User's Manual ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ RAR 4.01 console version ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=Welcome to the RAR Archiver!

-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= Introduction ~~~~~~~~~~~~ RAR is a powerful tool allowing you to manage and control archive files. Console RAR supports archives only in RAR format, the names of which usually have a ".rar" extension. ZIP and other formats are not supported. Windows users may install GUI RAR version - WinRAR, which is able to process many more archive types. RAR features include: * Highly sophisticated, original compression algorithm * Special compression algorithms optimized for text, audio, graphics data, 32 and 64-bit Intel executables * Better compression than similar tools, using 'solid' archiving * Authenticity verification (registered version only) * Self-extracting archives and volumes (SFX) * Ability to recover physically damaged archives * Locking, password, file order list, file security & more ... Configuration file ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ RAR for Unix reads configuration information from the file .rarrc in the user's home directory (stored in HOME environment variable) or in /etc directory. RAR for Windows reads configuration information from the file rar.ini, placed in the same directory as the rar.exe file. This file may contain the following string: switches=any RAR switches, separated by spaces For example: switches=-m5 -s Environment variable ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Default parameters may be added to the RAR command line by establishing an environment variable "RAR". For instance, in Unix following lines may be added to your profile: RAR='-s -md1024' export RAR

RAR will use this string as default parameters in the command line and will create "solid" archives with 1024 KB sliding dictionary size. RAR handles options with priority as following: command line switches switches in the RAR variable switches saved in configuration file Log file ~~~~~~~~ If the switch -ilog is specified in the command line or configuration file, RAR will write informational messages, concerning errors encountered while processing archives, into a log file. Read switch -ilog description for more details. The file order list for solid archiving - rarfiles.lst ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ rarfiles.lst contains a user-defined file list, which tells RAR the order in which to add files to a solid archive. It may contain file names, wildcards and special entry - $default. The default entry defines the place in order list for files not matched with other entries in this file. The comment character is ';'. In Windows this file should be placed in the same directory as RAR or in %APPDATA%\WinRAR directory, in Unix - to the user's home directory or in /etc. Tips to provide improved compression and speed of operation: - similar files should be grouped together in the archive; - frequently accessed files should be placed at the beginning. Normally masks placed nearer to the top of list have a higher priority, but there is an exception from this rule. If rarfiles.lst contains such two masks that all files matched by one mask are also matched by another, that mask which matches a smaller subset of file names will have higher priority regardless of its position in the list. For example, if you have *.cpp and f*.cpp masks, f*.cpp has a higher priority, so the position of 'filename.cpp' will be chosen according to 'f*.cpp', not '*.cpp'. RAR command line syntax ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Syntax RAR <command> [ -<switches> ] <archive> [ <@listfiles...> ] [ <files...> ] [ <path_to_extract\> ] Description Command line options (commands and switches) provide control of creating and managing archives with RAR. The command is a string (or a single letter) which commands RAR to perform a corresponding action. Switches are designed to modify the way RAR performs the action. Other highest priority lower priority lowest priority

parameters are archive name and files to be archived into or extracted from the archive. Listfiles are plain text files that contain names of files to process. File names should start at the first column. It is possible to put comments to the listfile after // characters. For example, you may create backup.lst containing the following strings: c:\work\doc\*.txt c:\work\image\*.bmp c:\work\misc and then run: rar a backup @backup.lst If you wish to read file names from stdin (standard input), specify the empty listfile name (just @). By default, Windows console RAR uses OEM (DOS) encoding in list files. but it can be redefined with -sc<charset>l switch. You may specify both usual file names and list files in the same command line. If neither files nor listfiles are specified, then *.* is implied and RAR will process all files In Unix you need to enclose RAR command line parameters containing wildcards in single or double quotes to prevent their expansion by Unix shell. For example, this command will extract *.asm files from all *.rar archives in current directory: rar e '*.rar' '*.asm' Command could be any of the following: a Add files to archive. Examples: 1) add all *.hlp files from the current directory to the archive help.rar: rar a help *.hlp 2) archive all files from the current directory and subdirectories to 362000 bytes size solid, self-extracting volumes and add the recovery record to each volume: rar a -r -v362 -s -sfx -rr save Because no file names are specified, all files (*) are assumed. 3) as a special exception, if directory name is specified as an argument and if directory name does not include file masks and trailing backslashes, the entire contents of the directory and all subdirectories will be added to the archive even if switch -r is not specified. The following command will add all files from the directory //backup text documents //backup pictures

because switch -r is not specified: rar a Pictures. Comment length is limited to 62000 bytes Examples: rar c distrib.Bitmaps and its subdirectories to the RAR archive Pictures. The following command will add all files from directory Bitmaps.rar: rar a Pictures. encrypt or decrypt archive data and it cannot merge or create volumes. -cu.txt dummy cf Add files comment. -tl. -cl. Example: rar cf bigarch *. The following command adds a comment from info. If output file name is not specified. File comments are displayed when the 'v' command is given. but not from its subdirectories.rar cw Write archive comment to specified file. It is not able to recompress.rar Also comments may be added from a file using -z[file] switch. If used without any switches.rar Bitmaps 4) if directory name includes file masks or trailing backslashes. Format of output file depends on -sc switch. comment data will be .rar Bitmaps\* c Add archive comment. File comment length is limited to 32767 bytes. It is especially convenient for switches like -av.txt file: rar c -zinfo.txt ch Change archive parameters. normal rules apply and you need to specify switch -r to process its subdirectories. 'ch' command just copies the archive data without modification. which do not have a dedicated command. Comments are displayed while the archive is being processed. This command can be used with most of archive modification switches to modify archive parameters. Example: Set archive time to latest file: rar ch -tl files.

use ANSI. Any command which intends to change the archive will be ignored. Updates those files changed since they were packed to the archive. Supports following optional parameters: i .txt Perform case sensitive search of "first level" string in *.sent to stdout. c . This command will not add new files to the archive. for example. it is possible to use the simplified command syntax i<string> instead of i=<string> It is allowed to specify 't' modifier with other parameters.txt 2) rar cw -scuc arc unicode. If no parameters are specified. Extract files to current directory. k Lock archive.txt 3) rar cw arc d Delete files from archive. Please note if the processing of this command results in removing all the files from the archive.rar archives on the disk c: 2) rar ih=f0e0aeaeab2d83e3a9 -r e:\texts Search for hex string f0 e0 ae ae ab 2d 83 e3 a9 in rar archives in e:\texts directory. e f i[i c h t]=<string> Find string in archives. .case insensitive search (default).txt files in *. Examples: 1) rar cw arc comment. Unicode and OEM character tables (Windows only). Examples: 1) rar "ic=first level" -r c:\*. h . Freshen files in archive. the empty archive would removed. t . ict=string performs case sensitive search using all mentioned above character tables.rar *.hexadecimal search.case sensitive search.

Optional technical information (host OS. m[f] Move to archive [files only]. While the recovery is in progress. Moving files and directories results in the files and directories being erased upon successful completion of the packing operation.Example: rar k final. which can be repaired only if recovery record is present. to recover undamaged files. called fixed. First. i. If the archive contains a recovery record and if the portion of the damaged data is continuous and less than N*512 bytes.rar. r Repair archive. Suspicious entry Name: <possibly filename> Size: <size> Packed: <compressed size> p . You may use this command together with -inul switch to disable all RAR messages and print only file data.arcname.b] List contents of archive [technical]. Modifier 'b' forces RAR to output only bare file names without any additional information. During this stage only the archive structure is reconstructed and it is impossible to recover files which fail the CRC validation.e. This stage is never efficient for archives with encrypted file headers. where N is number of recovery sectors placed into the archive. the chance of successful archive reconstruction is very high. Files are listed as with the 'v' command with the exception of the file path. When this stage has been completed. where 'arcname' is the original archive name. the damaged archive is searched for a recovery record (see 'rr' command). It may be important when you need to send a file to stdout for use in pipes. where 'arcname' is the original (damaged) archive name. If a broken archive does not contain a recovery record or if the archive is not completely recovered due to major damage. Print file to stdout. When the second stage is completed. it is still possible. however. RAR may prompt the user for assistance when a suspicious file is detected. the reconstructed archive will be saved as rebuilt. a second stage is performed.rar.arcname. Archive repairing is performed in two stages. Directories will not be removed if 'f' modifier is used and/or '-ed' switch is applied. which were inaccessible due to the broken archive structure.rar l[t. Mostly this is useful for non-solid archives. only the file name is displayed. solid flag and old version flag) is displayed when 't' modifier is used. a new archive will be created.

Optionally. 524288) or.rar rc Reconstruct missing and damaged volumes using recovery volumes (. rn Rename archived files. the following command: rar rn data. provided that the damage is not too severe.arcname. for example..6% of the total archive size of continuously damaged data. <srcnameN> <destnameN> For example. so you need to be careful to avoid duplicated names. rr[N] Add data recovery record.txt to readme. It is also possible to specify the recovery record size in .bak in the archive data.txt files to *. You need to specify any existing volume as the archive name. This will cause a small increase of the archive size and helps to recover archived files in case of disk failure or data losses of any other kind. because a wrong wildcard may corrupt all archived names.bak and info. it will be selected automatically according to the archive size: a size of the recovery information will be about 1% of the total archive size.rev files).rar readme. Example: rar r buggy.bak will rename all *. The command syntax is: rar rn <arcname> <srcname1> <destname1> .Add it: Yes/No/All Answer 'y' to add this entry to the file rebuilt. 2 .txt *..bak info.bak will rename readme. It is allowed to use wildcards in the source and destination names for simple name transformations like changing file extensions.txt to info.txt info. Such a command is potentially dangerous.part03. The number of sectors may be specified directly in the 'rr' command (N = 1. 'rar rc backup.txt readme. usually allowing the recovery of up to 0. A recovery record contains up to 524288 recovery sectors. It is especially important when using wildcards. RAR does not check if the destination file name is already present in the archive.rar. For example: rar rn data.bak.rar *.rar' Read 'rv' command description for information about recovery volumes.. if it is not specified by the user.rar. redundant information (recovery record) may be added to an archive.

If the number of . then each rr-sector helps to recover 512 bytes of damaged information. in such case the number of creating . The total number of usual and recovery volumes must not exceed 255.rev files will be equal to this percent taken from the total number of RAR volumes. You may also append a percent character to this parameter. which can be later used to reconstruct missing and damaged files in a volume set.rar RAR reconstructs missing and damaged volumes either when using 'rc' command or automatically. for example. Recovery algorithm uses data stored both in REV files and in RAR volumes to rebuild missing RAR volumes. reconstructing is impossible. For example.part01. when you posted a multivolume archive to a newsgroup and a part of subscribers did not receive some of the files. lock them. For example: rar rv15% data.rev files is less than the number of missing volumes. recovery process will fail. Each recovery volume is able to reconstruct one missing or damaged RAR volume. after creating REV files.percent to the archive size.rev files .bat or . you are able to reconstruct any 3 missing volumes. Just append the percent character to the command parameter. for example. For example: rar rr3% arcname Note that if you run this command from . Reposting recovery volumes instead of usual volumes may reduce the total number of files to repost. rv[N] Create recovery volumes (. So if you modify RAR volumes.part01. You may also use 'p' instead of '%'. because the command processor treats the single '%' character as the start of a batch file parameter. if it cannot locate the next volume and finds the required number of . The size of the recovery record may be approximately determined by the formula <archive size>/256 + <number of recovery sectors>*512 bytes. you need to use rr3%% instead of rr3%.rev files). This value may be lower in cases of multiple damage. if you have 30 volumes and 3 recovery volumes. This command makes sense only for multivolume archives and you need to specify the name of the first volume in the set as the archive name.rar This feature may be useful for backups or. so 'rr3p' will work too. If data is damaged continuously. The optional <N> parameter specifies a number of recovery volumes to create and must be less than the total number of RAR volumes in the set. Original RAR volumes must not be modified after creating recovery volumes. For example: rar rv3 data.cmd file.

exe. Optional technical information such as "Host OS". Files are listed using the format: full pathname. last update date and time.part03.bad before reconstruction.b] Verbosely list the contents of archive [technical]. attributes. volname. RAR creates a new archive without SFX module. writing nothing to the output stream.in the user's home directory.rar. Adds files not yet in the archive and updates files that have been changed since they were packed into the archive.rar will be renamed to volname.when unpacking. when 't' modifier is used. CRC.sfx should be placed in the same directory as the rar. starting with the current path: rar t -r * or for Unix: rar t -r '*' u Update files in archive. The archive is merged with a SFX module (using a module in file default. In the Windows version default. the original SFX archive is not deleted. This command performs a dummy file extraction. "Solid" flag is set if file uses the compression statistics from preceding files (see -s switch). "Host OS" shows the native operating system of RAR version used to create an archive.part03. compression ratio. t v[t. in order to validate the specified file(s). original and compressed size. in /usr/lib or /usr/local/lib. For example. s[name] Convert archive to SFX. compression method and minimum RAR version required to extract. file comment. "Solid" and "Old" flags is displayed. Original copies of damaged volumes are renamed to *.bad. in Unix .sfx or specified in the switch). Test archive files. sRemove SFX module from the already existing SFX archive. . "Old" flag means "Old file version" and indicates if it is the latest or old file version (see -ver switch for details). Examples: Test archives in current directory: rar t * or for Unix: rar t '*' User may test archives in all sub-directories.

To list the contents of all archive volumes. Append archive name to destination path.rar archive (bare file names mode) rar vb tutorial x Extract files with full path. Switches (used in conjunction with a command): -? Display help on commands and switches. Example: rar x -av.-StrangeName -ac Clear Archive attribute after compression or extraction (Windows version only). Example: add all files from the current directory to the solid archive '-StrangeName' RAR a -s -. The same as when none or an illegal command line option is entered.dime 10cents.-c. but this switch creates a separate directory for files unpacked from each archive. if either archive or file name starts from '-' character.Modifier 'b' forces RAR to output only bare file names without any additional information. Example: 1) list contents of system. -- -ad .lst rar vt system >techlist.lst 2) list contents of tutorial. It could be useful. Without '--' switch such a name would be treated as a switch. This option may be useful when unpacking a group of archives. AV check and comment show are disabled. By default RAR places files from all archives in the same directory. Stop switches scanning This switch tells to RAR that there are no more switches in the command line.txt extract specified file to current path. use an asterisk ('*') in place of the archive file extension or use the '-v' switch.rar archive (technical mode) and redirect output to file techlist.

be careful with -ag switch. All other characters are added to an archive name without changes. -ag[format] Generate archive name using the current date and time. etc. increments the archive number until generating a unique name.rar data\ RAR will create subdirectories below 'data' for every unpacking archive.) a week number (a week starts with Monday) day of week number (Monday is 1. Feb. Appends the current date string to an archive name when creating an archive. The format string may contain optional text enclosed in '{' and '}' characters. Useful for daily backups. For example. use WW for two digit week number or YYYY to define four digit year. Format of the appending string is defined by the optional "format" parameter or by "YYYYMMDDHHMMSS" if this parameter is absent.Example: rar x -ad *. so a date will precede an archive name. Sunday . The format string may include the following characters: Y M MMM W A D E H M S N year month month name as text string (Jan. positions of the date string and base archive name are exchanged. If the first character in the format string is '+'. If you need to update an already existing archive. Examples: 1) use the default YYYYMMDDHHMMSS format . Depending on the format string and time passed since previous -ag use. RAR searches for already existing archive with generated name and if found. In this case RAR will create a new archive instead of updating the already existing.7) day of month day of year hours minutes (treated as minutes if encountered after hours) seconds archive number. Each of format string characters listed above represents only one character added to archive name. This text is inserted into archive name. 'N' format character is not supported when creating volumes. generated and existing archive names may mismatch.

* -as Synchronize archive contents .user. -ao Add files with Archive attribute set (Windows version only).txt' to the directory 'DOCS\ENG' of archive 'release'. in Unix . if you wish to add the file 'readme. hidden and read-only attributes. system. place date before 'backup' rar a -ag+YYYYMMDDHHMM backup 4) use YYYY-WW-A format. This switch preserves attributes assigned by operating system to a newly created file. and others file permissions. include fields description rar a -agYYYY{year}-WW{week}-A{wday} backup 5) use YYYYMMDD and the archive number. This path is merged to file names when adding files to an archive and removed from file names when extracting. RAR does not set general file attributes stored in archive to extracted files.rar a -ag backup 2) use DD-MMM-YY format rar a -agDD-MMM-YY backup 3) use YYYYMMDDHHMM format. Example: add all disk C: files with Archive attribute set to the 'f:backup' and clear files Archive attribute rar a -r -ac -ao f:backup c:\*. For example. If this switch is used when extracting.txt or to extract 'ENG' to the current directory: rar x -apDOCS release DOCS\ENG\*. group.* -ap Set path inside archive. It allows to generate unique names even when YYYYMMDD format mask used more than once in the same day rar a -agYYYYMMDD-NN backup -ai Ignore file attributes. In Windows it affects archive. you may run: rar a -apDOCS\ENG release readme.

containing authenticity verification. Please contact your local distribution site or the world-wide distribution center. -av-cfg-cl -cu Disable authenticity verification checking or adding. If an archive.rar' will contain only *. Ignore configuration file and RAR environment variable. message 'FAILED' will be displayed. Avoid it in situations. the program must be registered. RAR will put. but with one important exception: if no files are modified since the last backup. In the case of successful authenticity verification. information concerning the creator.. RAR will perform integrity validation and display the message: Verifying authenticity information .. in every new and updated archive. testing. will be deleted from the archive. all other files will be deleted from the archive. In the case of authenticity verification failure.cpp files from directory 'sources'. last update time and archive name.If this switch is used when archiving. like a special archive comment. creator name and last update information will be displayed. We recommend to use this RAR feature as informational only. -av Put authenticity verification (registered versions only). Convert file names to lower case. RAR authenticity verification can be forged and does not provide the same level of security as modern digital signature schemes based on public key infrastructure. . In order to enable the authenticity verification feature. It is convenient to use this switch in combination with -u (update) to synchronize contents of an archive and an archiving directory.cpp the archive 'backup. listing or updating an archive with the '-av' switch. after the command: rar a -u -as backup sources\*. is being modified and this switch is not specified. those archived files which are not present in the list of the currently added files. message 'Ok'. Convert file names to upper case. It looks similar to creating a new archive. the operation is performed much faster than the creation of a new archive. For example. When extracting. the authenticity verification information will be removed. when accurate information about archive creator is important.

because it allows to archive a file. so use it carefully. This switch helps if an application allowed read access to file. -dr Delete files to Recycle Bin Delete files after archiving and place them to Recycle Bin. Wipe files after archiving Delete files after archiving. -ee Do not process extended attributes Disables saving and restoring extended file attributes. but if all types of file access are prohibited. If -ed is used with 'm' command or -df switch. RAR creates non-empty directories basing on paths of files contained in them. Before deleting file data are overwritten by zero bytes to prevent recovery of deleted files. -ds -dw Do not sort files while adding to a solid archive. so use this switch only if you do not need to preserve such information. etc. . -ed Do not add empty directories This switch indicates that directory records are not to be stored in the created archive.) will be lost as well. streams. When extracting such archives. which at the same time is modified by another application. -dh Open shared files Allows to process files opened by other applications for writing. This option could be dangerous.-c-df Disable comments show. RAR will not remove empty directories. All attributes of non-empty directories except a name (access rights. Available in Windows version only. Delete files after archiving Move files to archive. Information about empty directories is lost. This switch in combination with the command "A" performs the same action as the command "M". Only for OS/2 versions. the file open operation will still fail.

Windows version only. It allows to skip external data like digital signatures safely. For example. Drive separators (colons) are replaced by underscore characters.-en Do not add "end of archive" block By default. it will be ignored. -ep1 -ep2 Expand paths to full. if an archive is transferred between two systems via an unreliable link and at the same time a sender adds new files to it. but the path in archived names will not include 'tmp\' rar a -ep1 -r test tmp\* This is equivalent to the commands: cd tmp rar a -r . it may be important to be sure that the already received file part will not be modified on the other end between transfer sessions. If you use -ep3 when extracting. Example: all files and directories from the directory tmp will be added to the archive 'test'. Do not store the path entered in the command line. It also converts UNC paths from \\server\share to __server\share when archiving and restores them to the original state when extracting. result in multiple files existing in the archive with the same name. This switch stores full file paths including the drive letter if used when archiving. -ep3 . This switch cannot be used with volumes. If the user also specified a destination path.\test cd . This could. Store full file paths (except a drive letter and leading path separator) when archiving. but in some special cases it may be useful to disable this feature. because the end of archive block contains information important for correct volume processing. -ep Exclude paths from names. RAR adds an "end of archive" block to the end of a new or updated archive. This switch enables files to be added to an archive without including the path information. Exclude base dir from names. it will change underscores back to colons and create unpacked files in their original directories and disks... of course. Expand paths to full including the drive letter.

In other words. H. Unix version supports D and V symbols to define directory and device attributes. If '+' sign is present. file would not be processed. you may run: rar a -ep3 -r backup. <attr> is a number in the decimal. it specifies the include mask. use it if you have created an archive yourself or completely trust its author. -e[+]<attr> Specifies file exclude or include attributes mask. A and R instead of a digital mask to denote directories and files with system. This switch allows to overwrite any file in any location on your computer including important system files and should normally be used only for the purpose of backup and restore. So if result of bitwise AND between <attr> and file attributes is nonzero. For example.rar to restore it. hidden. Examples: 1) archive only directory names without their contents rar a -r -e+d dirs 2) do not compress system and hidden files: rar a -esh files 3) do not extract read-only files: rar x -er files . this switch defines the exclude mask. without '+' sign before <attr>. S. archive and read-only attributes. It is allowed to specify both -e<attr> and -e+<attr> in the same command line. But be cautious and use -ep3 only if you are sure that extracting archive does not contain any malicious files. octal (with leading '0') or hex (with leading '0x') format.rar c:\ d:\ e:\ to create backup and: rar x -ep3 backup.This switch can help to backup several disks to the same archive. By default. Only those files which have at least one attribute specified in the mask will be processed. In Windows version is also possible to use symbols D. The order in which the attributes are given is not significant.

-ieml[. If you append a dot character to -ieml.d. but switch -p encrypts only file data and leaves other information like file names visible. In the latter case you will be asked for it by your email program. This switch encrypts all sensitive archive areas including file data. You may enter a destination email address directly in the switch or leave it blank. you switch '-f' with the commands 'm' or 'mf'. then only replaced with new versions extracted from the -hp[p] Encrypt both file data and headers. Example: rar a -hpfGzq5yKw secret report. Windows version only. Switch -idc disables the copyright string. Switch -idd disables "Done" string at the end of operation. It is allowed to use several modifiers at once.txt to the encrypted archive secret. sizes. so only error messages and questions are displayed. Switch -idq turns on the quiet mode.p. Attach an archive created or updated by the add command to email message.][addr] Send archive by email. every volume is attached to a separate email message. an archive will be deleted after it was successfully attached to an email. "a -f" is equivalent to the command 'f'.txt will add the file report. You need to have a MAPI compliant email client to use this switch (most modern email programs support MAPI interface). Without a password it is impossible to view even the list of files in archive encrypted with -hp. If the switch is used when creating a multivolume archive.rar using the password 'fGzq5yKw' -id[c. .-f Freshen files. so switch -idcdp is correct. be used with archive extraction or creation. May The command string could also use the the switch '-f' is old files would be archive. attributes. file names. If used with the commands 'x' or 'e'. Switch -idp disables the percentage indicator. comments and other blocks. This switch is similar to -p[p]. It is possible to specify several addresses separated by commas or semicolons. so it provides a higher security level.q] Disable messages.

RAR. the log file is created using the following defaults: Unix: . RAR uses -m3 method . Example: rar a -ilogc:\log\backup. Turn PC off after completing an operation. but slower) use best compression method (slightly more compressive.-ierr Send all messages to stderr. The switch -kb specifies that files with CRC errors should not be deleted.log file. -inul -ioff Disable all messages.log backup d:\docs will create c:\log\backup.log log file in case of errors. Lock archive. Write error messages to rar. by default. but slowest) -isnd -k -kb If this switch is not specified.rarlog file in the user's home directory. Keep broken extracted files. Windows version only. -m<n> -m0 -m1 -m2 -m3 -m4 -m5 Set compression method: store fastest fast normal good best do not compress file when adding to archive use fastest method (less compressive) use fast compression method use normal (default) compression method use good compression method (more compressive. If optional 'name' parameter is not specified. If 'name' parameter includes a file name without path. -ilog[name] Log errors to file (registered version only). Include both path and name to 'name' parameter if you wish to change the location of log file. Any command which intends to change the archive will be ignored. Enable sound. The hardware must support the power off feature.log file in %APPDATA%\WinRAR directory. deletes files with CRC errors after extraction. Windows: rar. RAR will create the log file in default directory from the list above using the specified name.

'-' disables the module at all. In the real environment it is usually better to allow RAR to select optimal parameters automatically. Audio compression. advanced algorithms like audio and true color processing are enabled only in -m3. RAR will choose modules automatically. By default. It may have the following values: A C D E I T audio compression.. true color (RGB) data compression. which has to be configured. It has the following syntax: -mc[param1][:param2][module][+ or -] where <module> is the one character field denoting a part of the compression algorithm. <Param1> and <Param2> are module dependent parameters described below. two 16-bit audio channels are considered by RAR as four channels one byte each.-m5 modes. 32-bit x86 executables compression. If no sign is specified. Switch -mc. This default can be overridden using -mc switch. 32-bit x86 Intel executables compression. <Param2> is ignored. RAR uses only the general compression algorithm in -m1 and -m2 methods. '+' sign at the end of switch applies the selected algorithm module to all processed data.(normal compression). for example. 64-bit Intel Itanium executables compression. RAR splits multibyte channels to bytes.disables all optional modules and allows only the general compression algorithm. -mc<par> Set advanced compression parameters. delta compression: <Param1> is a number of byte channels (can be 1 . so use it only if you clearly understand what you do. This switch is intended mainly for benchmarking and experiments. delta compression.-m5..31). true color (RGB) data compression: . based on data and the current compression method. 64-bit Intel Itanium executables compression. the advanced text compression is activated only in -m4. Please note that improper use of this switch may lead to very serious performance and compression loss. text compression.

It helps to reduce memory requirements without decreasing compression. but leaves to RAR to decide when to use it. In case of lack of memory the result may be negative. 'b'. but only if enough memory is available to PPM. other people may have problems when decompressing it on a computer with less memory installed. -md<n> Select dictionary size <n> in KB. then increasing the dictionary size will generally increase compression ratio. 3) switch -mc12t sets the text compression order to 12. when the text compression is used. Higher order values decrease both compression and decompression speed. Examples: 1) switch -mc1a+ forces use of 8-bit mono audio compression for all data. sets the compression order to 10 and allocates 40 MB memory. Example: RAR a -s -mdd sources *.asm or . 'c'. but note that PPM uses the equal memory size both to compress and decompress. 128. 'f'. Decompression will be still possible using virtual memory. RAR can reduce the dictionary size if it is significantly larger than the size of the source data. 'e'.disable text and delta compression. 1024. 'd'. 'g' respectively. Default sliding dictionary size is 4096 KB. 4) switches -mct. 2) switch -mc10:40t+ forces use of text compression algorithm for all data.<Param1> and <Param2> are ignored.-mcd. Usually a higher value slightly increases the compression ratio of redundant data. 512. Higher values may increase the compression ratio. but it may become very slow. Text compression: <Param1> is the order of PPM algorithm (can be 2 . Must be 64. 256. If the size of the file being compressed (or the total files size in the case of a solid archive) is greater than the dictionary size.63). <Param2> is memory in megabytes allocated for PPM (1-128). 2048 or 4096 or a letter 'a'. The sliding dictionary is a special memory area used by the compression algorithm. decrease packing speed and increase memory requirements. so if you allocate too much memory when creating an archive.

It can help to reduce the command line length sometimes. Wildcards may be used both in the name and file parts of file mask. It is an additional filter limiting processed files only to those matching the include mask specified in -n switch.asm Will create a solid archive using a 512 KB dictionary. If <list> is not specified. -ms[list] Specify file types to store. z.zip. so archives created with different -mt switches will not be exactly the same even if all other compression settings are equal. cab.RAR a -s -md512 sources *. It is also allowed to specify wildcard file masks in the list.*. lzh. RAR will use the multithreaded version of compression algorithm providing higher speed on multiprocessor architectures. gz. lha. Available in Windows version only. arj. jpg. ace. This switch does not replace usual file masks.zip. -msrar. mp3. bz2. RAR will use the single threaded compression algorithm. -n<f> Include only the specified file <f>. tgz. jpeg.*. which includes the following file types: 7z. Optional <list> parameter defines the list of file extensions separated by semicolons. It defines the recommended number of active threads for compression algorithm.jpg will work too. If -mt switch is not specified. If <threads> is zero. Real number of active threads can differ from the specified. which helps to increase archiving speed without noticeable loss in the compression ratio. zip -mt<threads> Set the number of threads. which will be stored without compression. This switch may be used to store already compressed files. For example.rar. rar. taz. Change of <threads> parameter slightly affects the compression ratio. -ms switch will use the default set of extensions. so -ms*. If it is greater than 0. . You may specify the switch '-n' several times.jpg will force RAR to store without compression all RAR and ZIP archives and JPG images. Specify file types. which still need to be entered in the command line. <threads> parameter can take values from 0 to 16. RAR will try to detect the number of available processors and select the optimal number of threads automatically.

-or -os . but reads include masks from the list file. If you use RAR to backup your NTFS disks. which use streams to keep some file dependent information like file descriptions. It is especially important in Windows 2000.txt -n*.lst text Project Info -n@<lf> Include files listed in the specified list file. file permissions and audit information. RAR saves Compressed file attributes when creating an archive. but does not restore them unless -oc switch is specified.For example. Unix RAR version saves file owner and group when using this switch. Windows version only. If you use -n@ without the list file name parameter.txt' is the original file name and 'N' is a number starting from 1 and incrementing if file exists. XP and newer. Windows version only.txt and *.lst or using the switch -n: rar a -r -n*.lst Info\*.txt text Project Info -oc Set NTFS Compressed attribute. where 'filename. Save NTFS streams. Windows version stores owner. but only if you have necessary privileges to read them. if you need to compress all *.txt Info\*. Renamed file will get the name like 'filename(N).txt'.txt Project\*. Similar to -n<f> switch.lst files in directories Project and Info. Note that only NTFS file system supports file based security under Windows. This switch has meaning only for NTFS file system and allows to save alternative data streams associated with a file. Unix version only. it will read file names from stdin. Rename extracted files automatically if file with the same name already exists. -ol Save symbolic links as the link instead of the file. Example: rar a -r -n@inclist. it is recommended to specify this switch. group. This switch allows to restore NTFS Compressed attribute when extracting files. -ow Use this switch when archiving to save file security information and when extracting to restore it. you can enter: rar a -r text Project\*.

c. t. -p-r Do not query password Recurse subdirectories.arc c:\ . Following command: rar a -r.prohibits it. l. x. Overwrite all (default for updating archived files). -r- Disable recursion. v. May be used with commands: a. v. e. Example: rar a -pmyhoney secret1 *. Encrypt files with the string <p> as password while archiving. t.txt add files *. e. l. When used with the commands x. Can be used both when extracting and updating archived files. When used with the commands 'a'. Also RAR automatically enables the recursion if disk root without wildcards is specified as a file mask. Switch -rdisables such behavior. 'f'. For example: rar a -r. Following modes are available: -o -o+ -o-p[p] Ask before overwrite (default for extracting files).-o[+ -] Set the overwrite mode. cf or s will process all archives in sub-directories as well as the current working directory. p.arc dirname command will add only the empty 'dirname' directory and ignore its contents. m. cf and s. The password is case-sensitive. c. Even without -r switch RAR can enable the recursion automatically in some situations. If you specify a directory name when archiving and if such name does not include wildcards. Skip existing files. p.txt and encrypt them with password "myhoney". 'u'. by default RAR adds the directory contents even if switch -r is not specified. Switch -r. If you omit the password on the command line. u. you will be prompted with message "Enter password". f. 'm' will process files in all sub-directories as well as the current working directory.

rarfiles.lst. . This switch is used when creating or modifying an archive to add a data recovery record to the archive. starting with the current directory. Solid archiving significantly increases compression. Sleep time <s> is a value from 0 to 1000 (milliseconds). Non-zero <s> may be useful if you need to reduce system load even more than can be achieved with <p> parameter. 'f'. <p> equal to 1 sets the lowest possible priority. Usually files in a solid archive are sorted by extension. which include wildcard characters '*' and '?' -ri<p>[:<s>] Set priority and sleep time. recursing all directories. similar files. lower damage resistance. 15 . which treats several or all files. when adding a large number of small. Available only in RAR for Windows. But it also has a few important disadvantages: slower updating of existing solid archives.15. -r0 Similar to -r. A solid archive is an archive packed by a special compression method. slower access to individual files.the highest possible. 'm' will recurse subdirectories only for those names. RAR uses the default task priority. Example: execute RAR with default priority and 10 ms sleep time: rar a -ri0:10 backup *.* -rr[N] Add a data recovery record. See the 'rv[N]' command description for details. 'u'. If <p> is 0.rar with 512 KB dictionary. within the archive. But it is possible to disable sorting with -ds switch or set an alternative file order using a special file. but when used with the commands 'a'. Example: create solid archive sources. This is a period of time that RAR gives back to the system after every read or write operation while compressing or extracting. as one continuous data stream. -rv[N] Create recovery volumes. This switch regulates system load by RAR in multitasking environment.will compress contents of root c: directory only and will not recurse into subdirectories. This switch is used when creating a multivolume archive to generate recovery volumes. See the 'rr[N]' command description for details. Possible task priority <p> values are 0 . -s Create solid archive.

-se Create solid groups using extension Similar to -s. Windows version only. but resets solid statistics if file extension is changed.rar *.txt as Unicode file.Unicode. but resets solid statistics after compressing <N> files.list files.txt Write comment. 3) rar cw -scuc data comment.Add only . but also .asm files: rar a -s -md512 sources. 'Charset' parameter is mandatory and can have one of the following values: U .txt data Read comment.comment files. Windows version only. C . This switch allows to specify the character set for files in -z[file] switch. Examples: 1) rar a -scol data @list Read names contained in 'list' using OEM encoding.txt as Unicode file. -scolc. 'charset' is applied to all objects.asm -r -s<N> Create solid groups using file count Similar to -s. 'Objects' parameter is optional and can have one of the following values: L . otherwise RAR will ignore this switch and process the file as ASCII text.ANSI (Windows) encoding. 2) rar c -scuc -zcomment. for example. O . A . If 'objects' parameter is missing. but also decreases losses in case of solid archive damages. Usually decreases compression.OEM (DOS) encoding. Usually decreases compression. Files in Unicode format must have FFFE or FEFF Unicode character in the beginning. list files and comment files written by "cw" command. -sc<charset>[objects] Specify the character set for list files and archive comment files. It is allowed to specify more than one object.

which size is more than specified in <size> parameter of this switch. Note that sometimes RAR cannot reset statistics even using this switch. In the Windows version default. This switch forces RAR to ignore packed data size and attempt to reset statistics for volumes of any size. Parameter <size> must be specified in bytes.exe.sfx should be placed in the same directory as the rar. the name will be set to 'stdin'. If this parameter is missing. -sfx[name] Create SFX archives. -si[name] Read data from stdin (standard input).in the user's home directory. but only if enough data was packed after a previous reset (at least a few megabytes). -sl<size> Process only those files. Example: type Tree.sfx or specified in the switch) would be created. -sm<size> Process only those files.Far' file.Far tree.Far' output as 'Tree.Far rar a -siTree.rar will compress 'type Tree. If this switch is used when creating a new archive. Example: rar a -sfxwincon. in Unix . -sv Create independent solid volumes By default RAR tries to reset solid statistics as soon as possible when starting a new volume.sfx SFX-module. when creating an archive.sfx myinst create SelF-eXtracting (SFX) archive using wincon.decreases losses from solid archive damages. It decreases compression. which size is less than specified in <size> parameter of this switch. For example. a Self-Extracting archive (using a module in file default. This switch cannot be used with -v. it cannot be done when . Optional 'name' parameter allows to specify a file name of compressed stdin data in the created archive. in /usr/lib or /usr/local/lib. Parameter <size> must be specified in bytes. but increases chances to extract a part of data if one of several solid volumes in a volume set was lost or damaged.

RAR is able to reset solid statistics only between separate files. This switch is especially useful in combination with the move command. -tb<date> Process only files modified before the specified date. but significantly reduces chances to extract a part of data if one of several solid volumes in a volume set was lost or damaged. Format of the time string is: [<ndays>d][<nhours>h][<nminutes>m][<nseconds>s] For example.compressing one large file split between several volumes. Format of the switch is the same as -ta<date>. For example. Ignored if used when creating a non-volume archive. -svCreate dependent solid volumes Disables to reset solid statistics between volumes. so files will be deleted only if the archive had been successfully tested. but not inside of single file. . -tl -tn<time> Process files newer than the specified time period. Format of the date string is YYYYMMDDHHMMSS. Prevents RAR from modifying the archive date when changing an archive. -tk Keep original archive date. Forces RAR to set the date of a changed archive to the date of the newest file in the archive. -ta<date> Process only files modified after the specified date. the following switch is correct: -ta2001-11-20 Internally it will be expanded to -ta20011120000000 and treated as "files modified after 0 hour 0 minutes 0 seconds of 20 November 2001". Ignored if used when creating a non-volume archive. It is allowed to insert separators like '-' or ':' to the date string and omit trailing fields. -s-t Disable solid archiving Test files after archiving. use switch -tn15d to process files newer than 15 days and -tn2h30m to process files newer than 2 hours 30 minutes. Set archive time to newest file. It slightly increases compression.

Switch -tsm instructs RAR to save file modification time. Operating systems limit which time can be set on unpacking. It is necessary to specify -tsc and -tsa switches to set creation and access time when unpacking files (precision is irrelevant. access). By default RAR sets only the modification time. It is possible to omit the time type letter if you need to apply the switch to all three times.-to<time> Process files older than the specified time period. Optional parameter after the switch is the number between 0 and 4 controlling the file time precision.0065536 sec. Setting the modification time to unpacked files may be also disabled with -tsm-. because RAR uses it by default.creation time and tsa . but not creation. If no precision is specified. Use -ts.0000001 sec. Value '1' enables 1 second precision. up to 19 additional bytes per file in case of -tsm4 -tsa4 -tsc4 combination.modification and last access.0000001 second. Unix . creation.0. Examples: 1) rar a -ts backup Store all file times with the highest possible precision. but must not be 0). RAR automatically reduces if high mode is not supported by the file not more than 2 seconds on FAT and 1 second time precision is 0. 2 . RAR uses '4' (high) value. so modification time is stored with the high precision and other times are ignored. It is in Unix.to save only the low precision modification time or to ignore all three file times on unpacking. Windows allows to set all three times. When creating the precision system. 2) rar x -tsa backup Restore modification and last access time. Format of the switch is the same as -tn<time>.0. Switch -tsm is not required. For example. even if archive contains creation and last access time. -ts<m. Default RAR mode is -tsm4 -tsc0 -tsa0. which is equal to 0.last access time. 3 .c. Value '0' or '-' means that creation and access time are not saved and low (two seconds) precision is used for modification time. -tsc . 3) rar a -tsm1 -tsc1 backup . Higher precision modes add more data to archive. -ts+ or -ts.0000256 sec and 4 or '+' enables the maximum NTFS time precision. NTFS an archive.a>[N] Save or restore file time (modification. -tsm4 -tsa4 -tsc4 can be replaced by -ts4.

If volumes are created on removable media. Without -tsm1 RAR would save the high precision modification time. you could also use the switch '-u' with the commands 'm' or 'mf'. megabytes . 200 KB for second and 300 KB for all following volumes. Answering 'A' will cause all volumes to be created without a pause. the user will be prompted with: Create next volume: Yes/No/All At this moment in time. For example: rar a -v100k -v200k -v300k arcname sets 100 KB size for first volume. 720. -v<size>[k b f m M g G] Create volumes with size=<size>*1000 [*1024 *1]. Predefined values can be 360.'g'.'M'. -u Update files. when this switch is used together with 'V' or 'L' command. May be used with archive extraction or creation. in bytes using the symbol 'b'. autodetection will be used. you should change the disks. Without this switch RAR displays contents of only one single specified volume. disks. first case it enables volume size autodetection. millions of bytes . You may specify several -v switches to set different sizes for different volumes.Store low precision modification and creation time. . billions (milliards) of bytes . If the size is omitted. 1200. Create volumes with size autodetection or list all volumes This switch may be used when creating or listing volumes. -v In the second case. By default this switch uses <size> as thousands (1000) of bytes (not 1024 x bytes).'m'. then after the creation of the first volume. it forces RAR to list contents of all volumes starting from that specified in the command line. then files not present on the disk and files newer than their copies on the disk would extracted from the archive. You may also enter the size in kilobytes using the symbol 'k'. 1440 or 2880 and replaced with corresponding floppy disk size. The command string "a -u" is equivalent to the command 'u'. volumes will use all available space on the destination It is convenient when creating volumes on removable You may read more about volumes in -v<size> description. gigabytes . In the so new media. If the switch '-u' is used with the commands 'x' or 'e'.'G' or select one of several predefined values using the symbol 'f' following the numerical value.

If there is no next volume on the drive and the disk is removable. of a file in a multi-volume set. Using -vn switch it is possible to switch to another. The switch applies only to removable media. Example: create archive in volumes of fixed size: rar a -s -v1440 floparch.n'. -ver[n] File version control Forces RAR to keep previous file versions when updating files in the already existing archive. RAR extracts only the last added file version. although unlikely. where the first volume file in a multi-volume set has the extension . By default.r99. the name of which does not include a numeric suffix. where 'n' is the version number. The command 'a' may be used only for the creation of a new multi-volume sequence.* will create solid volumes of size 1440000 bytes.rar. 'f'. Archive volumes may be Self-Extracting (SFX).rar *. 'u'. extension based naming scheme. could be greater than its uncompressed size. the hard disk cannot be erased using this switch. it will be also . Old versions are renamed to 'filename. It is possible. When extracting or testing a multi-volume archive you must use only the first volume name. the user will be prompted with: Insert disk with <next volume name> Insert the disk with the correct volume and press any key. 's' cannot be used with Multi-volume sets. the next volume is not found and volumes are placed on the non-removable disk. Such an archive should be created using both the '-v' and '-sfx' switches. If while extracting.partNNN. where NNN is the volume number. when unpacking an archive without the switch -ver. This is due to the fact that 'storing' (no compression if size increases) cannot be enabled for multi-volume sets. But if you specify a file name exactly. The commands 'd'. that the file size.rar'.By default RAR volumes have names like 'volname. RAR will abort with the error message: Cannot find <volume name> Archive volumes may not be modified.r00 to . -vd Erase disk contents before creating volume All files and directories on the target disk will be erased when '-vd' is used. following volumes are numbered from . including a version.

-vn Use the old style volume naming scheme By default RAR volumes have names like 'volname. This switch forces RAR to ask such confirmation always. "path" must be the path inside of archive.rar. Use "*\filename" syntax to exclude "filename" recursively in all directories. If you use -xpath\filename syntax when unpacking an archive. not the file path on the disk after -x<f> .txt. Using -vn switch it is possible to switch to another. You can specify the switch '-x' several times to define several exclusion masks in the same command line. 'rar x -ver5 arcname' will unpack only 5th file versions. Old file versions exceeding this threshold will be removed. when 'rar x arcname file. you can use "path\filename" syntax to exclude only this copy of "filename". 'rar x arcname' will unpack only last versions. -w<p> Assign work directory as <p>. so "filename" mask will exclude 'filename' file only in current directory when archiving or in root archive directory when extracting. For example. This switch may be used to assign the directory for temporary files. Exclude the specified <f> file or directory. For example. In this case a version number is not removed from unpacked file names. RAR will extract all versions of all files that match the entered file mask. If you know the exact path to file. -vp Pause before each volume By default RAR asks for confirmation before creating or unpacking next volume only for removable disks.partNNN. following volumes are numbered from . it applies to files in current directory and its subdirectories.r00 to . It will tell RAR to unpack only this version and remove a version number from file names. It can be useful if disk space is limited and you wish to copy each volume to another media immediately after creation. If you specify 'n' parameter when archiving.5' will unpack 'file. extension based naming scheme. If you specify -ver switch without a parameter when unpacking. if it is present in the archive. Wildcards can be used in both the name and path parts of file mask.r99. where NNN is the volume number. it will limit the maximum number of file versions stored in the archive.5'. If mask contains wildcards.txt.unpacked. where the first volume file in a multi-volume set has the extension . You may also extract a concrete file version specifying its number as -ver parameter.rar'. It is not recursive without wildcards.

Limitations ~~~~~~~~~~~ Pathname is limited to 259 symbols.txt arch *. For example. specify the exact name of directory including the absolute or relative path without any wildcards. If you need a mask with wildcards to exclude several directories.unpacking. If <f> is not specified.txt docs extract all files except *. which is required only for directory exclusion masks containing wildcards to distinguish them from file exclusion masks. Read archive comment from file <f>. 3) rar x -x*. Example: rar a -x@exlist. use the special syntax for directory exclusion masks. Use with -sc switch if you need to specify the character set for comment text file. In this case you do not need to append the path separator to mask.txt from docs.exe -y -z[f] Assume Yes on all queries. Such masks must have the trailing path separator character ('\' for Windows and '/' for Unix).rar. comment is read from stdin. Maximum archive comment length is 62000 bytes. both masks will be applied to contents of current directory and all its subdirectories. "*tmp*\" mask will exclude all directories matching "*tmp*" and "*\tmp\" will exclude all 'tmp' directories.jpg -x*. masks containing wildcards are applied only to files. By default. -x@<lf> Exclude files listed in the specified list file. 2) rar a -r -x*\temp\ savec c:\* compress all files on the disk c: except 'temp' directories and files inside of 'temp' directories. If you wish to exclude only one directory. Examples: 1) rar a -r -x*. If you use -x@ without the list file name parameter. it will read file names from stdin. Since wildcards are present.avi in current directory and its subdirectories. .jpg and *.avi rawfiles compress all files except *.

A fatal error occurred. Open file error. The command 'a' cannot be used to update an archive volume. Particularly advantageous when packing a large number of small files. Non fatal error(s) occurred. Non-zero exit code indicates some kind of error: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 255 Glossary ~~~~~~~~ Archive Special file containing one or more files optionally compressed and/or encrypted. An archive packed using a special compression method which sees all files as one continuous data stream. User stopped the process Compression A method of encoding data to reduce it's size.EXE file. only to create a new one. Attempt to modify an archive previously locked by the 'k' command. Command line option error.'c'.Command limitations: The commands 'd'. usually in the form of a . Data is damaged.'f'. Create file error No files matching the specified mask were found. CRC SFX Cyclic Redundancy Check. Write to disk error.'cf' will not operate with archive volumes. Not enough memory for operation. Invalid CRC32 control sum. SUCCESS WARNING FATAL ERROR CRC ERROR LOCKED ARCHIVE WRITE ERROR OPEN ERROR USER ERROR MEMORY ERROR CREATE ERROR NO FILES ERROR USER BREAK Successful operation. (SelF-eXtracting module). Mathematical method calculating special checking information for data validity. Archive module used to extract files from when executed.'u'. Solid . Exit values ~~~~~~~~~~~ RAR exits with a zero code (0) in case of successful operation.

Splitting an archive to volumes allows storing them on several removable disks. Copyrights (c) 1993-2011 Alexander Roshal .Volume Part of a split archive. Solid volumes must be extracted starting from first volume in sequence.