LDC INSTITUTE OF TECHNICAL STUDIES
PRATAPGARH ROAD SORAON , ALLAHABAD MINI PROJECT REPORT ON
REGULATED POWER SUPPLY
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF: Dr. C .P. SINGH H.O.D ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION
SUBMITTED BY:BIPIN MAURYA E.C 4th YEAR (ROLL NO:-0828331017)
It is mandatory for an individual to prepare a Project with the given guideline and submit Project Report to check the validity, functionality of Project awareness of the student. This Mini Project Report “BURGLAR ALARM” provides a full spectrum to harden space of Electronics, including new material, analysis and reconfigurable hardware techniques.
Dedicating this Mini Project to the Almighty of God whose abundant grace and murices enabled its successful completion, I would like to express my profound gratitude to all of people who has inspired and motivate me to undertake this Mini Project. Then I would like to Thanks “Prof (Dr.) A.L.Kundu” & “Mr. Sanjay Gupta”, who gave me such platform for studying in “LDC Institute of Technical Studies, Allahabad”. I wish to express our sincere thanks to our Head of Department “Dr. C.P.Singh” for providing an opportunity to undertake this Mini Project. Who’s precious guidance, in every difficulty and doubts faced during the implementation of this Mini Project, More ever, showed me the right path to modify my Project and to it give a good shape. I am deeply indebted to my Project Guide “Mr. P.C.Mishra” for providing me with valuable advice and guidance during the course of Project. I am specially grateful to “Mr., Avadh Pati”& “Mr. Digvijay Narayan Singh” for their time to time, much needed valuable guidance. I would also like to thanks to “my entire Teacher” who teach me other subject of Electronics, because of to make any project, knowledge of basic electronics is also essentional. And finally my heartfelt gratitude is to my “Parents & Friends”, who gave me moral support and encouragement to accomplish task.
Date: November 11, 2011 Place: Allahabad
BIPIN MAURYA Electronic & Communication Semester: 7th
PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGE INTRODUCTION CIRCUIT DIAGRAM WORKING PRINCIPLE COMPONENT DISCIPTION COMPARISION APPLICATION FUTURE SCOPE REFERENCE
Burglar (or intrusion), alarms are systems designed to detect unauthorized entry into a building or area. They consist of an array of sensors, a control panel and alerting system, and interconnections. Sensors detect intruders by many methods such as monitoring door and window contacts, by passive infrared motion detectors, ultrasound, vibration, electric or magnetic fields, or microwaves. Sensors may be directly wired to a control panel that provides sensor power, or may communicate wirelessly. Some alarm systems serve a single purpose of burglar or fire protection. Combination systems provide both fire and intrusion protection. Intrusion alarm systems may also be combined with closed-circuit television surveillance systems to automatically record the activities of intruders, and may interface to access control systems for electrically locked doors. Systems range from small, selfcontained noisemakers, to complicated, multi-zoned systems with color-coded computer monitor outputs. Burglar alarms (or perimeter security systems, perimeter detection systems, Perimeter protection, intrusion detection systems and other terms for the same thing) are used in residential, industrial, and commercial properties for protection against theft or property damage. Mobile alarm systems protect vehicles and their contents ("car alarms"). Prisons and military facilities use intrusion detection systems for security and control of access.
The burglar alarm is one of the most reliable means to secure a house or a work place. It is becoming more and more popular among the homeowners because of the consistency with which it performs. Today, there are different types of home security systems available in the market and they perform in different ways to detect potential intrusions. What is a burglar alarm? Basically, the burglar alarm is a device that monitors the designated area or areas to detect the presence of suspicious elements. The system takes the help of the sensor to detect such elements. Once found, the system sends emergency signals to the user or to the monitor station if the user so intends. The components of Burglar Alarm The security alarm system generally consists of a number of elements that work together to enhance the security of a place. The basic components of a burglar alarm system are:
Control panel Keypad Sensor Siren Flashing light Motion detector
How the entire system works? The work of the home security system begins with the sensors and motion detectors. These devices are installed in different places that they monitor in their own ways. However, they send emergency signals to the control panel once they detect something that surpasses their tolerance level. The control panel of the system works like the brain and decide the next step of action. Basically, there are two different things that the control panel performs. It can set off an alarm located near the house to alert the homeowner and the neighbors.
However, if the system is monitored from a centralized station, the control panel will send signals there without setting off any audible alarm. In the basic models, the control panel uses the standard telephone line to send the security message. However, some of the latest models do use the GSM and internet to dispatch signals. So, they don't need any wires. The keyboard provided with the home security system enables the users to arm, disarm and program the security system according to their wish. Most of the time, users are given multiple keyboards so that they don't have to rush from one place to another to find the keyboard in emergency. Sensors of the Burglar Alarm There are different types of sensors used in the burglar alarm system. Some of them are used outdoors while others are suitable for indoors. Indoor sensors: PIR: The Passive Infrared (PIR) sensors are very commonly found in most burglar alarm systems. It is passive in the sense that it captures the heat emitted from the objects. Therefore, it needs a clear sight of vision. As human body emits more heat, the sensor can detect the presence of intruders. Ultrasonic detectors: These sensors send ultrasonic sound waves and receive them as they bounce back from the fixed objects in the room. So, if any object moves the wave length changes and the sensor detects moving object. Microwave detectors: This type of sensor emits microwaves and detects discrepancies in the signals through the receiver. Photoelectric beam systems: These sensors also emit infrared light beams. However, they observe whether there is any obstruction in its way. Outdoor sensors: Vibration sensors: These sensors are mounted on walls or other structures. They detect any vibration that occurs when that structure is attacked. Passive magnetic field detection: These sensors can be buried and it monitors the area with the help of electro-magnetic field. E-field: These sensors too, work in a similar fashion; however they are more programmable and can provide vigilance up to 4 meters of height.
The 555 timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) used in a variety of timer, pulse generation and oscillator applications. The part is still in widespread use, thanks to its ease of use, low price and good stability. As of 2003, it is estimated that 1 billion units are manufactured every year.
The IC design was proposed in 1970 by Hans R. Camenzind and Jim Ball. After prototyping, the design was ported to the Monochip analogue array, incorporating detailed design by Wayne Foletta and others from Qualidyne Semiconductors. Signetics (later acquired by Philips) took over the design and production, and released the first 555s in 1971.
Depending on the manufacturer, the standard 555 package includes over 20 transistors, 2 diodes and 15 resistors on a silicon chip installed in an 8-pin mini dual-in-line package (DIP-8). Variants available include the 556 (a 14-pin DIP combining two 555s on one chip), and the 558 (a 16-pin DIP combining four slightly modified 555s with DIS & THR connected internally, and TR is falling edge sensitive instead of level sensitive). The NE555 parts were commercial temperature range, 0 °C to +70 °C, and the SE555 part number designated the military temperature range, −55 °C to +125 °C. These were available in both high-reliability metal can (T package) and inexpensive epoxy plastic (V package) packages. Thus the full part numbers were NE555V, NE555T, SE555V, and SE555T. It has been hypothesized that the 555 got its name from the three 5 kΩ resistors used within, but Hans Camenzind has stated that the number was arbitrary. Low-power versions of the 555 are also available, such as the 7555 and CMOS TLC555. The 7555 is designed to cause less supply glitching than the classic 555 and the manufacturer claims that it usually does not require a "control" capacitor and in many cases does not require a decoupling capacitor on the power supply. Such a practice should nevertheless be avoided, because noise produced by the timer or variation in power supply voltage might interfere with other parts of a circuit or influence its threshold voltages.
NE555 Bloc Diagram
LDR (LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTOR
A photoresistor or light dependent resistor (LDR) is a resistor whose resistance decreases with increasing incident light intensity. It can also be referred to as a photoconductor or CdS device, from "cadmium sulfide," which is the material from which the device is made and that actually exhibits the variation in resistance with light level. Note that CdS is not a semiconductor in the usual sense of the word (not doped silicon). A photoresistor is made of a high resistance semiconductor. If light falling on the device is of high enough frequency, photons absorbed by the semiconductor give bound electrons enough energy to jump into the conduction band. The resulting free electron (and its hole partner) conduct electricity, thereby lowering resistance. A photoelectric device can be either intrinsic or extrinsic. An intrinsic semiconductor has its own charge carriers and is not an efficient semiconductor, e.g. silicon. In intrinsic devices the only available electrons are in the valence band, and hence the photon must have enough energy to excite the electron across the entire bandgap. Extrinsic devices have impurities, also called dopants, added whose ground state energy is closer to the conduction band; since the electrons do not have as far to jump, lower energy photons (i.e., longer wavelengths and lower frequencies) are sufficient to trigger the device. If a sample of silicon has some of its atoms replaced by phosphorus atoms (impurities), there will be extra electrons available for conduction. This is an example of an extrinsic semiconductor. Photo resistors are basically photocells.
SYMBOL OF LDR
Burglar alarms are used for various safety purposes. These are electronic alarms designed in such way so as to alert users to any unknown danger. Our alarms are known for high end features like effective performance, fire & corrosion resistance and durability. Following are the technical specification of these alarms: * Sensors are connected to a control unit via low-voltage wiring or a narrow band RF signal that is used to interact with a response device * The most common security sensors are used to indicate the opening of a door or window or detect motion via passive infrared (PIR) * New construction systems are predominately hardwired for economy * Retrofit installations often use wireless systems for a faster, more economical installation.
1. ^ U.S. Patent #3,482,037 2. ^ http://www.reno.gov/index.aspx?recordid=498&page=576 3. ^ a b Sampson, Rana, False Burglar Alarms 2nd Edition, US Department of Justice / Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, ISBN 1-932582-04-5