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GUIDELINES ON OCCUPATIONAL VIBRATION
DEPARTMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH MINISTRY OF HUMAN RESOURCES MALAYSIA 2003
Industrial Health Division JKKP /..1
(b) the making of arrangements for ensuring. In accordance with Section 15(1) and 15(2)(a) & (b) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (Act 514) with state. In this respect "white fingers syndrome" is a particular concern. In some cases. respectively. The guideline shall be deemed to be a document in addition to and not in derogation of any written law. certain frequencies and levels of vibration can permanently damage internal body organs. loss of concentration etc. so far as is practicable.3 . safe and without risks to health.Occupational Vibration Preface This guideline deals with vibration as this physical phenomena may effect the human body. the safety. that: "It shall be the duty of every employer and every self-employed person to ensure.. loss of balance. Vibration can typically cause blurred vision. health and welfare of all his employeers". and has a detrimental effect relating to occupational safety and health. This guideline is intended to increase the awareness of employers as well as employees to the effect of vibration to the human body." Director General Department of Occupational Safety and Health Malaysia Julai 2003 Industrial Health Division JKKP /. and provide guidance on how to avoid or prevent the risk of vibration related discomfort and damage to the human body. the matters to which the duty extends include in particular. handling. The effects of direct vibration on the human body can be serious. and "without prejudice to the generality of subsection (1). so far as practicable. storage and transport of plant and substances. so far as practicable. safety and absense of risks to health in connection with the use or operation. (a) the provision and maintenance of plant and system of work that are.
1. 1. Industrial Health Division JKKP /.5 'X'.axis This is a orthogonal axis in the vertical direction of a standing person.1. 1. 1.4 Frequency of Vibration Frequency of vibration is the number of times a complete motion cycle (oscillating motion) take place during the period of a second.7 'Z'. 1.1.6 'Y'.. which are of a character different from the effects of higher frequency vibrations.axis This is a orthogonal axis in the transverse direction (at right angle to the 'x' axis) of a standing person.Occupational Vibration special problem.5 . associated with symptoms such as kinetosis (motion sickness). The inception of such symptoms depends on complicated individual factors not simply related to the intensity. frequency or duration of the provocative action. and is measured in cycles per second termed hertz (Hz).axis This is a orthogonal axis in the forward facing direction of a standing person.1.
2 The data collected shall be suitably recorded.2. dynamic properties and fineness of resolution).4.3. in particular regarding:a) the characteristics of the source of vibration investigated.3 The person responsible for maintenance and testing of measuring and analysing equipments shall be specially trained. f) the duration of worker's exposure. 2. 2.4 Measuring and analysing equipment shall be used in accordance with the manufactures instructions. e) the numbers of workers exposed to vibration. its accessories and their characteristics (including sensitivity.1 All vibration measuring equipment shall be properly calibrated in accordance with existing standards or recommendation and/or manufactures instructions governing the calibration of such equipment. 2. A qualified personnel responsible for the upkeep of the measure instruments shall draw up a calibration and testing schedule to be kept with the instrument. and g) the date and time. and the type of work being performed.Occupational Vibration 2.3 Instrument Accuracy and Calibration. It is recommended that specific test record form shall used for this purpose. 2.4. c) the point at which (including the description of any intermediary elements such as sheets) and the pick-up device with which measurement were made. comprehensive data shall be collected. 2. 2. b) the characteristics of the path or manner in which vibration is transmitted to human body (Hand-arm or Whole-body vibration).2 Measuring and analysing equipment shall be tested at suitable intervals. Industrial Health Division JKKP /.. and the name of the observer.3.3.7 . d) the measurement instrumantations used. and shall be responsible for ensuring that the equipment is kept in good condition. and the values obtained.4 Recording of Data 2.1 When vibration is measured at places of work.
for example.9 . and can also affect the exposed person's circulatory and/or urological system.5 The recommended "Threshold Limit Values" which refer to component acceleration levels and duration of exposure for whole body vibration are prescribed in the Appendix C.Occupational Vibration acceleration component levels and duration of exposure for hand-arm vibration are prescribed in the Appendix B.3 (1) Daily exposure to these vibration over a period of time (typically a number of years) can result in serious physical damage.1 (1) Vibration levels encountered in whole-body motion is transmitted to the body as a whole.2 Exposure to whole-body vibration can either cause permanent physical damage. headache and "shakiness".3. these values however should not be regarded as defining a boundary between safe and dangerous levels. (2) A person driving a vehicle. (2) Many people have experienced these nervous symptoms after they have completed a long car trip or boat trip. usually through the supporting surface (feet.). 3. and if there is back support through the back as well. 3.3 Whole-body Vibration 3. insomnia.3. (2) These values shall be used as a basis for the control of hand-arm vibration exposure.. or shortly after exposure in the form of fatigue. 3. Symptoms of this disturbance usually appear during.6 (1) The vibration levels indicated by the curves in figures . etc. 3.3. or disturb the nervous system. back. for example.3.3. 3. is subjected to whole-body vibration through the buttocks. Because of individual susceptibility.4 (1) Over exposure can also disturb the central nervous system. ischemic lumbago. buttocks.3. The symptoms however usually disappear after a period of rest.and (Appendix C) are given in terms of RMS acceleration level which indiIndustrial Health Division JKKP /. (2) People suffering from the effect of long-term exposure to whole-body vibration would have usually been exposed to this damaging vibration related to some particular task at work. 3. This is a condition affecting the lower spinal region.
shall be measured in all places of work where:a) the work done or the working environment possibly will involve a risk due to vibration.3 Assessment of Exposure 4. 4. which may cause vibration in excess of the maximum vibration limits under section 5.3.2 Source of Vibration 220.127.116.11 The sources of vibration shall be identified by suitable measurements and investigation.1 Vibration. and c) the workers maintain that they are subjected to an uncomfortable or disturbing level of vibration.0 4.2 If the vibration level vary widely because of a change in working condition (as when machine-tool runs unload and the start working). 4. b) Occupational Safety and Health audit or inspection disclosure that such risks may exist.4.1. the maximum period of use.1 Measurements shall be made at locations normally occupied by the workers in the area under observation. 4. It is nevertheless suggested that separate series of measurements be undertaken.2. account shall be taken for the least favorable condition.11 . 4. 4. Industrial Health Division JKKP /.Occupational Vibration 4.2 Measurements shall be made of the vibration transmitted to the whole-body and of the vibration transmitted to a particular part of the body. and the personal protective equipment needed..1 Equipment (fixed or portable).1 IDENTIFICATION OF RISKS AREAS Risk Assessment 4.4 Marking of Areas and Equipment 4.0 shall be clearly marked with an indication of the risk.
5.3 Implementation 5. c) contracts entered into with contractors.3.4 The personnel. In this respect the employer should define and assign responsibilities in the prevention programme. 5.2 The organisation may assign the Safety and Health Officer or other qualified persons responsibilities and duties in connection with vibration prevention to include.3.3. 5.5 The medical surveillance of the workers shall be carried out a) under the responsibility of a registered medical practitioner competent to interpret the results of the special tests which are made. and b) be equipped with suitable measurement instruments. who is responsible for vibration measurements in the working environment shall: a) have received appropriate training in the measurement and control of vibration. and e) the purchase of personal protective equipment. and b) with the assistance of qualified supporting staff that has received appropriate training concerning the special tests to be made and the use of personal protective equipment.3. 5. d) the information and training given to workers. Improvement that are recommended shall be made forthwith by the Employer.1 Every organisation shall implement a general prevention programme that take due consideration to its own specific features.. but not limited to: a) the design of new plants and equipment. or studies of new processes.3.13 .3 Vibration control shall preferably be achieved by collective measures with the assistance of the qualified persons. Industrial Health Division JKKP /. and the provision of instruction in regard to its use.Occupational Vibration 5. b) the purchase of machinery or equipment.
Industrial Health Division JKKP /.6. (2) Vibration shall also be attenuated.3 The control of vibration at source shall be drawn between the following three main types of vibration according to their source a) Vibration attributable to the vibration of a solid or liquid (mechanical forces).15 . b) the number and type of machines and other equipment. its installation shall be studied with due regard to a) the kind of vibration likely to be emitted.7. 5. b) preventing the propagation.2 As far as possible. 5. 5.6. (3) The various control methods may be combined in order to achieve a suitable reduction in vibration levels.6 shall be made used as the first level of control strategy. and c) the number of workers employed on the particular work premises.4 Measurement shall be made as soon as the machine and equipment are installed..4 to 7. or by isolating the workers exposed to the vibration. preference shall be given to materials and structures having a high isolating factor or attenuation factor.Occupational Vibration 5. and c) isolating the workers. as appropriate in particular cases. or combination of both. 5. in order to establish the resulting vibration levels.3 Once a suitable equipment has been chosen. In order to further reduce the vibration level. actions proposed hereafter can be taken. 5. either by collective measures or by personal protective equipment. ensuring safe distances of workers from the vibration source.7.7 Vibration Control in the Working Environment 5.6. or if the initial strategy did not sufficiently reduce the vibration to levels below the limits stipulated herein this document. and amplification of vibration.7.2 (1) Vibration control at the work place can be categorised as follows a) reducing vibration produced and emitted by the source.1 In the work premise. the strategy of controlling vibration as explained in paragraph 7.
5. o) adequate design of air tubing and ducting system (compressed air. and e) ensuring that rotating or reciprocating machinery does not operate at speeds in close proximity to structural resonant frequencies. b) the use of mechanical vibration isolators (typyically steel spring. and etc. and etc).8 The control of propagation. elastomeric pads.Occupational Vibration k) design of burners. visco-damping systems). n) adequate design of fan blades. elastaneric or pneumatic isolating elements) for the mounting machinery. c) the use of resilient materials between building elements (control rooms.7 Maintenance personnel shall be adequately trained in lubrication. and p) the use of vibration isolation device or systems (such as spring vibration isolators. 5. pipeworks. m) insertion of adequate damping joints at connecting point of machinery and equipment. d) the siting of vibrating machinery so that it does not come into contact with other parts of the installation and the workrooms. magnetodynamic and aerodynamic forces..7.7. and amplification of vibration shall include: a) the mounting of machinery on foundations vibration isolated from the floors.17 . and flexible connections within the equipment. replacement of worn-out parts. and the regular and correct adjustment maintenance of machinery as well as anti-vibration devices. torches and combustion and explosion chambers with appropriate characteristics. Industrial Health Division JKKP /. walls and other supporting structures. l) adequate design of electrical machinery in regard to electrodynamic.7. and gas or liquid tubing system to prevent the propagation of vibration and resonance excitation. 5.6 The maintenance of equipment shall receive special attention so as to prevent any abnormal increase in vibration emitted by the source. ventilation air). floor-joints.
Handbook of Human Vibration. Human Body Vibration.0 REFERENCES 1.K. ILO.. Andersson. 1990. M. The University.Occupational Vibration 9. Industrial Hazard and Safety Handbook. 2. B&K. 6. 4. 1991. 1977. Ralph King & John Magid.J. Don B. Institute of Sound and Vibration Rerearch. Cyril M. U. Shock and Vibration Handbook. 1982. 1995. Geneva. Human Factors Research Unit. Harris. 5. Technical Review. 1979. Protection of Workers Against Noise and Vibration in the Working Environment. J. 3.19 . McGRAW-HILL. Chaffin & Gunnar B. Southampton. Occupational Biomechanics. Griffin.. Industrial Health Division JKKP /.
and the necessary steps can be taken to reduce these factors. The transducers shall therefor be mounted at a location on the surface of contact between the palm of the hand and the vibrating object.Occupational Vibration APPENDIX A VIBRATION MEASUREMENT 1) General It is essential that human-vibration is accurately measured such that an assessment can be made on: a) the discomfort produced by the vibration. When hand-arm vibrations are measured in work situations.. the analysis and recording of data. care shall be taken to protect the cable connecting the accelerometer to the measurement-recording equipment. The measurement exercise shall not interfere with the work process. The accuracy of human-vibration measurement depends on the quality of the measurement instrumentation. Is extremely important when measuring human vibration that the vibration is measured as close as possible to the point or area through which the vibration is transmitted to the body. or of the hand on the vibrating object. vibration enter the body at the floor/foot. and vibration measurements shall therefore be measured at these point.y and z).21 . 2) Whole-body vibration For whole-body vibration. The transducer shall have three independent accelerometers which simultaneously measure the vibration level in three orthogonal axes (x. and b) the possible danger involved in being exposed to the vibration. The transducer which is now almost universally used for wholebody and handarm vibration measurements is the piezoelectric accelerometer. This transducer can be positioned at the excitation point without disturbing the original position of the workers. seat/ back or seat/buttocks interface. An example of a transducer for measuring whole-body vibration is a seat transducer which is a triaxial seat accelerometer. Industrial Health Division JKKP /. 3) Hand-arm vibration When a vibrating object is held in the hand vibration transmit to the hand and arm through the palm of the head.
81m/s2 TABLE 2 : Stockholm Workshop HAVS Classification System for Cold-induced Peripheral Vascular and Sensorineural Symptoms Vascular Assessment Description No attacks Occasional attacks affecting only the tips of one or more fingers. Occasional attacks affecting distal and middle (rarely also proximal) phalanges of one or more fingers. Because of individual susceptibility the levels shall not be regarded as defining a boundary between safe and dangerous levels. Yh. Industrial Health Division JKKP /.* Frequency . rms.Occupational Vibration APPENDIX B Threshold Limit Values (TLV) for Vibration Transmitted to Hand-arm 1) The TLVs in Table 1 refer to component acceleration levels and durations of exposure that represent conditions under which it is believed that nearly all workers may be exposed repeatedly without progressing beyond stage 1 of Table 2. Component Acceleration Which Shall not be Exceeded aK. These values shall be used as guides in the control of hand-arm vibration exposure. Values of the Dominant.61 0. 2L(2) /1R(1)= stage 2 on left hand in 2 fingers : stage 1 on right hand in 1 fingers.g.81 1. whether continuously or intermittently. Stage 0 1 Grade Mild 2 Moderate 3 4 Sereve Very Severe Note : Separate staging is made for each hand. Zh.weighted. ^ g = 9. with trophic skin changes in the finger tips. As in stage 3. e.40 0. If one or more vibration axes exceeds the Total Daily Exposure then the TLV has been exceeded..22 Total Daily Exposure Duration# The total time vibration enters the hand per day.23 . (a Keq) m/s2 4 hours and less than 8 2 hours and less than 4 1 hours and less than 2 less than 1 hour # 4 6 8 12 g^ 0. Freguent attacks affecting ALL phalanges of most fingers. * Usually one axis of vibration is dominant over the remaining two axes. TABLE 1 Thereshold Limit Values for Exposure of the Hand to Vibration in Either Xh.
3 m. linear integration shall be used for vibrations that are of extremely short duration or vary substantially in time. in units of meters per second squared (m/s2). If the frequency-weighted acceleration for exposure time of 1. machine or work piece shall be expressed by the root-mean-square (rms) value of the frequency-weighted component accelerations. the largest of which. 4) For each direction being measured.s-2 than. rms acceleration i component with duration Ti Ex. aK forms the basis for exposure assessment.3 and 5 hour are respectively 15.weighted. Industrial Health Division JKKP /. aKeq = (152 x 1) + (122 x 3) + (102 x 5) 9 aKeq = 1/2 11. or gravitational units (g). In each direction.Occupational Vibration 3) Assessment of vibration exposure shall be made for EACH applicable direction (Xh. frequency-weighted component acceleration in that direction shall be determined in accordance with the following equation: Where T = ΣT i =1 n i T = total daily exposure a K = ith frequency . then the equivalent. Zh) since vibration is a vector quantity (magnitude and direction). 12 and 10 m. Yh. If the total daily vibration exposure in a given direction consists of several exposures at different rms accelerations.s-2 These computations are often in-built within the functions of commercially available human-response vibration measuring instruments.25 . the magnitude of the vibration during normal operation of the power tool..
302 0.27 .192 0.50 0.0 31.0 12.383 0.0 50.60 2.428 0.35 4.2 1min 5.224 0.25 1.224 0.355 0.0 21.171 0.00 3.00 2.80 3.0 80.75 6.0 TABLE 4: Numerical values for vibration acceleration in the transverse.5 h 1.70 2.35 3.855 1.675 0.8 15.5 16.19 1. or ay direction (foot-to-chest or side to side) (see figure 2).90 1.32 1.50 0.00 10.135 0.50 3.67 0.315 0.315 0.25 1.24 2.28 0.0 20.0 2.80 25min 3.55 4.36 2.224 0.25 1.25 1.60 7.65 2.80 1.60 2.0 Industrial Health Division JKKP /.0 80.28 5.95 0.50 5.53 0.45 0.0 12.12 2.67 0.56 0.90 2.80 2.0 63.80 3.75 6.30 8.30 6.50 5.65 3.0 25.5 3.0 24 h 0.14 0.224 0.0 12.765 0.5 33.50 11.355 0.5 45.5 3.6 13.50 2.0 1.18 1.25 1.12 2.14 0.70 2.50 0.32 1.40 1.36 3.70 8.15 4.00 Acceleration.239 0.60 7.75 4.85 0.0 20.5 16. a z .90 1.0 18.00 11.12 1.40 1.5 15.14 0.2 14.0 16min 1.135 0.18 1.302 0.50 3.50 4.50 9.55 3.50 0.50 5.55 3.00 2.50 1.2 14.80 1.00 11.12 1.00 3.50 3.15 2.71 0.53 1.56 0.50 5.35 4.85 1.955 1.40 0.212 0.75 3.80 2.50 0.90 0.65 3.0 25.71 2.06 1.10 1h 2.00 10.355 0.60 7.24 2.3 17.30 2.18 1.40 0.80 0.53 0.5 16.18 0.18 0.0 37.2 14.00 16 h 0.56 0.70 8.80 1.00 2.6 30.0 10.06 1.12 2.0 50. m/s2 Exposure Times 4h 1.60 5.80 3.80 2.192 0.50 0.71 0.00 6.40 16 h 0.70 3.25 5.5 h 0.50 3.71 0.63 0.7 60.26 1.0 6.16 0..80 2.10 0.5 40.0 20.00 0.224 0.00 4.00 6.50 9.315 0.55 4.0 16min 4.0 20.23 0.00 1.125 0.45 0.54 0.25 0.85 1.55 4.280 0.75 0.12 2.0 50.0 25.24 2.10 0.3 8.90 2.18 1.30 6.0 2.12 2.40 0.15 4.0 80.477 0.2 26.0 5.0 31.315 0.0 31. 10.80 1.338 0.6 2.00 1.135 0.10 9.0 19.12 1.25 1.80 2.0 22.00 1.80 2.00 7.0 31.50 11.85 0.0 23.00 11. Values define the TLV in terms of rms value pure (sinusoidal) single frequency vibration or of rms value in one-third-octave band for distributed vibration.4 28.60 2.35 4.55 4.24 2.50 5.15 2.00 2.14 0.20 0.56 0.383 0.00 2.270 0.0 5.10 9.25 1.40 1.30 8.60 2.40 8h 0.75 4.71 0.50 1.60 7. Values define the TLV in terms of rms value pure (sinusoidal) single frequency vibration or of rms value in one-third-octave band for distributed vibration.15 4.50.45 0.22 0.135 0.71 0.0 18.10 9.00 2.24 2.50 1.70 1.5 16.192 0.90 1.10 9.40 1.20 5.80 2.00 5.27 0.36 3.0 1min 2.3 8.15 4.355 0.15 Acceleration.85 0.00 5.80 3.5 25min 1.90 1.0 1h 0.50 10.38 4.355 0.0 21.06 0.28 0.5 40.0 2.00 6.0 10.80 3.53 0.12 2.50 1.605 0.63 0.12 1.0 63.06 1.192 0.80 1.0 20.6 13.00 10.50 1.30 8.00 2.25 1.355 0.6 2.53 0.71 0. (Adapted from ISO 2631) Frequency Hz 1.15 4.55 4.5 40.315 0.0 25.80 1.0 12.50 0.85 0.00 5.25 3. direction (foot-to-head direction) (see figure 1).50 3.12 1.0 6.16 0.63 0.00 1.00 2.90 1.355 0.60 0.10 0.5 40.45 0.91 8h 0.12 1.0 63.60 7.80 2. a x.0 50.25 1.00 3.2 17.71 0. m/s2 Exposure Times 4h 0.00 7.10 0.25 5.50 1.212 0.63 0.Occupational Vibration TABLE 3: Numerical values for vibration acceleration in the longitudinal.65 3.32 1.35 1.0 24 h 0.12 2.0 12.25 0.35 2.0 1.224 0.00 2.338 0.15 4. (Adapted from ISO 2631) Frequency Hz 1.
the combined motion of all three axes could be greater than any one component and could possibly affect vehicle operator performance.29 . a1/3 octave band (1 to 80 Hz) vibration frequency spectrum analysis using a FFT analyser is required for comparison to figure 3.Occupational Vibration iii) For each measurement axis.. For the X axis (analogous equations and definitions apply to the Y and Z axis).3 octave band frequency from 1 to 80 Hz 6. iv) 5) The total weighted rms acceleration for each axis can be calculated using equation 1 below with the appropriate axis weighting factors taken from table 5.Equation 1 = total weighted rms acceleration for the X axis = weighted factors for the X axis each 1/3 octave band frequency from 1 to 80 Hz (Table 5) = rms acceleration value for the X axis spectrum at each 1. as appropriate. If the vibration axes have similar acceleration magnitudes as determined by equation 1. Awt: Awt = √ (1.Equation 2 The factor of 1. Each of the component result determined by equation 1 may be used in equation 2 to find the resultant overall weighted total rms acceleration.4Awy)2 + (Awz)2 ----. the equation is: Awt = √ Σ(WfxAfx)2 Where: Awt Wfx Afx -----.5m/s2 as an action level for an 8 hour per day overall weighted total rms acceleration. Industrial Health Division JKKP /. The European Commission (EC) recommendeds 0.4Awx)2 + (1. and determines the permissible exposure. the TLV is exceeded for that exposure time.4 multiplying the X and Y total weighted rms acceleration values is the ratio of the values of the longitudinal and transverse curves of the equal response in the most sensitive human response ranges. The axis with the highest spectral peak intersecting the curve with the shortest exposure time dominates. If the rms acceleration of any of the spectral peaks equals or exceeds the values shown in figure 3 or figure 4 for the relevant time periods.
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