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Introduction This report contains information about the ingested Doses Received by the nearby Population after the Chernobyl reactor accident. First, the report contains analysis of the accident that includes, summery of the events and the consequences of the accident. It summarizes the release of the radionuclides, dispersion, and disposition of radionuclides and behavior of the deposited radionuclides. In addition, it covers the reaction of the authorities and their management of the crises, which includes the evaluation of the catastrophe, evacuation and the way they measure the contamination. Second, it introduces some universal information about the Iodine and cesium, methods of dosimetry, unites of exposure and dose. Third, it covers the ingestion doses received by the nearby Population after the Chernobyl accident, by dividing the population into four categories according to their role during and after the accident and their geographic residence. While searching for report I found different point of views, for this, in order to provide valued information; it may contain only reasonable and documented reports.
Ingestion Doses Received by the nearby Population after the Chernobyl Accident
Content Introduction 12The reactor and the accident Consequences of the accident: The release of radionuclides, dispersion, deposition, and behavior of radionuclides 3456Reactions of authorities and management of the crises Facts about Iodine 131I and Cesium Methods of measuring dosimetry Ingested dose A BC D7-Conclusion 8- Work cited The liquidators The evacuees from the 30-km zone People living in the contaminated areas Populations outside the former Soviet Union
Ingestion Doses Received by the nearby Population after the Chernobyl Accident 1-The reactor and the accident Reactor number 4 Reactor no. 4 of Chernobyl is RBMK-1000 design; this kind of reactor is a light-watercooled graphite-moderated reactor. The neutrons released by the fission of uranium-235 nuclei are moderated by graphite to maintain a chain reaction. Graphite is crystalline carbon used in very pure form as moderator. A mixture of nitrogen and helium is circulated between the graphite blocks to prevent oxidation of the graphite and to improve the transmission of the heat produced by neutron interactions in the graphite from the moderator to the fuel channel. The heat produced by the nuclear fission in this type of reactor is used to boil water to generate the steam that drives the turbines of the power station. Western nuclear experts have criticized this type of reactor for tow reasons 1) it lacks a containment structure and 2) it requires large quantities of graphite within its core. The accident A test procedure was planned to produce sufficient energy to keep the coolant pumps running in case of a loss of power until the emergency diesel generator was activated. The safety systems were intentionally switched off to allow running the experiment. The test requires the reactor to be powered down to 25 %of its capacity but for unknown reasons, the reactor power level fell to less than 1 %. The power therefore had to be slowly increased to reach 25%. However, within 30 seconds after the start of the test,
there was an unexpected power surge resulted in halting the reactor’s emergency shutdown which, within fractions of a second, the power level and temperature rose up to very high level and the reactor went out of control. A violent explosion smashed the 1000-tonne sealing cap on the reactor building. The fuel rods melted due to high temperatures of 2000°C, Then the graphite covering of the reactor blasts into flames. The radioactive fission products released during the core meltdown were sent up into the atmosphere. Consequences of the accident The release of radionuclides There was controversy about the amount of radionuclide released. The estimate of the released “source term” which means “accidental release of radioactive material from a nuclear facility to the environment” was modified over the years due to different studies and methods of measurements. The radiation released in the initial explosion Rose to an altitude of (0.9 to 4.7) miles and went in two directions; east and southeast, whereas the radiation released from the resulting fire stayed below 1.5 kilometers and headed northwest (William R.) The release of radionuclide lasted for more than a week. The composition and characteristics of the radioactive material in the cloud changed during its passage due to many factors such as: wet and dry deposition, decay, chemical transformations, and alterations in particle size. Changes in direction and strength of wind, rainfall, altitude, and the long duration of emission resulted in asymmetrical and irregular deposition of source term over a large area. The release of radioactive material to the atmosphere consisted of 1) gases such as xenon, which escaped completely, and 2) aerosols such as cesium and tellurium and light
fragmented fuel. Around 50 to 60% of the core inventory of iodine was released, which was about 1760Bq, the total release of 137Cs was estimated to be 70 petabecquerel (PBq). Low-level radiation release toke place in the following week and for up to 6 weeks after the accident.
I and 137Cs are the most important radionuclides to concern about, because they are the
main source of exposure to the public. HalfNuclide life 33Xe 131I 134Cs 137Cs 132Te 5.3 d 8.0 d 2.0 y 30.0 y 78.0 h 6 500 3 200 180 280 2 700 100 50 - 60 20 - 40 20 - 40 25 - 60 6500 ~1760 ~54 ~85 ~1150 Activity (PBq) Percent of inventory Activity (PBq)
Current estimate of main radionuclide releases during the Chernobyl accident (modified From NEA) Dispersion and deposition Radioactive contamination of the ground was found in every country of the northern hemisphere. Deposition of radioactive particles depended highly on the dispersion parameters, the particle sizes, and the event of rainfall. The largest particles, which were primarily fuel particles, were deposited within 100 km of the reactor. Smaller particle were carried by the wind to remote distances and were deposit primarily with rainfall.
Cs was selected to characterize the magnitude of the ground deposition for two reasons;
(1) it is easily measurable, and (2) it was the main contributor to the radiation doses received by the population once the short-lived 131I had decayed. However, during the
first weeks after the accident, most of the activity deposited on the ground consisted of short-lived radionuclides, of which 131I was the most important radio biologically. Large particles deposited in the near zone, contained fuel (U, Pu) refractory elements (Zr, Mo, Ce and Np) and intermediate elements (Ru, Ba, Sr). The volatile elements (I, Te and Cs) in the form of condensation-generated particles were more widely dispersed in the far zone. The most highly contaminated area was the 30-km zone surrounding the reactor, where 137Cs ground depositions generally exceeded 1 500 kBq/m2 ((Ba93). NEA) Most countries in Europe experienced some deposition of radionuclides, -mainly 137Cs and 134Cs-. 90Sr was mostly deposited in the near zone of the accident. The only area with plutonium (239Pu) exceeding 4-kBq m-2 was located within the 30-km zone. Behavior of deposited radionuclides The ingested dose is affected by the behavior of the radionuclide, for this, it is wise to look at the chemical and physical behavior and pathways of the radionuclide. Activities of deposited radionuclides in the environment depend on 1) the physical and chemical characteristics of the radionuclides and 2) on the size and shape of particles and 3) on the environment itself. For short-lived radionuclides, such as iodine isotopes (131I), the main pathway of exposure of humans is the direct transfer of the amount deposited on leafy vegetables that are consumed within a few days, or by indirect way through contaminated milk. Long-term behavior is not applicable for131I, since it has a short physical half-life of only 8 days.
Cs and 90Sr radionuclides are still contained in the upper soil layers and it needs10 to 25
years to be cleared from the soil. Contamination levels in soils decrease slowly, and mostly by transfer to plants. Most of the decrease in the coming years will be at only the
rate of the physical half-life of 137Cs. Forests can deliver large radiation doses through the direct consumption of berries, mushrooms and other consumable products, and through the industrial use of forest products. For example, migration of 137Cs in the forest podzolic soils is prominent and the industrial use of such forest is rising. Drinking water in the affected areas was weakly contaminated, less than 1Bq of 137Cs or 90Sr per liter Reactions of Authorities and their management of the crises The Chernobyl accident took authorities by surprise as regards to its size, duration, and far-reaching and wide spread contamination. As there were no guidelines for such an accident and there was no previous experience to deal with such accident. The social and psychological impacts of some official decisions on the public were not expected. Inconsistent interpretation or even misinterpretations of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations, especially for involvement levels for food led to inconsistent decisions and recommendations.. The extent of the tragedy was deteriorated by the incompetence of local administration and the lack of proper equipment. For example, most of the dosimeters in the reactor had limited sensitivity of 1mR/s.There were only two dosimeters with abilities to measure high exposure of 1000 R/s, even those tow were not ready for use, access to one of them was blocked by the explosion, and the other one broke when turned on. Thus, the reactor crew could only ascertain that the radiation levels in most of the reactor building were above 4000 R/h instead of measuring the true levels, which were up to 20,000 R/h. Measurement of the contamination The contamination measurement depends on the deposition of Caesium-137, which has a long half-life of 30 years. The contamination was measured by using the unit of activity
either in Curies (Ci) or Becquerel’s (Bq) square per kilometer. They use the Geiger counters to measure the contamination of the territories. The authorities estimate that a person will receive 1.millisievert per year (mSv) if the area is contaminated with 5 Ci/km2. Only when soil contamination is over 5 Ci/km2 are people likely to absorb more than 1 to 5 mSv per year.
The town of Pripyat was evacuated within the first 36 hours after the accident. Then the evacuation included all people in the 30-km zone around the reactor compound bringing the total evacuees to about 135 000.Decontamination procedures were performed by military personnel included the rinse of buildings, cleaning residential areas, removing contaminated soil, cleaning roads and decontaminating water supplies. Special attention was paid to schools, hospitals and other buildings used by large numbers of people. The watered the streets in towns to suppress dust. The authorities distributed stable iodine in an attempt to reduce thyroid doses to block radioactive uptake by the thyroid (Me92). The political and social tension in the Soviet Union at that time complicates decisionmaking; As a result, the Supreme Soviet did not adopt the NCRP proposal for lifetime dose of 350-mSv intervention level for the relocation of population groups (Il87). Later, a special Commission was established which developed new recommendations for intervention levels. These recommendations were based on the levels of ground contamination by the radionuclides 137Cs, 90Sr, and 239Pu. As has been mentioned above, large areas were
contaminated mainly by 137Cs and a ground contamination level by this radionuclide of 1 480 kBq/m2 was used as the intervention criterion for permanent resettlement of population, and a level of 555 to 1480 kBq/m2 for temporary relocation. (NEA)
Facts about Iodine 131I and Cesium Normal iodine content of the body is Normal iodine content of the thyroid id 11.0 mg 10.0 mg
Iodine is absorbed completely and rapidly from the digestive system. The thyroid takes up 0.3 of the amount in the blood stream. The biological half-life of iodine in the thyroid is 120 days. Then it leaves the thyroid as organic iodine, which distributed in the body with half-life of 12 days. The body excretes 0.1 of that amount and the rest goes back to the blood stream. 131I decays to 131Xe stable (Turner). 40-100 mCi may produce thyroid ablation (J.ringelstein). The usual adult dose of radioiodine to treat an overactive thyroid gland is 148 to 370 megabecquerels (4 to 10 millicurie). The usual amount of radioiodine to treat cancer of the thyroid is much larger, 1.1 to 7.4 gigabecquerels (30 to 200 millicurie). (Micromedex) Iodine is short-lived radionuclide, for this, its effects start in the first month of the accident. Thyroid abnormalities become detectable about four years after the accident, this fact stands against the previous thinking that thyroid cancer may be detectable 6-8 years after irradiation in the six most contaminated regions of the Russian Federation, the thyroid cancer incidence increased over time in adults. The incidence was 11 per 100 000 for women compared to 4 for the Russian Federation as a whole and 1.7 and 1.1
respectively for men. There have been 800 cases of thyroid caner in children (WNA). Cesium Normal content of the body of cesium is 1.5-mg. the digestive system rapidly absorbs Cesium compounds completely, 0.1 retained in one tissue with metabolic half-life is 2 days, and .9 retained in other tissue with metabolic half-life of 110 days. (Turner) Cesium137 is the second volatile fission product that is biologically active. Cesium is longlived radionuclide with half-life of 30 years, if it gets its way to the body it stays in the organs forever. Methods of measuring dosimetry 1- Biological dosimetry--or Biodosimetry--measures the effects of radiation exposure on biological organisms to quantify how an exposure is distributed within an organism when the exposure is known or, when the exposure is not known. Biodosimetry involves establishing a dose-response relationship or following the dose as it is distributed throughout an organism. Dose measurements can be made directly, such as by measuring the radiant energy emitted with a whole-body counter, or indirectly by measuring the dose's biological effects such as survival, birth defects, chromosomal abnormalities, chromosome breakage, and chemical changes. (William R.) 2-Physical dose estimate is a technique depends on Electron Spin resonance (ESR) for monitoring the presence of unpaired electrons in matter; Irradiation of substances by high-energy (ionizing) electromagnetic radiation produces these electrons, called free radical 3-Chromosome aberration technique Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH technique): This technique is used for the detection of target molecules with a system of coupled
antibodies and fluorochromes. Exposure and dose units To understand the relation between exposure and dose, this is a review of the units for exposure and dose. Dose Dose is the energy imparted or deposited in matter from any kind of radiation in any target. Depending on its application, it can be qualified as "absorbed dose", "equivalent dose" and "effective dose Absorbed dose is a quantity of energy imparted by radiation to a unit mass of matter such as tissue. Grays (Gy) is the unit of absorbed dose, where one gray produces a different intensity of biological effects on tissue depending on the type of radiation (alpha, beta, gamma, neutrons). Roentgen (R) is the unit of exposure. Roentgen is the unit to measure gamma or x radiation. Exposure is measured in free air. The old unit for absorbed dose was RAD, One rad= 100 erg per gram. The new unit is Gray (Gy) =One joule per kilogram =100 rad, or 1 rad=1centigray. One milligray (mGy) =10-3 Gy. In air, 1 R produce a dose = 8.8(10-3) J/kg or Gy that =0.88 rad. In soft tissue 1 R produce a dose=9.5(10-3) Gy=0.95 rad. Turner (p348-350) Dose Equivalent (H), (H=DQ) Is defined as the product of the absorbed dose (D) and a quality factor Q which depends on the linear energy transfer (LET), This factor, whose value varies between 1 and 20 depending on the type of radiation. The unit of Dose equivalent is seivert (Sv) used with Gray. The older unit REM (roentgen-equivalent-man)
was related to rad. One seivert produces the same biological effect, irrespective of the type of radiation. 1 seivert=100 rem, Milliseivert (mSv) = 10-3 Sv, Microseivert (µSv) = 10-6Sv Effective dose: Effective dose is the Sum of the "equivalent doses" to the various organs and tissues multiplied by weighting factors reflecting the differing sensitivities of organs and tissues to radiation. The weighting factor for each organ or tissue expresses the fractional contribution of the risk of death or serious genetic defect from irradiation of that organ or tissue to the total risk from uniform irradiation of the whole body. Seivert (Sv). Is the unit of effective dose. Collective dose Total dose over a population group exposed to a given source. It represents the product of the average dose to the individuals in the group by the number of persons comprising the group. Person-seivert (person-Sv).is used to measure collective dose. Activity is the Spontaneous nuclear transformation or radioactive decay. Becquerel (Bq) is the unit of activity, where 1 Bq equals one nuclear transformation or disintegration per second. Since one Becquerel is small, unit it is helpful to know the multiples of the Becquerel (Bq) which are Exabecquerel (EBq) = 1018 Bq mega Becquerel (MBq) = 106 Bq Bq tera Becquerel (TBq) 1012Bq Ingested Dose giga Becquerel (GBq) = 109 Bq Petabecquerel (PBq) = 1015 kilo Becquerel (kBq) = 103 Bq
Studying the Ingestion Doses Received by the nearby Population after the Chernobyl Accident needs us to study the events lead to these doses, the effects of these doses, and what we need to do to avoid such accidents in the future. The “nearby Population” is a term needs to be clarified, for physical accidents, nearby means population that has direct contact to the accidents, in contrast, in nuclear accidents; the nearby area means a large area, which may extend far beyond the geographical location of “Chernobyl.” Nearby population means millions of people who may ingest any quantity of radiation, for example, the helicopter pilots who were in the sky throwing materials to cover the reactor received some radiation. In general, around 8,400,000 people in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia were exposed to the radiation. About 155,000 sq. km of territories in the three countries were contaminated. Agricultural areas covering nearly 52,000 sq. km were contaminated with cesium-137 and strontium-90, with 30-year and 28-year half-lives respectively. The exposure of the population because of the accident took two main pathways. The first is the radiation dose to the thyroid because of the concentration of iodine in the gland. The second is the whole-body dose caused largely by external irradiation mainly from cesium. The authorities and scientists divided the contaminated areas into different categories according to the level of contamination. 1-The first area was the nuclear complex itself; the worst and most contaminated of the radioactive debris was accumulated inside the remaining of the reactor. The reactor itself was covered with bags with sand, lead, and boric acid thrown off helicopters (around 5,000 tons during the week following the accident). A large concrete sarcophagus was rapidly erected to seal off the reactor and its contents. The people who were exposed to
radiation in this area are the staff workers and the liquidators. This group can be divided into two groups 1- the first group was the people who were on the site of the reactor on the night of the accident, this group includes the workers and the first responders to extinguish the fire. These people were exposed with doses of several grays 2-The second group was the people who were sent to liquidate the site, they worked at the site, in towns, forests, and agricultural areas to clean these areas from radioactivity. 1-a) About 400 workers on the night of accident were on the site of the Chernobyl power plant. They were subjected to the combined effect of radiation from several sources: (1) external gamma/beta radiation from the radioactive cloud, the fragments of the damaged reactor core scattered over the site and the radioactive particles deposited on the skin, and (2) inhalation of radioactive particles. (UN88) All of the dosimeters worn by the workers were over-exposed and did not allow an estimate of the doses received. Most of these were fire and rescue workers trying to bring the accident under control, who were not fully aware of how dangerous the radiation exposure. However, information is available on the doses received by the 237 persons who were hospitalized and diagnosed as suffering from acute radiation syndrome; the following estimation was a result of the biological dosimetry: 1)140 of these patients received whole-body doses from external irradiation in the range 1-2 Sv,2) 55people received doses between 2 and 4 Sv, 3) 21people received between 4 and 6 Sv, and 4) The remaining 21 people received doses between 6 and 16 Sv. In addition, it was estimated from thyroid measurements that the thyroid dose from inhalation would range up to about 20 Gy, with 173 individuals in the 0-1.2 Gy range and
seven workers with thyroid doses greater than 11 Gy (UN88). Internal exposure of those workers was mainly due to 131I and shorter-lived radionuclide, the median value of the ratio of the internal thyroid dose to the external effective dose was estimated to be 0.3 Gy per Sv. The doses resulting from intakes of other radionuclides were estimated to about 30 mSv for the early months following the accident and 85 mSv for committed dose (UN00). People dose Death results 140 1-2 Sv 0 55 2-4 Sv 1 21 4-6 Sv 7 21 6-16 Sv 20
Immediate result Of these liquidators, 31 died (28 of them died from acute radiation exposure). Most of these were fire and rescue workers trying to bring the accident under control, who were not fully aware of how dangerous the radiation exposure. Eight patients received skin dose in the range of 400-500 Gy. The eight patients had acute radiation syndrome from beta exposure b- The second group of liquidator was around 400,000 people. These people were involved in clean-up operations at the reactor and within the 30-km zone surrounding the reactor over the following years. The workers were all adults mostly males aged 20-45 years For this group, doses were estimated from area radiation measurements, fortunately, The registry data show that the average recorded doses in the three national registries of the contaminated areas decreased from year to year, being about 170 mSv in 1986, 130 mSv
in 1987, 30 mSv in 1988 and 15 mSv in 1989 (Se95a). It is, however, difficult to assess the validity of the results as they have been reported since these statistics indicates that the dose is known for only 52% of workers for the period 1986-1989, and 45% for the first year, also these doses were reported more higher in previous reports. There was uncertainty about the doses because of the methods of estimates. for example, 1) many persons have falsely added their names to the list, even though they were not part of liquidation, or 2) the dosimeter was incorrectly used, the doses, however, estimated by physical dose estimate using electron spin resonance (ESR, found to be compatible with the Biological dosimetry, which was performed on limited number of workers. 2-Second category of the exposed population is the evacuees from the 30-km zone. The assessment of the doses received by the evacuees was retrospectively estimated by thirty thousand responses of the evacuees to questionnaires about the location where they stayed, the types of houses in which they lived, the consumption of stable iodine, and other activities (Li94). Those individuals were exposed to external irradiation from radioactive materials transported by the cloud and deposited on the ground, as well as to internal irradiation essentially due to the inhalation of radioactive materials in the cloud. The average effective dose from external irradiation was estimated to be 17 mSv, with individual values varying from 0.1 to 380 mSv (Li94). This estimate was coincide with the absorbed dose of 20 mGy estimated by Electron Spin resonance (ESR) measurements of sugar and exposure rate calculations (Na94). The absorbed dose for this group was classified into: 1-Thyroid dose, the evacuees were exposed to internal irradiation arising from 1) inhalation of contaminated air with radionuclides, especially 131I, during the first weeks and from, 2) Consumption of contaminated foodstuffs, mainly cow's milk. After
about one month, the cesium’s (134Cs and 137Cs) became predominant, and, after a few years, 137Cs became the only radionuclide of importance for practical purposes. Thyroid doses were estimated to have been, about one Gy for small children less than 3 years of age at the time of the accident, and about 70 mGy for adult. (NEA) 2-Whole-body doses The whole-body doses to the evacuees were mainly due to external exposure from deposited 132Te/132I, 134Cs and 137Cs and short-lived radionuclides in the air. Whole-body doses received from external irradiation prior to evacuation from the 30-km zone showed a large range of variation with an average value of 15 mGy. (Li94). In one methodology, the ingestion doses for selected areas within the 30 km were reconstructed by using many variables. The calculation was performed for milk and leafy vegetables and 137Cs. the dose varies according to the distance away from the site of accident. Doses of five selected areas are shown in this table (Conrad et al).
Area Janov Nova Krasnitsa Lelev Chistogalovka Chernobyl
Distan ce 4.5 18.2 9.8 7.2 15.2
Evacuati on day 3 8 8 7 7
Total dose 130 352 215 280 38
Extern al dose 9.5 23 23 70 6
Inhalation dose 92 150 8.5 120 20
Ingestion dose 25 180 180 91 12
3-Third category is those people, who were living outside the 30-km zone, This group can be divided into two groups: a) people who were living inside the former Soviet Union, About 270 000 people live in contaminated areas with long half-life radionuclide 137Cs deposition levels in excess of 555 kBq/m2. Of this group are wood industry workers and other workers living in wood houses received the highest doses. 1- The whole-body doses of the population in contaminated areas, was received through two pathways: the exposure to external irradiation from deposited radio nuclides (Iv95) and through the consumption of contaminated food with radio-cesium.2-Thyroid doses were due mainly to the consumption of milk contaminated with 131I and in some cases due to consumption of fresh contaminated food. Children have received the highest thyroid doses with a range from negligible levels up to 40 Gy and an average close to one Gy for children aged up to 7 years old. The whole-body doses for the 1986-1989-time period were estimated to range from 5.0 to 250 mGy with an average of 40 mGy. In utero thyroid doses were estimated through newborn in 1986and 1987. In a study in 19
250 children, born between may 1986 and February 1987 in Belarus, thyroid doses were estimated to range up to 4.3 Gy, with 135 children exposed to less than 0.3 Gy, 95 children between 0.3 and 1 Gy, and 20 children with doses greater than 1.Gy (Ig99). b) Populations who were living outside the former Soviet Union, The doses received by populations outside the former Soviet Union were relatively low, and showed large differences from one country to another depending mainly upon whether rainfall occurred during the passage of the radioactive cloud. The whole-body doses received during the first year following the accident generally ranged from 0.05 to 0.5 mGy in Europe, from 0.005 to 0.1 mGy in Asia, and of the order of 0.001 mGy in North America. (UN88).
* a small special group of 672 scientists have worked periodically inside the sarcophagus for a number of years have initially estimated accumulated whole-body doses in the range 0.5 to 13 Gy (Se95a). Recalculation of the ingested doses for 50 workers, showed that more than 20% of them received doses between 0.05 and 0.25 Sv and about 5% of them received doses between 0.25 and 1.5 Sv (Sh97) Additional analysis by mean of FISH technique for three of them resulted in doses 0.9, 2.0 and 2.7 Sv (Sh00)
Conclusion After the Chernobyl reactor accident, the population exposed to radiation from tow main sources, first, the external sources from deposited radionuclide, inhalation, and second, from radio-Cesium and Iodine that enters into the body through consumption of food. The population exposed to radiation following the Chernobyl accident was categorized into four categories: (1) The staff of the nuclear power plant and workers who participated in clean-up operations (referred to as "liquidators"). (2) The nearby residents who were evacuated from the 30-km zone during the first two weeks after the accident ;( referred as evacuees), (3) the residents of contaminated areas of the former Soviet Union, and (4) the population in countries outside the former Soviet Union. 1- The most exposed people were the firefighters and the plant staff during the first days of the accident. Most of the dose received by the workers resulted from external irradiation from the fuel fragments and radioactive particles deposited on various surfaces. Twenty-eight people of this group died from acute radiation syndrome. 2-Prior to evacuation, the evacuees were exposed to external irradiation from radioactive materials transported by the cloud and deposited on the ground, as well as to internal irradiation mainly due to the inhalation of radioactive materials in the air. 3-the residents of the contaminated areas, defined as those with 137Cs deposition levels greater than 37 kBq/m2.the doses received by the populations living in contaminated areas over the following years, have come essentially from external exposure due to 134Cs and 137Cs deposited on the soil and internal exposure due to contamination of food stuffs by these two isotopes. T132e and Iodine131 played a major role in the first week
after the accident, and then after one month, the radioactive cesium (134Cs and 137Cs) became the predominant source of radiation. 4-Populations outside the former Soviet Union received low doses and showed large variation over several countries.
Works Cited 1-(Ba93) M.I. Balonov, Overview of Doses to the Soviet Population from the Chernobyl Accident and the Protective Actions Applied, the Chernobyl Papers, 1:23-45, Ed. S.E. Merwin and M.I. Balonov, Research Enterprises, Richland, WA, 1993 2-(Ig99), S.A. Igumnov, The prospective investigation of a psychological development of children exposed to ionising radiation in utero as a result of the Chernobyl accident. Ph.D. Dissertation, 1999 3-(Iv95) N.P. Ivanova et al., Population Doses in Russia from Plutonium Fallout Following the Chernobyl Accident, Rad. Prot. Dosim, 58(4):255-260, 1995. 4-(Il87) L.A. Ilyin and A.O. Pavlovskij, Radiological Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident in the Soviet Union and Measures Taken to Mitigate Their Impact, IAEA Bulletin 4, 1987. 5-(J.ringelstein) Joes Ringelstein, presentation Blackboard, IIT03-03-06 6-Konrad et al (a new approach to assess the doses to the population in the 30 km-zone after the Chernobyl accident, www.irpa.net) 7-(Li94) Likhtarev et al., Retrospective Reconstruction of Individual and Collective External Gamma Doses of Population Evacuated after the Chernobyl Accident, Health Physics, 66(6): 611 8-(Me92) F.A. Mettler et al., Administration of Stable Iodine to the Population around
the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, J. Radiol. Prot., 12(3):159-165, 1992. 9-(Micromedex : http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/drug-information/DR20272143-652, 1994. 10-(Na94). Nakajima, Estimation of absorbed dose to evacuees at Pripyat city using Esr measurements of sugar and exposure rate calculations. Appl radiat. Isot. 45(1): 113-120 (1994). 11-(NEA) Nuclear Energy Agency,WWW.nea.fr/html/rp/chernobyl/c04.html 12-(Se95a) A.V. Sevan'kaev et al., Chromosomal Aberrations in Lymphocytes of Residents of Areas Contaminated by Radioactive Discharges from the Chernobyl Accident, Rad. Prot. Dosim., 58(4):247-254, 1995. 13- (Sh97), V.F. Shikalov, A.F. Usatiy, L.V. Kozlova et al. Medical and dosimetric database for the liquidators from the Kurchatov Institute, International Congress on the Sarcophagus, Slavutich, 1997, pp181-194. 14-(Sh00) V.A. Shevchenko et al, Reconstruction of radiation doses in population and radiation workers applying cytogenetic techniques. Proceedings of the International Conference on Radioactivity of Nuclear Blasts and Accidents, Moscow, 26 April 2000. 15-Turner, James E atoms, radiation, and radiation protection, 2nd ed 16 - (UN88) United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), Report to the United Nations, 1988 17 - (UN00) , United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. 24
2000, Report to the general Assembly, with Scientific Annexes. Volume II, Effects. 18-William Robison, Radiation dose assessment at Livermorehttp://www.llnl.gov/str/Robison22 19- (WNA) World Nuclear Associations 20-(WNO)www.world-nuclear.org/education/ne/ne6.html
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