ATTITUDE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS TOWARDS VOCATIONAL AND EDUCATIONAL GUIDANCE IN ETHIOPE EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA

STATE

BY JESSA OMOKINIOVO MORRISON FOE/07/08/131143

A PROJECT WRITTEN IN THE DEPARTMENT OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING AND SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF EDUCATION, DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY, ABRAKA

IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF EDUCATION B.ED IN GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING NOVEMBER, 2011

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CERTIFICATION We the undersigned certified that this project work was written by JESSA OMOKINIOVO MORRISON in the Department of Guidance and Counselling, Delta State University, Abraka.

__________________ Dr. (Mrs.) A. Onoyase Project Supervisor

________________ Date

_____________________ Dr. J. N. Odili Head of Department

________________ Date

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DEDICATION This project work is dedicated to the memory of my late father, Late Chief John Enokae Jessa who, though departed to the great world beyond (at a time when I was too young to recognise his face) still occupies a greater part of my heart

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ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I acknowledge with gratitude my God, the everlasting King of Kings in whose light my path was made clear, free from obstacles. I acknowledge Dr. (Mrs.) A. Onoyase, my project supervisor, who not only constructively criticized and supervise this project, but also taught me how to write a sound research project, because of her love and crave for originality and her tutorship. My gratitude also go to my mother Mrs. Mary O. Jessa who has worked tirelessly and has made much effort to see that i complete my academic programme. My brothers, sisters and cousins are not left out, especially the likes of brother Godwin Jessa, Tony Jessa, Sunday Adjako, Hallen’s Jessa, sister Lucky and Sister Rukevwe, I express my appreciation to them for their moral and financial support all through the course of my academic sojourn. I wish to sincerely thank my Head of Department, Dr. J. N. Odili who looked upon the students of Guidance and Counselling as part of his extended family that must succeed at all cost. I also acknowledge all the lecturers and staff of guidance and counselling department for being a part of my success story. I give gratitude to all my course mates and the entire students of guidance and counselling. I could never have made it this far if not for them, most especially Mr. Onyegbo Ejime who played the role of a best friend and a father and made sure I am on the right tract; he was always there to pull me back whenever I am going out of line.
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My gratitude also go to my special friend Chukwuweike Amaka Treasure for her support all through my days in school. I also wish to give thanks to the principals and teachers of the various schools I used for the study for approval and assistance during the administration of my questionnaire. Also, I thank the students from the schools who volunteered to be used for this research work. Lastly, I acknowledged all the authors whose work were cited in this research.

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TABLE OF CONTENT Title page Certification Dedication Acknowledgment Table of content List of tables Abstract 1 2 3 4 6 10 11

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study 1.2 Statement of the Problem 1.3 Research Questions 1.4 Purpose of the study 1.5 Significance of the Study 1.6 Scope and Delimitation of the study
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12 22 23 23 24 26

1.7 Definition of Terms

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CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.1 Definition of Attitude 2.2 Meaning of vocational guidance 2.3 Meaning of educational guidance 2.4 Students’ interest in orientation exercise 2.5 Students’ participation in study habit induction 2.6 Students’ participation in career day programme 2.7 Students’ participation in excursion 2.8 Students Participation in Old Students’ Association Day 2.9 Summary of literature review 48 49 28 30 41 43 44 45 46

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD AND PROCEDURE 3.1 Research design 3.2 Population 51 52

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3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques 3.4 Research instrument 3.5 Validity of the instrument 3.6 Method of data collection 3.7 Method of data analysis

52 53 53 53 54

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION OF RESULT AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS 4.1 Research question 1 4.2 Research question 2 4.3 Research question 3 4.4 Research question 4 4.5 Research question 5 4.6 Research findings 4.7 Discussion of findings 55 56 57 59 60 61 61

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CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5.1 Summary 5.2 Conclusion 5.3 Limitations of the study 5.4 Contribution to knowledge 5.5 Recommendations 5.6 suggestion for further studies References Appendix 65 67 67 68 68 69 71 75

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LIST OF TABLES Table 4.1 Table 4.2 Table 4.3 Table 4.4 Table 4.5 55 56 58 59 60

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ABSTRACT This research work investigated the Attitude of secondary school students towards vocational and educational guidance in Ethiope east local government area of Delta state. Five research questions were formulated to guide this study. Relevant literature was reviewed to provide theoretical bases for the research work. The population of the study consisted of all secondary school students in Ethiope East local government area of Delta state. Five government secondary schools were randomly sampled for the study. A questionnaire was used for data collection and was administered on 100 respondents who constituted the sample of this study. The instrument was analysed by the researcher using simple percentage to answer the formulated research questions. The findings of the study revealed: that many students are interested in orientation exercise in secondary schools, that students participate in study habit induction to a large extent in secondary schools, that many students take part in career day, that some students visit the school counsellor and some also participate in Excursion and that many students participate in Old Students Association Day in secondary schools. Based on the research findings, the following recommendations were made: guidance counsellors should organise orientation to the students on regular bases, professionals from all works of life should be invited by the counsellor to cater for the career needs of many more students, seminar and enlightenment campaign should be organised by the guidance counsellor to enlighten the students on the importance of excursion and the need to visit the counsellor and that many students should be engaged in old students’ association day.

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CHAPTER ONE Introduction 1.1 Background of the Study Guidance is derived from the word “guide” which means to direct, to lead and to facilitate a course of action. It is a programme of services designed to assist individuals understand their problems and also to find a lasting solution to them. It is a professional field which has a broad range of activities,

programmes and services geared towards assisting individuals to understand themselves, their school environment and their world and also to develop adequate capacity for making wise choices and decisions (Eyo and Esuong, 2010). Guidance is a programme on which a guild is to be provided by someone who is professionally trained to do so. These provisions would be made in relation to the individual’s

educational, social, moral, emotional and health. According to the UNESCO module on guidance and counselling (2000a), guidance is a programme of services to individuals based on their needs
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and the influence of environmental factors. To Okobiah and Okorodudu (2004), the term ‘guidance’ has been coined from the word ‘guild’ which means to direct one on an issue or

programme, ‘enlighten’ or assist and to lead someone to know alternatives of what to do in relation to a given situation that demands decision making. They state further that one can only be guided by someone who is knowledgeable or someone who is mature and quite familiar with what to do in such given circumstances which require assistance. According to Egbule (2002), the conceptual development of guidance and counselling as a professional services started in the 20th century as a result of the cultural and ideological movement which provides enough impetus for the broadening and

secularization of guidance functions. However, prior to this time, there was a practice of guidance and counselling in the traditional level by a group of quasi-counsellors. These quasi-counsellors according to Egbule (2002) are: philosophers, priests, prophets, elders in the society and parents. The techniques these quasicounsellors used in rendering guidance services to individuals is
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mainly

advice

giving.

Although,

this

technique

yielded

its

expected result (as most of the problems put before the quasicounsellors were resolved), it will be partial not to mention its associated problems. For example, Egbule in Okobiah and Okorodudu (2004) enumerated the following as limitations of traditional (quasi counselling) counselling practice: I. Traditional counselling is dominated by large number of untrained counsellors who based their practice on biased personal experience and subjectivity. II. The activities of traditional counsellors are often limited to advice giving leaving behind other significant guidance functions. This approach of advice giving by traditional counsellors is usually directive and authoritative in nature. This is very unethical to professional counselling. III. Traditional counselling lacks objectivity in its assessment and treatment procedures in traditional counselling and it does not utilize any assessment material. This makes it

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difficult

to

evaluate

the

effectiveness

of

resolving

individual’s problem. IV. It is always difficult for the client to apply the principles of traditional counselling in resolving his problem. This is because solutions are often sought to the client’s problem by the traditional counsellor through mysterious method. This makes it impossible for the client to apply any principles to solve similar problems in the future without counsellors. V. The practice of traditional counselling in a modern world is out of touch with reality. It has become impossible to use traditional counselling approaches to resolve

educational, vocational and personal social problems resulting from the complexities of the modern society, economic, changes. In assessing the future of guidance and counselling in Nigeria, Aluede (2011) has this to say: political, educational, and technological

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Aluede, Egbule and Okorodudu (1988, as cited in Aluede, 2000) had observed that guidance and counselling services are relatively new educational delivery services in Nigeria’s educational system, one may today be tempted to think differently because, any child born in 1959, the year

guidance and counselling is known to have begun in Nigeria (Ipaye, 1983, as cited in Aluede, McEachem and Kenny, in press), would no longer be regarded as an adolescent or a youth. He/she could even be a grandparent, who would be full of all maturity and experience to be expected to play a very vital role in the society. Several events led to the institutionalization of guidance and counselling in Nigerian school system. Most prominent was the effort of a group of catholic nuns at the St. Theresa’s college, Oke-Ado, Ibadan. These catholic nuns according to Aluede, (2000) and Iwuama, (1991) developed a career workshop for all the School’s graduating students during the 1959 academic
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session, especially in the area of subject selection and job search. According to Ipaye (1983), a major outcome of the workshop was the distribution of the much needed career information that enabled 54 out of 60 graduating students to gain full employment upon heir graduation. Another event that was instrumental to the development of modern guidance in Nigeria is the workshop on guidance and counselling held at the comprehensive high school, Aiyetoro in 1963 where Mr. R. O. Rees delivered a paper titled “the role of the guidance counsellor in a comprehensive high school”. So was the book written by Mr. C. I. Berepiki titled “an approach to guidance in school”. This book inspired the federal government of Nigeria to develop a workshop on guidance and counselling in schools. Through these efforts, the federal government was able to appreciate the role guidance and counselling needed to play in the nation’s overall development that later motivated the federal ministry of education to appoint Mr. C. I. Berepiki to take full charge of the coordination of school guidance and counselling services in Nigeria’s school system (Odebunmi, 1985).
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There is agreement among experts that there are three major components of guidance and counselling, these component according to UNESCO module (2000a) are: educational,

vocational, and personal social guidance. Educational Guidance: educational guidance can be referred to as that part of the guidance programme given to students to enable them do well in school. It is a service offered to the students by the school guidance counsellor in the school system. Through educational guidance, students are individually or as a group provided with information and assistance to help them function more effectively in the school system (Egbule, 2002). Vocational Guidance: vocational guidance is simply an aspect of the entire guidance programme given to the students or individuals in the school system to enable them make appropriate choices in their vocation. Egbule (2002) quoting Supper (1957) states that vocational guidance is the process of helping a person develop and accept an integrated and adequate picture of himself and of his role in the world of work, to test this concept against

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reality and to convert it into reality, with satisfaction to himself, and to benefits to the society. Personal programme Social that Guidance: focuses on This the aspect of the guidance

individual’s

socio-personal

problems. According to Egbule (2002), counselling psychologists are not only interested in the individual’s educational and vocational adjustment, also in their personal-social and

psychological adjustment. Under these three major area of guidance as Denga (2001) posited, there are several guidance and counselling services such as appraisal, information, placement, orientation, evaluation, referral, and follow-up. Appraisal Service: according to Egbule, in Okobiah and

Okorodudu (2004), appraisal service is a testing programme which involves the collection, analysis and application of a series of objectives and subjective personal psychological data for the purpose of understanding individuals and assisting them to understand their abilities, interest and disabilities. Students need
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to know how to appraise themselves whether or not they are fulfilled in their chosen course or else see a counsellor for appraisal. Information Services: information is not stable, there are changes from time to time, and the students need to be updated too. According to Bamisaye (2003), information is very vital because it can be used to create new realities as the situation may warrant. Information about jobs, qualifications, requirement, remuneration, hazard, working time, training opportunities, age factors, condition of services and the general working

environment should have been made available to salvage the students from moving from one job to the other without fulfilment. Placement Services: according to Gashinde (1991), this is a crucial function. The guidance counsellor should be involved in the selection and placement of students in the different

subjects/classes. According to Egbule (2002), placement means the assistance given to students in making appropriate choices of

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school subjects and in making transition from one school level to the other, and from school to employment. Orientation Service: orientation service according to Egbule (1993) is techniques of educational service designed and

organized to help new students in the school system to adjust to their new environment through group procedures. New students need to be helped in adjusting to the school environment so as to make the best use of the opportunities before them. Referral Service: at time, students’ problems may prove difficult that it will require the guidance counsellor to send him/her to the appropriate quarters, so as not influence others with the problem. Referral service simply implies directing clients to other

professionals who are in a position and are more competent in resolving the client’s problem (Egbule, 2002). Follow-Up Service: according to Aluede (2011), follow-up service is very important; it can mean monitoring the “drop out of school” so that they do not constitute social menace. Some students that are advised to drop out of school system because of
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one reason or the other should be adequately monitored by the counsellor in order to still be useful to themselves, their community and the nation at large. They can still be creative and innovative if they are properly guided. 1.2 Statement of the Problem The three aspects of guidance; educational, vocational and personal-social guidance is being carried out in the school system using a number of techniques. These techniques include study habit induction, orientation, excursion, career day, etc. during such programmes, it is expected that the students will participate to the fullest and benefit from such opportunities. However, while some attends, a good number of the students fail to attend. Even among the attendants, a good number of them fail to participate actively. This passiveness could be understood to mean that the students may not be interested in such programme. These phenomenon induce the researcher into choosing this topic as it is believed that the success of any programme in school lies on the students’ attitude towards such a programme. If this may be

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the true, what then is the attitude of secondary school students towards vocational and educational guidance in Ethiope East Local government area of Delta State? 1.3 Research Questions The following research questions shall guide the study: 1. Are students interested in orientation exercise in

secondary schools? 2. To what extent do students participate in study habit induction in secondary schools? 3. Do students take part in career day programme in secondary schools? 4. Do students participate in excursion in secondary

schools? 5. Do students participate in Old Students Association Day in secondary schools? 1.4 Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study is to determine the nature of the attitude of secondary school students towards vocational and
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educational guidance in Ethiope East local government area of delta state. The study will seek to investigate the following: 1. Students’ interest in orientation exercise in secondary schools 2. The extent of students’ participation in study habit induction in secondary schools 3. 4. Students’ participation in career day in secondary schools The students’ participation in excursion in secondary schools 5. The students participation in Old Students Association Day 1.5 Significance of the Study The study will be of a great benefit to parents, teachers, policy makers, school counsellors, educational administrators, local communities and school principals.

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The study will provide parents with useful information about their children in order to know how best to guild them through their life course. The study will also provide teachers with information about vocational and educational guidance. The study will equally provide vital information to policy makers on how best to formulate guidance and counselling policies. This study will provide school counsellors with useful information about the guidance programmes and on how best to provide educational and vocational guidance in order to sustain the interest of the students thereby enhancing their attitude towards vocational and educational guidance. The study will provide useful information to school

administrators about the usefulness of vocational and educational guidance in order to make adequate fund available for the funding of the guidance and counselling programme.

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Additionally, the study will help the local community to appreciate the contribution of guidance and counselling towards the development of the nation’s economy. Lastly, the study will enable school principals to be aware of their roles in the school guidance programmes so that they can assist the school counsellor in realizing the goals and objectives of the school guidance programme. 1.6 Scope/Delimitation of the Study The scope of the study covers the attitude of secondary school students towards vocational and educational guidance. The study is limited to 5 out of 24 secondary schools in Ethiope east local government area of Delta state. 1.7 Definition of Terms Attitude: this is the thought or feeling that makes individuals to act or behave as if they like or dislike something.

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Secondary School Students: These are individuals studying in a school meant for young people between the ages of 11 to 16 years. Vocational Guidance: This is the process of giving students some information about their abilities and the needs of the labour markets so as to enable them make appropriate decisions and occupational choices. Educational Guidance: This is the helping of persons to do better in their studies and to select courses and schools that will be fitted to their tastes and abilities. Local Government Area: This is an administrative division of a country that the third tier of government is responsible for.

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CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This chapter deals with review of existing related literature. The chapter will focus on the following sub-headings: 2.1. Definition of Attitude 2.2. Meaning of vocational guidance 2.3. Meaning of educational guidance 2.4. Students’ interest in orientation 2.5. Students’ participation in study habit induction 2.6. Students’ participation in career day 2.7. Students’ participation in excursion 2.8. Students Participation in Old Students’ Association Day 2.9. Summary of literature review

2.1 Definition of Attitude According to Ubom (2001), attitude is an individual’s perception and reaction to a task which is expected to be carried

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out or executed in a group, institutions, school setting or an organization. To Zana and Raphael (1988), attitude is a

disposition to respond favourably or unfavourably toward some person, thing, event, place, idea, or situation. In other words, attitudes are the thoughts and feelings that encourage someone to act as if eh/she likes or dislikes something. Anastasi (1990) gave a similar definition when he defined attitude as a tendency to react favourably or unfavourably toward a designated class of stimuli. Croon (1996) defined attitude as a learned disposition to respond to people, objects or institution in a positive or negative way. According to him, most attitudes have a belief component, an emotional component and an action component. He went further to explain that the belief component consists of when a person think or believe about the object of the attitude, the emotional component also consists of one’s feelings towards the object of the attitude while the action component is how one tend to act towards the object of the attitude. Coon (1996) also opined that attitudes are learned through reaction with others holding the same attitude.
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Vaidya (1989) explained attitude as condition of readiness for a certain type of activity. Attitudes held by the individuals may be simple or complex, stable or unstable, temporary or permanent and superficial or fundamental. Judgments based upon insufficient facts are likely to yield wrong results thereby develop biased attitudes. To Crow & Crow (1979), a child’s attitude towards his work affects his worthwhilenes in his activity. To him, a child should not be permitted to do completely as he wishes. He should be stimulated toward desirable activity through the arousal of interest in worthwhile projects. Constructive, objective attitudes encouraged during childhood serve well during adolescence. 2.2 Meaning of Vocational Guidance Vocational guidance as an aspect of the guidance

programme is concerned with the giving of information to individuals concerning their vocations. This information could include available job opportunities, method of application; they should also be assisted to acquire the skills they need in order to

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cope with the different circumstances they may encounter later on in life. According to Egbule (2002) vocational guidance is the process of assisting the individuals to choose or select an occupation, prepare for it, enter into it and progress in it. The UNESCO Module on guidance and counselling (2000) defined vocational guidance as a process for helping individuals to choose an occupation, Prepare for it, enter it and develop in it. Vocational happiness requires that a person’s interests, aptitudes and personality, be suitable for his/her work. It plays its part by providing individuals with an understanding of the world of work and essential human needs, and familiarizing individuals with such terms as ‘the dignity of labour’ and ‘work value’. Super (1957) in Egbule (2002) sees vocational guidance as the process of helping a person to develop and accept an integrated and adequate picture of himself and his role in the world of work; to test this concept against reality and to convert
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it into reality, with satisfaction to himself, and benefits to the society. The provision of vocational guidance in our educational institutions has been necessitated by great changes in our society and the world at large, and has become more complex than ever before. According to the UNESCO Module (2000), Automation and recession, for example, have forced many people into early retirement and retrenchment, resulting in unemployment. The rate of technological changes and the isolation of young people from possibilities for employment, according to them have created problems in occupational choices. According to Adebowale (2011), information about jobs, qualifications, requirement, remuneration, hazards, working tie, training, opportunities, age factors, condition of service and the general working environment should have been made available to salvage the students from moving from one job to the other without fulfilment. He also said that the students’ problem in the area of educational, vocational, personal/social can be easily solved if only the individual students can open up, ready to be helped and participate fully in solving the problem at hand.
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According to Crites (1969), vocational guidance is a process or programme of assistance of assistance designed to aid the individual in choosing and adjusting to a vocation. According to Wikipedia (2008), vocational guidance is the process of helping a person to develop and accept an integrated and adequate picture of himself and of his role in the world of work. It has a specific goal; it assists individuals to find satisfying, interesting and realistic roles in the environment. Vocational guidance is the process of helping individuals to know

themselves; their interest values; and abilities and the world of work and its needs to be able to reach a mature career decision. Vocational guidance refers to the services that assist individuals of any age and at any point throughout their lives, to manage educational, training and occupational choices and to manage their careers. It includes services provided to those who have not entered the labour forces services to job seekers and services to

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those who are employed. It includes a wide range of activities like: Activities within schools to help students clarify, career goals, understand the world of work and develop career management skills. Individual and group guidance to assist with decisions about initial course of vocational training, further

education and training, initial job choices, job change or work force re-entry. The organised and systematic use of community members such as employers to provide occupational and educational advice and information. Vocational guidance refers to expert (science based)

assistance ad support with the aim to help individuals: Explore, analyse and develop the factors constituting their self-concept (interests, personal qualities and

characteristics, values, skills, etc). Explore, evaluate, process and classify information and alternative education and vocation pathways with respect
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both to their needs and choice and to labour market requirements. Integrate information with about education derived from and self-

vocation/career

information

observation so that they develop to decision-making capabilities both with respect to their orientation in

education and choices in occupation(s) befitting their particular psychosocial make up. Create and implement their own educational and

vocational plans. Ultimately, the individuals will be able to make the correct choices with respect to their future occupation/vocation and thus be (re)included into active life. Vocational guidance activities target individuals who are: About to make a choice with respect to their education and vocation. In search of new fields of study/training

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Already employed but dissatisfied with their current occupation, hence in search of new areas of training and professional development. Unemployed or have lost their jobs for whatever reason and wish to resume employment and threatened with social exclusion owing to personal circumstances or misfortune. In conclusion vocational guidance helps individuals to acquire knowledge in the following areas: self awareness, exploration of the world of work and mature decision making Self awareness: this is the process of gathering information about the interests, abilities and values. The counsellor under this situation helps the student or client to answer such questions as: what kind of person am I? What type of work do/would I enjoy doing? What are my interests and abilities? What kind of skills do I poses? How can I take a decision regarding my future career? How can you know yourself? Identifying skills that are highly motivated.

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World of Work Exploration: this involves gathering information about the different careers that might fit your interests, values and abilities. It helps you find answers to the following questions; What kind of education or training is required in each? What are the pros and cons of each job you think of? What are the working conditions in the different types of careers? How does a certain career look like? What are the job requirements? What is the financial output? Mature Decision Making: this is the process of exploring the different alternatives, narrowing down the possibilities and then choosing the right alternatives to ensure a mature career decision. Since the emergence of Frank Parson’s Vocational Bureau at Boston, USA in 1908, several techniques have been devised to provide vocational services to individuals both within and outside the school setting. In the Nigerian secondary school system the
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following techniques are used by school counsellors in providing vocational services to students. Career Conference: according to Ipaye (1993), during career conferences or career week as the case may be, representatives of various occupations give presentation of their impressions about their occupations. Makinde (1988) said at such meetings, professionals deliberate on what they do, the advantages of their occupation, requirements and qualification for entry, method of entry, remunerations and the likes. Continuing, Makinde said that students use the opportunity of career conferences to acquire first hand information about various occupations and ask questions which helps them to facilitate their decision making about jobs. Old Students Association: According to Ipaye (1986) old students of the school are invited to present to current students information about their career education. Ipaye (1986) is of the opinion that old students’ association day provides opportunities for the present students to gain inspiration from the past students. This consequently serves as motivation as well as

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guidelines to the present students to prepare themselves for worthwhile occupational and educational plans. Parents Conference: according to Akinboye (1987) these are conferences convened between teachers, counsellors and

parents. Such meetings provide opportunitie4s for parents and teachers or counsellors to work together in planning suitable educational and occupational future for the students. The highlights of the National Policy on Education (2004) states In view of the apparent ignorance of many young people about career prospects and in view of personality adjustments among school children, career officers and counsellors will be appointed in post-primary institutions and tertiary levels. Vocational guidance is a life long process for many

individuals at various stages of their life. At such states, individuals reconsider and re-diagnose their capabilities and match them against the opportunities available. In this ways
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according to UNESCO Module (2000), vocational guidance is aimed at helping students to make not only specific choices but also good decisions. The need for vocational guidance According to Egbule (2002), vocational guidance within the school setting is necessary for the following reasons: I. To help students understand themselves in terms of their abilities, aptitudes and interest II. To provide students with a broader views about the world of work III. To enhance student awareness of the various options opened to them and give them confidence that they can make a reasonable choice between the various options IV. To develop in the students the concept of variety of roles in the society V. To develop the spirit of job satisfaction and motivation as well as self-actualization in the students after a choice of career ahs been made.
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2.3 The Meaning of Educational Guidance Educational guidance is an aspect of guidance services which focuses on helping students resolves problems relating to their education. Quoting Isaken and Mink (1963), Olayinka (1978) claims that educational guidance involved these experiences, which assist each individual to understand himself, accept others and live effectively in his society. According to him, educational guidance is designed to help each student adjust to his environment, develop the ability to set realistic educational goals for him and improve his total educational opportunities. According to Egbule (2002), educational guidance is assistance given to pupils which enable them to function well in the school. According to Egbochukwu (2008), educational guidance is essential in the counselling service, guiding young people to pursue the right type of education is necessary, while ensuring that the right balance is kept in order to meet the human resource needs of a nation. She further opined that secondary school, college and university students need valid and usable

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information that relate to their developmental and experience levels concerning all types of present and future educational opportunities and requirements for entrance and problems of student’s life. According to Peters and Farewell (1967) in Egbule (2002), educational guidance is the assistance given to pupils, individually and through group techniques to help them function more effectively in their school programmes. The Need for Educational Guidance Citing Shertzer and Stone (1976), Ipaye (1986), Iwuama (1991), Egbule in Okobiah and Okorodudu (2004) stated that the major purpose of educational guidance within the school system is to provide students with relevant education

information about: I. The school physical plant (i.e. the nature of the school system). II. III. Values of pursuing education Educational opportunities opened to the students at their level of development
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IV.

Requirement for furthering the education.

2.4 Students Interest in Orientation Exercise According to Taiwo (1999), students are ready to engage in orientation programme. Uban (2008) conducted a research on the attitude of secondary school students towards guidance and counselling services in Yakurr local government area of Cross River State and came out with the findings that students are not interested in orientation as a guidance service. According to him, sex of the students and the geographical location of the school had no significant influence on the students’ interest in

orientation programme. According to Egbule (1993) students take part in orientation programme which familiarise them with the goals and objectives of the school and also to learn the process of work performance. Moris et al (1976) stated that orientation programme is a technique of educational service designed and organised to help students in the school system to adjust to their new environment through group procedure.
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2.5 Students’ Participation in Study Habit Induction The UNESCO Module on guidance and counselling (2000) stated that a number of students fail their examinations, or fail to deal with educational activities, because they lack effective study skills and habits. They spend a considerable amount of time playing, and only a small fraction of their time on productive or school activities. According to Eyo, Joshua and Esuong (2010), students in secondary schools irrespective of sex and geographical location participate in study habit induction organize by the guidance counsellor. Their research shows 85% participation in study habit induction among the students. Also Okeke (2001) noted that students rarely ever participate in study habit induction nor visit the counsellor concerning their academic problems. Taiwo (1999) who noted that students engage more in educational guidance counselling than other counselling services provided in schools. According to him, students are ready to be engaged in counselling activities such as orientation programme
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and excursion/field trips more than other educational counselling activities such as study habit induction and academic counselling. Ipaye 91992) opined that students are interested in

educational services as it help to facilitate their adjustment to the school environment. Egbule (2001) is of the view that students are interested in educational guidance activities especially the fresh entrants. According to him, educational guidance services can be provided to students through variety of activities such as academic counselling, organising orientation or induction, college assembly, college day conferences and undertaking excursion to educational institution. 2.6 Students Participation in Career Day Programme Studies carried out by Galassi, Grace, Martin, James and Walace (1992) Swanson (1995) have shown at different times the extent of students’ participation in vocational guidance activities. Swanson (1995) Swanson and Pacover (1998) in their studies revealed that American high school students are highly involved in vocational guidance activities to the extent that some students
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now

turn

to

private

guidance

counsellors

specialized

in

career/vocational activities at a cost. In their individual studies, they revealed that students have positive attitude towards vocational guidance activities since they are now aware of the great importance attached to their future vocations. Walter (1992) opined that students participate keenly in vocational guidance activities owing to its usefulness to their disciplines. According to Makinde (1992), students are interested in vocational guidance activities as it helps to facilitate their understanding in career development, help them become aware of many occupations available for exploitation. 2.7 Student’s Participation in Excursion Howard (1997) argued that the predisposition to take part in excursion depend on the level of school. According to him, most senior high school students participate in excursion as it relates to vocational concerns, however, for junior high school students; there was a significant decline in the frequency with which they participate in excursion. These could be as a result of the fact
46

that those in the junior high school have no vocational aspiration at this stage of schooling. In a study carried out by Taiwo (1999), only few schools in Ondo state engage their students in vocational guidance

activities. And in those schools where there are guidance counselling activities few students are actively involved or engage the services of the guidance counsellor. In a similar study carried out by Okeke (2001), students in Anambra State as the findings of the study reveals have a positive attitude towards vocational guidance activities. According to Okeke (2001), students in some of the sampled schools are actively involved in vocational activities such as excursion or field trips to factories/companies, tertiary institution, career conference and so on. Ibrahim (1998) in his study found out that students in government schools do not actively participate in vocational guidance activities unlike their fellow students in private schools who most of the times go on excursions.

47

Odeck (1990) is of the view that students are interested in vocational guidance activities because it helps them to identify their strengths and weaknesses in relation to specific vocations, occupations, or jobs and make appropriate choice. Having been exposed to vocational guidance activities, students will be able to evaluate themselves and choose vocations that match their interests, abilities and aptitude. 2.8 Students Participation in Old Students Association Day According to Ipaye (1986) old students of the school are invited to present to current students information about their career education. Ipaye (1986) is of the opinion that Old Students’ Association Day provides opportunities for the present students to gain inspiration from the past students. This consequently serves as motivation as well as guidelines to the present students to prepare themselves for worthwhile

occupational and educational plans. According to Germeijs and Verchueren (2001), students in secondary school express willingness
48

to

participate

in

old

students’ association day. Stookey (2004) pointed out that majority of the students express interest in Old Students’ Association Day. According to Gare (2007), students in secondary grammar school are reluctant when it comes to old students’ association day. 2.9 Summary of Literature Review Many authors gave different definition of educational and vocational guidance and all of them agreed that both are aspects of the entire guidance programme. While educational guidance is concerned with the process of helping students resolve their educational problems, vocational guidance is concerned with the process of giving information to the students on issues relating to their career prospects. The meaning of attitude was discussed in this chapter. Also the students’ interest in orientation exercise and the students’ participation in study habit induction was discussed. Thereafter, the students’ participation in career day programme, students’

49

participation in excursion as well as students’ participation in Old Students Association Day was discussed.

50

CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHOD AND PROCEDURE This chapter deals with the following sub-topics: 3.1.Research design 3.2.Population 3.3.Sample and sampling techniques 3.4.Research instrument 3.5.Validity of the instrument 3.6.Method of Data collection 3.7.Method of Data analysis 3.1. RESEARCH DESIGN This study is designed to investigate the attitude of secondary school students toward vocational and educational guidance in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State. For the purpose of the study, a survey method was adopted.

51

3.2. Population The population of this study comprise all the senior secondary school students in Ethiope East Local Area of Delta State. 3.3. Sample/Sampling Techniques For the purpose of the study, the researcher randomly selected five (5) out of the 24 Government secondary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State. The schools used comprised the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Baptist High School II, Eku Erho Secondary School II, Erho Ovu Grammar School Ovu Uruoka Secondary School II, Uruoka Abraka Grammar School II, Abraka

Of the five schools, 20 SS II students from each school were selected to make up 100 students for the study. The sampling technique adopted for the study is the simple random sampling.

52

3.4. Research Instrument A self-structured questionnaire of 10 items was used for data collection. The instrument consist of two sections; section A dealt with respondent’s Bio-data, while section B dealt with respondent’s view on the items in question. In section B, items were structured using the four-point response rating scale, ranging from four (4) for strongly agree, to one (1) for strongly disagree. 3.5. Validity of the Instrument To ensure the validity of the instrument, the draft of the instrument was submitted to the research supervisor who criticized and made amendments for modification. The

modification was effected before the final draft was prepared. 3.6. Method of Data Collection The instrument was administered personally by the

researcher after approval by the research supervisor. The completed copies were retrieved from the respondents

53

immediately. One hundred (100) copies of questionnaire were administered and one hundred (100) copies were returned showing one hundred percent (100%) retrieval rate. 3.7. Method of Data Analysis To analyze the data collected, the simple percentage was used to analyze the questionnaire that has been administered. Formula for the simple percentage is F N X 100% Where % = percentage F = frequency of response N = total number of respondents

54

CHAPTER FOUR PRESENTATION OF RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS This chapter focus on the analysis, presentation and

discussion of results. 4.1 Research Question One:

Are students interested in orientation exercise in secondary schools? Table 4.1: Percentage analysis of the interest of students in orientation
S/N ITEMS SA A D SD 1 In my school, new students take part in 24% 45% 16% 15% orientation programme organized by the guidance counsellor 2 Students who are transferred from other 18% 31% 18% 33% schools actively participate in orientation programme organized by the guidance programme

The table 4.1 above shows that in item 1, 69% of the respondents agreed that in their school, new students take part in
55

orientation programme organized by the guidance counsellor while 31% disagreed. On item 2, 49% agreed that Students who are transferred from other schools actively participate in

orientation programme organized by the guidance programme while 51% disagreed with the statement. From the above analysis, many students are interested in orientation exercise. 4.2 Research Question Two:

To what extent do students participate in study habit induction in secondary schools? Table 4.2: Percentage analysis of the extent of students participation in study habit induction S/N ITEMS 1 Many students participate in study habit induction programme organized in my school by the guidance counsellor 2 Many students attend the lecture on “methods of studying and taking notes” given by the
56

SA A D SD 27% 44% 16% 13%

26% 41% 16% 17%

3

guidance counsellor I visit the counsellor for academic problems

25% 34% 14% 27%

The above table 4.2 shows that in item 1, 71% of the respondents agreed to the statement that many students participate in study habit induction programme organized in their school by the guidance counsellor while 29% disagreed. On item 2, 67% agreed that many students attend the lecture on “methods of studying and taking notes” given by the guidance counsellor while 33% disagreed. On item 3, 59% of the students agreed that they visit the counsellor for academic problems while 41% disagreed. One can therefore conclude that students participate in study habit induction to a large extent. 4.3 Research Question Three:

Do students take part in career day programme in secondary schools?

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Table 4.3: Analysis of students’ participation in career day programme
S/N 1 ITEMS A good number of students are interested in college day activities organized by the school counsellor I take part in career day programme organized in my school by the guidance counsellor SA 19% A 47% D 20% SD 14%

3

26%

36%

24%

14%

The table 4.3 above revealed that in item 1, 66% of the respondents agreed to the assertion that a good number of students are interested in college day activities organized by the school counsellor while 34% disagreed with the assertion. In item2, 66% agreed to the statement that when the school counsellor organized old students’ association day, many students attend while 34% disagreed. In item 3, 62% of the respondents agreed that they take part in career day programme organized in their school by the guidance counsellor while 38% disagreed. The analysis above shows that a good number of students take part in career day.

58

4.4

Research Question Four:

Do students participate in excursion in secondary schools? Table 4.4: Percentage analysis of students’ visit to the counsellor and participation in excursion S/N ITEMS SA A D SD 1 I visit my school counsellor for 16% 34% 34% 16% vocational counselling 2 I participate in excursion organized 19% 30% 24% 27% in my school by the guidance counsellor

The above table 4.4 revealed that in item 1, 50% of the respondents agreed that they visit the counsellor for vocational counselling while 50% disagreed. In item 2, 49% agreed with the statement that they participate in excursion organized in their school by the guidance counsellor while 51% disagreed. From the analysis above, some students visit the school counsellor and some also participate in excursion exercise.

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4.5 Research Question Five: Do students participate in old Students Association Day in secondary schools? Table 4.5: Percentage analysis of students participation in old students association day. S/N ITEM 1 When the school counsellor organized old students’ association day, many students attend SA A D SD 22% 44% 17% 17%

Table 4.5 shows that 66% of the respondents agreed to the statement that when the school counsellor organized old

students’ association day, many students attend while 34% disagreed. Many students participate in Old Students Association Day from the above analysis.

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4.6 Research Findings From the data analysed above, the following findings were obtained: 1. That many students are interested in orientation exercise in secondary schools. 2. That students participate in study habit induction to a large extent in secondary schools. 3. 4. That many students take part in career day That some students visit the school counsellor and some also participate in excursion 5. That many students participate in Old Students

Association Day in secondary schools. 4.7 Discussion of Findings The first finding revealed that many students are interested in orientation exercise. This finding is in agreement with Taiwo (1999) who stated that students are ready to engage in orientation programme. However, the study is in contrast to Uban (2008) who conducted a research on the attitude of secondary
61

school students towards guidance and counselling services in Yakurr local government area of Cross River State and came out with the findings that students are not interested in orientation as a guidance service. The second finding revealed that students participate in study habit induction to a large extent. This finding is in agreement with Eyo, Joshua and Esuong (2010) assertion that students in secondary schools irrespective of sex and

geographical location participate in study habit induction organize by the guidance counsellor. Their research shows 85%

participation in study habit induction among the students. This finding however disagrees with Okeke (2001) who noted that students rarely ever participate in study habit induction nor visit the counsellor concerning their academic problems. The third finding shows that a good number of students take part in career day. This finding is in agreement with studies carried out by Swanson (1995) Swanson and Pacover (1998) which revealed that American high school students are highly

62

involved in vocational guidance activities to the extent that some students now turn to private guidance counsellors specialized in career/vocational activities at a cost. In their individual studies, they revealed that students have positive attitude towards vocational guidance activities since they are now aware of the great importance attached to their future vocations. The study also confirms Walter’s (1992) opinion that students participate keenly in vocational guidance activities owing to its usefulness to their disciplines. It also support Makinde’s (1992) statement that students are interested in vocational guidance activities as it helps to facilitate their understanding in career development, help them become aware of many occupations available for

exploitation. The fourth finding revealed that some students visit the school counsellor and some also participate in excursion. This finding support Ibrahim’s (1998) findings which revealed that students in government schools do not actively participate in vocational guidance activities unlike their fellow students in private schools who most of the times go on excursions.
63

However, the finding is in contrast with the study by Okeke (2001) which revealed students in Anambra State have a positive attitude towards vocational guidance activities. According to Okeke (2001), students in some of the sampled schools are actively involved in vocational activities such as excursion or field trips to factories/companies, tertiary institution, career

conference and so on. The finding also counters Odeck’s (1990) view that students are interested in vocational guidance activities because it helps them to identify their strengths and weaknesses in relation to specific vocations, occupations, or jobs and make appropriate choice. The fifth finding revealed that many students participate in Old Students Association Day.

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CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 Summary This study investigated the Attitude of secondary school students towards vocational and educational guidance in Ethiope East Local Government area of Delta State. The study sought to find answers to the following research questions: 1. Are students interested in orientation exercise in

secondary schools? 2. To what extent do students participate in study habit induction in secondary schools? 3. Do students take part in career day programme in secondary schools? 4. Do students participate in excursion in secondary

schools? 5. Do students participate in old students association day in secondary schools?

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Chapter two of the study attempted a review of the related literatures. A self-structured questionnaire was used for data collection while the simple percentage method of data analysis was used to analyse the administered questionnaire. The instrument used for the study was questionnaire made up of one hundred (100) copies administered to one hundred respondents from five selected schools used as sample for the study. The simple percentage method was used to analyse the data retrieved. The findings of the study revealed the following: 1. That many students are interested in orientation exercise in secondary schools. 2. That students participate in study habit induction to a large extent in secondary schools. 3. 4. That many students take part in career day That some students visit the school counsellor and some also participate in excursion

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5.

That

many

students

participate

in

Old

Students

Association Day in secondary schools. 5.2 Conclusion From the data analysed, it can be concluded that: 1. That many students are interested in orientation exercise in secondary schools. 2. That students participate in study habit induction to a large extent in secondary schools. 3. 4. That many students take part in career day That some students visit the school counsellor and some also participate in excursion 5. That many students participate in Old Students

Association Day in secondary schools. 5.3 Limitations of the study During the course of this research work, I was confronted with some problems which militated against a thorough

investigation. Finance was a major constraint as the research mandated my travelling from my location to the location of the
67

school, also, the procurement of materials for the study was another constraint put forward by lack of finance. Again as an undergraduate student, the work load do not leave much time for a wider research. Finally, there was difficulty in locating materials for the research. 5.4 Contribution to Knowledge In as much as a lot of research has been done on the attitude of secondary school students towards vocational and educational guidance, no research has actually been carried out on the attitude of secondary school students towards Old Students Association Day. 5.5 Recommendations From the foregoing, the following recommendations can be made: 1. Guidance counsellors should organise orientation to the students on regular bases

68

2.

Professionals from all works of life should be invited by the counsellor to cater for the career needs of many more students.

3.

Seminar

and

enlightenment

campaign

should

be

organised by the guidance counsellor to enlighten the students on the importance of excursion and the need to visit the counsellor. 4. That many students should be engaged in old students’ association day 5.6 Suggestion for Further Studies During the process of administration of instrument, the researcher was confronted with certain issues that is worthy of investigation. Hence, the researcher suggests the following: 1. A study should be carried out on the attitude of school principals towards guidance and counselling services 2. A study should be carried out on the counselling needs of the secondary school students as perceived by the students
69

3.

Also, since this study was carried out in a section of the country, the researcher strongly suggests that similar studies should be carried out to find the attitude of secondary school students towards educational and

vocational guidance in other Local Government areas in the state and in the country generally.

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REFERENCES Adebowale, T. A.(2011). Restructuring the Nigerian state for sustainable development: the value challenge life: Ife, ifepsychologia. Akpochafo, G. O. (2011). Interdisciplinary Research as a panacea for sustainable development in Nigeria: Implication for Counselling. Journal of International Research. Vol. 2 (3) pp. 931-934. Available online @

http://www.interesjournals.org/ese. Andrew, E. F. (2004). Promoting Positive Attitude Change. International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity. Vol. 8 No. 1 pp. 1-15. Asaf, N., Athar, H., Muhammad, A. & Airr, Z. (2010). An Analysis of Guidance services for secondary school students in Pakistan. International Journal of Academic Research. Vol. 2 No 5. Pp. 389-395. Egbochukwu, E. O. (2008). Assessment of the Quality of Guidance and Counselling
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Services

to

Students’

Adjustment in Secondary Schools in Edo State of Nigeria. Research Journal of International Studies. Issue 8 pp. 6 (49). Egbochukwu, E. O., Alika, I. H. (2010). Remedy to the

Inadequate Representation of Guidance and Counselling in the National Policy on Education. Edo Journal of counselling. Vol. 3 No 1. Pp. 16-27. Egbule, J. F. (2002). Principles and Practice of Guidance and Counselling. Owerri: Whyte and Whyte Publishers. Eyo, M. B,m Joshua, A. M. & Essuong, A. E. (2010). Attitude of Secondary School Students towards Guidance and

Counselling Services in Cross Rivers State. Edo Journal of Counselling. Vol. 3. No 1. Pp. 87-99. Galassi, J. P., Crace, R. K., Martins, G. A., James, R. M. & Wallace, R. L. (1992). Client Preferences and Anticipated in Career Counselling: A preliminary Studies. Journal of Counselling Psychology. Vol.39, pp. 46-55.

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Iwuama, B. C. (1991). Foundations of Guidance and Counsellin. Benin City: Supreme Ideas Publishers Int. Ltd. Johnson, H. N. (1977). A Survey of Students attitude towards Counselling at a Predominantly Black University. Journal of Counselling Psychology. Vol. 24 (2). Pp. 162-164. National Policy on Education (2004). Federal Ministry of

Education. Lagos. Ogbodo, R. O. (2010). Effective Study Habit in Educational Sector: Counselling Implication. Edo Journal of

Counselling. Vol. 3. No. 2. Pp. 229-239. Okeke, M. C. (2001). Perception of Students towards Guidance and Counselling Activities in Secondary Schools in

Anambra State. Unpublished Masters Degree dissertation, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Okobiah, O. C. & Okorodudu, R. I. (2002). Issues, Concepts, Theories and Techniques of Guidance and Counselling. Benin City: Ethiope Publishing Corporation.

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Okocha,

M.

(2009).

Parental

Attitude

towards

Vocational

Education: Implication for Counselling. Edo Journal of Counselling. Vol. 2. No. 1. Pp. 81-89. Regis, C. (2006). An Assessment of the Effectiveness of School Guidance and Counselling Services in Zimbabwean

Secondary School: Unpublished PhD Theses. Swanson, J. L. & Parcover, J. A. (1998). Annual Receiver, practice and Research in Career Counselling and Development. The Career Development Quarterly. Vol. 47(2). Pp. 98135. Taiwo, C. M. (1999). Guidance and Counselling Activities in Ogun State Secondary Schools. Unpublished B.Sc (Ed) Project. University of Benin. UNESCO (2010:a). Guidance (Module 1). France: Agzi

communication. Wikipedia (2007). Career Counselling. Available @

http://en:wikipedia.org/wiki/career-counselling

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APPENDIX DEPARTMENT OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING, DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY, P.M.B. 1, ABRAKA, DELTA STATE. 26TH October, 2011 Dear Respondent, QUESTIONNAIRE INTRODUCTION The research work investigates the attitude of secondary school students towards vocational and educational guidance in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State. In this regard, your responses to this questionnaire will go a long way towards ensuring the success of this research work. I assure you that your response will be kept confidential and used for this study only. Thanks for your anticipated co-operation.

Yours Faithfully,

JESSA OMOKINIOVO MORRISON

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SECTION A RESPONDENT’S BIO-DATA School:_________________________________________ Class: SSS1 Sex: Male SSS 2 Female SSS3

INSTRUCTION Please read the item carefully and tick appropriate to your opinion. KEYS: SA- Strongly Agree (4) A- Agree (3) D- Disagree (2) SD- Strongly Disagree (1)

√ the item that is more

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SECTION B ITEMS S/N ITEMS SA A D SD 1 In my school, new students take part in orientation programme organized by the guidance counsellor 2 Students who are transferred from other schools actively participate in orientation programme organized by the guidance programme 3 Many students participate in study habit induction programme organized in my school by the guidance counsellor 4 A good number of students are interested in college day activities organized by the school counsellor 5 Many students attend the lecture on “methods of studying and taking notes” given by the guidance counsellor 6 I visit the counsellor for academic problems 7 When the school counsellor organized old students’ association day, many students attend 8 I visit my school counsellor for vocational counselling 9 I take part in career day programme organized in my school by the guidance counsellor 10 I participate in excursion organized in my school by the guidance counsellor

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