk‹rcH -ueJ‹” [k 'Drkdua&pDESifh vl‹ tcGifhta&; &&Sda&;twGuf
jynfolrsm;udk,fwdkif wkdufyGJ0if-u&ef v+H‹aqmfcJh&m (7) &uftwGif;zrf;qD;
cHcJh&onf? w&m;cGifY q&mawmfonf tpdk;&tm; qHk;raom pmwrf;&Snf
}uD;udk zwf-um;I “ighY tjypf&Sdv#if tjypfay;avm” [kqdkum
w&m;cGifwGif jyefvSefav#mufvSJcsuf ray;bJaecJhonf? 'kwd,t-udrf
tvkyf-urf;ESifh axmif'g%f (3) ESpfuscHcJh&jyD; (1927) rwfv (20)
&ufae‹wGif jyefvnfvGwfajrmufvmaomtcg yJcl;e,fwGif usif;yaom
oHCm-o0g'cH OD;pdk;odrf;. (14) }udrfajrmuf jrefrmtoif;csKyftpnf;
ta0;odk‹wufa&mufvsuf w&m;a[mpifjrifhay:rSaeI ouFef;±kHudkvSef
um tusOf;om;0wfpHkjzifh ‚if;.&kyfoGifudk y&dowftm; (5) rdepfcef‹
jyocJhonf? xdk‹aemuf ArmjynftESH‹ vSnfhvnf w&m;a[m&m (1928)
wGif wwd,t}udrf jyefvnf tzrf;qD;cHcJh&onf? axmifrSvGwfajrmuf
vmaomtcg tdENd,jynfESifh jrefrmjynfudk ul;csnfoef;csnfvkyfae&if;
w±kwEf iS hf *syefEikd if t
H a-umif; pmtkyEf pS t
f yk u
f kd "mwfyrkH sm;jzifh crf;crf;em;
em; a&;om;xkwfa0cJhonf? (1935) tufOya't& jrefrmjynfudk tdEdN,
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