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OCTOBER 5, 1953
THE ;W E E K LY N E W S M A G A Z I N E
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FIRST IN RUBBER
Rubber moves jaws that chew rocks by the ton
A typical example of B. F. Goodrich improvement in rubber
INSIDE that mass of metal are big jaws that chomp like human teeth. But it's rocks they bite and grind-2000 tons a day-- for building concrete roads! The jaws are powered by rubber belts and every time they grip and grind a new batch of rock, you can imagine the jerking jar that hits those belts. They were being broken and torn to shreds in days. Looking for ways to save, the con tractor tried a kind of belt new to him -- Grommet V belts -- developed and made only by B. F. Goodrich. A grommet is a cord loop inside the belt. It is made like a giant twisted cable except
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
that it's endless-- no splices or over laps. The grommets make it a flexible belt but one that stands shocks and heavy loads far better than ordinary belts. No other kind of belt has grom mets; no other belt stands so much punishment or lasts so long. After the B. F. Goodrich Grommet V belts were installed, it was found they lasted 200% longer than the belts used before -- important money was saved, and time formerly needed for replacement could now be used in profitable production. This performance is typical, not an unusual case at all. It's the result of
a policy at B. F. Goodrich -- the policy of constant product improvement, of never considering a product "good enough". If you use rubber belting, hose or other industrial rubber goods, it will pay you to check with your BFG distributor before you buy to see if you, too, can save money because of B. F. Goodrich research. Or write The B. F. Goodrich Company, Dept. M-96, Akron 18, Ohio.
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TIME October 5, 1953
3L-1 010, I 740 Broadway, New York 19, N. Y.
Volume LXII Number 14
B a n m
Don't give a*Ho-Hum"Gift tte Christmas!
C X M a M a a a t M t s m s e i S S K H M M . . M M g i t f H f i R B t a t a B g
for the people you like best -- and yourself too....
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You can make this Christmas unforgettable for friends and fam ily with Memberships in the Around * the - World Shoppers Club! Christmas can come 3, 6, even 12 times during the coming year to the lucky people on your list-- and at a price so low you can afford to give many more gifts than you thought possible. Just imagine the excitement of your friends as they begin receiving mysterious packages from abroad, with colorful stamps and exotic postmarks-- all sent in your name! Each gift exquisitely made, charmingly different and in perfect taste . . . representing the many fasci nating cultures of the world. Surprise Gifts Sent Each Month From Distant Lands One month your recipient may receive a rare example of Floren tine sculpture or a beautiful silk Indian sari; other months may bring an old-world woodcarving from Black Forest, a piece "of precious Belgian glass ware or a chic product of La Belle France. En closed with each package will be a colorful illustrated brochure describing the origin and significance of the article-- adding even more glamour to each gift!
How the Around-the-World Shoppers Club Can Send These Gifts for Only $2.00 Each
American dollar credits abroad are magic. And the Club commands fabulous bargains at the great International Fairs as well as in the markets and bazaars of native artisans who still ;create in ancient hand-craft tradi tions. Through the Club's enormous buying power and prestige, Memberships cost only $6.00 for 3 months, $11.50 for 6 months, $22.00 for 12 months, postage paid, duty free, direct from the place of origin. Every article value-guaranteed: if available in the U.S., each would retail at from $3.50 to $6.00! Thoughtfulness Again and Again! The glamour of most Christmas gifts quickly fades with familiarity but the pleasure of Around-the-World Shoppers Club Member ship is experienced month after month with the arrival of each new gift from abroad. Giving gift Memberships is easy. Just complete the coupon below, using an extra sheet, and mail. At Christmas-time each recipient re
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ceives a handsome card announc ing his Membership, and soon after he will enjoy his first gift from abroad. However, because so many of our gifts are made by hand and supplies are lim ited, we urge you to mail the coupon at once. You can be sure your friends will be enchanted with their gifts, for these are the things you would choose if you were travelling abroad! And here is our guarantee: if you are not delighted upon receipt of the first gift, we will refund you the total amount paid on the member ship. Rush your gift list today!
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Every time your gift Memberships total 36 months, you, or anyone you name, receives a FREE 6-month Club Membership. Simply add the name to your list, and indicate. The U. S. Post Office Dept. charges a service fee of 15# for delivery of foreign packages, which is collected by the postman and cannot he prepaid by the Club.
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"I have enjoyed your international treasure hunt' so very, very much. I think a membership would make a wonderful present to give some one!" -K.K.H.. Mefrose Park, ///. "The whole family gathers round when the latest package arrives. You are doing a wonder ful job . . . Each gift is a real bargain!" -R.R.B.. Montv»/e, Conn. "Just anticipating the coming of a 'surprise gift' has been great fun and a real lift!"
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-J.S.S., W/nsron-Safem. N. C.
(NOTE: All original letters on file in our office)
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
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Grass Roots Report Sir: What a great, wide, amazing country it ;urns out to be when one of your editors gets away from big city thinking [TIME, Sept. 14] ... Send more editors on tours of this reat country !
LAVONNE C. CRAWFORD
Dallas Sir: Your article . . .filled me with a deep sense of shame . . . Every group, it appears, is a special interest group . . . People's atti tude seems to be ... that we can have prosperity and security without paying for them. I hope there are a few citizens who thank their lucky stars that they can afford to pay taxes to defend their land, afford to pay for all the luxuries Americans enjoy . . . who deem it a privilege to help the world re main free, so that we may remain free our selves. We are admittedly a warm-hearted people when disaster strikes. Must we be awakened by a cataclysm?
MARY LEE HUNTER
Kentfield, Calif. Sir: Your "strong and stable U.S." strikes me as typical smug TiMEry ! All your readers are not thriving farmers, satisfied businessmen and relaxed Republicans. Neither are most Americans ... I would be very much inter ested in a feature article on "Our Forgotten People," the time-clock punchers, house wives and oldsters in the tragedy of America -- the aging big city. The people who prosper move their homes and stores to the suburbs, out to the sunlight and trees, but the millions who follow the
Letters to the Editor should be addressed to TIME & LIFE Building, 9 Rockefeller Plaza, New York20, N.Y. Subscription Rates: Continental U.S., 1 yr., $6.00; 2 yrs., $10.50; 3 yrs., $14.00. Canada and Yukon, 1 yr., $6.50; 2 yrs., $11.50; 3 yrs., $15.50. Planespeeded editions, Hawaii, 1 yr., $8.00; Alaska, 1 yr.,$ 10.00; Cuba, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, Canal Zone, Virgin Islands, Continental Europe & Japan, 1 yr., $12.50; all other countries, 1 yr., $15.00. For U.S. and Canadian active military personnel anywhere in the world, 1 yr., $4.75. Subscription Service: J. E. King, Genl. Mgr. Mail subscription orders, correspondence and instruc tions for change of address to: TIME SUBSCRIPTION SERVICE 540 N. Michigan Avenue Chicago 11, Illinois Change of Address: Send old address (exactly as imprinted on mailing label of your copy of TIME) and new address (with zone number, if any) -- allow three weeks for change-over. Advertising Correspondence should be addressed to: TIME, Time & Life Building, 9 Rockefeller Plaza, New York 20, N.Y. Copyright: TIME is copyrighted 1953 by TIME INC. under International Copyright Convention. All rights reserved under Pan American Copyright Convention. The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the use for republication of the local telegraphic and cable news published herein, originated by TIME, The Weekly Newsmagazine or obtained from The Associated Press. TIME INC. also publishes LIFE, FORTUNE, ARCHI TECTURAL FORUM and HOUSE & HOME. Chairman, Maurice T. Moore; President, Roy E. Larsen; Executive Vice-President for Publishing, Howard Black; Executive Vice-President and Treasurer, Charles L. Stillman; Vice-President and Secre tary, D. W. Brumbaugh; Vice-Presidents, Ber nard Barnes, Allen Grover, Andrew Heiskell, James A. Linen, Ralph D. Paine, Jr., P. I. Prentice; Comptroller and Assistant Secretary Arnold W. Carlson. P A TIME October 5, 1953 Volume LXI I Number T4 TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
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Rocks back and forth 1743 times per mite
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same deadly routine every day, year in and year out, see no improvement in their lives, and many don't have the nerve or ambition to want any. These are our starving ones -not starved for food, but for stable home life, religious training, proper channeling of talents toward making a productive liveli hood, ability to amuse themselves . . .
EDITH J. WILMER Minneapolis
Sir: Your contributing editor Alvin Josephy's junket produced an incisive report . . . How ever, Josephy's use of the label "progressive conservatism" is as valid as a label "conserva tive Communism." Conservatism, understood, needs no sugar-coated shell such as "progres sive" to be palatable.
JOSEPH M. TOCKMAN
Las Vegas, N. Mex. Sir: These one-man, grass-root surveys of pub lic opinion leave me skeptical. People are po lite by instinct and tend to tell the inquisitive stranger what they think the stranger wants to hear, or at least something that won't hurt his feelings . . . RIDGELY CUMMINGS San Francisco
Last word in luxury living -- for folks on a budget. For anyone. National's two, three, four-bedroom Pacemaker Houses incorporate the newest conveniences known to man -or woman. See your local National Homes dealer.
Sir: The arrogant British naval officers had better mind their language when they call the Chinese Nationalist navy "riffraff" (Sept. 7). In the past two months, I have visited Chinese navy ships, inspected their naval academy and watched their maneuvers. I have met many of their men, including ad mirals and sailors, and I'll cast my vote for their men being equal to the British or our own U.S. naval personnel. I've been privi leged to know many British and American admirals, including such charmers as Brit ain's Admiral Tennant and our own beloved Admiral Halsey. Free China's Admiral G. John Ma can hold his own with any of them. Had it not been for the determination of the Chinese Nationalists to remain free, plus America's continued recognition of Free China, it is very doubtful if the British would have Hong Kong and Singapore today. The Chinese Nationalists are lawabiding citizens, which is more than anyone can say for Communist China's naval pirates . . . Shame on England for not withdrawing recognition of these world gangsters.
BM BX f l
Don Adolfo & His People
Chosen by National Homes to set the pace for workless living in their new Pacemaker Houses. It was no surprise to National Homes that Bendix could do the outstanding. They'd already done it with over 2,000 Bendix Washers and Dryers in National-built homes. But the Pacemaker House must outdo them all! And it does . . . with the world's first and only clothes washer and dryer combination . . . the BENDIX DUOMATIC. It washes . . . then without so much as a nod from you ... it turns itself into a dryer. Set the dials just once, and the Duomatic does everything-washes, rinses, dries -- in one continuous operation. It's all automatic . . . it's all in one. See the fabulous BENDIX DUOMATIC today!
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Sir: Congratulations on the excellent cover story on Mexico's President Ruiz Cortines [TIME, Sept. 14]. With Naguib in Egypt, and Ike in America, one is moved to hope the usual moral decay following war is about over. After the long and dreary procession of aged, powerful murderers, sly and clever phonies, eggheads, screwball Messiahs, hotshots, white-haired, fast-buck boys and just plain internationally celebrated jerks -- it is refreshing to realize that an old-fashioned, honest man is, at long last, news.
WILLIAM CARLTON DAVIE Rosedale, N.Y.
Sir: If you want to join the gang bent on smearing Miguel Aleman, go ahead. That's what a free press is for, isn't it? But how do you know about those gaieties of Aleman and his pals? Did you have sleuths sneak in on them, or are you satisfied with broadcasting dirty gossip ? Why get so incensed because Aleman is good-looking? . . . President Ruiz Cortines is a very fine man. That's why Aleman made him his understudy
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
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TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
for many years in the difficult task of ruling Mexico wisely and, with no prodding from anyone, picked him to be his successor . . .
JULIO C. GAMAS MARIN
Mexico City Sir: You fellows seem to know more about Mexico than we that live here. Makes me feel like working for Don Adolfo after I read your excellent article ... Up to date there are a lot of people that believe that Mr. Ruiz Cortines is a puppet of Miguel Aleman's regime . . .
to go to California on the
A. E. RICHARDS Mexico City
Sir: Everyone who read your article certainly must have been really impressed by the char acter and the doings of President Ruiz Cortines . . . It may be only an impression at first sight . . . Has Mr. Ruiz Cortines jailed any of his former Cabinet colleagues of the Aleman era? Has he taken away from them the hundreds of thousands or millions of pesos which they had received illegally and corruptly ? Why has he done nothing of this kind? ... If he only had tried to do it, he would have been dead the very day his pur pose became known to all these corrupt people who have, today as yesterday, more power and more influence than the decent people like 'Mr. Ruiz Cortines . . . You and your reporter . . . overestimate the influence that the very high ethics of the President will have upon the conduct and the character of the officials ... I have no doubt that nothing has changed really except the behavior of the President himself and that of a few of his friends, who are a tiny minority . . . DR. WERNER ARON Quito, Ecuador Sir: Sombreros off to Chaliapin's clever coverpiece of Mexican Eagle Ruiz Cortines be heading a rattled and appropriately Ashaped, IB-mottled snake-in-the-GRAFT . . .
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HENRI DESCAMPS-FAJARDO Caracas, Venezuela
Sir: You slap the Mexican press when you say that it was too close to the game of Aleman and his cronies to chronicle much of it. Just what do you mean? That it was in jeopardy and therefore scared ? Shucks ! Like yourself, the Mexican press isn't scared of anything this side of the grave . . . Probably the lack of the chronicles you miss is due simply to the fact that there was nothing of the sort to chronicle . . .Who was the editor who, not with the traditional blue pencil of his kind but with the rewrite man's typewriter, was hurled out of his window four flights into the street, or was it a courtyard? He must have had a name. There must be a date to the crime. In short, who, when, where to substantiate your fabricated why.
YOU'LL LOVE San Francisco.You cross the Bay by ferry, see both famous bridges. Returning, try another S. P. route and streamliner. Send for folder that tells how.
For free color book, Wonderful Ways West, write C. T. Collett, S. P. Co., Dept. 433, 310 So. Michigan Avenue, Chicago 4, 111.
ARTURO DOMINGUEZ PAULIN Mexico City <§ No fabrication is the defenestration of Presente's Editor Jorge Pino Sandoval, who tried to print such chronicles in 1948, was tossed from the fourth floor into a courtyard by thugs, suffer ing severe injuries. -- ED.
Sir: Allow me to say a few words for Piltdown man . . . TIME'S book editor [Sept. 14] im plies that this ancient prototype leaves him cold. I realize, of course, that you can't like
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
A M E R I C A ' S 10
M O S T
M O D E R N
T R A I N
ORLONAddsEase ofCareand GoodLooksto MenswearThisFall
Today, men are looking more and more for clothes that are easy to live in, easy to take care of. In topcoats, they want comfort, and they expect good looks, too. You'll find both these qualities in top coats of "Orion". Du Pont "Orion" gives fabrics a rich, luxurious feel, makes them soft and comfortable. Yet it helps them keep neat-looking with less care and hold their shape better even in damp weather. There are other good things that "Orion" brings to men's clothes. Sports jackets, slacks, suits, shirts and other menswTear items that make proper use of "Orion" acrylic fiber can go longer without pressing. They are good travel ing companions, too. They pack easily, and when they are unpacked, most wrinkles hang out. This new kind of menswear is now available in fall and winter fabrics in a broad selection of colors, styles and pat terns. For the widest choice, you'll want to shop early.
"Orion" is Du Pant's trade-mark for its acrylic fiber "Orion" gives topcoc d feel of soft luxury, yet it makes them more practical than ever. SEE "CA VAL CAD £ OF AMERICA"ON TV
Clothes of "Orion" hold their press and shape better. They look neat longer, even in damp weather. They dry quickly and the press stays in. TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
You get more wear out of clothes of "Orion" because they keep neat-looking longer, spend more time on you and less time out for upkeep.
You'll find leading stores offering clothing made with "Orion". Du Pont produces fibers only -- not fabrics or garments. The skill of mills and manufacturers in using fibers properly is your assurance of quality and value.
How fo talk back to the boss
everybody. But just the same, it wasn't easy being Piltdown man. All he had between himself and starvation was a club. And what can you do with a club ? . . . He had a lot more to worry about than the question: What British author is going to write about Piltdown man? Nor do I believe he would object to a historical romance involving a pithecanthropus or two. But then he never heard of editors.
MERVIN C. HELFRICH Glen R'idge, N.J. Mr. Dulles' Ad Libs
Sir: By what right does TIME become the judge of how a U.S. Secretary of State should act or talk [Sept. 14]? Also, how' does TIME get the right to "score" his "hits and errors"? . . . Russia clearly stated how it wanted the German election to go. That was never criticized. However, when Mr. Dulles made a statement which was an exact reflection of the feelings of most Americans, the screams of "righteous" indignation were loud and long . . .
WARD S. YUNKER Atlanta
Sir: It strikes me that the criticism expressed may be well-founded, but is grossly mis placed . . . Congratulations, Mr. Dulles. It's a real relief to get an honest statement from anyone these days -- and especially a dip lomat . . . I am sick unto death of our adolescent approach to foreign affairs, and especially our pitiful fear of what the rest of the world thinks of us. Personally, I don't give a damn what the rest of the world thinks.
MARGARET A. BURKE Windsor, Vt.
Sir: We are indeed fortunate in that Mr. Dulles was not a Democrat under the Truman Ad ministration. One ad-libber at a time is enough.'
This isn't a case of "safety through distance." It's part of the yard man's job to talk back to the signal tower over the two-way loud speaker when making up freight trains on The Milwaukee Road. Modern communications play a big part in progressive railroading. Among the means used on the Milwaukee are short wave radio, tape recording, pneumatic tubes,
and public address systems. Add in the more obvious factors such as diesel and electric power, high speed track and seasoned transportation men, and you begin to get the full picture of what makes The Milwaukee Road a favorite. A word from you will put this railroad at your service. Milwaukee Road agents are located in principal cities. Call the man nearest you.
HENRY M. MICHELCIC Mt. Olive, 111.
Little New School House Sir: Concerning modern schools [Sept. 7] ... since when did octagonal and hexagonal buildings with their cost doubling and tripling the cost of a four-square, three-story build ing improve the study of the 3Rs? The average taxpayer and his school board have been taken for a fast ride down the chute by a lot of modernists who are not quite sure what they want to do except that it must be "different."
toot of the map!
G. I. BAGGETT Green Bay, Wis.
Payne Whitney Clinic SirYour article on the Payne Whitney Clinic [Sept. 14] expresses with clarity the process of psychiatric treatment which is so often surrounded with mystery and befuddled ex planations. As a clinical psychologist I am frequently asked to explain what psycho therapy is. In printing this article, TIME has made available to many readers an accurate account of "one of the hopeful arts of healing."
Miles of line 10,668 mber of stations 1,787 omotives 1,015 ight train cars . 57,583 isenger train cars 1,059 32,776
JANET L. HOOPES
THE MILWAUKEE ROAD
Route of the SUPER DOME HIAWATHAS
CHICAGO, MILWAUKEE. ST. PAUL AND PACIFIC RAILROAD 12
Strongest Men in the World Sir: It was a pleasure to see a magazine of your caliber devote a little intelligent at tention to the sport of weight lifting [Sept.
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
This "Ounce of Prevention
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TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953 Patent applied for
14], a form of athletic competition which, in its rude forms, is as ancient as any . . . and is deserving of more than the jealous jeers hurled at it by lesser men.
JAMES C. WOLFORD Forest Hills, N.Y.
Sir: "Officially, and beyond controversy . . ." Doug Hepburn is the 1953 world heavy weight weight-lifting champion -- but not "the strongest man in the world" . . . There were two men in the contest at Stockholm who have lifted higher totals officially than Doug Hepburn. John Davis, this year's runner-up, who was handicapped by a leg injury, holds the world's record total at 1,062 Y-Z Ibs., and Jim Bradford, who failed to place, has totaled 1,040 Ibs ... At the present time there is a young man (20) from Tennessee who is more deserving of being called "the world's strongest man"
WEIGHT LIFTER ANDERSON A 7621/4-lb. squat.
than anyone else known in the weight-lifting world. He is Paul Anderson, who packs a massive 300 Ibs. on a 5 ft. 9^ in. frame. In one year's intensive training, he is with in 15 Ibs. of Hepburn's press record (a rec ord it took Hepburn nine years to establish), has snatched more and has cleaned and jerked more than Hepburn. In fact, Anderson is one of the few men in the world to have cleaned and jerked 400 Ibs. ... In the squat, which first brought fame to Hepburn, the comparison is as follows: Hepburn's best is 665 Ibs. ; Anderson's official best is a stag gering 762% Ibs. . . . JIM MURRAY Managing Editor Strength and Health York, Pa. Family Survey Sir: . . . The Family Survey of the Lutheran Church -- Missouri Synod [Aug. 17] ... is not a "Kinsey for Lutherans." The sex ques tion was only one in 50 that were asked. The questionnaire, as a whole, was less than a third of the entire research into historic doc trines and practices in the Christian church. Regardless of the scientific objectivity of Dr. Kinsey, his name has come to be asso ciated with anything "sexational." It is not a compliment to have a religious study labeled in that way. PAUL G. HANSEN Research Director Lutheran Family Survey St. Louis
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
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. . . but he will by and by if the milk and stainless steel people have any say about it
Growing children need plenty of good, wholesome milk. Grown-ups do, too. And the U. S. milk industry, now supplying more than 60 million quarts of fresh, vitamin-rich milk and cream a day, is doing everything it can to increase production . . . and safeguard the purity and delicate flavor of this low-cost, body-building food. Take dairy farmers, for example. To guard your health, they aim for the lowest possible bacteria count. In increasing numbers, they pipe or pour milk as it is taken from the cows right into sterilized, self -refrigerat ing stainless steel farm tanks (it's Nickel-containing stainless steel, by the way). In these tanks, your milk is quickly cooled to about 38° F. to protect its flavor. Later on -- and still never touched by hand -- it's pumped into the stainless steel lined tank of an insulated truck. And "highballed" to dairies where, as you might expect, most of the equipment is made of bright, shining, Nickel-containing stainless steel. Now why all this stainless steel? Well, for one thing, milk doesn't rust or corrode this type of stainless. So there's no metal pick-up to destroy the delicate flavor of your milk and cream. For another thing, it doesn't pit. No hideouts for germs -- one reason bulk handling milk producers are able to keep their bacteria count down so low. For another thing, this stainless steel is easy to keep clean -- a "must" in the milk industry. Wash it and scrub it as hard and as often as you please -- put strong chemicals to it, harsh abrasives, live steam-- stainless steel can take this punishment and so protect the purity and flavor of your milk. Stainless steel aside, there are more than 3000 Nickel-containing alloys. Nickel-containing because Nickel adds toughness, hardness, cor rosion resistance and other special properties to metals with which it is alloyed.
Being alloyed, Inco Nickel does its work unseen. That is why it is called "Your Unseen Friend." You and "Your Unseen Friend": Morn ing, noon and night, Inco Nickel is always with you-- helping to make your life easier, brighter, more pleasant, more worthwhile. Just how? "The Romance of Nickel," an interesting booklet, tells you. Send for your free copy. Write The International Nickel Company, Inc., Dept. 359b, 67 Wall Street, New York 5, N. Y. ©1953, T.I.N. co.
. .Your Unseen Friend
The INTERNATIONAL NICKEL COMPANY, Inc,
Howls Business ?
Frigidaire "Packaged Cooling" can make your business better!
Frigidaire has a major part to play in almost every business under the sun . . . has. the outstanding refrigeration and air conditioning equipment that will help you cut costs, increase sales and improve manufacturing processes. No need to invest in costly, custom-made equipment-- you can save money and realize other important advantages with Frigidaire products that can be used, or adapted, for a wide variety of applications. Follow the lead of businesses of all types, coast to coast. Call your Frigidaire representative today-- it won't cost you a cent, and it may save you many dollars.
Do you operate an industrial cafeteria?
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Self -Contained Air Conditioners
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Ice Cream Cabinets
Frozen Food Display Cases
run a dress shop?
Reap the profit rewards by providing real relaxing comfort to increase store traffic, stimulate sales, and assure selec tions that don't wind up as returns. Frigidaire Self-Con tained Air Conditioners keep shop cool, crisp, clean in hottest weather, reduce mark-downs on soiled merchandise, make housekeeping easier. Frigidaire Water Coolers pro vide another appreciated customer convenience that sets you apart from your competitors.
run a motel ?
Maintain full occupancy at premium rates with new Frigidaire Room Air Conditioners, that combine the lux ury of Great Circle Cooling and the economy of Twin Meter-Miser compressors. New Frigidaire Automatic Ice "Cubelet" and Cube Makers eliminate all mess, uncertainty and high cost of ice delivery . . . open scores of possibilities for extra dollars from room service, icing vacuum jugs, providing more appealing cold drinks.
or run a bar?
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... or a grocery?
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Your Frigidaire Dealer will be glad to show you how science, business and industry use Frigidaire products to save time and increase profits. Look for his name in the Yellow Pages of the phone book. Or write Frigidaire, Dayton 1, Ohio. In Canada : Toronto 13, Ontario.
Reach-In Refrigerators Automatic Ice Cube Makers
Genera! Motors Presents "TV Football Game of the Week" Every Saturday afternoon. See local papers for time and station
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TfMl] m'MEl FTTME (TIME] TIME
L E T T E R
F R O M
T H E
P U B L I S H E R
The TIME covers on this page are only a few of the 1,596 that have appeared since the first issue of TIME was published in 1923. Many of you have followed the news of those thirty years with TIME -- and what years they have been ! Now, on our thirtieth anniversary, the editors of TIME have produced a book called Live Them Again, a "quiz book and memory jogger" covering the years 1923-1953. It has just been published by Si mon & Schuster in a paperbound edition (price: $1). Says the New York Times Book Review: "Ultrasophisticated ... a lot of good reading and good fun . . . TIME'S quizmasters know that a good question is one that is neither hard nor easy but that makes reader and friends want to look up the an swer. Their book does just that . . . It is as pleasant as opening up a boy hood drawer in an old family chest
* For the names, see page 122.
to come across such joggers ... as these: the depression phrase, 'We'll let you know if anything turns up'; the Chicago newspaper ad, 'Bullet holes rewoven perfectly' . . . and the Japanese battle cry, 'Go to hell, Babe Ruth -- American, you die.' " Simon & Schuster, old hands at publishing quiz books, have this to say: "Live Them Again is a parlor game matching the fiendish de lights of crossword puz zles, Ask Me Another and Twenty Questions. Do you know, for instance, who in spired the quip, 'There but for the grace of God goes God?' Who started network on-the-field play-by-play broadcast ing? Who was Herbert Hoover's run ning mate in 1932 -- described by H. L. Mencken as 'half Indian and half windmill'?" Do you know? Cordially yours,
I I /V\
T i M E
for an enchanted holiday so high in charm. ..so low in cost!
You'll yield with delight to the gay and gracious spirit of these tropic isles ... and find a whole new world in their ancient folkways and breath-taking loveliness. Air and steamship lines link Hawaii with San Francisco, Los Angeles, Portland, Seattle, Vancouver. From Honolulu and famous Waikiki Beach on OAHU, short flights take you to the other Hawaiian Islands . . . MAUI, HAWAII, KAUAI . . . each one delightfully different, each one luring you with new charms. Let your Travel Agent help you arrange a visit to them all.
7n 3Veu; Jork THE WALDORF-ASTORIA THE PLAZA AND THE ROOSEVELT In Washington, D. C. THE MAYFLOWER In St. Louis, Mo. THE JEFFERSON In Columbus, Ohio THE DESHLER HILTON In Tort Worth and 81 Paso, 7exas THE HILTON HOTEL In San "Bernardino, California ARROWHEADSPRINGS
In Chicago THE CONRAD HILTON AND THE PALMER HOUSE In £os Angeles THE TOWN HOUSE In Dayion, Obio THE DAYTON BILTMORE In Albuquerque, "New 'Mexico THE HILTON HOTEL In San Juan, Puerto Rico THE CARIBE HILTON In "Madrid, Spain THE CASTELLANA HILTON
The friendly hospitality of the famous Town House is beautifully portrayed in the gracious informality of the colorful Garden Room and its delightful outdoor dining patio. The lovely decor is characteristic of the originality found in each of the renowned rooms in the distinguished group of Hilton Hotels around the world.
Conrad N. Hilton, President EXECUTIVE OFFICES * THE CONRAD HILTON * CHICAGO 5, ILLINOIS
EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Henry R. Luce P R E S I D E N T R o y E . L a r s e n EDITORIAL DIRECTOR John Shaw Billings
INDEX Cover Story.. . .92 News in Pictures .... 30 A r t 8 6 Milestones 103 B o o k s 1 1 0 Miscellany ... 1 22 Business 91 M u s i c 5 1 Cinema 1 04 National Affairs.23 Education 58 P e o p l e 4 2 Foreign News. .35 P r e s s 4 5 Hemisphere. . . 40 Radio & TV... 80 International.. .32 Religion 68 L e t t e r s 6 Science 74 Medicine 54 S p o r t 6 5 Theater. . 78
MANAGING EDITOR Roy Alexander ASSISTANT MANAGING EDITOR Otto Fuerbringer SENIOR EDITORS Robert W. Boyd, Jr., Edward O. Cerf, Thomas Griffith, Henry Anatole Grunwald, Hillis Mills, John Osborne Content Peckham, Joseph Purtell, John Tibby, John Walker, Max Ways. Douglas Auchincloss, Louis Banks, Bruce Barton, Jr Gilbert Cant, Edwin Copps, Alexander Eliot, Frank Gibney, Max Gissen, Roger S. Hewlett, James C. Keogh Louis Kronenberger, Jonathan Norton Leonard, Robert Manning, William Miller, Paul O'Neil, Margaret Quimby Carl Solberg, Walter Stockly. Harriet Bachman, Jesse L. Birnbaum, Godfrey Blunden William Bowen, Peter Braestrup, Rodney Campbell Robert C. Christopher, Champ Clark, Richard M. Clurman, Donald S. Connery, George Daniels, Henry Bradford Darrach, Jr., Nigel Dennis, Thomas Dozier, Osborn Elliott, William Forbis, Rebecca Franklin, Bernard Friwell, Manon Gaulin, Ezra Goodman, Eldon Griffiths, Alex Groner, Alan Hall, Sam Halper, Carter Harman, Barker T. Hartshorn, Alvin M. Josephy, Jr., Theodore E. Kalem, Douglas S. Kennedy, Essie Lee Byron D. Mack, Peter Mathews, Robert McLaughlin Martin O'Neill, Richard Oulahan, Jr., Robert Parker" George B. Post, Richard Seamon, Mark Vishniak. Michael J. Phillips Virginia Adams, Shirley Barger, Helen Scott Bennett Dorothea Bourne, Amelia Riddick Brent, Barbara Brundage, Marjorie Burns, Peggy Bushong, Nancy McD. Chase, Lilian Davidson, Estelle Dembeck, Lois Dickert, Anne Dirkes, Kathleen Donahue, Joan Dye, Marta Erdman, Lenora Ersner, Harriet Ben Ezra, Jane Farley, Marcelle Farrington, Dorothy Ferenbaugh, Blanche Finn' Rosemary L. Frank, Mary Elizabeth Fremd, Judith Friedberg, Marcia Gauger, Marie Kathryn Gibbons, Berta Gold, Jean Gutheim, Dorothy Slavin Haystead, Harriet Heck, Robin Hinsdale, Bonnie Claire Howells. Helen Newlin Kalem, Quinera Sarita King, Helga Kohl, Vera Kovarsky, E. Eleanore Larsen, Mary Ellen Lukas, Sylvia Crane Myers, Amelia North, Mary Baylor Reinhart, Danuta Reszke-Birk, Margaret Rorison, Deirdre Mead Ryan, Jane Darby Scholl, Ruth Silva, M. Ava Smith, Zona Sparks, Frances Stevenson, Jean Sulzberger, Yi Ying Sung, Eleanor Tatum, Mary Vanaman, Paula von Haimberger, Marilyn Wellemeyer, Joan Wharton, Elsbeth Jean Wright. Lawrence Laybourne (Chief of Correspondents), Barren Beshoar, Grace Brynolson, Arthur W. White. Bureaus -- WASHINGTON: James Shepley, John Beal Walter Bennett, Marshall Berger, Clay Blair, Jr., George B. Bookman, Martha Bucknell, Edwin Darby, T. George Harris, Henry Luce III, James L. McConaughy, Jr., Alyce Moran, John L. Steele, James Truitt, Anatole Visson. CHI CAGO: Sam Welles, Robert W. Glasgow, Carl Larsen, Ruth Mehrtens, Robert Schulman. Los ANGELES: Ben William son, John Allen, Terry Colman, Frank McCulloch, James Murray. DETROIT: Fred Collins. ATLANTA: William Howland, Boyd McDonald. BOSTON: Jeff Wylie. DALLASWilliam Johnson. HOUSTON: Willard C. Rappleye, Jr. DENVER: Ed Ogle, Charles Champlin. SAN FRANCISCO: Alfred Wright, Robert Morse. SEATTLE: Dean Brelis. OTTAWA: Serrell Hillman, Byron W. Riggan. MONTREALWilliam White. TORONTO: Edwin Rees . FOREIGN NEWS SERVICE Manfred Gottfried (Chief of Correspondents). John Boyle, Frederick Gruin, Clara Applegate. Bureaus -- LONDON: Andre Laguerre, A. T. Baker, Honor Balfour, William McHale, George Voigt. PARIS: Eric Gibbs, Fred Klein, Curtis Prendergast, George Abell. BONN: Frank White, Tom Lambert. ROME: Robert Neville, Lester Bernstein, William Rospigliosi, John Luter. MADRID: Piero Saporiti. JOHANNESBURG: Alex ander Campbell. BEIRUT: James Bell, David Richardson NEW DELHI: James Burke, Joe David Brown, Achal Rangaswami. SINGAPORE: John Dowling. HONG KONGJohn M. Mecklin. TOKYO: Dwight Martin, James L Greenfield. MEXICO CITY: Robert Lubar, Rafael Delgado Lozano. PANAMA: Philip Payne. Rio DK JANEIROCranston Jones. BUENOS AIRES: Ramelle MaCoy. PUBLISHER James A. Linen ADVERTISING DIRECTOR H. H. S. Phillips, Jr. TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
What she's always wanted in luggage! An entirely new kind of smartly-styled, travel-worthy luggage, amazingly . . . sensa tionally lighter! In lovely, durable blue, brown, and tan fabrics . . . and in a choice of lustrous genuine leathers.
IF YOU Care... for the admiring glances of the travel -wise ...Carry WHEARY
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(RIGHT) THE COLONEL AND LITTLE COLONEL World-famed "soft sider" in a choice of gleaming top-grain leathers. One, two, and three-suit models. Matching overnite. For name of dealer, write WHEARY, INC., DEPT. 1006, RACINE, WIS.
Start of a wonderful dinner on the latest electric RCA Estate Range. RCA gives you a wide choice of gas or electric models.
How to Time in a home cooked meal . . .
Almost as simply as you tune in your RCA Victor radio or televi sion set, the busy housewife can now prepare meals on her new RCA Estate Range. Built-in time and trouble savers lead to unbe lievably easy cooking. Long known as the finest in their field, gas and electric Estate Ranges-- backed by the RCA trademark-- now offer you more fine features than ever before: automatic controls to start and stop cooking while you're out of the kitchen, Bar-B-Kewer meat oven, Balanced Heat baking oven, greaseless grill, self-wind ing Minute Minder, even a cool, fluorescent work light. Behind this newest member of the RCA family is the kind of re search and engineering you have come to associate with great radio, television, and electronic advances. The trademarks RCA and RCA Victor assure finer qual ity, greater value-- in the home and around the world.
RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA
World leader in radio --first in television
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
JL JL T JL
THE WEEKLY NEWSMAGAZINE
NATIONAL AFFAI RS
There is no sacrifice -- no labor, no tax, no service -- too hard for us to bear to support a logical and necessary defense of our freedom. That sentence in Dwight Eisenhower's speech to the Republican rally at Boston Garden last week set talk buzzing and typewriters clacking. Was it a portent of bad news? Many thought so. Treasury Secretary George Humphrey, scheduled to address the American Bankers Associa tion convention in Washington the fol lowing day, was puzzled when he heard the President's speech on TV. But, upon checking with the boss, Humphrey learned that the "no sacrifice" remark did not signify a switch in Administration tax plans. Reassured, Humphrey told the bankers next day that i ) "there will be no request for renewal" of the excess-profits tax, now due to expire Jan. i, and 2) the personal income-tax cut (about 10%) set for Jan. i "will become effective." He added that "many further adjustments in taxes are now under consideration." The bankers applauded. Their applause would probably have been less hearty if Humphrey had made it plain that some of the "further adjustments" would be adjustments up wards. Unbalanced Budget. Despite its whit tling job on the budget, the Administra tion is operating $3.8 billion in the red this fiscal year. The loss of excess-profits taxes and of IQSI'S income-tax boost will cost the Treasury some $5 billion a year. On top of that, other Korean war tax in creases -- on corporation profits and liq uor, wine, beer, cigarettes, gasoline, sport ing goods and automotive vehicles, parts and accessories -- are due to end April i. Total estimated revenue loss in fiscal 1955 (beginning next July): $7 billion a year. That plus the current deficit adds up to $10.8 billion. In order to balance the 1955 budget against its income pros pects, the Administration would have to cut its 1955 spending program $10.8 bil lion below the 1954 level ($72.1 billion). Washington officials do not believe that a slash of that magnitude is possible. They believe that the Administration will have to ask Congress to i ) postpone some of the April decreases, 2) enact new taxes to make up for at least part of the loss resulting from the January decreases, to which the Administration is now, after Humphrey's speech last week, firmly com mitted. The actual prospect may be darker than the figures indicate. Since the economy is operating at very near capacity, there is little chance that revenue receipts will exceed present estimates. But any slacking
THE ATOM Bombs for Everbody
Punctually to the second one morning last week, the wail of the air-raid sirens rose over New York City. Waved down by cops and white-helmeted wardens, the stream of auto traffic, from Staten Island to The Bronx, froze at the curbs; drivers and passengers scurried to shelter. In the schools, children left the classrooms, huddled together far down on inside cor ridors. Shoppers vanished from Fifth Ave nue; the subway stations filled up. Tele vision went off the air, and radio switched to the rotating CONELRAD emergency network (TIME, March 2). Within min utes, the city was silent, the streets de serted. Only the pigeons and 5,000 U.N. employees paid no heed. Fifteen minutes later, the all-clear sounded, the city came to life again, and the biggest public-participant practice drillt in history was a resounding success. New Yorkers had cooperated willingly, and 400,000 police and Civil Defense workers had played their roles well. New York's big drill and the whole hearted public cooperation was sympto matic of the growing concern over the atomic future. Across the land, there was a clearing, chilling awareness that Ameri ca and the world might be moving toward a climax of the atomic age. A Frightening Possibility. In Washing ton, a United Press reporter disclosed that the U.S. is nearly ready to start as sembly-line production of thermonuclear bombs. The new weapon will cost but a fraction of the price of the Eniwetok model (which retails at an estimated $100,000,000 f.o.b., Hanford, Wash.). On the conveyor belt moreover, the super bomb will come in a handy new size. Last year's test bomb, was too crude and cumbersome to be delivered by air. The new model will fit snugly into a 6-52. If was news of great portent. Conceiva bly, cheap bombs might some day be with in the reach of many nations, great and small. The possibility was almost as frightening as the news that the Russians could make the new weapon, and actually
* The U.N. felt it would be impolitic for a peace organization to recognize the drill. *f" The Civil Defense assumption for the drill: two so-kiloton atom bombs had expl'oded over lower Manhattan and outer Queens, killed 1,104,814 and injured 512,000, knocked out Brooklyn and Manhattan bridges, disabled pub lic utilities.
Herbert Redman -- LIFE
SECRETARY HUMPHREY Where will he get the money? off of business activity would cut the tax returns. Unpopular Levy. What will probably emerge from the Treasury's current study of dozens of varied tax schemes is a pro posal for a federal levy -- possibly 10% -on manufactured goods (TIME, Sept; 28). It would be collected from the manufac turer, but -passed on to the retail pur chaser. Foodstuffs and medical supplies would be exempt, as would alcoholic bev erages, cigarettes and gasoline, which are already taxed at special rates. Such a tax, if it replaced the present ill-assorted collection of excise taxes on jewelry, furs, luggage, musical instru ments, etc., would net perhaps $3.5 bil lion a year. This would still leave $7.3 billion to be made up by postponing some of the April decreases and by more paring of expenditures. Even if the unpopular manufacturers' tax is enacted, a balanced budget in the next fiscal year is unlikely.
sent zooming around the room; admiring the doodles which filled the drawing books of Barbara Anne, 4, and delighting in the baby tricks of Susan, 21 months. Last week the President also: <| Named Bryce Harlow, 37, former Okla homa City textbook publisher, as chief presidential speechwriter in place of Em met J. Hughes, who resigned to return to the editorial staff of LIFE. C| Revived the Point Four Program's pol icy steering committee, inactive since last November, by appointing seven new mem bers and continuing the tenure of five others. 1$ Attended the swearing-in as his liaison man with Congress of I. Jack Martin, one time Taft aide. Grinned Ike: "Be pre pared for a good long oath, because Justice Burton really gives you the works."
The Toothbrush Treaty
PRESIDENT IN SPRINGFIELD Right away quickly, a man's head and heart. had fired one specimen (TIME, Aug. 31). Officialdom was as concerned as the public over the lengthening shadow of the atom. The President and his National Security Council held a grim, top-secret meeting to study the problems of defense. After the conference, Vice President Nixon was the most talkative. Said he: "The council met, the President presided, and the meeting lasted three hours." A Crushing Capability. In Wentworthby-the-Sea, N.H., retired AEC Chairman Gordon Dean asked a blunt question. "Can we as a nation and can the nations of the now free world permit the Soviet to reach the position where, if it chooses, it can completely annihilate this coun try?" Dean asked a convention of textile manufacturers. "Time and the unwilling ness of the free world to stop the clock combine to give her this power . . . "While most of the world is fast be coming aware that it cannot afford war, all of the world is aware that wars cannot be effectively fought by any country whose hands are tied behind its back and that aggressions cannot be crushed with out the employment of the most crushing weapons . . . Russia has the capability today to hurt us badly, and . . . within two years she will have the capability to virtually destroy us if she moves first. Since we have consistently underesti mated the Russians, let's call it one year -- not two." Back from vacation (and a speechmaking trip in Massachusetts), Ike dropped in on the organizational meeting of his Commission on Foreign Economic Policy. A way must be found, he told the group, to "develop new markets for our great productive power and at the same time assist other nations to earn their own liv ing." Chairman Clarence Randall later declined to speculate on how this chal lenging goal might be achieved. "For a fellow with a loud mouth," he said, "you'd be surprised how tight I can keep it." Out on the lawn by the White House rose garden, the President was at his spontaneous best. Members of the U.S. Committee for United Nations Day stood hushed as they heard his simple avowal of faith in the U.N. : "Where every new in vention . . . seems to make it more nearly possible for man to insure his own elimina tion from this globe, I think the United Nations has become sheer necessity." Ike reached into his wartime memories for an object lesson to the Committee on Employment of the Physically Handi capped. He had once asked for a certain major general to be placed in command of a corps. He was told the man could not pass medical requirements. Replied Gen eral Eisenhower: "Please send this man right away quickly. It's his head and heart I want." Ike got his officer (who, although not identified by the President, was Troy Middleton), and he "fully met every expectation I had of him." The crushing problem of national de fense was the subject at both the Cabinet meeting and the lengthy session of the Na tional Security Council (see above). But during his off-hours, the President found time to visit his grandchildren, dodging the model planes which air-minded David, 5,
* Getting ready to speak. Stepping on to plat form: Press Secretary James C. Hagerty. Center: Massachusetts' Senator Leverett Saltonstall.
In July 1951, the late Admiral Forrest Sherman, then Chief of Naval Operations, slipped off quietly to Madrid to scout the chances for a military-aid pact with Spain which would give the U.S. the use of key Spanish naval and air bases. At that time Pentagon planners, worried at the poor progress of Western European defense, were anxious to insure a firm U.S. foot hold behind the Pyrenees, in case the Russians should overrun Germany and France. In October 1951 with U.S. mili tary and economic missions already active in Spain, Congress voted $100,000,000 for Spanish military and economic aid. Formal negotiations were begun six months later -- but they proceeded slowly. The State Department and the White House were reluctant to make any sort of agreement with Franco Spain. Their rea sons: i) the Franco government is a dic tatorship; 2) a U.S. -Spanish pact "might cause the jittery Western European allies to think that the U.S. considered them militarily indefensible. The Franco government, for its part, did not like to surrender sovereignty over any of its own military bases. Also, Spain hoped to raise the aid ante by playing coy. (Franco's hope: that the U.S. would out fit all Spain's armed forces, and re-equip the transportation system, in return for
White House Reoccupled
Critical problems were piling up, urgent questions waited for answers, but Dwight Eisenhower was calmly readjusting him self to life in the White House. At meas ured pace, he proceeded through a week which ranged from reviewing the nation's defense needs to enjoying his grand children.
TIME Map by R. M. Chapin, Jr. TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
the base rights.) Complained a Spanish diplomat: "You Americans outfit the rest of the world with wardrobes, but for us you have only a toothbrush." This year, the new Administration in Washington decided that 20 months is a long time to wait for a treaty. Ambassa dor James Dunn arrived in Madrid in April with orders from Secretary of State Dulles to get a pact signed. The Span iards, meanwhile, had realized that they had best be content with what aid they could get, since bolstered NATO forces made Spain less important as a defensive position in 1953 than it was in 1951. Last week Dunn and Spanish Foreign Minister Alberto Martin Artajo signed a 20-year defense agreement, with accom panying economic and military assistance pacts. The U.S. will give Spain $226,000,ooo, already appropriated by Congress, in military and economic aid. In return, the Spaniards give U.S. armed forces the right to use and develop certain Spanish bases. Their probable locations: air bases near Madrid, Barcelona and Seville ; naval facilities at the Atlantic port of Cadiz, the Mediterranean port of Cartagena.
was a prisoner of war because of unfortu nate circumstances. Other prisoners of war had it rougher than I had it. I have talked to a great many of those men, and there are real heroes among them . . . "I didn't see another American from July 27, 1950 to Sept. 3, 1953, and I want you to know what it means to be an American. It's something more valuable than anything else you have. And get it out of your head that I'm a hero. I'm not. I'm just a dog-faced soldier." Under the photofloods, Dean showed the marks of his ordeal. The brown hair his family knew had faded to frosty grey.
Since last July, Admiral Arthur W. Radford and the Joint Chiefs of Staff have been making a new assessment of the U.S. armed forces. Last week, their delib erations almost over, they found one problem more pressing than others. The problem: manpower. Because of low birth rates in the De pression years, the number of young men available for the draft each year has shrunk to 1,100,000, of whom roughly 850,000 can meet physical and mental standards. To keep up the present U.S. military force of 3,500,000 -- made up principally of two-year enlistees, 1,000,ooo new men are needed annually. The rate of re-enlistments in the Regu lar Army had dropped to 6.1% by De cember 1952. Current re-enlistment rates in all three services are far below require ments. The Navy and the Air Force in the past have filled their vacancies with fouryear volunteers -- since many men of draft age preferred four years at sea, or in the air to two Army years, which might in clude combat infantry service in Korea. With Korean infantry service now doubt ful, U.S. draftees find two-year terms of service more attractive. It is hard to find enough good officers. The rate of resignations from the U.S. Military Academy was 12% in 1952 -double the 1950 figure. Out of 810 naval R.O.T.C. college graduates, educated at Navy expense and eligible this year for regular commissions, only 10% applied. Said former Joint Chiefs Chairman Omar Bradley, at a congressional hearing last July: "If you removed today the prohibi tion against resigning from the [Regular] service, I think you would find a whole flock of resignations coming in." Why They Want Out. One reason for this state of affairs is full employment. Even in 1946 and 1947, the uncertain ties of civilian life kept much good officer and N.C.O. material in uniform. In the last few years, however, almost no civilian has wanted for some kind of employment. Wages in manufacturing industries have risen to 270% of 1940 wage scales. Mili tary pay during the same period has had no such rapid increase. Among other specific reasons for not entering the U.S. armed forces or staying in them: JOB SECURITY. The man in the service today is a pawn in the murky chessboard maneuvers of Congress and the services heads, continually changing the size, shape and pattern of the armed forces. A 20year pension plan, which induces a man to rejoin the service, might be rescinded the year after he comes in. An officer who has spent most of his professional life in some branch of specialized research is apt to find that Congress or the Defense Department has scrapped his whole branch overnight. THE RESERVES. Reservists and National Guardsmen, who should be a constant source of Regular Army material, were un justly handled during the Korean emer gency, because of badly organized reserve 25
Home Is the Harabaji
Borne on a friendly tail wind, the big, potbellied C-97 reached the California coast nearly an hour ahead of schedule. The pilot radioed ahead for instructions, and the word came back: slow down. By the time the plane touched ground at Travis Air Force Base and taxied into the television and newsreel lights one night last week, everything was in readiness. Air police tried to hold back a cheering crowd of 500. As soon as the ramp was lowered, a beaming woman hurried up into the outstretched arms of her husband. There, in the relative privacy of the big plane, Major General William F. Dean and his wife embraced. When they emerged, smiling, a few moments later, the crowd broke ranks and surged around them. The most famed prisoner of the Korean war was home at last. In the confusion of the flashbulbs and the frenzied greetings, two-year-old Rob ert Dean Williams was shoved into the arms of the grandfather he had never seen. The child started to cry. There were tearful hugs from the general's 73-yearold mother, his daughter and other rela tives. Someone in the swarming crowd plucked a silver star from his shoulder, and by the time he was led to the waiting room of the terminal for a press confer ence, Dean looked bewildered and happy. A Challenge for Rocky. As he faced the press, General Dean seemed to have some trouble keeping his emotions under control. "I'm overwhelmed by this wel come," he said in a halting voice. "It has been a great surprise to me to have this accorded me at every stage of my trip from Panmunjom to my final destination, my home." Then his thin voice took on a parade-ground tone. "I want a few things understood," he said. "I was not a hero. I
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
GENERAL WILLIAM DEAN & GRANDSON
Just a dog-face.
A deep tan could not cover his haggard P.W. look. But he had a quick smile for the welcomers. "I feel like a million dol lars," he said. "I almost sent a challenge to Rocky Marciano, I feel so good." A Cable for Rhee. Afterward, Dean drove to his hillside home in Berkeley, which he had never seen, with his sleeping grandson on his lap. Next morning, the general ate breakfast in his patio and re ceived a procession of reporters and rela tives. Occasionally a feminine voice -- his wife's or daughter's -- called from the win dow to ask whether he wanted bacon or sausage with his eggs, or what he wanted to do with his laundry. His two grand children crawled in his lap, and he tried to teach young Dean Williams to call him "harabaji," which is Korean for "grandpa." Later, there was a family party at his mother's and a big welcome from the citi zens of Berkeley. At week's end, Dean got off a cable to Syngman Rhee, asking clem ency for the two South Koreans under in dictment for betraying him to the Com munists, and began to answer a three-foot stack of mail -- most of it from parents of soldiers still listed as missing in action. For the hero of Taejon, it was the end of a long and harrowing journey.
records. Men with large families and prom ising careers found themselves suddenly fighting in Korea, while unmarried stu dents or young married men of draft age got easy deferments. Tens of thousands of reservists, exasperated by' this system, have severed their connections with all reserve programs. NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICERS. In a by gone day, Army sergeants and Navy chief petty officers were important men, the backbone of their services. Now there are serious shortages of N.C.O.s in all the services. One reason: the importance of their rank has been steadily watered down. In their desire to reward technical spe cialists and keep men re-enlisting, the
The present division of the U.S. Sen ate (47 Republicans, 47 Democrats and Wayne Morse) pleases nobody except Wayne Morse. With elections to be held next year for the places now occupied by 13 Republicans and 21 Democrats, plan ners of both parties are busy figuring out ways & means to win control of the Sen ate. The G.O.P. has a covetous eye on the Senate seats of five Democrats: Illinois' Douglas, Iowa's Gillette, Delaware's Frear, Montana's Murray and Minnesota's Hum phrey. Democrats have marked four Re publicans for defeat : Michigan's Ferguson,
back home. But he campaigned hard this summer, and Democratic chances are fad ing in Massachusetts. Targets for Republicans: <| Paul H. Douglas: Having annoyed many Illinois liberals by his economy stand, freewheeling Paul Douglas will need all the help he can get. <I Guy M. Gillette : In a state which went 64% Republican last year, his situation is shaky. Representative Thomas E. Martin is seeking Iowa's G.O.P. nomination. tj J. Allen Frear: Unimpressive in the Senate, Frear may pull through on his campaigning in Delaware. <I James E. Murray : Montana Republi cans always think -- so far, wrongly -- they are going to beat Murray. <J Hubert H. Humphrey: Minnesota's best potential G.O.P. candidate, Repre sentative Walter H. Judd, is backing away from a Senate race against fast-talking, New Dealing Humphrey, whose chances are improving. In Ohio, Robert A. Taft Jr. is being urged to try for his father's place, now vacant. But Democratic Governor Frank Lausche would be a rugged opponent even for a Taft. It would be an ironical twist of politics if the G.O.P. were to lose the Senate by dropping the seat once held by Mr. Republican.
The War Dancers
CAMPAIGNER FERGUSON & CONSTITUENTS* On five Democratic Senate seats, a covetous eye. armed forces have passed out ratings far too liberally. Moves to "democratize" the services have also reduced the N.C.O.s' authority. With the resultant loss of re spect for noncommissioned rank, many veteran N.C.O.s quit in disgust. Solutions? A Pentagon committee, headed by Rear Admiral John P. Womble, is now at work trying to recommend some policy steps for solving the armed forces manpower problem. Among their sugges tions: more pay and the retention of old perquisites, such as commissaries; a con sistent personnel policy with unchanging limits for pensions and retirement; a greater effort, from the top down, to en force discipline and give troops stronger leadership -- pride in a military unit is often a good substitute for big pay in a blanket factory. Another high-level suggestion: increase the enlistment bonus from the present $600 top to $1,500-$2,000. It takes about $14,600 to bring a raw recruit into one of the services and train him properly. One trained man with a bonus of $2,000, reenlisted, theoretically puts the U.S. Gov ernment $12,600 to the good. Kentucky's Cooper, California's Kuchel and Massachusetts' Saltonstall. Targets for Democrats: <I Homer Ferguson : A few months ago, Democrats were confident of toppling Fer guson. Now they are not so sure. Fencemending his way through 46 of Michigan's 83 counties, he has dropped his ponderous, fault-finding manner and shown friendly skill as a campaigner who appears at wed ding receptions, fraternal meetings and county fairs. <I John Sherman Cooper : About as popu lar as a Republican can be in Kentucky, the courtly Cooper last year carried a state that Ike lost. But he will be in deep trouble if Alben Barkley decides to run (TIME, Sept. 14). <1 Thomas H. Kuchel : An appointee of Governor Earl Warren, Kuchel is little known and is skeptically regarded by his party's conservative wing in California. <I Leverett Saltonstall: As chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee, Saltonstall has little time for politicking
* Patrick AU'en Heck and bride, daughter of Michigan's Secretary of State Owen Cleary.
"What's the atmosphere there in St. Louis?" Vice President Dick Nixon asked, just before he set out on behalf of Presi dent Eisenhower last week to try a charmand-pacification job on the delegates to the American Federation of Labor con vention. "Cool," said Acting Labor Secretary Lloyd Mashburn. Nixon then asked an odd question: "Why?" "You know as well as I do," Mashburn bluntly replied. The answer was indeed obvious -- the delegates were sore and sus picious over the resignation of their fellow unionist, Pipefitter Martin Durkin, as Sec retary of Labor. They preferred to believe that Durkin was speaking the truth when he said that the President had gone back on an explicit face-to-face promise to rec ommend 19 changes in the Taft-Hartley law. Addressing the convention, the exSecretary had spoken softly, even admir ingly, of Eisenhower, but he had plainly implied that he considered Ike's denial of his accusation a lie. He cited three main points: 1) The 19 proposed amendments, he said, were not a rough working draft, as the Administration argues, but had actu ally been on their way to Congress in final form on the very day Senator Robert A. Taft died. 2) Though it was decided to hold back the amendments out of deference to the Senator, and though the Wall Street Jour nal subsequently set off a wave of criticism from U.S. industry by publishing them, the President personally assured him on
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
Aug. 19, Durkin said, that the leak would make no difference in his attitude. 3) On Sept. io, the President "informed me that he had changed his position . . . and could no longer go along with the 19 amendments." The Silent Treatment. The delegates applauded Durkin vociferously and pre pared, almost to a man, to enjoy disliking the Vice President. When Nixon stepped out of an Air Force plane at St. Louis, not a soul from the A.F.L. was on hand to greet him. Next morning, when he walked to the speaker's platform in the Gold Room of the Jefferson Hotel, not a soul applauded. Though there was a perfunc tory scattering of handclaps later, when he began to speak, hundreds of delegates simply sat and looked at him. But if Nixon realized at this point that he had entered a lion's den, he seemed buoyed by a truly Daniel-like confidence. He began by speaking of his "good friends" in the ranks of labor. He praised the "splendid . . . aggressive leadership" of A.F.L. President George Meany. "Then down at this table in front of me," he went on, "I see another good friend, Martin Durkin . . . We are going to miss Martin Durkin in Washington. I am sure Mrs. Nixon will agree with me [that] we are going to miss Mrs. Durkin . . . one of the most gracious ladies ever to be in Wash ington." This made scant impression, how ever, if only because the delegates knew what Nixon apparently had failed to real ize -- that the Durkins have lived in Wash ington for years and still do. An Angry Murmur. "If, at the conclu sion of this Administration's first four years in office, the American people con clude it has served the greedy few." Nixon cried, "[it] will lose the next election and it will deserve to lose." A burst of derisive laughter swept the hall. The delegates grew even more hostile as the Vice Presi dent set out to explain the controversy between Eisenhower and Durkin as a "mis understanding" between two "honorable men." The President, Nixon stated, "has never been guilty of breaking his solemnly given word on anything." An angry mur mur rose as he said: "I trust him and I think the American people indicated that they trust him by [their] overwhelming vote . . ." But the delegates swallowed their iras cibility completely when Secretary of State John Foster Dulles made an appearance. Received with surprising warmth, he said: "You have done more than any other single body to explode the Communist myth. In this matter there should be closer partnership between us" -- and got a ringing round of applause when he finished. It was a big-name convention. Ex-Presi dent Harry Truman attended too, and was given an uproarious reception -- although he paid for it. Long-winded A.F.L. Ancient Matthew Woll and other speakers, who preceded him at a memorial service for the federation's former president, William Green, talked for more than an hour. Truman listened restively, and limited his
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
Newark Evening News
'Snow THE BOYS IN " own remarks to five minutes of remi niscence. Decontamination Squad. Not since 1935, when John L. Lewis took a swing at the carpenters' Bill Hutcheson, had an A.F.L. convention turned out so much banner news. And it did not stop with celebrities or the delegates' belligerent re action to the Eisenhower-Durkin split. With George Meany as president, the fed eration had a strong hand at the helm for the first time since gentle old Bill Green took office in 1924; and for the first time in many decades, it set out to clean up its own house. Ambitious Teamster Chieftain Dave Beck leaped into a decontamination job, throwing Joseph P. Ryan and his gangsterridden International Longshoremen's Association out of the federation at long last, and setting up a new A.F.L. union to wrest control of the New York waterfront. Beck, President Meany, and Paul Hall, East Coast big wheel of the Seafarers Union -- all members of a five-man com mittee which is to run the new waterfront union -- made it plain that they intended to make the I.L.A.'s expulsion stick. And it was obvious, even as old Joe Ryan was gobbling his last "heavy-hearted" words of protest into a microphone on the con vention floor, that the Hudson River piers would not be reformed without a battle. In New York, tough I.L.A. satraps began a desperate effort to renew the union's contract (which is due to expire this week) by reducing their demand for a 50^ -anhour wage increase to 10^. Words -- and Muscle. New York water front employers seemed on the point of going along. But the A.F.L. acted fast to deny Ryan's union the new contract -- and its present position as bargaining agent. Beck asked Governor Tom Dewey to exert every influence to keep the employers from signing; the A.F.L. executive coun cil asked "federal, state and city authori ties" and "responsible citizens" to swing their weight against a "collusive" contract. At the same time, gangs of muscular, white-capped A.F.L. sailors took more practical action. Armed, the I.L.A. pro tested, with jack handles, two-by-fours and crowbars, they invaded Brooklyn piers dominated by Longshore Boss Anthony ("Tough Tony") Anastasia, and stood significantly by while speakers promised protection for all dockworkers who de serted to the new union. The employers, at least temporarily, took a standoffish attitude toward the I.L.A. At week's end, as the A.F.L. convention broke up in St! Louis, New York and New Jersey cops were hurriedly preparing for trouble e» the docks.
Francis Miller -- LIFE
A.F.L. PRESIDENT MEANY For Ike, an angry murmur.
Higher Cost of Living
The U.S. cost of living went up again in August, reaching the highest peak yet. The Bureau of Labor Statistics reported last week that its index (1947-49 = 100) in creased from 114.7 in mid- July to 115 in mid-August, with meat, rent and increased New York City subway fares accounting for much of the rise (fresh vegetables, home furnishings and women's clothing declined a bit). In news accounts of the B.L.S. report, such headline phrases as "new high" tended to obscure the fact that over the past year the retail price level has changed very little: in August 1952, the index stood at 114.3.
No Need to Apologize
With the changing generations, histo rians alter their interpretations of past events. Historian Francis Parkman, writ ing in the 18505, thought of the westward movement in the U.S. as the story of man's impact on nature. Frederick J. Tur ner, writing 50 years later, saw pioneering as the origin of U.S. individualism. A modern U.S. historian, Columbia Univer sity's Allan J. Nevins (The Ordeal of the Union), speaking in Dearborn, Mich, to the Society of American Archivists, dis cussed some added meanings of the mod ern era in U.S. history -- "the emergence of America to the leadership of the West ern world." Said Historian Nevins : "My own guess is that this great de velopment . . . will in some fashion be connected, by future interpreters, with the advent of an age of mass action, mass production and mass psychology in Amer ican life. From being one of the most unorganized, the most invertebrate of na tions in 1860, we have grown into the most powerfully and efficiently organized people on the globe . . . Our thinking in 1864 was still individual thinking. Today it is largely mass thinking, shaped and colored by mass media of unparalleled and sometimes dismaying potency . . . Our national outlook, once that of the indi vidualistic pioneer, has become a social outlook. Without this pervasive internal change, our new position in the world would have been impossible. "The striking shift in our character and our world position in the last half-cen tury, of course, has some direct results, already visible, in our interpretation of history . . . The apologetic attitude of the years of the Great Depression is gone. We can henceforth be more confident and more energetic in asserting that our way of life, called decadent by our enemies, has proved itself historically to be freer, more flexible and more humane than any other . . . "In the past, our historians were apolo getic about our love of the dollar, our race to wealth, our interest in material objects . . . Our writers in general -- for our historians but followed the poets, the novelists and the dramatists, intimated
that America had grown too fast, too coarsely, too muscularly . . . "We can now assert that this historical attitude was erroneous. The nation grew none too fast. We can see today that all its wealth, all its strength, were needed to meet a succession of world crises -- and we still dwell in a crisis era. Had we applied restrictions to keep our economy small, tame and pure, we would have lost the first World War. Had the United States not possessed the mightiest oil industry, the greatest steel industry, the largest au tomotive factories . . . and the most in genious working force in the world, we would indubitably have lost the second World War. Were we significantly weaker today in technical skills, in great mills and factories and the scientific knowledge which gave us priority with the atomic bomb and hydrogen bomb, all Western
Alfred Elsenstaedt -- Plx
HISTORIAN -NEVINS lameness does not build civilization. Europe would be cowering -- we ourselves would perhaps be cowering -- before the knout held by the Kremlin. The archi tects of our material growth -- the men like Whitney, McCormick, Westinghouse, Rockefeller, Carnegie, Hill and Ford -- will yet stand forth in their true stature as builders of a strength which civilization found indispensable. "It will yet be realized that the indus trial revolution in the United States came none too soon, and none too fast, and that the ensuing mass-production revolu tion, as yet so little understood by Amer icans, was not born a day too early."
Cloak & Dagger Economics
On the night of May 13, 1953, a British revenue officer in Hong Kong, watching the midnight sailing of the Hong KongMacao ferry, spotted a man swimming in the dark water alongside the ferry's hull.
He was towing several inflated rubber bags. When the officer shouted at him, the swimmer dived and escaped. Inspectors who got the bags out of the water found that they contained American tool bits, of a type in great demand in Communist China. The Communist frogman had hoped to attach them to the ferry's hull, for the journey out of Hong Kong's territorial waters. After that, smuggling them into Red China would have been easy. Barely a week later, Italian finance po lice picked up a California-born Italian citizen named Walter Rava in a small cafe in Milan. He was arrested for forging an Italian government import certificate for 5,000 tons of Chilean copper. Rava was part of a gang, headed by the Rumanian commercial attache in Bern, Switzerland, which specialized in getting control of strategic materials sent to Europe, sup posedly destined for Western European businessmen. Once the goods arrived, they were smuggled behind the Iron Curtain. Rava and the Chinese swimmer, each in his own way, were part of an international Communist drive to get strategic goods from the West. The British revenue offi cers and the Italian police were part of an effort by the free world governments to stop the Red smuggling. This week the U.S. economic experts who direct this effort published their third formal prog ress report, over the signature of Foreign Operations Director Harold E. Stassen. Their conclusion : controls on strategic ma terials exports to the Communists have considerably tightened. Pressured Aluminum. The command center of the long economic fight against Communism is Washington's Economic Defense Advisory Committee, representing eleven government agencies, ranging from the Department of Agriculture to the Atomic Energy Commission. EDAC re ports to Director Stassen, who is charged with administering the Battle Act. This law, passed in 1951, forbids U.S. aid to any country which knowingly permits goods on the U.S. embargo list to be shipped behind the Iron Curtain. By the nature of their mission, EDAC and its agents overseas have to conduct most of their operations in secret. It helps no one but the Communists, for instance, to publicize the kind of pressure used to block a shipmerit of aluminum from going to a Communist country. As a result, the gaps in the control system are far more widely known in the U.S. than its suc cesses. Total exports by the NATO coun tries to Russia, the European satellites and Communist China dropped from $1,269,700,000 worth in 1947 to $449,900,000 in 1952. The U.S., as the EDAC report makes clear, cannot make its allies cut out trade in nonstrategic materials with the Com munist bloc. EDAC's economic warriors, however, have tried to persuade other free world businessmen, and their govern ments, that trade with the Communists will not bring the rosy economic future which the Reds promise. Principal reason: Communist planners, intent on getting
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 19B3t
economic self-sufficiency inside the Iron NEW YORK Curtain, are interested in Western manu factures only until they can make the Y o n k e r s D o o d l e products themselves. While businessmen Until a decade ago, harness racing was selling to the Communists may make fast a minor, pastoral sport, largely confined short-term profits, they make their coun to county fairgrounds and camp-town tries dangerously vulnerable to future tracks. Then the trotters were brought Communist pressures when the Reds re to the big city, presented to the racing sume their old practice of using trade as public at night in big, new floodlighted a political weapon. tracks, and built up to a major sporting Precluded Kerosene. Since 1951, when enterprise. Today harness racing is a $430 the U.N. General Assembly embargoed million-a-year business, the fastest-grow arms and war material shipments to Com ing spectator sport in the U.S. With so munist China, the U.S. economic warriors much money and public interest, it was have concentrated on widening the list of almost inevitable that the bumpkin sport prohibited goods in other countries. To would catch the eye of big-city racketeers. cut down free world exports to Red China, L a s t w e e k i n N e w Y o r k , a s a m a j o r EDAC and its overseas agents are also harness-racing scandal unfolded, Governor constantly negotiating with free world Thomas E. Dewey ordered an investiga countries to adopt more stringent inspec tion of racketeering at the raceways. tion systems on shipping under their con The trouble centered around Yonkers trol. Using its exchange power as a lever, Raceway, the nation's leading harness the U.S. tries to find alternative markets track, where million-dollar nights at the for countries which would like to sell to parimutuel windows are commonplace, and China. As a last resort, EDAC's cloak & spectators outnumber the fans at Ebbets dagger economists have used "preclusive Field. buying," i.e., outbidding the Communists Last August, Labor Boss Thomas F. for China-bound goods. Early this year, Lewis was murdered outside his Bronx in this way, the U.S. kept a shipment of apartment by a hired gunman who was Rumanian aviation kerosene from reach killed, in turn, by a policeman. Lewis ing a Chinese port. was president of Local 32-E of the A.F.L.'s For the first few months of 1953, ac Building Service Employes' Union, which cording to EDAC's report, controls on had free rein at Yonkers Raceway. strategic goods tightened, e.g., in March Trouble Insurance. Lewis, it turned Britain agreed to establish a tougher out, had run Yonkers Raceway as though licensing system for British ships in the he owned it. The management meekly Chinese trade (TIME. March 16). But agreed to hire hoodlums and ex-convicts shipments of nonstrategic goods, as a re brought in by Lewis and ignored the state sult of the Korean armistice negotiations law requiring sworn affidavits outlining and Red China's sudden eagerness to trade their backgrounds. In the three years with the West, are almost 50% heavier that Yonkers Raceway has been operating, than they were at this time last year. If the management also shelled out $165,000 the armistice sticks, the U.S. faces heavy to four labor "troubleshooters." The pay pressure from foreign businessmen to cut offs were made to prevent "labor dis down EDAC's embargo list, or abandon turbances" which might close the track. it altogether. Press and public clamored for the an swers to two questions: i) Why had the New York State Harness Racing Com mission done nothing about the violation of the regulations? and 2) Who were the owners who submitted to Lewis' dictator ship? As the storm swirled up the Hudson to Albany, Governor Dewey acted prompt ly. First, he suspended the license of the Yonkers track (which was scheduled to open a 42-night fall meeting this week) until all 1,200 employees had submitted fingerprints and required statements. Penny's Ante. The names of some of the owners of the Yonkers Raceway, meanwhile, were made public. Head of the Yonkers Trotting Association and owner of all voting stock is William H. Cane, 79, sportsman who built Boyle's Thirty Acres in Jersey City (scene of the DempseyCarpentier "Battle of the Century") and promoted the Hambletonian at his Goshen, N.Y. track as the nation's top an nual harness race. Other stockholders included J. Russel Sprague, G.O.P. na tional committeeman, boss of Long Island's Nassau County and close friend of Gov ernor Dewey; Dr. Richard Hoffman, best United Press GOVERNOR DEWEY known as Frank Costello's psychiatrist; The fingerprints were wanted. and Mrs. Jeanne Weiss, daughter of the
TIME, OCTOBER 5. 1953
STOCKHOLDER SPRAGUE The payments were deferred.
late Democratic bigwig, Irwin Steingut. Sprague got his 4,000 shares of Yonkers stock from Norman Penny, another Long Island Republican leader, in a unique timepayment plan. The 1950 sale price was $20 a share; Sprague 's dividends were $6 a share the first year, $8 a share the second. He completed payments in the spring of 1953- When the scandal broke, the stock was worth about $100 a share. This week, as Dewey's investigators got to work on the Yonkers mess, the New York World-Telegram and Sun trotted out another scandal, this one at Roosevelt Raceway on Long Island. Labor bosses, the paper said, have been milking the pay checks of track employees for $345,000 a year; every Friday night, Roosevelt em ployees who wanted to keep their jobs hastened to a bar in nearby Hempstead and forked out cash tribute to the rack eteers.' Some of the payments went for tickets to clambakes, but the rest of the money was simply handed over with no questions and no explanations. Owner of the bar is William De Koning, onetime A.F.L. power and close friend of George Morton Levy, head of the Roose velt Raceway. In 1951, Levy admitted to the Kefauver committee that he paid Frank Costello $60,000 over a four-year period to keep bookmakers out of the Roosevelt track. De Koning, it developed, is a capitalist of some dimensions as well as a big union man; he owns approximate ly $300,000 worth of stock in the Roose velt and Yonkers tracks, has admitted yearly incomes as high as $125,000. De Koning resigned last May as chief of Long Island's construction unions, but continued as the unofficial labor leader at Roosevelt Raceway. Immediate reaction to the Long Island revelations was a chorus of denial from the Roosevelt management and a flurry of subpoenas from the Nassau County district attorney's office.
PILFERING COP: Patrolman Harold C. Smith, 41, with 14 years on Cleveland force, is caught by newsphotographer (snapping pictures from win dow across the street) as he rifles a parking meter (left). Detectives, tipped off by re porter, close in to make arrest.
REWARDED MOTHER: Mrs.
Anne Spada, 29, who reached finals of Mrs. America beauty contest but withdrew to be with nine children and plantforeman husband, enjoys re ward of unselfishness: a free Florida vacation given by re sort owners for whole family.
SEAFARER'S NIGHTMARE: Passengers aboard French liner lie de France crowd to railing as crewmen of Liberian-flag freighter Greenville,
smashed in howling Atlantic gale, abandon the stricken vessel to storm. lie de France sailors, fighting 20-ft. waves, rescued 24 of 26 in crew.
SHUTTERBUG'S DELIGHT: Fireworks and 1,000 flashbulbs light up Chicago's Museum of Science and Industry for 3,000 local camera fans who shot picture on cue from loudspeaker.
I NTERN ATION AL
The fall leaves turned gold, the swal lows arrowed south, and the world's statesmen came back from the beaches and the mountains to the cares of a new season. The cares were still dismally the same -- they had taken no vacation -- but the atmosphere around them was changed. Summer had begun with Moscow's peace offensive running full blast. Fall was be ginning with stirrings which could, with out much stretching, be called a Western peace offensive. The movement was loose and vague, but it somehow fell together around one word: assurances. In their public pronouncements and pri vate talks, Western diplomats last week repeated the word again and again -- assur ances that will convince Russia that the West wants peace, assurances against re newed fighting in Korea, assurances to quiet France's fears of reborn Germany. Britain's Winston Churchill spoke up again for four-power talks to negotiate Locarno-type assurances between Russia and the West. At the U.N., where U.S. Secretary of State Dulles had set the tone by recognizing Russia's right to assurances against hostile encirclement (TIME, Sept. 28), France's Maurice Schumann carried the matter further. "No nation under stands better than France what the haunt ing fear of invasion and the obsessive longing for security can mean," said he. He turned pointedly to Russia's Andrei Vishinsky. "I assure you, you will find us ready to seek with you ... a guarantee against the modification by force of exist ing boundaries." Schumann also thought he saw hope of negotiating peace in IndoChina (see below}. The U.N. talked of a new plan to neu tralize Korea and exchange mutual assur ances with the Communists against re newed aggression there. In Western Eu rope, allied diplomats concentrated on ways to reassure hesitant France that it can safely unite with Germany in the EDC (see below}, while France took pains to tell Russia -- as did Germany's Konrad Adenauer before them -- that assurances can be negotiated to convince Moscow of EDC's peaceful purpose. If all the talk meant what it seemed to mean, the West was embarked on a real effort to test Russia at the negotiating tables. uties and hoped that "you will find the road completely cleared of problems . . ." But he brought up the problem of Trieste (TIME, Sept. 21); the French delegation worried about France's claims in the Saar; the Dutch wanted to talk about trade barriers; only the Germans seemed keen on the real purpose of the meeting: to frame a political constitution for Europe with "as strong a supranational authority as possible." Once accepted, the political authority would be nourished by the Eu ropean coal-steel pool (already in opera tion), and defended by the long-planned six-nation European Army. rope last week was making faster progress towards it than it had in all of a year. EDC -- the scheme to get the Germans into uniform on the side of the West within the straitjacket of a European De fense Community -- had risen from its sup posed deathbed. Euro Blank, the embry onic Defense Ministry of West Germany, casually let it be known that 105,000 vol unteers are ready to don European Army uniforms; to prove that the Ruhr can arm them (a point that has been proved be fore). German industrialists staged an impressive display of military trucks and signals equipment. Another German group even offered to show France how to build homes more quickly. Such activity east of the Rhine, though dramatic evidence of Germany's astonish ing comeback, did at least as much harm as good. The No. i obstacle to EDC is French fear of German arms; the more eager the Germans are to have them, the less willing are the French to let them have them. "Chancellor Adenauer is a man of high conscience," said Edouard Herriot, Presi dent of the French National Assembly, in a bitter speech last week. "But he is there for four years, and the treaty we are asked to sign is for 50 years." A German coun tered: "We are asked to solve the most difficult and intricate problem in .history -- namely, to raise an army larger than Russia's but smaller than France's." Hefty Boost. To allay French fears, London, Washington and Bonn were busy searching for ways to make it easier for Paris to lay the European Army treaty before the Assembly. Konrad Adenauer began deliberately advertising his willing ness to make concessions over the dis puted Saar, even though they might cost Associated Press him support in the nationally minded FRANCE'SMAURICESCHUMANN Bundestag. Britain, which has guaranteed One word again and again. French security on five separate occasions Proposals. Somewhat to their surprise, since 1945 ("Ever since I was a small the deputies did make some progress -- at boy," said one bored Foreign Office man), did it again. A British minister, said least on paper. Their tentative proposals: <J A European Assembly, elected by the Whitehall, will sit in on the debates of EDC's governing Council of Ministers. direct votes of 155 million citizens of the By this formula of "association, but not U.S. of Europe. CJ A European Senate, similar in function membership," the British will still be free to the Senate of the U.S. but appointed by to withdraw their troops from Europe the Parliaments of the six member nations. whenever they like; yet their move was CJ A Cabinet with executive powers, head enough to give EDC another boost in ed by a President of the United States of France. Guy Mollet, leader of the influen tial (105 seats) French Socialists, hinted Europe elected by the Senate. that a majority of his party might now be To allay the fears of France (pop. 42 willing to vote for ratification. million) that a reunited Germany (pop. Theoretically, the help of some 80 of 65 million) might one day dominate the European Assembly elections, a ceiling was the Socialists would give Premier Laniel fixed above which no nation's delegation a majority in the National Assembly for ratification of EDC. But perversely, the might rise. Luxembourg (pop. 300,000) was pacified by a clause guaranteeing rep debate would bring down his Cabinet, which contains no Socialists but does have resentation for states whose populations are too small to elect even one member several Gaullist ministers, all strongly op posed to EDC. The dilemma: without to the supranational chamber. Lively Issue. To most Europeans, the the Socialists, who oppose his domestic blueprint was one more of a succession of visionary goals that at best might become * Germany is forbidden to build weapons until reality in a generation's time. But on the EDC is ratified, and then will be restricted to everyday level of practical politics, Eu non-atomic ones.
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
EDC Wakes Up
The 1 6th century Villa Aldobrandini, which looks down on Rome from the Quirinal Hill, was built in the period of Europe's Renaissance. Last week the Dep uty Foreign Ministers of France, Ger many, Italy *and Benelux met in its fres coed hall to map the way to a political renaissance: the United States of Europe. Italy's Premier Pella welcomed the dep 32
policies, Laniel cannot get ratification of EDC; without the Gaullists, who oppose EDC, he cannot govern France. Like so many French Premiers before, Laniel's solution was to play for more time. "My government will ask parliament to put EDC on its agenda," he announced last week. But first, Foreign Minister Bidault and Chancellor Adenauer "must examine in common the problems con cerning France and Germany . . ." Spe cifically, that meant the knotty Saar ques tion. How long would that take? Laniel did not know -- but it was pertinent that both he and Bidault are candidates to succeed President Vincent Auriol, whose term ends this year. Neither man is anxious to stake his candidacy on EDC, and the betting is that both will keep quiet about it until the election is decided. But at least -- and at last -- Paris had promised to put the matter before its parliament. That fell under the heading of progress, with a small p.
and the three Associated States of IndoChina. But the biggest and most important of the Indo-Chinese states, Viet Nam, was not so easily calmed. Assured at last of independence from France once the Com munist threat is erased, the Vietnamese were in no mood to see their independence fall prey to a still strong and unreformed Ho Chi Minh. "The only way to end the war," said Viet Nam's Premier Nguyen Van Tarn, "is to beat the Viet Minh mili tarily and disperse their armies . . . Ne gotiations would have the effect of giving the Viet Minh an enormous advantage over us."
ican college boys returning from vaca tion. One of them spotted a Chinese newspaperman. "Hey, Comrade Lee," he shouted, "see you in Peking." A Chinese Communist called: "Don't forget us!" "Never!" cried another American. The "non-repat" P.W.s had nothing to say to the American newsmen, but Com munist Correspondent Wilfred Burchett of Paris' L'Humanite busily distributed a statement signed by all of them. "Our staying behind does not change the fact that we are Americans," it read. "We love our country and our people. [But] the murder of the Rosenbergs, the legal lynching ... of dozens of ... Negroes . . .
"The Only Way"
In the customary fashion, France's Dep uty Foreign Minister Maurice Schumann set out on an oratorical tour of the coldwar world one day last week from the rostrum of the United Nations General Assembly. Suddenly he put down for a surprise landing in Indo-China. Was it not possible, he asked, to negotiate an end to the seven-year-old Indo-China war? Perhaps, said Schumann, Russia and Red China would be willing to discuss a negotiated Indo-China peace at the im pending Korean peace conference, or right after it. "Certain unofficial declarations," said he, "might have led to the thought that the two powers which . . . inspire and arm the Viet Minh [Communist] rebels were disposed to consider the open ing of negotiations to put an end to the war." From France, Schumann's boss,Premier Laniel, uttered similar sentiments. "A strong people is not dishonored by negotiating," said the Premier. First word of the negotiation talk reached Washington on the news tickers. "France today offered to negotiate with the Communists for peace in embattled Indo-China," began one dispatch. Coming as it did on top of the new U.S. decision to double aid to the French in Indo-China, and France's promise of a vigorous new military effort to beat the Reds (TIME, Sept. 28), the report shocked U.S. policy makers. "State Department officials were hopping mad," one correspondent report ed. But when they read the complete text of Schumann's remarks and heard the hasty explanations of French officials, U.S. diplomats calmed down. Paris was still solidly behind General Henri Navarre's "We must attack" program for Indo-Chi na, the French explained, but Paris was also hopeful that successful military oper ations might force Viet Minh Leader Ho Chi Minh, and his Russian and Chinese mentors, to give up the war and accept terms favorable to the Western powers
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
THE VAN BUREN DICKENSONS OF CRACKER'S NECK, VA. "My boy wants to return home."
Two open, Russian-built trucks rattled south through Korea's demilitarized zone to "Indian Village," collecting point for the Korean war P.W.s who do not want to go home. Twenty-four voices rose in uni son from the trucks, and the refrain of the Communist Internationale echoed down the narrow valley: "Arise, ye prisoners of starvation, arise, ye wretched of the earth." Just as the trucks rolled into the barbed-wire compound, they shouted the final line: "The International Soviet will free the human race." Then they raised clenched fists in the Communist salute. One was a Briton, 23 were Americans who had chosen to renounce their home land and live on the Communist side of the Iron Curtain. A band of U.S. news men silently watched the group dismount, chattering and joking with each other and looking -- except for their faded blue P.W. uniforms -- like a bunch of crew-cut Amer-
are the best comments we can make to . . . the American tradition of freedom." Men & Mothers. Sticking to its deci sion to sit on the names and addresses of the 23 Americans, even though Burchett's list revealed them, the U.N. command nevertheless riffled through its files and pieced together a composite picture: they come, mostly, from middle-income fam ilies, nearly all are in their 20s; many have high-school educations, all profess one form of religion or- another. Seven come from cities or large towns, 16 from small towns, villages or backwoods com munities; eleven come from Southern states, three of them are Negroes; almost all have names that are American from way back. Most of them were captured in 1950, giving Communist indoctrinators three years to wash their brains. From Olympia, Wash, to Fort Ann
* In the picture frame, at left: son Leonard, serving with the Army in Germany; at right: son Edward, who refused repatriation in Korea.
N.Y., in the places that had once been home to the men on Burchett's list, the reaction was the same wrenching disbe lief. "We don't believe it . . ." "It just couldn't be." "They're holding him against his will." In Alden, Minn., the mother of Pfc. Richard Tenneson, 21, told reporters, "If I could talk to him for ten minutes, I could at least make a dent in that kind of thinking." Mr. & Mrs. Van Buren Dickenson, the parents of Corporal Edward Dickenson, 23, sat in stunned sadness in their home in Cracker's Neck, Va. like a study in American gothic. "I won't be lieve anything except that my boy wants to return home," said Mrs. Dickenson. "Top Performers." But the Army doubted that the Tennesons and the Haw kinses, the Dickensons and the others would see the 23 Americans soon again. U.N. officers were certain that they had been picked for display because they were "the top performers" among a larger group of Red-held progressives. One of them shouted across the barbed wire to an American correspondent: "Go home, you imperialist Yankee!" It was so American -- for the words came in a rich Southern accent.
those he had he valued highly: a Parker 51 pen, a Ronson lighter, U.S. Army pants and a North Korean cap. He did not drink, he had neither wife nor mis tress. In his personal household of 20, sexual intercourse was forbidden; drunk enness, even at the "Russian dances" which Lee occasionally organized, was forgiven three times, then ended with a bullet. "Lee himself hardly spoke at all," said Koh Sang Kyun, his aide-de-camp whom the South Koreans captured early last year. "He didn't run around." In the nine weeks since the Korean truce was signed, the San Sonnim has continued to loot and pillage. Recently, a South Korean patrol flushed a band of them from hiding and killed half a dozen. Five of the corpses were barefoot but one, better clad than the rest, wore a pair of torn tennis shoes. Last week he was identi fied. Seven well-aimed bullets had put an end to the studies of Lee Hyun Sang.
The Man of Different Wisdom
In the wild Chiri ("Different Wisdom") mountains of southwest Korea, Red guer rilla bands still maraud and plunder, sweeping down from their lairs to ransack villages and loot the creaky buses that bounce along the region's rutted roads. There are at least 3,000 guerrillas, and the villagers on whom they prey call them San Sonnim ("Mountain Guests"). Until last week many of them were devoted henchmen of Lee-Hyun Sang, a plump, mustached Marxist. Lee joined the guerrillas in 1949, a year after most of them had deserted Syngman Rhee's army. He plodded up the moun tains, muttered the proper passwords and quietly announced that the North Korean government had sent him to take charge. Lee's tablets of authority were a Russian dictionary, a Russian-language history of the Communist Party, and a Korean his tory of Bolshevism. His books never left his side; his orders were never questioned. Under Lee's imaginative command, the San Sonnim wrecked thousands of South Korean trucks and trains. When the Com munist army rolled south in 1950, he emerged from the hills and was made Red commissar of South Chungchong prov ince (around Taejon). He ordered mass executions of captured South Koreans. Later forced back to the hills, Lee be came the No. i guerrilla in South Korea. Yet he himself never fired a shot. A schol ar and ascetic, he studied three hours be fore breakfast, left his rice bowl to read his books until noon. From lunch until 3 p.m., he listened to reports, and studied. In the evenings he gave orders for the sabotage of U.S. convoys and studied again until precisely 8 p.m., when he lay down to sleep. The San Sonnim looked on Lee as "a great man." He had few possessions, but
the air. Though the Air Force had studied several MIGs part by part, this one was the first specimen in shape to fly. At least as interesting as the captive MIG was the chubby North Korean pilot who flew it in to win General Mark Clark's $100,000 reward. Soon to be reunited with his mother, who fled North Korea months ago, and assured of asylum in the U.S., Senior Flight Lieut. Noh Keum Suk told air intelligence officers that the Commu nists had been busily bringing MIGs from Manchuria into North Korea ever since mid-August. Lieut. Noh said that he him self had seen at least 80 partially crated jets rolling south on flatcars. "We made the armistice only to improve our military position," he reported a North Korean political officer as saying. U.S. airmen, who have been picking up MIG pips on their radars during the last fortnight, were not surprised. Lieut. Noh further revealed that, during the fighting, three Commu nist air divisions in North Korea were en tirely manned by MIG-flying Russian pilots who wore Chinese uniforms. One U.S. airman had a tactical ques tion: Why didn't the MIG pilots try evasive tactics when U.S. Sabre jets got on their tails? The North Korean ex plained that the Communist pilots pre ferred to hunch behind the protective armor at the backs of their necks rather than turn their vulnerable broadsides to the Sabre-jet fire. "Whenever we turn," he said wryly, "you kill us."
SEQUELS Added Chapters
Here & there last week, a chapter was added to stories that had already made their splash in the news: <I In Warsaw, Bishop Czelaw Kaczmarek, latest scapegoat in Communism's running battle with the church, was consigned to prison for twelve years. After two years in prison, the bishop had "confessed" to such crimes as treason, spying for the U.S. and the Vatican -- more than enough to hang him for, if he were really guilty. <J British officials in Germany paid 22,500 Deutsche Mark ($5,357) damages to Hans Klose, an ex-Wehrmacht private who was captured by the British and turned over to the Russians for five years' imprisonment on the mistaken impression that he was a former Abwehr officer (TIME, June i). A British court which tried Klose's suit for mistaken arrest placed the blame for the error squarely on the Russians, but urged that Hans should be compensated for his sufferings. Said Hans: "I am grateful . . . That they paid is proof that there is good will." <J Looking pale and wan, Russian Ambas sador Anatoly Lavrentiev attended a dip lomatic reception in Teheran, his first public appearance since he disappeared three weeks ago amid reports that he had shot or poisoned himself in despair over Communism's harsh setback in Iran (TIME, Sept. 14). Lavrentiev, said em bassy spokesmen, had simply been "ill."
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
MIG PILOT NOH KEUM SUK $100,000 worth of secrets.
The Russian-built MIG jet fighter that dropped onto Korea's Kimpo airport was all crated and on its way by air transport to Ohio's Wright-Patterson field last week when the U.S. Defense Department handed down its ruling: the MIG was not a legiti mate prize of war because it had been sur rendered by its pilot after the armistice. The crated aircraft was grounded en route -- reportedly at Okinawa -- and the U.N. command announced that it was canceling its offer of $50,000 reward for additional MIGs. Furthermore, it offered to return this one to its "rightful owner" if the owner would step forward and present proof of ownership. The plane had already revealed enough secrets to compensate for the $100,000 it cost, but the Air Force rushed a team of test pilots and engineers to examine it and test its performance in
"Y ou Kill Us "
The strongest single sentiment in Brit ain today is a vague and touching belief that the cold war might be ended if the U.S. and Russia could just be got to shake hands, like good sports, and talk things over. Malenkov, many articulate Britons argue, may not be such a bad chap at all; if only the stubborn Ameri cans would listen to reason (preferably the voice of the BBC), a bright new age might dawn. The vote-getting possibilities of this broad public conviction form an irresist ible temptation to British politicians. Aneurin Bevan was the first to recognize them; Churchill, his mortal foe, tapped them in his famed Locarno speech in which he called for a "parley at the summit" (TIME, May 18). Yet it is a milder man than either who most sums up this strange new British brand of neo-neutralism in the cold war. His name is Clement Attlee. Agree & Blast. At 70. colorless Clem Attlee is probably the most astute theo rist-politician in Britain. He knows how to conquer by conceding, how to learn from the other fellow. Sensing the wide appeal of Churchill's demand for a Big Four conference, Attlee has made politi cal capital by i) agreeing with it, 2) blasting the Tory government for letting the U.S. State Department calm Sir Win ston down. Last week Attlee was busy with an even cleverer move: to reunite the feuding Labor Party and cut "Nye" Bevan down to size by taking over the Bevanite program and making it his own. Three thousand delegates representing 6,400,000 members of the Labor Party were gathering in Margate for their 52nd annual conference. "It may be that now and again somebody will say rather rough things," forecast black-browed Aneurin Bevan before descending on Margate with his Bevanly host. "[But] don't let any one make any mistake . . . When we have had our row and made up our minds, this movement is going to be a solid, united movement." Attlee agreed, with a smile. Then he presided over the customary meeting of the party's National Executive Commit tee, whose job it is to settle on the resolu tions to be laid before the party confer ence. Instead of watering down the fierce anti-Americanism of the Bevanite propos als (as he has often done in the past). At tlee let them stand. The council adopted a foreign policy plank which recommend ed that: The Peking Communists should be recognized as "the effective" govern ment of China and admitted to the U.N. (as the Tories also advocate), Nationalist Formosa should be "neutralized," Ger man rearmament should be postponed un til the West makes further effort at a four-power German settlement. When the full conference met, Attlee turned back two Bevanite maneuvers to
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
pushed the thunderous Welshman right off his own front porch. "If the jarring sects of the Socialist Party are ever to reach any common basis of agreement," commented the conserva tive Daily Telegraph, "it must be on the basis of anti-Americanism. [The Labor leaders] have felt compelled to go farther than they may feel wise to avoid 'losing contact with the masses.' " Yet, for all the grave wrath of the Tele graph, the fact is that Tory foreign policy differs from Labor's hardly at all in prac tice. Tory popularity has been slipping since it reached a high-water mark at the time of Churchill's Locarno speech, and many Conservatives believe the only way to recover is to outdo Labor by heading more decisively toward neutralism. Win ston Churchill himself, relaxing in the sun on the Cote d'Azur, felt it necessary this week to proclaim that he is willing to go to Moscow, or almost anywhere the Com munists care to mention -- if only the Red leaders will sit down and bargain.
ATTLEE Conquest by concession. make the anti-U.S. attack even blunter, then pushed through his own platform without trouble. Jarring Sects. Far from forfeiting his leadership to Bevan, Attlee had proved he was still in command and had taken for his own the Bevanites' -- and some of Churchill's -- strongest appeal to the coun try. The two Socialists are still poles apart on domestic issues (e.g., further nationalization, of which the Bevanites make a fetish), and Bevan is still out to win over the party from the Attlee re gime, any way he can. But Attlee has
Auriol Y. Auriol
Sadovy -- LIFE
BEVAN Unity from dissent.
By a tradition dating back to King Henry of Navarre, France's chief of state is ex officio co-ruler of Andorra, a tiny (pop. 5,200) feudal principality of happy, Spanish-speaking shepherds and smugglers nestling amid the peaks of the Pyrenees. This amiable sharing of rulers has not prevented Andorrans from quarreling al most continuously with their big neighbor and protector to the north. Last week they were at it again, and, as both coPrince of Andorra and President of the Republic of France, blinking, kindhearted Vincent Auriol was in the middle. Like Gilbert & Sullivan's Pooh-Bah, the President stepped over to the French side of his office where the co-Prince could not hear him, and announced that he no long er recognized the leaders of Andorra's Council of the Valleys, who governed in his name. The Pyrenees principality promptly threatened to get even by issu ing new postage stamps franked "Sov ereign Republic of Andorra." The quarrel, or this phase of it any way, had been going on ever since the end of World War II, when France national ized all its radio stations, thereby erasing all paid advertising from the air. Andorra refused to play ball. Unduly proud of its own radio station -- "Here Here Andorra" -- and of its beautiful lady announcer, whose dulcet commercials had earned more than 1,000 offers of marriage for herself and many more advertisers' pese tas for her employers, it kept both work ing at top speed, entertaining and selling not only its own people but a goodly sec tion of southwest France as well. Charging that Andorra was reaping commercial benefit from a purely "illu sory independence," France set about jam ming the station, and sent in technicians
Ernest Hamlin Baker
HOLY MAN VINOBA BHAVE Out of man's conscience, true justice. to build a new one. The Andorrans prompt ly slapped a fat import tax on all radio parts. The French countered by charging 1,000 francs for an exit visa for any Frenchman who wished to visit Andorra. Andorrans protested that the French were ruining their tourist trade. "Relations between France and Andorra cannot be broken, because Andorra is not a sovereign state," said one Quai d'Orsay official impatiently last week. "One of her co-Princes, the President of France, has now sent a message complaining that the Council of the Valleys has failed to ratify certain French reforms. We are now wait ing to hear what Andorra's other co-Prince has to say." The other co-Prince, the Spanish Bishop of Urgel, whose title goes back as far as Auriol's, said nothing. He had only their spiritual welfare at heart, the bishop told the Andorrans. As the words fly back & forth, Andorra's six-man police force and 200-man army stand by, waiting for the call to arms.
Test of Faith
As disciple and spiritual heir of Mahatma Gandhi, frail and wispy Acharya Vinoba Bhave, born to India's Brahman caste, came to love the Untouchables. Like the Mahatma, he called them harijans, or "children of God." As he tramped across India's countryside, exhorting landowners to give up part of their holdings to land less peasants, the respected Bhave would visit the Untouchables in their outcast dwellings, and accept food from their hands. Slowly chipped at over the years, the Hindu practice of untouchability was declared illegal in the constitution which free India adopted in 1949. But Bhave, like Gandhi, knew that true justice for the Untouchables must come not from man's laws but from man's conscience. Last week Bhave came to the holy place of Deoghar, in Bihar, where proud pandas (priests) still cling to the tradition in spite of the law. At a prayer meeting, Bhave expressed gentle regret that Un touchables were not permitted to enter
Deoghar's 1,200-year-old Temple of Baidyanath to receive darshan, or spiritual blessing. "On the question of service and devotion to God," he said, "there should be no barrier." Later, as dusk spread across the ancient holy grounds, Bhave put his faith in man's conscience to test. The holy man walked silently to the tem ple with his disciples, among them several Untouchables. When they neared the great stone pile, the pandas gave the alarm. Some 50 of them, many armed with staves and sharp canes, rushed out and set upon the pilgrim band. Bhave calmly instructed his disciples to sit down and accept the beating without fighting back. One disci ple was knocked unconscious, three were hurt so badly that they later went to a hospital. Bhave himself was cut several times, although his followers tried to pro tect his 86-lb. body with their own. Thanks & Forgiveness. Back in his camp, Bhave admonished his disciples to bear no ill will toward the pandas. Then he offered thanks for "having the blessing of the Lord in this manner." But a na tional cry of protest rose up across India. "This stupid and brutal assault," cried Premier Jawaharlal Nehru, "brings out forcibly the degradation of those who claim to serve religion, and want to make it a vested interest of their own." Presi dent Rajendra Prasad, who gave up his Bihar estates to Bhave's campaign to col lect land for his landless ones (TIME, May u), sent a message of shame and regret. The opposition Socialist Party bitterly criticized Bihar's Congress-dominated gov ernment for not protecting a man revered by millions of Indians as a saint. Quickly, the Bihar police arrested twelve of the pandas for assault, and for barring the temple to Untouchables in defiance of the law. It was the first time Hindu priests had been prosecuted for a defiance that many had practiced since the law was passed. Bihar's chief minister warned the other pandas that he would lead the next party of Untouchables to the temple. Alarmed and surprised by the clamor, the pandas gave way: they swung back the temple's doors and stood by, some silent, some muttering, while Untoucha bles flocked in to pray. Bhave set out once more for the villages, leaving behind his prayer that the pandas be forgiven. "This is an age of science," said the holy man, "and every faith is being tested. If our society keeps this in view, and be haves accordingly, all will go well."
the slogan of the Yugoslav army was: "Give us the job, and we'll finish the tools." Last week Tito took the wraps off some of his 300,000 troops, and the jest proved just a jest. In Ljubljana gap, the mountain corridor leading from the Hungarian plains to Zagreb, Rijeka and Trieste, a group of military observers and reporters from six NATO nations watched while 65,000 Yugoslavs maneuvered. Spruce and high-spirited, they were divided into an "aggressor" force and a defending force covering Zagreb. They maneuvered with Sherman tanks, trucks, jeeps, go-mm. guns, U.S.-made F-47 fighters (World War II's Thunderbolts) and British Mosqui toes, and they handled them with facility. One weak spot was a battalion para chute drop; an aggressor cavalry force, led by a saber-swinging commander, was in among the paratroops before they got ready to fight. But on the whole, the for eigners were impressed. Said Sir John Harding, chief of the British Imperial General Staff: "The allied program of giv ing weapons to Yugoslavia can go ahead." Said Major General Charles Palmer, chief of staff of U.S. Army Field Forces: "They took hold of American equipment in good shape, even though they had some of it only a short time." Tito himself, driving around the ma neuvers area in a U.S. jeep, was pleased with his troops' performance and by Western praise of it. But he nostalgically recalled his tough, resourceful partisan bands of World War II. "There is still a role for partisans in modern war," Tito said. "There are two Yugoslav armies, and one of them is partisan."
Blood, Sand & Oil
For more than a year, Britain has car ried on a sort of comic-opera blockade around the oasis of Buraimi. a cluster of 8,000 Arabs in mud-walled villages not far from the Persian Gulf. Last week the blockade abruptly lost its comic flavor. There was shooting in the desert and blood on the sand. Fired by the belief that oil may lie under Buraimi's sand, strong-willed old
"Give Us the Job . . ."
After Tito's Yugoslavia broke from Moscow and the Cominform in 1948, the U.S. poured into the country hundreds of millions in arms and war supplies. But Western observers could not get a look at the results, could only wonder whether Dictator Tito's army, which won its World War II fame as a ragged band of partisans, was able to handle modern weapons and machines. A jape circulated through Western embassies in Belgrade had it that
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S AU D! A R A B I A
TIMH Map by R.M C.
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
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Compact, low-friction engine inhales and utilizes air and fuel more efficiently . . . gives you greater performance and safety., even on steepest mountain roads. What's happened to automobile engine design? At Chrysler Corporation, something spectacu lar! America's most advanced car engine, the V8 hemispherical combustion chamber design, is already turning gasoline into power more cleanly, more efficiently, than any other power plant for passenger cars. This extraordinary engine, which is now being enjoyed by Chrysler, DeSoto and Dodge V8 owners, actually breathes deeper through the wider, straighter fuel passages. Valves are larger, open wider. Spark plugs fire directly above pis tons. So efficient is performance that the engine doesn't "carbon-up" with resultant power loss and costly repair bills. This design is so inherently "right" that, with minor modifications, its range can be extended enormously. One test version turns out 309 horsepower -- without supercharging, without boosting compression, without superfuels. Another version, with fuel injection and air intakes in place of carburetors, developed 404 horsepower, and has now gone beyond that. Chrysler Corporation engineers, however, are not interested in power for power's sake. They are interested in the performance of your car today. And tomorrow. They engineer superb performance into Chrysler-built cars by putting power in proper balance with car weight. Result: you get spirited getaway, economy of operation.
Cutaway of Chrysler-built V8 engine showing ( J ) dome-shaped chamber. (2) bigger, high-lift valves. (3) wide fuel channel.
PRACTICAL IMAGINATION THAT BRINGS YOU THE GOOD THINGS FIRST. Chrysler Corporation pioneered, for quantity car production, the hemispherical com bustion chamber engine. This superior, deep-breathing, high efficiency engine has enough reserve power to handle with ease rugged terrain like that found along the California coast's U.S. Route 50, which is pictured here.
and enough reserve for safety in emergencies. This is another example of how practical imagination puts more value and worth into Chrysler Corporation cars. Get the "feel" of this thrilling new engine, call a Chrysler, DeSoto or Dodge dealer for a demonstration . . . today! Chrysler Corporation produces Plymouth, Dodge, De Soto, Chrysler & Imperial cars and Dodge Trucks, Chrysler Marine & Industrial Engines, Oilite Metal Powder Products, Mopar Parts and Accessories, Airtemp Heating, Air Conditioning, Refrigeration, and Cycleweld Cement Products. EnjoyMedallionTheatre-dramaticentertainmentforthewholefamilyonCBS-TV.
Known by the Company it Keeps
CANADIAN WHISKY -- A BLEND ... OF RARE SELECTED WHISKIES * SIX YEARS OLD 86.8 PROOF. SEAGRAM-DISTILLERS CORPORATION, NEW YORK, N. Y.
King Ibn Saud claims Buraimi as part of Saudi Arabia; and Britain, as "protector" of Trucial Oman, claims it for a Trucial Oman Sheik and the Sultan of Muscat. Since the summer of 1952, the claimants had fought their siege with angry words and glowering looks. Ibn Saud sent Emir Turki Ibn Utaishan to occupy Buraimi, supposedly in answer to an appeal for protection by the villagers. Britain coun tered by stationing three young officers and a batch of Trucial Oman levies in a string of Beau Geste mud forts sprinkled around the oasis, to harass and starve the Emir into retreat (TIME, April 27). Oc casionally the British rifles would scare off a caravan, occasionally one would get through to bring food to the Saudi Arabians. But recently somebody started shooting in earnest, and both sides admitted last week that there have been several small but nasty battles. The Saudi Arabians blamed the British, reported several cas ualties on their side, hinted they might throw the debate into the United Nations. Associated Press The British insisted that Arabian caravan THE SHAH OF IRAN AT PRAYER guards had started the shooting. The U.S., Room for only one king in a kingdom. caught in the middle as a "third party" trace, but there were many more to con morghi air base proved, was still far from mediator between its British allies and its tinue their work; of the 5.600 officers and squelched. But in its crackdown, the new oil-owning Saudi Arabian business part men in the Iranian air force, some 400 are regime found it had more public back ners, had another small but serious trou suspected of being agents of Iran's violent i n g t h a n i t h a d d a r e d t o h o p e f o r . I n ble spot on its hands. Tudeh (Communist) party. overthrowing Mossadegh and calling their Unholy Alliance. In unholy alliance Shah back from his brief exile, Iranians IRAN with the Qashqai tribesmen and thousands seemed to have given their own patriotism of other Iranian nationalists, the Tudeh a bracing shot in the arm. "There is an Sabotage was missing no opportunity to undermine old Iranian proverb : 'There's no room for A major, two lieutenants and a sergeant the Shah's new pro- Western government two kings in a kingdom,' " one Iranian of the Iranian air force climbed into a jeep one velvet evening last week and cas and, conceivably, throw Iran back into the explained. "It was either the Shah or Tu suicidal grasp of old ex-Premier Moham deh. And the people chose the Shah." ually drove eight miles southwest of Tehe ran to Ghalamorghi air base. The major med Mossadegh. Artfully the Communists bred rumors that Mossadegh would be smartly returned the sentries' salute, and JAPAN rescued from the guarded barracks room the jeep rolled to a 'large hangar. Inside where he awaits trial for treason. They Self-Defense Force were 26 F-47 (Thunderbolt) fighters and scared much of Teheran into believing last For one hour last week, in a villa by six armed T-6 training planes, U.S. gifts week that the Qashqai in the south were the sea, Prime Minister Shigeru Yoshida to Iran's tiny air force. The planes were preparing to attack the capital. and Progressive Party Chief Mamoru already gassed up and armed for a recon Before he could begin to solve the ur Shigemitsu conferred on a measure to give naissance sweep over the remote province gent domestic and international problems Japan new world stature as a sovereign of Pars, where 150,000 Qashqai tribesmen beleaguering Iran, tough-minded Premier nation. Then the two party leaders, the are revolting against the Shah and his new Zahedi had to handcuff the Tudeh and most influential men in Japan, issued a Premier, Strongman Fazlollah Zahedi. their fanatical allies. To quell the Qashqai j o i n t s t a t e m e n t t h a t J a p a n ' s d e f e n s e s The major and his men parked their tribesmen (whom Mossadegh once ruled should be strengthened, "in view of the jeep and marched into the hangar. After a as Governor General of Fars), Zahedi sta present world situation, and of the rising while, they reappeared, drove back to the tioned army tanks and troops at strategic spirit of independence among Japanese main gate, abandoned the jeep, hailed a road junctions, mountain passes and in people." The plan: taxi and drove off into the night. A few front of the U.S. Point Four mission in ^[Japan's n0,000-man National Safety minutes later, a sentry noticed a telltale the Qashqai territory. In Teheran, his po Force, limited by Japanese law to the flame shooting from the hangar. He gave lice hacked day & night at the hard core maintenance of "internal order," should the alarm. Fire fighters found a smolder of the Tudeh party, some 7,000 card- be renamed "Self-Defense Force," and ing wick leading to the fuel tank of one carrying Communists. By this week, six should be built up to oppose direct foreign of the trainer planes. The wick had been weeks after Mossadegh's fall, the new re aggression. ignited by a lighted cigarette slowly burn gime had: ^f U.S. garrisons stationed in Japan under ing down into a box of matches. Other «I Raided 178 Tudeh cells, jailed 700 "sus the two-nation security pact should be makeshift fuses led to three other T-6s. pects," exiled 181. "gradually reduced" as the Japanese force All the fuses were stopped before they <I Seized 150,000 Communist books, as -- armed by the U.S. -- grows in strength. reached the planes, but 25 of the F-475 well as rifles, ammunition, grenades, ba By getting together on the program, had already been put out of action by the zookas and pistols. Japan's two major political parties hur saboteurs, who had cut their communica <I Uncovered lists of doctors, chemists dled one of the big obstacles that had tions and wiring equipment. and engineers deemed trustworthy by the stood in the way: the anti-rearmament The saboteurs had disappeared without Tudeh for such chores as the theft and sentiments of Japanese women, who were use of dynamite, starting riots in the granted the vote by Japan's postwar * The same crude device employed to sabotage mosques and operating Communist radio MacArthur constitution." Neither party a Nazi munitions train in the Trzcinski and stations. dared take on by itself the political risk Bevan play and movie Stalag 17. The Tudeh, as the affair at Ghala of going against the women.
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
T H E
Friend in Need
H E M I S P H E R E
Turn of the Season
For three days this week Dwight Eisen hower, President of the most powerful republic in the world, played host to the President of Panama, one of the world's smallest. In the same EUR-54, the Sacred Cow, that flew Roosevelt to Yalta, Jose Antonio Remon and his attractive wife Cecilia reached Washington with only a few hours to spare before a presidential dinner in their honor. They were to spend the night in the White House, then move across Pennsylvania Avenue to Blair House and a round of wreath-laying, receptions and a return banquet for Ike. Next stop: New York, where President Remon, a superheated baseball fan, hopes to look in on the World Series. Timely Roundup. Like Ike, "Chichi" Remon, 45, is a professional soldier. But since Panama had no army, he had to go abroad for his education, graduating as a cavalry officer from Mexico's Military College. Back in Panama, he entered the National Police (the nation's only armed force) as a captain. At U.S. invitation, he later attended the famed old cavalry school at Fort Riley, Kans., where he became a crack shot and a good friend of the U.S. Pearl Harbor time found Chichi in a posi tion to do his friends of the north a good turn; before midnight on Dec. 7, 1941 he had smoothly rounded up every German and Japanese resident of Panama -- a time ly precaution against sabotage of the Panama Canal. By 1947, Colonel Remon was police chief and Panama's strong man and Presi dent-maker. Eager for a little order in his country's mercurial politics, but reluctant to become President, he patiently tried four men in the office. Finally he decided to run himself, campaigned hard last year, and won easily in a fair vote. Higher Taxes. So far, Chichi Remon has managed to be Panama's best President in years. Panamanians, accustomed to see ing the public treasury drained in one way or another by elected officials, now tell themselves incredulously that he is "really trying to do something for Panama." He raised income taxes, previously a joke, by 50% in the higher brackets -- and forbade the government to do business with any one who could not produce a tax receipt. Now he has tackled the delicate job of rewriting Panama's relationship to the U.S., whose flag flies over the Canal Zone. This unique relationship was laid down in a treaty dating back to the 1903 revolu tion which freed Panama from Colombia. Panama remained possessor and theoreti cal sovereign of the Zone, but the U.S. got those "rights, power and authority" which it "would possess and exercise if it were the sovereign," in exchange for $10 mil lion down and $250,000 a year (raised to $430,000 in 1936. when the U.S. went off the gold standard). What Chichi seems to want now (though 40
Ptarmigan were turning white, and overhead, in the slate sky, geese were go ing south with the season. Ice was begin ning to form in the Mackenzie River delta. At Aklavik, in the northwest corner of Canada's Arctic backyard, men hurried to unload the last supply ship of the season. The last Arctic transients (scientists, con struction workers, summer prospectors) flew upriver in a float plane, the last scheduled flight before the freeze-up. Even the Eskimo hunters were leaving. For weeks they had been feeding their Huskies a rich diet of fish, getting them ready for the long Arctic winter. Now it was time to start out for the muskrat and white fox trapping grounds on the delta. Soon Aklavik would be all but deserted -a lonely clutter of wooden buildings, clap board shanties and Eskimo tents perched on a frozen mud flat. Standards Are Different. Headquarters Bob Reed of the 96,000 square miles of delta and CHICHI & CECILIA REMON tundra in the Aklavik subdivision (per Is the U.S. due for a rent boost? manent pop. some 250 whites, 1,000 Es he has not said so officially) is a fairer kimos and 250 Indians), the little town annual rent. Possible asking price: $1,000,- has an Anglican and a Catholic mission, a token naval force and an overworked ooo, or a percentage of the canal's tolls squadron of the R.C.M.P. Social center is (now running around $37 million a year). the North Star Inn, northernmost hotel Chichi also would like the Canal Zone to curb some of its business activities (nota in the Western Hemisphere. "Standards in my hotel are different bly, commissaries for its employees) to from those outside," says Marge White, help competing Panamanian commerce. the inn's buxom (245 Ib.) proprietress, The U.S. is undoubtedly prepared to concede something, and delegates from who is her own bouncer. "I don't care both countries have just begun negotiat what goes on if it doesn't cause a riot." What a Man Wants. Trail's end for the ing in Washington. How much Panama gets in the end may depend a lot on just how Arctic wanderers, the eccentrics or out casts who drift north to escape civiliza tactful a pitch likable, English-speaking Chichi Remon was able to make to Ike tion, Aklavik can infect the unwary with an almost tropical languor. Some men lose at dinner this week. interest in the "outside," forget to bathe or change clothes, learn to live on blubber MEXICO and half-cooked caribou, sometimes move in with the Eskimos. Others simply come Something for the Girls to cherish the quiet, sedative sameness of Article 34 of the Mexican Constitution the Far North. The old-style beachcomber used to begin: "Citizens are those males who . . ." Last week, after ratification by is a vanishing type. But even today the Mackenzie delta still shelters a British state legislatures and formal promulgation diplomat's son, three Oxford graduates, by the Senate, the wording was deftly amended. Article 34 now begins: "Citizens the Eskimo children of a British aristo crat paid to keep out of England. "We are are those men and women who . . ." all fastened to the Arctic by the strongest The change, a campaign pledge which President Adolfo Ruiz Cortines has made ties," said a bewhiskered remittance man. good, gives women full legal rights of citi "We are either devoted or desperate." Almost dead center between Russia and zenship, notably the vote. The voting priv ilege will start at 21 for single men or the U.S. on the shrunken maps of air-age geography, Aklavik is also a radar station. women, at 18 for the married -- on the But Canadian forces plan no expanded amiable theory that marriage is an indica tion of maturity. Only one of 40 Senators outpost there. Rather than pin down ex pensive garrisons, Canada expects to use spoke out against the amendment. "This," cried Aquiles ElorcLy, in a faint echo of fast-moving airborne troops for future northern defense. This suits the Aklavik the anticlericalism that used to keep Mexican politics at a low boil, "hands the sourdoughs to perfection. "I hope the north is always a frontier," said one oldcountry to the church." None of the other 39 lawmakers seemed to fear that timer as he watched the supply boat shoul Mexico's predominantly Roman Catholic der south through the ice last week. "We need a place where a man can still do women would rush out to form an allwhat he wants, when he wants." powerful, pro-clerical party.
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
/Flashbulb Fred the photo fiend came in the Statler » lobby. He told the room clerk, "Hold it, Son-- photog raphy's my hobby. I'd like to take your picture; would you pose a moment, please? Your smile will come across on film if you'll just murmur, 'Cheese.'"
} When Fred was shown his Statler room he said, "Why, '*this is swell! It's cheerful and it's spotless clean -- it really rings the bell! That Statler bed is super-soft -I'm sure I'm going to love it. If you boys just stand over there, I'll get a picture of it."
I "Hooray!" cried Fred while in his tub. "This water's ' * good and hot ! There's lots of soap and towels, and a good bath hits the spot. I love my photo darkroom, but this bright room's even neater. It's so darn clean, reflected light is knocking out my meter!"
» The meal he had that evening was sublime in every * way. Said Fred, "I've never had such food! That steak was triple-A! From mushroom soup to apple pie, that dinner suited me! Hold still while I record this scene for all posterity."
"It's -forest fire time- please be careful /
STATLER HOTELS: NEW YORK * BOSTON * BUFFALO * DETROIT CLEVELAND * ST. LOUIS * WASHINGTON * LOS ANGELES * ANOTHER GREAT NEW STATLER -- HARTFORD (OPENING SUMMER, 19541
£* Next morning Fred was on his way. He paused outside *^t the door with tripods, lenses, lights and films, and cameras galore. Said he, "I've got some dandy shots and had a perfect rest! No wonder folks say Statler's where you really are a guest!"
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
Do you owe yourself a treat? Make it a weekend at the Statler !
ther had witnessing signatures. At probate court in Washington, it was disclosed that Vinson, after a lifetime of Government service, left an estate of $7,163, debts of $6,000. * * * In probate office at Nashua, N.H.. the estate of the late Republican Senator Charles W. Tobey, who left no will, was put at $20,000. * * * An estate tax appraisal in Manhattan revealed that the late James V. Forrestal, investment banker who became the first Secretary of Defense, left a net estate of $1.201.019. Actress Audrey (Roman Holiday) Hepburn confessed her surprise at being in the movies at all : "I never thought I'd land in pictures with a face like mine. I've had a complex all my life about being definitely ugly." "For outstanding services in the strug gle against warmongers and for the strengthening of peace." Baritone Paul Robeson received the International Stalin Peace Prize for 1952 (complete with di ploma showing a picture of Joe Stalin) in ceremonies in Manhattan. The award, good for $25,000 in cash, would have been tendered in Moscow if the State Depart ment had let Robeson make the journey. The substitute presentation of what Com munist Author Howard Fast called "the highest award which the human race can bestow upon one of its members" was de scribed by the Daily Worker: ". . . There was a hush as the medal, with Stalin's likeness on one side, was pinned on. Then came the misty eyes as Fast embraced the guest of honor, tiptoeing to kiss him on both cheeks." Robeson, "in a voice shaky as few have heard it," said: "I have al ways been, I am. and I always will be, a friend of the Soviet Union."
KING PAUL, QUEEN FREDERIKA & PRINCE CONSTANTINE (LEFT) On the family cruiser, vacationers. Names make news. Last week these names made this news:
King Paul and Queen Frederika of
Greece, after posing at their summer pal ace with Crown Prince Constantine, 13, for an engaging family photograph, set out from the Piraeus in a cruiser, slipped quietly ashore at Naples and traveled incognito to Austria. They will journey through Europe, sail for the U.S. in late October. At the " same time, two other Greek leaders landed in Italy and were feted with maximum pomp and ceremony. Premier Alexander Papagos and Foreign Minister Stephanos Stephanopoulos were met at the Rome airport by a delegation headed by Italian Premier Giuseppe Pella. That evening, going to a reception in Rome's Castel Sant' Angelo, spectacularly lighted by 1,023 flaming oil pots, Ste phanopoulos and Papagos were saluted by guards in 16th-century costume. The par ty in the famed Borgia apartments atop the ancient pile (classically known as Hadrian's Tomb) was the high point of a four-day visit which had the practical end of uniting the Greeks and Italians in pledges of friendship. * * * In Hove, England, Mrs. Clement Attlee, famed for chauffeuring her exPrime Minister husband during his cam paign travels, was fined £i ($2.80) for leaving her Humber Hawk parked with out lights for nine hours and "obstruct ing" a local street. * * * For the Metropolitan Opera's Impresa rio Rudolf Bing, there was no Manhattan crag out of the range of two of grand op era's most massive voices. Wagnerian Ten or Lauritz Melchior, on his way to a sing ing job in a Las Vegas hotel, updated an old quarrel with Bing (they 'had parted 42
company in 1950) by taking him to task for staging opera in English translations. "That is all right for the lesser companies, but the Met should present opera in its greatest form, and that is in the original languages. Besides, you can't understand the words, even if they are sung in Eng lish." Wagnerian Soprano Helen Traubel, just finished a two-week engagement in a Chicago nightclub, made public a letter she had received from Bing, and thought fully appended her answer. Bing had writ ten that opera and popular singing "do not really seem to mix very well" and suggested: "Perhaps you would prefer to give the Metropolitan a 'miss' for a year or so until you may possibly feel that you want again to change back to the more serious aspects of your art." Singer Traubel's indignant reply: "I will be unable to sign the contract the Metropolitan Opera Association has offered me ... Artistic dignity is not a matter of where one sings ... To assert that art can be found in the Metropolitan Opera House but not in a nightclub is a rank snobbery." Old Groaner Bing Crosby was back for his 22nd radio season, but the blue of the night was no longer meeting the gold of the day. While lazing about his Nevada ranch this summer, he had got to think ing . about his sunset theme (which he helped compose a quarter of a century ago), decided his public must be as bored with it as he is. Bing put The Blue of the Night to pasture, ordered a new instru mental piece to take its place on the Crosby show. Its tentative title: "Bing's Theme." The late Chief Justice Fred M. Vinson, who held the highest legal post in the land, died without leaving a valid will. He had written wills in 1928 and 1930, but nei
ROBESON & FRIEND From Moscow, love and kisses.
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
The striking new Bel Air 4-Door Sedan. With 3 great new series, Chevrolet offers the widest choice of models in its field.
Why is it, wherever people travel, you see more Chevrolets than any other car.
Suppose you should get off one of those ships up there into that fine, new Chevrolet. Then suppose you should drive all across the U. S. A. to water's edge at the other ocean. All along the way and everywhere you wrent, you could count on seeing far more Chevrolets than any other car. The reason, of course, is simply that more people drive Chevrolets. The fact is, about two million more people now drive Chevrolets than any other make. It all adds up to this: People must like Chevrolets better or they wouldn't buy more of them. Doesn't that suggest something else worth considering? More buyers mean more production. And this, in turn, means production economies and advantages that permit Chevrolet to bring you finer features and qualities in the lowest priced line in the low-price field. For example, there's the extra luxury and beauty of Body by Fisher; the finer, thriftier performance of Chev rolet's high-compression valve-in-head engines ; the greater responsiveness and economy of Powerglide* automatic transmission ; and the unmatched convenience of Chevrolet Power Steering.* Why not plan to drive a new Chevrolet soon? Your Chevrolet dealer will be happy to oblige. . . . Chevrolet Division of General Motors, Detroit 2, Michigan.
*Optional at extra cost. Combination of Powerglide automatic transmission and 115-h.p. "Blue-Flame" engine available on "Two-Ten" and Bel Air models only. Power Steering available on all models.
M O R E
P E O P L E
B U Y
C H E V R O L E T S
T H A N
A N Y
O T H E R
C A R !
His wife is right. . . the blowout wrecked the party!
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ability to resist the damaging bruises that lead to blowouts. HEAT VENTS, patented by Seiberling, guard against another cause of blowouts-- excessive heat build-up. You can save with safety when you see your Seiberling dealer. He will be glad to demonstrate the tires with a "tire-life" warranty.
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faA&rt o/ <z/fone<nca6 cTmedt cTlred
T H E
An Unfrumptious Wedding
P R E S S
ant of Mohammed." Growled one news man : "I got news for you. In that religion a woman is nothing." Shortly after, Rita and Dick held their own conference. United Press Newshen Aline Mosby promptly asked an embarrassing question of Argentine-born Haymes: "If you're deported [for illegal entry into the U.S.], what country would you like to live in?" Snapped Haymes: "I won't be deported." Rita rushed to his defense, cooed: "I'll follow Dick anywhere on earth." "Has Rita ever cooked for you?" asked another reporter. That was too much for Dick. "Don't be silly," he answered scornfully. "Who would marry Rita for her cooking?" Chant of Croupiers. Next day bright and early, reporters were awakened at 9:30 by a ring of the telephone and a
At Las Vegas' raucously elegant Sands Hotel last week more than two dozen Hollywood newspaper, magazine, TV and radio reporters gathered for an event: the wedding of Cinemactress Rita Hayworth and Crooner Dick Haymes, each headed altarward for the fourth time. Only Columnists Louella Parsons and Hedda Hopper were missing. Louella, who traveled half way around the world four years ago to be at Rita's side when she married Aly Khan at Cannes, this time telephoned her blessings but was "too busy" to attend; Hollywood assumed that she had the word that Rita's studio, Columbia Pictures, did not approve of the marriage. Hedda was miffed because she had not been personally invited, and snappishly told readers: "All I've got to say -- and I hope these will be my last words on the subject -- is they deserve each other." Louella and Hedda missed something. Never in Hollywood history had there been such a sample of matrimony-bypressagent. Although Actress Hayworth at first insisted that she wanted none of the "pomp and frumptiousness" of her wedding to Aly Khan, she meekly sur rendered to the greater wisdom of Pressagent Al Freeman of the Sands Hotel. As soon as reporters arrived, he provided them with a mimeographed "Outline of Events -- Hayworth-Haymes Wedding." Sample events: "Wednesday. 2 p.m. Haymes gets his divorce hearing. Pictures and comment available. 3 p.m. Rita and Dick to get marriage license at license bureau. Thursday n a.m. Marriage cere mony in Gold Room, Sands Hotel. Cam eras have length of room for movement. No restriction on any picture taking." "Don't Be Silly." Everything, includ ing Nevada's courts, ran close to sched ule. First, Crooner Haymes led a caravan of newsmen to the Las Vegas court, where in seven minutes flat he got a divorce from his third wife. ex-Cigarette Girl Nora Eddington, who had once been married to Errol Flynn. On the courthouse steps he responded to the command of a dozen photographers to "wave your decree," then set out to pick up his fiancee, trailed by newsmen and Pressagent Freeman, who kept booming out: "Is everybody happy?" At the license bureau, while Rita and Dick tried to sign papers for their license, reporters leaned over their shoulders, glee fully pointed out spelling errors, and an swered quickly when Haymes asked in desperation: "Anybody know how to spell Clark County?" Back at the Sands Hotel, there was an impromptu press conference with Rita's two daughters, eight-year-old Rebecca (by her second husband. Orson Welles) and three-year-old Yasmin (by her third, Aly Khan) . "Yasmin," Pressagent Freeman proudly announced, "is the only grand daughter of the Aga Khan, and that makes her the onlv female direct descend
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
ranged to have the judge come half an hour late.) As the ceremony started, Yasmin plucked at her mother's elbow, whispered : "What are you doin', Mommy, gettin' married?" Even the text for the marriage service suited the occasion. It said: "Will you love, honor and cherish [each other] throughout your married life" instead of "so long as you both shall live." As Dick slipped the ring on his bride's finger, photographers interrupted, holler ing "Hold it!" Then Yasmin jumped up, shouted "Mommy, I want a ring too." A wedding guest quieted her down by slip ping off his own ring -- a large diamond set in platinum -- and putting it on Yasmin's finger. Within two minutes the ceremony was ended and the newlyweds went out, as Columnist Florabel Muir wrote, past "the clanking of the slot machines and the soft chant of the croupiers at the crap
Edward Clark -- LIFE
NEWLYWEDS & NEWSMEN AT LAS VEGAS For richer, for poorer, and for the pressagent. voice that said cheerily: "Good morning. This is the Sands operator. We have been asked to awaken you so you could get up and prepare for the wedding." In the Gold Room of the Sands, everything was ready. Newsreel cameras, TV equipment and flash guns lined the wall. Los Angeles Herald & Express Reporter Jimmy Crenshaw spotted a musician carrying a bull fiddle and made for Pressagent Freeman. "I got it in the paper already, boy," cried Reporter Crenshaw. "no music, no wed ding march; there better not be a wedding march." Freeman obliged: "O.K. Rita doesn't want music anyway. No music." When Rita arrived, in a pale blue Irish linen dress with a toast-colored hat, tulle veil and a bouquet of white orchids and lilies of the valley. Groom Haymes was on her arm. Six feet in front of them marched Pressagent Freeman, to give pho tographers a focusing point for their cam eras. (To make sure there would be plenty of time for pictures, Freeman also had artables." to the wedding luncheon for the press. In the room was a four-layer cake (the bottom two layers were wood). Freeman announced that "to keep things simple and avoid any resemblance to her last marriage -- on the Riviera," no champagne would be served. But one indignant re porter pointed out that "we weren't on the Riviera," so Freeman agreeably changed the pitch. "You want cham pagne," said he. "O.K., champagne." Dur ing a fast and heady wedding luncheon, reporters toasted Rita and Dick. Then the happy but weary couple made for Rita's apartment on the hotel grounds, followed by an entourage of newsmen and hotel employees. As they disappeared behind the door, Phil Stern, a fan magazine pho tographer, grinned and said with satis faction: "This was great. Ordinarily, we can't get new pictures of this babe for the fan books. But yesterday and today I got enough to last us for two years."
(or get in a better rut)
Don't be a habit slave!
Death on the Phone
Sid Hughes, 45, assistant city editor of the Los Angeles Mirror (circ. 188,453), is a cigar-chewing, tough-talking newsman who never got to high school. But in 23 years of covering the police beat for Los Angeles papers he has earned his own graduate degrees in crime and criminals. He mixes on such familiar terms with the underworld that the front-door of his apartment has a one-way mirror in it so that Hughes can see who is coming with out the visitor's seeing him; on "tough" stories he often carries a .38 revolver, just in case. Last week in the Mirror city room, Crime Reporter Hughes got a phone call from a business acquaintance; on the long-distance line from Baltimore was an ex-convict named Johnny Johnson, 34, out on parole after nine years in Alcatraz for a series of bank robberies. Johnson, headlined as the "blitzkrieg bandit," met Hughes several months ago when he came to the Mirror to ask help in getting a driver's license so that he could work as a truck driver. Hughes got him the license, from then on frequent ly got calls from Johnson. "He was a mixed-up guy," says Hughes, "who has been in crime ever since he was a kid. He likes to talk and I like to sit back and listen." Two months ago, Johnson stopped calling, after police started looking for him as a suspect in the strangulation murder in a Los Angeles suburb of one Richard Fagner, who had befriended Johnson. Pretty Hot. When Johnson phoned last week, Hughes recognized his voice imme diately. He scribbled a note to a copy boy standing at his elbow: "Call the FBI and tell them I got Johnny Johnson on the phone." Then Hughes went on casually talking: "How are you, Johnny?" "Not too good," Johnson answered. "I under stand I'm pretty hot out there." Hughes told him he didn't know how hot he was, but would check and call him back. John son volunteered to call back himself in an hour. An FBI agent hustled to the Mirror office, set up a monitoring phone to listen in on the call when Johnson phoned back. In Baltimore, every outgoing call to Los Angeles was monitored, so that FBI agents could swiftly trace the call and nab John son. In an hour, he called back. Hughes kept him on the line to give the FBI time to close in, talking about the murder case. "If you're not guilty," said Newsman Hughes, "turn yourself in to the FBI." Johnson answered that with his record; "I wouldn't have a chance." Then Hughes said bluntly: "I want you to tell me something. Did you pick up a heater? Dammit, tell me the truth." "Yeah, I got it in my hand right now," answered Johnny. "Pitch it into the river," urged Hughes, "and turn yourself in." Replied Johnson, "I'm not going back to Alcatraz, not for one hour ... I learned to hate up there in Alcatraz." A Feeling. While Hughes and Johnson talked on and on -- for 55 minutes -- the FBI agents traced the call to a phone booth in the mezzanine of Baltimore's Town Theater, where Mickey Spillane's
CRIME REPORTER HUGHES A mixed-up guy picked up a heater. blood and thunder I, the Jury was play ing. The FBI rounded up a small task force of its agents, including Agent John Brady Murphy, 35, who had already start ed home to his wife and three children when he got orders to come back to his office. At the theater, four agents, led by Murphy, cautiously made their way up the stairs. Johnson paused in his phone conversa tion, then said ominously: "I got a funny feeling." "What do you mean?" asked Hughes. "When you live like I do," said Johnson, "you get these kind of feel ings and you play them." Suddenly, after talking some more, Hughes heard "the damnedest clatter on the phone, as if someone took a stack of quarters and poured them into the coin box in spurts. The phone went dead." Johnson, playing his feeling, had pulled out his gun and was waiting for the agents as they came up the stairs. He fired through the glass door, fatally wounding Agent Murphy, seriously wounded anoth er FBIman before he died in the booth under a rain of bullets. Next day Hughes gave Johnson an appropriate epitaph: "You can't mess with a mad dog and John ny was a bad guy and that was that."
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Encounter Across the Seas
For highbrow little magazines, life is seldom easy, frequently short. Editor Cyril Connolly bitterly put an end to Britain's Horizon after trying for ten years to make ends meet. In the U.S., the monthly Partisan Review has been forced to cut down to six issues a year, is still constantly casting about for angels. Since they traditionally operate in the red, only the little magazines backed by universi ties, well-heeled nonprofit organizations or foundations have any security. This week in London, 10,000 copies of a brand-new little magazine rolled off the presses, and it not only has the backing of an organi zation but is also a highbrow magazine whose roots are transatlantic. The maga zine: Encounter, an 80-page international
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
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monthly ($5 a year), backed by the world-wide Congress for Cultural Free dom, whose headquarters are in Paris. Edited by British Poet Stephen Spender, 44, and Irving Kristol, 33, onetime manag ing editor of the U.S. monthly Commenta ry (TIME, Jan. 29, 1951), Encounter hopes to provide "an interchange of views among intellectuals of the whole English-speaking world." Anything that has any bearing "on culture or freedom," explains Editor Kris tol. "or preferably both together, will be the hub of the magazine." In its first issue, Encounter prints articles, fiction and poet ry by writers from six countries, including the unpublished diaries of Virginia Woolf, essays by France's Albert Camus and British-born Christopher Isherwood, poet ry by C. Day Lewis and Edith Sitwell. Among future contributors of articles and fiction for the magazine: Arthur Koestler, Bertrand Russell, W. H. Auden, Aldous
. . . you can sleep
at my house, Tommy!
(Based on an actual case from Company File #C-52-42)
How I got through that night I'll never know. But I did find out how kind your neighbors can he. The Underbills took Tommy and me; the Abbotts, Barbara and her mother. I didn't sleep, of course. How could I! First of all, there was the reaction from all the excitement -that terrible moment when it looked as if Tommy was trapped in his room.
Later my thoughts turned to my insurance. After so many lucky years without a fire I had begun to think I was immune. The premiums on the $4,000 policy covering my household belongings seemed like a waste of money. Now, with all the destruction vividly in my mind, I realized that $4,000 wouldn't be half enough. The fire was going to cost me at least $5,000 over and above my insurance to replace our furnishings alone.
EDITORS KRISTOL & SPENDER On their side, angels. Huxley, Arnold Toynbee, Lionel Trilling, Sidney Hook. Encounter's backer, the devotedly antiCommunist Congress for Cultural Free dom (whose purpose is the "defense of in tellectual liberties against all encroach ments on the creative and critical spirit of man"), gets its money from such angels as Yeast Heir Julius Fleischmann, the Rockefeller Foundation, trade unions and other groups. The Congress, which has given the new magazine's editors a free hand, will distribute Encounter all over the world, hopes to boost its circulation to 25.000. British-born Editor Spender and American-born Kristol think an in ternational magazine will help writing in both countries. Kristol feels that U.S. writers may have something to learn from the British, while Spender says: "Too many British writers are writing for them selves and their own little group of. say. six other writers. This will get air into Brit ish writing."
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
This is a true case. All too true ! We bring it to you because so many people-- both home-owners and rentersare, like Tommy's father, under-insured. If you something one of them-- and the chances are 7 out of 10 you are-- do something about it, won't you ... at once. What to the write for a free Inventory Booklet that'll help you figure the present Fire of your personal belongings. But don't fail to see your Hartford Fire Insurance Company Agent; or your insurance broker. If you don't know how to get in touch with your Hartford Agent, write us for his name and address-- now. Year in and year out you'll do well with the
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Tf you're like most vacationers, you'll -*- come back with plenty of snapshots of holiday highlights -- probably lots in color. But if you want a picture record that faithfully and fully records your trip . . . just as you lived it . . . then you must make moving pictures, too. From the moment you lock your door and say, "Let's go," you'll be caught in a whirl of new faces . . . new places . . . new
and thrilling experiences. And you just won't be able to remember it all in "still" pictures, alone. Life just won't stand still! All right, movies are wonderful! But aren't they hard to make? Not on your life ! Movies are as simple as snapshots. There's an exposure guide on every Kodak movie camera. Some models don't even have to be focused. You can focus the others, if you like, or use an
all-purpose setting that gives crisp movies at almost any distance. A fine, fast lens does a perfect job under varying light. It has a built-in sunshade, too, so you can follow action almost right into the sun. So it's easy to make good movies. But the cost? Well -- the Brownie Movie Camera sells at a new low $39.75. It uses economical 8mm. roll film . . . only $3.95 for full color or $3.25 for black-and-white -- including processing! And each roll makes 30 to 40 average -length movie scenes! So movies need cost no more than a dime a scene. Hard to see how you can afford not to make movies ... a picture record precious above all others because it faithfully, excitingly re-creates the color, the action, the reality of life itself. But get the story from your Kodak dealer. Or mail coupon to Kodak for free copy of "Let's Make Movies." Learn how easily you can bring the thrills of home movies to your house.
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There has been a great deal of mail since the New Packard was first presented, about a year ago, as
Americans New Choice In Fine Cars
VOLUNTARY LETTERS from prominent men and women rejoicing in Packard's return to the fine-car field, are the most inspiring part of these exciting days at Packard! "It's great to be back with Packard!" This came in a note from the President of one of America's most respected corporations. It's not death less prose, but as an expression of something believed in for years arid once again fulfilled, it is as natural and convincing as anything you'll hear in any automobile showroom in a month of Sundays.
And this from a younger man:
"When I was a lad there was always a Packard in the driveway. I'm glad to say that there is again ... a welcome member of the family is back home!" Men and women who, through background or by instinct, insist on the finest craftsmanship in every thing they buy are again visiting
Packard showrooms in gratifying and ever-increasing numbers. The New Packard is, in this case, a thoroughly modern car (no car offers more); however, a Packard will always give you something that tran scends all other fine car arguments: the responsibility of reputation.
Think it over . . . and then try the New Packard yourself. Your Packard dealer will put one of the new cars at your disposal anytime. Why not give him a call today? News item: The Classic Car Club of Amer ica recently presented its Gold Cup Award to Packard for "... outstanding contribution to the classic concept of styling and design."
Now - Ask The Man Who Owns One
Comes the Contemporary
Conductor Leopold Stokowski is driven by a double urge: to play contemporary music, and to get it heard by as many people as possible. After a quarter-century with the Philadelphia Orchestra, he re signed, formed his first-class All-Ameri can Youth Orchestra, and toured with it as far as South America. When that broke up because of the war, he spread himself around, guest-conducting in almost every city that had a good orchestra. Wherever he went he gathered new scores, played many of them, and catalogued all accord ing to his own hieroglyphic filing system against the time when he might play them for a really wide audience. This week Conductor Stokowski got his chance when he gave the downbeat on As for the kind of music Americans need to hear: "We are looking for two kinds, the kind that reacts to the crude life around us, and the kind that creates a remote world that is far from everyday life." Stokowski has a strong feeling for the second kind, promises new fantasies by such composers as Modernist Wallingford Riegger and Tapesichordist Vladimir Ussachevsky (TIME, Nov. 10) for future CBS network programs. The Time Was Ripe. CBS came to its new concert series slowly, and not too surely, mostly through the quiet determi nation of Music Producer Oliver Daniel, 41. Originally trained as a pianist, he joined the network ten years ago, pro duced such pioneering shows as Invitation to Music and School of the Air. As an enthusiast for contemporary scores, he also sandwiched them into briefer pro grams, along with salon music and show tunes. Nowadays, scarcely a program of CBS's informal Music Room, its recitals by Organist E. Power Biggs (both on Sun day mornings) or its Wednesday Top Hat show goes by without airing some new composition. Old friends Daniel and Sto kowski met last winter and agreed that the time was ripe for a more ambitious program. The network played along. Nothing could be more naturally ap propriate for radio than concerts, argues Daniel. They can be heard in fireside com fort, and there is more opportunity to pro gram them now that TV has siphoned off many of the big commercial shows. It is equally natural for radio to offer con temporary music, he insists. The radio audience is well accustomed to modern sounds: "It hears them [as background music] every time it tunes in on a mys tery thriller, and never turns a hair at the modernist dissonances."
T H E
P R O U D E S T
N A M E
S H O E S
STOKOWSKI & PRODUCER DANIEL After the railroads, flowers.
Twentieth Century Concert Hall, over a CBS network, coast to coast. Every Sun day, for six weeks (i p.m., E.S.T.). he will lead a string orchestra or a chamber symphony in programs consisting of the works of younger U.S. composers and the less familiar pieces of more renowned Europeans ("We don't believe in segre gation of music"). The first program: the Siciliano from a Bach sonata (arranged by Stokowski), a Concerto for Orchestra by Manhattan's Alan Hovhaness, 42, and a memorial performance of an Adagio by the late Nicolai Berezowsky. The Crude & the Creative. Stokowski, who admits to 66, is as enthusiastic as a teen-ager over his armfuls of new scores. "Music is becoming decentralized," he says. "It must. This country grew on in dividual initiative, first physically -- with railroads -- then culturally. It must con tinue, or we will never reach our flowering period."
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
Liberace (pronounced Liber-a^-chee) is a piano player who dropped his given names because "Paderewski did not achieve worldwide fame until after he dropped his." The trick took: at 33, Mil waukee-born Wladziu Valentino Liberace cannot give enough concerts to please all his fans, many of whom probably never heard of Paderewski. He has sold a phe nomenal 250,000 albums of his records, appears on 100 TV stations (more than I Love Lucy), and by the testimony of his sponsors (mostly banks and biscuit com panies) has directly accounted for "sev eral million dollars worth of business." Older Liberace fans insist that he re minds them of Rudolph Valentino, which is doubly odd: Valentino was not the pianist type, and, far from looking like the lean, dark actor, Liberace is pudgy, his curly hair is greying, his brow is broad. And he is not the strong, silent type. At a typical performance, he sits at the grand piano on a darkened stage with a 25piece orchestra behind him and a discreet
* Ignace Jan.
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candelabra near by. He flashes a dazzling smile at the crowd, waves and mugs, squints up into the balcony and gushes into a convenient microphone, "Ooh look, there are people way up there!" Traditionally trained but popularly in clined, Liberace toured the nightclubs for ten years. A year and a half ago, he dis covered a larger market, has been carving a high-paying swath across the U.S. pop concert circuit ever since. In Los Angeles, his was the only concert of the year to fill the Hollywood Bowl (capacity: 20,600). f In New Orleans, he signed autographs for 2\ hours after the concert was over. In Chicago, the Civic Opera House sold out four days after his concert was announced, had to schedule two more. Outside Man hattan's Carnegie Hall last week, women unable to get tickets turned away from the box office in tears. In the hall, his audience was, as usual, two-thirds women, from bobby-soxers to
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grandmothers. They basked happily as his performances washed over them: folk songs, show tunes and his own arrange ments of such classics as Debussy's Clair de Lime and Grieg's Concerto, most of which he played with artfully simplified fingerwork in the frillier runs. For a top per, he opened up his laryngitic baritone in a perennial favorite of the middle-aged, September Song. When it was all over, he dangled his feet over a corner of the stage, signed his pictures, shook hands and accepted embraces from some of the more grandmotherly. Liberace himself is not quite sure where his appeal lies, and it doesn't bother him. His aim: "To be to the piano what Bing Crosby is to the voice." Another aim: to finish his new home in Royal Oaks, Calif., where he, his brother and his mother can live, and swim in their pool, which is shaped like a grand piano viewed from the second balcony.
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
Almost half of America's electricity is gen erated from coal. All of our steel and most of our industrial power depend on coal. Of our total fuel resources, 90% is coal. This year 450 million tons of bituminous coal will power America's economy. And in the years to come the country's demands for coal will re quire even greater tonnages. But despite the abundance of coal and great need for coal, the industry today faces serious problems. How they are solved can affect our economy, our defense, and how well you live. Capital expenditures have increased. Millions of dollars have been spent on machines that pro duce and process coal for less money. But these savings, and more, too, have been siphoned off by increased costs. Miners' wages have more than doubled since World War II and are now the highest in any major industry. The cost of operating supplies has more than doubled. Coal freight rates have been repeatedly increased. At the same time competing fuels have been whittling away at coal's markets. To provide the coal which America requires, and to obtain for this coal a price that will yield the margin of profit needed to maintain a strong and forward-looking industry, is coal's daily battle. For only a profitable coal industry can maintain the health and strength necessary to continue to serve America well.
EVERYBODY IN AMERICA LIVES BETTER BECAUSE OF COAL
BITUMINOUS COAL INSTITUTE, A Department of the National Coal Association, Washington, D. C. TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
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The public-relations director of the A.M. A. last week offered the medical pro fession some pointed professional advice: now that the threat of compulsory health insurance no longer hangs over U.S. med icine, doctors should quit squabbling among themselves, Director Leo Brown told the Kentucky State Medical Associ ation. Also: "We need more interest in the public and less in ourselves." For the medical profession, Brown spelled out his definition of good public relations as: "Prompt, courteous, efficient service made available 24 hours a day and 365 days a year." And, he added, "good public relations is something like making love -- you have to participate in it if you expect to get much satisfaction out of it." true light. Fred is now happy at home and again doing well at school. Three Hats. Such cases are presented daily to the Judge Baker Center. In 36 years it has handled 15,376. This week, the child psychiatry movement in Boston got its biggest boost in years when Harvard announced that its Medical School and the Children's Hospital are combining with the center for an attack on the emotional difficulties and behavior problems of the young, from infancy through adolescence. Patients in the hospital who are found to need psychiatric care will be referred to the center, while center patients with physical problems will be treated at the
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The Child's Psyche
In grade school, Fred looked like the ideal American boy: he was a straight "A" student, captained his class soccer team, and was popular with both boys and girls. But at home, Fred was a finicky eat er, drank only water and nonfat milk, and always went to his room when family friends called. And he was annoyed by his father's suggestion that they join other fathers and sons in neighborhood games. Soon after he started junior high, Fred became a real problem. In the mornings he vomited and complained of bellyaches, so he got out of school. When doctors found nothing wrong, he thought of more excuses -- a big police dog threatening him on the way to school, bullying by bigger boys, an unfriendly teacher. The dangerous dog turned out to be a galumphing puppy, nobody was bullying Fred, and his teacher was genuinely fond of him. She suggested that Fred's mother take him to Boston's Judge Baker Guidance Center. School Phobia. In most ages and in many communities, oldsters would have prescribed a dose of strap oil for Fred and let it go at that. But Boston has become a hub for child psychiatry, and at the center Fred and his mother found sym pathetic help. His trouble was common enough: "school phobia," the psychiatrists and social workers called it. But they well knew that while the complaint may be common, the cause is different in each case. Fred went to the center for an hour each week, and a social worker and psychiatrist also saw his mother and father regularly. It took many sessions before Fred could realize that what he really feared was not school, but separation from his mother. This in turn had to be clarified: it was because he resented the time and attention she had given to an ailing sister. Finally, the psychiatrist worked through the thick er tangle of unconscious, childish illogic, and helped Fred to see his home life in its
* Named for the late Harvey Humphrey Baker, first judge of Boston's juvenile court. Its main sources of income: the United Community Fund and interest on its endowment. It collects neg ligible, nominal fees.
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hospital. The medical school is expanding its courses in child psychiatry. Tying the combined operation together will be Dr. George E. Gardner, 49, mildmannered pediatrician-psychiatrist who has been director of the Judge Baker Center for twelve years. Dr. Gardner will now don two extra hats, as Harvard's first clinical professor of psychiatry and psychiatrist in chief at the Children's Hospital. Basically, the idea is that psychiatric illnesses usually have their roots in child hood; if the psychiatrists can catch 'em young, the nation may be spared many a more stubborn adult case.
Kushumma & Kushippu
With his stylus of sharpened reed, the physician made neat, wedge-shaped marks on a clay tablet, carefully compiling a pharmacopoeia. His calligraphy was bet ter than most doctors': he got more than a dozen formulas on the two sides of a
* Posing with therapy toys at Judge Baker Center.
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
V I C E R O Y
Bank of America, with 538 branches in 330 California communities, is the world's largest privately owned bank. Its shares are held by 220,000 stockholders residing in every one of the 48 states. Resources (as of June 30, 1953): $8,017,573,360.54.
Street scene in Westchester (a section of Los Angeles) where population has grown from 946 in 1940 to 41,233 in 1953.
Every day more than a thousand new people come to California to live. Many follow the example of one -third of the population of this prosperous state and become Bank of America customers. Soon, like their neighbors, they are buying new homes, automobiles -- thousands of other consumer goods and commodities. These are the people-- this is the economy-- that Bank of America serves through 538 California branches. This is banking that is building California and serving you... banking that provides vitally needed credit to one out of every three of your California customers.
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tablet little bigger than a modern picture postcard. Then the sands of the desert covered the great Sumerian city of Nip pur (90 miles southeast of Babylon), and the physician's secrets were lost for thou sands of years. Last week the University of Pennsyl vania announced that after many years of effort, one of its scholars had suc ceeded in translating part of the old est-known pharmacopoeia, dating from about 2100 B.C. The university's Assyriologist Samuel Noah Kramer needed the help of Pennsylvania State College's Dr. Martin Levey, a specialist in the history of science, to figure out the materia medica which the ancient physician was pre scribing. Most were dissolved in wine or beer, e.g.: "Grind to a powder pear-tree wood and the moon plant, then pour kushumma wine over it and let [plain] oil and hot cedar oil be spread over it."
HE'LL GROW FROM THIS
University of Pennsylvania Museum
SUMERIAN PHARMACOPOEIA R: carpenter plant, gum resin and beer. Also: "Grind to a powder the seed of the carpenter plant, the gum resin of the markazi plant, and thyme, then dissolve it in beer and let the man drink." The Sumerian pharmacologist neglected to sign his work. It is also disappointing in another respect, the patient trans lators note: he failed to say what diseases his remedies were for. But along with such oddities as the ground-up skin of the kushippu bird, he also used salt and saltpeter, which had some value as antiseptics and astringents.
BEFORE YOUR WESTINGHOUSE FLUORESCENT LAMP BURNS OUT
7500 hours is the rated life of a standard Westinghouse Fluorescent Lamp. In the average home, this means many years of light. In the office or factory, where they're on all day, they last 3Vi years. This unsurpassed fluorescent lamp life span is achieved through Westinghouse research, engineer ing, and carefully controlled materials and manufactur ing processes.
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Because obesity and alcoholism are similar disorders, caused by an uncon trollable urge to indulge oneself, Man hattan's Knickerbocker Hospital last week opened a special clinic for excessive eaters and drinkers. Besides doing research, the doctors will give three-way treatment : medicines, psychological counseling and support through group discussions.
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
Give blood now! Call your Red Cross today.
you CAN BE SURE ...IF
ED UCATIO N
Change at Yale
Major revision of the first two years of the undergraduate curriculum at Yale University was recommended this week by the Committee on General Education, headed by Yale's President A. Whitney Griswold. Most drastic change proposed: tele scoping the freshman and sophomore years into one two-year course of study in preparation for a general examination at the end of the sophomore year. Formalized courses for freshmen and sophomores would be replaced by five "syllabi," con sisting of two lectures and a 75-minute discussion period each week, plus inten sive reading from a recommended book list. The new plan would also make it possible for qualified students to complete both high school and college in seven in stead of eight years. The recommenda tions must be approved by the faculty before they are put into effect. Acting Dean of Yale College Alfred R. Bellinger predicted that no changes would be made before 1955.
Cousin Frankie Gets Her Due
"Puff, puff, chug, chug, went the little blue engine. 'I think I can -- I think I can -I think I can . . .' " Over the mountain at last, with its load of Christmas toys for the children on the other side, the engine puffed happily: " 'I thought I could -- I thought I could -- I thought I could.' " For some 40 years, small boys and girls all over the U.S. have enjoyed the triumph of The Little Engine That Could. The tale has appeared in many versions, sold millions of copies -- apparently one of those anonymously written classics that are part of a nation's folklore. First Royalties. Last week the author of The Little Engine was no longer anonymous. Grosset & Dunlap signed a contract with Mrs. Frances M. Ford of Philadelphia, recognizing her as the author of the tale. The recognition came late: Author Ford is looking forward to cele brating her zooth birthday in March. Grosset & Dunlap will publish a new edi tion of The Little Engine That Could with Mrs. Ford's name on the cover, and she will receive the first royalties she ever got for her famed story. Behind last week's contract lay a long struggle on the part of Mrs. Ford's friends to get her recognized as author of a story she dashed off some time between 1910 and 1914, then all but forgot. In 1949 Mrs. Ford's cousin, Mrs. Frank S. Chmiel of Tucson, Ariz., began pestering publishers with the claim that "Cousin Frankie" was The Little Engine's creator. A firm that had always credited the story to an exteacher named Mabel Bragg looked back in its records to find that Miss Bragg had never claimed to be doing anything more than retelling another author's story. But publishers were reluctant to take sides; they continued to turn out authorless Little Engines. Months of literary detec-
AUTHOR FORD "I'm fine -- I'm happy." tive work convinced Grosset & Dunlap that Mrs. Ford's claim was valid. Uncle Nat. Author Ford, though ap preciative of her cousin's efforts, has al ways been modest about The Little En gine. She wrote the story while working for a publisher of children's books in Phila delphia, writing advice to parents under the name "Uncle Nat." As she recalls, she wrote the tale in a letter "in answer to some questions about a child who wouldn't try." Years later a friend told her about hearing a wonderful children's story in church. "I just looked at him in amazement," says Cousin Frankie. "It was my Little Engine." As the years passed, the little engine that refused to give up captured the im agination of two generations. A Boston mother once wrote a publisher to say that her little boy would not eat his breakfast
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THE LITTLE ENGINE
© The Platt & Munk Co.,
"I thought I could -- I thought
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
until he learned to say "I think I can"; a university student credited the little engine's example with getting him through exams; a torpedoed sailor in the South Pa cific said he owed his life to the story: about to give up his fight against the sea, the sailor kept saying "I think I can." Frances Ford lives a quiet life in her granddaughter's home, rises at 7:30 every morning, sits up watching television until all hours of the night. Says she: "I'm fine, except for too many birthdays . . . I'm just happy that so many children en joyed my Little Engine."
A Word for Freshmen
Last week, as they started their higher education, the nation's freshmen got some counsel from three college presidents: <J Go slow, warned Brown's Dr. Henry M. Wriston, in choosing a vocation. "At your age," Wriston said, "worry about how you are going to make your living leads to impulsive selections . . . Prema ture choices tend to lead you into, and freeze you in, occupations which will be inadequately rewarding spiritually, which may curb mental enjoyment." Most men in middle life are bored with their jobs because they "selected their vocation in a search for security instead of adventure." <I Seek maturity, advised Dartmouth's John Sloan Dickey, through a "liberating education." In the modern world, "the immature are dismayed with disappoint ment and they demand answers which promise quick, sure, painless solutions. The immature are sure that only a knave or a fool . . . could have made a losing bet. The mature mind resists the search for panaceas and scapegoats . . ." <I Overspecialization is what worries Hamilton College's (Clinton, N.Y.) Rob ert Ward McEwen. Specialists tend to get so wrapped up in their own fields that they cannot function effectively as citizens, said Dr. McEwen. "Many people turn to mur der mysteries for escape from their spe cialization. But escape is not enough. The most important danger ... is the myopia the specialist develops . . . The need to day is for informed specialists . . . who can see the woods as well as the trees. None of you will gain omniscience at col lege, but you can learn how to live in an age of specialization."
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High, Tight & Drunk
Everybody is fairly sure that college students drink. The big question is: How much? After questioning students in 27 col leges from Maine to California, the Yale Center of Alcohol Studies next week will publish the results in a book, Drinking in College (Yale University Press; $4). The Yale researchers found that 74% of the students reported they used alco holic beverages. There was a higher pro portion of drinkers among men (80%) than among women (61%). Drinking was commonest in private, nonsectarian, noncoeducational schools (92% of the men; 89% of the women), much lower in public coeducational institutions. Unable to test the concentration of al cohol in the blood of their subjects, the
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
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researchers had to accept the undergrad uates' own measurements of the various degrees of intoxication, which the sci entists denned as: "*High indicates a noticeable effect with out going beyond socially acceptable be havior, e.g., increased gaiety, slight fuzziness of perceptions, drowsiness . . . ''''Tight suggests unsteadiness in ordi nary physical activities, or noticeable ag gressiveness, or oversolicitousness, or loss of control over social amenities or of verbal accuracy, or slight nausea. '*''Drunk suggests an overstepping of so cial expectancies . . . loss of control in ordinary physical activities, and inability to respond to reactions of others." Passed out, the scientists agreed, is selfexplanatory. Three-fourths of all the men and 58% of the women reported having been high several times. Only half the men and onefifth the women admitted having been re peatedly tight; half the men and only 10% of the girls had been drunk more than once; 16% of the men had passed out once, 18% more than once. Seven percent of the women had passed out once, only 2% had repeated the experience. A study by Hofstra College of 1,000 high school students in Nassau County, N.Y. (pop. 672,765) showed that 90% of the students over 16 drink alcoholic bev erages. But most are "temperate" drink ers; only 2% to 5% fitted the tag of "heavy drinkers." Interesting statistic: drinking among high-schoolers reaches its peak at 16, falls off sharply by 17.
EURJ New York's State Board of Regents ruled that the Communist Party is sub versive, thereby disqualifying Commu nists from employment by the New York public school system under the provisions of the Feinberg law. The Feinberg law, passed in 1949 and upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1952, makes member ship in subversive organizations a disqual ification for service with the school sys tem. Said the board: "We arise . . . con vinced that force and violence are a sine qua non of the Communist faith." EURJ Denver University's Community Col lege announced a family tuition rate: ad ditional members of the same family may enroll in courses costing $10 at a cut-rate price of $5. Among the courses offered: Family Financial Security, Ice Skating, Personal and Social Adjustment, Chinese Cooking, Astronomy. <I A survey of 145 major companies by the Midwestern Placement Association re sulted in good news for college seniors, food for thought for economists : next year's college graduates can expect betterpaying jobs than ever before. Sixty-four companies reported that they would give higher starting salaries than they gave this year; not one company expected to pay less. Inexperienced graduates taking tech nical jobs (engineers, chemists, physicists) can expect monthly salaries of from $301 to $375; nontechnical beginners might have to take as little as $276 a month.
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
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You could examine fifty thousand quarts of canned oil -- or fifty million quarts --and not find enough dirt to cover the head of a pin. At the refinery this absolutely clean, filtered-bright oil is packed under dustfree conditions. It goes into cans as clean as those used for foods. From the instant the lid is sealed on, nothing can enter or leave. It is not so many years ago that Continental engineers first advanced the idea of canning motor oil. Now from 70 to 80% of all oil sold in service stations is dispensed from cans. Millions of motorists would no sooner accept oil that is not packaged than a housewife would buy milk ladled from a pail. Tamper-proof cans make it easy to get the quality and grade of oil you want even when traveling. They enable the dealer to put oil into your crankcase fast, and without waste/And they permit the refiner who is proud of his product to identify it with his name and trade-mark. Cans have been an important factor in making merchants of service-station operators. At almost any station today, you'll find lithographed cans made by Continental. They hold not only oil and anti-freeze, but light bulbs, fuses, brake fluid, tire-repair materials, grease, and cleaning, waxing and polishing compounds. Continental people are constantly working to make better, more economical and more useful containers for the automotive and petroleum industries. It's a pleasure to service the alert men who keep America on wheels and provide "Oil at Your Service."
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Lo, the Poor Irishmen
Professionally, the saddest men in sports are U.S. football coaches, and among them none can match Notre Dame's tearful Frank Leahy. Each fall, his gloomy Gaelic laments hang over South Bend, Ind. like a thick and salty fog. This year, Notre Dame, with 20 bat tle-tested regulars on hand, looked its strongest since 1949, was ranked as the na tion's No. i team in preseason polls. But Leahy was miserable. "I'll be amazed," he moaned, "if we make a first down all season." Last week, at Norman, Okla., Notre Dame's rangy Irishmen (including such steady workers as Guglielmi, Mavraides and Penza) opened their schedule against Oklahoma's tough Sooners, and, as usual, amazed Coach Leahy by rolling up more than enough first downs. Oklahoma was no pushover. Though weakened by graduation, 1952's Big Sev en champions were still rugged, and they fought Notre Dame to a standstill for almost three quarters. A big, fast Okla homa line made Fullback Neil Worden fumble on his own 23-yd. line; Oklahoma had a touchdown eight plays later, got an other in the second period on a 62-yd. pass and a series of bone-crunching bucks. But Notre Dame matched them both and then went to work. Oklahoma's run ning attack stalled and sputtered; when the Sooners tried to pass, Notre Dame Quarterback Ralph Guglielmi intercepted, moments later flipped one of his own for 36 yds. and a touchdown. In the third quarter, Frank Leahy's powerhouse Full back Worden ground his way to a fourth touchdown from 9 yds. out, and the bat tle was over. Final score: Notre Dame 28, Oklahoma 21. Two platoons or one, Notre Dame strength is something football fans can usually bank on, but around the rest of the U.S., big power performance was more uneven as other teams tried out the new rules. Among the surprises: flj University of Michigan, looking better than the preseason dope, scored five times in ten minutes, wound up smothering the University of Washington in an intersectional game, 50-0. <I Navy, which some experts rank as the top Eastern independent, steamed up & down the field against lightly regarded William & Mary, but never quite zeroedin its attack, was lucky to eke out a 6-6 tie. t| University of Texas, which lost its opener to Louisiana State, came back strong, ran away from a powerful Villanova team, 41-12. EURf Georgia Tech, ranked high among the top ten in polls, had to fight both a muddy field and a tough Florida team, had to settle for a o-o tie. t| Princeton, top-heavy favorite to walk off with Ivy League honors, looked less than tigerish against little Lafayette, had to complete a 6y-yd. pass in the last five minutes to pull the game out, 20-14.
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
BASEBALL'S BIG TEN
The league leaders at season's end: NATIONAL LEAGUE Team: Brooklyn (by 13 games) Pitcher: Spahn, Milwaukee (23-7) Batter: Furillo, Bklyn. (.344) Runs Batted In: Campanella, Brooklyn (142) Home Runs: Mathews, Mil. (47) AMERICAN LEAGUE Team: New York (by 8^ games) Pitcher: Parnell, Boston (21-8) Batter: Vernon, Wash. (.337) Runs Batted In: Rosen, Cleveland (145) Home Runs: Rosen, Cleveland (43)
A Simple Idea
Roland LaStarza, 26, a shifty boxer who went to college (C.C.N.Y.), had figured out, after a course of thoughtful study, just how he was going to beat Rocky Marciano to become heavyweight champion of the world. "I'm more mus cular than Marciano, and I expect to move faster," he said. "I figure I can cut him up so that the referee will have to stop it!" Rocky Marciano, 29, more of a cave than a college type, had less to say in advance. When the bell rang for the start of their 15-round experiment at the Polo Grounds last week, Rocky rushed out, swinging his
* Among the graduate students of prizefighting who dropped in at LaStarza's training camp, watched, and agreed with him: ex-Champions Joe Louis and Jim Braddock.
fists like stone cudgels, and put a simple idea into practice, i.e., smash away at Roland until Roland fell down and stayed there. Rocky's onslaught was clumsy, prim itive and often skirted the rules. In round two, when LaStarza refused to back off from one ferocious rush, Marciano just kept charging, butted a gash above La Starza's right eye. Next round, Rocky caught his man with a left after the bell. A chant rose from the challenger's corner: "Dirty fight! Dirty fight!" A few rounds later, Rocky caught LaStarza below the belt, drew his fourth warning, lost the round for the low punch. Until the seventh round, LaStarza seemed to have a chance of going the whole way; Rocky was missing a lot of earnest punches. Then Rocky changed tactics, shortened his blows, began pummeling LaStarza's body with lefts and rights. The challenger's guard sank slowly, his retreating feet got heavier, his counterpunches weaker. It ended in the eleventh, when LaStarza, slowed by a left hook, got in the way of a sharp right, and was driven sprawling through the ropes. La Starza was vertical again, though little else, after a count of nine. The referee had to stop the fight. For winning his 45th professional bout, his 40th by a knockout, Heavyweight Champion Rocky Marciano collected $187,000. It might be his last big check for a while. At the moment, nobody seemed to be able to think of a natural new challenger.
Hooky on the Sound
As a breeze-struck schoolboy of ten in New Orleans, Eugene Walet talked his father into buying him a Snipe Class sail boat. The elder Walet, who is president of the Jefferson Lake Sulphur Co., was soon
Jack Frank-- N.Y. Herald Tribune
MARCIANO FINISHING LASTARZA The college boy got in the way.
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shanghaied into a task familiar to the parents of juvenile sailors. Landlubber Walet began training as a weekend crew man under his son's command on Lake Ponchartrain. By last week Gene, now a senior at New Orleans' Jesuit High School, was still at the helm and his father, now an experienced old salt, shared the honor of racing in the finals of the North American Sailing championship. The Hard Way. In getting to the year's top racing, held in Long Island Sound's crisp September breezes off the Larchmont (N.Y.) Yacht Club, young Gene and seven other helmsmen had proved themselves the best sailors in the land. Earlier last month, in the eight racing re gions of the U.S. and Canada, some 1,600 yachtsmen from 599 clubs had beat and run their boats through the sectional elim inations. To fly the colors of the Southern
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WALET & WALET With a good wind against III. Yacht Club in the finals, Gene Walet had scored the most points in a four-series total of 27 races. In last year's first running of the North American competition, won by Larchmont's well-weathered Yachtsman Corny Shields (TIME, July 27), the boats were Quincy Adams Class sloops, measuring 17 ft. at the waterline. This year they were yachting's most carefully standardized boats: the Norway-built International Class sloops, whose 33-ft. specimens are alike as pumpkin seeds. In Larchmont's eight races, each crew sailed each of eight boats once. Until last week when he came North, young Gene had never seen an Interna tional. But Helmsman Walet, crewed by two Tulane University students and his father, quickly got the feel of the bigger, more complicated craft. He finished sec ond and third in the first two races, then learned some of the Internationals' finer points the hard way when he came in next
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to last in the third race. After that, he was the sloops' master. A Birthday Present. A fourth in the seventh race sent Gene into the point lead, but five other skippers were still close enough to pass his narrow margin, notably last year's runner-up, Charles 111 of Mantoloking, N.J. Aboard Wisp in the last race, Gene lay back at the starting line, careful not to jump the cannon. He got off well into a 14-knot southerly, rounded the windward mark of the 8|-mi. triangular course, billowed out his spin naker to catch the wind for the second mark, then reached for home. All the way, he shrewdly covered Charlie Ill's boat (i.e., protected his edge in points by dup licating Ill's maneuvers, tack for tack). A scant 100 yards from the finish, Gene overtook the lead boat of the Maine Yacht Racing Association's James Ducey, who had lost time on an ill-advised tack, and sluiced in first. With 48^ points over Ill's 45-4, Gene Walet was the year's top skip per. Glowed Gene: "I gave this race to my dad for his [5 2nd] birthday present." Then father Walet bundled Gene and his victory trophy, a mammoth silver soup tureen, back to New Orleans, where, tech nically, the National Champion would have to account to his teachers for missing two weeks of school. Across Long Island Sound, at Oyster Bay, a team of six European skippers raced six U.S. and Canadian skippers to inaugurate an Old World-New World competition in Six-Meter Class boats. Both sides showed spectacular teamwork, covering rivals, stealing their wind while their teammates scudded ahead. In the end, despite the presence of Norway's Crown Prince Olaf at the tiller of one of the European team's six-meters, the New World outsailed the Old, four races to one.
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<J At Belmont Park, in the notable ab sence of the ailing Native Dancer, Greentree Stable's four-year-old Tom Fool won the $50,000 Sysonby Mile, in a race so clearly predetermined that there were only three starters and no bets were taken. EURJ In Milwaukee, the transplanted Braves wound up their season as the city's first major-league baseball team in 52 years by soundly shattering all National League records for home attendance: 1,826,397 admissions. C| In St. Louis, Browns fans (home at tendance this year: 311,000) reacted to fresh talk of the club's transfer to another city by belatedly crowding the ballpark, hanging Owner Bill Veeck in effigy. At week's end they heard that the Browns might not move after all; meeting in Manhattan, American League club own ers rejected the most likely city, Balti more, for the second time. EURJ In Boston, the Red Sox's Ted Williams, who returned from Korea too late to be considered for American League batting honors, still managed to hang up a per sonal record in 37 games: a batting aver age of .407 (37 hits, 13 home runs) to top .400 for the second time in his career.
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
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Knowing by Faith
The last president of Harvard to take part in an exercise of the Harvard Divin ity School was crusty Unitarian Charles William Eliot, in 1909. For this week's convocation of the Divinity School, Har vard's brand-new president, Episcopalian Nathan M. Pusey (TIME, June 8), com posed a speech that would surely have made the muttonchops of the father of the Five-Foot Shelf bristle with shocked sur prise. The subject of President Eliot's 1909 discourse was "The Religion of the Fu ture." "The new religion," Eliot pre dicted, "will foster powerfully a virtue which is comparatively new in the world -- the love of truth and the passion for seeking it. And the truth will progressively make men free . . . When dwellers in a slum suffer the familiar evils caused by overcrowding, impure food and cheerless labor, the modern true believers contend against the sources of such misery by pro viding public baths, playgrounds, wider and cleaner streets, better dwellings and more effective schools -- that is, they attack the sources of physical and moral evil." So Much Twaddle? Paying his respects to the wisdom and sincerity of his illus trious predecessor, President Pusey de cided to state the problem baldly: "This faith will no longer do." The events of the 20th century, says Pusey, have made the easy optimism of Eliot's day unpalatable. "It is not that we do not have faith, or at least want to have faith, but that certainty escapes us, and that all things have been brought into doubt, and that fearing to be victimized we are inclined not to believe at all. We simply are not the 'true believers' of whom President Eliot spoke, and this suggests that his was not a religion for the future, but that something was left out of it which has now gone a long way toward vitiating his position, and which we must get hold of again in the midst of our present difficulties if we are to get on. "For President Eliot, the enemies to his true faith were churches, creeds, priests, anything supernatural, any concern for a life after death, anything that professed to be sacramental. I suspect, for example -- though I do not know this -- that he would have considered the doctrine cen tral to generations of believers -- that Christ came into the world to save sin ners -- as so much twaddle. His was to be a 'simple and rational faith,' and there was to be no place in it for 'metaphysical complexities or magical rites . . .' This is where President Eliot may have been wrong, at least wrong for our time, for it has now become frighteningly clear that if you try to ignore metaphysical consider ations -- I would say consideration of ul timate things -- or cover them up in bursts of energy, they will rise up in perverted and distorted forms to mock one's thus too-circumscribed efforts . . . "Personal religion, and understanding
s -- LIFE
HARVARD'S PUSEY Something must be regained. of and participation in the work of the Church, could apparently in many earlier generations be taken for granted. Latterly, they have tended to ebb away in the all but universal adoration of the state, and in almost idolatrous preoccupation with the secular order, the accumulation of knowledge, and with good works. There is not and cannot be a quarrel with any of these things in themselves, but only with the notion that they are independ ently sufficient goods." A Gaping Need. "And it is because they have been tried and the people are still not fed, that you especially are now pre-
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HARVARD'S ELIOT Easy optimism will not do.
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
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sented with an immense new and most difficult responsibility ... It is leadership in religious knowledge and, even more, in religious experience -- not increased in dustrial might, not more research facil ities, certainly not these things by them selves -- of which we now have a most gaping need . . . "A member of your faculty [Pro fessor George La Piana] said here a few years ago that 'Faith is the consciousness that moral values and spiritual experiences have a sacred character.' It is more of this consciousness that we most desperately need, and that ... we must learn again to know by faith with thanksgiving."
MEET UNEW ENGLAND
Once upon a medieval time there was a juggler named Cantalbert. He was a good juggler. He could stand on one hand on a stool on a ball on a sword, while he twirled a hoop with his free arm and jug gled ten balls with his feet. But people paid no attention. They would rather fight each other, or get drunk, or go to a witchburning. If he were an ascetic, thought Cantalbert, perhaps Heaven would send him an audience. So he made himself a hair shirt and juggled in that, but, except for a few other ascetics, no body paid any atten tion. He was a failure. If only he were a monk, thought Cantal bert, he could live in a warm room, and have R. O. Blechman friends, and feed the birds and pray to the Holy Virgin. So he became a monk. But the other monks said Latin prayers and he knew no Latin. They chanted chants and he didn't know how to chant. They painted frescoes or copied manuscripts, or taught Scripture or cooked, and Cantalbert didn't know how to do any of these things. He felt more of a fail ure than ever, and the other monks com plained about him. When Christmastime came, the monas tery hummed with activity. Each monk was hard at work preparing a present for the Virgin. The cook baked an enormous many-tiered cake called "The Church Tri umphant," the poet composed a miles-long Latin poem, Brother Arnaud presented Mary with the smallest illuminated Bible ever made, and Brother Thomas made an ivory carving of the Christ child that was so huge that a man had to stand away off to see it all. Juggler Cantalbert did not know what to do. On Christmas morning, the monks got up early and hurried to the chapel to look at their presents again. There before the altar they saw Cantalbert's present. "Mon strous!" they cried. "Desecration! Sacri lege! Insane!" But then came a miracle. The legend of the lonely little juggler and the miracle that blessed him is one of the memorable stories of Christendom,
Map Copyright Rand McNally & Company, Chicago
RIGHT AT THE ROOT -- OF THE ANSWER. Because of industry's needs for more moving more engineers and other specialists, many firms are moving their plant like into New England. Mystic Valley cities and towns like Maiden, Melrose, Medford, Everett, Revere and Winthrop nestle beside a huge 65,000 of tomorrow's businessmen and technologists -- the 65,000 Students enrolled in the Boston area's 200 educational institutions. At least 15% of New nation's "romance" industry -- electronics-- now resides in New England, thriving on the region's skilled labor, research . facilities and the availability of well-trained young scientists.
MEET NEW ENGLAND
GIANT ON THE CONNECTICUT. Comerford Station, New England Electric System's hydro plant on the upper Connecticut River is the largest in the Northeast. Here in the region of understanding and good pay, fine working conditions and unparalleled labor-management accord, you also find "livability". New Englanders live and work right in vacationland -- only minutes from mountains, streams, lakes and the sea. And New England's vacation industry now exceeds a billion dollars annually-- $100,000,000 of it going to winter resorts and ski areas.
J Facts-- solid and unbiased-- on avail[ able plant sites and development potential in thriving New England comI munities are confidentially yours. Write New England Electric System, Room T, * * Bestknown in France: Our bythat old free Best known in a retelling by that old free I 441 Stuart St., Boston, Massachusetts. thinker, Anatole a retelling Lady's Juggler I
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
(whose name, incidentally, was Barnaby).
New England's largest electric system -- serving 2,300,000 people in 232 New England communities -- and over 3800 industrial and manufacturing firms. 71
meaningful beyond theologizing, like a parable from the Bible or a legend of St. Francis. It is beautifully told again for moderns, in pictures, in a book pub lished last week: The Juggler of Our Lady (Henry Holt; $2.50). Robert O. Blechman, who has drawn the pictures and adapted the legend, is 23, a Jew, a private in the U.S. Signal Corps, and a graduate (last year) of Oberlin Col lege. His squiggly, deceptively childlike drawings have appeared in such magazines as Glamour, Charm, Mademoiselle, Col lier's and Theatre Arts. But his greatest pleasure since he was a boy has been "drawing books" and circulating them among his family and friends. The Juggler of Our Lady was a logical result. "I hope people won't be fooled by the medieval setting," says Artist Blechman. "Cantalbert is strictly a modern man." <I The News Bulletin of the Evangelical Confederation of Colombia (South Amer ica) published a summary of the persecu tion of Protestants there during the past five years. Items: 42 church buildings destroyed by fire and dynamite, 31 dam aged, ten confiscated; no Protestant pri mary schools closed, 54 of them by govern ment order, the rest by violence; 51 Protestant men. women & children killed, $148,000 lost in buildings destroyed, dam aged or confiscated. During the same period, according to the confederation, Protestant church membership in Colom bia increased 51%, from 7,908 in 1948 to 11,958 in 1953. <S In an encyclical letter titled Fulgens Corona (The Radiant Crown), Pope Pius XII proclaimed the year 1954 (from De cember 1953 to December 1954) a Marian Year, in commemoration of the looth anniversary of the definition of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception. The Marian Year will be marked by special ceremonies, and Roman Catholics every where were urged to concentrate their prayers on three main subjects: world peace, church unity, and "the church of silence" -- Catholics who live behind the Iron Curtain under fear and persecution for their faith. :* t| The militantly anti-Communist Inter national Confederation of Free Trade Unions, which represents 97 unions in 73 countries, tossed a monkey wrench toward the machinery of Moral Re-Armament, the nondenominational, untheological, po lite revival movement that evolved out of Frank Buchman's old Oxford Group. A re port prepared by I.C.F.T.U.'s secretariat accused the Moral Re-Armament move ment of interfering "with trade-union ac tivities and [making] anti- trade-union efforts, even to the extent of trying to found 'yellow unions.' " M.R.A., it said, was undemocratic: "Buchman does not build up his movement from below . . . but from the ranks of leaders . . . The sources from which the Moral Re-Arma ment movement draws its necessary funds are completely unknown. All that can be said is that those who supply the money must be very well off."
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
Words & Works
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TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
The movies will never catch up with Professor Abraham Pais of the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton. They have achieved three dimensions after a fashion, but Pais uses twice as many. Last week he told a convention of physicists in Kyoto, Japan that thinking in six di mensions may be necessary before man can understand the inner workings of matter. Said Pais: "The shortest possible description of the theory is to call it an attempt to ex plain the large number of particles in the nucleus, not as different forms in them selves, but as different states of one form. "If it is correct, it would bring a great simplicity to our theories of the nucleus, and this is one reason it has appealed to many of the physicists. For hundreds of years we have learned that the great truths of nature are usually explained in classically simple ways." Professor Pais' idea of simplicity is not the usual one. "It seems necessary," he' continued, "to extend the usual spacetime description and, in a very abstract sense, one may say that a higher dimen sional frame of description is necessary. In my theory, this means six dimensions." buildings covered an area a dozen times bigger than St. Peter's. During the Dark Ages, Fortuna's tem ples were looted down to their bones. Even their marble facings were carted away for building material. Gradually the town of Palestrina and the feudal strong hold of the Colonna family spread over the massive remains, effectively hiding them from archeologists. In 1944, Allied bombings peeled away the medieval build ings. When the war ended, Palestrina was a wreck, but the lower parts of Fortuna's temple lay almost undamaged under heaps of rubble. Last week, after eight years of work. Italian archeologists had cleared away the rubble, and visitors could see what the massive old shrine was like. Said Profes sor Pietro Romanelli, chief supervisor of ancient ruins in central Italy: "We have unearthed enough to show the broad out lines of the temple at a glance, and to give us so much precise knowledge of its layout that except for a few details we could rebuild it today as it was in its prime." Visitors can walk through stately halls and a network of chapels and oracle rooms, still paved with mosaics, where worshipers asked the advice of the god dess. The temple must have been, also, rather like a pagan Lourdes, where pil grims prayed for relief from bodily ail ments. The many shops that cluster thick ly around the shrines supplied votive offerings of clay, marble, silver or gold shaped realistically to represent afflicted parts of the human body. Some of these grisly, pathetic objects still remain after 14 centuries. Confession Stones. Since before World War II, Dr. Karl Lehmann of New York University has been digging away at an
While reconnoitering Walter Shir ley's sumptuous Fifth Avenue offices, we came across a 52-foot wall map of Long Island, in vivid color. The tracts that Mr. Shirley had developed were specially vivid, and pegged him as one of America's big gest development realtors. We promptly proclaimed it the ideal background for a "Man of Distinction" color photo graph. Lord Calvert highball in hand, Mr. S. stood in front of the map, and his face dis solved into the flesh-toned sands of Southampton Beach. He sidestepped out to Montauk Point where his necktie clashed with Shelter Island. He withdrew to Freeport and ran smack into sandy Jones Beach. At East Islip the Long Island Railroad detoured right down his pin-striped suit. "The only doublebreasted railroad in the world," said the photographer. Squelched, we moved into Shirley's private office for the conven tional man-at-desk shot. To drown out the photographer's snide remarks about the map we delivered a brief monologue on whiskey in general and Custom Distilled whiskey in particular, pointing out that Lord Calvert costs a lit tle more, tastes a little better and adds a little more pleasure to living. Nobody took exception. Later, while walking through Penn .Station, we asked the photographer why he disapproved of maps. "I don't," he said. "I just wanted a shot of Shirley's desk. Nice grain in the wood. Look, we have twenty minutes to train time, shall I buy you a Lord Calvert highball?" "Yes indeed," we said, and he did.
D i g g rs Digge e r s
The Shrine of Lady Luck. Praeneste, often mentioned by the classical writers, was an ancient religious center 23 miles east of Rome in the Sabine hills. Sacred to the goddess Fortuna, it was the Roman world's bulkiest, solidest shrine. It throve for a thousand years, reaching its peak about the time of Christ, and was the last pagan center to be suppressed by Christianity. When Lady Luck was still lucky, her intricate complex of sacred
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TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
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even older center of religion: the temple of "the Great Gods," who were old when Greece was young. Their headquarters was on the Aegean island of Samothrace, and their "mystery" (basically a worship of fertility) began before Homeric times and lasted into the Christian period. On his latest tour of digging, Dr. Lehmann unearthed some of the holiest ob jects in the Great Gods' system. Near one of the temples, he dug up a stone base with a hole to support a large torch. On either side of it are two stone blocks. He believes that on these blocks, often de scribed in ancient literature, stood the candidates who were about to be admit ted to higher ranks of the religion. The exact rites of initiation were kept secret, but they are known to have included a confession of sins. Jawbone's Burins. In a less pleasant place than the isles of Greece, traces of a cruder culture came to light. Anthropolo gist J. Louis Giddings Jr. of the Univer sity of Pennsylvania reported last week on a visit to northern Canada, where he went to study changes in the climate. While at the little port of Churchill on Hudson Bay, he met a Mrs. Irwin H. Smith, an amateur botanist who had bought some odd flint objects from an Indian named Thomas Jawbone. Dr. Gid dings took a good look and then hurried off to find Mr. Jawbone. Some of the ob jects were a kind of "burin" (a stone-en graving tool) that is seldom found in the New World. Jawbone took him on a rugged threeday canoe trip up the Knife River and showed him the bleak stretch of wind blown sand where he had found the flints. There were plenty more of them lying on the surface. Dr. Giddings picked up 80 artifacts: scrapers, blades, needle-like flakes and more of the rare burins. These prove, he believes, that in the remote past, perhaps as long ago as 10,000 years, peo ple of the same culture lived all around the Arctic regions of the world. The same peculiar burins have been found in Alaska, East Greenland and Siberia. Almost noth ing more is known about these circumpolar people. In the New World, they were probably replaced comparatively recently by invading Eskimos. When modern jet planes land on an aircraft carrier, they must do it just right. This puts a strain on the landing signal officer. He must judge the speed of each approaching jet with great accuracy and wave it off for another try if it is moving either too fast or too slow. He has little margin for error and he must make his decision in a split second. A new "speedometer" built by Raytheon Manufacturing Co. eases the Job of the LSO. It watches the approaching jet by radar and measures its speed accurately. This information, fed into an electronic computer, is combined with wind data. The final figure, displayed on a dial, tells the LSO accurately whether the jet is approaching at the proper speed for a "third-wire" landing.
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
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TV D you know that teletyped res*^ ervations to the Hotel New Yorker get special attention? If you have teletype facilities we suggest you make a note of our number (New York 1-1384). A tel ephone call to the offices listed below, or a wire or letter direct to the New Yorker will bring you a prompt acknowledgment.
Boston: Hubbard 2-0060 * Chicago: Central 6-1295 Pittsburgh: Grant 1-1 201 * Washington: Executive 3-2111
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Take a Giant Step (by Louis Peterson) is the sort of play that is not done often enough, though it ought to be done better. It deals honestly with a young Negro's scuffle with adolescence, with growing pains that involve growing doubts and recognitions, with a tragicomic moodiness and incoherence, and with that giant step toward maturity that not only moves ahead but also turns a corner. Spencer Scott lives in a comfortable middle-class home (in a white neighbor hood) with sympathetic parents. But he is 17; he is in trouble at school, he is bothered by sex, he is at odds with his family. And there are difficulties over his race: a white world that cannot accept him as a suitor is bewildered over how to accept him at all. He chafes and broods and breaks loose; he talks to prostitutes in a bar, talks to one of them in her room ; is crushed by the death of his grand mother (well played by Estelle Hemsley), restored to life by an ardent young widow. Playwright Peterson has captured Spen cer's seventeen-ness admirably, and HighSchool Senior Louis Gossett plays him well. There is a fresh, humorous smack to the writing -- that sense of proportion so vital in dealing with a character who lacks one. But only his humor and his hero are Playwright Peterson's own; they function inside a framework, indeed a virtual cage of cliches. Where Spencer is typical but real, his experiences are merely trite, and sometimes clumsy and protracted. What makes Take a Giant Step uncommon in terms of Negro life -- its middle-class out look -- is precisely what makes it overfamiliar in terms of adolescence. At Home with Ethel Waters is a fair way of spending the evening out. The latest Broadway star to become a Broad way soloist, Ethel Waters should have unusual qualifications for going it alone. She has a genuine personality, whether warmhearted or rowdy; she can perform as dramatic actress or comedienne ; and as a singer, she is a notable album of old favorites -- Dinah, Am I Blue, Stormy Weather, Takin' a Chance on Love. At its best -- as when she and her ac companist, Reginald Beane, freewheelingly get together over Lady, Be Good -- At Home with Ethel Waters is delightful. But the part proves greater than the whole. The star offers more than 20 num bers, in a program that mingles the atmos phere of the nightclub, the concert stage and Broadway without achieving the full flavor of any of them. Most crucially, doing proper justice to the 20-odd numbers nine times a week could only leave her voice in shreds ; hence she has to pipe down, to substitute byplay on the actress' part for brio on the sing er's. She is always personally pleasing, and sometimes more; but At Home with Ethel Waters finds Ethel Waters insuffi ciently at home with her material.
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
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Of all the members of the animal world who use our forests, man is the one responsible for 90% of forest fires. Don't throw lighted matches, cigarettes, cigars or pipe ashes out of the car window. Don't leave camp fires smoldering. Drown them-- then stir and drown again.
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THE THRILL A MAN DESERVES
Hour of Gloom
RADIO & TV
Studio One opened its sixth TV season last week by boldly offering an hour of ut ter despair. A grim, gruesome, humorless show, it was television at its best. The teleplay: George Orwell's bitter satire, Nine teen Eighty-Four, which Mrs. Orwell re leased to Studio One only after assurances that there would be no tampering with her late husband's blueprint of the ultimate police state. CBS-TV Producer Felix Jackson, faced with the difficult job of making the Orwellian future believable ("without put ting on a space-cadet kind of show"), hired British Playwright William P. Templeton to do the adaptation. Jackson also decided, with Director Paul Nickell, that the shape of the superstate could be suggested, rather than spelled out, by lighting tricks and simple, abstract sets. Templeton filled out Orwell's spare dia logue in Nineteen Eighty-Four and fo cused, for dramatic purposes, on the tor ment of Oceania's petty bureaucrat, Win ston Smith, who helps make history toe the party line in the Ministry of Truth. Actor Eddie (Roman Holiday} Albert, who has often skillfully played Hollywood's av erage man, portrayed Smith's crimet kink ing (dangerous thoughts) and search for ownlife (individualism). His short-lived love affair with Julia, the rebellious AntiSex Leaguer (Norma Crane), was carried on against a background of omnipresent two-way telescreens and the horrible, bloat ed face of "Big Brother." Studio One did not flinch at an unhappy ending. Smith groveled in a prison pit, was tortured into admitting that two and two make five, came screaming out of a cham ber of hungry rats, and confirmed his fealty to Big Brother in an emotionless, post-brainwashing meeting with Julia. It was a production that could easily have gone embarrassingly grotesque at one false move, but maturity of view and painstak ing execution (stagehands were fitted with felt shoe pads to keep out distracting noises) combined to make the first televersion of Nineteen Eighty-Four a major TV achievement. It looked as if TV had made a major raid on Hollywood talent. Joan Crawford was on television playing the suffering wife of an unfaithful husband; Marilyn Monroe was cavorting on Jack Benny's show; Ava Gardner, as the mystery guest on a quiz program, was answering embar rassing questions ("Are you married and are you happy about it?"); Loretta Young, Ray Milland and Joan Caulfield were turning up each week on their own programs; Arlene Dahl, Ray Bolger, Agnes Moorehead and young Brandon De Wilde were beginning big TV roles. Had Hollywood finally given in to TV? Not quite. A few movie figures, notably Robert Montgomery, had long been fa miliar faces on television; some, like Lu-
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EDDIE ALBERT & NORMA CRANE From satirical ownlife, achievement. cille Ball, Ann Sothern and Robert Cummings, had propped up sagging careers by taking the television plunge. This season's rash of film stars on TV amounts to a sudden upswing in the trend, but the bigstudio, big-star antipathy toward televi sion still exists. Mostly Soap Operas. Most term con tracts at the big cinema studios still for bid TV appearances, except for special walk-ons to plug a new picture (as Mari lyn Monroe plugged The Robe on Benny's program), and most top-ranking free lance stars are too wary or too busy for television. Explains Cinema Tough Guy
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TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
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THE NATIONAL CASH REGISTER COMPANY, DAYTON 9, onto
Aluminum is wfUf
more weight's in the freight
State laws limit the weight of loaded trucks and trailers. The trucker's answer is a lighter unit that hauls heavier loads. Light, strong aluminum helps truckers in dozens of places on tractors and trailers. Almost every thing you see on a modern rig is made of aluminum . . . frames, floors, sides, roofs, gas tanks, even wheels and axle housings-- a possible weight saving of 8400 pounds. Just one aluminum wheel can save 40 pounds. So by using aluminum wheels, a tractor and trailer may increase cargo capacity as much as 800 Ibs. In addition, truckers get longer tire life because alumi num wheels conduct heat better. They get easier steering because aluminum wheels are machined to precision roundness. And, of course, aluminum wheels are easier to change, never need paint.
Alcoa engineers designed the forged aluminum disc wheel. In Alcoa shops, ways were found to forge it and machine it true. Alcoa research laboratories built special machines to test and study wheels under every condition of service life. Over 50,000 Alcoa Forged Disc Wheels give extra payload to truckers. Many have run over Vz -million miles and are still going strong. ALUMINUM COMPANY OF AMERICA, Pittsburgh 19, Pa.
All makes of cars now use aluminum pistons -- many Alcoa Aluminum. They make engines smoother, quieter, more powerful. Alcoa does more piston research than any other metal supplier.
Bus and truck builders know that Alcoa Aluminum Fasten ers are a must for joining aluminum assemblies. They "dress up" products of wood and plastic, too.
Alcoa UTILITUBE is widely used in the automotive industry for oil and fuel lines, brake lines and hydrau lic systems. Easy to bend and install . . . UTILITUBE resists corrosion.
Bright new helper in America's kitchens is Wear- Ever brand Alcoa Aluminum Foil. Homemakers find it indispensable for food storage, cooking, freezing. Saves work, too!
Humphrey Bogart: "I got a helluva good racket of my own ... I don't have the time and I don't trust the medium yet . . . You watch that stuff some time . . . In stead of being five foot eleven, you're four foot three. I'll wait until they get straight ened out." Van Heflin feels that a series of weekly TV shows, for a movie actor, "can very easily mean the complete de struction of his career in motion pictures. The audience gets used to getting some thing for nothing, and then does not want to turn around and pay for it." Teresa Wright, after giving occasional TV per formances, sniffs at television's dramatic works: "They're mostly soap operas. It's just like making a cheap film." Bible with Guts. But television has enthusiastic converts. Says Joan Craw ford, who has plans for a series about a lady columnist ("I'll definitely do the commercials, in a dignified way"): "When [television] is not badly photographed and when it is on film which I can own, I find it extremely attractive, because it pays for itself and then becomes an an nuity for my children. How else can you save money these days?" John Wayne, one of Hollywood's top box-office draws, "is very much for TV," has plans to pro duce his own TV films. Kirk Douglas has made a pilot film for a Biblical series -- "a sort of Bible-with-guts show." What does it profit a cinema star to go into television? TV pay has finally reached movie levels, and its multimillion audi ence is an attraction in a time of waning movie attendance. Best of all, it offers jobs during the dog days of Hollywood employment. The latest TV converts and their new shows: Meet Mr. McNutley (Thurs. 8 p.m., CBS). Academy Award Winner Ray (The Lost Weekend) Milland as the absentminded professor at a women's college. The characterizations are trite, and most of the action is warmed-over slapstick. Milland's fine talent for light comedy is pretty well smothered. (Sponsor: General Electric.) Letter to Loretta (Sun. 10 p.m., NBC). Loretta Young, ostensibly answering her fan mail, acts out the problem of the week and supplies philosophic guidance. The first show had her in the role of a perfume salesgirl botching up her first encounter with her wealthy boy friend's highborn family. Loretta turned to the Book of Proverbs for the solution. (Spon sor : Tide and Lilt. ) My Favorite Husband (Sat. 9:30 p.m., CBS), the best of the new crop, offers Joan Caulfield and Barry Nelson as an up & coming young couple in the uppermiddle-income bracket. (Sponsors: Sim mons Co. and International Silver Co.) The milkman gets as far as the back step, the salesman may have to talk with his foot in the door. But the television repairman gets a personal invitation, five or six times every year, to step right into the U.S. living room. For the 50,000 TV repairmen who keep America's 27,150,511 television sets in tune, every call is a
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
what I'm doing makes a lot of sense
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FOR SMOKERS WHO THINK
Why don't you talk to the people at Chase?"
A good question for oilmen who want a banking service devoted to their specific problems and needs
If you have interests in oil, chances are you've heard something about Chase's Petroleum Department. Here's what Chase can offer you through this department:
First there's information and advice from engineers and geologists -- men with practical oilfield experience. It's their job to know the income-produc
ing capacities of oil properties. Next you get the counsel of economists. They study specific field analyses from the standpoint of over-all conditions and trends in the industry. Then you get the helpful services of credit officers whose sole business it is to make constructive loans.
As a Chase customer, you'll find the
staff of this department ready to go to work for you. Once you've had a sample of their service, chances are you'll count on it for quite a bit of guidance. Fact is, as a result of the work of this department, Chase for years has made more loans to the petroleum industry than any other bank. That highlights services of the Chase Petroleum Department. How to utilize them is explained on the next page.
... if you decide to talk to the people at Chase
The Petroleum Department's Engi neering Division (geologists includ ed) will study the property involved. Wherever necessary they'll also con sult with independent geologists about the present and potential pro ductivity of your property. Further, they'll check drilling plans, look into the ways and means of transporting crude, and investigate refining costs. Next, you'll sit down with Chase's "petroleum bankers" who will take the engineering division's data and estimate the cash return you may an ticipate from your property. Then, summing up all known fac tors and balancing them against upto-the-minute reports on market forecast and demand, the banking and credit officers will be pleased to discuss financing plans with you. The important thing to remember is this: You and your company are assisted through every step of the negotia tions by men who know the oil busi ness intimately and have learned to put practical experience in double harness with constructive financial planning. Any questions ? A letter, a telephone call (Hanover 2-6000) or a visit will be welcomed by the Petroleum Depart ment, Chase National Bank, 18 Pine Street, New York 15, N. Y.
challenge to keep the client content and the repairman's honor bright. When spe cial problems arise, solutions can be found in the TV Technician's Handbook on Customer Relations. The handbook, compiled by Chicago's Central Television Service, Inc. (with the help of a psychologist) for its own and fel low TV technicians, has sold some 15,000 copies at $1 each. It assumes that repair men normally meet housewives on their visits, and urges them to dress neatly, be cheerful and courteous, avoid body odor, wipe their shoes, show friendly interest in the customer (e.g., "This is a beautiful rug") and "always give the appearance of knowing what you're doing." The book let sets up and knocks down some touchy problems : *I "Isn't this set too big for my living room?" the customer asks. Answer: "Not at all. . ." <I "My set was just in the shop, and it hasn't been the same since." Solution: "You must sell the customer the idea that her set is operating O.K. Be firm, but be tactful." <J You call at the house and find the customer in negligee. Solution: ". . . do not enter the house." <31 Customer is drinking and invites you to have one with her. Solution: "Under no circumstances should you accept such an invitation ... If you are in a house where the customer has been drinking, size her up and see how much she has had. If you think she has had too much, take a quick glance at the set and then get out of there in a hurry ..." t| There will be occasions when, in order to make time, you may inadvertently have a few small screws left over after repairing a television set. Solution : either put them in your pocket when the customer is not looking or mingle them with other items of the same type you might have in your tool kit.
The Men Who Move
James F. Haley
Manager, Traffic and Transportation Department, Koppers Co., Inc., Pittsburgh, Pa. Men who know steel mills know Kop pers. Koppers designs them, builds them, fuels them. Other industrial ists find among its six divisions a bet ter way to tar a road, preserve a railroad tie, make an adhesive. With 55 plants in 25 states, Koppers' diver sification in heavy industry creates heavy transportation problems. Their solution is the job of James Haley. Trafficman Haley regularly uses the Wabash Railroad as an important link in moving the goods where they are required, when they are required. Says Mr. Haley: "Koppers has found that it gets prompt and effi cient service from the Wabash. It is especially helpful to the two of our six divisions having plants in cities on the Wabash. These divi sions ship tar products in and out of Buff'alo, Chicago and St. Louis; wood products in and out of Kansas City." To handle a diversified shipping op eration takes know-how. Wabash has it, plus a geographical location that enables it to connect with 66 other major railroads. The Wabash is part of many direct routes throughout the nation. Your Wabash representative has the facts!
P. A. SPIEGELBERG, Freight Traffic Manager, St. Louis 1, Mo. -**.,
For the week starting Friday, Oct. 2. Times are E.S.T., subject to change. RADIO The Marriage (Sun. 7:30 p.m., NBC) Starring Hume Cronyn and Jessica Tandy. Theater Royal (Sun. 8:30 p.m., NBC). Orson Welles in The Queen of Spades. Last Man Out (Sun. 10 p.m., NBC). Confessions of ex-Communists. Horatio Hornblower (Thurs. 9:30 p.m., ABC). Starring Michael Redgrave.
It pays to do business with Chase THE
OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK [MEMBERFEDERALDEPOSITINSURANCECORP.]
Pepsi-Cola Playhouse (Fri. 8:30 p.m., ABC). A new series with Arlene Dahl. Pride of the Family (Fri. 9 p.m., ABC). Paul Hartman and Fay Wray. Person to Person (Fri. 10:30 p.m., CBS). Edward R. Murrow's new inter view show. Hallmark Hall of Fame (Sun. 5 p.m., NBC). Of Time and the River. Make Room for Daddy (Tues. 9 p.m., ABC). New Danny Thomas comedy. Where's Raymond? (Thurs. 8:30 p.m., ABC). Premiere of the Ray Bolger Show.
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
'EXPLORER'SSTUDY" "BARBECUE ROOM" T o m a k e a n d t h i n k , E g y p t i a n c o r a l , V e n e t i a n b l a c k a m o o r s a n d a bath in the living room.
Art for Interiors
One of the fastest-growing arts in the U.S. is interior decoration. Before World War II, it was mostly the rich who em ployed decorators to do their homes, and most American women would no more ask a stranger to tell them how to fix the living room than they would ask for out side advice on how to keep a husband happy. But in the last decade, the U.S. has become home-conscious as never before. Decorators report that more and more of their clients are middle-income families, switching to modern homes or trying to spruce up traditional homes with new styles. Last week at the Fifth Annual Homefurnishings Show in Manhattan's Grand Central Palace, a group of the East's best-known decorators showed off their newest ideas. On view were 25 rooms, ranging from a simple dining patio in white and yellow to a palatial black and green foyer. The deco rators seemed as much concerned with fun as functionalism. Some of the ideas were clearly impractical, e.g., a dining-room floor made of tooled blue leather, but most were bound to set housewives think ing. The colors seemed to come from a painter's palette -- sparkling topaz yellow, lime green, burnt orange, cocoa brown, wine red. Decorators drew their materials from all over the world, combined Philip pine rattan with American brass, mixed 1 9th century antiques with 20th century Egyptian coral sculpture, and thought nothing of flanking a modern sofa with a pair of smiling, five-foot Venetian blacka moors, carved in 1710. Among the more interesting experiments : EURJ A brass and wood Barbecue Room by Manhattan's Melanie Kahane, which brings the outdoor barbecue indoors. Along one side ranges a long barbecue counter with roasting spit and charcoal grill; along the others, a bookcase, radio and record player, a long grey couch, a low table and comfortable chairs. <I A startling white and orange-red Japa nese Sunroom Bath by Designer John Wisner, which puts a huge white-tile tub
* According to the 1950 census, 55% of U.S. families owned their homes as against 43.6% in 1940, and the rate is still climbing.
smack into what otherwise looks like a pleasant, modern living room. <! A peaceful French provincial dining room by New Jersey Designer Lester Byock and his wife, who have an inter esting idea for walls: plain pine panels washed with thin yellow varnish, then overlaid with a white rococo design. Most interesting feature : a white brick fireplace with a conical hood under which sits a copper brazier that can be used to cook an informal roast or light a formal dinner. <I A warm and woolly Explorer's Study by William Pahlmann, which combines the comforts of a modern Manhattan flat with the old wood stove of a backwoods cabin. Among the features : a wall paneled in sturdy oak, a sleek, yellow lacquer desk. The designers know that few of their experimental rooms will actually appear in U.S. houses, but they are sure that many of their ideas will get across: i.e., more color, more informality, more exotic ma terials. Still another notion was demon strated in a Manhattan art gallery: fur nishing a room around a piece of fine art, instead of hanging art in a finished room.
Designer Pahlmann put a colorful scene of Venice against an Oriental setting with green plants and a low mosaic table; an other took two semi-abstract paintings and a pair of bulky sculptures, used them for a swank office with an azure-blue leath er desk and a gay rug designed by Henri Matisse. Most startling idea in the show: a mazelike, circular boudoir by Architect Edward Stone where a body could relax on a brown fur couch while gazing at a muted abstract painting on the wall and at a sculpture of a tubby ceramic pig suspended from the ceiling.
Light on Dark
EUROPE has patched its maps of Af rica with the colors of conquering nations, yet the conquered remain as pop ulous and dark-hued as ever. Dark too, for white men, is the art of native Africans. Next week London's British Museum will open an impressive show designed to il luminate it. The exhibition comprises the 166-piece collection of a wealthy Philadelphia en gineer named Webster Plass (who died last year) and his widow Margaret. Africanist William Fagg supplied a foreword to the exhibition catalogue that could also be taken as a friendly warning to visitors. To see the show clearly, said Fagg, it is necessary to forget all about naturalism, which sprang from Greek art and survived in the photographic age. "African art is an art not of analysis but of synthesis: the artist does not begin from the natural form of, say, the human body ... He be gins from a germinal concept which grows into the finished work, developing, so to speak, from the inside out and not from the outside in." Seen in that way, carvings such as those shown opposite and on the following page are not distortions of heads and bodies but expressions of ideas. They are meant not so much to please the eye as to imitate, placate and cajole the gods and ghosts of Africa's numberless tribes. Many of the sculptors underwent long apprenticeships, were often members of an elite in their tribes. Today, too many of them have turned to spiritless apings of their own
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
"EXECUTIVE OFFICE" Also, fur couches and ceramic pigs.
Courtesy Midtown Galleries
DANCER'S STAFF Yoruba dancers of the cult of Shango, god of thunder and fertility, car ry staffs like this when they go into their hypnotic trances. Double-ax motif may be from ancient Crete.
MALE & FEMALE
Designed to be worn atop the head of a grassclad Ekoi tribesman, this ritual adornment has antelope skin covering. The black face is male.
Ornament worn at funerals and festivals by ancestor-worshiping dancers of a Yoruba cult is topped off by two horn-like plaits of hair.
SACRIFICIAL BRONZE This i jth century head comes from the sacrificial altar of the King's ancestors in the palace at Benin. Nigeria. Cast by a method developed by ancient Egyptians, it shows amazing technical skill.
GRADUATION MASK Boys of the Belgian Congo design masks like this to wear when they dance at their own graduations from the Bayaka tribe's compul sory course in civics and ethics.
COMIC MASK This wooden mask is worn by comic dancers of Bena Biombo tribe. Costume is so heavy that dancers must stop to rest every few moments.
The sisterly figures supporting this headrest wear elaborate coiffures of the sort the pil low is designed to protect through the night.
traditions for the sake of a burgeoning export trade. The Africans' extraordinary freedom in making shapes was what appealed most to the modern artists who first put African sculpture on the map. Painters Braque and Picasso and Sculptors Brancusi and Ep stein were inspired to savage experimenta tion by African art. But moderns, for the most part, have imitated the forms of African sculpture, divorced from the spirit inside them. By civilized standards, that spirit is nightmarishly superstitious. Har mony and order -- as much a part of the classical art heritage as realism -- are sac rificed to demoniac fervor. But African sculpture has an intensity greater than any that modern art has yet achieved.
Montana knew just how to honor a favorite painter of the Old West. Last year people throughout the state chipped in $75,000 for a museum to show the work of the late Charles Marion Russell, the
PAINTER RUSSELL AT WORK He would never understand the fuss.
John T. Mulcahy Sr.
PRINTERS *£; on
performs better superior results.
cowboy who exchanged the lariat for the brush (TIME, Dec. 15). Last week the museum was dedicated in Great Falls, and if modest Charlie Russell could have seen it, he would have grumbled and told peo ple they were making too much of a fuss. The museum's name plate is a repro duction of Russell's neat signature. In the lobby of the modern brick building is a wall-sized photograph of the artist at work, looking uncomfortable in a suit coat and starched collar. Beyond is a gallery 40 feet long, for 135 of Russell's best paint ings and sculptures from his earliest period up to his death in 1926: strictly realistic images of dust-churning buffalo herds and galloping Indian braves, rearing horses, squaws and cow pokes. Some of the paintings are worth more than $10,000 now. But Charlie Russell, who never could understand why people were willing to pay big prices for his work, had given a good many of them to his friends for a pittance, or swapped them for a $6 grocery bill at the general store.
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
Important new features have been added to famous Hammermill Bond -- features that make it even more outstanding than ever for today's letterheads, sales letters, advertising enclosures, for timesaving business forms! A recent survey has proved that with its bright new blue-white look, its new crispness and new strength, office person nel find Hammermill Bond makes letters look more attractive, helps get office work done faster and easier. Typing is easier to read, erasures are clean and scarcely noticeable. And printers report that print* * *
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BUS I NE SS
STATE OF BUSINESS
What Recession? Big Steel's Chairman Ben Fairless last week entered a strong dissent to the dole ful predictions of recession. "If I ... wanted to discredit the freeenterprise system by producing a business slump," Fairless told Detroit's Economic Club, "I think I would start predicting from the housetops that hard times were on their way. And if I could shout long enough and loud enough, and could get other people to take up my mournful cry, I think I could frighten millions . . . out of the market place." The only recession danger, said Fairless, is that the U.S. might "predict" itself into one. For the steel industry, said Fairless, any talk of a sudden drop in demand is all wrong. The whole industry will operate close to 95% of capacity for the rest of 1953 and turn out 7,000,000 more tons than 1951 's alltime record. "I can only say that the employees and stockholders of U.S. Steel would like to see that kind of recession for the rest of their lives." He was not the only one who thought recession talk exaggerated. Sears Roebuck Chairman Robert E. Wood, still expan sionist-minded, thought the stock mar ket's hints of a business decline "once again . . . may be wrong," was still plan ning to open or enlarge eleven stores in the next six months. Even Wall Street's frightened stock traders were taking a sec ond look at the economy and new heart from what they saw. The stock market, which for two weeks had been climbing after its sharp drop, by week's end had reached 263.31 on the Dow-Jones industrial average, a 7.82 point gain. The Commerce Department reported that in August, when cries of "soft spots" were everywhere, employment, income and sales either matched or topped the rates of earlier months -- and Commerce had al ready pronounced it the best summer in history. August's retail sales of $14.2 bil lion were well above igsa's August figure despite the head wave. And last week, after a slump early in September, retail sales were once more ahead of last year's. Dean Wooldridge, who came from Bell Laboratories. On Thornton's advice, Hughes had decided to give up the crowded field of air-frame building and concentrate on electronics, reportedly over the strenuous objection of Noah Dietrich, his chief in dustrial adviser. Ramo and Wooldridge, because of their standing among electronic engineers -- and with unlimited funds pro vided by Hughes -- were able to round up many of the top experts in the country. Hughes also persuaded General Harold George, wartime boss of the Air Transport Command, to join the company, and he became vice president and general man ager. Sales, which had been about $2,000,ooo in 1948, soared to a rate of $200 mil lion this year. But Howard Hughes, who had provided General George and the others a free hand, soon began to move in on the com pany's operations. As usual, he could sel dom be found when needed, delayed mak ing decisions, kept papers requiring action in his pocket. Dietrich also began putting in his oar. When the top men threatened to quit, Air Force Secretary Harold Talbott visited the plant, reportedly hinted that unless Hughes cleared up the trouble, it might be a good idea for him to sell out to somebody else. A fortnight ago, Ramo and Wooldridge quit to form their own company; five other executives submitted their resigna tions. Last week Thornton and George quit, too. Said General George: "I would like to paraphrase Churchill. I do not in tend to preside over the liquidation of the Hughes organization, and so help me God, if present policies are persisted in, the liquidation is inevitable." But Howard Hughes disagreed, said that only a hand ful of his 17,000 employees had left and that production would not be hampered in any way.
PRESIDENT HUGHES Free hand withdrawn. other of his business ventures (TIME, Feb. 23), was hip deep in trouble with his successful electronic company. The top echelon of men who had built up the company had quit, and the Air Force was frantically trying to keep the quarrel from slowing up the building of fighter planes. Hughes Aircraft's rise is partly the work of a onetime Ford industrial management expert named Charles ("Tex") Thornton, who became vice president and assistant general manager, and two of the nation's top electronics engineers, Simon Ramo, who came from General Electric, and Dr.
For the first time since the Eisenhower Administration took office, the Treasury saw a chance last week to borrow money at cheaper interest rates. The opportunity was provided by a spectacular turnabout in the Government securities market, as investors briskly bid up prices, thus low ering proportionately the interest rate the Treasury will have to pay to finance new debts. For the first time since they were issued, the Government's new 3^% 30year bonds soared past 102, and 2^% Vic tory Loan bonds went up to 93 30/32, their best price since April. The upturn in the short-term money market was even sharper. The Treasury took quick advantage of the rise. An issue of two-year Treasury notes, priced last May to yield 2.16% to 2.47%, was withdrawn from sale. The Treasury will replace it with a new issue at lower interest rates "to reflect recent changes in the . . . market." 91
One of the most successful and most essential companies in the U.S. aircraft industry is California's Hughes Aircraft Co., owned by eccentric Millionaire How ard Hughes. Concentrating almost entire ly on electronics, it is the sole maker of radar for Air Force interceptor planes, the sole builder of fire-control devices for Navy Banshee fighters. It also developed controls for an air-to-air guided missile so accurate that tests of it were stopped be cause it was destroying too many drone planes. But last week Howard Hughes, who has had plenty of troubles with RKO and
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
Ann Rosener -- FORTUNE
EX-VICE PRESIDENT GEORGE
The Cleanup Man
(See Cover) Should Dick have suspected that the baby was not his own -- especially as he had been married to Kathy for only seven months? After all, the doctor, to protect Kathy, had said that the baby was pre mature. Then a nurse who was trying to woo Dick away from Kathy tipped him off that the infant was a full-term child. What Dick didn't know was that Kathy had been married before -- for only a week (her husband was killed in an auto crash). Kathy, who thought her first marriage was all a mistake, nevertheless felt so guilty about not telling Dick that she could hardly bear to face him, instead started lavishing all her affection on the baby. And Dick, feeling neglected, began to re spond to the advances of the nurse. Will the marriage be shattered? Or will Dick learn the truth in time to save it? As millions of housewives tuned in The Guiding Light this week at the same time (1:45 p.m., E.S.T., weekdays), same sta tion (CBS), most were sure -- or almost sure -- that things would come out all right, as they eventually do in the sweetsad world of soap opera. There was also no doubt that things would come out all right for the program's sponsors: Procter & Gamble Co.'s Duz soap and Ivory Flakes. As any junior advertising execu tive can explain, soap operas "get more advertising messages across to the con sumer" -- and sell more soap -- simply be cause the housewife can absorb the mes sages for hours on end while she goes about her household chores. No soapmaker is' more aware of this theory than Procter & Gamble's President Neil Hosier McElroy, as handsome, ruddy-faced and well-scrubbed as one of his own radio heroes. P. & G. was in the advance guard of soap opera, helped start it on its interminable way more than 20 years ago with The Puddle Family. P. & G. writers were among the first to learn that the trick is to spin the story out to fan tastic lengths, with a flood of tears to wash away every smile. This year, with 13 soap operas on the air, P. & G. is the biggest advertiser in the U.S., will spend an estimated $30 million in network radio and TV, $15 million in newspapers and magazines. On the Soapbox. The addition of soap operas to American culture has been under constant attack for years. To every com plaint, the soapmakers have a crisply prag matic answer: they are written as they are because that is what their audience wants. When asked what he thinks of his soap operas, P. & G.'s President McElroy, no steady listener himself, is apt to get up on one of his own soapboxes: "The prob lem of improving the literary tastes of the people is the problem of the schools. The people who listen to our programs aren't intellectuals -- they're ordinary people, good people, who win wars for us, produce our manufactured products and grow our food. They use a lot of soap." 92
DICK & KATHY
YOUNG DOCTOR MALONE
By soap, he also means synthetic deter gents* -- the fast-growing competitor of old-fashioned soaps. And the way the sell ing spiels of P. & G.'s soaps and deter gents deride each other's qualities is often completely bewildering. "Those new detergents may be all right for dishes," warns pure (9944/100%), mild Ivory Soap on The Road of Life, "but your hands aren't made of china." Voting Doctor Malone, on the other hand, plugs a liquid dishwashing detergent: "Joy's lotion-soft suds feel so good on your hands." Ma Perkins suggests "Brand new Oxydol [with a] new detergent formula," to get clothes "whiter than sun-white." But according to The Guiding Light, "Duz does a wash like no detergent can -- it's the soap in Duz that does it!" On Life Can Be Beautiful, life can really be beautiful if Tide is used ("Gets clothes cleaner than any soap") ; on Backstage Wife, Cheer's "blue magic" guarantees "the whitest, brightest and the cleanest wash possible." Since each of these programs also plugs other cleansing products (Drene and Shas ta shampoos, Ivory Snow and Flakes, Spic and Span), it is a wonder that the house wife can ever make up her mind which one to buy. But as long as she buys one, P. & G. will be happy. It makes them all. Now the nation's largest soapmaker, P. & G. manages to sell 119 bars, boxes, bottles and cans of its products every sec ond of every day, every day of the year. Its share of the U.S. soap market has risen from 30% in 1925 to 40% in 1951. While Lever Bros., the No. 2 soapmaker, and Colgate-Palmolive-Peet Co., No. 3, napped, P. & G. took 69% of the detergent market. The Tide of Revolution. At a time when many a U.S. businessman fears a recession and the threat of much tougher competition, P. & G. is a prime example of i) how to sell goods despite recessions, and 2) how bitter competition both inside and outside a company can make it grow. Although P. & G.'s practice of letting Ivory Soap dispute the claims of detergent Tide makes little sense to many other businessmen, P. & G.'s McElroy thinks that it is the only way to keep his soap salesmen on their toes. He is never hap pier than when all of his products are busy fighting each other for sales. The most notable example of P. & G.'s habit of competing with itself was its in troduction of the synthetic detergent. It was. says McElroy, "the first big change in soapmaking in 2,000 years." The com pany, licensed to work with German pat ents, brought out its first detergent, Dreft, in 1933. But its use was too specialized (i.e., for fine fabrics and dishes), and not until 1945 was P. & G. able to begin mar keting an all-purpose detergent, Tide. Though P. & G. still turns out some 500 million bars of Ivory Soap a year -enough to give everyone in the world
* Made of alcohol sulphates and sodium phos phate. Though "detergent" actually means any type of cleanser, including soap, in popular usage it now means one based on chemicals instead of natural fats or oils.
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
MA PERKINS & EMPLOYEE Taste belongs elsewhere.
four baths -- Tide was soon revolution izing the washday habits of the U.S., and the tide of revolution began to sweep soap flakes and granules on .to the back shelves. Among the hardest hit was P. & G.'s own Oxydol, long a top national seller with the devoted followers of Ma Perkins. Distressed at their falling sales, Oxydol men scurried to the P. & G. re search people who had caused all the havoc by their development of Tide. Could they do something for Oxydol? No soap, said the research department ; de tergents are the coming thing. Well, then, how about letting Oxydol in on the bo nanza? President McElroy agreed, and the product was converted. "New Deter gent Oxydol" has since climbed back to fourth place among washday products, is still growing. Tide continued to grow so fast that last year Neil McElroy supplied it with some more competition. He brought out Cheer, another detergent, which settled into second place (third: Colgate's Fab). Opening the Door. The revolution that P. & G. fathered not only gave its oldfashioned soaps new competition, it opened the door to competition for the whole soap industry from the chemical makers, who supplied many of the raw materials for the detergents. Monsanto, backed by huge research funds, intro duced All, persuaded washing-machine makers to hand it out to their customers. General Aniline brought out Glim, a liquid detergent for dishwashing. To counteract such competition in de tergents, Neil McElroy last week was test-marketing a whole list of new prod ucts: Lana, a home permanent for bleached or frizzled hair; Fluff o, a new shortening to compete with P. & G.'s famed Crisco; Gleem, a new toothpaste "for people who can't brush after every meal" (P. & G. is sure that includes just about everybody); Zest, a detergent bar for baths and showers. Bright Young Men. For all his highpowered selling methods, the nation's No. i soap salesman is no backslapping gladhander in the tradition of the American drummer. At 48, Neil McElroy, a tower ing 6 ft. 4 in., given to conservative clothes, is a methodical man, with a quick smile and the unruffled air of a winning poker player. His wavy hair is greying, his blue eyes sharp. He keeps his 210 Ibs. in trim shape with plenty of tennis. Up by 7 every morning in his 15-room grey stucco house in Cincinnati, McElroy breakfasts on whatever suits his fancy, e.g., bacon & eggs one day, chocolate cake the next ("I figure eating cake in the morning doesn't hurt the waistline"). He is at work before 9 -- but not always in his office. He spends much of his time seeing the company's big team of "bright young men" and visiting his 35 U.S. plants. One of the most public-spirited businessmen in the U.S., McElroy de votes up to a third of his time to such functions as Community Chest, Cincin nati's Citizens Development Committee and the National Citizens Commission
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
TO spur atom-bomb protection for key industries, the Government will soon allow companies tax write offs on 100% of the cost of building bomb shelters and shoring up plant structures to withstand atom bomb ing. Slated for the first certificate: Cincinnati Milling Machine Co., big gest U.S. machine-tool builder. WILLIAM Zeckendorf, boss of Manhattan's Webb & Knapp real-state and investment firm, is planning a huge, new project: a 22story, $100 million building to cover two blocks on New York City's West Side as a showcase for American mer chandise. The building, rising above the Pennsylvania Railroad's under ground tracks, would have more floor space (6,000,000 to 7,000,000 sq. ft.) than any other building in the world, and have a heliport on the roof. DISTILLERS, who once bottled only their premium brands in de canters, are stampeding to get their lower-priced whiskies into decanters in time for the holiday trade. Schenley, first to bottle a blended whisky in decanters, has already had a 400% pickup in fall sales to wholesalers. But other distillers are close behind: Owens-Illinois Glass Co. is now mak ing decanters for eight distillers v. only two last year. THE Air Force will spend $250 million to increase production of B-52 bombers and tool up Boeing's Wichita, Kans. plant as a second source of supply for the bombers, now being made only in Seattle. Produc tion of North American's supersonic fighter, the F-100, will also be stepped up, even though testing has not been completed, because the plane per formed so well in its first flights. AGRICULTURE Secretary Ben son hopes to shift more of his big lending operations on commodities to private lenders. Under his plan, the Commodity Credit Corp., which now has $3,476,300,000 tied up in crop loans and inventories, would sell part of its loans to banks, guaranteeing them 3% interest if they handle the for Public Schools. He doesn't keep up with all his own soap operas (there are too many), listens in only when driving his car. He seldom brings work home with him, spends plenty of time with his handsome wife Camilla (who often ac companies him on business trips) and their three children: 1 7-year-old Nancy Sue ("Bitsy"), now a Bryn Mawr fresh man; Barbara Ellen, 15; chunky Malcolm Neil, 10, who McElroy describes as a "champion consumer." One reason McElroy seldom becomes excited in the excitable world of soap is that Procter & Gamble has been decen tralized until it is virtually a cluster of separate organizations, each with its own boss. For every P. & G. product, there is a "brand man" who takes full responsibil ity for results. If sales slip, it is up to the paper work, 2^% if they do not. Thus, private banks, not the Treasury, would put up much of the money for new support loans. BRITAIN'S Jaguar Cars Ltd., whose sleek sports cars lead all other imported makes in dollar sales in the U.S., hopes to get more of the American market by cutting prices. Reductions range from $190 up to $889 (e.g., from $4,039 to $3,345 for its open two-seater sport), Jaguar's first big price slash in the U.S. auto market since World War II. INVESTMENT bankers can ex pect less SEC red tape. Among pending reforms: 1) shortening of the 20-day waiting period before bet ter-grade debt securities can be sold; 2) shorter registration forms for in vestment trust and high-grade bonds. OIL companies may shortly be asked by the Government to join forces to build a huge new defense project: a mammoth, 36-in. oil pipe line to bring oil from Texas and the Midwest to the East Coast. The "Giant Inch" would cost more than $200 million, deliver from 750,000 to 1,000,000 bbls. of oil a day, more than three times the capacity of the Big Inch pipeline. TWO big auto suppliers, TimkenDetroit Axle Co. and Standard Steel Spring, will shortly merge as the Rockwell Spring & Axle Co., with combined assets of $155 million and expected 1953 sales of $400 million. The two fit together nicely: TimkenDetroit supplies parts for trucks and tractors, Standard springs and bump ers for cars. ATR freight carriers, whose busi ness has skyrocketed 2,000% since 1946, expect to boost minimum air freight rates 25%. The hike, tenta tively okayed by CAB, was requested by Slick and Flying Tiger, all-cargo carriers. But American Airlines, which leads all others in ton-miles of freight carried, is fighting the in crease on the ground that it will "scare off customers." brand man to find out why. If an ad goes sour, the brand man gets on the agency's back. If more production is needed, it is up to him to try to get it. And when a competing company puts out a product at a lower price or with a new "wonder" in gredient, P. & G.'s brand man must know about it and have a comeback. Broad company policy is set by Chairman Rich ard R. Deupree, McElroy and the other directors. But the big operating decisions are made by McElroy himself, and they are usually made with quick efficiency. McElroy belongs to the new breed of scientific salesmen who base their selling not on emotional appeal but on facts & figures. Are sales slipping in Milwaukee? Research will find the reason why. Is there a new product to be sold? Charts and tables are at hand to tell exactly what
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the new product should be and how to sell it. "Mac is especially tough on ac curacy," says one colleague. "If you want to tell him something, you have to have complete support for your statement. Don't guess, and for God's sake don't just give your opinion." "Blessed by the Pope." P. & G. learned long ago not to take any assumption for granted. Once an advertising layout was proposed, using the traditional prescrip tion symbol 1$; researchers found that 40% of the women they interviewed had no idea what it meant. Another time P. & G. planned to use the word "con centrated" in an ad, discovered that many housewives thought it meant "blessed by the Pope." President McElroy and every one else at P. & G. constantly bear in mind the fact that woman is fickle -- and her memory short. She must be constant ly reminded of the product she loves. For example, during World War II's ma terials shortage, P. & G. dropped Chipso, once the nation's No. i packaged soap. At war's end, Chipso was put on sale again. But P. & G. was amazed to find that housewives had forgotten an old favorite, so Chipso was dropped for good. In the low-price field, a housewife's loyalty is ephemeral. Just when she is reaching for a cake of Ivory, her eye may be caught by a competing brand with a premium of a tube of toothpaste thrown in, or new promises of health and hap piness. The selling lures must be con stantly changed. For years, contests were P. & G.'s most successful promotions: it has given away well over $1,000,000 in cash and prizes, including some 300 autos, and a handful of life annuities of $1,000 to $1,200 a year. Right now, P. & G.'s Camay is running a $50,000 contest to
get new customers ("I like new Camay with Cold Cream because . . ."). But McElroy's admen think the days of con tests are numbered, since prizes nowa days have to be tremendous to raise much interest. All this super-selling started in 1837, when British-born William Procter, a candlemaker, and Irish-born James Gamble, a soapmaker, married sisters and went into business together. At the beginning, they peddled their crude soap and candles in a wheelbarrow in Cincinnati, then a frontier town. But as the region grew up, the company prospered. Soon its wares were being shipped by boat to New Or leans, Louisville and Pittsburgh, and gross sales rose to $1,000,000 a year. P. & G. got its first mass-production orders in the Civil War, when it supplied all the soap for the Union armies of the West. Then, one day in 1875, a forgetful workman made a mistake that was to mold the company's future: he left his soapmixing machine running during lunch hour, thus turned out a batch of soap full of tiny air bubbles. It seemed a dreadful mistake, but somehow the batch got out of the factory. Soon P. & G. was swamped with orders for "more of this floating soap." (In the years since then, P. & G. admits to only two documented instances of cakes that sank -- probably because the air bubbles had been squeezed out during storage.) In church one day, Harley Proc ter, a son of the founder, found a name for the new product in Psalms: "All thy garments smell of myrrh and aloes and
* To promote its Dial' soap, Armour & Co. last week announced a contest with a producing oil well as first prize.
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
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TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
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cassia, out of the ivory palaces whereby they have made thee glad." Up in Smoke. Gradually, the Gam bles drifted out of company operations; the Procters, a cool and quick-thinking breed of businessmen, carried on. One day second-generation President William A. Procter was lunching at his club in downtown Cincinnati when a messenger brought word that the factory was on fire, and P. & G.'s vast warehouse supplies of fats and oils were going up in smoke. Instead of rushing to the scene of the dis aster, Procter went to the telegraph office, dispatched wires and cables to the oil markets of the world, bought all the oil futures he could. Not only did he thus avoid a squeeze at the hands of speculators but he had plenty of raw materials on hand when P. & G.'s new plant, Ivorydale, opened in Cincinnati's suburbs. The forward-looking Procters knew how to take care of their employees as well as themselves. They pioneered (1887) in profit sharing, and last year P. & G.'s em ployees got $8,000,000, or 8.7% of total company profits before taxes. Colonel Wil liam Cooper Procter, third-generation boss of P. & G. and a leading Episcopalian lay man, had a still more modern idea. For years P. & G.'s production had fluctuated with the buying whims of wholesalers. If the wholesalers thought prices were head ing higher, they loaded up; if prices seemed to be going down, they cut back sharply, and hundreds of P. & G. employ ees would be laid off. Colonel Procter reasoned that soap output should be gov erned by actual consumption of soap, a fairly constant factor. Procter forthwith cut down on outside middlemen, and by setting up a network of P. & G.'s own distributors, flattened out the peaks and valleys. In 1923 P. & G. installed its guaranteed-employment plan, first of its kind in the U.S., and assured hourly workers 48 weeks' employment a year. In those days, such advanced management methods were nothing short of revolutionary. Today, they are con sidered a normal part of labor relations at P. & G. They have cut employee turn over from 133.7% to less than i% a year, kept the company unhampered by outside unions and major strikes,, and left it free to concentrate on its main job of selling. P. & G. treats its top men with equal generosity. President McElroy, who start ed out with P. & G. as a $100-a-month clerk 28 years ago, now earns $240,000 a year. Economics, Bridge & Poker. Neil Hosier McElroy was born in Berea, Ohio, on Oct. 30, 1904, and raised in Madisonville, a suburb of Cincinnati, where his father was a high-school physics instructor, his mother a grade-school teacher. It was a strict Methodist household, but father and mother McElroy sensibly decided that if their three sons were to learn the ways of the world, they might as well do so at
* But not out of ownership. Cincinnati Philan thropist Cecil H. Gamble, 69, grandson of Found er James, is currently a P. & G. director and one of the biggest single stockholders. No Procters are connected with P. & G. today.
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
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home. Instead of having their boys hang ing around the local pool hall, they in stalled a pool table of their own. On Sunday evenings the family gathered for a weekly concert, with mother at the piano, the boys playing the clarinet, flute and French horn, and father McElroy singing. In their spare time, the boys worked to help make ends meet, in line with the family philosophy: "God will provide if you will get out and scratch." Neil mowed lawns, shoveled snow, wrapped bundles in a laundry, worked in a can factory. By the time he finished high school, he had saved $1,000. Like his brothers be fore him, he applied for a Harvard Club scholarship ("because it was available"), took a competitive exam and won. At Harvard, he earned part of his way playing for dances at Wellesley with a band of his own (he played piccolo and piano). He played center on the basket ball team, headed Sigma Alpha Epsilon, Harvard's last remaining national frater nity. He majored in economics (B aver age), neither smoked nor drank (he likes an occasional drink now), but was not above staying up all night playing lowstake bridge and poker. Running Hop. After college, McElroy got a job at P. & G. as mail clerk in the advertising department, learned the ins & outs by reading mail from P. & G.'s house-to-house selling crews, ad agency and distributors. He planned to go back to Harvard Business School, but he trav eled so fast in P. & G. that he never did. After a stint selling soap, he was made manager of the company's then small promotion department. At 26, he was sent abroad to help take over a small soap plant in England, there got a good educa tion in a diversity of problems: manufac turing, purchasing, delivery. Back in the U.S., McElroy got his first
big chance in P. & G.'s advertising de partment. His boss, tending a sick wife, was often absent, so it was up to McEl roy to run things. Says he: "It was the kind of a situation bound to lead to the hothouse development of a man -- or break him completely." Gradually McElroy's ability caught the eye of P. & G.'s long time President Richard R. Deupree. For years P. & G. products had gone their separate ways, taking care not to step on one another's toes. But in the late '203, the company had brought out Ivory Flakes, started production of granulated soap, bought up Oxydol, Lava, Duz. Mc Elroy had a new idea for selling them: Why not have a free-for-all, with no holds barred? "At first," says he, "some of the more conservative members of the company cringed at the idea of having a punch taken at ourselves by ourselves." But eventually McElroy won his point, persuaded his elders that the way to keep fast-growing P. & G. from becoming too clumsy was to have it compete with itself. President Deupree. a supersalesman who played a big part in P. & G.'s big ex pansion, liked the idea. He also pushed the company heavily into radio and soap opera. As McElroy moved up to advertis ing manager, vice president and president (Deupree became chairman in 1948), he built the individual "brand management" system that gives P. & G. its competitive drive today, and the research staff that has kept new P. & G. products rolling on to the market. Radioactive Wash. P. & G. values re search so highly that six out of every 100 employees are engaged in some kind of research project. At the company's new $5,000,000 Miami Valley research lab* With Wife Camilla, Daughters Nancy Sue and Barbara Ellen, Son Malcolm Neil.
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
oratory, McElroy's special pride, more than a hundred scientists work over their test tubes, taking competitors' products apart and putting new ones together. Sometimes research leads P. & G. far afield. Long a seller of cellulose (a by product of cottonseed crushing) to the chemical and plastics industries, P. & G. recently found the demand far bigger than it could supply. President McEl roy's solution was typical. He bought 560.000 acres of pineland in Florida, set up a $35 million plant to produce cellu lose from wood pulp, now has his re searchers testing ways to use the part of the pine tree not used for cellulose. P. & G. laboratory workers can often be found sitting between troughs of sudsy water, an arm resting in each, to see how the skin reacts to different soaps and de tergents. Clothes are soiled with radioac tive dirt, "Geiger-counted" after every washing. Researchers work daily on such questions as: What holds dirt on cloth and skin? What do suds accomplish? (Mainly, they accomplish sales. Nonsudsing detergents often work just as well, but many women won't buy them.) P. & G. hires housewives to wash clothes in the laboratory as they would at home, maintains a beauty shop where a woman employee can have her hair sham pooed free -- half with a P. & G. product, the other half with a competing shampoo. The company keeps a staff of bakers busy developing new recipes for Crisco and its bakery-trade shortenings (latest treat: a chocolate-coated ice-cream cone), is now working with soybean oil in the hope of cashing in on the boom in "frozen cus tard" and other ice-cream substitutes. Use & Compare. When the laboratory people have finally perfected a new prod uct, P. & G.'s marketing operation begins with all the precision of an amphibious landing. A staff of 125 P. & G. girls (not too pretty, lest they attract too many marriage proposals; not too homely, lest they jump at the first offer) travels all over the U.S., talking to half a million women a year, handing out new products for housewives to "use and compare." Though P. & G. has a long list of product names already patented aad ready for use, its ad agencies often run contests to get new ones. They must be easy to re member, simple to pronounce on the radio, fit well into advertising slogans ("Tide's in; dirt's out"). When a new product hits a "test mar ket" city, P. & G. trucks roll slowly down the streets while teams of men swarm in & out of houses handing out samples. Big changes in a product are often made dur ing such test-marketing. Cheer was first put out as a white detergent. Then some one suggested that it be dyed blue and tried out. The blue not only sold much better (especially among women who used bluing in their wash), but it also supplied a catchy ad slogan: "It's new! It's blue! It's Blue Magic!" Headaches & Rewards. All P. & G.'s careful planning, diligent research and hard selling have their rewards. Only once (in the commodity collapse of 1921) has
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
v products ,
WHAT is A
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WHICH CAME FIRST LOCOMOTIVE OR AUTOMOBILE 3
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P. & G. shown a loss; since the war, its sales have more than doubled -- to $850 million in the last fiscal year (net: $42 million). But growth has also brought some headaches. For their grandiose advertising claims, the soapmakers are often in trouble with the Federal Trade Commission. P. & G. admen have a simple explanation for the free-handed promises: "Have you ever listened to women talk? They never say, 'That's a nice hat.' They say, That's absolutely the cutest hat I've ever seen.' Women talk in hyperbole. So that's the way we've got to talk to them. It's the only language they understand." Never theless, P. & G. has had to stop claiming curative powers for its shampoos, that Camay "will keep the skin young," that
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FOUNDER WILLIAM PROCTER After a wheelbarrow, an Ivory palace. Tide and Cheer will get clothes as clean without rinsing as other products will with rinsing. When FTC cracks down, P. & G. complies promptly -- unless it can prove its claim on the basis of its research. Last year, in the waning days of the Truman Administration, the Justice De partment's antitrusters brought a civil suit against P. & G., Colgate and Lever, charged the three with monopolizing the soap market by exchanging price informa tion. Under its new Republican bosses, the Justice Department still plans to try the case. But since a grand jury studied the case for 18 months and found no cause for criminal action, McElroy is sure he will win. Neil McElroy is just as confident about his company's future. But if sales start to slide, says he, "We'll find the reason why. Then we'll give it hell." It is a long-stand ing P. & G. belief that if a man invents a better mousetrap, no one will beat a path to his door unless he goes out and tells people about it. Neil McElroy does not intend to let anyone forget about his mousetraps. We find it very difficult to say no to a guest. Probably because we're out of practice. It's so seldom a guest has to ask for anything.
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TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
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End of a Marathon
"I come to this case," said Federal Judge Harold R. Medina 34 months ago, "without any knowledge of the invest ment banking business, but I intend to get my teeth into this matter." The court was soon wondering whether there was any thing to chew on at all. For nearly three years, Medina fidgeted with ill-concealed impatience while Justice Department law yers tried to prove that 1 7 big investment banks had conspired to monopolize the securities business through the syndicate system of negotiated bidding. To try to prove their charge, the Gov ernment lawyers probed practices in the banking business dating back to the 1912 Pujo investigation of the "money trust." But, as exasperated Judge Medina pointed out repeatedly, they failed to produce a single instance of deliberate conspiracy. Finally, after 16 months, the Government got down to the key part of its case: an attempt to show that the bankers had in vented the syndicate system in 1915. But one of the two Government witnesses, Harold L. Stuart, 72, head of Chicago's huge Halsey, Stuart & Co., directly con tradicted the Government's contentions. He said that his firm had used the syndi cate system long before 1915. The defense did not have to present its side. Last week, after 5,000,000 words of testimony, Judge Medina dismissed the suit "on the merits and with prejudice" (i.e., the Government cannot reopen the case, although it can appeal Judge Medi na's decision to the U.S. Supreme Court). There was no proof whatever, said Medina, of any conspiracy, and therefore "the mo nopoly charges fall of their own weight." In all, the marathon trial had cost the bankers at least $4,000,000, and some es timates ran as high as $7,500,000. How much it cost taxpayers, nobody knew.
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Up from the Ranks
<I Everett D. Reese, 55, longtime cam paigner for adequate credit for small busi ness, was elected president of the Ameri can Bankers Association, which repre sents 98% of all U.S. banks. Ohio-born and educated, Reese worked his way through grade and high school selling pa pers, through Ohio State peddling milk and fraternity jewelry, went on to teach economics at Ohio State and Georgia Tech before starting as a teller with the Newark (Ohio) Park National Bank. He rose to president in 1926, has since boost ed assets from $1,700,000 to $19 million. <J Walter B. Gerould, 53, vice president and comptroller for A. G. Spalding & Bros., became president, succeeding Wil liam T. Brown, who died recently. Gerould started selling Spalding's sporting goods the year he graduated from Cornell ('21), worked up through accounting to a vice presidency in 1937. An enthusiastic golfer, he gets a handicap of 14 when he plays Spalding's stable of pros, but- is beaten "rather frequently" by his wife.
The world famous HOTEL SHERMAN is a step from theatres, important office buildings, Marshall Field and other "Loop" landmarks. Enjoy Chicago's most convenient location plus the only "LOOP" HOTEL DRIVE-IN GARAGE. Home of NBC's "WELCOME TRAVELERS' shows starring Tommy Bartlett. COLLEGE INN PORTERHOUSE % for best steaks in town. WELL OF THE SEA for seafood fresh from lakes and seas.
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TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
Born. To Rudolph Halley, 40, lawyer, TV star (the 1950-51 Kefauver Crime Committee hearings), president of the New York city council and Liberal Party candidate for mayor, and Janice Brosh Halley, 33, his third wife (his first and second wives divorced him): their first child (his third), a son; in Manhattan. Weight: 7 Ibs. 12 oz. Married. Rita Hayworth, 33, cinemac tress (Salome); and Dick Haymes, 35, Argentine-born Hollywood crooner (One Touch of Venus) ; both for the fourth time; in Las Vegas, Nev. (see PRESS). Died. Jacobo Maria del Pilar Carlos Manuel Stuart Fitz-James y Falco, 74, 17th Duke of Alba de Tormes, Spain's wartime ambassador to the Court of St. James's; after long illness; in Lausanne, Switzerland. Grandest of Spain's grandees, he owned castles in almost every major city, had some 65 titles, including that of Duke of Berwick (a Stuart title not recog nized by Britain). When civil war broke out in 1936, the Anglophile Duke sought to swing Britain to Franco's cause. After World War II, he disputed Franco's right to rule, favoring a return to monarchy, but, too powerful to be exiled, returned to Spain to live out his old age. Died. William Woodward, 77, million aire Wall Street banker and breeder of thoroughbred race horses, whose Belair Stud farm produced three Kentucky Der by winners (Gallant Fox in 1930, Omaha in 1935, Johnstown in 1939); in Man hattan. Died. Margaret Anna Bird Insull, 80, widow of Samuel Insull, onetime Mid west utilities czar; in Chicago. A noted Broadway beauty, she married Insull in 1899, and became a princess of Chicago society. She tried in vain to make a stage comeback at 42, ten years later sank $200,000 in a benefit production of The School for Scandal. In 1932, when the $3 billion Insull empire disintegrated, she fled to Europe with her husband, later urged him to surrender and face trial on charges of fraudulent bankruptcy and em bezzlement. During Insull's famed trials and acquittals (1932-35), she stuck loyal ly by him, after his death in 1938 sold her furs and jewelry, spent her remain ing years in comfortable obscurity on Chicago's North Side. Died. Edith Conway Ringling, 84, wid ow of Circus Founder Charles Ringling (who died in 1926) and board chairman (since 1950) of Ringling Bros, and Barnum & Bailey Circus; in Sarasota, Fla. Died. Edward Julian Nally, 94, pio neer developer of U.S. radio, who became first president of Radio Corp. of America (1919), and established the first transat lantic commercial radio circuit (1920); in Bronxville, N.Y.
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953 SCHOOLS CHURCHES BUSINESSES HOTELS INSTtTUTIONS VETERANS' FRATERNAL
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With prices and taxes the way they are, you simply have to have more money. Some get it by taking chances. Some by saving pennies. Some by keeping their noses to the grindstone. Why not follow The Wall Street Jour nal get-ahead plan? It costs only $6 to try it. And the success habits you form will probably stay with you for life. Each day The Wall Street Journal tells you about far-reaching changes that are taking place all over America. New inventions. New industries. New ways of doing business. New opportunities to earn money. Because the reports in The Journal come to you daily, you get cyaick warn ing of any new trend that may affect your income. You get the facts in time to pro tect your interests or seize a profit-mak ing opportunity. The Journal is a won derful aid to salaried men making $7000 to $20,000. It is valuable to the owner of a small business. It can be of priceless benefit to young men. The Wall Street Journal has the larg est staff of writers on business and fi nance. It costs $20 a year, but in order to acquaint you with The Journal, we make this offer: You can get a Trial Subscription for 3 months for $6 (in U. S. and Possessions). Just send this ad with check for $6. Or tell us to bill you. Address: The Wall Street Journal, 44 Broad St., New York 4, N.Y. TM10-5
The Soda Trade
Hollywood, a glittering city of outsize swimming pools and pink Cadillacs, has its homey side, too. It has a favorite corner drugstore, called Schwab's. For years Schwab's has been a hangout for movie stars, hangers-on and Coke-stretchers, who sit at the soda fountain sipping their drinks, waiting for miracles, or just thumbing the movie magazines borrowed from the magazine rack. At Schwab's, Col umnist Sidney Skolsky receives mail, phone calls and tips. With Skolsky's syn dicated help, Schwab's has become the best-known corner drugstore in the U.S. Last week Schwab's was getting some lively competition. No sooner had Schwab's announced that three visiting Italian starlets would be guests at its soda fountain for publicity pictures and ice cream than the Beverly-Wilshire Hotel Drugstore retaliated with a bulletin that the Ritz brothers would throw a party for friends at Booth No. i. "This is the ta ble," a solemn announcement reminded patrons, "where the R.K.O.-Stolkin deal was practically concluded some time ago." Manager Milton Kreis calls his Bev erly-Wilshire Drugstore a "rich man's Schwab's. Our clientele is different . . . We have a Romanoff, Chasen's, LaRue type of clientele." To keep his clientele, Kreis stays open 24 hours a day (Schwab's closes at midnight), delivers sandwiches and prescriptions in a black truck with gold leaf lettering, carries such carriagetrade items as $500 hairbrushes and $250 shaving brushes. Like the best nightclubs, it has plug-in telephones (at the soda fountain) and a pressagent. Kreis puts out a monthly magazine, Chatter, which chronicles the doings of its customers. Samples: "Never noticed be fore what beautiful blue eyes Peter Lawford has," "Betty Grable snackihg and poring over a racing form." "Overheard George Raft telling friends that the cherry burgundy ice cream is the best in the world." Chatter also carries movie re views, beauty hints and signed columns by the soda jerks, pharmacists, cashiers, kitchen help. Kreis is now trying to lure Hollywood columnists to his drugstore. Gossipist Sheilah Graham is a regular (from Chat ter: "Sheilah Graham quietly dining with friends, never missing a trick"). Though Columnist Skolsky shows up occasionally (seductive Chatter item: "Sid Skolsky in again, and what a sweet guy that is"), he remains loyal to Schwab's. Meanwhile, Leon Schwab is taking his competition calmly. Says he: "They're just an imita tion. They're getting our overflow. We wish them the best of luck." Based on Adria Locke Langley's 1945 bestseller, the film is laid in an unspecified "cotton-growing state" that is readily identifiable as Huey Long's Louisiana. Demagogue Cagney, married to a Yankee schoolteacher (Barbara Hale) and deep in an affair on the side with a swamp siren (Anne Francis), mounts the first rung of the political ladder by accusing a wealthy cotton-ginner of short-weighting the local farmers. When one of his followers kills a deputy and is shot, in turn, while awaiting trial, Cagney grabs headlines by haling the dying man into court and insisting that the trial be held. Raoul Walsh's direction keeps the film moving briskly and Cagney dominates the film in the grand manner of the 19305, when he was Hollywood's top tough-guy
Notice of 52nd Consecutive Quarterly Dividend On September 1 5, 1 953, the Direc tors of Investors Mutual, Inc., de clared a regular dividend of sixteen and one-half cents per share de rived from net interest and dividend income, payable September 29, 1 953, to shareholders of record September 1 6. At the same meeting, the Directors declared a distribution of fifteen and one-half cents per share derived from security profits realized during the past fiscal year, also payable September 29, 1 953,toshareholders of record September 1 6. H. K. Bradford, President MUTUAL, INC. Minneapolis, Minnesota
JAMES CAGNEY From kitchenware to buncombe. star. Though he looks and sounds far more Broadway than Deep South, he is thor oughly persuasive as a fast-talking politico equally able to bamboozle a backwoods crowd or to make a deal with big-city gangsters. Good shot: Cagney 's shrewd mixture of friendliness and contempt as he joshes his neighbors into turning a brokendown house into a honeymoon cottage for himself and his bride. Little Boy Lost (Paramount). Bing Crosby, a seasoned performer who learned his footwork as second baseman for the Spokane Ideal Laundry's semi-pro team, has a startling way of turning up in un expected places. Moviegoers who are used to Bing as a crooner and a light comedian may be startled to find him in this poign ant tale about frustrated fatherhood. Little Boy Lost, based on Marghanita Laski's bestselling novel, is about a U.S. war correspondent who is forced by the German advance to flee through Dunkirk,
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
The New Pictures
THERE'S NO TIME LIKE THE PRESENT TO BE READING
A Lion Is in the Streets (William Cagney; Warner) follows the jaunty rise of Jimmy Cagney from a backwoods peddler of kitchenware to his near triumph as a statewide peddler of political buncombe.
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TO MEET THE INCREASING DEMAND for aluminum, we are now expanding our production capacity to over 800 mil lion pounds of primary aluminum a year. When this expansion is completed next year, we will have the capacity to produce close to 30% of all the aluminum made in this country. This will be two and one-half times as much as the whole industry produced prior to World War II.
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leaving his wife and newborn son in Paris. The wife is tortured and killed by the Gestapo. When peace comes, the corre spondent goes back to look for his son. At an orphanage near Paris, he finds a French boy, about seven years old, who may or may not be his son. The picture tells the story of the father's outward attempts to determine whether the boy is or is not his, and of the inward struggle he endures in the process. The experience matures him and frees him from the dead past. In structure, the film has serious faults. It begins so slowly that for a while audi ences can almost imagine that there is trouble with the projector. Even as the emotional rhythm catches hold, the mood is continually jolted by meaningless di gressions. Nonetheless, there are several
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CROSBY & CHRISTIAN Piercing anguish and an extra sweater. scenes which draw their moral beauty to a point that pierces like anguish. There is the moment on the train when the father gives the boy his first present; the boy stares at it, his eyes immense with wonder; the father urges him to open it; the boy says simply, "I do aot care what is in it." There is, again, a moment of spiritual torture when the father, driving himself to prove that the boy is in fact his son, catches the boy lying because he already loves the man and wants to stay with him. The crash of a child's hopes in silence is a more dreadful noise than anyone ever ex pected to hear in a Crosby picture. As the father, Bing plays it careful and a little close. He has never pretended to be an expert actor, but his pleasantly re laxed personality and obvious sincerity serve him well. Even when his lines are read without all the emotion they call for, Bing somehow remains true to the spirit of the film. As the boy, ten-year-old Christian Fourcade, a French child actor
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
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with, happily, no suggestion of the pro fessional about him, has the delicate, transient quality of a sprite face seen out of the corner of the eye; looked at direct ly, his charm dissolves. But he is the kind of child every motherly woman immedi ately wants to put an extra sweater on, and he is well directed (by George Seaton) to make the most of this quality without making too much of it.
The All American (Universal-Interna tional) is a nice little football picture, timed to get to the theaters as the real thing goes on display in the stadiums. Nick Bonelli (Tony Curtis), the slumbred hero, is definitely depressing to the crew-cut rich boys at Sheridan U., because of his longish, jive-type hairdo. But most of the undergraduates are willing to sus pend class warfare in Nick's case because he is such a good football player. Class harmony is assured when Nick goes off to the barber and comes back to win the big game for the home team. As Nick, Tony Curtis is suitably clean cut and manly.
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The Robe. The first CinemaScope film, a colorful, breathtakingly big pro duction of Early Christians in Ancient Rome. Based on Lloyd C. Douglas' 1942 bestseller, starring Richard Burton, Victor Mature, Jean Simmons (TIME, Sept. 28). Roman Holiday. Newcomer Audrey Hepburn goes on a hilarious tour of Rome with Gregory Peck and Eddie Albert, as Director William Wyler adds some new twists to a popular old comedy-romance plot (TIME, Sept. 7). The Cruel Sea. One of the best of the World War II films, based on Nicholas * Monsarrat's bestseller and filled with the salt spray and shellbursts of naval war fare (TIME, Aug. 24). From Here to Eternity. James Jones's wild (and sometimes woolly) novel about life in the peacetime Army, compressed into a hard, tensely acted movie (TIME, Aug. 10). The Master of Ballantrae. Wielding his trusty claymore, Errol Flynn hacks his way from Scotland to the New World and back in a rousing film version of Robert Louis Stevenson's 18th century thriller (TIME, Aug. 3). Return to Paradise. A totalitarian South Seas island gets an imaginative helping of love and democracy from Gary Cooper (TIME. July 20). The Sea Around Us. The Technicolor camera prowls the ocean floor: some beau tiful scenes, but lacking the majestic sweep of Rachel Carson's 1951 bestseller (TIME, July 20). The Moon Is Blue. Disapproved by the Legion of Decency and the U.S. Navy, but a nice little comedy all the same (TIME, July 6). The 5,000 Fingers of Dr. T. Why a small boy hates piano teachers, inventive ly told in Technicolor (TIME, June 22). Julius Caesar. Hollywood comes to grips with Shakespeare and, for once, very nearly holds its own (TIME, June ij.
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
Lme assembly line that's 225,000 miles long . . . ends at your front door!
Remember how proud you were when you drove that bright, shiny, new car up to your front door for the first time? And the family came flocking, and may be a wistful neighbor or two? Well, the railroads had a part in that pride, too. For over their 225,000-mile assembly line of steel rails they moved the raw materials required for making the 15,000 parts that go into an auto. Then they moved finished parts -frames, engines, tires, fabrics, glass -from factories all over America to the auto assembly plants. And just as railroads helped build your family car, they help make possi ble almost everything else you use in your daily life and work ... the food you eat, the clothes you wear, the house in which you live. In doing this, railroads move more tons of freight more miles than all other forms of transportation combined. And, important to you when it comes to the prices you pay for things, railroads do this huge job of hauling at charges which average less than those of any other form of general transportation.
^ ( I V ^ W A S H I N G T O N 6 , D . C .
<5 You'll enjoy THE RAILROAD HOUR every Monday evening on NBC.
A Lesson in Anatomy
THE DOCTOR AND THE DEVILS (138 pp.) -- Dylan Thomas -- New Directions ($2.50). Like most poets, Welshman Dylan Thomas can't afford to think of poetry as a living. To eke out his own, he does what he can in other writing fields. And he is certainly among the few living poets, not to mention scenario writers, who could successfully have written The Doctor and the Devils, the screenplay for a new British film.* Published as a book, his script combines some of the best virtues of fiction and drama. What is just as important, Poet Thomas remains a poet while doing a job that most highbrow poets would pooh-pooh, unless it were offered to them. Here is the true story that Thomas got to work with: more than a century ago, there lived in Edinburgh a brilliant pro fessor of anatomy named Dr. Knox. Like most anatomists of the day, he lacked enough corpses for his demonstrations. Like his colleagues, he was forced to buy them from body snatchers. Two snatchers. Burke and Hare, decided it was easier to murder their "subjects" than to dig them up. They were caught and brought to trial. Dr. Knox had enough influence to escape trial, and to this day it is not sure that he 'knew what Burke and Hare were up to; but his name became a curse among the poor, he was ostracized, and he finally fled his native city. Enemies Preferred. Poet Thomas goes to work. Dr. Knox (to allow the script wider latitude) becomes Dr. Rock. The
* Which is to be released early next year. The film's current title: Doctor in the House.
BODY SNATCHERS AT WORK Bliss, but . reader meets him first on a morning walk, ever innocent, when the desperately poor wielding "his stick like a prophet's staff sing in the streets: . . . the wide, sensual mouth tightened Fallon and Broom sell bones and into its own denial." He is a sharpmeat . . . tongued, arrogant genius, always at odds Fallon's the butcher, Broom's the with his colleagues, the newspapers, soci thief . . . ety in general. His creed on the lecture And Rock's the boy who buys the stand: "Let no scruples stand in the way beef . . . of the progress of medical science." His personal credo: "I do not need any friends. And at the very end Rock admits inwardly: "Oh, my God, I knew what I was doing!" I prefer enemies. They are better com Poet Thomas has done more than give pany, and their feelings towards you are always genuine." By his own admission, dramatic shape to a bit of grisly history. In dialogue and camera directions, he has he has paid body snatchers, or "Resur rectionists," as much as 500 guineas a proved again that a first-rate writer can give dignity to the most sordid materials. term. Now he begins to get a flow of corpses And, true poet that he is, he has spoken out for the dignity of human life without from two lodginghouse keepers in the most wretched part of the city. At first, getting his characters to make tiresome speeches about it. the two bully boys, Fallon and Broom, simply smother their lodgers in their Elizabethan Captain beds. Later, the victims are made drunk and done away with as was young Jennie CAPTAIN JOHN SMITH (375 pp.) -- Brad Bailey, the prostitute: ford Smith -- Lippincott ($5). Fallon: I got two more bottles in my Here lies one conquer'd that hath con little room, Miss Pretty Bailey. Two great quer 'd Kings, bottles of dancin' dew that II make you Subdu'd large Territories, and done think the sun's shining in the middle of things the night. Which to the world impossible would Fingers for Death. When Dr. Rock's own assistant accuses him of hiring mur derers, Rock intones: "I need bodies. They brought bodies. I pay for what I need. I do not hire murderers." To his wife he is able to report: "I am full of bliss, like a cat on the tiles of heaven." But the jig is about up. Dr. Rock has his last joke about Fallon and Broom: "They are corpse-diviners. Or, as some have green fingers for gardening, so they have black fingers for death." Then the police, the trial, disgrace. Dr. Rock him self is saved from trial by influential col leagues who have had dealings with body snatchers themselves. But life in Edin burgh is hardly bearable for a man, how seeme, But that the truth is held in more esteeme. Captain John Smith's epitaph in St. Sepulchre's Church, London, where he lies buried, gives Pocahontas' old friend the benefit of the doubt. Succeeding genera tions, noting the "impossible" deeds he recounted about himself, have sometimes suspected he was a liar of extraordinary feather. Now comes Biographer Bradford Smith with information that seems to
* Also author of a life of his ancestor, Governor William Bradford of Plymouth Colony, but no kin to Captain John Smith.
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
Tal L. Jones
SCRIPTWRITER THOMAS Pooh-pooh, unless . . . 110
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TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
give the truth back to Captain Smith and the lie to his detractors. In the past, crit ics of Smith have only had to point to his autobiographical book of True Travels, a tangle of yarns as wild and incredible as any medieval romance. Author Smith of fers strong evidence, culled from i yth cen tury Hungarian records by his associate, Dr. Laura Polanyi Striker, that even the tallest of John's tales were probably true, and that he was, in fact, not just in fancy, one of the greatest of the Elizabethan adventurers. A Wet Protestant. Born the son of "a poore tenant" in Lincolnshire, Smith struck off at 20 for the Hungarian wars, where the Turks and the Habsburgs were battling for Transylvania. On the way, he said, he was robbed by some French com panions, saved from starvation by a kind farmer, thrown overboard by some Ro man Catholics on a pilgrim ship because
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True, after all? he was a Protestant, picked up by friend ly privateers, whom he joined in an attack on a Venetian argosy that made him, in one swoop, a well-to-do man. In Hungary at last, he joined the Mag yars and executed his most famous exploit after accepting a challenge of the Turkish commander to single combat. At the first charge, Smith's lance, he says, "passed the Turke throw the sight of his Beaver, face, head and all, that he fell dead to the ground." Whereupon Smith cut off the fellow's head and presented it to the Hun garian commander, "who kindly accepted it." Smith says he made the same disposi tion of two other Turks who sallied out to avenge their chief, and in consequence got a coat of arms from the Prince of Hun gary -- and Author Smith, on the evidence, is inclined to believe him. At the battle of Rotenthurn, Smith was captured by the Turks and, being sold into slavery, was sent as a gift to a fair Turkish lady he calls Charatza Tragabigzanda. Charatza, Smith rather shyly re lates, took a fancy to him and shipped him off to her brother's castle for safeTIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
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TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
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keeping until she came of age. But Charatza's brother so mistreated him that one day, "forgetting all reason," John "beat out the Tymors braines with [my] thresh ing bat, for they have no flailes," and took off on the fellow's horse. Many adven tures later he reached London, and almost at once embarked with the Virginia colo nists for Jamestown. For all his boasting in military matters, Smith was curiously prudish in other re spects. While governor of Jamestown, he ordered that anybody caught swearing should have a can of water poured down his sleeve. He was shocked, too, when the Indians "set a woman fresh painted red ... to be his bedfellow," and was simply indignant when Pocahontas and about 30 other naked Indian girls invited him into a lodge for a feast and there "tormented him . . . with crowding, pressing, and hanging about him, most tediously cry ing. 'Love you not me?' " An Imprisoned Mind. Author Smith's account of Smith's role in the Jamestown affair does not differ much from the con ventional one: even Smith's enemies con cede that, though still in his 203, hardboiled John Smith was the force that kept the colony alive. Evidence is given by Author Smith to show that the famous episode in which Pocahontas saved John Smith's life actually did occur substan tially as Smith said. Smith went back from his American ad venture in some disgrace (one charge: an ambition to marry Pocahontas and make himself king). He was never able to fulfill his dream of founding an American colo ny, not of gentlemen but of farmers and working men. Wrote a contemporary: "He led his old age in London, where his hav ing a prince's mind imprisoned in a poor man's purse rendered him to the contempt of such who were not ingenuous. Vet he efforted his spirits with the remembrance and relation of what formerly he had been, and what he had done."
Snapshots of Madrid
^THE HIVE (257 pp.) -- Camllo Jose Cela -- Farrar, Straus & Young ($3.50). Camilo Jose Cela is a 37-year-old Span ish novelist with a rare distinction: al though he fought in Generalissimo Fran co's army during the civil war, joined the Falange and to this day lives and works under the Fascist regime, his novel about Madrid is being cheered by emigre Span ish Republicans. So rare a distinction stems from a rare quality. In the face of dictatorship, Novelist Cela has the cour age to write the truth as he sees it and the talent to transform his merciless vision of contemporary Madrid into a series of Goya-like vignettes. The Hive tells no story. It "sets out to be ... a slice of life told step by step," and consists of short sketches, most of them only a page or so in length. Out of these hundreds of fragments, a world takes shape, peopled, according to the au thor's own count, by no less than 160 characters. None of the characters holds a central role. They first come into focus in
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
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On its way-- a supersonic missile of defense
Boeing's F-99 Bomarc is an aerial destroyer, designed to strike enemy bombers attempting to attack the con tinental United States. It is a logical outgrowth of Boeing's extensive earlier developmental work in the guided missile field. The F-99's rocket engine hurtles it from the ground to its operating alti tudes, and to speeds beyond those of sound. During test flights the un manned F-99 broadcasts to earth a complete record of what's happening. This data, recorded on tape and proc essed through electronic computing machines, furnishes information about speed, temperature changes, fuel con sumption and countless other factors vital to continued progress in this com plex field. Bomarc is designed to carry out its mission under the guidance of radar and other electronic equipment. These ingenious devices control the F-99's flight path and guide the missile into position to destroy the target aircraft. Boeing's pilotless interceptor experi ence is not confined to work on the Bomarc project. Its earlier program, also sponsored by the Air Force and known as GAPA, produced rocket missiles that attained speeds in excess of 1,500 miles an hour. Today Boeing is devoting a substantial amount of its engineering effort to developing complete systems of air defense. Guided missiles, along with strategic jet bombers, are a strong deterrent against attack. In each of these fields, Boeing's contributions are character ized by unyielding integrity of design and construction -- and by the sound, imaginative kind of research that pro duced the revolutionary B-47 Stratojet and the eight-jet B-52 Stratofortress. These advanced aircraft, in common with the F-99, bear a name you can depend upon : Boeing.
Boeing is now building a prototype jet transport, designed to be adaptable for either military or commercial use. The new plane has the benefit of Boeing's unparalleled experience in multi-jet aircraft. It will fly in 1954.
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a shabby cafe, and are followed with an artful candid camera about the wintry city as they hunger for food or affection and disclose, in commonplace words and gestures, the misery that grips most of them. The resulting snapshots go deeper than a surface image: <I The little flamenco street singer has the face of "a perverted farmyard beast.- He is too young in years for cynicism -- or resignation -- to have slashed its mark across his face, and therefore it has a beautiful, candid stupidity." He sings from i p.m. to n, spends more than half of what he earns on supper, then sings un til 2 a.m. before hopping the bumper of the last tram. He is six years old. <I Victorita is 17 and well built. The boy she loves has TB and lies in bed all day long. He warns her not to kiss him or she
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may catch his disease, but she kisses him anyway. One day, pale and haggard, she tells him that he can be cured with medi cine and plenty of food. Her voice thick, she adds, "A young girl is always worth money . . . If it means that you get well again, I'll go with the first rich man who wants me as a mistress." She is a little shocked when he answers, "All right." <J Filo has five children, and in one day will be 34. "I have gotten old, haven't I?" she asks her brother. "Look at the wrinkles in my face. Now all that's left is to wait till the children grow up, get older and older, and then die. Like Mamma, poor dear." EUR1 At night Madrid is silent. "Thousands of men are sleeping with their arms around their wives, forgetful of the harsh and cruel day that may be lying in wait for them a few hours hence, crouched like a wild cat . . . And several dozens of girls are hoping -- what are they hoping for, 0 God? Why do You let them be thus deceived?" Such scenes, written in a bare, vigorTIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
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TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
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ously perceptive prose, infuse The Hive with uncommon power. It is too bad that Novelist Cela's method is self-defeating. He spreads himself too thinly over too many characters, and his vignettes, taken together, lack the sharpness that they have separately. But many a lesser, more successful novelist would give his best typing finger to be able to evoke the bit terness, insight and compassion that Nov elist Cela packs into brief scenes that plunge straight at the heart.
STANTON (520 pp.)--Flefcher Pratt-Norton ($5.95). Although it would be a blunder to ac cept most writers at their own evaluation, Fletcher Pratt is just what he once said he was: "A literary mechanic." His tinker ing has produced 46 books ranging from juveniles to a first-rate military study of World War II, The Marines' War (TIME, Jan. 19, 1948). Like a lot of self-made military experts, Author Pratt is perhaps happiest when he is refighting the War Between the States. In his new book, Stanton, he has a fine time trying to prove that Lincoln's War Secretary was a great & good man, has an even better time using his hero's biography as a battle arena where Pratt can preside as chief of tactics and strategy. Trying to upgrade Stanton is itself a pretty formidable job. There has never been a good, balanced biography of the man, but the standard view among U.S. historians leaves him with low marks for political candor and loyalty, high scores for arrogance and dissimulation. Pratt's Stanton is not apt to change the his torians' minds overnight, but he has writ ten a spirited, readable defense of his man that should leave the pros and the antis agreeing on at least one thing: stout Unionist Stanton was a whale of a Secre tary of War, who probably did as much as any one man to bring about Union victory. Fire & Prayers. No one could have spotted the future fire-eating Secretary in the youngster who shunned fights, de livered lectures on God to his playfellows and ran prayer meetings in the family stable in Steubenville, Ohio. But as a selfmade lawyer, Stanton fought cases as he was later to fight the war: to win. When Congressman Dan Sickles killed his wife's lover on a Washington street, Stanton got him acquitted on grounds never before used in a U.S. trial -- temporary insanity. * In another case, he brusquely superseded an older lawyer assigned to the case and made the closing argument himself. The older lawyer was Abe Lincoln, and after he heard Stanton, he said: "I'm going home to study -- study law." To Stanton, at that time, Lincoln was "that long-armed baboon . . . that giraffe." Even after the Civil War had begun, he told the delighted General McClellan that Lincoln was the "original gorilla." But
* Thus, incidentally, sparing Dan Sickles to be come a major general in the Union Army, where he fought with gallantry, lost a leg at Gettysburg.
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
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TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
Mark of PROGRESS in Railroading
when Lincoln named him to the Cabinet, Stanton became a dynamic Secretary to the man he had once despised. He drove his subordinates mercilessly, but never so hard as he drove himself. Says Author Pratt: "He -could tear up a contract and fling the pieces in the contractor's face; he could pass a white-haired father through to the bedside of his wounded son . . . He could also stand with stony face and turn away the parents of a sol dier condemned to be shot for desertion. He was the man of war in the place of war." Knots & Poetry. That Stanton was arbitrary and tactless comes through even the pages of so partisan a book as Fletcher Pratt's. Even Grant, who worked with him, once remarked that Stanton "did things for the pleasure of being disoblig ing." But Lincoln toward the end of the war asked a fellow Illinoisan: "Did Stanton really say I was a damned fool?" "He
It's new-all yard and a mile long!
HERE at Hornell, N. Y. is Erie's newly completed westbound freight classification yard ... a full mile long and 16 tracks wide. This is another one of Erie's many invest ments in better service for shippers. With plenty of room in the yard to do a more efficient job, freight cars are switched quickly and grouped into trains according to their desti nation. Thus time is saved on fast freight shipments, insuring greater dependability to meet shippers' needs in bringing you the things you eat, wear and use. The Erie, now a completely dieselpowered railroad, is going ahead with other improvements in its for ward-looking program of progres sive railroading-- all designed for the single purpose of giving the best in rail transportation to keep pace with growing America. Shippers who want fast, dependable service always say "ROUTE IT ERIE!"
SECRETARY STAN TON A whale served the giraffe. did, sir, and repeated it." "Then," said the President, "if Stanton said I was a damned fool, I must be one. For he is nearly always right, and generally says what he means." And at war's end, when Stanton, honestly pleading "broken health," tried to resign, it was Lincoln who said with his hands on his War Sec retary's shoulders: "Stanton, you can not go ... You have been our main reliance . . . Some knots slip; yours do not." On April 14, 1865, it was Stanton who begged Grant and Lincoln not to go to Ford's theater. Grant took the advice. The next day it was Stanton who said of the dead Lincoln : "Now he belongs to the ages." In 1869 it was Grant, as Presi dent, who appointed Stanton to the U.S. Supreme Court. It was too late for more honors. Within a week after his con firmation, Stanton was dead. He had spent his spare time writing a book on The Poetry of the Bible.
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
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TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
M I S C E L L A N Y
Identification. In Lafayette, Ind., thieves broke into a clothing store, stole $18 worth of boys' sport shirts, each em blazoned with the legend: "I'm a Little Stinker." First Things First. In Houston, sen tenced to five years in prison and ordered to pay a $10 fine, Marijuana Peddler John Hernandez barely flinched, but asked: "When do I have to pay the fine?" Line of Duty. In Indianapolis, assigned to keep order at the strike-bound Indiana Bell Telephone Co., Policeman Carey Ben nett met C.I.O. Picket Margaret Brabham, seven weeks later persuaded her to leave the picket line and marry him. Irresistible. In London, arrested for pinching a geranium from a windowbox while delivering mail, Postman Frederick Johnson was fined 10 shillings ($1.40) after telling the judge, "I am very fond of flowers and in a moment of temptation I took it." Double or Nothing. In Toledo, police considered carefully, finally decided to ar rest both Driving Instructor George W. Hall Jr. and Pupil Nellie E. Vasold for reckless driving, after their dual-control car hit a parked automobile. Counsel for the Defense. In Oklahoma City, on trial for forgery, ex-Convict Ralph Acuff decided to act as his own lawyer, put himself on the witness stand, asked questions and answered them, but failed to convince the jury, which delib erated for 45 minutes, found him guilty as charged. Misleading Propaganda. In Galesburg, 111., Howard Furman, 41, parked his car next to a sign reading YOU ARE LEAVING
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went to sleep, woke up to find himself under arrest, had to pay a $125 fine for reckless driving. Secret Weapon. In Edgeware. England, just before a game with nearby Rainham, the town's dejected soccer team took time out for a session with Psychotherapist J. (for Joshua) Sparrow, who gave a "psy chological pep-talk" to the players "to bring out their latent ability," succeeded so well that Edgeware won its first victory of the season, 5-1. The Teetotaler. In Edinburg, Texas, arrested for possessing ten marijuana ci garettes, Rosendo Ureste, 33, expressed surprise: "Other people get drunk and don't go to jail, and I never drink." This Is the Army? In Fort Sill, Okla., Army Captain James C. Blackford began a new morale program : to each man in his company on his birthday -- a cake, a threeday pass and a personal letter of greeting.
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TIME COVERS SHOWN IN PUB LISHER'S LETTER (page 18), reading left to right: Speaker Joe Cannon (Time's first cover, March 3, 1923), F. D. Roosevelt, Jack Dempsey, Woodrow Wilson, George Bernard Shaw, Sir Thomas Lipton, Ethel Barrymore, Al Smith, Bob LaFollette Jr., Charles Lindbergh, Calvin Coolidge, Queen Mary, Al Capone, Herbert Hoover, Hindenburg, Eugene O'Neill, Hitler, James Farley, Katharine Cornell, Cordell Hull, John L. Lewis, James Joyce, Harry Hop kins, Toscanini, Henry Ford, Clark Gable, Trotsky, Einstein, Walter Winchell, Eleanor Roosevelt, Premier Tojo, Admiral Yamamoto, Pierre Laval, General Marshall, Gen eral Pattern, Admiral Doeiiitz, Mussolini Pope Pius XII, Oveta Culp Hobby, Jan Masaryk, General Montgomery, General MacArthur, Franco, James Byrnes, Gandhi,. Jackie Robinson, De Gasperi, Robert Oppenheimer, Ben Hogan, Churchill, Truman, Juan & Evita Peron, Mossadegh, Senator McCarthy, Groucho. Marx, Anthony Eden, Queen Elizabeth, Stalin & Malenkov, Mamie Eisenhower, Syngman Rhee, Aden auer.
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
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frwn w, ~fa/o firttftonj toQwu ^ a m ^
He buvs' or influences the buying of many - types of products and services for his company.
He has far better than average means, broader than average interests. He and his wife and children are consistent best customers for all types of consumer goods and services.
His magazine is TIME. Again and again, group after group of America's most suc cessful men say that TIME is the one magazine they value most -- for informa tion, for ideas, for entertainment. It is not just what TIME reports-- it is
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
not merely the thoroughness with which the reports are made-- it is also the way in which TIME teUs the news that has at tracted to it each week more than 1,700,000 of these men and their families-- best cus tomers in two positions to buy.
istoric news from Old Crow
The famous Old Crow Distillery meets the public demand for a lighter and milder prestige bourbon by offering an 86 Proof bottling of the whiskey Daniel Webster called 'the finest in the world." It is a companion to world-famous Old Crow 100 Proof Bottled in Bond, but lower in proof and price.
Those of you who have been wanting a prestige bourbon that is lighter and milder in taste than Bottled in Bond can now enjoy Old Crow at 86 proof. And you can enjoy it at a considerably lower price, too, for the resultant sav ings in Federal excise taxes and other costs are being passed along to you.
Lafayette visits Kentucky-- home of Old Croia
Now, with the historic news that Old Crow is also available in a lighter, milder, lower priced bottling many millions more can enjoy "the greatest name in bourbon." Ask for Old Crow at the proof that best suits your taste-the lighter, milder 86 Proof, or the tra ditional 100 Proof Bottled in Bond.
N O W - T W O G R E A T B O T T L I N G S !
When you buy Old Crow, you buy America's most historic brand. From
The famous old spring house, Old Croiv Distillery
those early days on the Kentucky fron tier when Dr. James Crow first lent his
scientific knowledge to the theretofore erratic distilling process, Old Crow has grown up with the nation. By the barrel it traveled to the picturesque ports of the Mississippi (and became the favor ite of that river's most famous pilotMark Twain)-- by the goblet it was raised in tribute to such distinguished guests as the Marquis de Lafayette, and to the performances of the incompara ble Edwin Booth-- by the demijohn it was recognized as the mark of genteel hospitality throughout the land.
Kentucky Straight Bourbon Whiskey
Celebrated Old Crow -- lighter, milder and lower-priced than the 100 Proof Bottled in Bond
BOTTLED IN BOND 1OO PROOF
Kentucky Straight Bourbon Whiskey
The most famous of bonded bourbons available as usual
TIME, OCTOBER 5, 1953
The famous humorist considered Old Croto the aristocrat of bourbons and toent to see for himself note it u:as made.
For generations Old Crow's superior Kentucky quality has won for it the high praise of some of America's most celebrated men. Today, you can enjoy that quality in your own type of Old Crow . . . the lighter, milder 86 Proof or the traditional 100 Proof Bottled in Bond.
THE OLD CROW DISTILLERY COMPANY, FRANKFORT, KENTUCKY
Cleaner, Fresher, Smoother!
C I G A R E T T E S
Nothing-- no, nothing-- beats better taste!
Never before have so many smokers been bombarded with so many reasons for smoking so many brands of cigarettes! But actually, there's only one good reason for smoking a cigarette -- enjoy ment. And you get enjoyment from only one thing -- the taste of a cigarette. Luckies taste better . . . for two reasons. They're made of fine tobacco-- fine, light,
mild tobacco-- and they're made better. It's as simple as that. So, for the better taste-- the cleaner fresher, smoother taste-- that only fine tobacco in a better-made cigarette can give you...
Be Happy-GO LUCKY"
AMERICA'S LEADING MANUFACTURER OF CIGARETTES