# Buck Converter 3-1-1 Circuit diagram and key waveforms

IRF150

iL +

L

vL

-

+ vo

io

Vg

iD

D

C

R

-

iL +
Vg

L

(a)

iL +

L

vL

-

+ vo
C R

vL

-

+ vo
C R

(b) (c)

-

vL Vg - Vo t - Vo iL ∆iL iL,max iL,min t
DT (1-D)T ∆iL/2

(d)

ic

t
T/2

vo ∆vo t

Figure 3-1 (a) Buck- converter (b) switch on for a time duration DT (c) switch off for a time duration (1-D)T (d) key waveforms.

the switch conducts the inductor current and the diode becomes reverse biased. The converters also use one capacitor and one inductor to store and transfer energy from input to output. iL continues to flow. Therefore V g I g = Vo I o And . a converter may operate in both modes. Pg = Po. which have significantly different characteristics. The three basic dc-dc converters use a pair of switches. a converter and its control should be designed based on both modes of operation. Therefore. When the switch is turned off. In practice. diode). ∆iL. and ∆vo Vg 3-1-3 Analytical expressions for Assumptions made about the operation of the converter are as follows: • The circuit is operating in the steady state • The circuit is operating in the CCM • The capacitor is large enough to assume a constant output voltage • The component are ideal. They also filter or smooth voltage and current. This results in a positive voltage vL = Vg – Vo across the inductor. Vo . When the switch is on for a time duration DT. However. to achieve unidirectional power flow from input to output. and vL = -Vo for a time duration (1-D)T until the switch is turned on again. The dc-dc coverters can have two distinct modes of operation: Continuous conduction mode (CCM) and discontinuous conduction mode (DCM). MOSFET) and one uncontrolled (ie.3-1-2 Circuit description and operation Circuit description. This current now flows through the diode. Circuit Operation. usually one controlled (eg. because of the inductive energy storage. for this course we only consider the dc-dc converters operated in CCM. Equating the integral of the inductor voltage over one time period to zero yields ∫ T 0 v L dt = ∫ t on 0 v L dt + ∫ v L dt = 0 0 t off (V g − V ) o × DT + ( −Vo ) × (1 − D )T = 0 Vo = DV g or Vo =D Vg Assuming a lossless circuit. This voltage causes a linear increase in the inductor current iL.

I o Vg 1 = = I g Vo D For a buck converter. ic. ∆vo. max i L .min and iL.min = I L − i L . we can obtain ∆vo. it is obvious that I L = Io ∆i L = 1 DT v L dt L ∫0 1 = [ Shaded area under waveform v L (Area A)] L 1 = (V g − Vo ) × DT L From ∆iL we can obtain iL. From the information of the capacitor current. ∆vo = ∆vc = = 1 ic dt C∫ 1 [Shaded area under waveform ic ] L 1 1 T ∆i = × × × L C 2 2 2 therefore ∆vo = ∆i L 8 fC . we can use the relationship I L = Io = Vo R The peak-peak output voltage ripple.max ∆i L 2 ∆i L = IL + 2 To obtain the average inductor current.

the average inductor current is ∆i IL = L 2 the minimum inductor current.min = Vo (1 − D)T 2L We know that for buck converters I L = I o = If the desired switching frequency f and load resistance R are established.Vo vL iL DT (1-D)T t -Vo Vo 1 1 and ∆i L = (V g − Vo ) DT = Vo (1 − D)T . can be used to determine the combination 2 of L. R L L ∆i L Equation at the CCM/DCM boundary. the minimum inductor current required for CCM is: ∆i IL = L 2 Vo 1 Vo (1 − D)T = R 2L (1 − D)T × R ∴ Lmin = 2 (1 − D) R = 2f If the desired value of the inductor L and the load resistance R are established. by definition. the minimum switching frequency required for CCM is . the inductor current iL goes to zero at the end of the off period. The minimum load current required for CCM operation is: ∆i IL = Io = L 2 1 ∴I o . I L = . max = ∆iL. min = 0 and the maximum inductor curren iL. iL. f and R that will result in CCM.3-1-4 CCM/DCM boundary condition Being at the boundary between the continuous and the discontinuous mode. At this boundary. Vg .

f min = (1 − D) R 2L If the desired switching frequency and the value of the inductor L are established. the minimum load resistance required for CCM is 2 fL Rmin = (1 − D) -tammat- .