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  • Part One Introduction to Human Resources Management
  • Introduction
  • Among the issue of the HRM include;
  • Staffing consists of three important components;
  • Relationship between the functions of HRM
  • Factors that influence the HRM
  • External Environment Factors
  • The Internal Environment;
  • Part Two
  • JOB ANALYSIS Definition;
  • Your idea;
  • Exercise
  • 1- Interviews;
  • 2- Surveys;
  • 3- Observation;
  • 4- Employee Notes;
  • 5- Management Position Description Questionnaire;
  • Position Analysis Questionnaire;
  • Job Introduction
  • Critical Functions/Responsibilities;
  • The normal items that can be found in a job specification are;
  • Part Three
  • Human Resources Planning Process;
  • Human Resources Planning Steps
  • Zero-Based Forecasting;
  • Bottom-up Approach;
  • Trend Analysis;
  • Qualitative Methods;
  • Methods to Forecast Labor Supply;
  • Labor Supply in the Organization;
  • Labor Supply From Outside The Organization
  • Action Decisions With No Variance In Supply And Demand
  • Action decisions with a shortage of employees
  • This decision can also include
  • Action decisions in surplus conditions
  • Balancing HR Supply and Demand
  • Part Four
  • Alternatives to recruitment
  • Internal recruitment methods include;
  • External recruitment methods include;
  • Unstructured interview;
  • Behavioral specification interview;
  • Situational interview;
  • 3- Panel interview
  • 4- Group interview;
  • 5- Computerized interview;
  • 6- Stress interview;
  • Training and development, role and importance
  • The management of training and development
  • Knowledge and skills required to manage training effectively;
  • Selecting suitable training strategy;
  • Early preparation:
  • Continuous learning:
  • Monitoring and evaluation:
  • Stages in training needs analysis;
  • Methods for training needs analysis;
  • Organizational analysis;
  • Types of equity
  • Features of effective compensation;
  • Basics of salary determinant;
  • Salary survey;
  • Performance based pay;
  • Benefits
  • Incentives;

Part One Introduction to Human Resources Management

Human resources have increasingly become the crucial resource for the organizations, as it plays a vital role in determining the success of the organization.

Effective management of the human resources available in the organization helps the organization to develop a pool of skilled and motivated employees.

Human resources of any country refers to the total population of that country except those who are above 60 years of old and below 16 (in some countries 18), also those who are in prisons or hospitals, and the higher education students, plus the house wives. Human Resources management -formerly known as personnel management- basically deal with people who work in an organization. Human Resources are not replaced in an organization as they have specific skills, knowledge and capabilities that can enhance the organizational efficiency and effectiveness. Newly recruited employees may not have the same experience and skills compared with the existing employees. In other words, human resources management (HRM) could be defined as (the utilization of individuals to achieve organizational objectives).

Among the issue of the HRM include;
Employee placement, Job and team design, Compensation of the employees, etc. In today's technological era, HRM has become increasingly important in all organizations. This is crucial as the manager is aware of the limitations of technological inputs despite the rapid evolution of the technology. Since the cutting edge of technologies are readily available in almost all parts of the world, technological ownership does not guarantee the success of the organization. In general, it is actually the human capital of that organization who determine the success or failure of the organization. Now, employees of many organizations come from various cultural, race, education backgrounds. To be able to work effectively with another worker, you have to understand the Human Behavior.

You have to know about the existing policies, systems, and practices that will help in building a group of trained and motivated workers. A manager's job does not only involve recruiting workers to fill up available job positions, but a manager's responsible to assure that the worker achieves his job satisfaction.

Basically there are FOUR functional areas which are associated with effective human resources management: Staffing; the staffing process is an essential one that can contribute to the success of the organization, An organization needs to have employees who are capable, have the necessary skills and are qualified to perform their respective jobs. To get this type of workers, the HR planning that involve recruitment and selection need to be mapped out carefully. The organization must insure that there is a continuous supply of productive employees both in short term and long term period of its HR planning. The most effective selection of employees will determine whether the organization can be successful or not.

Staffing consists of three important components; 1- HR planning; before an organization actually conducts the recruitment
and selection process, it must first develop its own HR plan. HR planning is a systematic process that analyses the human resource requirements to ensure that the number of employees with necessary qualifications is matched to the job which is being advertised. A crucial; instrument used in HR planning as job analysis. Job analysis is used by most employers to plan on the human resources supply in their organizations. Job analysis is a process that develops a detailed job description which includes the list of work responsibility in the job position, the inter-relationship of that particular job with other related job positions; and the required knowledge, skill and qualification for the job position. This is critical to ensure that the recruited employee manages to perform the job efficiency.

2- Recruitment; is a process of attracting qualified individuals and
encouraging them to apply for work in the organization. Before the organization can scout for potential capable employees. It has to know the job specifications well for the vacant job position. Job Specification is a statement that outlines the required knowledge, skill and capabilities in order to perform the job. Besides, job specification, managers and supervisors need the job description of the job position to select the potential candidate and tally him or her with the job. Job description is an account of the job tasks and responsibilities.

3- Selection; is the process through which the organization chooses the best
candidates from a group of applicants to fill in the job vacancy. The objective of having an effective selection process is to match the individual

characteristics and traits of the candidate like capabilities, knowledge and academic qualifications with the recruitment of the job itself. If the management is failing to do the appropriate matching process, it will affect the performance and job satisfaction of the recruited candidate. Selection is seen as the most difficult process for a manager. Try to look at the recruitment and selection process in your organization. What can you deduce from the process?

HR Development; HR development aids individuals and work teams to be more
effective. In the light of the changing nature of the organization, work, technology and work systems, HR development is the necessary tool to train and develop the employees so that they can keep up with the evolutionary technologies that will lead to increased productivity. HR development also prepares those individuals so that they can hold higher positions as they gain more experience with the company. The main components in HR development are orientation, staff training, and development and performance appraisal

Orientation; is a formal process that aims to get the new employees to become more
familiar with the organization specially the tasks involve rules and regulations, organization objectives and other co-workers. Each newly recruited employee is required to attend orientation program conducted by the organization. This is important for the employees to adjust the new work environment in the organization

Training and Development; all employees in the organization must undergo continuous
organizational training and development so that they can maintain their effective work performance and adapt the newly emerged work practices.

Staff training and development is defined as a series of activities designed to give
ample opportunities to the employees to improve their work competencies. Through training, the organization can encourage healthy and productive work practices in the work environment. Every thing is possible by training

Performance Appraisal; the manager must assess his staff's performance based on the
tasks assigned to them. The manager can do that by using performance appraisal. In performance appraisal process, the manager needs to use the appropriate forms and

appraisal systems that are designed by the human resources department. Performance appraisal encompasses the process of identifying, evaluating and managing the performance of the individuals in the organization. By using the performance appraisal, a typical employee can be appraised to see how far he has accomplished the job as assigned by his superiors.

Performance Evaluation comes handy for the new employees to learn about how they
can improve their own productivity to meet the organization's need for quality. In your opinion, when can the organization conduct the orientation program? When it is suitable for the organization to arrange for the employee training and development.

Compensation, Human Resources Health and Safety; Compensation and employees
health and safety are among the critical mechanism that can be used by the companies and managers to attract, maintain and motivate high-performing employees so that they can continuously contribute to the realization of organization objectives

Compensation; is the benefits given by the organization to the employees as tokens of
appreciation for their hard work for the organization. Examples include gratuity, pension and services rendered benefits. All these will be given to employees to agree to work in the organization. The benefits are rewards could be a combination of the following :-

-Salary; money received by the worker for the work rendered for a period of
time (weekly, monthly etc.) -Allowance; additional financial and non-financial rewards beside the basic salary such as annual leaves, sick leaves and medical insurance. -Incentives; additional financial reward given to the employees to motivate them. For example, sales incentives may include the sales commission and holiday vouchers. Other incentives can be performance bonuses, attendance bonus and excellent performance awards -Health and safety of workers; the organization is responsible for the health and safety of its employees at the office. The organization also has to ensure that the job offered is safe and happy. In this context, health refers to the overall physical and mental well-being of the workers, and safety is associated with the organization's actions to protect the workers from possible injuries that could be caused by hazards at the workplace -Industrial relations; an organization consists of workers with diverse backgrounds who collaborate together to achieve the common organizational goals. Sometimes, the personal needs of these individuals are not parallel with the organization objectives or their work styles do not fit into the organization system. These discrepancies can create conflict. Industrial relations refers to the developed systems and approved regulations that are embedded in organization policies to provide a conducive work environment. They are components in the industrial relations; namely Relationship between the employer and the employee; to maintain a pleasant working

environment, the organization must focus on the relationship between the employer and the employees. A stressful working environment in which there are numerous conflicts between the employee and employees would affect the workers' performance and, eventually the organizational performance.

Discipline of the employees; industrial relations also involves taking disciplinary action
on the employees that fail to adhere to the organizational rules and regulations.

Relationship between the functions of HRM
All the functions of HR are inter-related with each other. The manager must be sensitive that each decision that he makes using one of the functions would affect the other functions as well To illustrate further, let us say, the organization focuses on recruiting quality candidates only but ignores to look into the compensation packages for these candidates then the whole human resources process would not be cost-effective to the organization. Skilled and productive employees will be de-motivated if they are not enlisted for appropriate training and development programs that would add value to their competencies. Besides that, benefits and compensation are not enough, the employees also have the right to work in a comfortable conducive work environment.

Factors that influence the HRM
How the environmental factors influence the management of human resources. These factors are divided into the external environmental factors and internal environmental factors.

External Environment Factors
Labor m et ark econom y H an um resources m anag ent em technolog y

Leg al requirem ents

Labor unions


com petition

custom ers

External factors include economy, technology, customers, competition, share holders, labor unions, labor market and legal requirements. Each respective factor, either by itself or by a combination of other factors, can influence human recourse management recession

1- The Economy of the nation is a major environmental factor that affects human

Job vacancies in certain organizations would be advertised in the organization's web-site or a special recruitment web-site that scouts for possible candidates There are also some organizations which conduct computer – based training. In general. companies contributing to the human resources development fund (HRMF) are allowed to use some of the contributions for the training and development of its staff. the rate of change in technology accelerates at an amazing pace. etc. certain competencies become obsolete. how far is the effect of the 2009 economic recession on the management of human resources in your organization? 2.resources management. Another function of human resources management that is affected by the economy is the compensation and rewards for the staff. When the economy is stable . In your opinion. the career planning and promotion. The state of economy can also affect the career development of the employee. In the recession period. When the economy is booming. The human resources information system can be used to produce accurate and current reports that could help the management to make decisions related to the needs of human resources. policy assessment and human resources 6 . For example. the organization tends to reduce the training and development activities for its staff as compared to when the economy faces recession.). utilize the latest method in information technology and adopt the more advanced communication technology (teleconferencing) (videoconferencing) etc Technological advancement has also enabled the process of recruiting candidates to be done over the internet (e.g. an economic boom or recession can determine the level of demand and supply of the workforce. The organization might put the bonus or salary increment on hold or it could come up with salary cut among its workers if necessary. and eventually employees need to re-learn new skills like the skill to use the latest models of computers (PC tablet. online recruitment). The most challenging aspect for the HR managers is to train and develop their employees so that they can keep up with the evolving technology With various changes in technology. Another common use of technology in human resource management is the organization's human resources information system.. the organization would give out lucrative bonuses and promotions.Technology. more potential candidates would be looking for jobs and organization could have more choices to consider from a larger pool of human resources.

the firm's task is to ensure that it obtains a retains a sufficient number of employees in various careers to maintain its competitive advantage Employees have high mobility. a firm must maintain a supply of competent employees if it aims to succeed. These scenarios are correlated with the skills.friendly Customers constantly demand high quality products and after purchase service. types of compensation. and the Labor Market: there will always be other firms that produce the similar products or services. they may challenge the decisions made by the management. 3. grow and prosper in the competitive business environment. labor unions will negotiate with the management in the organization that has labor unions. Therefore. qualifications. shareholders or stockholders invest their capital in the corporation. Employees changing jobs from company to another.Marketplace. attractive compensation package (even better than what the competitors are offering). 5. the employees capable of providing top quality goods and services. work benefits. an organization gets its supply of human resources from the labor supply market. Usually. To encourage the high-performers to continue working with the organization. salary level and working conditions reflect the joint decisions made by the labor union and the management of the organization. If the longer look forward to continue buying products from the firm. As the owners of a corporation. income. at motivation of the employees 4. A union is established by a group of employees who aims to improve their working conditions. At time. Thus. Labor union can influence the management decision on the compensation and benefits received by the employees Normally. 7. management needs to insure that its human resources practices are customer. the main issues by the union include compensation packages and work place surroundings.Labor Unions. Thus. management must be prepared to justify the advantages of the programs in term of its benefits and economical costs 6. and they also are part of the firm's external environment. management needs to stand by their decisions by providing rational justifications regarding the viability of the programs that could affect cost.Shareholders.The Labor Supply Market. the management must have excellent human resources policies. customers are the people who actually use a firm's goods and services. Labor supply market is viewed as an external environmental factor 7 . and the revenue of the organization Shareholders deserve to know if the cost spent on these programs would generate income or reduce costs. Since sales is crucially important for the survival of an organization. safe working environment and continuous training and development programs for staff so that they equip themselves with new skills.Customers. On the other side.practices.

Legal Requirement. The Internal Environment. organizational objectives. difficult communication and interpersonal conflicts between the employees and the organizations. health and safety laws. different job positions within the organization require the organization to hire people with combination of multiple skills Conducting the training and development programs will accommodate these changes in the human resources management in the organization. 8. The factors encompass organization strategies.since newly recruited employees are taken from this labor market. Managers must ensure that they are sensitive to the different needs of these groups and practice fair judgment in their course of action The labor market provides organizations with employees of diverse backgrounds and qualifications.) those laws should be considered in designing and adopting company policies Most of the successful human resources management practices depend on the effective enforcement of those laws. etc. If the human diversity in the organization is not well-managed. The labor supply market changes periodically and these changes directly affect the organization's manpower The organization has a group of employees who originate from different races. The multifarious backgrounds of employees have wide impact on managing human resources in the organization. then the organization has to face high turnover. Internal environment consists of factors that can be controlled by an organization. To operate in the domain of law. an organization needs to develop its internal system that comply with these laws. Those laws include (labor laws. local laws and court verdicts. state laws. human resources is also shaped by the federal laws. These factors will create more positive working conditions that will increase the employee productivity Org anizational strateg y Org anizational objectives H umanresources manag ent em L eadershipstyle Corporateculture 8 . religions and ethnic groups. leadership styles and corporate culture. social insurance laws.

4.Corporate Culture. job analysis is crucial when the organization is fairly new. duties and knowledge required for performing a job in an organization in effective manner.Organizational Strategy. it is often described as the basis for human resources management as the information gathered in this process is very useful to the major functions of HRM. What physical and mental tasks must the worker accomplish towards the completion of the job? Does the work require the use of special machine or specific tools? What are the qualifications. Second. organizational objective actually reflects the success or failure of the organizational planning. the top management will determine the overall objectives and mission to be achieved and how they will be achieved. so that they will be working towards one common goal. organizational strategy is important as it is an action plan that gives a clear direction for the top management and the staff.Organizational Objectives. and a job analysis program is initiated for the first time. it is used to examine the new scope of new jobs created in the organization. and the management needs the back-up support from the staff. First. 3. The extent to which organization focuses on the job promotion or budget for training and development rely on the organization objectives. For example. Focus should be given to human resources and its respective functions. and support human resources policies such as informal recruitment.1. It basically answers the following important questions. 2. job analysis is carried out in three occasions. an organization needs to encourage its staff to build on their skills. Job analysis is a basic tool for HRM. corporate culture is the system of shared values. and abilities needed by the job holder to perform the job? What kind of environment and work place needed to finish the job? What is the estimated job performance for this kind of job? Why is the job done? When should the job analysis be conducted? Actually. job analysis is a systematic process to identify the skills. skills. habits within an organization that ties the members of the organization together. senior management plays a big role to generate success and income for the organization. the organizational objectives will influence the manager's decisions. Thus.Senior Management. Through strategic planning. flexible compensation schemes or generic work plan Part Two JOB ANALYSIS Definition. 9 .

Recruitment. then 10 . Job analysis will have to be carried out to take into account the current changes. when jobs are changed significantly as results of new technologies. A complete and detailed job analysis would assist the human resources manager to match the individual with the most appropriate job position according to the skills. Job analysis and specification usually reflect the career development path for employees. The information gathered in job analysis is used to prepare both job description and job specifications. recruiting workers needs to be done in a systematic way. or systems. knowledge and capabilities needed to perform a certain job. duties. is actually inter-connected between one another. it also points out what is expected to be done by the job holder. The selection would be topsy-turvy if the recruiter did not know the qualifications needed to perform the various jobs Since jobs analysis. carrying out a selection process to obtain employees for the organization needs careful planning. If the job specification suggests that the job position requires certain knowledge. methods. On the other hand. and responsibilities for the job Besides. describing the nature of the job. a job specification outlines the minimum acceptable qualifications a person should possess to perform a particular job. or abilities and the individual in that position does not possess the requirements needed. A job description is a written statement that provides information regarding the tasks. The following chart illustrates how job analysis is conducted and its various uses IMPORTANCE OF THE JOB ANALYSIS. Selection.Third. procedures. job analysis plays an important role in identifying the need for employees training and development. then it can be used to determine which category the individual would belong to when he is hired for the job. especially job description and job specification. Training and development. knowledge and abilities that he has. Job analysis information is used to develop training programs. contains information on the types of skills. Data derived from job analysis. skills.

For example. and abilities should be worth more to firm Safety and health. Discuss. When an employee is considered for a promotion. Think how job analysis can help in the human resources management functions in your organization Exercise Job analysis is the most basic tool in human resources management. tools. an employer needs to specify if a particular job is exposed to certain hazards or otherwise. gratuity. In addition. the information also acts as supporting documents for job promotion. Sometimes. A job position that requires better knowledge. job transfer and job demotion Your idea. the job description will become the skill comparative standard. To be able to give out the compensation.he needs to undergo training or development programs. job analysis information is imperative in the employer-employee relationship. a transfer. the relative value of a particular job in the organization must be derived before the job can be estimated in its financial terms In general. discipline or dismissal must be related to the job. equipments. Information contained in the job analysis must be helpful to the managers to make better human resources decisions Compensation. and work aids used in the job 11 . job analysis information is also used to compare the relative contribution value for every job to overall performance of the organization. Training and development helps employees to perform the job as detailed in the job description or to prepare them for higher posts in the future Performance evaluation. and the types of machines. The job description/specification should reflect this condition. job analyst actually determines the set of tasks and responsibilities related to the job position. or demotion. skills. job analysis information is also very useful to identify safety and health considerations. TYPES OF INFORMATION NEEDED Job analyst needs a huge amount of information to do the job analysis process. the more worthy the job and its responsibilities are the more valuable the job's role to the organization. Critical job functions are also identified in this process. worker-related activities. The job analyst also identifies the work activities. the performance standards that are used to assess the employee's performance for the purpose of job promotion. There is no doubt that job analysis information will assist the manager to make a reliable and more objective decision. besides that. Employee-employer relationship.

There are other organizations which hire external job analysts to perform job analysis. financial and non financial incentives and the physical work environment Since some of the job positions require collaboration with other job positions. Before conducting the job analysis. job analyst has to study the organizational charts or interview the experienced and knowledgeable individuals. The people involved in the job analysis process must be. Educational qualifications. job measurement is also used to decide on the duration needed to complete the task. WHO ARE INVOLVED IN THE JOB ANALYSIS? The job analyst. involved in the job analysis. needs to gather information that can answer this question "What is needed to do the job?". the job schedule. thus. During the job survey. MONITORING THE ACCURACY OF WORK INFORMATION Since there are so many potential uses for the job analysis information. To get as many information as possible. the head of department or the supervisor has to introduce the job analyst to their workers and inform them the reasons of conducting job analysis It is crucial for the job analyst to gain the trust and understanding of the workers to get their cooperation because. The job analyst needs to ensure that all right and crucial information is placed in the job analysis The job analyst also must be alert of any discrepancy in analyzing the job that might originate from employees who exaggerate the amount of responsibilities they have to carry in order to perform the job just to get higher pay. Despite the various methods used. -Supervisors. Sometimes. the job analyst has to examine whether the information gathered from the individuals regarding the job 12 . the information gathered must be reliable and accurate. the job analyst looks at the job context like. training and required work experience related to the job should also be considered. the supervisor can also be a job analyst. there is a possibility that the job analyst might produce an incomplete and inaccurate job analysis. A large organization might have more than one job analyst but in smaller organizations.There is also some job analysis process that determines the level of accomplishment of the job position. if the job analyst fails to gather the correct information and get full support from those people. -The employees who conduct the jobs. a job analyst must first equip himself with a good grasp of what the job function is all about. then the organizational and social context need to be taken into account as well. -Top management. Apart from that.

job analysis surveys. The selection of the appropriate method considers how the information is used. critical event methods. Job analysis data can be obtained through three types of interviews.Interviews. interview.one interview). the job analyst should obtain additional Information from the employees involved. It depends on whether the information is used assess the job function.function is supposed to be When collecting the information from the employees. the job analyst interviews the employee first and assists him in describing his job activities. salary segment. management position description. training. and team interview (an interview with a team of workers with similar job positions) and an interview with supervisor/s. his manager or from other fellow workers who are doing the same job. It is the most cost-effective and the fastest way to learn about a particular job. the job analyst should get information from a group of employees instead of an individual worker only. or a combination of various methods. observation. If there is a discrepancy in the information received. and career development or any other method that can be used in the organization Figure show the job analysis methods including. Then. an individual interview (a one. and clarify 13 .to. we can use either one or a combination of methods that would be most appropriate for the needs. increment. surveys. check the information accuracy. the job analyst contacts the supervisor to obtain additional information. A team interview is conducted when there is a large number of employees are doing the same job. It is also a common practice for the managers and supervisors to re-examine the job description produced JOB ANALYSIS METHODS There are various methods to gather information on the task. In practice. responsibilities and job activities. surveys interviews observatio n Employee notes Managem ent position descriptio n Job analysis Job analysis surveys Combinati on Critical incidents 1. Usually. employee notes.

This method is designed specifically for the management positions and is an important method used to examine the top and middle level management positions. the job analyst needs to be cautious of any fabrication that could have been made by the employees.Employee Notes. specially the mental skills that would be a major part of the job itself. job objectives. Management position description questionnaire has also been used to evaluate and set compensation rates for managerial jobs Position Analysis Questionnaire. there is no much information that we can collect on the requirements of the job. The whole 194 items are divided into six parts 1. production and freedom to take action.Management Position Description Questionnaire.Information input. physical environment. By using a scale of five. but sometimes the worker's limited oral communication ability might affect the effectiveness of this method. The activities would be recorded in the log book at specific times (e. education. this questionnaire returning how far the items are different from each other or job elements involved in doing the job. and issues regarding the job health and safety. service responsibilities. etc. The questionnaire is used to gain information on the job tasks and responsibilities. the job analyst watches the employee performing the job task and records his observations This method is used to collect information on hard labor work like the machine operators. The employees are asked to elaborate on their daily work activities in a daily log book or diary. Information also can obtained by structured questionnaire to be filled by the workers and their supervisors. 3.certain points. when working shifts. It uses a check list to analyze the jobs The check list has various factors like supervision. observation alone is not sufficient to conduct job analysis.the source of information from which the employee gain to do 14 . 5. a week period or a two-week period). Other work tools that will be used. and employee may need to record his activity every hour or half an hour). Every worker will be assessed based on a scale which is related to every activity The method also considers the training needs of individuals who are selected to hold future managerial positions.g. Position analysis questionnaire is a structures job analysis questionnaire that has 194 different items.g.Observation. if we are observing an accountant at work. other requirements to perform the job (skills. 4. Normally the employee will need to record his daily activities for a period of time (e.). Even though this method is fast and economical. For example. By using the observation method. Still. It can also help the analyst to identify the interrelationship between physical and mental tasks However. 2.Surveys. physical and mental needs.

how he does it. worker notes. A completed position analysis questionnaire will be analyzed by the computer to produce a profile and its traits.situation and features related to the job.Job context. Relationship with other jobs. Responsibilities. s ent election. crucial event methods. and the work conditions. performance quality responsibilities. em ployee hea a s lth nd afety INF ORMA TIONGA ERINGMETHOD TH S Interviews.Other activities. 6. tools used F UNC ION OF H T UMAN RE OURC S MANAGE NT S E ME •Recruitm . JOBANAL S Y IS S OURCEOFINF ORMA TION Work analysis. required knowledge. . 4.Personal relationship. so job description varies from one organization to another. Task. tra in a developm t. planning and processing information related in performing the job. experience. in g nd en perform nce appra a com a is l. There is no standard format for job description. pens ation m g ent.interaction with other workers when doing the job. Work environment WORKD T AA •Task. skills. work context. 5. and indicate what employee does. ana em rela tions betweenem hip ployer a em nd ployee. and responsibilities of the job" It is important that job description is appropriate and accurate.cognitive activities. physical conditions JOB DESCRIPTION Information obtained through job analysis is crucial for development of the job description.physical activities and tools used by the worker to do the job. questionnaires. A job description is defined as " a document that states the tasks.physical and social context when performing the job. Required capabilities. It should provide a concise statement on what the employee is expected to do on the job. decision-making. JOBS PECIF TION ICA Qualifications. supervisors JOBD CRIPTION ES •Objectives. 2.the job. Position Human resources officer Job station Department Job analyst Analysis date Salary category Reporting to Job code Checked on Khartoum Human resources management Mohamed Adam June 14th 2010 Executive Human resources manager A-66 June 16th 2010 15 Job Introduction .Mental process. observations.Work output. duties. 3. Workers.

Job Title 16 . 5. Check and review the job advertisements. 4. Or combination of work experience. 3. Job holder is also expected to administer employee welfare. 3. memo.Summary of Main Job Functions Job Statement 1. Have experience in recruitment and selection of employees and manpower allocation. Examine the resume and application letters of the candidates to select the potential candidates. University graduate with a degree in human resources management. Job holder is also required to prepare the human resources reports. Critical Functions and Responsibilities Crucial Job Functions 1. business management. Independent and self-initiative. 5. Or advanced diploma in human resources management with three years work experience. 2. employee orientation. 6. letters. Able to work with all levels of employees. Conduct the recruitment process to fill in vacancies in the organization. Schedule and conduct interviews to decide the candidate's suitability with the job advertised. Carry out orientation process for new employees Job Requirement and Specifications Job Specification 1. meetings. employee transfer. 3. Inform the employees on compensation and company policies through training. benefits and incentives. 2. updating and maintaining employee files. 6. testing. Job holder is required to carry out human resources duties in employee recruitment and selection. 4. Knowledgeable in the labor laws. education and training which are equivalent with university qualifications. or psychology. give training and analyze matters related to employee compensation. 2. Competent in Microsoft Office. and/or bulletin.

Job list statement has to focus on the job responsibilities and decisions to be made. Job Introduction Job title is always followed by a job introduction. "food inspector" can provide a clear picture of the job task. an individual's social position is closely related to the type of job he holds. The job holder will also be required to perform other tasks as stipulated by his supervisor Inserting the above phrase in the job description would avoid future problems if the employees refuse to perform other duties not mentioned in their job descriptions. This section provides guidelines on the type of training provided. but another marketing executive in another organization might have to be salesperson as well. The date of the analysis is included in the job description to help assist in identifying the changes in the nature of the job. otherwise. Surely. Today. Job Specification.The first item in the job description is the job title which has several uses. A correct job title reflects the features of the job and differentiates the job from the other jobs in the organization. and 2) physical needs of the job 17 . the last task shown in the job description will highlight. a senior engineer highlights that the person holding that position is far more experienced than a mere engineer. Job specification contains all the acceptable qualifications that a person should possess in order to perform a particular job. The job holder would need to report duty on the day the analysis is done. a "Marketing Executive" in one organization has to do the market planning. Unfortunately. Critical Functions/Responsibilities. The job title of certain position also has to reflect the employee's position in the organization. Statement on the respective job tasks will be arranged according to the importance of the tasks. No doubt. The job scope will span over bigger areas and the task would become more completed. then a clear picture on the job position in the organizational hierarchy can be created. they cannot be used as the basis for performance appraisal. The job title is important to attract potential employees in the organization. job title such as "electronic engineer". For instance. "hygiene control engineer" sounds better than "trash assistant". a job position experiences changes over the period of time. The job title carries a psychological effect in terms of the position and status of the employee. Thus. "salesman". The tasks and responsibilities should be clearly stated. There are two components in the job specifications. By signifying the chain of command like who reports to whom. some job titles are confusing For example. It is a common practice also to highlight the tools used by the job holder in his job. 1) the needed skills.

specification that does not ensure the accomplishment of the job. IMPORTANCE OF JOB DESCRIPTION Job description is a basic process in human resources management such as identifying the employee training and development needs. job description can be used to justify on why the compensation is different from one employee to another. Sometimes. -Etc. E.The relevant skills include. Job description actually curbs the organizational flexibility by limiting activities that should be done by the job holder. It helps them to learn about the job and set the benchmark for them to produce the acceptable or excellent performance as required by the management. This is to ensure that the potential candidate would know all the risks involved beforehand when he attends the interview. The physical work environment and potential hazards also include in the physical requirement of the job. -Overlapped job responsibilities and -Functions not assigned to any job function. A vague job description that is written using too many technical jargons cannot be used as a guideline for the workers. Job description that is not being updated to reflect the changes in the nature of the job. -Work Experience. -Special Training. Job description also highlights the potential hazards that the employees might face at the workplace. Writing an Accurate Job Description 18 . For the employers. -Level of Education. job description is useful to : -Identify unnecessary job positions. -Personal Characteristics or -Other Competencies. When the organization decides to do a restructuring exercise. When there is an even distribution of compensation to the employees. performance appraisal and also the compensation package. Physical requirement refer to the physical activities that an employee has to go through to accomplish the job.g. job description can be the basis to reduce conflicts between the supervisors and the employees regarding the allocation of job responsibilities. Job description is important to the employees. the job description contains elements that are against the law.

-Use simple language to be understood by all levels of workers. -Arrange tasks in a way that represent the importance of tasks compared to other tasks. and abilities that an individual should possess to do the job. -Educational Needs. In practice. When the entire jobs have been analyzed and the job descriptions have been developed. accurate and easy to understand. -These software can be obtained from HR magazines and the internet. Job Specification Job specification addresses issues like "what are the needed features and experience that an individual should have in order for him to do the job efficiently. the statements would be cross-checked by the employees and their supervisors.-Writing an accurate job description -When writing a job description. -It is interesting to note that there are some many software packages to help this task. The normal items that can be found in a job specification are. -Use direct words and statements that describe the task specifically and precisely. skills. Job specification is a statement that lists the knowledge. -The manager might think that the job description is taxing as it disturbs the responsibility and the task of other employees. 19 . it is important to use clear and accurate statements. This is to ensure that the job description is concise. -Writing an accurate job description -As an international standard It is advised to use the present continuous tens. -Work Experience. -Behavior Features and -Physical Abilities. It can be a different section from a job description or it can be part of the job description. job specification generally is included in the job description.

human resources planning is a process that determines how many employees would be needed and from where the employees would be hired.Part Three Human Resources Planning Process. Definition. Labor supply refers to the readily available manpower with the necessary requirements to meet the needs of the organization Human Resources Planning Steps S g et oalsand objectives S upplyforecast D andforecast em balance Plan im plementation feedback Human Resources Forecasting Techniques. Human resources planning is a systematic process that examines the human resources needs to ensure that the number of people with the right combination of skills is sufficient for the organization. 20 . In other words.

each respective supervisor or manager is responsible to estimate their human resources needs. This method involves few steps 1. The quantitative methods include Zero-Based Forecasting. Instead. Management forecast.Last. If an employee retires. unlike quantitative methods. The position is not filled and the work spread out among remaining employees Bottom-up Approach. A forecasting method that begins with the lowest organization units and progresses upwards through an organization. The approach uses the organization's current level of employment as the starting point for determining future staffing needs. like sales or production to forecast the human resources need.Get the information of the trend history with the index of the number of workers need. 4. qualitative method does not require statistical or mathematical calculations to do the forecasting. 21 .-Quantitative methods. Zero-Based Forecasting. Trend Analysis. 5. to provide and aggregate forecast of employment needs. Bottom-up Method and Trend Analysis. and giving the human resources department adequate lead time to explore internal and external source. A normally used qualitative method is the management forecast in which it highlights on the fact that the future needs for human resources in an organization relay on the suggestions of the supervisors or the department managers Human resource planners in the small and large organization seek opinions from the experts that can assist them in developing forecast that would determine the human resources needs in the organization. the position is not automatically filled.Choose one of the organization index (sales) 2. It is concern for creating new positions when they appear to be needed. An open position is analyzed before a replacement is approved. and. comparing their current and anticipated levels. an analysis is made to determine whether the firm can justify filling it.Count the productivity of the workers for five years. so the information must be accurate and recorded. This method based on the amount of the workers in the organization. ultimately. Human resources forecasting is often most effective when managers periodically project the human resources needs. 3. make forecast about the human resource need. Qualitative Methods. In this method. It is based on the reasoning that the manager in each respected unit is the most knowledgeable about employment requirements. Is a quantitative method that uses the organization index. fired. or leaves the firm for any other reason.The productivity is counted by dividing the total sales by the worker.

the organization need to make sure that the numbers of workers and types of work can fulfill the job vacancies. -Purpose and aspiration of work. This chart is developed to identify the current worker position and inform the higher management on the potential workers who will be promoted. retired. the skill inventory system provides a collection of information on the non-management workers which usually is stored in the computer.The background of the workers 2. When an organization has made a forecast on its labor needs.Skill and knowledge. The forecast would show if the workers needed to be taken from inside the organization or outside the organization or a combination of both sources.Experience 3. Labor Supply in the Organization. 5. The information is listed as below 1. -Job specification. The workers can be transferred within the organization or promoted to satisfy the needs of the organization. changes in the workplace. replaced or retrenched. This analysis shows the percentage and number of workers who are still working in the organization. It retains the information from the skill inventory system and extra information like -Development needs. Labor Supply From Outside The Organization 22 . the management inventory stores the information about the managers. including the name holding the position and the names of the respective successors.Past time performance report. and layoff Replacement Chart. Markov analysis is a method used to identify the working pattern of the different types of work. 4. this chart shows the Information about the post in the organization. -The worker's test results Markov Analysis. workers who were promoted. There are four methods to identify the supply of human resources in the organization. And updated and well-prepared inventory system would allow the organization to match the expected job vacancy with the worker's background Management Inventory. -Type of work and location.Methods to Forecast Labor Supply. The system shows the readiness level of non-management workers to hold a higher position. -The retirement date. -The potential of promotion after undergoing advanced training and development.Training program the worker involved in.Objectives and 6. Skill Inventory System.

More frequently the total supply is correct. the 23 . it can be filled with present employees. is a possibility. Action decisions with a shortage of employees When employment specialists comparing demand to supply find the supply of workers is less than the demand. the workers in the organization are unable to fulfill the forecasted needs of the organization's human resources. institutes.Or some of the work can be contracted out to other organizations. This decision can also include . If the shortage is small.None of the employees in the organization is fit for promotion.Additional part-time or full-time employees can be hired. In this case. vocational centers.Recalling previously laid-off employees. and .Management is seeking for candidates to fulfill the senior management positions. . and the employees are willing to work overtime. There are many factors affecting the labor supply.What else????? Action Decisions With No Variance In Supply And Demand It is possible for the organization. .Economy. and . . employment planning has served its purpose well in helping the organization to meet its objectives. after matching demand for employees with the supply at hand. When the situation occurs. together with the recruitment of lower skilled employees. or . training and promotion of present employees. The reason why the organization has to depend on the outside supply may include . but there are variances in subgroups. An exact match is rare if it is not impossible. the organization needs to hire outside personnel.Internal workers are not equipped with the necessary qualifications and skills. and others. or competitor companies. .Level of manpower. or . and similar decisions. Some organizations will recruit fresh graduates from universities.Changes in demography. If there is a shortage of highly skilled employees. and .Demand for skill workers. several possibilities are open to the organization.The rapid expansion in the organization results in insufficient number of workers to accommodate the growth. .Sometimes.Outside the organization. to find that previous planning has been excellent that the demand is matched exactly with the supply. promotion. Action decisions in surplus conditions When comparison of employees demand and supply indicates a surplus. These data become inputs to facilitate decisions about training. among them. .

. Balancing HR Supply and Demand 1–223 external The relationship between Human resources planning and recruitment D eficit H an um resources planning results alternatives balance No action recruitm ent internal outsourcing conting ency leasing Overtim e surplus Earlyretirem ent dem otions layoffs 24 term ination .Early Retirements.alternative solutions include.Terminations Surplus employees' decisions are some of the most difficult decisions managers must make.Demotions.Layoffs. or poorly designed or marketed product can cause an organization to have a surplus of employees. A shortage of a raw material such as fuel. . because the employees who are considered surplus are seldom responsible for the conditions leading to the surplus. . .

Tapping productive source of applicants and using suitable recruitment methods are essential to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of recruitment Alternatives to recruitment Human resources planning indicates a need for additional or replacement of employees. and encouraging them to apply for jobs with the organization Finding the appropriate way of encouraging the qualified candidates to apply for employment is extremely important when a firm needs to hire employees. A firm may decide against increasing the size of its database of workers. The cost of recruitment and selection is expensive as the organization has to consider. the 25 .Part Four R E C R U I T M E N T. Recruitment is the process of attracting individuals on a timely basis. in sufficient numbers. and with appropriate qualifications.

the data the employee is needed for work. selection. and training costs.search process. Manager can refer to the appropriate job description to determine whether the qualifications of the recruited person meet the organizational requirements. and relocation and processing the new employees. outsourcing. benefits. temporaries and independent contractors. also known as part-time. Recruitment sources can be obtained from two sources. the organization handles the company's payroll. internal and external. What are the advantages and disadvantages of both methods??? For discussion Source Advantages Disadvantages 26 . department. lease the employees to the company. Overtime helps both employer and employee. Recruitment begins when a manager initiates an employee requisition. agency fees. -Employee leasing. Therefore. a document that specifies job title. Subcontracting various jobs to other firms has been a common practice in industry for decades. a method of meeting short-term fluctuations in work volume is overtime. a firm may consider its alternatives carefully before engaging in recruitment Alternatives to recruitment commonly include. and risk management Overtime. human resources. To maximize recruiting effectiveness. orientation and training cost. utilizing recruitment sources and method tailored to a specific organization's needs is vitally important. The employer benefits by avoiding recruitment. This decision is usually made when the subcontractor can perform with greater efficiency and effectiveness Contingent worker. then. a process of transferring responsibility for an area of service and its objectives to an external provider. professional employer organizations (PEOs) are essentially off-site human resources departments that put a client firm's employees on their payroll. interviewing. Recruitment methods are the specific means which potential employee can be attracted to the firm. employee leasing. and other details. and overtime Outsourcing. The employer gains from an increased income during the overtime period THE RECRUITMENT PROCESS. use of contingent workers.

Organization uses the skill inventory system and the management inventory system to determine whether the current employee possesses the qualifications for positions in the office 27 .The organization can choose the right candidate based on the performance record 2.The organization can cut down the cost and time 3. Additional cost of orientation and training.The organization is able to motivate workers to perform well 4. Higher recruitment cost 6.RECRUITING INTERNAL WORKERS 1. New candidate might have new and wider skills and knowledge than the internal worker 3.The recruitment process might be influenced by some factors 7.The organization is able to increase loyalty of workers towards the organization 5. 7. Suitable recruitment for an organization includes. The external candidate might have the required experience needed by the organization 4.Lack of new ideas 6. a firm determines the location of potential job applicants.Skills and knowledge needed by the organization may not be met. internal recruitment method and external recruitment method. RECRUITMENT METHODS By examining the recruitment source. RECRUITING EXTERNAL WORKERS 1. The candidate who is not selected may leave the organization 5. Internal recruitment methods include. New candidates is the resource for new ideas 2. It then seeks to attract these applicants by specific recruitment methods. The chances of selecting unsuitable candidates will increase.

An effective system requires the expenditure time and money. a group of firms might have their own job fairs to attract bigger numbers of potential candidates for their firms. As recruitment devices. newspapers or industry publication. a job posting and bidding system have some negative features. some organizations have found that their existing employees can serve an important role in the recruitment process by actively soliciting applications from their friends. In some cases. It also provides the freedom of choice and encourages career growth.The management inventory has detailed information on every manager and can be used to identify potential individuals that can move up to the senior positions. The skill inventory system has recorded the readiness level of non management workers to either move to higher positions or transfer to other department in the organization. T. the firm doesn't have the time or enough experts to perform recruitment and selection. Employee referrals. Job fair. it may be able to attract qualified prospects even without extensive recruitment efforts. an employment agency is an organization that helps firms recruit employees and at the same time aids individuals in their attempt to locate jobs. Unsolicited walk-in applicants. relatives and associates. these tools are very useful as it assist the management to identify whether the individual is ready to be promoted or not Job posting and job bidding. External recruitment methods include. in this case the organization might seek help of other organization. to do this job on behalf for some fees. However. Job bidding is a technique that permits employees who believe that they possess the required qualifications to apply for an advertised job The job posting and bidding procedures can help minimize the common complaints that insiders are not aware of a job opening until it has been filled. Also universities and 28 . job posting is a procedure to inform employees that job opining exist. like training institutions.. Private and public employment agency.V. These agencies perform recruitment and selection functions that have proven beneficial to many organizations. Advertising in the mass media. a way of communicating the firm's employment needs to the public through media such as radio. Unsolicited applicants apply for the job because they are favorably impressed with the firm's good reputation. sometimes. if an organization has the reputation being a conducive place to work.

com. the job openings are categorized according to the field of specializations. Practical training in the organization. Recruitment officers usually post the job openings in the firm's website or online recruitment portal like Jobstreet or jobDb. Interested candidates can send their application letters and resume via e-mail. Internet/online recruitment. location and job levels. 29 . the final year students are required to undergone practical training in selected firms for specific period of time. in most universities. Advertising over the internet is more cost-effective than advertising through the printed mass media.colleges can be contacted for final year students to get jobs. posting job openings over the internet has become a common practice among today's organizations. If the practical students showed satisfactory performance. These opportunities would expose them to real practices in the firm. then the firm can consider hiring them to fill in the vacancies available in future.

and reference check to decide on the candidate's suitability. the human resource executive will use the job description as a guideline to assist them in reviewing the applicant's information.Part Five SELECTION OF EMPOLOYEES. at which the applicant's resume is submitted to the human resources department to determine the suitability of the applicant. background checks. PRELIMINARY INTERVIEW After the application forms have been screened and enlisted. If the recruitment process is unable to attract qualified candidates. they still need to fill up the application forms when they attend the preliminary interviews. The process starts with a preliminary screening. This is known as the visual screening. 30 . the potential applicants will called for preliminary interviews. then the firm has to bear additional costs as it has to go through the recruitment and selection process again and retrain another new employee. Unsuitable applicants will be disregarded at this stage. SELECTION PROCESS. The human resources executive will use the job description as a guide to decide on the required skills. then the company has a bigger pool of applicants that it can consider The main purpose of having a screening application process is to ensure that the applicant have the needed qualifications and knowledge in order for them to be hired for the job. SCREENING APPLICATION Usually. The preliminary interview gives an opportunity for the applicant to see whether the organization and the job vacancy meets his expectation in terms of salary. the employee resigns because he is not suitable to do the job. then the organization has no choice but to select the less qualified candidates Selection process is the most crucial and difficult process in the human resource management. Besides identifying the required competencies possessed by the applicant. location and career advancement opportunities During this interview. If the firm hired a new employee and after a short while. Generally. applicants send their resume when they apply for jobs in certain companies. The process would narrow the selection of candidates through instruments like selection test. Resumes are standard documents used by the applicants to highlight their qualifications. Though some applicants might have sent detailed resumes. knowledge and abilities of the particular job. If the response towards the recruitment process is favorable. work environment. INDIVIDUAL MATCHING WITH THE JOB Selection is a process in which the most qualified candidate is selected from a group of candidates to fill in the position in an organization. job description also helps to differentiate the suitable applicants from the rest of the applicants. The recruitment and selection process is closely related. the interviewer gets firsthand knowledge on the applicant which cannot be obtained from the resume alone.

IQ test is a good performance indicator for most job functions. work sample test is valid. Psychomotor ability test. reliable. specific cognitive test evaluates the mental capability like deductive and inductive reasoning. and fair and can be accepted by the candidate Personality test. Work sample test (simulation). numerical ability and vocabulary. cheap. Intelligence test (IQ test) IQ test measures the general intellectual ability of a person. driving test for the drivers… etc) to a combination of a few complex tests (cognitive tests for management positions) to choose the most appropriate candidates for the vacant position Since a selection test can be used to assist a manager in making a selection. this test measures finger deftness. then it is crucial to ensure that the test is well developed. the assessment can further be verified by using the selection test. speed of arm activity and response time. work sample test measures how the candidate can actually perform parts of the job. vocabulary. Work sample test simulates the real work environment and gives the employer an opportunity to observe the candidate "in action". this test is designed to measure the level of understanding of a candidate in the job he is applying for. memory and numerical ability.SELECTION TEST Even though most employers use interviews to assess the candidate's skills and capabilities. abilities and other individual traits Selection tests can range from simple test to ( a typing test for the clerical position. cognitive ability test measures an individual's competency to perform a job. It tests on the general reasoning ability. This test is used for jobs that required worker's swiftness in installing components in machinery department. In other words. Selection test is a sample behavior measurement which is objective and constant and it is used to measure knowledge. manual precision. verbal ability and numerical skills. then 31 . Specific cognitive test. Only a well designed test will be valid and reliable to choose the most qualified candidates TYPES OF SELECTION TESTS Cognitive ability test. oral comprehension. Work sample test will give a real picture of the candidate's actual capabilities and skills. skills. if the cognitive ability test measures the mental capability. Job knowledge test. it doesn't only assess a single intellectual trait but also it tests on memory. The test is also known as the attitude test in which the test also checks how inclined the candidate is towards his job. Examples of cognitive ability test is intelligence test and specific cognitive test. These tests have high content and predictive validity. Job knowledge test can be specially developed for a certain job based on the information gathered from job analysis.

The use of this kind of test depends on the assumption that there is a relationship between the personality aspect of the candidate and the completion of the job. the predictive validity of this test is low. Interviewer will ask each respective candidate the same series of questions and the candidate's answer will be evaluated based on the pre-determined answers and content suitability The same question will provide the same basis to assess the candidate. a better prediction on the work performance can be attained Individual recruitment yes yes yes yes yes yes yes Screeningapplication Preliminaryinterview Selection test Job interview Background investigation Selectionresults Medical check appointment No No No No No No JOB INTERVIEW PLANNING Types of interview. It is also very costly and the assessment of the test can only be done by the qualified experts. if it is used together with the cognitive ability test. A sample of situational question can be like this "you are putting your luggage in your car and preparing to go off for a holiday with your family when you remember that you have an appointment with your client on the very same day. It also used to identify the candidate who is highly motivated. to verify whether the candidate has 32 . Usually. Though. What would you do?" Job knowledge questions. flexible and excellent team player. and each question has its respective pre-determined answer. still. questions that trigger the response of the candidate towards certain situations. An expert must analyze the person's reaction and make a conclusion based on the person's behavior. Situational questions. there are three types of questions used in the interview session. Structured interview Structured interview consists of job-related questions. Some companies use personality test to classify the personality types Personality test is the most difficult test to conduct.personality test assesses the personal traits and behavior of the candidate.

Unstructured interview. Since. Example. How do you feel about working extra hours?" Other features of structured interviews include questions that are based on the job analysis. additional restricted questions (to ensure that the interviewers only ask similar set of questions) and the use of different types of questions. questions that assess the worker's obligations to do the job in certain situations. Example of this kind of question is " in our company. The interviewer might ask open-ended questions like "tell me about your experience in your previous job". the questions asked will not follow a certain format or guidelines. the interviewer will be the passive party by listening to the candidate's explanation. the organization will also use unstructured interview. there are times when we have extremely peak hours especially when we are having sales exhibitions. or change the topic of communication without warning. the interviewer will give the opportunity for the candidate to speak without interruption. "what factors should you consider when developing a health awareness program for the public?" Worker need questions.basic knowledge needed to perform the job. In general. This type of interview gives the freedom to the candidate to determine the direction of the session and the candidates are encouraged to speak up as much as possible. To avoid this problem. The candidate is also allowed to ask any question at the end of the interview session Structured interview can provide the necessary information for the human resources officer to make a sound decision because it only involves job-related questions. And usually. In contrast with the structured interview. an interview is considered a subjective process. Questions may differ for each respective candidate. The interviewer will only ask additional questions based on the answers provided by the candidate. Additional questions will be asked to allow the candidates to elaborate more on the answers than structured interview. In an unstructured interview. However. not arguing with him. the interviewer is free to ask any question that comes to his mind. structured interview does not provide the flexibility to the interviewer to interrogate the candidates on the answers given by them. a structured interview can reduce the subjectivity and increase the consistency of assessing the candidate. 33 . It also helps the interviewer who may be uncomfortable to conduct interviews to ask effective questions and conduct a fine interview session. in an unstructured interview.

CONDUCTING THE INTERVIEW There are a few ways to conduct an interview. the candidate will be asked on the actions that he taken in the past to address the impending conflicts in specific conditions. personality and behavior of the candidate which cannot be observed in a structured interview. the candidate will meet the interviewer and an oral session will be conducted. the reliability and validity of an unstructured interview is very low. "tell us how you make a critical decision without having the necessary information".One-to-one interview is commonly used in the selection process. At the end of the session. Behavioral specification interview. the candidate will meet up with three or five persons who will take turns to question him. a candidate for the supervisory position will be asked on how he will react if one of his subordinates is late for work.The freedom given to the candidate in an unstructured interview is invaluable as it can highlight the actual traits. Situational interview emphasizes on a particular situation. all 34 . 1. in other words. questions asked in the situational interview are based on assumed events only. 3.One-to-one interview 2. In this type of interview. Unlike the behavioral specification interview. The questions are selected carefully so that they are closely related to the job. how the candidate responds to critical issues in his previous job would indicate how he would react to the emerging issues in the new job. The response given by the candidate will be appraised by comparing it with the pre-determined feedback.Panel interview Panel interview means the candidate will be interviewed by a panel of interviewers. Situational interview. In the behavioral specification interview. This method is based on the critical incidents of the job analysis and assumptions that the previous performance would be the best indicator for future performance. For instance. Behavioral specification interview is structured interview that adopts questions to find out about the past behaviors of the candidates in certain situations. For example. Since the direction of the unstructured interview is largely determined by the candidates and there are different information gathered from different candidates. Another structured interview that focuses on questions on how the candidate would behave in a given situation. Among them. In the panel interview. a candidate might be asked this kind of question. It focuses on the actual work events experienced by the candidate in the past.

For example. Generally. he 35 . This time-saving method is very useful for busy officers. a meticulous and fussy interviewer would presume that the candidate he interviews is clumsy based on the candidate's appearance. Through a computerized interview. a few candidates will be interviewed simultaneously by a panel of interviewers. allows for a better decision to be made and reduces the decision-making time. many organizations are now using computers and internet to assist them in conducting interviews. Indirectly. the interviewer has led his personal judgment interferes with the interview session and given low appraisal points to the candidate Focused inclination effect This effect occurs when the interviewer refuses to give very high or very low points to the candidate. FACTORS THAT HINDER THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE INTERVIEW Comparison effects Comparison effects results from a mistake in the judgment made by the interviewer after having interviewed good or incompetent candidates before he conducts the next session of interview. This kind of interview attempts to identify overly sensitive candidates and investigate whether the candidate has a high or low stress resistance level. 6. 4. Because of this. Halo effects Halo effects occur when an interviewer allows one or more personal characteristics affects the overall candidate personality. Stress interview is an interview with a set of harsh and probing questions that is specially developed to make the candidate feel uncomfortable.interviewers will share their observations to achieve a consensus on the suitability of the candidate. For example.Computerized interview. Computerized interview is used to reject unqualified candidates and select the potential candidates for a face-to-face interview. the candidate normally is required to answer a set of multiple questions (may range between 75-125 questions). in a group interview. making judgment based on the person's personality will be eliminated. In this situation. This is important for jobs that require the candidate to have a very high stress resistance level especially customer based positions. he treats the candidates as average performers. panel interview normally is more reliable than a one-to-one interview because it involves more than one person. The candidate's responses will be compared to the best answers from other candidates. some candidates might feel that the computerized interview reflects that the employer-to-be is less interested to develop personal contact with the employees. In a computerized interview. In a group interview. 5.Stress interview. and the candidates will respond to the problem accordingly.Group interview. the panel will give a problem to the candidates to solve. The interviewer will assume that only one single factor is sufficient to reflect the overall impression on the candidate. With the advent of information technology. However. an interviewer who has interviewed a few unsuitable candidates before he manages to interview an average candidate projects an excellent person as compared to others.

fails to distinguish between the potentially good candidates from poor ones. VARIFICATION OF INFORMATION GIVEN BY CANDIDATES. The purpose of having reference checks and background investigations is to check on the validity of the information given by the candidate in his resume and to investigate whether the candidate has a criminal record. Generally. A final selection will be made based on whether the candidate has succeeded in all levels of the selection. the next phase in the selection process is to request the candidate to undergo a medical examination. etc. the polygraph test or a lie detector test measures the changes in blood pressure and heartbeat of a person when he lies SELECTION DECISION. Even though the human resources executive is involved in almost every stage of the selection process. After the decision to offer employment is made. traffic offences. 36 . the medical examination is not only used to determine whether the candidate's physical ability is compatible with the needs of the job but also to discover if the candidate has other medical limitations that the management should consider before taking him into the organization. reference checks by phone are more popular as it saves time. Reference checks and background investigations can be done either over the phone of via written correspondences. the organization can acquire invaluable facts on the habits and behaviors of the candidate. Most firms conduct reference and background investigations to investigate more on the candidate's background. Incomplete reference check will lead to high turnover. information can be obtained immediately and the answers given are more honest and sincere. For the purpose of reference check and background investigations. Reference check and background investigations provide additional information. these tools also help the management to probe into the candidate's background to see whether he has committed offences that would directly related to the job he is applying for. candidates are required to provide a few contact persons that could provide extra information on them to the potential employer. There are a few reasons for the medical examination. Usually. by conducting the reference check. the offer of employment depends on whether the candidate passes his medical examination. In some rare cases a firm can verify the information validity by administering a polygraph test. The most essential step in the selection process is the decision to accept the candidate. MEDICAL CHECK UPS. Reference check and background investigations can be used as alternative screening tools to reject candidates who provide false information about their work experience. the final decision will still fall upon the managers who are responsible for the job performance of the new employee. The supervisor is the best person who would know the work performance and behaviors of the candidate very well. Besides that. This will be done after the interviewer has evaluated the candidate's score in the selection test and the interview session.

It has been also common practice among the firms. the medical examination results is still in process. NOTIFICATION OF RESULT TO THE CANDIDATES. or detect other diseases not known by the candidate. reduce the possibility of tardiness or not showing up for work. to inform the unsuccessful candidates of their performance in the selection test as a personal gesture to maintain the good public image of the firm. if. In all organizations. Besides that. informing the selection results and issuing letter of employment to the candidate will be done by the human resources department. at that point of time.Medical examination also creates a personal health record for the employee in order to make health claims in future from the insurance companies. Part Six Training & development 37 . especially the smaller ones. he will be offered a permanent position. medical examination will also identify other health problems. then a conditional offer will be issued in which if the candidate passed the medical examination.

The new 38 . Human resources training and development include the planned learning activities systematically and continuously in the organization. and not necessary to be connected with current work scope. From an effective training. so the workers can practice immediately what they have learned as soon as they get back to their work place. Training and development. It is meant to give opportunity to all employees in the organization to equip themselves with knowledge. skills. . For principle functions human resources management. it can be seen that training and development. The organization that sensitive towards employees' career requirements will provide facilities and opportunity for the employees to enroll in short term or long term courses. Training should be given to the new employees in the organization. capabilities and attitude in order to fulfill the job requirement currently and in the future. either with current or other organization. workers can obtain and increase their knowledge. career development and performance management is part of the functions that need to be carried out by the organization that want the employee to be efficient and effective to help to achieve the organization's goals. Through (training and development). Structure and function in training and development. Development generally can be seen as a learning process to upgrade employees. Normally employees would like to improve their career.Education. work groups and organization.Training. .Capacity building. within their interest and organizations value.What is the difference between .( career development) and (organizational development). . Training provided to workers need to be related with the current work scope. employees will be equipped with required skills to meet the standard work performance for now and for the future. Training plays an important role to assist the organization to increase the competitiveness. McLagan (1989) suggested three approaches which can be utilized to develop human resource and improve effectiveness and productivity of employees. role and importance. and increase current performance. Training is a planned learning process implemented by organization to provide knowledge. .Development. This will increase the productivity and the organization effectiveness.Learning. skills and required attitude in order to carry out the work. The main objective in providing training and development is to provide required efficiency to the workers so that can upgrade the employees' work performance as well as the organization. skills and capabilities and responsibilities effectively and efficiently.

employees need to know about the organization's policy and regulations so there will be no problem in the future. individual and work scope is very critical. skill. continuous training and ability to meet requirements of the organization. new employees can manage themselves with the organization. new equipment. For example. organization need to re-evaluate and modify the output process and existing work system. etc It is important to ensure the existing knowledge and skill not outdated and always be improved according to the individual needs. the organization needs to implement ISO 9002 quality system. they need to know other employees in the organization especially the managers. Organization can only achieve the objectives if the workers can carry out the duties and responsibilities efficiently and effectively. the identified worker will be trained and be prepared in knowledge. To ensure customer requests' are fulfill. changes in policy and procedures. the orientation program organized need to take in the aspects relate to the organization. The main objective for training and development in the organization is to complete the workers with efficiency so their work performance and organizational efficiency can increase every time. In this situation. the organization needs those who are knowledgeable. For that. They need to know the system and work instruction so they can work properly. especially those who involve in quality work process. These types of changes may influence and highly demand in the output process and work system. all employees. supervisors and colleagues. work scope and employees. For example. work requirement and organization requirement. leaders. Therefore. other employees as well as the new work environment in a short time. Training need to ensure each worker understands and can do the work with the new work procedures correctly. attitude and capability when times for promotion. Therefore. Training needs will arise when there are changes in technology or changes in the market request. To ensure the implementation successful until the certification. Other than that. expert and capable to manage the processes and many activities in 39 . Through the well organized orientation program. Training also need to be provided when there are other changes in the organization such as re-structuring. The management of training and development. and the employees who are from other departments who they need to work as team. an identified officer with potentials to be promoted to a manager need to have higher level of efficiency compared to current level because of the different duties and responsibilities. the workers who involve will need to be re-trained. When the structure and work system change. Employees who transferred from one department to another department also need to be trained so they will understand the new job requirements. need to be trained so they will understand and support the organization's objective. Training also needs to be given to the potential employees in their career. work scope. new management. implementation of quality management system.

it will become a burden cost to the organization. selection of experts as facilitators is all essentials for the implementation Effective training will generate efficient workers. actually.business. Not every problem or lacking in the organization can be solved via training. If the workers do not show any difference after the learning process.training and development effectively. Training process begins with needs analysis to identify where and whom in the organization that needs training. it will be a profitable return. but also act as an organizer. Training process involves a few important steps. if the workers are able to utilize what have been learned to increase the quality of the work. However. Knowledge and skills required to manage training effectively. as well as the selection of the suitable location.and intellectual) 40 . otherwise.individual skills. The following chart shows the important steps to be taken in training process. if it is organized properly. Preparation for the materials and required tools. Therefore. suitable programs can be selected to achieve the objectives which have been set. Each step need to manage carefully to get the results expected. careful in evaluation and prioritization for the training gaps need to solve first After that. According to McLagan (1989) 35 types of efficiency was identified in order to implement the roles as a trainer. These 35 efficiency grouped into four categories (technical. It shows clearly that a trainer in organization not only organize training programs. designer and also as a counselor. training is an investment that can give a positive return to the organization. evaluator. it will make the training as a cost to the organization.

Two efficiencies emphasized are knowledge on business and decision making. and also as manager or training executive The five efficiencies are giving feedback skills. it will make easier for us to interact with other people such as with managers. From 8 efficiencies.Technical efficiencies: requires 11 types of knowledge and skill to manage training process. really need these efficiencies. and understand about organizational behavior. program designers. Other efficiency required is coaching skills. and writing skills. supervisors. Other efficiencies include knowledge on cost-benefit analysis. knowledge and skills in order to identify individual efficiency to implement their roles and tasks. change agent. intellectual efficiency refers to 7 types of knowledge and skills to think and to use the information obtained in rational and creative way. Job will be divided to those in training unit to manage the project successfully Interpersonal skills: interpersonal skills are one component in communications skills. they can set the program objectives and start to write about the program using computer. With strong basic communication skills. project management and record keeping This skill important for marketer. facilitator. training tools and materials required. so the program design will attract their attention and interests Only after they understand the needs. This efficiencies emphasize on understanding of theory and adult learning principles. organizational requirements. change agent. to be an efficient program designer. 5 of them very critical to ensure oneself can play his role as marketer. it shows the technical skills are important in this responsibilities Business efficiency. Example. clear presentations and good listener Intellectual efficiency. advisor or counselor. skills for delivering or presenting. Those work attitudes require individuals who can talk and talkative. evaluators and advisors. facilitators. This is because they need to understand about the objectives and organization's requirement and current development in business world and relevant industries in planning and decision making about training Cost-benefit analyst need to estimate the investment towards training and the return to the organization and staff. employees and consultants. they need to manage training venue. delegation skills. Questioning skills. a person need to know how the adult learn. public relations skills or network relations. administration and economic are required to understand the business world and the surrounding where it operates. manager or training executive. evaluator. training material developers. however in short. what factor will encourage them to learn and what are their needs. There are many other duties need to organize besides that. Skills to look and to 41 . and able to write the training objectives and skills to carry out researches Those who play the roles as researchers. business efficiency states ninety (90) types of knowledge and skills relate to management. To write a program.

TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY DISTINGUISHED BUSINESS EFFICIENCY Theoretical knowledge on adult learning principles Theoretical knowledge on work development Skills to identify efficiency Computer skills Skills to use training tools Skills to manage facilities/logistics Skills and knowledge to set objectives Skills in observation towards work results Business experience Knowledge on cost-benefit analysis Delegation skills Industrial relation knowledge Knowledge on organizational behavior Knowledge on organizational development Knowledge on organization Project management skills Knowledge on record keeping Coaching skills Feedback skills Group process knowledge Negotiation skills Presentation skills Questioning skills Network relation skills Writing skills 42 . change agent from evaluator needs all these intellectual efficiency to carry out the duties effectively. self knowledge and vision. and observation skills are among the main skills required. Other skills include data processing.gather information. open mind. Researcher. model development skills.

Early preparation: Organizations should equip workers with knowledge. skills.INTELLECTUAL EFFICIENCY EFFICIENCY Data processing skills Searching and data collection skills Open mind and versatile thinking knowledge Model development skills Self knowledge visionary Selecting suitable training strategy. Training strategies require a mechanism to monitor training effectiveness. Changes in latest technology may influence their existing efficiency. attitude and capabilities required in the first place in order to allow them run their new duties and responsibilities Refresher training should be given to them from time to time. procedures and work system. Hence. this is an important level due to the suitability with the new change Continuous learning: Workers' skills and knowledge should be upgraded systematically and continuously align with the internal and external changes happened. It gives guidelines and clear direction to all employees. Human resources development is one of the most important activities in managing human resources management. Training strategies developed will evaluate the growth now. Eg. Internal changes involved work activities 43 . we are more prepared to get the opportunity out of the issues and changes happen now and in future. issues faced and objectives can be achieved effectively. training strategy needs to be developed according to the organizational plan. Hence. This is important because various changes may happen and influence daily work activities.

Workers need to be train or re-train so they will become more competitive. Cognition. it needs to evaluate the benefits or return on investment gained from individual as well as from organizational basis on the training given. innovative and able to suit themselves with the rapid changes. attitude and capabilities. Monitoring schedule may be able to assist to identify any problems arise before. skills. policies. new workers will be given orientation training where to understand on organization information. this strategy can assist to change the negative work behaviors towards positive.To equip and increase workers' skills in one or more expertise. emphasis will be given on the staff thinking in increasing the knowledge and awareness as well as their understanding on certain things For example. and .To increase workers' motivation level to work harder and better in carrying out their daily duties and responsibilities Wexley and Latham (2002) suggested three strategies that can be selected to fulfill one or all the three objectives. . This involves contribution and involvement by the workers in the organized training programs. Behavior. there are three main objectives training i. globalization and other factors which can influence training.To increase level of knowledge.. to increase workers performance via. Training base on these information can assist them to understand the organization's objectives and may try to suit their needs align with the organization's requirements. during and after training organized It is clear now the importance of training and development involved achievement and increase of certain knowledge. procedures. i. systems and instructions. understanding and awareness to all staff. managers. technology. Monitoring and evaluation: Evaluation will be organized to determine staff performance level achieved resulted from training given. Other than that.e.like policies. instructions. This information can assist the workers to understand better their work. second training strategies emphasized on aspects of workers skills and capabilities. Workers will show the work behavior required 44 . Training base on this function will focus on workers efficiency in carrying out their daily duties and responsibilities Through the model of training behaviors. technologies etc External changes included current country's economic situation. .e. work and other workers. Political stability. benefits and compensation. and work procedures. supervisors and colleagues.

We need to understand the factors that lead to these behaviors at the work place. who is involved in the program. productivity and work performance will increase. Normally changes will involve the attitude and motivational of the staff. If the organization objectives to increase workers' knowledge and understand. Main purpose of the needs analysis is to determine where and who needs training in the organization. Some may accept the changes. Process on developing training and development Training needs analysis phase. work environment strategy more suitable that workers are more motivated to carry out the roles and responsibilities given to them. we can identify the gap or lacks that may exist in. Therefore. Needs analysis is a process that need to be carried out to identify either training or development is required in the organization. Through needs analysis. in what form. Organization performance – is the organization already achieves the objectives. Future work performance – is the current knowledge. in what format need to implement and what type of evaluation can be 45 . and where is it needed. Mean while. Work rotation can be implemented to make workers get use to the new environment. then the training strategy based on cognitive is more suitable to be used. but there are some who reject and even try to prevent it To change the workers is not easy job. attitude and ability required to carry out the current duties effectively and efficiently. Training strategies which are suitable should be based on the training objectives which have been identified. Current work performance – is every worker have the knowledge.and they will be asked to repeat until objectives are met Drills exercise in training will be emphasized at the work place. Through this work experience. These drill exercise will make the workers more skillful and efficient. Work environment. they will be more motivated and activate what they have learned. Whose work performance that need training now and in future. To increase the workers motivation. training can be organized at work place to implement the changes planned in organization development. they will understand better the activities in the organization and the importance of each task including the roles They need to have a full view on the organizational operations. to increase workers in daily work. then behavior strategy are more suitable. and what type of programs needed This needs analysis is important because the information can determine either training needs to be carried out or not. When the workers are exposed about the work environment. attitudes and ability sufficient to carry out the future duties. skills. skills.

we need to carry out an analysis at three stages that are. an officer would like to be advance in his career will identify the training and development program that can lead him towards that without looking at the problems he face now. Training is more focus to the factors that can lead them to an effective performance in future and not to the current problem only For example. The gap here refers to the comparison between actual achievement and the standard achievement set. DeSimone. There are times the workers make request to attend training programs base on their needs. taste and interest. Performance gap – training required to assist workers who do not meet the standard performance required. On the other hand. Law needs. Analytical needs. For example.this training depends on the factors that may influence the workers performance. a sales person must sell 50 books a week. Stages in training needs analysis. Democratic needs. which this is to make them aware on their responsibilities. The program can encourage the workers to become more creative and innovative so that can improve current work process The programs that can improve the work quality is an example where workers will be exposed to various methods and techniques which can be used to ease daily work routine and eliminate any steps that are not required.training needs base on the majority request. To identify training needs. it is obvious the need analysis is important and acts as a base in development of the effective training program. occupational safety & Health (1994) has determine that the organization must give training to all the workers on safety and health issues at the work place. combine certain new steps and etc. For example. Warner and Harris (2002) explain five types of training needs base on survey results done by Brinkerhoff (1998). organizational stage. job analysis is more to certain kind of job and 46 . They emphasize that training needs refer to the gap exist between current performance shown compared to the set performance standard which can be solved by training program. Here we can see there is a gap in work performance achievement. Then.training that is required identifying new work or job procedures which is better from the current ones.this training is fix by the law system or certain rules.carried out for this program. Diagnostic needs. and individual stage. but he managed to sell 38-45 books only for 15 consecutive weeks. job stage. Organizational stage involve that analysis in total by seeing the environmental internally and externally which able to influence the operation movement in order to achieve the objectives.

we can say that to select a work scope of a training officer. mission. Second activity in this phase is to analyze the job to determine the work performance for each job in the organization.to carry out the job effectively Meanwhile. Example. skill. Example. and other training equipments. Three important questions need to be answered. List the duties and responsibilities required to carry out the work. long term objectives and short term objectives. individual analysis is to identify if the workers have the skills required to carry out the work. From the example in organization analysis. to carry out the duties and responsibilities for a training officer A person need to have a good knowledge on training process. To do the training evaluation and prepare the report for management review Identify the type and knowledge level. What is the job and responsibilities involve in the work scope? What knowledge. Job analysis also known as operation analysis. and able to organize independently or work in team Identify the performance level in work performed. There are five steps in job analysis after the analysis is done. to prepare a need analysis report at the end of the year and when needed. Here we are going to list all activities or steps taken to do the work. and capabilities required to carry out the work effectively? What are the performances needs to be established? Usually. Organizational analysis involves the evaluation towards organization needs through vision. analysis at the job stage refer to the job description and job specification in order to identify the activities for certain job and skills needed to do the work. For example. good communications skills and interpersonal skills. prepare report for the management on training activities and financial status at every six month and ensure workers attend the training program planned and as well as update the training record for each worker. computer skills. manage the training activities and participants. What are the requirements to meet the organization's objective? Are there any gaps that can prevent the organization from achieving the objectives? Are there any factors like external pressure that can influence the organization's movement? There are many questions at the organizational level that need to analyze and to identify the gaps. prepare the program and training calendar. to choose training programs and suitable trainers. in this step the required result by the organization need to be identified not to be fixed. among the duties of training officer is to carry out the training needs analysis. 47 . skill and capabilities required to carry out the work.

causing the officer could not perform good performance. we have seen the organization requirement and duties of a training officer. and the dateline given to do it if training is not provided. Third stage in evaluation phase is to identify training needs at individual stage and to determine if the workers in the organization need the training to increase their work performance Two main questions need to answer that is. importance and period required to carry out a particular work. If gaps exist. no computer skills. Current skill gaps – compare the knowledge. type of skills needed to carry out the work effectively and efficiently. who needs to ensure which worker has the gap and lack of skills compared to current standard work performance. Example. if to prepare the report to management is important. Maybe due to lack of skills in using computer system. Therefore. Need analysis which is effective can give direction to the organization on a few important things including. Arrange the training needs identified according to priority. skills. then definitely need to give priority to it. 48 . we need to look either is it easy or difficult to do. Example. attitude and capabilities owned by the workers as present and with the level. if to prepare the report is important. Effectiveness for an organization to achieve the objectives – compared to actual performance and the set performance standard. but difficult to prepare and need longer period to do. we need to identify the type of suitable training to assist them close gap. Future skills gap – compare the efficiency owned at present and the efficiency required to carry out future duties and responsibilities. Duties and skills that are most important need to be solve prior to anything else. Example.Identify the duties and skills needed in training program for a particular work. suitable training in using computer needs to be given to the officer From that we can recognize that the needs analysis is a process run systematically by the organization to identify either training is required or not. This determination will involve evaluation to know the difficulty level. then we need to determine suitable training to give to him in order to increase efficiency. now we need to observe the training officer performance to see if there is any gap exists in his work performance If the officer failed to update the workers' training record in a certain period. Types and efficiency level also need to be determined for each job based on the evaluation.

we need skilled workers to carry out the interview sessions so to get complete responds. the questions could be in long list which may bore the respondent. They are (survey. existing documents may be obsolete and not suitable anymore. Also can find it difficult to get further details from the survey forms. especially if we need to get from many respondents. Furthermore. the feedback is beyond the control that many people do not return the forms within the period given and the forms are not complete when returned. Generally.Methods for training needs analysis.and documentation) Survey.this can explain the organizational directions and to emphasize the 49 . there are four suitable methods always been used in training needs analysis at all analysis stages. Continuous monitoring need to be done to increase the percentage of forms returned Other than that. However. we need to use certain tactics like to make calls or to meet them personally with the respondents in order to get back the survey forms. this method can produce precise information about a work because it can be done base on the specific work flow. this also requires a skilled worker to observe and ensure nothing is overlook.observation. to use existing documentation may give precise information and data on certain matters. It can cause interruptions towards to work movement to those interviewees and they have to stop their work to spend time to be interviewed. Workers behavior is observe by someone. On the other hand.interview. even it takes longer time. Information obtained also difficult to analyze. Organizational analysis. this method used to get feedback from public in a short time. information needed may be difficult to get and take longer time if there is no proper filing system DeSimone. Documentation. In addition. This process takes longer time. Observations. It can avoid from any interruptions at the work place. Interview. Documentation analysis and organization planning. Warner and Harris (200) suggested resources of information can be used at each level in needs analysis to determine the training needs in the organization. interview method is either through telephone or face-to-face communication is effective because we can gather details of information on certain matters. However. Even it is low cost. this method may take a long time to get precise data and complete information. Other than that.

etc. accidents. Skill inventory. Efficiency index. The amount of compensation received by the employee consists of three parts.this can determine the job vacancies due to resignation. wastage rate.data as such the resource cost used. Organization data index line discontent rate. It includes financial and non-financial compensation for the services rendered for the organization.training in the organization. Part Eight EMPLOYEE COMPENSATION : Employee compensation refers to all types of salary and compensation that are paid by the employers to their staff.it shows the numbers of workers in certain job and the required skills and the training given and to be given. and customer complaint can be seen as problem arises and determine that training is required. com pensation s alary incentive benefits 50 .it shows the numbers of workers in certain job and the required skills and the training given and to be given.this method is widely used to identify the training needs in the organization. Vacancies will determine the skill level required for that particular job. retirement. Human resources inventory. improvement rates and late delivery can indicate the actual performance and the standard required. productivity. Skill inventory. turn over. absenteeism. level of equipment used. quality of product. Request from the management.

While benefits are given to all the staff regardless of staff performance or productivity. Examples. annual bonus. 51 . Types of equity Many organizations attempt to develop a compensation system that will consider the issue of equity and fairness. the organization will have a problem to attract or maintain its competent staff. From the external perspective. weekly… etc. such as employee health insurance. External equity refers to the situation in which the organization pays the wages relatively similar to the rate of wages paid by external companies for the same type of jobs. Benefits. benefits consists of the financial and non-financial rewards given to the employee. the incentives are considered as motivational rewards for selected employees. monthly. especially internal and external equity. For the employees.Salary.) depending on the nature of job. The difference between incentives and benefits is that. Incentive. the salary received in the organization must reasonably similar to the other salary rates in other firms. incentives are given to the employees who have shown their best performance in their job. etc. salary equity means the compensation received is parallel with the relative value of the work done. The following table presents the types of equities and its descriptions. staff leave. Equity is the essential factor in the determination of salary rate. The compensation policies is said to achieve an internal equity when the employees of an organization believe that their salary rate is equitably the same with the job value in the organization. is the basic pay received by the employee in an organization for a specific period of time (daily. best employee award etc. If not.

Management must not allow the employees to believe that the reward payment is their due rights. Features of effective compensation. This method would boost their willingness to accept the compensation plan. the employer has to encourage the employees to take part in the development and administration of the compensation plan. Reward payment must be viewed as a payment gained by their efforts to get work done. Financial rewards that have to be tied to excellent performance. The organization has to determine the formal value of a job by performing job estimation. A technique used to rank a job is to accumulate and arrange the cards that contain all the tasks and responsibilities of each respective job according to the significance of the job Job ranking can be done by an individual who is well versed in all the jobs available in the particular organization or a panel that consists of representatives of both the management 52 . The relative value of a particular job can be decided by comparing the workload with other jobs in the organization or with a scale that have been developed for the particular purpose. . Job estimation helps to develop internal equity among various jobs in the firm. The method of estimation could be classified as.Non quantitative methods that include (job ranking system) Job ranking system. The productivity standard – quality must be challenging yet attainable Basics of salary determinant. This can be seen clearly if there are existing objectives of quality and quantity standard to assess their performance. If an employer wants to have an effective compensation system.Qantitative methods that include (point rating method and) . Employee's willingness to achieve the standard is crucial to ensure the success of the compensation system. Job estimation is a methodical process that can decide the job relative value so that the organization can decide which job carries the most value in the organization. is the simplest method of job estimation. The payment method must be simple and easy to understand. Incentive system implemented has to deemed as fair by the worker.Individual equity is the extent of which the salary rate is distributed to certain individuals in the organization that reflects their respective merits. Employees in the organization also must be able to distinguish the relationship between the reward payments received with their job performance. The method ranks the jobs according to their relative values to the organization.

there are a few positions. knowledge. one of the most famous qualitative methods used in job evaluation.and the employees A disadvantage of this system is it only provides the relative importance of a certain job and not the degree of differences that could exist among the jobs Besides that. the value is also obtained by using the compensable factors. competences. it is not as accurate as a point system method and factor comparison system Point system method. they also use other compensable factors which can be found in an established job evaluation system. the more responsibilities. The difference between the factor comparison system and the point system method is that the compensable factors in this system can be measured against the compensable factors of the major job functions in the organization. not more than fifteen types of jobs. Job classification system. Though job classification is simple to use. the jobs are classified and grouped based on a certain grade series. The major advantage of this method is it acts as a more fine foundation for judgments as compared to job ranking system and job classification system. the method is most favorable in the smaller firms. since it is easy to use this job ranking system. is known as class. which acts as a job evaluation scales 53 . almost every firm can decide on using their own compensable factors that will be more suited for the respective jobs in their organizations. this system. while the group that has similar degree of difficulty but different in terms of other aspects is recognized as grade In the job classification system. The higher the job grade. Even though. This method divides the jobs into groups. is widely used in the organizations. allows the job evaluation to be according to the factor-to-factor bases. The description of each respective job class becomes the standard scale for the comparison of various job specifications The manager will evaluate each job by comparing the job description with various salary grade to match the job with the corresponding suitable grades. the system appropriate to be used when it involves only a small number of jobs. Yet. Another item used as a compensable factor is the knowledge required for the particular type of job Normally. abilities and other factors are selected to compare the job. the relative value of a particular job is determined by computing the total points allocated for the job In other words. which has similar type of jobs. just like the point system. as it is so easy to use. in this technique. Factor comparison system. Yet. The job group. A compensable factor is the most critical job-related criterion that is used by the organizations to evaluate the relative value of various jobs. which need a high level of knowledge that received a higher evaluation rating. thus making them eligible for higher pay plans.

When the task is completed another factor comparison scale will be created to evaluate other types of job. responsibilities and work conditions. One of them is its accuracy and meticulous order Any job can be compared with other jobs to decide on its comparison value. It may look easy to some people but the development of the system is a whole other matter o be handled by the employee. Also. the system does not exist without its own flaw. Secondly. the only set back of this system is its complexity in designing the system itself. Job evaluation is a technique used to decide on the relative value of each respective job. Lastly. To achieve external equity. The system also is more comprehensible for most employees in the organization. Salary survey aims to estimate the salary range for each grade level so that the salary rate in the organization is similar to the normal salary rate in the labor supply market. In fact. A benchmark job is deemed as the most crucial job in the organization of which it represents the overall job structure. The major job is assessed based on compensable factors such as skills. Bearing in mind that the job evaluation process is done internally and it does not take into account the market salary rate or the salary rate as practiced in other firms Job evaluation only focuses on the job value that complements each job and not the individual who is assigned to do the job. Generally. The panel members will allocate the salary financial rate for each corresponding compensable factor. However. sick leave and any other type of leave which will be the bases of employee benefits 54 .Major job can be defined as the essential job function that decides on the salary determinants that are commonly used in the labor supply market. a panel will be chosen to rank the criteria of the major job. it is a position in which most jobs are focused on. Firstly. a formal written questionnaire is considered a comprehensive survey but telephone survey and newspaper survey can also be the sources of information The employer adopts salary survey in three ways. most employers pay the compensation that is normally parallel to what has been provided by other firms for the same job type based on the informal and formal survey. mental efforts. The factor comparison system method has been often used in the organizations because of it several advantages. Salary survey. A good salary survey would produce a specific wage rate for particular jobs In practice. the firms need to conduct a salary survey. surveys also gather information on benefits like insurance. the data survey is used to give a price to a benchmark job.

The performance based pay system can be applied to individual workers. refers to the performance-based compensation (annual bonus). It could be seen in different forms. Incentive compensation always ties the salary with the productivity. Employees share option plan Thank u C u in PhD. Competency-based pay. over time payment. housing allowance. is a type of pay that rewards the employee based on his respective level of skill and knowledge.decision. cost of living allowance. The individual incentive scheme Team incentive scheme Profit sharing where a percentage of revenue is distributed to the employees. Large organizations conduct salary survey to seek for the comparable market wage rate in the labor supply market. Performance appraisal data will provide information on the merit pay. work teams and the whole organization. Program With my complements 55 . the higher the productivity is the higher the compensation will be. Benefits Unlike incentives. Skill-based pay. not every individual in the organization will receive the same compensation or benefits. Employee who exhibits superior work performance will be getting more pay than average or poor employee. variable pay. skill-based pay and competency based pay. is the salary increment given to an employee based on his performance as reflected in his performance appraisal Variable pay. hence. Thus it is also not a motivation tool to improve productivity The benefits given are under the discretion of the management but there are compulsory benefits that should be provided by the employer as stipulated in the labor law. improve their overall productivity and salary increment and other compensation given according to the employee's work performance This means. Performance based pay. etc. is given to the employee who has shown a high level of competency in his nature of job. house to office transport allowance. Incentives. The performance of the three levels of employees is usually stated in the performance appraisal. This is to boost the employee's motivation and work performance so that they can work effectively and efficiently. Merit pay. benefits are not related to the employee's performance. Many organizations adopt the performance-based pay system.

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