Expression of DNA through RNA

Transcription and translation of DNA

Central Dogma

DNA  RNA  amino acids  proteins

Proteins
• If DNA does not ever leave the nucleus and proteins are made in cytoplasm… • How do cells make proteins? • Why do cells need proteins?

Protein review
• Composed of C, H, N and sometimes Sulfur. • Made of amino acids. • Only 20 amino acids are found in nearly all living cells. • Amino acids are linked together to form proteins just like words join together to form sentences.

Why are proteins needed?
• • • • • Immune system Muscles move bones Cell membranes Enzymes Human Genome project: human beings make between 30,000 and 90,000 different proteins.

Ribonucleic acid
• A cell uses RNA to get DNA code • RNA is like DNA in that it is made of nucleotides. • Ribose is the five carbon sugar. • Difference is that it is a single strand and smaller • RNA can move outside the nucleus.

RNA acts like an intermediary
• RNA is smaller so it can move into the cell where it’s sequence can be decoded • Three types of RNA
– Messenger RNA (mRNA) – Ribosomal RNA (rRNA – Transfer RNA (tRNA)

Transcription
process of transferring information from DNA to RNA. occurs in the nucleus
1. RNA Polymerase “unzip” the DNA 2. Sequence of nucleotides from one strand of DNA is transcribed into a new RNA molecule 3. Single strand of RNA moves into cytoplasm 4. RNA molecule is used to make proteins

Ribosomes & Translation
• The ribosome is a tiny structure which allows the cell to decode RNA • Decoding= Translation • Code= codon (3 nucleotides) which corresponds to an amino acid • Ribosomes “read” the code to build the amino acid chain.

tRNA
• Each tRNA carries an amino acid • As each codon of the mRNA molecule moves through the ribosome, the corresponding amino acid is brought into the ribosome by the tRNA. • Each tRNA molecule has three unpaired bases (anticodons)which are complimentary to mRNA codons

Online resources
• Transcription animation • RNA and DNA animation

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