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Vocabulary 1. Neuron- a nerve cell; basic building block of the nervous system 2. Dendrite- the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses towards the body 3. Axon- extensions of a neuron through which messages pass to other neurons or muscles or glands 4. Myelin- a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; speeds up messages 5. Action Potential- neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. Generated by the movement of positively charges atoms in and out of the channels in the axon’s membrane. 6. Synapse- junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrites of the receiving neuron 7. Neurotransmitters- chemical messengers that travel across the synaptic gap 8. Acetylcholine- a neutransmitter that enables learning and memory and triggers muscle contraction 9. Endorphins- natural, opiate-like neutransmitter linked to pain control and pleasure 10. Nerves- neural cables containing axons 11. Sensory neurons- neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system
part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and muscles of the internal organs 16.endocrine system’s most influential gland.the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body 18. EEG. Autonomic system.central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs 14. lesion.an automatic.the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls skeletal muscles 15. Adrenal glands.interconnected neural cells 20. Interneurons.a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task .Division of the autonomic nervous system that around the body 17. 22. Sympathetic Nervous system.12. Regulates growth and controls other glands. Pituitary glands. Neural Networks.neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands 13. Somatic Nervous system. inborn response to a sensory stimulus 19.an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain’s surface 24. Reflex. Parasympathetic nervous system.a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys. Secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine 21. PET scan. Motor neurons.tissue destruction 23.
fMRI. drinking.a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in arousal 30. controls heartbeat and breathing 29.linked to emotion 34.the brain’s sensory switchboard that directs messages to the sensory receiving areas of the brain 31. involved in automatic survival functions 28. Reticular Formation. and body temperature and helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland. Amygdala.a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue 26.processes sensory input and coordinates movement output and balance 32. and in making plans and decisions 36.begins where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull.25.a technique for revealing blood flow and brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans 27. Thalamus. MRI.controls maintenance activities such as eating.the base of the brainstem. Frontal lobes. muscle movements.receives sensory input for touch and body position 37.associated with fear and aggression and the drives for food and sex 33. Hypothalamus. Medulla. Parietal lobes.involved in speaking.visual areas . Occipital lobes. Limbic system. Cerebellum. Brainstem. and is linked to emotion 35.
Plasticity.a condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by the connecting fibers between them . Corpus Callosum. Split brain.involved in higher mental functions such as learning. and speaking 42.area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers body touch and movements 41.impairment of language 43.38.auditory information 39. remembering. Association areas. Aphasia.deals with speech 44. Wenicke’s area.large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them 47. Motor cortex. Temporal lobes. thinking.deals with understanding 45.area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements 40. Broca’s area.brain’s capacity fir modification 46. Sensory cortex.