A The first letter (Vowel) of all Indian languages According to the Nanartharat namala this letter has the

following meanings:-Brahma, Visnu, Siva, tortoise, co urtyard, battle, harem, jewellery, sea, Parvati and bow string. ABALA is one of the fifteen devas who were the sons of Pancajanya. (M.B. Vana Pa rva, Chapter 22, Verse 11) ABHAYA was one of the sons of Dhrtarastra. He war killed by Bhimasena. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 67 Verse 104; Drona Parva, Chapter 127, Verse 62). ABHAYAM. King Idhmajihva divided his kingdom Plaksadvipa into seven parts and ga ve them to hi seven sons. Abhayam is one of the parts. The other six parts are:Sivarir, Yamasam, Subhadrarh, Santarh, Ksemam and Amrtarir. See "Idhmajihva". (B hagavata 5th Skandha, Chapter 20, Verse 2). It is seen (from M.B. Sabha Parva, C hapter 30, Verse 9) that the territory known as Abhayam was conquered by Bhimase na. (See Foot-note) ABHIBHU. He was a as. He was killed .B. Udyoga Parva, ona Parva. Verses King, the son of the King of Kasi and a relative of the Pandav by the son of King Vasudana. He had a most wonderful horse. (M Chapter 151, Verse 63 Karna Parva, Chapter 6, Verses 23-24; Dr 26-27).

ABHIMANYU I. He was the heroic son of Arjuna the central figure of the Mahabhara ta, by his wife Subhadra. 1) Genealogy. He was descended from Visnu in this orde r Brahma-Atri-Candra-Budha-Pururavas -Ayus Nahusa-Yayati-Puru-Janamejaya-Pracinv a-Pravira-Nahasyu-Vitabhaya-Sundu-Bahuvidha-Sariryati-Rahovadi - Raudrasva-Matin ara-Santurodha-Dusyanta - Bharata - Brhatksatra-Hasti- Ajamidha-Rksa-Samvarana Ku ru-Jahnu-Suratha - Viduratha-Sarvabhauma -Jayatsena - Raviya -Bhavuka-Cakroddhat a-Devatithi - Rksa-Bhima Pratiya-Santanu-Vyasa-Pandu-Arjuna-Abhimanyu. 2) Purvajanma (Previous Birth)., There is a story about Abhimanyu's Purvajanma i n the Mahabharata. It was Varcas, son of Candra, who incarnated as Abhimanyu, so n of Arjuna. A conference took place between the Devas and Candra about the inca rnation of the Devas in the world for the destruction of the wicked people. Cand ra told the Devas: "I do not like to send Varcas, whom I love more than my life, to the earth. Still, I think it is not right to stand in the way of the plans o f the gods. You must agree to one condition if I am to send my son. Let him, be born as the son of Arjuna. I am unable to be separated from him for more than si xteen years. My son will enter into the Cakra Vyuha of the enemies to be killed by them and return to me in the sixteenth year." The devas (gods) accepted this condition. That is why Abhimanyu was killed in his sixteenth year. (M.B. Adi Par va, Chapter 67). 3) Military Training and War. Abhimanyu received his training in arms from his f ather Arjuna. Later, he went with his mother Subhadra to Dvaraka and lived for s ome time with his uncle Sri Krsna. There he is said to have received training in arms From Pradyurnna, son of Sri Krsna. After the incognito life of the Pandava s, Abhimanyu married Uttara, daughter of the King of Virata. War broke out betwe en Kauravas and Pandavas. On the first day itself Abhimanyu entered into a duel with Brhatbala, King of Kosala. In the terrible conflict with Bhisma, Abhimanyu broke Bhisma's flagstaff. After that he assisted his father Arjuna to fight agai nst Bhisma. Verses 8-13 of' Chapter 55 of Bhisma Parva of the Mahabharata descri be Abhimanyu's fight with Laksmana in the second day's battle. Then he took his place in the Ardha Candra Vyuha (semi-circular phalanx) formed by Arjuna. He fou ght fiercely with the Gandharas. He attacked Salya and killed Jayatsena, King of Magadha, along with his elephant. We find Abhimanyu assisting Bhimasena in M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapters 63, 64, 69 and 94. After that Abhimanyu defeated Laksnra na in battle. Then he defeated Vikarna, Citrasena and others also. Later he took his position in the Srngataka Vyuha created by Dhrstadyumna. He started fightin g with Bhagadatta. He defeated Arhbastha and Alambusa. Next he fought a duel wit

h Sudisna. After that he encountered Duryodhana, Brhatbala and others. M.B. Dron a Parva, Chapter 10, Verses 47-52 are a description of Abhimanyu's heroism by Dh rtarastra. He snatched Paurava's weapon and threw it on the ground. Next lie fou ght with Jayadratha and Salya. Then he was caught in the Cakra Vyuha (circular p halanx) of they enemies. There he inflicted great losses upon the enemy forces. Salya was stunned and his brother was killed by Abhimanyu. M.B. Drona Parva, Cha pter 38, Verses 23 and 24 describe the flight of the Kauravas in fear. At this s tage, even Dronacarya praised Abhimanyu's valour. Dussasana fainted during his f ight with Abhimanyu. Karna was defeated. Vrsasena, Satyasravas and Salya's son, Rugmaratha were slain. Duryodhana fled. Laksmana was killed. Vrndaraka, Asvattha ma, Karna and others were amazed by this terrible valour of Abhimanyu. Six minis ters of Karna were slain. Next, Asvaketu, son of the King of Magadha was killed. King Bhoja was also killed. Salya was again defeated. Satrunjaya, Candraketu, M eghavega, Suvarcas, Suryabhasa-who were all kings--were beheaded by Abhimanyu. S akuni was wounded by Abhimanyu's arrow. Kalakeya, son of Subala was slain. M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 40, Verses 13 and 14 say that at this stage, Prince Dussasa na beat Abhimanyu to death with his mace. 4) After Death. M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 71, Verses 12-16 say that after death Abhimanyu attained the immortal world of the Munis (Saints). King Pariksit was t he son of Abhimanyu. In M.B. Svargarohana Parva, Chapter 5, Verses 18-20, we fin d that after his death, Abhimanyu entered the moon in his former form of Varcas. 5) Other names of Abhimanyu. In the Mahabharata Abhimanyu has been referred to b y several other names, such as ARJUNI, Saubhadra, Karsni, Arjunatmaja, Sukratmaj atmaja, Arjunapara and Phalguni. 6) Other -details. King Pariksit was the son of Abhimanyu. Janamejaya was born a s his son. It was Janame- There seems to be some difference of opinion regarding the number of. parts into which King Idhmajihva divided Plaksadvipa. In the Bha gavata the number mentioned is seven; but in the Malayalam version of the Bhagav ata (By Ramanujan Eluttacchan) the number is eight. The original Bhagavata says; "`~ivath Yamasarh, Subhadrarh, ggantari,, Ksematn, Amrtarir Abhayam it Varsani tesu girayo nadya'sca saptaivabhijizatah". In tae 'Malayalam Bhagavata arr, eigh th division called ~ivadata is seen, Jaya who performed Sarp4satra. (A yaga) Sat anika was the son of Janamejaya. Satanika had a son named Sahasranika. King Uday ana, the jewel of the Candra Vamsa (Lunar dynasty) was born to Sahasranika by th e goddess Mrgavati (See `Udayana', stories about this Udayana are very famous. K altdasa has mentioned in his "Meghaduta" about the old rustics who thronged the country-sides to tell and listen to Udayana stories). (Kathasaritsagara, Madana Kancukalarizbaka, 4th Taranga). ABHIMANYU II. One"of the sons of Manu. The ten sons born to Manu by Nadvala were : Kuru, Puru, Satadyumna, Tapasvi, Satyavan, Suci, Agnistoma, Adhiratra, Sudyumn a and Abhimanyu. (Visnu Purana, Section 1, Chapter 13) . ABHIMANYU VADHA PARVA. A part (branch) of Drona Parva. (See "Mahabharata"). ABHINAYA. In Agni Purana, Chapter 342, Abhinaya has been defined as follows: Abh inaya is the art of presenting before the people the ideas that are to be commun icated. to them. There are four divisions of this art known as Sattvika, Vacika, Angika and Aharya depending on Sattva, Vak, Anga and Aharya. Besides these, ano ther division known as Abhimanika (Abhimanottha) may also be mentioned. This sig nifies the expression of rasas like Srngara. There are two kinds of Srngara know n as Sambhoga and Vipralambha. Four varieties of Vipralambha called Purvanuraga Vipralambha, Mana Vipralambha, Pravasa Vipralambha and Karuna Vipralamb.ha are m entioned. The union after Vipralambha is Sambhoga-Srngara. All Sattvika bhavas a re included in Srngara. All these have to be expressed through Abhinaya. ABHTRU. A Rajarsi who was born of the sixth Kalakeya. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 6

7, Verse 53). ABHISAKAM. A Janapada (Village) of ancient India. The warriors of this Janapada were called Abhisakas. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 18, Verse 12; Chapter 93, Ver se 2) . ABHISARAM. A Janapada of ancient India. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 94) . ABHISARI. Arjuna conquered this city, which was one of the ancient cities of Ind ia, in the course of his Digvijaya (conquest of the world). ABHISYANTA. A son born to Maharaja Kuru by Vihini. Ile had three brothers named Caitraratha, Muni and Janamejaya. Abhisyanta was the younger brother of Asvavin and elder brother of Caitraratha. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verses 50-51). ACALA I. 1) General. Acala was the son of Subala, a King of Gandhara. He was Sak uni's brother and a heroic Charioteer on the side of the Kauravas. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 168, Verse 1). 2) Acala had also taken part in Yudhisthira's Rajasuya. (A very expensive sacrif ice-yaga-performed by an emperor.) (M.B. Sabhi Parva, Chapter 34, Verse 7) . 3) Acala had a brother named Vrsaka. In the battle between the Kauravas and Pandava s, Arjuna killed Acala and Vrsaka. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 11). 4) One night Vyasa summoned the departed holy souls and Acala also was among the m. (M.B. Asvamedhika Parva, Chapter 32, Verse 12). ACALA II. Name of a bull. Among the parsadas of Skanda we see the bull named Aca la. (MA Salya Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 74). ACALA III. An epithet of Mahivisnu. Among the thousand names of Mahavisnu we see the name Acala also. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 149, Verse 92). ACALA. Subrahmanya, who was born from Siva's semen which fell into the fire, was made Commander-in-Chief (Generalissimo) by the gods to kill Tarakasura. A large number of warriors and mothers were assigned to assist him. A woman named Acala was included among those mothers. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 40, Verse 14). ACCHODA. A spiritual daughter of the Pitrs. (For further details see "Amavasu"). ACCHODASARAS. A river, who was the daughter of the Pitrs called Agnisvattas. (Ha ri Vamsa, Chapter 18, Verse 26). ACYUTA. (See Visnu). ACYUTAYU. He was a heroic warrior on the Kaurava side. Srutayu was the brother o f Acvutayu. Both of them were killed by Arjuna in the Kaurava-Pandava battle. Th ese heroes attacked Arjuna and Sri Krsna furiously with their arrows and Arjuna had some difficulty in killing them. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 93, Verses 7-42) . ACYUTA STHALA. This is an ancient village in India. In ancient times Sudras of m ixed castes inhabited this region. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 129, Verse 9). ADHARMA. A description of the lineage of Adharma is found in Agni Purana. Himsa (violence) is the consort of Adharma. The couple procreated two children, Anr to and Nikrti, and from them sprang up Bhaya (fear), Naraka (Hell), Maya (illusion ), Vedana (pain) etc, And, out of them Maya brought forth Death, the destroyer o f (all) objects. Vedana, in its turn produced Sorrow and Grief out of Raurava. F

rom Death were born Disease, Senility, Sorrow, Intense desire and Anger. (Agni P urana, Chapter 20). ADHARMA. Adharma is a person who is an embodiment of Adharmas. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 53) . Adharma's wife Nirrti delivered 3 children; Bhaya, Mahab haya and Mrtyu. Adharma had another son, Darpa (conceit) born of Wealth. (M.B. S anti Parva,h Chapter 90, Verse 27). ADHASIRAS I was a great sage. Sri Krsna is said to have met the sage on his way to Hastinapura. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 33, Verse 64). ADHASIRAS 11. There is a reference in Visnu Purana to a hell called Adhassiras. (Visnu Purana, Part 2, Chapter 6). ADHIRA. A King; also a great devotee of Lord Siva. Once he decreed death penalty on an innocent woman. He also destroyed with his own hands a temple of Siva. As a consequence of those two sinful deeds he became a devil after death. Ultimate ly by the grace of Siva he cast off the devil's form and became an attendant of Siva. (Padma Purana, Patala Khanda, Chapter 111). ADHIRAJYA. A Kingdom in ancient India, described in Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Ver se 44. Today this place is known as Rewa. ADHIRATHA. Foster father of Karna. 1) Lineage. Descended from Visnu thus : Brahma-Atri-Candra-Pururavass-Ayus - Nah usa - Yayati - Anudruhyu- Sadanara-Kalanara-Srnjaya-Titiksa- Krsadratha-Homa-Sut apas - Bali - Anga - Dadhivahana Draviratha-Dharmaratha - Citraratha - Satyarath a Romapada-Caturanga-Prthu - Camba - Haryamga Bhadraratha-Brhadratha-BrhanmanasJayadratha - Dhrtavrta - Satyakarma-Adhiratha-Karna (foster son). 2) Foster father of Karna. Sage Durvasas had taught Kunti some mantras to get ch ildren, and Kunti, then unmarried, tested the first mantra with the Sun-god as h er object. The Sun-god appeared before Kunti and from his power she conceived an d duly delivered a child, Karna. Fearing obloquy Kunti concealed the child in a box and floated it on the river, Ganges. At the time Adhiratha, a great comrade of Dhrtarastra came to the river for a bath. His wife was one grieving over not having a child of her own. So, when Adhiratha found a child in the floating box, he took it home, and himself and his wife Radha brought up the child with pleas ure. The child was named Vasusena, and the child grew up to become the famous Ka rna and favourite friend of Duryodhana. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapters 67 and 130; Va na Parva, Chapter 309; Devibhagavata, Skandha 2). 3) Some particulars. Adhiratha was King of Anga. He was a Suta (charioteer) and Karna grew up as his son. Karna was sent to Hastinapura to be trained in the use of weapons, and it was here that Duryodhana and Karna developed their friendshi p and alliance. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 147, Verse 3). Sri Mahadevibhagavata, i n Chapter 3 relates the following incident : "Thus lamenting Kunti sent the box concealing Karna, by the nurse, to be floated in the river, and after bath, food etc. she spent the hours in the normal way within the inner apartment. Raja Adh iratha bathing in the river saw the box floating in the river". These facts prov e that Adhiratha was not only the King of Anga but a good charioteer as well, an d further a very good friend of Dhrtarastra. 4) We come across Adhiratha on the occasion of the trial of skill in the use of arms between the Kauravas and the Pandavas. When Karna entered the lists the Pan davas questioned his nobility of birth. Seeing Karna's great humiliation and dis comfiture Duryodhana enthroned him immediately as King of Anga. Vyasa, who witne ssed the scene has given a picturesque description of it.

ADHOKSAJA. A synonym of Maha Visnu. (Kamsariradhoksajah-Amarakosa) . ADHRIGU. A great sage (Maharsi) who lived during the Rgvedic period. (Rgveda, Ma ndala 1, Anuvaka 16, Sukta 112) . ADHRSYA. A river. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 24). ADHYAPAYANA. A disciple of the great preceptor of Atharvaveda, Sumantu. He divid ed Atharvaveda into two parts and gave one to Utatthya and the other to Vedadars ana. (Bhagavata, Skandha 12). ADITI. 1) Genealogy. Kasyapa, grandson of Brahma and son of Marici married Aditi , daughter of Daksa Prajapati. Aditi had twelve sisters: Diti, Kala, Danayus, Da nu, Simhika, Krodha, Prtha, Visva, Vinata, Kapila, Muni and Kadru. (Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 12). Devas are sons born to Kasyapa by Aditi and h ence they are known as Aditeyas also. Kasyapa married all the thirteen sisters i ncluding Aditi, and all living beings owe their origin to them. (See Kasyapa) . 2) Descendants. 33 sons were born to Aditi. 12 of thei are called Dvddasadityas, viz. Dhata, Aryama, Mitr, Sakra, Varuna, Amsa, Bhaga, Vivasvan, Pusa, Savit, Tv asta and Visnu. Amongst the other 21 sons are tl 11 Rudras and 8 Vasus. (See M.B . Adi Parw Chapter 65, Verse 15). 3) Main incidents. 1. How Mahavisnu was born as the son of Aditi. The Mahabharat a and the Ramayan refer to a story about the birth of Mahavisnu as th son of Adi ti. Visnu entered the womb of Aditi Vamana (Dwarf). This story was related by the sag Visvamitra to the boys Rama an d Laksmana whi: they were accompanying the sage in the forest. Whe they entered Siddhasrama Visvamitra pointed to tl latter that the Asrama was sacred, because Mahavisn had stayed there for long as Vamana. The Dev induced Mahavisnu to obstr uct the sacrifice (yaga being performed by Emperor Mahabali, son Virocana. At th at time Aditi, the wife of Kasyal was doing penance so that Mahavisnu might be b ox as her son, and accordingly he entered her woml 1000 years later she gave bir th to Visnu, and that chi] was known as Vamana. (See Vamana; also M.l Vana Parva , Chapter 272, Verse 62, Anusasana Parv; Chapter 83, Verses 25 and 26, as also V almiki Ramyana, Canto 29) . 2. Rebirth of Aditi. Once Kasyapa made all arrangements to perform a sacrifice ( yaga). Having failed to get the suitable cow for it, he stole Varuna's cow and c onducted the yaga. Not only that, Kasyapa refused to return the cow even after t he yaga was over. Varuna in hot anger rushed to Kasyapa's hermitage. Kasyapa was absent, and his wives, Aditi and Suras did not treat Varuna with due respect. T he enraged Varuna cursed them to be born in Gokula. He also complained about the matter to Brahma. Brahma to] Kasyapa : "Since you, a learned person, have stole the cow, may you along with your wives be born in Gokula and tend cows". Accord ingly Kasyapa and his wives, Aditi and Surasa, were born respectively as Vasudev a, Devaki and Rohini in Gokula in the 28th Dvapara-yuga. (This story has been to ld by Vyasa to Raja Janamejaya). (Devibhagavata, Skandha 4). 3. Aditi in prison. Devaki is Aditi reborn. There was reason for Devaki being im prisoned on the orders of Kamsa. When Kasyapa was living in an Asrama wii Aditi and Diti he was so much pleased with tl services of Aditi that he asked her to b eg for ar boon she wished. Accordingly she prayed for a ideal son. The boon was readily granted, and Inch was the son thus born to her. The birth of Inch engend ered jealousy in Diti towards Aditi, and sl also demanded a son equal to Indra. Kasyapa oblige Diti also. As Diti advanced in pregnancy and he beauty also incre ased Aditi got jealous of the .form and she called her son Indra and told him th at unle something seas done in time, Diti would deliver child equal to him (Indr a) thus relegating him pr(bably to the place of second Deva. Thus admonishe by h

is mother the artful Indra approached Diti an told her: "Mother, I have come to serve you". Di was greatly pleased. Indra's services drove Diti t sleep very qui ckly, and Indra used the opportunit to enter the womb of Diti and cut into 49 pi eces the child with his weapon, the Vajra. The child in the womb bean crying on receiving cuts with Vajra when Indra asked it not to cry. (Ma ruda, don't cry) a nd so the child got out of Diti's womb as 49 Marutas (winds). Then did Diti wake up and cursed Aditi as follows : "Your son did treacherously kill my offspring in the womb itself. So he will forfeit the three worlds. You were responsible fo r the murder of my child. You will, therefore, have to spend days in prison grie ving over your children. Your children also will be annihilated". Because of thi s curse of Diti, Indra once lost Devaloka and had to live elsewhere, and Nahusa functioned, for a time as Indra. (See Nahusa). In the 28th Dvapara-yuga Aditi tr ansformed as Devaki had to be a captive of Kamsa, and Kainsa killed her children by dashing them on the ground. (Devibhagavata, Skandha 4). 4. Narakasura stole the earrings of Aditi. Narakasura, who turned out to be a cu rse and menace to the three worlds consequent on the boon he got from Visnu, att acked Devaloka once, and carried off Indra's royal umbrella and Aditi's earrings . Mahavisnu incarnated himself as Sri Krsna, killed Narakasura in battle and got back the earrings etc. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 48, Verse 80; Sabha Parva, C hapter 38, Verse 29; Bhagavata Dasama Skandha). 5. Mahavisnu became seven tunes son to Aditi. Once, desirous of having children Aditi cooked food (rice) sitting herself in the entrails of Mount Mynaka (M.B. A ranya Parva, Chapter 135, Verse 3; . Dharmaputra, in the course of singing the g lories of Lord Krsna after the great war refers to Visnu having taken birth seve n times in the womb of Aditi. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 43, Verse 6). 6. Budha cursed Aditi. A story in the Mahabharata refers to Budha's once cursing Aditi. The ever increasing power of Asuras made the Devas anxious. Aditi, the m other of the Devas decided to send them all to annihilate the Asuras. She had fi nished cooking food for her sons, and to ! there appeared before her Budha and a sked for food. Aditi asked him to wait pending her sons taking their food hoping that there would be some food lift after that. This caused Budha to lose his te mper and he cursed her that (Aditi) she would become the mother of Vivasvan in h is second birth as Anda, when she would suffer pain in her abdomen. (M.13. Santi Parva, Chapter 34, Verses 96-98). 7. Former birth of Aditi. Du-ring the former years (period) of Svayambhuva Manu the Prajapati called Sutapas, along with his wife Prsni did Tapas for 12000 year s. Then Mahavisnu appeared before them, and Prsni prayed for a son like Vis.,iu himself, and Mahavisnu was born as her son named Prsnigarbha. This story is rela ted by Sri Krsna to his mother on his birth as the son of Vasudeva. (Bhagavata, Dasama Skandha, Chapter 3) . She, who became the wife of Prajapati as Prsni before Svayambhuva Manu, and was born again as Devaki, the wife of Vasudeva is one and the same person. ADRA. A King of the Solar dynasty. (See Surya Varimsa) . ADRI was a King, the son of Visvagasva and father of Yavanasva. (M.B. Vana Parva , Chapter 202, Verse 3). ADRIKA. A nymph (devastri). There is a story in Devibhagavata about her being cu rsed by a Brahmin and turned into a fish. ADRSTABHAYA is the curse put on King Janamejaya by Sarama, the dog of the Devas. While Janamejaya, son of Pariksit was conducting, along with his brothers, a ya ga of long duration at Kuruksetra the son of Sarama went to the place and was th rashed by the brothers of Janamejaya. Seeing her weeping child Sarama naturally

got angry. She cursed the king thus : "My son did not commit any offence; he did not even look at the havis (oblations), nor did he lick it. For having thrashed the innocent child you will experience Adrstabhaya. When the yaga was over Jana mejaya got rid of the curse by getting sage Somasravas do certain proper rites. ADRSYANTI, wife of sage Sakti, the son of Vasistha and mother of sage Parasara. Kalinasapada, a king of the Iksvaku dynasty reached the hermitage of Vasistha du ring a hunting expedition when Sakti, eldest of the hundred sons of Vasistha cam e walking towards him. False pride prevented either of them from giving way to t he other. The King got angry and whipped Sakti. Sakti cursed the king and he was converted into a demon. This happened at a period when sages Vasistha and Vi4av amitra were at logger-heads. Visvamitra got admitted into the body of King Kalma sapada a demon called Kirnkara, and the king set out to take revenge upon Sakti, the son of Vasistha. The King was further promised all support by Vi"svamitra. Kalmasapada ate up all the hundred sons of Vasistha. Overcome with grief Vasisth a attempted suicide many a time. But the spirit (Atman) did not quit the body. T hus sunken in grief Vasistha lived in his hermitage with Adrsyanti, wife of Sakt i. One day Vasistha heard distinct sounds of the chanting of the Vedas and Adrsy anti told him that a child of his son, Sakti, was developing in her womb and tha t the vedic sounds heard were sounds produced by that son chanting the vedic hym ns. Vasistha thus was happy to hear that the dynasty will not become extinct and , so, gave up all ideas of suicide. Another day Kalnrasapada in the guise of the demon hurriedly came to devour Adrsyanti and Vasistha gave him redemption from the curse. He was restored to his old state and form. Adrsyanti duly gave birth to a son, and the child grew up to become Parasara, father of Vyasa. While the Pandavas, in the course of their forest life, were passing the banks o f river Ganga at midnight, a Gandharva named Ariigaraparna enjoying in the river -water clashed with Arjuna, and he was defeated. The story of Adrsyanti is one o f the many stories told by Arng5raparna to the Pandavas. (M. B. Adi Parva, Chapt ers 175-178). AGASTYA. 1) Genealogy. Descended from Visnu in this order Brahma-Marici-Kasya.pa-Surya-Ag astya. 2) Birth. A story occurs in Uttara-Rama-Carita about the birth of Agastya. Nimi was the son of Iksvaku of the Surya dynasty. When he ascended the throne he deci ded to celebrate a sacrifice of long duration. He invited Vasistha to perform th e sacrifice. But Vasistha, who had to participate in the sacrifice of Indra, cou ld not accept the invitation and Nimi had to return disappointed. At this he got angry, sought the help of Satananda, the son of the great hermit Gautama and th e sacrifice was begun. Vasistha did not like this. He cursed Nimi that life migh t be separated from his body. Nimi retorted with the same curse. Vasistha's spir it separated itself from his body and began to roam about in the sky. At .last h e requested Brahma to provide him with a body. Brahma granted his wish and said that he would be born again from Mitra and Varuna. When the spirit of Vasistha returned to the earth it was Mitra and Varuna moving about, having only one body for both. Vasistha's spirit entered into that body. One day Mitra-Varuna happened to see the celestial beauty, Urvasi on the seasho re. They embraced Urvasi and immediately the spirit of Vasistha entered the body of Urvasi. After this Mitra and Varuna separated themselves from one another o different bodies. Varuna approached Urvasi with lustful desire, him Urvasi accepted Mitra. Varuna had seminal flow and this semen kept in a pot. At the sight of this, remorse and passion arose in and assumed tw but rejecting was taken and Urvasi and the

semen of Mitra already received in her womb oozed out and fell on the ground. T his also was. collected and kept in the same pot along with that of Varuna. Afte r a few days the pot broke open by itself and two babies came out. One was Agast ya and the other Vasistha. As these two were born of the semen of Mitra and Varu na, they came to be known as Maitravarunis later. This story partly occurs in Sa nti Parva of Mahabharata, Verse 343 of Chapter 88. 3) Education. Very little is mentioned in the Puranas about the education of Aga stya. Still there are ample proofs that he was well-versed in the Vedas and scie nces and well skilled in the uses of diverse weapons. In Verse 9, Chapter 139 of Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Drona says to Arjuna as follows: "Agnivesa, my teacher was the disciple of Agastya, in the art of using bows and arrows and I am his disciple". When it is said that even Agnivesa the teacher of Drona was a disciple of Agasty a, his proficiency in the art of using weapons could easily be discerned. 4) Marriage. There is an interesting story behind the marriage of such an auster e man as Agastya, who had brought all the passions under control. As the hermit Agastya was walking along the forest, he saw his ancestors (Pitrs) hanging head downwards in a canyon. He wanted to know the reason and they replied "Child; we would be allowed to enter heaven only if sons are born to you. So get married as soon as possible". The necessity of marriage occurred to him only th en. But will there be any woman who could be patient enough to become the wife o f this bearded dwarfish hermit ? Agastya did not lose heart. .At that time the o btain a King of Vidarbha was doing penance to son. Agastya collected the quintessence of all living beings, with which he created an extremely beautiful lady and named her Lopamudra. Agastya gave Lopamudra as daughter to the King of Vidarbha. The K ing who was delighted at getting such a daughter, employed hundreds of maids to look after the child, who soon grew up to be a young lady. Agastya once approach ed the King of Vidarbha and expressed his wish to have Lopamudra as his wife. The King was in a dilemma. On the one hand he did not like his beautiful daughter having the brightness of fire, to be given as wife to the hermit, clad in the bark of trees and wearing tufts of matted hair. On the other hand he was afraid of the curse of the hermit Agastya. As the King was trying hard to find a solution, Lopamudra herself came to the King and said "Father, I am happy to say that I shall willingly become t he wife of the hermit Agastya." At last her: father consented and discarding roy al garments and ornaments, Lopamudra accompanied Agastya. It is mentioned in Van a Parva, Chapter 130, Verse 5, that they were married at Mahasindhutirtha. After their marriage they went to Gangadvara. (Mahabharata; Vana Parva, Chapter 96) . 5) The story of horn Agastya ate Patdl4i. While Agastya was doing severe penance , Lopamudra attained puberty and had menstruation. Longing for a child, she went and stood beside Agastya. She expressed her wish to lead a family life. Her dem ands did not stop there. During conjugation, Agastya should wear flower garlands and ornaments, and she must be provided with divine ornaments. Agastya was surp rised at the enormity of her demands. Poor, penniless Agastya ! Leaving Lopamudr a in the hermitage he went in search of money. He at first approached King Sruta rva, who produced accounts of his income and expenditure and convinced Agastya t hat he was having no balance at all. Agastya, accompanied by Srutarva, then proc eeded to King Bradhnasva. He also produced accounts and refused to help Agastya, who then followed by Srutarva and Bradhnasva went on to the wealthy King Trasad asyu, who also producing his accounts refused to reorder any help to Agastya. Fi nally Agastya accompanied by the three Kings, went to the house of Ilvala, a nob

le asura of immense wealth. This asura Ilvala lived in Manimatpattana with his younger brother Vatapi. Once Ilvala approached a hermit Brahmin and requested that his wish for a son, having the power and status of Indra, be granted. The Brahmin refused to grant such a boon. Since then ilvala and Vatapi considered Brahmins as their enemies. The eld er brother converted the younger one (Vatapi) into a goat and whenever a Brahmin visited his house, he would kill the goat, prepare mutton dishes and set them b efore his guest. When he had finished eating, Ilvala would call aloud. "Vatapi, come out". Breaking the stomach of the,guest open, Vatapi would come oat. In thi s way Ilvala had killed a good number of Brahmins. It was at this j ancture that Agastya and the Kings came to beg money of him. Ilvala welcomed the guests with hospitality and as usual killed the goat, prepar ed food with it and served the food before Agastya. When Agastya had finished ea ting, Ilvala called Vatapi loudly. But Agastya slowly said, "Vatapi, jirno bhava " (Let Vatapi be digested) and immediately Vatapi was digested in the stomach of Agastya. The awe-stricken asura Ilvala gave each Brahmin ten thousand cows and as much gold and to Agastya he doubled the quantity of alms. Over and above this , he presented Agastya with a chariot hitched with two fine horses called Virava n and not extricate himself from the hold of the snake, who eventually informed Bhima of its previous history. When Bhima understood that the serpent was none o ther than Nahusa, a King of the Surya dynasty (Solar), he felt sorry for him. Dh armaputra, who came there in search of Bhima, talked with Nahusa, who immediatel y regained his original form and went to heaven. (Mahabharata, Chapter 17 of Udy oga Parva; Chapter 179 of Vana Parva; Chapter 342 of Santi Parva). 9) How Agastya drank up the ocean. Indra ruthlessly killed Vrttrasura, who had b een harassing the Gods, with the help of the Kalakeyas. The frightened Kalakeyas got into the ocean and hid themselves at the bottom. From that hideout they dec ided to destroy the three worlds. At night they came out on the earth and ate a good deal of Brahmins, and caused much damage to the hermitages of Vasistba and Cyavana. All the Brahmins on the earth were terribly afraid of the Kalakeyas. Th e gods went to Visnu and prayed for protection. Visnu informed them that the Kal akeyas could not be caught unless the ocean was dried up, and this task could be performed only by Agastya. So the Gods approached Agastya and told him what Vis nu had informed them. With pleasure Agastya accepted the job. Accompanied by the Gods and hermits he neared the swaying and surging ocean. While all were watchi ng unwinkingly Agastya brought the great ocean into his palm and drank it up ver y easily and subsequently the Kalakeyas were killed. Now the Gods again approach ed Visnu and made representation about the loss of the ocean. Visnu told them th at by the penance of Bhagiratha the divine Ganga would fall into the earth and t hen the ocean will be filled. In this way the earth regained its lost ocean. (Ma habharata, Vana Parva, Chapters 101 to 105). 10) Agastya cursing Kubera and his companion. In the course of their sojourn in forest, the Pandavas visited several holy places and reached the proximity of th e Himalayas. Leaving his brothers behind, Aijuna went up the Mahameru to worship Siva. Years passed by. At last his brothers also started for the Mahameru in se arch of Arjuna and with the help of the hermits Vrsaparva and Arstisena, they re ached Kuberapuri (the capital of Kubera). There Bhima destroyed the army of Kube ra and killed Maniman, his friend and favourite. Dharmaputra, repenting of his y ounger brother's iniquity bowed before Kubera and asked hint with politeness, wh y the power of Gods gave way to the power of man. Kubera replied that it was due to the curse of Agastya and began to depict the event thus : Once my friend Man iman and myself were going, in a chariot, to be present at the singing and chant ing just begun at Kusavati. At that time Agastya was standing in his hermitage o n the bank of Kalindi, performing Sun worship. When Maniman saw this from the sk y, he spat on the head of Agastya, who instantly getting wild cursed me. "Lo, Ku bera, your friend Maniman spat on my head in your sight. So this Maniman and you

r army will meet with death at a man's hand. When they die you should not feel s orry for them. If it becomes possible for you to meet the man who killed Maniman you will be liberated from the curse." It is this curse that brought about the death of Maniman and the army. When Kube ra saw Bhima face to face his curse was - revoked. (Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Cha pter 160). 11) Agastya cursing Maraca and Tddakd. The boys Rama and Laksmana went to the fo rest with ViAvamitra for protecting sacrifice. When they entered the Tadaka fore st Visvamitra told them the story of Tadaka thus :Tadaka is the daughter of Suketu, a semi god of the tribe Yaksa. Being childless for a long time Suketu was miserable and began to do penance before Brahma, who blessed him and granted his wish and a daughter was born to him. This daughter was named Tadaka. Brahma blessed her, giving her the strength of one thousand el ephants. Tadaka grew up and became a young woman. Suketu gave her in marriage to Sunda, son of Iharjha. Tadaka gave birth to a son called Marica. When Sunda was killed, Tadaka got wild and ran into the hermitage of Agastya causing much havo c there. At this Agastya got angry and cursed her to become a Raksasi (giantess) and instantly the bodies of Tadaka and Marica were deformed. Tadaka could not c ontrol her anger and she demolished the hermitage of Agastya. (Valmiki Ramayana, Bala-kanda). 12) The story of the theft of lotus. Once Bhrgu, Vasistha and other hermits went on a pilgrimage, with Indra as their leader. On the way they reached Brahmasara s, in the holy place of Kausiki. Agastya had grown some lotus flowers there. The pilgrims plucked stealthily all the lotus flowers nurtured by Agastya and ate t hem. The furious Agastya got into the midst of the hermits in search of the culp rit. None admitted the theft. Finally he caught hold of Indra, as the thief. Ind ra said "O, Lord, had it not been for my eagerness to hear discourses on duty fr om your face, I would not have stolen your lotus flowers." Saying thus Indra ret urned the lotus flowers. Agastya was pleased and let Indra and the hermits depar t in peace. (Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter 94). 13) How Agastya burned the Asuras (demons). (This story occurs in the Mahabharat a as, having been told by the God Vayu to Bhisma as a discourse on the greatness of Agastya, and Bhisma reiterating it to Arjuna) . Once the God:, had to accept defeat at the hands of the Asuras (Demons) and they approached Agastya and said thus : Oh, hermit, since we have been defeated by t he Asuras, our prosperity is at an end. There is none to help us but you." Heari ng this Agastya became angry and began to burn the Asuras to death, by the merit s of his penance. Many of them fell down on the earth and some fell into Patala (the nether world). The asuras who thus fell were not killed by Agastya. Thus th e menace of the Asuras in heaven was warded off, and the Gods lived in peace and prosperity. (Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter 155, Verses 1 to 13). 14) Indra's conflict with Agastya. Once Agastya commenced a sacrifice of twelve years' duration. Many hermits participated in this sacrifice. No sooner had the hermit begun the sacrifice, than Indra, (the God of Thunder and Rain) stopped ra in in the world. Crops could not be raised. But Agastya provided everybody who t ook part in the sacrifice, with sumptuous meals. The hermits wondered how Agasty a could do this. Some of the hermits feared that the sacrifice would have to be stopped before the stipulated time, if the drought continued. Agastya told them not to fear, and that if Indra refused to send rain, he himself would become Ind ra and protect the subjects. Indra was horrified, when he heard this and he bega n to send rain regularly. (Malzabharata, Asvamedhika Parva, Chapter 92). 1:5) Story of Gajendramoksa (The redemption of an elephant) .

In the Bharata a story occurs, as to how Agastya cursed King Indradyumna, and tu rned him to an elephant. While Indradyumna, the King of Pandya was absorbed in d eep meditation on Visnu, Agastya reached the palace. Being immersed in meditatio n the King failed to notice the arrival of the great hermit, who getting angry w ith the King, cursed him to become an elephant, for one thousand years. Instantl y the King was deformed into a big tusker and quitting the palace it went to a b ig forest and lived there happily with the she-elephants there. At that time a h ermit named Devala was doing penance in that forest. One day Huhu, a gandharva ( a class of semi-gods) enjoying the company of some celestial maids came to the p lace where Devala had put up his hermitage. The hermit saw the Gandharva and the maids playing and bathing in the pond in front of his hermitage in complete nud ity. Getting angry Devala cursed Hahn and he was deformed into a crocodile. This pond which was in the Trikuta Mountain was thus under the suzerainty of the cro codile. The tusker (Indradyumna) entered the pond to drink water. The crocodile caught hold of the leg of the elephant. Each tried to pull the other with equal force. This fight is said to have lasted for a thousand years. When both were ti red, godly feelings began to dawn in their minds. Then, riding on an eagle Mahav isnu appeared before them, cut them asunder with his Cakrayudha (the wheel-weapo n) and both were given deliverance. (Bhagavata, 8th Skandha, Chapter 2). 16) Agastya teaching Sri Rama the Jditya-hrdaya Mantra (A hymn in praise of the Sun). When Sri Rama was fighting with Ravana in Lanka, dejection befell bim, his heart being weighed down with faintness, for a little while. Ravana made the be st use of this opportunity and began to advance. The gods had gathered in the sk y above to witness the fight. Agastya, at that particular moment, taught Sri Ram a the Adytya-hrdaya Mantra, a hymn in praise of the Sun-god and when Sri Rama ch anted that mantra, he resumed fight with Vigour and Ravana was defeated and slai n. (Valmiki Ramayana, Yuddha Kanda, Sarga 107) 17) How the slant of the earth was rectified by seating Agastya. The matrimonial ceremony of Sri Paramevara and Parvati was held in the Himalayas. On that auspi cious occasion all the living beings of the world were present, and as a result the Himalayan region sank down and the earth slanted to that side. To keep the e quilibrium of the earth, Siva sent Agastya to the south. Accordingly Agastya rea ched Kuttalam, where there was a temple dedicated to the worship of Visnu. Agast ya had besmeared his forehead with ashes and so admission to the temple was deni ed to him, by the devotees there who were Vaisnavites. By his own power Agastya turned himself into a vaisnavite and got into the temple, and immediately the im age of Visnu in the temple changed by itself into a Sivalinga(idol representing Siva). Since then the temple at Kuttalam has remained a temple of Siva. Agastya proceeded to the southernmost point of the earth and sat there and because of hi s weight the earth regained its normal position. (Skanda Purana). 18) Agastya and the Kraunca Mountain. When Agastya passed the Vindhya mountain a nd proceeded to the South a Raksasa (giant) called Kraunca hindered his way. By his power the Raksasa caused to fall everywhere a very heavy rain. Agastya sprin kled a few drops of water from his waterpot on Kraufica, who instantly became a mountain. Telling him that he would get deliverance from the curse when the weap on of Subrahmanya struck him, Agastya continued his journey to the South. (Skand a Purana.). 19) Agastya and the River Kaveri. Once Surapadma, an Asura (demon) drove the God s out from heaven. Indra came to Siyali a place in the district of Tanjavur (T a njore) and began to do penance to please Siva. Rain was completely stopped. Agas tya had compressed the river Kaveri and held the water in his waterpot. Ganapati having come to know of this, came in the form of a crow and toppled the waterpo t. Agastya got angry and ran after the crow, which immediately assumed the form of a boy. Agastya caught hold of him. The boy instantly revealed himself as Subr ahmanya and granted Agastya a boon. "Your waterpot will always be full". Since t

hen there had never been shortage of water in the Kaveri. (Skanda Purana). 20) Agastya in the palace of Bhadrasva. Once Agastya lived in the palace of Bhad rasva as his guest for seven days. Agastya praised Kantimati the queen on severa l occasions. The King wanted to know the reason. Agastya said : During her previ ous birth Kantimati was the handmaid of a rich man. On one occasion of dvadasi ( twelfth night after full moon) in the month of Tula (second half of October and first half of November) the rich man had asked his handmaid to see that the ligh ts in a certain temple did not go out and she did so, in consequence of which, d uring her current birth she has become your queen, bearing the name Kantimati. T he King and the queen were much pleased at this explanation of Agastya and thenc eforward they began to observe dvadasi as a day of fasting. (Vayu Purana). 21) Agastya cursing Urvasi, Yayanta and Narada. Once Agastya went to the realm o f the Gods, as a guest of Indra. On that day a performance of dance by Urvasi wa s held in honour of Agastya. In the midst of the dance Urvasi's eyes fell on Jay anta and she fell in love with him; her steps went out of beat. Narada also went wrong slightly in playing on his famous lute called Mahati. Agastya got angry a nd cursed Urvasi, Jayanta and Narada. According to the curse Jayanta became a bu d. Urvasi was born in the earth as a woman called Madhavi and `Mahati' the lute of Narada became the lute of the people of the earth. 22) Agastya cursing DusPanya. Dupanya was the last son of the King of Pataliputr a. The wicked Duspanya had slain a large number of babies, and the King therefor e expelled him from the palace. Duspanya went into the forest, where he caught h old of the child of Ugraravas and killed it by putting it under water. Ugraravas cursed him and accordingly he fell into water and died and his spirit became a ghost and wandered about tormented with pain and anguish. At last the spirit app roached Agastya, who called his disciple Sutisna and asked him to gc and bathe i n the Agnitirtha (a bath) in the Gandhamadana mountain and bring some water from the tirtha and sprinkle it on the spirit of Duspanya. Sutisna acted accordingly and immediately the spirit of Duspanya received divine figure and entered heave n. (Seta Mahatmya) . 23) Hors Agastya got golden Bangle. Once Agastya entered a forest of about a hun dred yojanas wide. The forest was devoid of life. When he had walked a few more steps some Gandharvas (semi-gods) and celestial maids came there singing and dan cing. From among them a noble male being came forward to the bank of a lake in t he forest and ate without any hesitation, the corpse of a man that was lying the re. After that he walked round Agastya and made obeisance to him. Agastya asked him why he had eaten the corpse of a man. The noble man told Agastya thus: "In T reta-yuga (the third age) there lived a King named Vidarbha. I am his son and my name is Sveta. After having ruled. over my kingdom for a long time, I came to t he bank of this lake and began to do penance. After that discarding my body I en tered heaven. Though I attained heaven my hunger was not appeased. I asked Brahm a how, I, a dweller of heaven, got this hunger. Brahma said that when I was King I had given nothing to anybody and so I got this hunger even after entering hea ven- As a remedy Brahma suggested that I should come here everyday and eat ,corp se and when I had completed ten thousand days the hermit Agastya would come here and that when I offered him a golden bangle my sin would be washed away." Sayin g thus Sveta offered to Agastya the golden bangle given by Brahma and then he va nished and the corpse also disappeared. Sveta went to heaven. (Uttara Ramayana). 24) Other informations concerning Agastya. (1) Agastya had a brother called Suds a. (Agnipurana, Chapter 7) . (2) Sutisna was Agastya's disciple too. (Seta Mahatmya) . (3) Ilvala. and Vatapi were the sons of the giantess Ajamukhi In the valley of a

mountain Ajamukhi prayed to Durvasas for love and thus Ilvala and Vatapi were b orn from Durvasas. These two sons demanded that Durvasas should impart to them a ll his merits of penance. Getting angry Durvasas cursed them that they would mee t with death at the hands of Agastya. (Skandapurana, Asura Kanda). (4) Agastya had been the priest of the King Khela. (Rgveda, 112th Sukta). (5) When Sri Rama returned to Ayodhya: with Sita from Lanka, hermits from variou s parts visited him, among whom, Dattatreya, Namuci, Pramuci, Sri Valmiki, Soma, Kandu, Agastya and their disciples were from the South. (Uttara Ramayana). AGASTYA SARAS (6) Agastya gave Sri Rama an arrow, which, when shot at an asura (demon) would p ierce his heart, pass on to the other side, fly to the sea and bathe in the seawater and return to the quiver, it is said. (Uttara Ramayana) . (7) Once Agastya visited the hermitage of Apastamba. He asked Agastya, who, of B rahma, Visnu and Siva, was the Supreme deity. Agastya replied: "These three are only three different manifestations of the one supreme Being". (Brahmapurana) . (8) For the story of how Agastya cursed the sons of Manibhadra and transformed t hem to seven palms, see the word `Saptasala'. (9) There was a hermit called Sutisna, to whom Sri Rama and Laksmana paid a visi t when they were wandering in the forest. This Sutisna is the younger brother of Agastya. (fee the word Sutisna). (10) Agastya cursed Suka and deformed him into a Raksasa. (See the word guka ii. ). 25) Conclusion. It is believed that the great hermit Agastya, who had performed such wonderful deeds by the merits of his penance, is still doing penance in the Agastya Kuta hills. Agastya who had travelled throughout the length and breadth of Bharata had several hermitages. In the Valmiki Ramayana, Aranya-kanda, Sarga 11, a description is given, of a beautiful hermitage of Agastya, and the peacef ul atmosphere that prevailed in and around it. Agastya had presented to Sri Rama a bow got from Visnu, when the brothers visited his hermitage. Agastya had acco mpanied Sri Rama and his followers on his return journey to Ayodhya from Lanka, with Situ after killing Ravana. There is a legend in the Tamilnad that Agastya w as a member of the first two `Sanghas' (groups) of the "three Sanghas", mentione d in Tamil literature. As Agastya was dwarfish he is mentioned as Kurumuni, (sho rt hermit) in Tamil works. He has written a Tamil grammar on music, literature a nd drama. But this work is not available now. The Tamil Grammar `Tolkapyam', whi ch is considered to be the oldest grammar, was written by Tolkapyar, one of the twelve disciples of Agastya. Even today in certain temples in the Tamilnad, Agas tya-worship is carried on. Kambar, has mentioned about Agastya m his Ramayana. A great Tamil author Villiputturan says that the Tamil language is the beautiful maiden presented by Agastya. It is believed that the following works have been composed by Agastya: 1) Agastya Gita ; in the Varahapurana, Palupalopakhyana. 2) Agastya Sarnhita; in Pancaratra. 3) Agastya Samhita, in the Skandapurana. 4) Siva Samhita, in Bhaskara Samhita. 5) Dvaidha-nirnaya Tantra.

AGASTYA KLTTA. This is the sacred mount where the sage, Agastya, sat and did pen ance during his sojourn in the southern parts of India. In the Kiskindha Kanda o f Valmiki Ramayana we find King Sugriva commanding that all .his soldiers going in search of Sita should pay homage to the sage Agastya. AGASTYA PARVATA. This is a mountain in South India believed to belong to the Kal anjara mountain range. Agastya Kuta is in this mountain. AGASTYA SARAS. This is another name for Agastya tirtha. AGASTYA-ASRAMA. The Puranas make mention of several asramas connected with sage Agastya. The Pandavas during their exile visited an asrama of this name. This is situated near Pancavati twenty-four miles to the south-east of Nasik. It is kno wn as Agastya-giri now. (Sloka 20, Chapter 80; and gloka 1, Chapter 96 of Vana P arva, M.B.). The Mahabharata mentions another Agastya Asrama near Prayaga. Dharmaputra along with Saint Lomasa stayed here for some time. Valmiki describes an asrama of this name which Rama and Laksmana visited during their exile in the forests. (Chapte r 11, Aranya Kanda of the Ramayana). AGASTYA TIRTHA. This is one of the five tirthas or sacred places of worship lyin g scattered in the southern. ocean. The other four are the following: (1) The Sa ubhadra tirtha (2) The Pauloma tirtha (3) The Karandhama tirtha and (4) the Atip avana tirtha. These five were known as Panca tirthas and many saints used to liv e there. There laved in each of these tirthas one huge and fierce crocodile and all the saints living there, afraid of these crocodiles, deserted their places o ne by one. (Ref : Sloka 3, Chapter 220 of Adi Parva, M.B. For more details see u nder Panca tirtha) . AGASTYA VATA. This is a sacred shrine in the neighbourhood of the Himalayas. Arj una paid a visit to this place while he was living with his brothers in the fore sts during their period of exile. (Sloka 2, Chapter 214 of Adi Parva, M.B.). AGATI. A city. Two sons Taksaka and Chattraketu were born to Laksmana (the broth er of Sri Rama) by his wife Urmila. The court of the eldest prince T-aksaka was situated in the city of Agati. Formerly this place was known as Kanakhala and wa s occupied by forest tribes. Exterminating these forest tribes, Laksmana built a city there and apportioned it to his eldest son Taksaka. (Uttara Ramayana). AGHA. The name of an asura. This asura was one of the followers of Kamsa. Accord ing to the instructions of Kamsa, Agha once set out to Gokula to kill Sri Krsna. At that time Sri Krsna was playing on the-is of the river Kalindi with other co wherds. Agha-ansura watched the games of the children from the sky above. Thep h e transformed himself into a colossal serpent and lay with his mouth wide open; his open mouth looked like an immense cave. The foul smell coming from his mouth soon spread over the whole place. Sri Krsna and the other children did not know anything about this. In the course of their games they walked into the cave-lik e mouth of Agha and were soon trapped in his belly. Agha then closed his mouth a nd all the boys including Sri Krsna were now imprisoned inside his body. Some of the boys died. Realizing the situation Sri Krsna now enlarged his body. His bod y grew larger and larger until at last it burst open the body of the serpent (Ag ha). Thus Agha was killed. Sri Krsna then restored the dead boys to life by his divine looks (Kataksa). This Aghasura was the brother of Bakasura and Putana. (B hagavata, Skandha 10, Chapter 12). AGHAMARSANA. He was a great hermit of austerity, who had observed the duties per taining to Vanaprastha (the third of the four stages of life-forest hermit). (M. B., Santi Parva, Chapter 244, Stanza 16).

*Manas=Mind. Putra=Son. Manasa-putras are sons created from AGHAMARSANA SLTKTA. This is a hymn in the Rgveda. It is said that all sins will be eliminated, if this hymn is recited three times, standing in water. AGHARDDANAVAMI. (See the word NTAVAMI V RATA) . AGHASVA. A King hermit (Rajarsi) named Pedu. (Rgveda, Mandala 1, Anuvaka 17, Suk ta 116). AGN I. 1) Genealogy. Agni was descended from Visnu in this order : Visnu-Brahma-Angiras -Brhaspati-Agni. 2) Birth. We come across several contradictory statements in the Puranas regardi ng the birth of Agni. There is some real difficulty, therefore, in tracing corre ctly the true, genealogy of Agni. The one given above is based on statements in Bhagavata and Mahabharata. Angiras is one of the six mind-born sons of Brahma. Angiras married Sraddha and got four daughters and two sons. Brhaspati was one o f the sons and Utatthya was the other. The daughters were Sinivali, Kuhu, Raka a nd Anumati. (There is a mention of a third son named Sarirvarta in the Bhagavata by Eluthassan though the original quoted below does not say so) Utatthyo bhagavan saksat Brahmisthasca Brhaspatih. Brhaspati married Candramasi and got six divine sons. (r)f these Sariryu, the eldest, married Satya and Agni was born to Samyu of Satya. (Slokas 1 to 4, Chapter 219, Aranya Kanda of Malayal am Mahabharata). 3) Agni-One of the Asta-dikpalakas. (Asta=eight, dik=zone, palaka=guardian). The Devi Bhagavata states in its eighth chapter that Agni is one of the eight guard s posted at the eight different zones to protect the universe. Indra guards the east; Agni, the southeast; Yama the south; Nirrti, the south-west; Varuna, the w est; Vayu, the north-west; Kubera, the North and Siva, the north-east. The place where Agni sits on guard is known as tejovati. 4) Agni-One of the five elements. The universe is believed to be composed of fiv e elements of which Agni is one. The other four are Water, Earth, Ether and Air. 5) 7hestory of how Agna gave a M4yd Sitd (Phantom Sftd) to grf Rama. During thei r exile in the forests Rama and Laksmana were for some time living in an asrama built on the shores of the ocean. One day Agni disguised as a Brahmin approached them and said °`O, Sri Rama, thou art born to kill the demon Ravana and save the world from his atrocities. Sita is going to be a cause for that. Time is not far for you to finish this duty of yours. Ravana is soon to come and kidnap your wi fe, Sita. You must, therefore, allow me to play a trick on Ravana. Entrust Sita with me and I shall keep her safe. In her place here you can keep a Maya Sita (P hantom Sita) which will be a live replica of your real wife. In the end when you take back Sita after killing Ravana you will be compelled to throw your wife in to the fire to test her chastity. At the mind of Brahma, 81oka ro, Chapter 65, A di Parva, M.B. That time I will take back the replica and give you back your real wife". Sri Ra ma was very much pleased to hear this. Agni then, by his yogic powers created a Phantom Sita and gave her to him. Rama kept this as a secret even from Laksmana. In the great Rama-Ravana battle Ravana was killed and Sri Rama took back Sita t o his kingdom. Then respecting public opinion and wishing to establish in public the purity of his queen King Sri Rama put her into the fire. At that moment Agn i took back the replica and gave back the real Sita to Sri Rama. Sad thus came o ut from the fire unscathed. Later, on the advice of Rama and Agni, the Phantom S

ita went to the sacred place Puskara and started doing tapas (penance) there. Af ter doing tapas for a long period of three lakhs of divine years this Phantom Si ta became known as Svargalaksmi. It was this Svargalaksmi that later on in the D vapara-yuga came out from the yajna kunda of King Pancala as Pancali and became the consort of the Par:davas. Vedavati, daughter of Kusadhvaja in Krta-yuga, Sit a, daughter of Janaka in the Treta-yuga, and Pancali, daughter of Drupada in Dva para-yuga are one and the same person. On account of this she is known as trihay ani also. (Chapter 9 of Devi Bhagavata). 6) The story of how Agni got indigestion. In olden times there was a bold and mi ghty King called Svetaki. He conducted several different types of yajna. Afflict ed by the unending dense smoke in the yajna hall all the ascetics left the place and went their way. Undaunted by this, Svetaki started another twelve-year sacr ifice in which not a single sage took part. The sages rebuked him and said if he wanted to conduct a sacrifice again he could invite sudras to help him. (Sudras belong to the lowest caste among Hindus and are not allowed to participate in s acrifices generally.) Enraged by this insult Svetaki went to Kailasa and did fie rce penance. Lord Siva appeared before him and gave him Durvasas as a priest for his yajna. For twelve years sage Durvasas performed the yajna pouring into the mouth of Agni through the sacrificial pit unlimited materials of food. Agni was overfed and he got indigestion. He lost all appetite for food, became weak and t he Brilliance of his face faded. (Chapter 235, Adi Parva, M.B.). 7) The story of how Agni burnt the big forest, Khandava. When the indigestion continued without abate for some time Agni approached Brahm a and asked for a cure. Brahma declared that his indigestion would be cured if A gni could burn the huge forest, Khandava, the abode of the enemies of the Devas. Agni immediately started consuming the forest. But the inhabitants of the fores t soon quenched the fire. Disappointed Agni went to Brahma again and the latter advised him to wait for some time till the advent of Nara-Narayanas to that fore st. They would then help Agni to burn the forest. Agni waited for the time to co me. At that time the Pandavas were living in Indraprastha with Sri Krsna. When t he heat became unbearable there Arjuna and Krsna came to the banks of river Yamu na. Hearing about the arrival of Krsna and Arjuna who were none but the incarnat ions of Sarayana and Nara, Agni disguised as a brahmin approached them and reque sted them to help him to burn the Khandava forest. Agni added that any attempt o f his to burn the forest was always foiled by Indra who would send a heavy downp our of rain to quench the fire because Taksaka, an intimate friend of Indra, was living there. To gain his end Agni gave Arjuna an arrow-case which would never be empty, a cha riot bearing a monkey flag, four white horses adorned with gold chains and also the famous Gandiva bow. To Sri Krsna he gave the cakrayudha or the divine wheelweapon. (All these military equipments were once given to Agni by Varuna.) When all these were given to them Krsna and Arjuna got ready to help Agni to burn the forest. Agni started burning the forest; Indra at once sent a heavy downpour of rain and Arjuna created a canopy of arrows above the forest preventing the rain s from falling on the forest. Agni carried on his work undisturbed, the forest w as burnt and Agni was cured of his indigestion. (Slokas 233 to 239, Adi Parva, M .B.). 8) Agni falls in love. As an inaugural procedure to the great Rajasuya which Dha rmaputra performed at Indraprastha his four brothers Bhima, Arjuna, Nakula and S ahadeva conducted a victory march to the four different sides of the kingdom. Sa hadeva who turned south conquered many kings including Dantavaktra and Bhismaka and reached a country called Mahimatipura. There he had to encounter a powerful* king called Nila. Before long there broke a fire in his camp. Disheartened, Sah adeva prayed to the God, Agni, for help. It was then that Sahadeva came to know about the ties between Agni and Nila.

King Nila had a beautiful daughter named Sudarsana. Once when she was talking to her father after having entered the Agni-hotra Agni fell in love with her. From that day onwards Agni became dreamy about the beautiful lips of Sudarsana. It r eached a stage when Agni would burn only if it was blown by the lips of Sudarsan a. This ended in Agni marrying Sudargana. After the marriage Agni lived in the p alace of his father-in-law, King Nila, as a useful ally. It was at this time tha t Sahadeva came to conquer Nila. But Agni knew that for the proper conduct of th e Rajasuya of Dharmaputra his father-in-law had to surrender to Sahadeva and so advised his father-in-law to do so. What appeared to be a difficult problem was thus easily solved. (Chapter 31, Sabha Parva, M.B.). 9) How Emperor gibz was tested by Agni. Once Agni and Indra thought of testing h ow strong and deep was the sense of charity in Emperor gibi. Indra took the shap e of a hawk and Agni that. of a dove and the dove flew and dropped down into the lap of the Emperor who was at that time doing a yaga. The hungry hawk came chas ing its prey and finding the dove in the lap of the Emperor said : "O King, as i t proper on your part to withhold my food from me, and keep it in your lap ?" He aring this gibi replied: "This dove has sought refuge in me. It is my duty to gi ve it protection. If it is only food you want I shall give you food." Sibi then offered many things including his kingdom to the hawk in return for the dove. Bu t the hawk refused them all and finally agreed to accept an equal weight of fles h from the body of the Emperor. gibi without any hesitation cut a portion of his thigh and weighed it against the dove in a scale. The dove weighed more and the Emperor started putting more and more flesh from his body to make the weight eq ual. But the dove always weighed more and at last the Emperor said lie would wei gh himself against the dove. As the weak and fleshless Emperor was about to get into the an of the scale Agni and Indra emerged from the bodies of the dove and hawk and appeared before the Emperor. They blessed him and immediately took him to heaven. (Chapter 131, Vana Parva, M.B.) . 10) Agni and the testicles of a goat,. The occasion is when sage Visvamitra is t aking Rama and Laksmana to the forests to give protection to the sages against t he demons. They reached the place where Ahalya lay as a stone cursed by Gautama. Vi4vamitra told them the story: "It was here that the great sage, Gautama, live d with his beautiful consort, Ahalya. Once Indra had an intercourse with her pri vately and Gautama coming to know of the misdeed cursed her and turned her into stone. By the curse of the same sage Indra lost his testicles. Greatly aggrieved by this loss Indra prayed to god Agni for help and on the advice of Agni the de vas removed the deformity by placing a goat's testicles instead." (Slokas 48 & 4 9, Bala Kanda, Valmiki Ramayana). 11) How sage Bhrgu cursed Agui. Sage Bhrgu was living with his wife Puloma in hi s asrama. Puloma became pregnant. One day when Bhrgu wanted to go out for a bath in the river he asked Agni to keep a watch over his pregnant wife. There was. a demon by name Puloina who was once in love with Puloma. On this particular day Puloma entered the asrama to see his former love. When he entered the asrama Pul oma saw Agni there burning with a brilliant flame in the fire-pit. Puloma said : "O God of fire, if I ask you a question you must give me an impartial reply. I was in love with this Puloma and I had accepted her as my wife spiritually. But, then, her father gave her to Bhrgu. Who, then, is the true owner of Puloma ?" A gni was afraid of Bhrgu. Yet he explained the position honestly. "It is true tha t Puloma has married Bhrgu. But he has not married her according to Hindu rites. " Hearing this the demon changed himself into the shape of a swine and carried a way Puloma. On the way Puloma delivered a male babe and it fell on the ground. T he boy was named Cyavana. It was this boy that became later on the famous Cyavan a Maharsi. Even at birth the boy was brilliant as the Sun to look at and Puloma, the demon, noticing the unusual brilliance of the child left the mother and chi ld on the way and fled frightened. Puloma returned to the asrama carrying the ch ild weeping profusely all the way and creating a lanchrymal river called Vadhusa

ras. As soon as she entered the asrama the angry sage asked "Who told Puloma tha t you are my wife ?" Puloma then told her husband all that happened there and Bh rgu called Agni and cursed him thus : "May you be a consumer of all things on th is Earth". Greatly aggrieved Agni went away and hid himself. The absence of Agni created chaos in all the three worlds; Heaven, Earth and the Nether-world. A de putation of all the afflicted people waited upon Brahma and Brahma. modified the curse and declared that all that Agni touched would become pure. Agni was conso led and he started his work as usual. 12) How Agni cursed frogs, birds and elephants. Many in portaut events took plac e while Agni was underground cursed by Bhrgu. It was during that time that Parva ti cursed all the Devas and the Devas were defeated by the asuras (demons). The necessity of a warrior capable of defeating the asuras arose then. The idea of c reating Lord Subrahmanya came up and Brahma said that only Agni could help them in this matter since Agni was the only one who escaped from the curse of Parvati , being underground at the time of the curse. The Devas started a vigilant searc h but Agni was not to be found. Agni was then hiding inside the ocean. The ocean was getting hot and the animals living there found their life unbearable. Frogs went to the devas and told them where Agni was hiding. Enraged at this Agni cur sed the frogs saying that they would never be able to find the taste of anything . Frogs went weeping to the devas who in turn blessed the frogs saying that they would acquire the ability to move about easily in any darkness. Agni changed hi s place of hiding and went and hid in a big banyan tree. An elephant going by th at way found him out and informed the devas; knowing this Agni cursed the elepha nts saying that its tongue would go deep inside. But the devas blessed the eleph ants saying that the position of the tongue would never be a hindrance to free e ating and that elephants would be able to eat anything and everything. Agni left the banyan tree and hid himself in the hollow of a ~ami tree. A little bird liv ing in that tree gave information to the devas and the devas found him out befor e he got time to leave the place. Agni cursed the bird saying that its tongue wo uld always be curved inside and the devas blessed it saying that the curvature w ould help it to sing beautiful songs. Since Agni was found out from gain! tree t his tree became sacred. Since this finding out of Agni after a long absence is l ike a re-birth of Agni the Puranas mention that Agni was born from the Sam! tree . The Devas then requested Agni to help them to create a son capable of conqueri ng the demons.* (Chapter 85, Anusasana Parva, M.B.)13) Birth of Subrahmanya.At that time Varunaperformed a yaga. All the dikpalakas (zone guardians of the universe) including Siva participated in the yaga. Seein g the beautiful wives of the sages Siva had emission. Taking the semen in his ha nd he put it into the fire. Agni carried it to Ganga and requested her to take i t for-conception. Though she at first refused she took it, became pregnant and f inally delivered a male child whom she threw into the forest Saravana. It was th is child who became known as Karttikeya or Subrahmanya later on. (Chapter 85, An usasana Parva, M.B.)14) How Agni blessed Nala. While Nala was going to the weddi ng of Damayanti Indra, Agni, Varuna and KAla accosted him on his way and asked h im to go as a messenger of theirs and advise Damayanti to marry one *Kathasaritsagara gives another version of why Agni went and hid himself under t he ocean. When Kama, the God of Love, was burnt to death by Siva, Parvati, Siva' s wife, did not find a way to get a child for her from her husband. At last Brah ma approached Siva and told him that the absence of Kama was making creation dif ficult. Siva then declared that thereafter Kama would find a place in the minds of all living beings including himself. Parvati and Siva immediately commenced a sexual life which went on incessantly for a hundred years without reaching the climax. The world was agitated and the universe stood on the verge of ruin. The I)evas decided to send Agni to intervene But Agni was afraid of Siva and so went and hid himself under the ocean. (Chapter &, Lavanakalambaka of Kathasaritsagar a). Nala did so but Damayanti was adamant and said she would marry none other than N

ala. So all the four gods appeared as Nala in the wedding hall. Damayanti who wa s confused prayed that she should be shown the real Nala. The gods then changed into their original forms and blessed Nala. Agni said he would come and help him the moment he wanted him. Thus Nala became a good cook and Nala Pacakam (Pacaka rir=cooking) became famous. Even now it is a synonym for good cooking. (Chapter 57, Vana Parva, M.B) 15) Agni and Raritbhd. There was once a danava called Danu. He had two sons name d Rambha and Karambha. They had no children and tormented by this they went to P ancanada and started doing penance. Rarimbha sat in the centre of Pancagni (five fires) and Karambha in water to do penance. Indra afraid of the severe and powe rful tapas of the two took the form of a crocodile and killed Kararizbha who was doing penance in water by dragging him down to the water. Bereaved Rambha start ed to commit suicide by jumping into the fire. God Agni appeared before him then and asked him what he wanted. Rambha then said that he should get a son who wou ld be famous as a warrior in all the three worlds. Agni agreed. Rarizbha on his way back saw a voluptuous she-buffalo and married her at yaksa kavata. They live d a happy married life and one day a he-buffalo envious of their life attacked R arnbha and killed him. Grief-stricken Ramblra's wife jumped into the funeral pyr e and committed suicide. Then from the fire arose a demon named Mahisasura (Mahi sa =Buffalo. Asura=Demon). This buffalodemon became a terror to all in the three worlds later on. (Chapter 5, Devi Bhagavata). 16) Difference of opinion between Agni and Arigiras. Bhagavan Angiras did penanc e in his own asrama and became more brilliant than Agni. The whole world was sub merged in his brilliance. Agni felt a bit depressed at this. Agni argued that it was not proper on the part of Brahma to give anybody else more brilliance than himself. So as a protest against this Agni disappeared from the world. Even Angi ras was annoyed at Agni's disappearance and so he went and consoled Agni and too k him to Brahma. Brahma declared that henceforth the world would recognize Agni as the father and Angiras as his son. Thus Agni got the first place in effulgenc e. This is a story told by sage Markandeya to Dharmaputra. (Chapter 217, Vana Pa rva, M.B.). 17) Agni and Mahabali. On their way to the forest sage Visvamitra to ok Rama and Laksmana to Siddhasrama. The sage explained to the princes the impor tance of that asrama. He said: "Mahavisnu lived in this asrama for a number of y ears. It was at that time that the Emperor of the asuras (demons), Mahabali, son of Virocana, was ruling the world conquering even the devas. After having conqu ered all the three worlds Mahabali decided to conduct a yaga. A deputation of th e Devas headed by Agni then waited upon Mahavignu and Agni said: "O Lord, Mahaba li has commenced a yaga and before it is finished you should go to him and do so mething for the benefit of the devas". It was at this request of Agni that Mahav isnu took the form of Vamana and sent Mahabali to the nether-world. (Chapter 29, Bala-kanda, Valmiki Ramayana). 18) Agni and Nahusa. Repenting for his act of killing Vrtra Indra unknown to any body went and hid in a lotus in the Manasa Saras (Lake Manasa). Perplexec by the disappearance of their leader the devas brought Nahusa from the Earth and made him their leader Nahusa became very proud and arrogant of his neh position and t ried to make Indrani his wife. Indrari went to Brhaspati for help. Brhaspati com mandec Agni to go and find out Indra. Agni searched for hin in forests, rivers a nd oceans. At last he went tc Manasa Saras and searched among the lotuses. Therf he found Indra hiding in a lotus and Brhaspati was duly informed. Then Brhaspat i gave Indrani some clever directions to kill Nahusa and Nahusa was killed. (See Agastya). There is a story in Santi Parva, Chapter 28, of how Agni took for him self a quarter of the sin which Indra acquired because of his killing Vrtra, a b rahmin by birth. (Chapter 14, Udyoga Parva, M.B.). 19) Agni Deva and Karttaviryarjuna. After the great Kuruksetra battle the Pandav as went again to Kuruksetra along with Sri Kåñëa. On their way Krsna showed them the P arasurama-hradas and narrated tc them several stories of Rama. Reference to Agni

comes when Krsna explains the reason why Parasurama cut off the thousand hands of Karttaviryarjuna. It was at the time when Karttaviryarjuna was ruling the thr ee worlds by his might that Agni went and asked for alms from him. Karttavirya g ave Agni mountains and forests for his food which Agni burnt and ate. In one of the forests was the asrama of sage Apava and that also was burnt. Enraged at thi s the sage cursed Karttavirya saying that his thousand hands would be cut off by Parasurama. Though the curse was not seriously minded by the King then, it so h appened that before long Karttavirya had to encounter Parasurama in a battle whe n the children of the King stole a sacrificial cow belonging to Jamadagni, fathe r of Parasurama. In the battle all the thousand hands of Karttaviryarjuna were c ut off by Parasurama. (Chapter 43, Santi Parva, M.B.). 20) How Agni was duped. Once the wives of the Saptarsis (seven Saints) attended a yaga where Agni was also present. Agni fell in love with- them but knowing it to be futile to make any attempt to fulfil his desire he went to the forests dej ected. Svaliadevi, daughter of Daksa was for a long time craving to marry Agni a nd she decided to take advantage, of the opportunity thus offered. Disguising he rself as the wife of Angiras, one of the seven saints, she approached Agni and s aid : "O Lord, I am Siva, wife of Angiras. We were all excited when you darted c upids' arrows against us and they have now selected me to come to you for fulfil ling your desire". Agni believed her and took her as his consort. (Chapters 223 to 227 of Vana Parva, M.B.). 21) How Agni became a doctor. There was once a sage called Dattatreya who had a son called Nimi. Nim! had a son and he died after thousand years. The bereaved s age performed a Sraddha which was attended by all devas. The feast was so sumptu ous that the devas got indigestion after that. Consulting Brahma Agni prescribed a remedy for their indigestion. He said: "whenever you take any food make me al so a participant in that. If you do so you will never get indigestion". That is why a very small portion of any cooked food is first thrown into the fire before given for eating. This story is part of Bhisma's oration to Dharmaputra on the origin of sraddha (The ceremony conducted on the anniversary of the death of a p erson by his son). (Chapter 92, Anusasana Parva, M.B.). 22) How Agni became a horse. There was once a preceptor named Aveda. He got a di sciple named Uttanga. One day Aveda left his asrama for a distant place leaving his disciple in charge of the management of the asrama. The preceptor was absent for along time and his wife started making love to Uttanga. The dutiful discipl e strongly objected to this. When Uttanga completed his course of study under Av eda he enquired what he should give to his preceptor. The preceptor directed him to his wife. The wife who bore a grudge against Uttanga resolved to tease him a nd said that he shoul go to King Pausya and beg of him the earrings worn by his wife. Uttanga started immediately and getting the earrings was coming back when on the way Taksakawrested the ornament from him and went and hid in the nether-w orld. Uttanga followed Taksaka and there Agni in the form of a horse appeared be fore him and asked Uttanga what he wanted. He replied that he wanted to subdue a ll the serpents in the nether-world. Agni then advised him to blow thro the nost rils of the horse. As he did so flames burst forth from all the openings of the horse making the netherworld hot and smoky. Taksaka was frightened and he at onc e gave back the earrings to Uttanga. Uttanga was again worried for he had very l ittle time to carry the earrings to the preceptor in time. Here again Agni helpe d him by carrying him swiftly on his back to the asrama. When the preceptor and his wife found that Uttanga had carried out their wish they blessed him. (Chapte r 3, Adi Parva, M.B.). 23) Agni becomes a messenger. Once there arose a misunderstanding between Brhasp ati and Samvarttaka, sons of Angiras. Brhaspati went to devaloka as priest while the other remained in the world as a mad saint. At that time a King called Maru tta invited Brhaspati to officiate as priest for a yajna of his. But Brhaspati r efused to accept it. Narada saw Marutta in despair and told him thus: "You go to

K5.Si (Benares) and there at Puradvara place a dead body and wait there. Saxhva rttaka, Brhaspati's brother will come and reprimand you. Without minding his sco ldings follow him and request him to become the chief priest for your yaga. He w ill then ask you who advised you to do like this. Tell him that Narada did so an d if he asks where he could find Narada do tell him that Narada is hiding inside Agni". Hearing this Marutta went to Kasi and did all as directed. Samvartta agr eed to become the priest but wanted Marutta to bring some gold from Kailasa befo re that. Marutta brought that also and the yajna started. Brhaspati when he came to know of all these developments became sorry for his refusal first and decide d to become the priest of Marutta for his yaga. It was Agni who carried this mes sage of consent to King Marutta. Thus Marutta's yajna was performed in a grand w ay. (Chapter 9, Asvamedha Parva, M.B.). 24) Agni takes back the Gandiva. At the time of Khandava dahana (burning of Khandava forest) Agni gave Arjuna the famous Gandiva bow which Varuna had given him. After the great Mahabharata battle Agni took back this bow from Arjuna. The Pandavas at the fag end of their life start ed on a pilgrimage to the south with their consort Pancali. Marching along slowl y they reached the shores of Aruna Samudra (Aruna Ocean). Arjuna had with him th en the Gandiva and also the arrow-case which never becomes empty. When they reac hed the shores of the ocean Agni blocked their way standing before them in the f orm of a huge mountain and said, "O Arjuna I am god Agni. It was I who gave this famous Gandiva bow to you. The bow belongs to Varuna. So please throw it into t he ocean and proceed on your way". On hearing this Arjuna threw both the bow and the arrow-case into the ocean and continued the march. (Slokas 33 to 43, Chapte r 1, Mahaprasthanika Parva, M.B.). 25) Additional information about Agni, _the God of fire. 1) Svahadevi, wife of Agni, gave birth to three sons, named Daksinam, Garhapatya m and Ahavaniyam. (Chapter 9, Devi Bh5gavata). 2) Agni, the God of fire, got three sons by his wife Svahadevi named Pavaka, Pav am5na and Suci. These three sons had all together forty-five sons. These forty-f ive grandsons, three sons and Agni himself constitute the forty-nine Fires menti oned in the puranas (Angirasarfi). 3) Nila, the monkey, is born of Agni. (Sarga 41, Chapter Kiskindha, Ramayana). 4) Dhrstadyumna, the great archer, was born of Agni. (Sloka 126, Chapter 67, Adi Parva, M.B.). 5) Subrahmanya was born as the son of Agni. (Chapter 225, Vana Parva, M.B.). 6) Agni, the God of fire, loved all prajapatis like his sons. (Chapter 85, Anusa sana Parva, M.B.). 7) The sage, Bhrgu, was born from Agni. (Sloka 8, Chapter 5, Adi Parva, M.B.). 8) All Devatas are Agni himself. (Sloka 109, Chapter 85, Anusasana Parva, M.B.). 9) God Agni loved God Skanda more than anybody else. (Chapter 226, Vana Parva, M .B.). 10) At the time when Sri Rama after killing Ravana was putting Sita to a purity test by throwing her into the fire, Agni witnessed that Sita had done no wrong a nd was pure and chaste as before. (Sloka 28, Chapter 201, Vana Parva, M.B.). 11) In the beginning Brahma created the universe. There was no death then and th e Earth became overcrowded. Brahma got worried and he sent fire from his body to burn all beings. The world was on the verge of extinction when Lord Siva interv ened and requested Brahma to withdraw Agni and create the god of Death. (Chapter

52, Drona Parva. M.B.). 12) Agni is one of the Asta Vasus which are eight in number. The others are: Apa , Dhruva, Soma, Dharma, Anila, Pratyusa and Prabhasa. (Chapter 15, Vignu Purana) . 13) Suci, son of Agni, born of Svahadevi is Badavagni himself. (Chapter 20, Agni Purana). 14) The God, Agni, uses a spear as his weapon and the vehicle he uses is a goat. (Chapter 51; Agni Purana). 15) The sage, Agastya, converted the Visnu idol at t he Kuttalam temple into one of S`iva and when people around started an agitation Agastya sent forth flames of fire through his eyes. (Asura Kanda of Skarida Pur ana). 16) Agni was born to Pururavas as a son named Jatavedas. (Chapter 14, Navama Ska ndha of Bhagavata). 17) The Devas wanted help to clean their hands when oblated materials stuck to t heir hands and Agni created from water three sons named Ekata, Dvita and Trita f or this purpose. Of these Trita fell into a well while drawing water. Seeing him fall the demons closed the well but Trita broke the top and came out. (Sukta 52 , Anuvaka 10, Mandala I of Rgveda). 18) Once the earth looked like heaven because of the innumerable celestial being s who came to earth in search of Agni. (Sukta 65, Anuvaka 12, Mandala 1 of Rgved a). 19) The Sun hands over his effulgence to Agni in the evening and takes it back f rom him in the morning. (A fact from Sruti-Sukta 71, Anuvaka 12, Mandala 1 of Rg veda) . 20) For making fire for the sacrificial ceremony the sages use two Arani sticks (These are two pieces of wood, one upper and another lower, and fire is produced by attrition) . It is believed that the sages get the strength to produce fire from it through Vyana, one of the forms of Vayu (air). So Rgveda describes Agni as the son of Vayu. (Sukta 112, Anuvaka 16, Mandala 1) . 21) In the times of the Rgveda Agni was worshipped as a God. (Sukta 1, Anuvaka 1 , Mandala 1, Rgveda). 22) Lord Siva entered into an elaborate and long conjugal play for creating Subrahmanya. Hundred years went by and still the preliminaries never ended. The universe was on the verge of a collapse and so the devas decid ed to send Agni to put a stop to this libidinal play of Siva. But Agni was afrai d of Siva and therefore absconded and hid himself in the ocean. The ocean became hot and the water-animals unable to bear the increasing heat went and informed the devas of Agni's hiding place. Agni cursed them all saying that all of them w ould go dumb. He then went to the Mandara mountain in the shape of an owl and hi d there. But the devas went there also and picked him up. Agni then by his terri ble heat stimulated biva into action. Siva threw his semen into Agni and Agni po ured it into Ganga and Ganga delivered a child which later on became Subrahmanya . (Taranga 6, Lavanakalariibaka of Kathasaritsagara) . 26) Conclusion. Agni stands next to Indra in importance in the Vedas. Because Ag ni was indispensable for yagas the care of Agni became very important. According to the Rgveda the birth of Agni is different. Born of the clouds Agni reaches t he earth as lightning. Then Agni forsakes its form and becomes invisible. It was Matarisva who gave form to Agni and gave him to the Bhrgu family. From that day onwards it became possible to produce fire and the Rgveda describes how Agrli i s produced by sages by the use of Arani sticks. The main job of Agni is to recei ve the oblations from devas when they conduct yagas.

27) Synonyms of Agni. (Amarakosa) The synonyms: 1) Agni, Vaisvanarah,Vahnih, Vitihotra, Dhananjaya, Krpitayoni, Jvalana, Jataved as, Tanunapat, Barhis, Susma, Krsnavartma, Sociske~a, Usarbhudha, Asrayasa, Brha dbhanu, Krsanu, Pavaka, Anala, Rohitasva, Vayusakha, Sikhavan, Asusuksani, Hiran yaretas, Hutabhuk, Dahana, Havyavahana, Saptarcis, Damuna, Sukra, Citrabhanu, Vi bhavasu, Suci; Appitta. 2) Badavagni : Aurva, Badava, Badavanala. 3) Agnijvala: Jvala, Kila, Arcis, Heti, Sikha. (Flame) 4) Sparks : Sphulinga, Ag nikana. 5) Heat : Santapa, Sajvara. 6) Firebrand : Ulka. 7) Ashes: Bhuti, Bhasita, Bhasma, Ksara, Raksa. 8) Wild-fire : Dava, Dava, Vanah utasana. AGNIBAHU. A son of the first Manu. AGNIDATTA. See under the word Devadatta. AGNIDATTA. (See under GUlyASARMA). AGNIDHARA TIRTHA. This is the name of a sacred place near Gautamavana. (See Slok a 146, Chapter 84, Vana Parva, M.B.). AGNIDHRA (AGNIDDHRA). 1. Genealogy. Descended from Visnu thus : VisnuBrahma-Marici-Kasyapa- Vivasvan VaivasvatamanuPriyavrata-Agnidhra. 2. Birth. Priyavrata, son of Vaivasvatamanu, married Barhismati, daughter of Vis vakarma. Agnidhra was one of their ten sons. The other nine sons were : Idhmajih va, Yajnabahu, Mahavira, Hiranyaretas, Ghrtaprstha, Sava, Medhatithi, _Vitihotra and Kavi. A daughter also was born to Priyavrata and Barhismati named Urjjasvat i. Sukra married her and Devayani was their daughter. 3) Married life. A,gnidhra married a nymph named Purvacitti. They had nine child ren : Nabhi, Kirhpurusa, Hari, Ilavrata, Ramyaka, Hirancaya, Kuru, Bhadrasva, an d Ketumala. It was from this Kuru that the Kuru Vamsa began. 4) Other incidents. (1) Agnidhra ruled over Jambudvipa for a long time. (Devi Bh agavata, Skandha 8). (2) While he was the ruler of Jambudvipa Agnidhra once went into a cave and did hard tapas there without eating any food. Brahma then sent a beautiful nymph (Ap sard maiden) to him to tempt him and thwart his tapas. Agnidhra fell a victim to the temptation. His penance was shaken by that nymph named Vipracitti. He marri ed her. (Bhagavata, Skandha 5, Chapter 2) . AGNIHOTRA (M). This is a sacrifice offered to Ag nideva. This has two parts, nit ya and Kamya.

AGNIKETU. A demon (Raksasa) who was a close friend and supporter of Ravana. Rama killed him in the course of his battle with Ravana. AGNIKUMARA. An epithet of Lord Subrahmanya. AGNILOKA. One of the devalokas situated on the summit of Mount Mahameru. There a re a few other devalokas on the same mountain. They are : Indraloka, Yamaloka, S ivaloka or Kailasa, Satyaloka and Vaikuntha. (Devi Bhagavata). AGNIMAN. Name of one Agni. AGNIMITRA. The hero of Kalidasa's play, Malavikagnimitra. He was a King of the S unga dynasty and the son of Pusyamitra. Kalidasa's play deals with the marriage of Malavika and Agnimitra. AGNIMUKHA. An Asura. 1. Genealogy. He was descended from Visnu in this order: Visnu - Brahma - Marici - Kasyapa - Surapadma Agnimukha. 2. Birth. krapadma married Maya's daughter and Agnimukha was born as their son. In the battle between the devas and asuras, the latter were defeated and one of them sought shelter in Patala (the lower world). Kasyapa married his daughter, S urasa. They had six children; they were : S`urapadma, Simhika, Simhavaktra, Tara kasura, Gomukha, and Ajamukhi. Surapadma married Maya's daughter. Agnimukha was one of their four sons, the other three being Bhanugopa, Vajrabahu and Hiranya. (Skanda Purana, Asura-kanda). In the Skanda Purana there is a vivid description of the valiant way in which Agnimukha fought in the battle between the devas and asuras. AGNIPA. Son of a Brahmin named Vedanidhi. Once five gandharva maidens named Prar nodini, Susila, SusvarA, Sutara and Candrika fell in love with. him and requeste d him to marry them. Being a strict Brahmacarin Agnipa was offended by this requ est and so he cursed them and turned them into fiends. Vedanidhi pitied them and sought the advice of sage Lomassa as to how those unfortunate maidens could be redeemed from the curse. According to Lomasa's advice the five maidens bathed in the holy lake of Prayagatirtha and regained their original forms. Then obeying the instructions of sage Lomasa Agnipa married all these five gandharva maidens. (Chapters 128 and 129, Uttarakhanda, Padma Purana). AGNIPRAVESA(M). Entering fire. In the Yuddha-kanda of the Ramayana, Valmiki has described Sita's entering and standing in fire (Agnipravesam) as a test of her p urity. Though Rama recovered Sita from Ra.Vana, he wanted to accept her as his w ife only after her purity had been tested and proved. So he decided to test her by fire (Agnihariksana). Sita shed tears at the thought that her husband doubted her chastity. Laksmana, at Rama's bidding, made a pyre. Sita jumped into it aft er praying to the gods. She remained unscorched by the fire and Rama gladly rece ived her once more as his wife. AGNIPURA(M). A sacred place (Punya tirtha)in Indore on the banks of the river Na rmada. Many scholars identify this with the place Mahesvaram. (Sloka 43, Chapter 15, Anusasana Parva, M.B.). AGNI PURANA (M) . 1) General information. This is one of the eighteen Puranas ascribed to Vyasa. I t is believed that this Purana was originally given orally (as advice) by Agnideva to many sages, devas and Sage Vasistha. It is a vast comprehensive work dea

ling with every subject of importance. To give a copy of this book to a good Bra hmin on the Full Moon day in the month of Marga Sirsa is supposed to be a highly virtuous and meritorious deed. 2) Contents. This large Purana consists of about 420 chapters. It deals in detai l with the following subjects: The Dasavataras of Mahavisnu ; Ramayana ; Mahabha rata; rules and injunctions relating to the worship of various gods (deva-pujavi dhis) ; installation of idols in temples (devatapratistha); Svapnamantras ; astr ology ; architecture and sculpture; Ayurveda ; Visavaidya (treatment of poisons from Snakebite etc.) ; the principles of the drama (Nataka) and other allied art s ; figures of speech and all alamkaras in general ; and physiology of the human body. All these subjects are treated in a detailed and scientific manner. AGNIPURNA. A King of the Solar dynasty (Suryavarisa). 1) Genealogy. Agnipurna was descended from Visnu in the following order : Brahma - Marici - KasyapaVivasvan - Vaivasvatamanu - Iksvaku-Vikuksi - SasadaPuranjaya -Kakutstha-Anenas - Prthulasvan-PrasenaJitYuvanasvan - Mandhata - Purukutsa - Tr asadasyuAnaranya - Aryasva-Vasumanas-Sutanva-TraiyyarunaSatyavrata - Trig anku-H ariscandra - Rohitasva-HaritaCuncu - Sudeva-Bharuka-Bahuka - Sagara - AsamanjasA disuman-Dilipa - Bhagiratha-Srutanada-SindhudvipaAyutayus-Rtuparna - Sarvakama Sudasana - Mitrasakha.Kalmasapada - Asmaka - Mulaka-Khatvanga-Dirghabahu-RaghuAja - Dasaratha - Sri Rama-Kusa-Aditi-Nisadha-Nabhas-Pundarika-Ksemadhanva -Deva nika - Rksa - Pariyatra - Bala-Vindorala - VajranabhaKhagana - Vidhrti - Hiranya nabha - Pusya- Dhruva -Sudarsana - Agnipurna. Agnipurna had two descendants-Sigh ra and Maru and with them the Suryavama came to an end. AGNISAMBHAVA. A King of the Solar dynasty. Genealogy. Visnu-Brahma-Marici-Kasyapa-Vivasvan -Vaivasvatamanu - Iksvaku - Nimi -Janaka - Nandivardhana-Suketu-Devarata-Brhaddhrta - Mahavira-DhrtiKetu-Haryasva -Maru-Pratisvaka - Kraturatha - Devamidha-Vidhrta-Mahadhrti-Krtirata-Maharoma-Sv arnaromaprastharoma - Siradhvaja - Kurudhvaja - Dharmadhvaja - Krtadhvaja - Bhan uman - gakradyumna-SuciVanadhvaja - Urjjaketu - Aja - Kurujit - AristanemiK,rtay us-Suparsvaka-Citraratha-Ksemapi - HomarathaSatyaratha-Gurunandana-Upagupta-Agni sarrbhava. There are no other references to this King of the Solar dynasty in the Puraas. AGNISARMA. (See* the word VIDYUDDYOTA). AGNISIKHA. Father of Vararuci. He is also known by the name Somadatta. (Kathasar itsagara-Kathapithalambaka-Taranga 1. See also the word GUNAVARA). AGNISIRATTRTHA. A holy place on the plains of the river, Yamuna. Arjuna's brothe r, Sahadeva, performed a yaga at this place. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 90) . AGNISOMA. A deity born of the union of two devas, Agnideva and Somadeva. He is o ne of the devas who receive the havis (oblations) poured into the sacrificial fi re in a homa. AGNISOMA(S). Agni and Soma. Agni had two sons by his third wife Bhanu (also call ed Nisa). They were Agni and Soma. These two sons were collectively called Agnis omas. AGNISAUCA(M). A cloak with magical properties given to Nala by the serpent, Kark otaka. After separating himself from Damayanti, Nala was wandering in the forest . Then he was bitten by the poisonous serpent, Karkotaka. This deformed Nala bey ond recognition. Then the serpent gave him this shawl (Agnisauca)

Anybody who wore that cloak would regain his original form and colour.. (Kathasa ritsagara-Alankaravati-lambaka-Taranga 6;. .~-, AGNISTHALL (See the word PURURAVAS). AGNISTHAMBHA(M) A mantra that will reduce the burning power of Agni. AGNISTOMA. (See AGNISTU). AGNISTU. (AGNISTOMA) . 1) Genealogy. Descended from Visnu in this order:Visnu-Svayambhuvamanu - Uttanap ada-Dhruva-SrstiRipu-Caksusamanu-Agnistu. 2) Birth. Ten good sons were born to Manu by his wife, Nadvala and Agnistu was o ne of them. The other nine sons were: Cru, Puru, Satadyumna, Tapasvi, Satyavak, Kavi, Atiratra, Sudyumna and Atimanyu. (Agni Purana, Chapter 18) . AGNISVATTA. One of the seven Pitrs. The other six Pitrs are : Vairaja, Garhapaty a, Somapa, Ekasrnga, Caturveda and Kala. (M.B., Sabha Parva., Chapter 11, Verses 44, 45 and 46) . AGNIVESA. A Sage. He was the preceptor of Drona and Drupada. It is believed that he learned archery and the military arts from Sage Agastya. Drona had the great est respect for this guru, Agnivesa. He was a master in the use of all weapons. There are references to this in Chapter 139, Adi Parva of the Mahabharata. AGRAHA. The name of an Agni, a son of the Agni named Bhanu. Bhanu married Supraj a, daughter of the sun and Agraha was one of the six children born to them. In t he Caturmasika-yajna Agraha receives eight kinds of havis (Oblations). (M.B., Va na Parva, Chapter 221) . AGRANI. The name of an Agni. He was the fifth son of the Agni named Bhanu and hi s wife, Nisadevi. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 221, Slokas 15 to 22). AGRASANDHANI. The name of the book which Yama (the God of Death-Kala) keeps in w hich all the virtuous and sinful actions of men.are recorded. AGRAYAI\TI. One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. He is also known by the name , Anuyayi. (M.B., Adi Parva, Chapter 116, Verse 11). AHA I. One of the astavasus. His father was Dharma and mother, Ratidevi. (M.B., Adi Parva, Slokas 17 to 20, Chapter 66) . AHA II (AHAH). A sacred pond. If one bathes in it he will go to the land of the Sun. (M.B., Vana Parva, Sloka 100, Chapter 83) . AHA III. One born of the dynasty of demons (asura-vamsa). (See under Heti, the g enealogy chart of the demon dynasty). AHARA. A son born of Danu to Kasyapa. (M.B., Adi Parva, Sloka 25, Chapter 65). AHALYA. Turned into stone by the curse of her husband, Gautama. Ahalya was a pri ncess of the Puru dynasty. AHALYAHRADA 1) Genealogy. Descended in order from Visnu as follow: Brahma-Atri-Candra-BudhaPururavas -Ayus Nahusa-Yayati-Puru-Janamejaya-Pracinva-Pravira-Nahasyu-Vitabhaya - Sundu - Bahuvidha - Samyati - Rahovadi Raudrasva-Matinara-Santurodha - Dusyant

a - Bharat~ Brhatksetra-Hasti-Ajamidha-Nila-Santi-Susanti-Puruj~ Arka-Bharmyasva -Pancala-Mudgala-Ahalya. 2) How Ahalya got a curse and became a stone. The stor of how Ahalya was cursed by her husband, Gautam; and was turned into a stone is told in different versior in different puranas. The following is the version in the Valmiki Ramayana. Whe n Visvamitra was taking bac Rama and Laksmana from the forest to the palace c Ta naka they came across an asrama on their way. Givin details about that asrama Vi svamitra told the prince thus : "This is the asrama where the sage, Gautama, was living with his wife, Ahalya. Indra fell in love with tt beautiful Ahalya and w hile the sage was out for bathing Indra entered the drama in the disguise of the sage himself and took bed with her. But before Indra coul get out Gautama himse lf came to the asrama and enraged at what he saw, cursed them both. Indra was to lose his testicles and Ahalya was to turn into a stone. But taking pity on her the sage declared that she would take her original form the moment Rama of Treta -yuga came to that place and touched the stone by his foot. Testicleless Indra w ent to devaloka and there his frienc feeling sorry for him, substituted a goat's testicle an got him to normal." While Visvamitra was talking to the princes, Sr i Rama's foot touched the stone and Ahaly stood up in all beauty. Ahalya and Gau tama lived in the same asrama again for another long period. In Kathasaritsagara this story is told in a slightly diffe rent yet more interes ting way. As soon as Gautam entered the asrama Indra turned himself into a ca An grily the sage questioned Ahalya, "who was standin here when I carne in ?" Ahaly a replied, "Eso thiyo kb majjara" (Esah sthitah khalu marjjarah). It was a cz wh ich was standing there. Here Ahalya used a pun o the word `majjara' and tried to be honest. `Majjara' the Prakrit form of the word `marjjarah' which means ca But `majjara' has anothe r meaning also. (ma=min jara=lover i.e. majjara=my lover). So Ahalya did n< lie to her husband. (Kathasaritsagara, Lavanakalarr baka). ' 3) How Ahalya happened to bring up the mighty monkeys, Ba and Sugriva. Once Arun a, the charioteer of Surya (tt Sun) went to devaloka to see the dance of the cel esti< maidens there. Since there was no admission to the danc for men Aruna disg uised himself as Arunidevi and sougl admission; seeing the beautiful form of Aru nidevf Indr fell in love with her and that night a child was born t Indra by her . On the advice of Indra Arunidevi took tb child to Ahalya before daybreak and l eft it there to b looked after by her. It was this child which later o became th e famous Bali. Aruna went a bit late that morning to his master, tb Sun. The latter wanted an e xplanation and Aruna tol him what had happened. The Sun then asked Aruna t becom e Arunidevi again and seeing the enchanting figu~ the Sun also got a child of he r. This child also was take to Ahalya and it was this child that later on became th famous Sugriva. AHALYAHRADA (M). A sacred pond in the tapovar (precincts of an asrama) of Gautam a Rsi. It is believedAINDAVA. (See paragraph 13 under the wordthat one would go. to heaven if one bathes in it.BRAHMA). AHARA. A son born of Danu to Kasyapa. (M.B., Adi AIRAVATA I. A large elephant, s on of Iravati. Parva, Sloka 25, Chapter 65). 1) Genealogy. Descended from Visnu AHICCHATRA. This was the capital of the state Ahicchatra which Drona got from Dr upada, the King of Paricala. AHICCHATRA (M). A state under the sovereignty of King Pancala. On the completio

n of his studies under Drona Arjuna brought before his preceptor King Dru pada as a captive in discharge of the duty he owed to him as his master. Drupada th en gave the state- of Ahicchatra to Drona and got his release. (M.B., di Parva , Slokas 73 to 76, Chapter 137). AHIIVISA. Non-injury. There are opinions both in favourof and against Ahirnsa in the puranas. Sukracarya ex tols the importance of Ahimsa to the asuras (demons ) thus "Oh, foes of the devas, I shall tell you the truth which is good for you. Non-in jury to any living being is the most righteous thing. Do not molest even those who come to kill you. Even that act would be `hirhsa' (injury). It was those b rahmrns who were attached to worldly plea sures and addicted to overeating that enjoined in the Vedas that hirhsa is permissible for yagas." (Devi Bhaga vata , Skanda 4) . Markandeya Muni (sage) says thus "Why should I mind the innumerab le killings going on unnoticed in this world full of life. People of old speak very sacredly about Ahirhsa. But O best of brahmins, who can live in this world without injury to another life ?" (M.B., Aranya Parva, Slokas 32 & 33, Chapter 208): AHIRATHA. A King of the Puru dynasty. (See under Patuvarirsa). AHIRBUDHNYA. One of the sons of Visvakarma. Five sons and one daughter were born to Visvakarmaof his wifeSurabhi. They were Ajaikapat, Ahirbudhnya, Tvasla, Ru dra, Barhismati and Samjna. (See under genealogy of Visvakarma). AHITA. Axiver of ancient Bharata. (M.B., Bhisma Parva, sloka 21, Chapter 9). AHORATRA(M). (See under Kaiamana). AHOVIRA. A sage who adhered strictly to the injunctions associated with the Van aprastha stage of life. (M.B., Santi Parva, Sloka 17, Chapter 144). AIKSVAKI. Wife of Suhotra who was a son of Emperor, Bhumanyu. Suhotra had three sons by Aiksvaki. They were Ajamidha, Sumidha and Purumidha. (See Chapter 94 of Adi Parva of the M.B.). AILA I. Son of Ila; Purdravas. (See under Ila). AILA II. A member of the court a, M.B.). In Sloka 65, Chapter ate non-vegetarian food in his he Agni Purana (Chapter 348 of of Yamaraja. (See Sloka 16, Chapter 8, Sabha Parv 115 of Anusasana Parva, it is said that he never life, diphthong means a female sage (yogini) to t Agni)

Visnu - Brahma - Kasyapa - Bhadramata-Iravati-Airavata. Kasyapa married Daksa's daughter, Krodhavasa who bore him ten daughters. They were : Mrgi, Mrgamanda, Ha ri, Bhadramata, Matangi, kdrdfill, Sveta, Surabhi, Sarasa and Kadru. Of these Bh adramata had a daughter named Iravau and Airavata was her son. Airavata was not human in shape; he was a large elephant. (See Sarga 14, Aranyakarda, Ramayana). 2) Indra's Vahana. Indra made Airavata his conveyance (vahana) . Indra was Kasya pa's son by Aditi. Airavata also was descended from Kasyapa. So Indra took Airav ata as his vahana. 3) Airavata caused the churning of the ocean of Milk. There is a story of how Ai ravata was responsible for the churning of the milk-ocean (Ksirabdhi-mathanam). Once some maidens of devaloka presented a garland of flowers to sage Durvasas. W hen Durvasas visited Indra's court he gave that garland to Indra. Indra put it o n the tusks of his vahana, Airavata. The fragrance of the flowers attracted a sw arm of bees which became an intolerable nuisance to Airavata. So Airavata tore t

he garland off his tusks and hurled it away. When DurvAsas heard this, he took i t as an insult. In his anger he cursed all the gods-the curse was that all gods should become subject to old age and the decrepitude and infirmities of old age. But though Durvasas cursed the gods, he also prescribed a remedy. The gods coul d redeem themselves from the curse by drinking Amrtam obtained from the ocean of Milk (Mahavisnu lies on the serpent, S`esa on this ocean). The curse began to o perate and the gods lost their perennial youth. The gods then befriended the Asu ras and with their help they churned the ocean of Milk. They got the nectar (Amr tam), drank it and regained them youth. (See under the word AMRTAM). 4) There is another story about Airavata-A story of how he also rose out of the ocean of Milk. It is said that when the devas and asuras churned the ocean of Mi lk, Airavata also came up along with the other good things. This story is narrat ed in the 18th Chapter of Adi Parva of the Mahabharata. The explanation given is that when Durvasas cursed the gods, Airavata was oppressed with a sense of guil t because he was responsible for the curse. So he took refuge in the ocean of Mi lk and there started propitiating Mahavisnu. There is however no warrant for suc h an explanation in the puranas. But the explanation sounds- plausible because i t explains the absence of Airavata during the interval between Durvasas's curse and the churning of the sea. Airavata is represented as a white elephant. It is probable that he became white after his long residence in the ocean of Milk. Thi s lends some additional plausibility to the above explanation. 5) Airavata, the Lord of the elephant.- In the Visnu Purana we are told how Aira vata was made the chief of all elephants. When the Maharsis had crowned Prthu as the sovereign King, Brahma gave new posts of honour to many of the devas. He ma de SOMA (Moon) the lord of the Stars and Planets, of Brahmins, Yajnas and herbs. Kubera was made the overlord of all kings; Varuria was made the master of the s eas and all water; Visnu, the, lord of the Adityas and Pavaka (Fire) the lord of AIRAVATA the Vasus. Along with these Brahma made Airavata the lord of all elepha nts. (Chapter 22, Visnu Purana). 6) The breaking of Airavata's tusks. There is a story of how the tusks of Airava ta were broken narrated in the Asura-kanda of Skanda Purana. Once an asura (demo n) named Surapadma attacked devaloka. A fierce battle ensued between the gods an d asuras. In the course of this battle, Jayanta, Indra's son, was hit by an arro w and at once he fell dead. Enraged by this Airavata rushed at Surapadma's chari ot and shattered it to pieces. Airavata then attacked gurapadma who broke his tu sks and hurled him down to the earth. Airavata lay paralysed for a long time; th en he got up, retired to a forest and, prayed to Lord Siva. With the grace of Si va Airavata regained his lost tusks and was able to return to devaloka. 7) Other details about Airavata. (1) There is a belief that Airavata is one of t he eight elephants guarding the eight zones of the universe. These eight elephan ts are called the Astadiggajas. Airavata is supposed to guard the eastern zone. (Chapter 66, Adi Parva, Mahabharata). (2) Airavata and three other diggajas are supposed to reside in Puskara Island. (Chapter 12, Bhisma Parva, M.B.). AIRAVATA II. Name of a serpent born to Kasyapa and his wife Kadru. This is menti oned in Sloka 5, Chapter 35, Adi Parva of the Mahabharata. Arjuna's father-inlaw and Ulupi's father, Kauravya belonged to the family of this serpent. (See Sloka 18, Chapter 213, Adi Parva) . AIRAVATA. An asura who was killed by Sri Krsna. (See Chapter 38, Sabha Parva, Ma habharata). AIRAVATAGHATTA. Name of a place near the seashore, lying to the north of the mou

ntain, gfngavan. (See Sloka 37, Chapter 6, Bhisma Parva). AISIKAM. Name of a small division of a parva of the NIahabharata. (See under Mah abharata). AITAREYA I. A great scholar with profound knowledge of the Vedas. Being -a non-B rahmin he was not able to learn the Vedas from a guru. In spite of this handicap he acquired considerable scholarship and wrote a learned commentary on the Rgve da. This commentary ranks high among the various commentaries on the Vedas. AITAREYA II. Son of Sage, Manduki by his first wife, Itara. Being the son of Ita ra he came to be called Aitareya. As a boy he was very pious and used to chant t he mantra "Namo Bhagavate Vasudevaya" frequently. But he was a shy and silent bo y and his father mistook his silence to be a sign of stupidity. Dissatisfied wit h him and being desirous of having learned sons, Manduki married another woman n amed Pinga and had four sons by her who all became very learned. Once Itara call ed her son and told him that his father regarded him as an unworthy son and .was . often twitting her using insulting words for having given birth to so unworthy a son. She then told him of her resolve to sacrifice her life. Aitareya then ma de an enlightening discourse to her and dissuaded her from her determination to commit suicide. Some time later Lord Visnu appeared before them anal blessed the mother and son. On the advice of Visnu Aitareya participated in the yajna condu cted by Harimedhya at Kotitirtha and there he made a learned speech on the Vedas. Harimedhya was so pleased with him that he gave his daughter in marriage to, him. (Set Ska nda Purana, Chapters 1, 2 and 42))AJA I. A king of the Solar dynasty. 1) Genealogy. From Visnu were descended in order: Brahma, Marici-Kasyapa-Vivasva n - Vaivasvata - Iksvaku-Vikuksi - Saga& - Puranjaya - Kukutstha -AnenasPrthulag va - Prasenajit - Yuvanasva - Mandhata - Purukutsa-Trasadasyu - Anaranya - Aryas va - VasumanasSudhanva - Traiyaruna - Satyavrata - Trisariku - Hariscandra - Roh itasva - Harita - Cuncu - Sudeva - BharukaBahuka - Sagara - Asamanjas - Amsuman - Dilipa -Bhagiratha - Srutanabha - Sindhudvipa - Ayutayus -Rtuparna - Sarvakama - Sudasana - Mitrasakha - Kalmasapada - Asmaka - Mulaka - Dilipa - Dirghabahu Raghu - Aja - Aja's son Dasaratha-Dasaratha's son, Sri Rama. M.B., Anuaasana Parva, Chapter 115, Verse 75 says that Aja never used to take me at. AJA II. Among the different kinds of Rsis mentioned by Yudhisthira, we find a cl ass of Rsis called Ajas. (M.B.,Santi Parva, Chapter 26). These Ajas had attained Heaven by Svadhyaya (self discipline) alone. AJA III. King Jahnu had a son named Aja. Usika was the son of this Aja. King Usi ka prayed to Indra for a son. Indra himself was born as the son of Usika assumin g the name Gadhi. Satyavati was born as the daughter of Gadhi. She was married t o Rcika. Parasurama's father, Jamadagni was the son of Rcika. (M.B., Santi Parva , Chapter 49). AJA IV. By the grace of Siva Surabhi was able to purify herself by penance. She then gave birth to Aja, Ekapat, Ahirbudhnya, Tvasta and Rudra. (Agni Purana, Cha pter 18). AJA V. In the first Manvantara Svayambhuva, in the second Manvantara Svarocisa an d in the third Manvantara Uttama, were Manus. To the third Manu, Uttama, were bo rn as sons Aja, Parasu, Dipta and others: (Visnu Purana, Part 3, Chapter 1). Besides the above, the term Aja has been used to mean Surya, Siva, Brahma, Visnu , Sri Krsna and Bija (seed).

AJAGAVA. Ajagava is a bow made of the horns of a goat and a cow. Brahmins tormen ted the right hand of the King Vena. From it the brilliant Prthu who shone brigh tly like the God Agni, appeared as the son of Vena. At that time the very first Ajagava bow, divine arrows and armours dropped from the sky. (Visnu Purana, Part I, Chapter 13) . AJAIKAPAT I. He was one of the eleven Rudras, who were born to Sthanudeva, the s on of Brahma. The eleven Rudras are:Mrgavyadha Nirrti Ahirbudhnya Pinaki Sarpa Ajaikapat Dahana Isvara Kapali Bharga Sthanu. (M.B., Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 2). AJAIKAPAT II. Among the sons of Visvakarma, we find one Ajaikapat. Brahma create d Visvakarma. Visvakarma had four sons-Ajaikapat, Ahirbudhnya, AJAKA Tvasta and Rudra. (Visnu Purana, Part I, Chapter 15). This Ajaikapat is on e of those who are in-charge of preserving all the gold in this world. (M.B., Ud yoga Parva, Chapter 114, Verse 4). AJAKA. An Asura. Birth. Kasyapa was born the son of Marici, son of Brahma. Kasyapa married Danu, one of the daughters of Daksa and had two sons by her. They were Ajaka and Vrsap arva. (M.B., Adi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 24; Chapter 67, Verse 16). AJAKASVA. A king of the Puru Vamsa. The mighty Jahnu was born to Ajamidha by his wife Kesini. Two sons, Ajakasva and Balakasva were born to Jahnu. Kusika is the son of Balakasva. Kusika, is the grandfather of Visvamitra. For genealogy see P uru Varirsa. (Agni Purana, Chapter 278). AJAMIDHA I. A famous king of the Puru Vamsa. 1) Genealogy. Descended from Visnu in this order: Brahma - Atri - Candra - Budha - Pururavas - Ayus -Nahusa - Yayati - Puru - Janamejaya - Pracinva-Manasyu - Vl tabhaya - Sundu - Bahuvidha - Sarizyati - Rahovadr - Bhadrasva - Matinara - Sant urodha - Dusyanta -Bharata-Brhatksetr a-Hasti-Ajamidha. 2) Birth. Several dynasties like Yadu Va;rhsa, Puru Varii-~a etc. take their ori gin from Yayati. Dusyanta belongs to that dynasty. King Bharata was born as Dusy anta's son by Sakuntala. Suhotra - Suhota - Gaya -Gardda-Suketu and Brhatksetra were Bharata's sons. Brhatksetra had four children, who were : Nara, Mahavira, G arga and Hasti. Of them Hasti had three sons: Purumidha, Ajamidha and Dvimldha. 3) Other details. Ajamidha had three queens-Dhumini, Nil! and Kesini. Of them, D humin! had a son, Rksa and Nili's son was Dusyanta (This was not Sakuntala's hus band, Dusyanta) and Kesini's sons were Jahnu, Praja and Rupina. Paramest! was an other name of Kesinl. (M.B., Adi Parva, Chapter 94 Verses 30-32; Anusasana Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 2).

AJAMIDHA II. We.come across another Ajamidha also in the Lunar Dynasty. He marri ed Sudeva, daughter of Vikantha a King of the Lunar Dynasty. This Ajamldha had 2 400 children by his four wives, Kaikey i, Gandhari, Visala and Rksa. Of them Sar irvarana married Tapati, the daughter of Vivasvan. See Tapati Sarirvarana. (M.B. , Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Verses 35=37) . AJAMILA. Ajamila's story is given in the Bhagavata as an example to illustrate t hat even the most wicked person can attain Visnupada (Salvation). Ajamila was a Brahmin who was once sent by his father to the jungle to fetch sam it (leaves and twigs to make the sacrificial fire). Ajamila met there a beautifu l Sudra woman. Forgetting everything, the Brahmin made her his wife and children were born to them. When that Brahmin, who was the very embodiment of all vices, reached the age of eighty-seven, the time came for him to die. Yamadutas (Agent s of Yama-the god of death) had arrived. The frightened Ajamila shouted loudly t he name of his eldest son, `Narayana'. Hearing the repeated call of his name `Na rayana', Mahavisnu appeared there and dismissed the agents of Yama. From that da y Ajamila became a devotee of Visnu and did penance on the bank of the Ganges an d after some years attained salvation. (Bhagavata, Asta,ma Skandha, Chapter 1).. AJAMUKHA (AJAVAKTRA). He was one of the soldiers in Skanda's army. (M.B., Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 75). In the battle between Skanda and the Asuras, Ajamu kha killed the Asura, Madhu. (Skanda Purana, Yuddha Kanda). AJAMUTKHA 1. Genealogy. Descended from Visnu thus : BrahmaMarici-Kasyapa-Ajamukhi. 2) Birth Long ago in the battle between Devas and Asuras one of the routed Asura s had fled to P4tala (Hell) . Surasa was his daughter. Brahma's grandson, Kasyap a married Surasa. She gave birth to six children-8urapadma, Sirhhika, Sirhhavakt ra, Tarakasura, Ajamukhi and Gomukha. The Asura woman Ajamukhi is one of them. 3 ) Chief events. (1) Marriage with Durvasas. Once Surapadrna called his two broth ers, Sirhhavaktra and Tarakasura and ordered them to set up two cities, one to t he north and the other to the south, of Mahameru. In obedience to his elder brot her, Tirakasura started with one half of the army and set up a city to the south of Mahameru. That city was named Mayapura. Sirirhavaktra lived in the city on t he northern side of Mahameru. Their sister Ajamukh! went about enticing men to s atisfy her lustful passion. Once, in the course of her wanderings, she met Durva sas in the Himalayan valley. They fell in love and even married. The two Asuras, Ilvala and Vatapi were born from their union. They insisted on sharing their fa ther's achievements between them. Durvasas cursed them that they would die at th e hands of Agastya. (Skanda Purana, Asura Kanda). (2) The cutting off of Ajimukhi's hands. While wandering with her lustful passio n, Ajamukh! once went to the Siva temple at Kasi. There she happened to meet Ind ra's wife, !;acidevi. In order to give her to her brother, Surapadma, Ajamukh! c aught hold of Sacidevl. Sac!devi screamed aloud. Suddenly Siva appeared there wi th His sword. Even then Ajamukh! refused to release Sacidevi. Siva rescued Indra ni (Sacidevi) by cutting off Ajamukhi's hands. Hearing this, Surapadma sent his army and imprisoned the Devas. The imprisoend Brahma at the instance of Purapadm a, restored Ajamukhi's hands. Purapadma's son, Bhanugopa fought against theremai ning Devas and defeated them. (Skanda Purana, Asura Kanda). AJAMUKHI. See AJAMUKHI. AJANABHA. A mountain. A reference to this is seen in the M.B., Anusasana Parva, Chapter 165, Verse 32. Another name, Ajanabha Varsa for the territory ruled over by Ajanablra, is also found in Bhagavata, Fifth Skandha, Chapter 1.

AJARA. Tapantaka, the minister of King Vatsa, told him the story of a man named Ajara to illustrate the law that all people will have to suffer the consequences of their actions in a previous birth. The story is given below:Once upon a time, there lived a King named-Vinayasila in Vilasapura, in the city of rikanthanagari. After some years, the King was affected by wrinkles of old a ge. A physician named Tarunacandra came to the palace to cure the King of his wr inkles. "The King should remain alone in the interior of the earth for full eigh t months. He has to use a medicine while remaining there. It should not even be seen by anyone else. I myself am to administer the medicine"-This was the physic ian's prescription. The King agreed. Accordingly the King AJAVINDU 21 AKRTAVRANA and the physician spent six months in the interior of the earth. After, that the physician, after a search, found a man who exactly resembled the King and broug ht him to the interior of the earth. After two more months, the physician murder ed the King and came out with the new man. The people welcomed him with honour a s the King who was cured of his wrinkles. This man was Ajara. After some time, t he physician approached Ajara for his reward. Ajara said: "It is by my Karmaphal a (consequence of my actions in my previous birth) that I have become King. In m y previous birth I renounced my body after doing penance. According to the boon which God gave me on that occasion, I have become King in my present birth". The physician returned empty-handed. (Kathasaritsagar2, Ratnaprabhalarnbaka, 6th Ta ratiga) . AJAVINDU. He was a King, born in the dynasty of the Suviras. (M.B., Udyoga Parva , Chapter 74, Verse 14). AJEYA. He was a King in ancient Bharata. Ajeya's name is found among the names o f the Kings mentioned by Sanjaya to Dhrtarastra. All these Kings were mighty and generous rulers who were the recipients of divine arrows. (M.B., Adi Parva, Cha pter 1, Verse 234). AJI:GARTA (RCIKA). He was a greedy Brahmin. (See RCIKA I King Hariscandra who was distressed by having no children, propitiated god Varun a. Varuna blessed him saying that a son would be born to him. But the condition was that the child should be sacrificed to Varuna. When the child was born, Hari scandra did not like to sacrifice the boy. The sage Visvamitra suggested that in stead of sacrificing his own son it would be enough if he bought another boy and sacrificed him. Accordingly, Hariscandra sent his minister to find out and purc hase a Brahmin boy for the sacrifice. At that time there lived in Ayodhya a gree dy Brahmin named Ajigarta. He had three sons. In the course of his search, the m inister came across this needy Brahmin and asked him whether he was willing to s ell one of his three sons. He continued: "Why should you be in this wretched sta te of poverty and misery ? Sell one of your sons and you will get 100 cows as th e price". The minister's words and the price offered for the son made a deep imp ression on the Brahmin's mind. He thought: "It is impossible for me to earn 100 cows. Even if it were possible how long wou ld it take? If I sell him I shall get hundred cows at once. What a lucky chance ! The loss of a son is nothing." S o thinking, he sold his son S`unaVepha. (For the rest of the story, see the word "gunassepha" Devi Bhagavata, Skandhas 7, 8). AJINA. 1) Genealogy From Visnu, Brahma, Marici, Kasyapa; Vaivasvata,-Uttanapada,

Chapter 244. When Dharmaputra later met Bhisma the latte r among man) other stories told him the story of Akrtasrama also (Sloka 17. A King of the Puru dynasty. Valmiki Ramayana). . M. As the eldest. 2) Other details. (Sarga 56. A serpent. Prthu. Adi Parva. Prthu had two sons. He was killed in a battle and the King became much depr essed.B.Sukesa Sumali-Akam pana. Manu. Prahasta was one of the ministers of Ravana. Pracinabarhis.rsti. Dhisana. Kumbhakar na and Vibhisana and krpanakha. (Visnu Purana.Vidyukesa . Antardhana. va 8) Samhrada 9) Prakvata 10) Bhasakarna. Sukra. Chapter 14). Sannyasa. Krsna. Adi Par va. Drona Parva of M. Manu and Anala. (sloka 21. (A mighty warrior among the demons). AKRTASRAMA. 8. Dharmaputra performer obsequies to all those of his kith and kin dead in the war. Kama. He was a king who lived in the Krta-yuga. Kasyapa married the eight daughters of Daksa named Aditi. He had a son named Hari w ho was a fierce fighter. Akampana fought a fierce battle with Hanuman and in the end Hanuman pl ucked a big tree and hit Akampana on the head with it and killed him. Vena. also makes mention of Akampana). 2) Birth. son of Pulastya. Vraja and Ajina. (M. Dusana and Trisiras (Aranya Kanda . Yuddha Kanda of Ramayana) AKAMPANA II. Krodhava. He was born to King `Ayutanayi' and his Que en. Kama.B.). It was Akampana who informed Ravana that Rama an d Laksmana had killed his three allies. Urn. M.).rava. Antardhana had a son. Ripu.. Chapter 35. They were Ravana. 2) Birth. Danu.B. Chapter 45. mother of Akrodha. The thirteenth child Kaikasi was married to Visravas. AKRODHA. Kalika. AJODARA. The Kaurava-Pandava battle was o ver. 11) Veka 12) Puspotkata 13) Kaikasi a nd 14) Kumbhinadi. Descended from Visn u in the following order: Visnu . Tamra. Gaya. He is one of the few sannyasins whc have gone to heaven after comple ting the fourth arama of life namely. Verse 60). (See the word (SAKAVARSA). Khara. Visravas got three sons and a daughter. 1VI. He was then met by many sages including Vyasa and Narada w ho comforted him in his bereavement. They were 1 ) Prahasta 2) Akampana 3) Vikata 4) Kalakamukha 5) Dhumraksa 6) Danda 7) Supar. Krodhavaa got ten sons. 3) Death. Caksusa. AKAMPANA. (Chapter 52. Of these the last four are daughters. AKARKKARA. Narada consoled him with other stories and Vyasa told this story to Dharm aputra when he found the latter greatly dejected and gloomy after the great batt le was over. Chapter 95. was the daughter of Prthu. There was an individual called Ajodara in Skanda's army. Santi Parva. Diti.Heti ..B. by Sikhandini. Arhga. 1) Genealogy. Havirdh ana. 1) Genealogy. I3avi rdhana and Ajina. Descended from Visnu in this order Brahma-Marici-Kasyapa-Akarkkara . Antardhana and Vadi. son of Kadru.). Part I. Six sons were born to them. Sumali married Ketumati and got fourteen children..a. who was born in the Agnikula became Iiavir= dhana's wife.Brahma . Ananta and Akarkkara were born of Kadru. AJISAKA. Salya P arva. (Sloka 16.Dhruva.. One of them i s Kadru.B.

). Descend ing from Yadu in order were Sahasrajit-gatajitHehaya-Dharma-Kunti-Bhadrasena-Dha naka-Krtavirya Karttaviryarjuna . daughter o f the King of Kasi. M. 3) Other details. Bhisma allowed her to go back to Salva. Anusasana Parva. had mentally chosen Salva as her husband. because of you I hav. b riskly through the dense forests anxious to be at the std of his preceptors to g et their blessings. When she went to Parasurama it was Akrtavrana who received her and on hearing h er sorrowful tale encouraged her to seek vengeance on Bhisma. But on knowing that Amba. 2) How he became a disciple of Parasurama. It was then that Hotra>v aha her grandfather on the maternal side met her and directed her to Parasurama.B. (Sloka 8. The Brahmin boy fell down at the feet of Parasurama an d said. But on her return to Salva he refused to accept her and she came back to Hastinapura. Again it was he wh o persuaded Parasurama to champion her cause and go for a fight against Bhisma. he could not do because of his vow of celibacy. Vicitravirya also refused to do. Amba then tur ned to Bhisma and besought him to marry her which. "Great ford. much to his regret.Madhu . Thus forsaken by all. It was Akrtavrana who told Dharmaputra the life and exploits of Parasurama during the exile of the Pandava s in the forests. be your disciple forever hereafter". The tiger i mmediately fell dead by an arrow from Parasurama. From that day onwards he never left Parasurama but followed him as his disciple.a.Pururavas . AKRC RA. Chapter 26. Vana Parva. Lo ! the tiger turned into a g andharva freed now from a curse because of which he was for years living as a ti ger.Vrsni (Chapter XXIII of Navama Skandha . Amba along with her two sisters. Vrana =wound). (1) In the story of Mahabharata we find Akrtavrana in several different contexts appearing on behalf of Parasurama.uram. and Ambalika. (Akita=not having secured. 1) Genealogy. He is ex tolled in the Puranas and it is said that Suta who re cite(first the story of Mahabharata to an assembly of sages it the forest of Nai misa was a disciple of Akrtavrana. He was walkin. As he passed a great cave he heard a moan and on getting to the site of the sound found a brahmin boy being attacked by a tiger. (2) In Chapter 83 of Udyoga Parva we read about tlkrtavrana meeting Sri Krsna wh ile the latter was going to Hastinapura. (Skandha 12 of Bhagavata). unfortunately. M. During the fight Akrtavrana acted as charioteer to Para:.B. (5) Akrtavrana was one of the manysages who were lying on a bed of arrows during the great Kuruksetra battle. therefore. Udyoga Parva. (Chapters I 15 to 117.AyusNahusa-Yayati-Yadu (Chapter XII of Agni Purana). But even the foremost of warriors were not willing to antagonise Bhisma and so her appeal to help was not heeded by any. Parasurama was returning after obtain ing arrows from Lord Siva after pleasing him by fierce penance. Akrtavrana was a great sage o erudition and was a discip le of Parasurama. 1) General information.). Descended from Visnu in the following order : Brahma-Atri-CandraBudha . were brought down to Hastinapura by Bhisma for his brother Vicitravirya to marry. now become Akrtavrana meaning one who has not received any wound. The gandharva bowed down respectfully and thanked the sage for giving him r elief and left the place. all her sweetness t urned into bitter hatred towards Bhisma and she remained alive thereafter only t o kill Bhisma. Bhisma then requested Vicitravirya to accept her as his wife which.. (Sloka 9. Ambika.AKRTAVRANA. (4) Akrtavrana has played a very important role in the story of Amba. Chapt er 179. (3) In Chapter 173 of Udyoga Parva`we read about Akt^tavrana detailing the histo ry of the Kaurava dynasty to Duryodhana. I shall.

Chapter 45. (6) Akrura and Ahuka always quarrelled with each other both alleging that the ot her sided with the opposite camp of Krsna. Akrura understood the plot. 3) Other details. (Sloka 18.B. M. 10) Akrura went to Hastinapura as a messenger from Sri Krsna. Aksakumara was a redoubtable h ero and a fierce fighter but was killed by Haniaman in Laxika. (Dasama Skandha). (Sarga 47. Atikaya and Aksakumara. Skandha. by his wife Mandad ari. Chapter 185 of Adi Parva. (7) Kamsa planning to kill Balabhadrarama and Sri Krsna conducted a festival cal led Capa-puja (worship of the bow). informed Krsna abo ut it and also advised Krsna to kill Karixsa.). He then advised Nala to go to the palace of King Ittuparna where the in order . Valmiki Ramayana) AKSA II. (Navama Skandha).). Akrura was an uncle of Sri Krsna but is re spected more as a worshipper of Krsna.). (Sloka 22.B. M. (Slokas 9 to 11. Adi Parva. AKSAHRDAYA. Three sons were born to Ravana. (Slaka. 1) Genealogy. Chapter 72. Santi Pa rva. 4) Domestic Life. Adi Parva. Ch apter 220. (Aksakurnara). (8) Akrura fought against Jarasandha on the side of Krsna. Descended follows: Brahma . (Chapter XXIV of Navama Skandha. Karkotaka. 10. The Vrsni dynasty begins and from Vrsni in order descended Yudhaji t-giniSatyaka-Satyaki Jaya-Kuni-Anamitra-Prsni-Svaphalka -Akrura. f rom a wild fire. a grand festival was going on in the Raivata mountain and Akrura'was partaking in the same. (Dasama Skandita). When Nala was roaming about in the forests after his separation from Damayanti he happened to save the cobra. (3) At the time of Arjuna's eloping with Subhadra..B. Akrura met his sister Kunti and talked to her for a long time and also met Dhrtarastra and talked to him after which he returned to Dvaraka. Bhagavata) .B. daughter. (Davama.). (9) (r)n another occasion Kisna. Refer para 2 under the word Krtavarma. M.Bhagavata) 2) Birth. (P)He became famous as a commander of the Yadava army. Sundar a Kanda. Chapt er 218. Balabhadra and Uddhava sent Akrura to Hastinapu ra to get tidings about Kunti arid the Pandavas. Salya Parva. King of the demons. Bhagavata). Chapter 81. 5) Syamantaka and Akr ura. 2) Birth. They were Meghanada. (4) Akrura accompanied Krsna with the dowry intended for Subhadra. We find another warrior of this name among the soldiers who came to hel p Skanda in the KauravaPandava battle. (Sloka 58. Virata Parva. A sacred chant or mantra. AKSA I.Pulastya -(Uttararamayana) . (Sloka 29. (Chapte r 220 of Adi Parva. But in return the snake bit him and made 'him as black as cloud s. (2) Akrura was also present for the Svayamvara (weddi ng) of Pancali. daughterof Ahu ka and got two sons named Devaka and Upadevaka. It was Akrura whom Kamsa sent to bring Balab hadra and Krsna for the festival. (5) Akrura came to the country called Upaplavya for attending the marriage of Ab hixnanyu. (Refer sub-para 3 of para 13 under Krsna). Svaphalka of the Vrsni dynasty married Nandini. of the King of Kasi and Akrura was born to there. M. Akrura married Sutanu.

A big division of an army. A sacred lake. God is one who transcends the aspects Ksara and Aksara and stands as the root cause of all life. Nala would be taught the se cret mantra of Aksahrdaya by the King. See also under Duryodhana. AKSARAPURUSA. Cobra said. Nala was surprised. (Chapter 72. While living there a brahmin named Sudev a came to Rtuparna and informed him that Damayanti was going to marry again.).). A particular place in the country of Anartta. Nala informed him that by the time the request was made they had travelled already one yojana. Chapter 39. Sri Krsna then through the famous Gita enunciated a philosophy of life during the course of which he speaks about the two purusas. They escaped fr om there and passing through dense forests crossed the river Ganges and reached the Kingdom of PdACala where they married the King's daughter. AKSAYAVATA. The chario t driven by Nala flew like a wind and on the way when Rtuparna's handkerchief fe ll down and he requested Nala to stop the chariot. Everyday this pot never got empty till the meals of Pancali were over. They taught each other the sacred mantras. She was the wife of the sage Apastamba. It says thus One char iot. An Aksauhini contains 21870 chariots. Vana Parva. He says . She was a very chaste woman. Para 12. Bhisma Parva.B.from Visnu as Visravas .one Gu lma. This is a copper vessel given to Dharmaputra by Surya (Sun). (Ch apter 3. AKSAYAPATRA.B. When all was set for the Kuruksetra battle Arjuna showed signs of weakness and hesitated to proceed for a fight. (Sloka 29. As they procee ded they saw a huge tree full of leaves and fruits. AKSAUHINT. (See under Apastamba). All that we see in this world and enjoy are Ksara and the power behind all of them is Aksara. Surya and he appeare d before him and gave him this Aksaya Patra (Aksaya =never getting empty. It is described in the Verses 19 to 26 in the 2nd Chapter of Adi Parva of the Malayalam Mahabharata. M. Dharmaputra then prayed to the God. Three such pattis make one Senamukha and three such senamukhas make. M. Rtu parna immediately started for Vidarbha taking Nala as his charioteer. Becau se of this Aksahrdaya Nala was able to win the game of dice the second time and regain his kingdom. 65160 horses and 109350 soldiers. The Pa ndavas found it impossible to feed the innumerable subjects who faithfully follo wed them to the forest. Vana Parva). Nal a went to Rtuparna and stayed with him. Krsna (Pancali).) AKSARCTRA. Ksara and Aksara. Three gulmas make one Gana and three such ganas make one Vahini. When they were livi ng happily at Indraprastha the jealous Duryodhana defeated them in a game of dic e by foul play and sent them for a period of twelve years to the forests. To des troy the Pandavas. Rtuparna at a glance told Na la that the tree contained five crores of leaves and two thousand nine hundred a nd five fruits.B. one elephant. On their way they killed two demons called Hidimba and Baka. AKSAMALA (ARUNDHATI). M. three horses and five soldiers constitute what is termed a Pa tti. One who knows this sacred chant can find out all secrets of a game of dice and c an count within rap time the number of leaves. Then they understood that Nala was able to d rive the chariot so quickly because of his knowledge of the sacred chant Asvahrd aya and that Rtuparna was able to count the leaves and fruits because of his kno wledge of the chant Aksahrdaya. fruits and flowers on a tree. Duryodhana kept them in a palace made of lac. Sabha Parva. Three such vahinis make one Prtana. AKSAPRAPATANA. (Slokas 16 to 19. Chapter 38. At this place Sri K rsna killed -two demons named Gopati and Talaketu. See under Arundhati. Patra= pot).Ravana .Aksa. an equal number of elephants. When the Pandavas during their exile went to Pulastya srama sage Pulastya gave a description of alb the sacred lakes in India.

(Agni Purana. the great sage. in that lake you will get salvation". When the Pandavas were in exile in the fore sts sage Markandeya tells many stories to Dharmaputra to console him in his sad plight. AKSINA. Anusasana Parva. did penance sitting here for a long ti me. The Ascetic king took me then to the Indradyumna lake where the sto rk lived. Aku para is a tortoise living in it.There is also a statement that this is the Adi Kurma (second of the ten incarnations of Goc).. Starting from Visnu pada Alakananda flows through Devaydna which bia'zes with the splendour of a cr ore of beautiful many-storeyed buildings. Savana. who has an other name `Alagha'. The stork also could not find the identity of Indradyumna.P. Chapter 20). A son born to Vasistha by Urjja. AKUPARA. Kapila. who were great hermits. (81oka 50. "In times of old Indradyumna an ascetic King (Rajarsi) f ell down from heaven when he fell short of his accumulated `Punya'. Then when you reach Gaya you will find there a lake called Aksayavata. The owl also could not r emember Indradyumna but directed him to a stork named Nadijamgha who was older t han the owl. From there it divides into flo .).. This river starts from the Himalayas with the name 8aravati and flowing for 500 yojanas (One yojaram is equal to abou t 8 miles) on the left side of river Gomati reaches the western ocean. Flowing from there to Candramandala (moon) and flooding it completely ' brahmaloka. are the same as the Ganga of the ear th. 1) General information. The moment the tortoise finished speaking a chariot appeare d from heaven to take the King away. The tort oise sat in meditation for some time and then weeping profusely and shaking like a leaf stood bowing respectfully and said. River Ganga of devaloka. Sorrowfully he came to me and asked me whether I knew him. Bha-sd Bharata. Then the sage said. We then approached the tortoise and enquired whether he knew Indradyumna. "After reaching M5rkandeya lake you should visit the meeting place of the rive rs Ganga and Gomati. A description of Akupara is found in Chapter 199 of Vana Parva in Mahabharata. ALAGHU. 2) Ciranjivi (One who has no death). Raja (Rajas) Gatra. Kåñëa-dvaipayana (Vyasa) declares that Deva Ganga with crystal pure water flowing in devaloka under the name Alakananda aad Vaitarani of the nether World. Perhaps he said that a tortoise of name Akupara living in that same lake might know him. There is an Erama called Aksayavata on the shores of this beautiful river which always ca rries crystal clear water. If you bathe. This very l ake is of his making. There is a lake in the Himalayas called Indradyumna. In the Navama Sk andha of Devi Bhagavata you find the following about Aksayavata: "Puspabhadra is one of the famous sacred rivers in India. Chapter 170. Bhadrakali and Skanda used to come and sit underneath this banyan tree. He was the son of Visvamitra. A. ALAKA. The a 'rama got that name because of a big banyan tree standing near it. This came into existence by the march of the cows he gave away to the people". were brothers of Alaghu. chapter 14. (Slokas 21 and 22. The Pandavas asked Markandeya whether he knew of anybody living before h im. ALAKANANDA. "How can I remain without knowing hi m ? There are several monuments of the useful work done by him here. The city of Kubera. I replied in the negative adding that perhaps Pravirakarna an owl living on the top of the Himalayas might know h im since he was older than me. Fo r more details see under Visvamitra). Sukra and Sutapas. The river Ganga ofthe earth when it flows t hrough devaloka is called Alakanandi and is called Vaitarani when it flows thr ough PitrJoka (nether world). At once Indradyumna became a horse and taking me on its back approached the owl living in the Himalayas. Lord Siva. The King after leaving me and the owl in their proper places ascended to heaven in the chariot. Urdhvabahu. a terror to sinners.

Indra sent this celestial maid Alambusa to entice the hermit. It is seen that h e has got another name. 44)'. when he went to devaloka (the realm of the gods) to bring Amrtam (ambrosia) took rest in th is holy place. ALAMBUSA. (M. Bhisma Parva. When the hermit saw her he became passionate and he had se minal flow.B. Alambusa approached him with enticing act ions and expressions. Garuda. (M. Srflgavan flows to t he northern ocean. S tanza 39). Stanzas 43.B. 2) How she enticed the hermit Dadhica. on the first day of the battle of Kuruksetra. Of these Sita falls on the thicklywooded m ountain tops of Mahameru and flowing from there through Gandhamadana by the sid e of Bhadragvavarsa falls down in the eastern ocean. This asura (Alambala) fought on the side of the Kauravas in the Kurukse tra battle because Bhimasena had killed his father. Chapter 39. Also M. Chapter 140. Jatasura. W hen the ascetic got down to the river. Satyaki killed this king.Brahmi .. ALAMBATIRTHA. 1) Genealogy. Alakananda and Bhadra. (See und'er the word Garuqa. doing tapas on the bank of the river Sarasvati. ALAMBUSA 111. Ghatotkaca. A holy place where there was a sacred bath. Of these the most sacred is Alakananda which flows through Bharatavarsa and it is believed that even those who think of taking a bath in t hat will acquire the benefit of performing yagas like Asvamedha aud Rajasuya. A giant who used to eat human flesh. Salakatamka. (M. "Alambu sa shot ninety sharpened pointed arrows at the son of Bhlmasena (Ghatotkaca). who blessed the child and said that t here would be a drought in the country continuously for twelve years and that at that juncture Sarasvata would recite passages from the Scripture to the . Stanza 33). (Mahabharata. Chapter 45. In the battle. Satyaki. failing on the top of the Mountain. Ghatotkaca killed this giant in the b attle. Drona Parva. Chapter 149). The most sacred of the group.. Drona Parva. The fourth. in the Kaurava battle. Caksus falls on the top of Malyavan mountain and flowing through Ketumala falls down in the western ocea n.. (Bhasa Bharata. The sperm fell into the river. c ut his body in several places. There was a combat between. A giant. Alambusa and Ghatotkaea. Begins from Visnu in the following order: Brahma-Kasyapa-Alambusa. (Drona Parva. He was killed by Ghatotkaca in the battle. Another king on the side of the Kauravas. Stan zas 37 to 47). Drona Parva. kuntibhoja and Bhlmasena al l mighty men of arms. He began. Stanza 13). This cannibal was the son of Jat asura. Stanzas 22 to 33). the son of Jatasura.B. It is seen that this Alambusa was defeated and driven away from the batle-field by Arjuna. in single combat. He had fought on the side of the Kaurav as.Chapter 109. Though he was full of wounds. A celestial woman born to Kasyapa by his wife Pradha. ALAMBUSA II. Bhadra. Indra was i n consternation. ALAMBUSA IV. Udyoga Parva. ALAMBUSA 1. Alambusa brought the child before Dadhica.B. Chapter 167. Chapter 167. Caksus. A king of the Raksasas. Alambusa had engaged Abhimanyu. ( Eighth Skandha of Sri Mahadevi Bhagavata) ALAMBALA. Gh atotkaca cut off the head of this mighty warrior and magician and threw his he ad into the war-chariot of Duryodhana.ws down to four rivulets and flows to the four different sides with the names Sita. Alakananda. He was called Sarasvata. In days of yore there was an ascetic name d Dadhica. Adi Parva. falls on the mountain of Hemakfita and from there flows through Bharatavarsa and falls down in the southern ocea n. The river became pregnant and deliver ed a child in due course. Son of the giant Rsyasrnga. he fought all the more fiercely".

Dadhica giving his bone died and attained heaven. wheel w eapons. the illustrious King of Candra vamsa (Lunar dynasty) and Alambusa took birth as Mrgavati. over and above the exertion of carrying. The King made a pond and filled it with a solution of Laksa (wax. They came down to the earth and requested Dadhica to give them a bone. she had to bear the difficult ies of her forlorn condition. Mrgavati was d ipping and splashing in it when an eagle taking her to be a piece of flesh took her away. He was not even aware of the curse. Owing to the curse Vidhuma was born a s Sahasranika. The period of separation. Sahasranika immersed in the thought of Mrgavati was sitting silent. Casting Mrgavati on the Mountain of t he Rising Sun the great bird flew away. A very large mountain snake began to draw near to swallow her. Indra sent Tilottama to keep company. Salya Par va. Kathamukhalambaka. The charioteer wa s driving. When these two were standing near Brahma. Alambusa al so came there to pay homage to Brahma. "ha. At the loss of his wife Sahasranika lost his senses and fell down unco nscious. She became pregnant. my love Mrgavati ! Where are you now ?" and waited for the end of the period of the curse.ns who had forgotten them. Taranga 1). The garments she had on were displaced by wind. By then the Brahmins had forgotten the hymns and mantras of the Vedas. and she grew weary and worn and became unconscious . Indra's charioteer. The horror-stricken queen. thinking of h ez present condition cried aloud. when dissolved in water. came down from the realm of God s and brought the King back to consciousness. Sarasvata alone remained with his mother. Without paying any heed to the consolatory words of his ministers or other inmates of the palace the King went on lamenting and moan ing. was filled with passion for him. Withou t much delay the wedding ceremony also was conducted. Then a hermit boy came there and questioned her who was now lean and ill-dress . After having defeated the Asuras it wa s time for him toreturn. Indra knew that with a weapon made by the bone of Dadhica the Asuras could be destroyed. There was one Vasu calle d Vidhuma also with Indra. T ilottama said something which the King did not hear. (Mahabharata. With his bones Indra made a good deal of weapons such as the Vajrayudha. Indra knowing the mind of Brahma cursed them: "Both of you who have lost meekness shall become human being s and then your desire will be fulfilled".Brahmins left the country. Brahma who saw the changes in them looked at Indra with displeasure. Befor e the wedding took place Devendra once invited Sahasranika to heaven. Vidhuma saw the dazzling beauty of her body and was overpowered by libido . It was a forest which abounded in lions. ( Kathasaritsagara. 4) The curse of Tilottama. Alambusa who understood this. Long ago Indra went to Brahma. At that time Indra lost his Vajrayudha (weapon of thunderbolt) somewhere. One d ay she told her lover-husband that she had a desire to dip in a blood pond. The much pleased Sarasvati and Sarasvata went back. Chapter 51). the water will look like blood) and such other substances. After this there was a great famine in the country. tigers. maces and sticks and with them Indra slew all the Daityas (Asuras) . A divine person saved her from that situation and vanished. But none of them came near her. As there was no rain. bears and such other ferocious animals. After twelve yeas°s the famine and starvation came to an end. execrating Tilottama. The As uras (enemies of Gods) made an onslaught on the gods and their realm. the daughter of King Krtavarma and his wife kalavati. 3) Punarjanma (Rebirth). and then informing him of the curs e of Tilottama he returned. I ndra asked the Gods to bring the bone. He lived t here for a time as the guest of the Gods. crops failed and lands became dry and the . The y approached the boy Sarasvata and renewed their memory. The King returned to Kausambi his capital city. Sahasranika the incarnation of Vidhuma and Mrgavati t he incarnation of Alambusa fell in love with each other on the earth also. Tilottama cursed him that h e would be separated for fourteen years from the object about which he was think ing. The unprotected Mrgavati decided to commit suicide. Immediately Matali.

But the snake-charmer replied. Somehow or othe r he spent the rest of the day. given by Udayana to the bazar for sale. Seeing the beauty of the snake he asked the sna ke-charmer to let the snake free. The place was always vibrant with sounds of the repeating and r ecitation of the Holy scriptures and covered with smoke mingled with the fragran ce of burning herbs and other oblations burned in the sacrificial fire. The boy who gave this bangle to this snake-charmer must be my son . when the King heard a voice from above sa y." Said the g reat and noble hermit. When she saw the hermit who was as radiant as the Sun. "O King! the period of the curse is over. The snake-charmer took the bangle. if ever you happen . went to the Mountain of the Rising Sun to bring back his wife and son. The boy Ud ayana grew up in the hermitage. To those such as you who are of the `Rajogunapradhana' caste (Ruling race) the peaceful atmosphere of our he rmitage may not be appealing to the heart. she bowed low before him. The vari ous wild animals which are born enemies of each other got on amicably there. Early the next morning the King followed by his army. One day when Udayana was tramping the forest. an incarnation of all good qualities.ed. His son would get the leadership of the Vidyadharas ( the musicians of the Gods)". When he heard this Udayana felt pity for him and gave the bangle to the snake-ch armer and let the snake free. about her condition and consoling her guided her to the hermitage of the gre at hermit Jamadagni. betels and some tricks to prepare never fading garla nds and paste to make marks on the forehead. My previous sna ke was dead and it was with the help of a good deal of herbs and spells and inca ntations that I caught this one". There is no place for unhappiness here. the present and the future were not obscure. When the snake-charmer had gone with the bangle. You will get a heroic son here who will continue your family. "This boy would become the great and renowned King Udayana. At the birth of the child Mrgavati heard an unknown voice saying. " Oh Prince. As a token of her intense love for the son. who could foresee the future. performed the ne cessary rites and rituals becoming a Ksatriya boy (Ruling caste) and taught him everything including the Dhanurveda (the Science of Archery). The y took the snake-charmer to show them the way. she put a bangle with the name of Sahasranika inscribe d on the arm of Udayana. In future. When you were r eturning from heaven with Tilottama. he. the elder brother of Vasuki. The police caught him and took him before the King. At this the queen was immensely pleased. Their reunion ca used a shower of Ambrosia (Amrta). To the King the hermit Jamadagni s aid : "Oh. The King stood before the hermit with folded arms and bowed head for permission to depart. She w as displeased with your behaviour and cursed you. The King asked him ho w he got the bangle and the snake-charmer told the King the story from the catch ing of the snake till he got the bangle. beca use they saw the name of the King inscribed on the bangle. In due course the King and his train reached the holy hermitage of the eminent h ermit Jamadagni. But a Holy hermitage is more respecta ble than the palace of' an Emperor. The hermit who was an incarnation of the higher aspirations greeted the King who wa s the protector of the ascetics. you were so much engrossed in the thought o f Mrgavati that you did not pay any heed to the conversation of Tilottama. The hermit to whom the past. "My daughter ! Don't fear. "This is the bangle that I put on the a rm of my wife. Your wife and son are in the Mounta in of the Rising Sun". King. After some days sh e gave birth to a son who had all the symptoms of greatness. with the hospitality becoming his status. You might have known that the reason for your separation is a curse. At these words the King felt extreme joy. Somewhat pacified Mrgavati lived in that hermitage waiting for reunion with her husband. You will be reunited to your husband. you are welcome to this hermitage. Receive them as my presents". th is is my daily bread. I earn my livelihood by exhibiting snakes. t he snake beaming with joy said to Udayana: "I am Vasunemi. saw a snake-charmer catching a snake. I am grateful to you forgiving me freedom. Udaya na accepted the presents with gladness and returned more luminous than before to the hermitage of Jamadzgni. I give you this lute producin g exquisite notes of music. The K ing who saw Mrgavati with their son was overcome with gladness." The King was thinking with sadness.

Now look ! the animals of the hermitage are standing round you and shedding tears.ila because Devi Katyayani told them in a dream that the son w ould become Dharmapara (who performs duties well). Stanzas 31-33). (Kathasaritsag ara. I shall be looking forwat d with pleasure to occasions which will enable me to pay visits to this Holy abode. Chapter 65. Sahasran ika then went to the Hima1ayas to practise ascesis with his wife. His father who was a great hermit taught him ev erything requircd." The King said. It is seen in the Kathasaritsagara w here a Vidyadhara woman tells the story of Alankaravati to the King. Idavida their daughter was given in marriage to Visravas and to them was born Dhanada (Kubera). Adi Parva. knowledge in e . See the word Pattu . Let him be a costly gem to you". Alambusa took part in the birthday celebration of Arjuna. Navama Skandham. (b) Enticing Trnabindu. Thus blessing the boy the hermit led him to the King. to whom a son named Kube ra (the Lord of wealth) was born By Alambusa Trnabindu had three sons called Vis ala. Chapter 2. but all the inmates of this hermitage are highly pleased at having got you in our midst for so long. "He who is the seat of all laudable qualities (Trnabindu) was honoured by Alambu sa (as husband). by some motions of her body and took leave of him wit h her son. The blessed King and his train. Sunyabandhu and Dhumraketu." (B hagavatam. Stanza 49) (See Footnote) ALANKARAGRANTHA. took leave of them and proceeded to the capi tal city. I am very sorry to say that the exige ncy of my presence at the capital due to the pressure of work in connection with the ruling of the country compels me to cut short my visit to this holy hermita ge. To the prince. I am fully aware of the fact that the presence o f the holy hermits who have under their control the eightfold prosperities. looking at the men." Much pleased at the speech of the King the hermit said to Mrgavati: "My daughter ! Not only myself. (Mahabharata.to get into a position which will cause you mental trouble you can be assured of the presence of this Jamadagni. The joy at her reunion wit h husband. This Ilabila was married to Visravas. Wife of King Naravahanadatta. ALANKARAVATI. A story is seen in the Bhagavata of how Alambusa enticed the King Trnabindu. Kathamukhalambaka. A son was born to them. This handsome boy has bee n taught everything becoming a royal prince. His wife was called Kancanaprabha. "I am extremely grateful to you r Eminence for this great boon. ViAala who was the founder of the Dynasty. beasts and birds which accompanied them for a while. He married Alambusa and a daughter named Idavida (Ilabila) was born to them. Still we are consoled at your reunion with your husband. her sorrow at having to depart from th e hermitage and the surging feeling in her mind-all these made her dumb and so b eing unable to say anything she expressed her love and regard for the hermit who m she loved as her father. (A book on rhetorics and figures of speech). Three sons Visala." Saying this he drew Udayana to his side. Once a vidyadhara named Alankarasila ruled over a city called Sri Sundarapura in the Hima1ayas. We are sorry to part from you.'. They named him Dharma . Sunyabandhu and Dhumraketu. her shyness at being near him. were born to t hem. is a lways a harbinger of peace and prosperity. Taranga 2) . built a city called Vaisali. On reaching' there the King anointed his son Udayana as King. kissed him on his head and said to the King again: "This son is a decoration to your dynasty. Naturally you are of a very good character and your life in this hermitage has given you a nice training and so there is no need for any more advice from me at this time.

Manthu and Amanth u. AMARACANDRA. Sloka 43). A synonym of Sri Krsna. Chapter 57. (M. (Alga =short and Kala =time). Sta nza 8).. A. She learned arts and sciences from her father. To control them he sent arrows at the mind.Pratiha . gave birth to a daughter.. M.Prthusena .Bhuma . ALOLUPA.. Chapter 95. Chapter 8. Viravrata had two sons. (M.D . A king of the family of Priyavrata. The name of an insect. AMANTHU. ALARKA II. It was burnt up in the fire at the Sarpa satra of Janamejay a. A giant. Skandha 3] . Then Alarka by sheer dhyana and yoga brought them under cont rol. He executed regal functions to perfection and ruled his subjects better than hi s father. A woman in the service of Skanda. Stanza 46 and Chapter 176. Let a strong man take a sharp needle and thrust it h ard at the leaves. ALPAKALA (M) . (Sloka 64. Chapter 30) . Lambaka 9. tongue. Bala Bharata was his work. Stanza 6). ALARKA (M) I. Chapter 43. It was in the form of this insect that Indr a went and bore a hole on the leg of Karna while Parasurama was sleeping on his lap. The time taken for the needle to pierce one leaf and reach th e other is alpakala". She went on a pilgrimage to the Siva temples far and' wide.Samrat . Fo rsaking all riches and his kingdom he accepted Dharmamarga. One day she heard a cel estial voice: "Go to the Svayambhu temple in Kasmira and worship there and you w ill get as your husband Naravahanadatta. Parva. Alarka once told a blind brahmin boy to ask for any boon from him.Devatajit . (Ramayana. He was a member of the council of yama. AMAHATHA. At the time of her birth a heavenly voice said that she would become the wife of Narava hanadatta the emperor of the Vidyadharas.Nakta . eye.). [Bhagavata (Malayalam version). Anusasana Parva. (18th Sloka. Taranga 1)..Marici . Alayudha combated with Bhimasena and Ghatotkaca and was killed by Ghatotkaca.B.B.B. Sabha Parva.Pratiharta . ALAYUDHA.Deva dyumna . He was a very honest man. Kancanaprabha.B. A short time. The blood that flowed from Karna's foot wetted the body of the preceptor.B. But the senses never s urrendered to them. It is believed that he lived in the 13th Cent." Finally Naravahanadatta the emperor of Vidyadharas married her. Anusasana Parva.Agindhra Nabhi-Rsabha .Vibhu .Sita Prastoka . Salya Parva. nose. (Kathasaritsagara. ear. He was the brother of Bakasura. Astama Skandha). Ayodhya Kanda. They named her Alankaravati.Vi nduman -Madhu .Viravrata .very branch of studies was imparted and then he was anointed heir to the throne. A son of Dhrtarastra. ALATAKS I.B.). (M.. (M. M. wife of Alankarasila. Adi Parva.Gaya . It is said that h e was a courtier of Visaladeva. A Sanskrit poet.Amanthu. Amaracandra was a Jaina priest. AMADHYA. The boy deman ded the eyes of Alarka. the son of King Vira dhavala who ruled over Guj .Citraratha . Verse 16). Chapter 1 15.Bharata . Chapter 342. On ce Alarka decided to overcome the five senses. Verse 90). He fought on the side of the Kauravas. He attained salvation by yoga and meditation.Paramesti . She grew into a very beautiful maiden. Drona Parva. To keep his promise Alarka scooped out his eyes and gave them to the blind boy. (M. skin and intelligence. In the Bhagavata the following definition is given of alpakala : "Take two tender leaves of a lotus and place one on the other. A king of the states of Kai! and Karusa. Genealogy: From Visnu descended in this order Brahma-Svayambhuvaanu . A serpent. Santi (Devi Bhagavata. Sarga 12.Priyavrata .B.Sumati .

If one has Siva's darsana there. See the word "PARCATANTRA". AMARAHRADA. Indra's city. A mountain. AMARAPARVATA. Manovati. we see the following passage about the benefits o btained by visit ing this holy place. Substances offered as homa on Purnamasi become food of the Devas and those offered on Amavasi become food of the Pitrs. Varuna's city. 9. There are eight cities each 2. It is the city of Indra. 3. A visit to Amarakantaka has ten times the value of an Awamedha. on the Mahameru mountain. AMARDANA. Amarakantaka Ksetra has a circumference of one yojana. w hich was burnt by Siva fell. Those who take their bath in Jvalesvara in A marakantaka will enter Svarga. Kubera's city Mahodaya. On the southern side. Yama's city. 2. (M.500 square yojanas in e xtent-of the Astadikpalakas in eight parts of this Brahmapuri. Verse 106). Once Bhrgu Maharsi cursed Agni. Nirrti's city.000 yojanas. (Katha saritsagara. Sabha Parva. A place of holy bath. Madana Man cuka lambaka. "Ama" means "Saha". Its location is descr ibed in Devi Bhagavata as follows-: "Brahma's world extends over 10. An ancient place in Bharata. So Amavasi is the Unio n of Sun and Moon in the same rasi. Agni's city. AMARAGUPTA.. AMARAKANTAKA. (M. In the north. In the west. In the north-west corner. 5. AMAVASI. From that time it became a holy place. (M. 8. In the valley of Amarakantaka and in the Tirtha live Devas known as Amaras and numerous Rsis.B . "One who goes to Amarakanlaka mountain-w ill enjoy the fourteen worlds for thirty-seven thousand crores of years. (abo ut eight miles). At that time Agni explained the importance of Am avasi. Vana Parva. 4. In the south-east corner. Samyamani. At the time of eclipse. Gandhavati. In the north-east corner.Chapter 15. AMARAVATI. In the centre is Brahma's city. Adi Khanda.. Yasovati. He was the minister of King Vikramasimha who ruled over Avanti in ol den times. Chapter 7) . one will attain Svarga. Thus there are ni ne cities on the top of the Maha Meru.arat from 1243 to 1262. Vayu's city. all kinds of holy thing s converge towards Amarakarrtaka. Amaravati. In the south-west corner. To the east of Manovati. It was on this mountain that some parts of Tripura. 7.B. They are the following:1. Chapter 83. Nakula had conquered this place. The dead will have no rebirth. . Siva's city. The oblations which at a offered as homa into the fire become the food of the Devas and Pitrs. 6. Amavasi means New Moon. Krsnanjana. Chapter 32. In Padma P urana.Verse 11).. Sraddhavati. the King of the Devas. In Amarakosa we read about Amavasi: "Amavasya tvamavasya darsah suryend usariigamah". Afterw ards he will be born on earth as King and reign as supreme emperor.B. Tejovati. First Taranga) . Adi Parva. One who takes his bath here will attain Svarg a. Those who renounc e their lives at Jvalesvara will live in Rudraloka till the time of great Delu ge.

B oth Akrtavrana and Srnjaya explained all her affairs to Parasurama. Soon after Bhisma's birth. Therefore. 1) Amba and Tlicitravirya. She had two younger sisters named Ambika and Ambalika. (P adma Purana. Narada and the gods induce . who was a spiritual daughter of the Pitrs. There he made all prepa rations for the marriage. Aruba's maternal grandfather. After that Vicitravirya became king. a follower of Pa rasurama happened to come there. Bhisma was the son of Ganga and Citrairgada and Vicitravirya were the sons of S atyavati. the eldes t and most beautiful of the princesses. She went to the Asrama of 8aikhavatya Muni in the forest an d stayed there for the night. A terrible duel took place between them at Kuruksetra. Adi Parva. In the Mahabharata. Dauter of a King of Kasi. Amba then went to king S alva and made an appeal to him to accept her as his wife since they were mutuall y in love. But Parasurama's p roposal was turned down by Bhisma. Therefore go at once to Bhisma himself and ask him to accept you.. Hotravahana (Sr came that way. When the fight reached a critical stage. H(r)travahana introduced Amba to Akrtavrana. Bhisma. Ganga and Satyavati. To her words Salva replied: "What you have said about our mutual love is true. He advised her to inform Par asurama of all her grievances. But as the time for the ceremony approached. The G andharva did not like another man with his own name to be living in this world. Amavasu repelled her advances ." On hearing this. we are deeply in love with each other. instead of succeeding to h is father's throne. we find that Amba had cherished a secret desire to wreak ve ngeance on Bhi:sma. I saw Bhisma taking you by hand and helping you into his chariot. Bhisma. The circumstanc es in which this happened. Chaf> ver 75. Amba went to Bhisma and said : "I had al ready made up my mind long ago to marry Salva. Bhisma went there and in the presence of all the kings who had assembled t here. had two wives. Santanu also died. Once Citrangada went for hunting in the forest. Ganga vanished. 2) The Svayamvara. Srsti Khanda). she was degraded and in her next birth was born as Kali or Satyavati. So he killed the king. the King. Ambikd and Amba lika. to go to the forest to do penance. Just at that moment Akrtavrana. a King of the Candra Vamsa. According to a vow he had taken long ago. Amba. Udyoga Parva. took the three princesses with him to Hastinapura. 4) Revenge on Bhisma. Verse 24) . Her wish to do penance was approv ed by the Muni . It was at this time that Bhisma came to know that the King of Kasi was arranging the Svayamvara of his three daughters. Prathama Skandha as f ollows: Santanu. had once taken Amba. AMBA. From Visnu. to Hastinapura. Amba is an ill-starred character in the story of the Mahabharata. Sor of Pururavas by Urvasi. (M. AMAVASU II. Besides. One of the Pitrs. Ambika and Am balika. of love to him. the three daughters of the King of Kaki. But it is not right for a man to accept a woman who has bee n accepted by another. After a long period of reig n. Genealogy. Chapter 17. Brahma-Atri-Candra-Budha-Pururavas-Amavasu.who h ad taken a vow to remain a bachelor for life. On account of this impropriety of Acchoda. left it to his brother Citraxigada.B. Satyavati and. Hotravahana came to know of all her misfortunes. Parasurama undertook to persuade Bhisrna to accept Amba (as his wife). are descried in Devi Bhagavata.. Once Acchoda was fascinated by the physical charm of this Amavasu and made advances." Stun ned by his words. 3) Salva's rejection. Bhisma had to take u p the task of arranging a suitable marriage for Vicitravirya. the three sons were left behind in the pala ce.AMAVASU I. she turned away. There he came across a Gandharva named Citrangada. On the next day. please consider whether it is proper on the part of a great man like you to force me into another marriage. Bhisma allowed her to do as she liked.

the queen gave birth to a girl. he became a charioteer. Chapter 188). Siva appear ed to her and told her that in the next birth she would attain masculinity. He a dded that she would be born in the Drupada dynasty as a great archer under the n ame of Citrayodhi and kill Bhisma. The child became famous under the name of Sikhandi. 5) Siva's Boon. Yaksa who was in female form. Therefore the child had to be brought up. and went to the Yamuna vall ey to do penance for six years.B. By this time the wife came to know that the "husband" was a woman. Drupada propitiated Siva by worshipping him for an issu e.So. Kubera pronounced a curse that the female s ex of Sthunakarna and the male sex of Sikhandi would continue for ever. Still he was greatly perplexed as to how to find a wife for Sikhandi who was already a youthf ul virgin ! But his wife assured Drupada that Sikhandi would become a man. 8) Kubera's Arrival. dressed like a boy. 7) Sikhandi's Marriage. The couple arrived at Kambalyapura. King of Pan cala. Thus the fight ended with equal victory to both. the Yaksa would be restored to his own mal e sex. Hiranyavarna died. In the great Kaurava-Pandava battle. he retur ned home. Pleased with this prophecy. determined to commit suicide. Kubera released him from the curse by say ing that after the death of Sikhandi. The goddess Ganga appeared to her and when she under stood her plight. People were afraid of en tering that forest because a Yaksa named Sthunakarna lived there. As a result of the curse. but it wa s announced that it was a boy. did not come out to receive Kubera. they exchanged their. The Yaks a prayed for the lifting of the curse. They enter ed into a contract. burnt herself to death. Drupada made a proposal for Sikhandi's marriage wit h the daughter of the King of Daarna.. accor ding to Siva's blessing. At this stage the distressed Sikhandi proceeded to the forest. in the course of his world tour Xubera arrived a t the residence of Sthunakarna. In her agony and despair. T he Yaksa appeared to her. In his anger. Drupada decided to look for a wife for him (her ?). 6) Rebirth. Hiranyavarna made a thorough examinwtion of Sikha ndi and convinced himself of the truth. Finding that it was not possible to achieve her object through Paras urama's mediation. The. Aga in for another year she did penance. Hira nyavarna sent a messenger to King Drupada to ascertain the truth of the matter. In due course. Udyoga Parva. She disclosed the secret to her La dies-in-waiting. At that time. The goddess Gan ga cursed her to become a river in the Vatsa country. After that for one year she went on a fast. Sikhandi went to the premises of the Yaksa and performed certain rites for a number of days. When Sikhandi a ttained youth. Drupada repeated with greater force his old plea that his child was a man. a part of her was turned into the river known as Amba. sexes--Sikhandi recei ving the male sex of the Yaksa and the Yaksa receiving the female sex of Sikhand i. sleep etc. Sikhandi had received his trai ning in arms under Dronacarya. According to it. Thus Sikhandi became a man permanently. Many years after. (M. Enraged at this. lying under the water in the river Yamuna. Sikhandi went to Sthunakarna's place after the death of Hiranyavarna. The remaining part of her engaged itself in penance. Drupada and his queen were in a fix. she told Amba that it was not possible to kill Bhisma. He even began to make preparations for waging a war against Drupada. But coming to know of all that had happened. Amba re nounced food. They in turn communicated it to the king. standing on the tip of the toes and eatin g only dry leaves. she took a vow th at 'she would kill Bhisma and making a pyre. According to the previous agreement. . but she would be transformed into a boy. Next. King Drupada's queen had been in great distress for a long time beca use she had no children. Sikhandi explained the whole matter to him. she reduced the sky and earth to flames by doing penan ce. Sikhandi returned home as a man. w ithout even drinking water. the King of Da-larna. gave his daughter in marriage to Sikhandi. Hiranyavarna.d Parasurama to withdraw from the duel. Siva blessed him and said that a girl would be born to him. she wandered about here and there.

Arrows began to fly from both sides. At night Ambika se cretly disguised her waiting-maid and sent her in her own place. Bhisma Parva. The Pandavas st arted the day's battle by keeping Sikhandi in the . Bhisma with a smile of contempt said to Sikhandi. T hose who die here will attain salvation (Moksa) by Narada's blessing. who was blind from his birth. It is a place of sacred bath where the sage Narada usually resides. yet today I have to di e. After that. a chil d with pale complexion was born to her. It was Bhisma who led the Kaur ava forces. mother of Vicitravirya summoned V yasa. Vrcitravirya died before children were born to his wives.AMBAJANMA 29 AMBARISA I 9) Sikhandi's Revenge. she passively submitted to the act. Satyavati asked Ambika to go to Vyasa again. The King searched for the c ow in all countries. crudely attired Vyasa. As a result of their union was born Dhrtarastra. keeping Sikhandi in front.. Chapter 108. Ten of th ese arrows of Sikhandi hit . Bhima. Therefore Indra stole the sac rificial cow and took it away. . AMBAJANMA. Mucukunda and Purukutsa and fifty daughters. Bhisma disregarded even those arrow s. (1) The youngest of the three daughters of the King of Kasi--Amba.pired him with greater courage. according to M. As Ambalika's face was pale at the time of their union. Still owing to the Mother's pressure.B. Thou gh I am also invulnerable and cannot be killed in battle. At last he said: "I cannot kill the Panda'vas because they are invulnerable ( avadhyah). At last Bhis-na fell down . Sikhandi also showered his arrows on him.B. A King of the Iksvaku dynasty. I cannot kill Sikhandi because he is really a woman and not man. Chapter 106). Abhi manyu and other warriors were giving him support.Bhisma's breast. The-w aiting-maid experienced exquisite pleasure in Vyasa's company and as a result a most intelligent son was born to her. describes Bhi sma's encounter with Sikhandi during the Kaurava-Pandava battle. From Visnu was born in the following order : Brahma-Mari ci-Kasyapa. To avoid the extinction of the family.Yuvan4svaMandhata=Ambarisa. AMBARISA I. The Mahabharata.. Verse 81. Vyasa obeyed his mo ther half-heartedly.PuranjayaKukutst ha-Anenas-Prthulasva-Prasenajit .. her other son and asked him to beget a son for Ambika. Vicitravirya. The Upadhyaya (Chief Priest) was alarmed at the d isappearance of the cow and expressed his opinion to the King that it would be e nough to sacrifice a human being instead of the cow. Having thus failed i n both attempts. son of' Santanu married Ambika and Ambalika. 1) Genealogy and Birth. The Muni (Sage) Saubhari married the daughters. (M. Chapter 83. He was named Pandu.VivasvanVaivasvatamanu-Iksvaku-Vikuksi . to Vyasa. At last he reached the peak of Bhrgutun ga where the sage Rcika lived with his wife and children.B. the time has come for me to die. 2) Ambarisa's Yaga (sacrifice) . The mother of this princess was Kausalya. "Sikhandi ! Brahma created you as a woman. Sikhandi became more infuriated.vanguard. 2) Pandu's Mother. Satyavati. Ambika did not like the dark-complexioned. You ma y do as you like". Adi Parva. cities and forests. It was lie who became the renowned Vidura. Arjuna began to fight with Bhisma. Mandhata had three sons: Ambarisa. (M. Chapter 173) . It was the tenth day of the bat tle and Sikhandi shot three arrows aimed at Bhisma's breast. Amb ika and Ambalika.Sasada . In Valmlki Ramayana there is a story of Devendra's theft of the sacrificial cow from Ambarisa's yagasala. Udyoga Parva. Devendra could not bear the thought of King Ambarisa winning worldrenown and glory by performing yagas. Arjuna i ns. The King explained to . Vana Parva. Arjuna. Hearing this taunt. AMBALIKA." Meanwhile Sikhandi and Arjuna were discharg ing a continuous and heavy shower of arrows at Bhisma. The grief-stricken mother called Vyasa again and asked him to have union with Am balika this time.

But the Cakra followed him there. (Brahmanda Puraria. Durvasas went to Ambarisa's palace. God will bless you. On his return journey with Sunasepha the king rested for a while at Puskara Tirt ha. * (Valmiki Ramayana Bala Kanda. At that time. He also rewarded Ambarisa for his yaga. The eldest was his father's favourite and the youngest was the mother's pet. guna'sgepha has been described as the sacrificial cow at Hariscandra's yaga. Visnu told him plainly that there was no alternative but . Terrified by it. After that Ambarisa st arted the observance of Ekadasi vrata. Brahma sent him to Siva. The rigour of the observance alarmed even Indra. Sunas sepha in return for 100 `000 cows. Rcika sold the second son. and moreover. 3) Ambarfsa and Duraasas. A terrib1e monster Krtya emanated from the Maharsi and was about to des troy Ambarisa. At the end of the observance. After his bath etc. Ambarisa was a devout worshipper of Visnu. Thus Suna ggepha was saved. Then the Maharsi went to Brahma and sued for his hel p. In those versions. There Sunas:`. Siva was also unab le to give him shelter. Sunasgepha's wish was that the king's yaga should be pe rformed and at the same time his own life-span should be extended. Ambarisa kept the remaining portion for Durvasas. In the end. So gunassepha went to Ambarisa's yagasala. peace and prosperity spread all over the country.the sage the whole story. He decided to obstruct the observance somehow or other. DurvAsas went * The story of gunags'sepha may be seen with slight variations in the Devi Bhaga vata and other Puranas. Sudarsana continued to chase him. As ordered by the assembled guests. Ambarisa at once called upon Sudarsana Cakra. In his anger he advanced towards A mbarisa. turned against Durvasas. A mbarisa bound Sunassepha and had him dressed in blood-red robes. In Bhagavata we see a story which describes how the Su darsana Cakra which emerged from Ambarisa's forehead chased DurVSSas in all the three worlds. Mabavisnu who w as pleased with the deep piety and devotion of Ambarisa appeared to him and best owed on him the control of his (Visnu's) Sudarsana Cakra. Durvasas then sought s helter with Mahavisnu. He called Madhuechandas and his other sons and said t o them: "One of you must take the place of Ambarisa's sacrificial cow and save t he life of Sunassepha. ready for the s acrifice. From the very beginning of his reign. Chapter 58 gives the same story as in Valmiki Ramayana). The Cakra pursued him at his heels. He requested him to sell one of his sons in exchange f or 100. Visvamitra pr omised to save Sunassepha. eating dog-flesh. they would save him. Then he turned to Sunassepha and told him that if he prayed to the gods at the time of Ambarisa's yajna. after feeding the gods with his of ferings. Durvasas began to flee for 1ife. Durv asaswent to Indra and sought refuge with him. V isvamitra uttered a curse on his sons that they would have to spend a thousand years on earth. There the King received him with due respect and sent him to the river Kalindi for his bath and morning rites. Indra instigated Durvasas to spoil the Ekadasi obser vance of Ambarisa..000 cows. Sunassepha began to praise and pray to the gods. Du rvasas arrived in devaloka. but lie was furious when he was offered the leavings of the f ood of the gods and refused to take any food. Indra pleaded helplessness. Sarga 61) . AMBARISA II 30 AMOGHA for his bath and deliberately stayed away till the conclusion of Ambarisa's Ekad asi observance.epha happened to meet his uncle Visvamitra and complained to h im about his sad plight. Ajigarta is referred to as the father of Sunas'sepha. Durvasas returned. There also the Cakra pursued him. Rcika had three sons. Soon Indra appeared a nd blessed him with longevity. which appeared inst antly and after cutting the throat of Krtya." But none of the sons of Visvamitra was prepared to become the sacrificial cow.

AMBASTHA I. Gaya. Verse 8). (See AMBALIKA). (M. AMBHORUHA. Verse 6. Dilipa.. Verses 39-40) . The 16 reputed Kings were : Marutta.. Sibi. Chapter 98. See the word "VARNA". Ambarisa gave them the country also.. (M.to go and sue for mercy to Ambarisa himself and advised him to do so. (M. Sasabind u. Chapter 1. Bhagiratha. P aurava.. Anusasana Parva. Chapter 9. (M. (8) Ambarisa was also among the Munis who committed theft of Agastya's lotuses. (2) Maharsi Durvasas recalled Ambarisa's power. It is believed that it was to the north of Sindha (M. (4) Ambarisa fought single-handed against thousands of Kings. Chapter 137. Chapter 37. Chapter 25.. (6) Ambarisa once questioned Indra about his (Ambarisa's) army Chief Sudeva beco ming more mighty than himself. Chapter 6 4). When Balabhadrarama entered the lower world (Patala) after death. Verse 2). Verse 7) . Verse 277. Santi Parva. Verse 16).. Chapter 9 6.. Vana Parva. Verse 24) . (M. Suhotra.. Chapter 94.B. (3) The Sage Vyasa once told Dharmaputra that Ambarisa was one of the 16 great k ings who lived in ancient times. Bhisma Parva.B. Ambarisa saved him from Suda rsana Cakra and described to him the glory resulting from the observance of Ekad asi vrata. Chapter 12) .B. King Srutayu. Rantideva. Ambarisa. He fought against King Cedi who was on the side of the Kauravas and in the fight King Cedi fell. AMBARISA II. Anusasana Parva.B.B. Santi Parva. AMBASTHA II. Verses 6-11) . (M. Chapte r 129. Chapter 93.Adi P arva. Drona Parva. Anusasana Parva.B. (Bhagavata. (M... (M.B. Yayati. (M. AMBIKA II. Navama Skandha). He. AMBASTHA III. there was one called "Ambarisa".B. Verse 59 ). (5) He performed one hundred yajnas. Chapter 4. (7) Amhbarisa gave 110 crores of cows to the Brahmins.B. Mausala Parva. Sabha Parva. was killed in the fight with Arjuna. Chapter 64) .B. Drona Parva . Elder sister of Ambalika. (M. Bharata.. Sri Rama.. (M. 4) Other Details (1) Ambarisa performed a yaga in the Yamuna valley. Bhisma Parva.B.. Verse 33).B. Mandhata. Verse 50). Chapter 263. (M. who belonged to the party of the Kauravas was the rule r of Ambastha land and so he was called Ambastha. Drona Parva.B. (M. There was a hero called Ambastha among the warriors on the side of the Pandavas. Prthu and Parasurama. Verse 23) .B. Drona Parva. Verses 60-69). AMBIKA I. .B. Chapter 64). A son of Sage Visvamitra. Chapter 4. a mong the Nagas who welcomed him. (Agni Purana. AMBASTHAM. Drona Parva. Chapt er 234. Another name of Pfirvati. (9) Besides giving cows to Brahmins.. A region in ancient India. (M. At last Du rvasas returned to Ambari sa and begged his pardon. Vana Parva..

bu t unable to hear the divine pregnancy. . Verse 11). Chapter 1 65. This Asura had been doing much har m to the hermits. AMBUVAHINI. " As suggested by Narada Amitrajit killed Kaiikfilaketu in battle and recovered Malayagandhini and married her. AMITRAJI'T. Chapter 71. (M. Chapter 149.. AMOGHA IV.B. Verse 25) . (M.B. (M. Chapter 222. Ch apter 232... Udyoga Parva. Chapter 17. Verse 114) . Narada M uni who was delighted by this sight. Purukutsa was the hermit whom he tormented most. A river. AMPITTA. a Raksasa. Srsti Khanda. The word Ambisthah means Physician.. Once Brahma visited Santanu Maharsi's Asrama. A mighty Ksatriya King of the Pfincfila kingdom. He was one of the distinguished royal allies of the Pan davas. Mandala 1. Vana Parva. The Maharsi who returned to the Asrama soon after. Vana Parva. Verses 17-19). Vira was their son.B. Sukta 63. Verse 35).B. Verse 12 . Chapter 227. This name has been used as a synonym of Skanda. Therefore please save her from the Rfiksasa. A name for barbers. Anusasana Parva.. Before the Pandavas went to war. Being a devoted wife. Vana Parva. A Raksasa. known as Lohita. (M. He was born from the element of a Raksasa named Ketuman. One of the Kings of Magadha. He asked Amogha to accept Brahma Deva's preci ous semen and not to let it be wasted. A MOGHA III.. A synonym of Siva. (M. Verse 50). `Ampitta' is derived from the Sanskrit word "Ambist hah". Verse 56). Anuvaka 11 . (M. Udyoga Parva. S he has been abducted by Kaiikalaketu. In his country there were innumerable Siva temples. AMOGHA II. Chapter 203. AMBUVICA. (M. she deposited it in the water lying in th e valley of the Yugandhara mountain.B.B. A Yaksa who accompanied Siva when the latter once went on a journey to Bhadravata. In olden days barbers were physicians also. Fascinated by the irresistible charm of Amogha. A King. AMITADHVAJA. (M. She has promised to marry the p erson who will rescue her from him. (M. Chapter 9. Anusfisana Parva. Brahma had an involuntary emission of seminal fluid. Santanu Maharsi's wife. Vana Parva. (M. they could easily practise both these pro . Chapter 83. A river. Anusasana Parva. anti Parva.. (Padma Purana. It was by bathing in this holy water that Parasurama washe d away his sin of annihilating the Ksatriyas. Chapter 231. it became a place of holy b ath. Chapter 67. AMOGHA I. Khanda 7) .B. 55) . He had a minister named Mahfikarni. An Asura in the period of the Rgveda. A synonym of Visnu.. (M. Chapter 4. Adi Parva. He felt ashamed of his own weakness and left the Asr ama immediate1y.. Going about from house to house. (Rgveda. it was Amogha who received the guest with due reve rence. Bhisma Parva. went to the Palace and said to Amitrajit: " In the cii"y of Campakfivati there is a Gandharva virgin named Malayagandhini. Verse 20). Verse 5) . they had se nt an invitation to him.AMBUMATI. Verse 27) .B. AMOGHA. AMOGHA (M). As the Maharsi was not at home. she accepted it. From that time. AMITAUJ~. Adi Parva.B.B. Verse 12.B.. An Agni which originated from Brhaspati's family. Praising this r iver at dawn and dusk will bring divine grace. Verse 24). Indra vanquis hed this Asura and destroyed seven of his cities. AIVIHU. (Skanda Purana) . came to know from his wife whose semen it was.

Since barbers practised physic also they were called Ambisthas. Indra received the garland and placed it on Airavata's h ead. The fragrance of the flowers filled th e whole forest. Remember. the King of Devas. There is a ie gend on the basis of which this community has assumed the title of "Pandit". I am Durvasas. AMRTAM. The elephant was attracted by the fragrance of the garland and took it in i ts trunk. (M. In Chapter 152 of Agni Purana. The Vidyadhari (Apsara woman) prostrated before the Maharsi with revere nce and presented the garland to him. Obtain Amrtam from it by ch . Wearing that garland on his hair. A delicious and precious food obtained from the ocean of Milk when the D evas and Asuras churned it. Airavata. From that day the glory of devaloka began to decline. the Asuras started preparations for opposing the Deva s. It is on the basis of this that we have today. Under the oppression of the Asuras. The furious Muni cont inued: "I am not soft-hearted. frightened. There he saw Indra riding on his elephant. Buddha asked loudly whether anyone in the c rowd was prepared to shave his head. AMRTAM. Buddha turned to him and said: "My dear friend. Menaka. The three worlds became du ll. Other Munis may f orgive. and "Pramrtam" as another kind of wealth obtained without begging. They all j oined in praising Visnu who appeared and told them like this: "O Gods! I shall e nhance your glory. From that day his descendants came to be known as "Pand its". Barbers sometimes style themselves as "Pandits". You have the wisdom to understand that there is nothing d isgraceful in shaving one's head. (See PRAMRTAM)." Having said this D urvasas went his way. AMRTA. The Maharsi took the rare garland from his head and presented it to In dra. The performance of yagas came to an end. Along with the Asuras bring all kinds of me dicinal herbs and deposit them in the ocean of Milk. Do as I tell you. Durvasas. examined it by smelling it and then threw it on the ground. Indra alighted from the elephant. Only a single man came forward cheerfully t o do that work. he met the Apsara woman. "All Kerala Pandit Sabha" and other similar names.. 1) Cause of Ksirabdhi-mathanam. Durvasas approached Menaka and requested her to give the garland to him.B. who became angry at the way in which his garland was slighted by Indra said to him: "Since you have treated my garland with disrespect. Long ago when Sri Buddha was about to go to the forest for performing Tapas. with a garland of Kalpaka flowers in her hand. the word "Mrtam" is d efined as wealth received by begging and "Amrtam" as wealth received without beg ging." He shaved Buddha's head. Brahma led them to Mahavisnu. Chapter 95. You have become so haughty because other Munis like Vasistha and Gautama have been flattering you too much. Ampitt a is a corrupted form-of Ambistha. the Devas groaned in distress. Even the plants and shrubs began to wither.fessions. accompanied by his retinue of Devas. Indra returned to Amaravati. tho usands of people flocked together to have his darsana. Verse-41). Led by Agn i Deva they sought refuge under Brahma. you are the only Pandit in this crowd. The Devas began to be affected by the infirmities of old age. Durvasas went to devaloka. Taking ad vantage of this situation. Buddha wished to continue his journey after shaving his head. (Churning of the Sea of Milk)-Once when Maharsi Durvasas was travelling through a forest. nor am I of a forgiving nature. (Dravidian Philology). She was the wife of Anasva and other of Pa riksit. Adi Parva. He begged pardon of the Maharsi. the glory and prosperity of devaloka will perish !" On hearing the curse. Daughter of a King of Magadha.

" On hearing her words. but added : "All of you should close your eyes. "Who are you?" Looking down on the ground. While churning the Milk Sea like this.urning it with Mahameru as the churning staff and Vasuki as the rope. the churning staff. They told her that she should distribute A mrtam to all of them and in the end she should marry one of them. a group of Apsara women of marvellous beauty floated up. Mahavisnu transformed himself into a tortoise. Being lonely I am going abo ut in search of a suitable mate. In a moment Mohini left the place with the pot of Amrtam and went to devaloka . By the time I came out of the Milk Sea. the Devas made a treaty w ith the Asuras and began to work for getting Amrtam. joined the bosom of Mahavisnu. They sat in front of Mohini with closed eye s. Assuming another form. Next Mahzlaksmi made her appearance in all her glory w ith a lotus in her hand and seated in an open lotus flower. I shall serve Amrtam to all. dressed in pu re white robes and carrying a Kamandalu in his hand filled with Amrtam. Gandharvas sang cele stial songs in her presence . At the instance of the Asuras. fully adorned in all her magnificent jewels. All were delighted at this sight. they were in great perplexity. in the presence of all Devas. dete rmined not to waste this opportunity. Mo hini replied: "I am the little sister of Dhanvantari. began to churn it. He who opens his eyes last. All of them accepted this condition." 2) Churning of the Milk Sea. When the Asuras opened their eyes. The Moon appeared as the fifth. After Visnu had vanished. Finding that they were betrayed. 41 Rdhu's neck is cut. The Amrtam (Amrta) which will be produced by churning the Milk sea. the first object that rose to the surface was Kamadhenu. must serve Amrtam to me and he will marry me". the Devas and Asuras had already gone. The Sun and Moon gods detected him and Visnu with . Varunidevi with her enchanting dreamy eyes n ext appeared on the surface. Parijatam was the third to appear. The Milk Sea itself took on physical form and offered her a garland of everfresh lotus flowers. and sitting in the middle of the Milk Sea served as the foundation for the Manthara Mountain. They began to consider how the pot of Amrtam could be recovered. 3) Hour Am rtam was recovered. the Asuras began to make friends with her one by one. With the loss of Amrtam. of extraordinary be auty. invisible both to Devas and Asuras. will make you strong a nd deathless. Rahu in disguise entere d the divine assembly chamber. the Ganges rive r arrived there with her tributaries. Fourth. ApsarA women danced. using Manthara Mountain as the churning staff and snake Vasuki as the rope. the Devas were in a fix. After that Laksmidevi. They asked her. The clouds which were blown by that breath invigorated the Devas. Brahma bedecked her with o rnaments. Devas had put the Sun and Moon gods on guard duty at the gates of devaloka. The venom which came out of the Milk Sea as the sixth i tem. All of them joined together in bringing various kinds of medicinal herbs and after putting them in the Milk sea which was as clear as the cloudless sky. Mohini. All of' the m pursued Mohini to devaloka. Siva received the Moon. The Asuras were enchanted by her surpassing beauty. For her bath. After that arose Bhagavan Dhanvantari. The Asuras became enervated by the fiery breath coming out of Vasuki's mouth . I shall see that the Asuras will share in your troubles but not in enjoying Amrtam. The party of Devas was posted at the tail-end of Vasuki while the Asuras took their stand at the he ad. She approached the Asuras as a shy girl. Mohini was not to be s een. Mahavisnu pressed do wn the Manthara Mountain from above. Both Devas and Asuras were strongly attracted towards Kamadhenu While all were standing spellbound. Accordingly Ma havisnu transformed himself into a celestial virgin. Mohini agreed. The Asuras were displ eased at it. They snatched the pot of Amrtam from Dhanvantari and fled away. was absorbed by Nagas.

Indra and all other gods took Amrtam. one of the Prajapatis. Amrtam which has been thus recovered after mangy such adventures. Adi Parva. There is another story abou Amrtam which says that Garuda once went to deva loka and brought Amrtam from there to be given t the Nagas. who had gained strength and vigour by taking Amrtam. An explanation for this discrepancy may be seen i Visnu Purana. Bu in the Mahabharata. One of them named Krodhavas had ten daughters by Kasyapa. the task of looking after Kadru' children became Garuda's duty. fought with the gods and defeated them. 3rd Section. Fearing that the world will pe rish. Its stro ng smell caused a stupor in all the three worlds. Of' them Bhadram ad gave birth to a daughter.B. Siva gulped it down. The As uras were driven away in all directions. (2) M. Just then Devendra swooped down and carri ed away the pot of Amrtam to devaloka When the Nagas returned after their purify ing bath the pot was not to be seen. some of the Nagas went in advance an(hung down fr om the tail of Uccaissravas. but sto pped it in his throat. 14th Sarga. is still prese rved carefully in devaloka [ (1) M. The Nagas wen to take their bath after placing the p ot on darbha Bras spread on the floor.his weapon. b ut Devendra came down and took it baclf This story is given in Mahabharata from Chapter 2 onwards.B. as follows : After many. As a result of it. Surasa and Kadru. Svetl Surabhi. Chapter 17. From that day he became "Nilakantha". Each Manvantar has a new Indra. 6) Kalakuta. The enraged Asura s attacked the gods. thus giving the false appearance of a tail with bla ck hairs. The condition was that the loser mus become the servant maid of the w inner. According to this. she was prepared to release him from the bond age. Hari. Aranye kanda. Sudarsana Cakra cut open his neck. 8) Am rtam and Garuda. This is the only explanation for this apparent contradict ion. Cha pter 1. Matangi. Verse 4 it is said that a white elephant with four tusks aros during the churning of the o cean of Milk and tha Devendra caught and tamed it.. Chapter 18. appeared on the surface of the ocean. Once there was a dispute between Vinata any K adru. Swearing that he would wreak ven geance on the Sun and Moon Rahu returned. Besides. Indra's tusker Airavata we responsible for the churnin g of the ocean of Milk. They were: Mrgi. As instructei by Kadru. Adi Parva. but they es cape through the open gash in his neck and this is known as solar eclipse and lu nar eclipse. Ad Parva . precious things had come up Kalak uta poison with fumes and flames. is given in M.. Sarduli. Now si Manvantaras have passed (See `MANVANTARA') This is the seventh Ma nvantara.. The story of how the deadly poison. In the 8th Skandha of Bhagavata it is said that even now from time to time Rahu swallows the Sun and Moon. Bhadramada. married the eigl daughters of Daksa. the wounded Jatayu d escribing h family history to Sri Rama. Iravati. Vinat'd. So Garuda flew up to de valoka. He returned with the pot o Amrta m and gave it to the Nagas. This is an obviot contradicti on. Verses 42-45. Brahma requested Siva to swallow that poison. 5) Defeat of the Asuras. were white but Kadri asserted that they were black. In their greed they began to lick the darbh a grass on which the pot vas placed The sharp edge of the grass cut their tongue s into two This is why the Nagas (snakes) came to have forkec tongues.B. a wife of Kasyapa gave birth t Garuda and Kadru and her sister gave birth to th Nagas. gives the following accour about the ori gin of Airavata Kasyapa. in ValmSki Ramayana. All the three worlds began to enjoy glo ry and prosperity again. To settle the dispute they m ade a bet. Vinata said that the hairs on the tail of Uccai sravas. Chap ter 18. Mrgz mada. By this tricl Vinata lost the bet and had to become Kadru's servan mai d. Kadru told him tha if he fetched Amrtam from devaloka and gave it to the N agas. The tusker Airavat is Iravati's son. 7) The story of Airavata. different Indra hav e their own Airavatas. K1laku ta arose at the churning of the ocean of Milk. Devendra's horse. Adi Parva.

Adi Parva Chapter 30. Chapter 123) that Amsa was present at the time of Arjuna's birth when several devas had come there to see the infant. gave birth to twelve sons I)hat5. Pulastya. Siddhi. AMSAPAYA. of Brahma.dri Jarasandha Kesi Bhagadatta Pralamba Pradyumna Name of the god Name of the arnsavatara 31. Bhima. Pusan. Gandharvaraja 9. Vipraci tti 27. Vata. .. Savita. Sanatkumara Name of the amsavatara Vasudeva Balabhadra Sri Krsna Yudhisthira Nakula and Saha deva Vidura Asvatthma Devaka Bhisma Krpa . Narayanarsi 4. Vivasvan.B. Baskala 29. when only some of the divine elements incarnate. Marici was one of the six sons. (7) Bhagavata. Aditi 12. Chapter 45 of Salya Parva it is said that Arimsa was present on the occasion of the Abhiseka of Skandadeva. (8) Uttara Ramayana. 2) Birth. Marudgana 11. A sage of the family of Marici. When the incarnat ion is only partial. Varuna 24. Kasyapa 2. Dhrti 26. Hamsa 19. b orn parthogenetically of Brahma. Name of a priest (Rtvik) qualified to officiate at a sacrifice. Sakra. Varuna. Jaya Hiranyaksa 35. (See Chapter 34 of Padma Purana) . (See Ch apter 65 of Adi Parva of the Mahabharata) 3) Events. (5) Visnu Purana. all rsis. Pulaha a nd Kratu. Dharma 7. Chapters 54 to 64 of Adi Parva of the Mahabh arata give us a list of the gods who have incarnated partially. Hiranyaksa Ravana . 8th Skandha. Krtavarma Devaki Arjuna Bhimasena Kar na Drona Santanu Virata Dhrtaragtra S`akuni Dhrstadyumna Duryodhana Sikhandi Dru pada Sons of Pancali M7. Section 1. Mad Gandhari 34. Chap ter 152. that is. Chapter 27. AMSAVATARA. In Sloka 34. The eldest of them. 35th Sarga. Aditi. Brhaspati 16. Adisesa 3. Astavasu 10. Siva 8. Dahana and Dahati. Raksasa 23. Dvapara 20. were: Marici. Lamba 30. Bhaga. Aryaman. Yamadharma 5. Kali 22. The incarnation of God on earth is called avatara. Surya 15. Verse 2. This p riest officiated at the sacrifice (yajna) performed by Brahma at Pugkaraksetra. (3) M. Varuna 17.] ASITA. Tvasta and Visnu. verse 16. (4) Valmiki Rama yana. Asvinideva s 6. The Mahabharatasays (Sloka 66. Name of the god 1. Amsa is said to have presented to Skand adeva five good warriors: Parigha. Atri. Kasyapa married the thirteen daughters of Daksa. Aran Kanda. (6) Agni Purana. ViJaya Hiranyakasipu 36. Hayagriva 28. Kunti 33. i t is called amsavatara (Amsa=part). He was descended from Visnu through Brahma. Laksmi Pancali 32. Marici had a son named Kasyapa. Marici and Kayapa. Amsa. Mitra. These six sons. Angiras. The following li st of devas and their amsavataras is based upon the account given in the fourth Skandha of Sri Mahadevi Bhagavata. Nar arsi 13. A msa is one of these twelve sons who have been called the twelve Adityas. Chapter 9. 1) Genealogy. Marut 18. Visvedevas 25. Vayu 14. Pavaka 21.

The daughter of the Gandharva Kind named Dramila. Sagara. both Sucivrata and Dharmagupt. Dharinagupta and brought him up a her own son. Name of an ancient town in North India. that Brahmin woman took him.Vasumanas-Sudhanva-Traiyyaruna-Satyavrata-Trisanku-Hariscandra-Rohitasva . in Naitnisaranya. Hiranyakasipu Kumbhakarna 38. AMSUMAN II. 2) Birth.Yuvanasva . Kumbhakarna Dandavaktra 40. Suta expatiates on the importance anc advantages of Pradoga-Vrata to a number of sage. King Satyaratha was a scrupulous observer of PradosaVrata. (See under the title. she was carried away by a croco dile. (For more details see under the word. She gave birth to a son on the bank of < river. after his death. 1) Genealogy. There is a reference to one Axiisuman in the course of the descripti on of the Vi'svedevas. star ted performing Pradosa-Vrata. Pre sently a Brahmin woman named Usa happened to pas that way with her son named gucivrata. Prahlada Salya 41. Dharmagupta happened to meet Amsumati. Unfortunately he defaultec in his observance of the Vrata owing to unavoi dabh circumstances and. g av. Name of a King belonging to the Solar dynasty rSurya Vamsa). pregnant at that ti me.Aryasvan . (Vide Sloka 11. Chapter 6 of Karna . Khara Dhenuka.MandhataPurukutsa-Trasadasyu-Anaranya .Parva).Sudeva . BHAGIRATHA). Kalanemi Kamsa 42. Kesini gave birth to a son named As amanjas.Har ita . Chapter 185 of Adi Parva of the Mahabharata) . AVATARA). (mentioned above) had two wives. According to th e advice of a pious Brah min named Sandilya. when she stepped into the river to drinl some water.BharukaBahuka-Sagara:Asamanj as-Arns uman. Ravana Sisupala 39. Seeing a new born infant there. AMSUMAN III. Amsuman was descended from Visnu through Brahma-Marici-Kasyapa-Viv asvan-Vaivasvatamanu-Iksvaku-Vikuksi-Sagada-Puranjaya . Anuhlada Dhrstaketu 43.37. He was killed in a battle by thf King of Salva and his wife. Bharata passed through this town while going to Ayodhya from Kekaya after DaSaratha's death. Dramila. AMSUMAN. Su mati (Vaidarbhi) and Kqsini (Saiba) by name. Her story is narrate d in the ~ivz Purana to illustrate the benefits of performing the Pra dosa-Vrata . 3) Some other details. AMSUDHANAPATTANA. King of Bhuja who was killed b5 Drona in the war at Kuruksetra (Vid e Sloka 14. Dramila came to know of their love and so gave his daughter in marriage to Dharmagupta. AMSUMATI. him the name. Amsuman was the son of Asamanja: and the father of the famous Bhagirath a. As a result of the wealth and power which he had acquired by observing strictly Prad .Kakutstha -Anenas-P. one day in a forest and they fell in love with each other. flec to a forest.Cuncu . Then. Valmiki h as described this town in the Ramayana in this context. a king of the Surya Vamsa. was born again a the King of Vidarbha. daughter of the Gandharva King. Amsuman was one of the King who attended the Svayamvara o f Pancali.rthu lasva-Prasenajit . Lord Siva was pleased with them and gave them much wealth.

ANAGHA III. Crdhvabahu. they b ecame the saptarsis of the age of the third Manu.. This Anadhrsti was present at the mar riage of Abhimanyu at Ipaplavanagara. (M. was a Gandharva. Danu. Hence he was called Varddhaksemi' also.B. AMIGRTARAYAS. Chapter 122. A bird named A-nagha is mentioned amw. Chapter 8 of M. Chapter 67. ANAGHA I.sons. A place in. Verse 55) . Used as a synonym of Siva.osaVrata Dharmagupta was able to return to Vidarbha. Virata Parva.B. Verse 38) . Anagha as well.g the children of Garuda. A King of the Puru dynasty. ANAGHA V. (See Pancatantra). (M. Sutapas and Sukra. Verse 105) . Vana Parva.B. ANAGATA. Sabha Parva. Did.B. 1) Genealogy. by his wife Grja. (M. (M. ANAGHA IV.B. ANAGNI (S) . Chapter 101. an Apsar woman. A synonym of Visnu. Adi Pa rva. Verse 29) . Chapter 94. He participated in the birthday celebrations of Arju na. Anuiasana Parva. Manu and Ariala. ANADHRSTI I. Verse 12) . Santi Parva. Chapter 232. Amiirtarayas received a sword from Puru.B. (M. ANAGRAM. Sagnis w ere offsprings of Brahma: Two damsels. Verse 5) . (Manvantara). ANAGHA VI. Adi Parva. Krodhavasa. One Anadhl'sti is named amongst the seven.B. These daughters were .rata and the father of King G aya. Chapter 14 of Sabha Parva mentions seven great YadavaS. ANADHRSTI II. They were: Raja s.. Chapter 166. Chapter 149. ANADIPAKA. Chapter 30. Anagha. Udyoga Parva. He had seven .B. Verse 9) . Anadhrsti has two synonyms.. Gotra. Pits like Agnisvattas.B.. Descended from Visnu thus : Visnu-Brahma-Atri-Candra-Budha-Pururav as -Ayus-Nahusa-Yayati-Puru-Janamejaya-Pracinva-Pravira-Nahasyu-Vitabhaya-SunduBahuvidha-Samyati-Rahovadi . (M. (M. One of the Kauravas. Verses 8-12) . (M. Barhisads.B.Raudrasva -Anadhrsti.. ANAGHA II. They are Pitrs. Verse 58. Anadhrsti is a son born to Raudrasva by Misrakesi. (Agni Purana... Verse 67) .B. Some of the other daughters are Aditi.. ancient India. Son of Vasisxha.. Chapter 20) . (See PAIRCATANTRA).rddhaksema. ANALAILA daughter of Daksa. Udyoga Parva. Ka lika. (M. Tamra. Savana. There was one Anadhrsti also amongst the warriors who encompassed Arjuna and Krsna at the battle-field of Kuruksetra. Anagnis. . Chapter 151. ANAGHA VII. Rceyu and Anvagbhanu . Holy characters. Mena and Dharini were born to them of Sva dha.B. V erse 75) . He was a renowned King of ancient Bh. Verse 22) . Chapter 17. Chapter 72.. Adi Parva.. V. (M. Anusasana Parva. Skanda has a synonym. ANADHRSYA. A king called Anagha is referred to in Verse 22. (M. defeat King Salva and regai n his kingdom from him. He was the son of King .

1) Genealogy. Another Anala is referred to in Verse 7I. in M. (See Kamadeva). Chapter 25. ANAMITRA II. Sukta 175) . Departing thus from his mother Ananta visited sacred . son of Marici.. Some of the sons agreed to do so. and a king reputed for his love of the peopl e and unparallelled integrity. It was agreed that she who proved wrong in the argument would become the slave of the other. Ramayana. Trees. Karkkotaka were sons of Kadru. Verse 35) .. elder brot her of Sri Krsna was a partial incarnation of Ananta. whereupon Ananta and his supporters departed m sorrow. Krodhavasa begot Sveta. Mandala 4. (M. the latter saying that there were a few black hairs on the tail of Air avata and the former denying it. ANAMITRA. owe their origin to Anal d. ANALAMBA. to Visvavasu. ANANATA. Also Balabhadrarama. Adi Parva. (M. Verse 91) . Verse 32) . Chapter 105. asked her sons to go and stay suspended in the hairs of Airava ta's tail. Chapt er 65) . the same night. Aranya-kanda. Mahavisnu begot Brahma and he the Prajapatis and Ananta (Adisesa) is one of the Prajapatis. the Manu of the 6th Manvantara and son of sage Anam itra. A son born to King Krosta and his wife Madri. (M. Kadru cur sed these disobedient children of hers to die at the serpent yajna of Janamejaya . Canto 14. Aranya kanda.SA). Canto 14). Taksa ka. One Anamitra. Chapter 66 of Adi Parva.. (Valmiki. (Valmiki Ramayana. A bath in the pool is as efficacious as the Purusamedha yajna. (Rgveda. son of Dhrsta is referred to as a king of the Yadavas in Atmapurana. Father of Caksusa. ANANGA.. (ADIS). A sage. The Atmapurana refers to him as the son of Nighna. anti Parva.B. ANALA II. (M. Anusasana Parva. ANALA III. She was married. ANAMITRA IV. (M. Once a controversy developed between Vinata a nd Kadru. Ananta is also referred to as the son of Kasyapa. Verse 41). Adi Parva.B.B. ANANGA I. creepers etc.B. (See Ananda) .B. This Anala was the wife of Kasyapa and a great granddaughter of Krodhavasa. son of Vrsni is referred to in Matsyapurana. Anamitra. one of the Prajapatis born of Kadru. Uttara-kanda). Bhisma Parva. and she Surabhi . A sacred pool. He was the father of Mini.married to Kasyapa. Vinata and Kadru were two wives 8f Kasyapa prajapati . Daughter of Malyavan born of Sundari. Son of Kardama Prajapati. Chapter 9. Vasuki. Rohini was the daughter of Surabhi and Anala was Rohini's daughter. To prove herself to be right Kadru . C hapter 59. 3) Ananta's new engagement. ANANTA I. the daughter of Daksa. (Valmiki Ramayana. ANAMITRA III. while her other (prominent) sons li ke Ananta expressed their disincli nation to do such an unethical act. 2) Differences with mother. Verse 7) . ANAMITRA I. A king of the Solar dynasty.B. A river in ancient India. He had a son called Atibala. Kumbhinasi was her daughter.. ANANGA II. Garuda was born as Vinata'sson andnumerous serpents like Ananta.

Bhisma Parva.B. (M. Ananta gladly took up the new job.. Asura. It was by worshipping Ananta and by his g race that sage Garga was able to master the sciences of astronomy and causation (nimitta). ANAPAYACOLA. Nagas.B. (Devi Bhagavata. The 1000 gems in his head illuminate all regions. Explanations of words like Svarga. and here lives Ananta.Chapter 5) .B . Adisesa whose eyes ever rotate d ue to the overflow of his prowess. 1112. Adisesa dwells in the nether world wearing the whole earth as a crown. H e is known as. As the deluge (end o f a yuga Kalpanta) approaches Rudra emanates from the faces of Ananta and consum es the three worlds. Udyoga Parva. Deva. Chapter 149. A King of the Cola country. A synonym of Sri Krsna. The Tamil poet Sekhilar who composed the twelfth song of the great Saiva religious book callec Tirumurayil ... A synonym of Visnu. A synonym of the Sun God. ANANTA II. Ananta. Caranas. Even the Danavas and the Daityas are not able to describe the attributes of t hat form.B. Verse 18). Salya Parva. Anusisana Parva. 1063. throw much light on this inference).. About Ananta's prowess Visnu Purana has the following to sa y : At the bottom of Paula there is a base (Tamasic) form of Visnu called Adises a. fail to understand the real extent of his attributes. (T here are certain indications that Ananta refers to Trivandrum. 6) The land of Ananta. ANANTA IV. and that is why this str ange being is called Ananta (endless). ANANTA VI. Brahma also told him that Garuda would render him all help in the new task. when he thinks of destroying the entire world the Rudra c alled Sankarsana will appear with other Rudras and weapons like tridents (Trisul a). who is supremely beautiful with di vine lustre. Badari and practised austerities. and at its bottom there is a sp ot called Ananta. Verse 83). Patala is Ananta's world. The conch of Dharmaputra. 5) Ananta's prowess. The Gandharvas. 4) Ananta has another abode in the pa1ace of Varuna in the west. Pitdla. Chapter 3. Blessed thus by Brahma. ANANTA. Capital city of t he Kerala State. shape. (Vignu Purana. Verse 14) . prowess etc.B. (M. Chapter 70. but to go to the nether world and s upport the world on his hoods. (M. etc . One of the military captains of Skanda. and he renders the A suras powerless for the good of all the worlds. (M. Verse 135) . Skandha 8) . (M. Verse 57) . Sri Devi and Varuni Devi serve Ananta who hold s in one hand a larngala and in the other a mace (mizsala). Other serpents bow at the feet of Ananta. The Siddhas call this Adisesa Ananta who is worshipped by Devas and rs is. Chapter 25. (M.centres like Gandhamadana. ANANTA III. Bhumi. Chapter 110. ANANTA.. and who wears blue apparel and garlands of wh ite gems shines forth like another Mount Kailasa beautified with garlands of clo uds and by the flow of the Ganga. Verse 24) . Part 2. Vana Parva. ANANTA V. Anusasana Parva. Sankarsana also. It was blown during the great war.. ANANTAVIJAYAM. Chapter 4 5. son of King Puru. (M. (Devi Bhagavata. Udyoga P arva. (M. Chapter 17. Even the Devas cannot gauge his nature. The abode of Ananta in the nether regions. Brahma appear ed before Ananta and asked him not to worry. And. A synonym of Siva. Chapter 36. Verse 24). He bears the whole nether world as though it wer e a mustard seed.B. Wife of Janamejaya. Verse 15) ..B. And. Ananta has 1000 heads and the Svastika mark which is clearly visible is his ornament.B.. Canto 8). Adi Parva. When he yawns the earth and waters shake and shiver. That spot is 30000 yojanas in extent.

From Mahivisnu were born in order Brahma. which are : Bhuloka. Priyavrata. Chapter 1. (Vilmiki Ramayana. Chap . The above story about th. Ma rici married Kali and Atr married Anasuyi. ANARANYA. (Visnu P urana.. The stor^ helped to increase Rama's respect for Anasuyi. Talatala. In the duel Anaranya died. Chapter 10) .B. she converted ten days into nights on the request of the Devas. see IKSVAKU. (Bhigavata. son of Brahma.. ANDHA I. Bhuvarloka. (Padma Purana. A sacred pool.) . C hapter 115. Verse 28).. Maharloka.:d the her mitage of sage Atri. the disciple of Vyisa said to the Munis at-the Naimisiranya about the creation of the Universe In the beginning in the heavy universal darkness. Ayodhya-kanda Cantos 117 and 118.was a minister of this King. alon¬ with Visnu and others bathe daily in dais sacred pool Therefore. Chapter 1 .B. Famine stalked th e world. soy of King Dasaratha. it is said that the sins of all those who bath< in t he pool will be washed off. In this dire contingency it was the tapassakti o Anasuyi that made tree s bear fruits and Gangi to flov again. Wife of $inisura.. Wife of Kasyapa. and the sage and Anasuya treatei the guests sumptuously. Chapter 45) . (M. The entire universe consisting of the fourteen worlds. And. ANASA (ASAIVIGA). Devahu ti. Mahatala. Verse 62). t he first seed of life (anda) appeared. Brahma. 1) Genealogy. Sutala. ANARANYA (ANARANYA). Chapter 278). (1N/I. (Bhagavata Dasama Skandha). Adi Parva. Chapter 122. Janarloka. ANARAKATIRTHA. Part 1. (See ANARAT~YA).B. Once upon a time. Before dying ha cursed Rivana that he would be k illed by Rama. Anusisana Parva. Udyoga Parva. 3) Sons of Anasuya. (M. rain having failed for ten years the whole world sweated it agony and river Ganga got dried up. Skandha 1. Once she develope an amorous interest in Narada. Anasuyi gav e to Siti a very sacred garlani and a sublime gem. Part 1. T< Sviyambhuva. A king born in King Kaipla's dynasty (Agni Purana. Patala . * Suta. ANDA. Anasuya. Also. after that Rama and Siti let the hermitage. (Visor Purana. Verse 59) Rivana once attacked his country whom he challengec to a d uel. ANIDAKATAHA. Anaranya was a vegetarian. Chapte 10) . Verse 236) For genealogy.B. They begot two daughters Kala and Anasuyi. Atala. ANASIYA. son of Brahma. She taught Siti that a bso lute service to husband is the greatest tapas ordainei to women. Rasatala. this Apsara woma participated in the birthday celebra tions of Arjuna (M. (Brahmanda Purana. ANARKA(M). Adikanda. ANAVADYA. son of Brahma. Tapoloka. tapassakti of Anasuyi was told then by Atri.. Chapter 4) 2) The Tapafdcakti of Ancasuya. She had three sons: Dattatreya Durvisas and Candra. Adi Parva. Anasuy gave Sita all proper advice. Chapte 14) . Sviyambhuva Manu. Wife of Sage Atri. A brother of Akrura. Svarloka. was born by his wife Satarupa five c hildren : Uttinapida.B. Siva as Durvisas and Brahma as Candra t Anasuyi is given under Atri) . An offspring of Kasyapa by his wife Kadru. During their forest life Rama and Siti reach. A King of the Iksvikt: dynasty. Satyaloka. Adi Parva. Vitala. (M. wh ich led to som domestic quarrels. ANAUPAMYA. (The reason for Mahavisnu being born as Dattai reya. Ahuti Devahl'tti and Prasuti and Devahuti was married tc Kardama.

A sacred pool. appeared a Raksasa. Siva sent word to Andhaka that if the latter would defeat him in the game of dice Parvati would be sent to him. Siva granted him the prayers. father even. ANDHAKA II. Parvati to me. Then Prahlada explained t o him the gravity of the sin of desiring other people's wives. nay. Andhaka craved for Siva's pardon. Feeling insulted at this demand Arjuna. Visvamitra. He sent gambarasura to Siva to ask for and bring Parvati to h im. Andha whose form and shape were that of an animal. Chapter 69) . Anusasana Parva. Chapter 63 etc. As punishment for thi s sin Visvamitra had once to go to hell. Upamanyu. Verse 16) . Verse 12.. Siva appeared before him and bestowing on him Andhaka as a foster s on said as follows: "If he (Andhaka) earns the hatred of the world or desires ev en the mother of the three worlds or kills brahmins I will myself burn him to as hes". But. ANDHAKA (M) . ANDHAKA I. He got the n ame Andhaka as. (Vamana P urana.B. an evil being.he was born from darkness. This Asura was the foster son of Hiranyaksa. 2) Andhaka desires Parvati with lust. There is a story in M." Hearing these ravi ngs of Andhaka. (See Ayodhadhaumya) (M. Chapter 3) . consumed the leaves of a tree which made him blind.. by doing tapas . prevented Arjuna from attacking his noble brother. Chapter 25. 33) . the excellent disciple of Dhaumya.) . 3) Death. Verses 32. .. This story was related by Krsna to Arju na during the great war at Kuruksetra. (Vamana Purana. Even this had no effect on Andhaka.B. as in the . as follows : "He is my true friend who brings Siva's cons ort.. all on a sudden. ANDHA III. he is my brother. But Andhaka was not quietened. Enraged by t his attitude of Arjuna Dharmaputra asked him to hand over his famous bow. An Asura. From that darkness. There was a very renowned king called Andhaka in the Yadu dynasty. Karna Parva. Al l kings belonging to this dynasty used to be called Andhakas.B.B. Adi Parva. and that animal began to be known as Andha. Brahma rendered him bli nd lest the world perish. While once Siva was immersed in yoga his daughter closed his eyes playfully w ith her hands. Siva was really his fathe r. and the reason for telling the storywas t his: During the fight Arjuna hesitated to aim arrows against Karna. ANDHAKA III. (M. 1) Birth. Ye4. Defeated in the encounter. (M. Sri Krsna.ter 103. He admitt ed that Parvati was his mother. his abode in the forest. named Bhrngi. When Andha began his programme of complete destruction many people rushed up to Visvamitra in. Siva made him the head of the Asuras. became recipient of .. Gandiv a to Sri Krsna.B. Andha followed them. Chapter 4 of M. The Pandavas had. Prahlada went to him and convinced him that PBrvati. A dip in this pool will bring all the benefits of a Purusamedha yajna. After saying this Siva disappeared. He also prayed for Siva's blessings for removal of his Asurahood. and in this context related the above story to prove the trut h that sins committed even unwittingly will lead one. in fact was his mother. One day overcome by erotic passion Andhaka said to his henchmen. Chapter 63) . Udyoga Parva refers to another King cal led Andhaka. with a sound as that of thunderbolt. At that time Hiranyaksa was doing tapa s for a son. in the inter ests of self-protection pointed out the refugees to Andha. ANDHA II. sent to him a messenger soliciting military help.case of Visvami tra to hell. The sins and Asurahood of Andhak a were thus ended.a boon for destroying everything. Andhaka got enraged and rushed to mount Mand ara and began a fight with Siva. Vataka killing one Andha. drew hi s sword to do away with Dharmaputra. about a huntsman. and to ! a darkness rose and enveloped the whole place.

Nahusa had a son named Yayati to whom w ere born the sons Puru. Verse 49).Pururavasayus-Anenas.. From Visnu descended thus: KasyapaVaivasvata Manu . Verses 19 to 21). Rambha and Anenas. ANDHRAKA III. Astama Skandha). Genealogy. the Agents of Yama ag ain bind them with the cord.B.B. (M. Agents of Yama get hold of such sinners and push them into the A ndhat4misra. Srutayus.B. (M. In the Devi Bhagavata Mahavisnu describes 28 hells to Narada. and Andhakupam is one of them.. Sabha Parva. (M. The sinner will have to put up with all these sufferings in hell till the period of his punishment expires. Bhisma Parva. Descended from Visnu in tine following order: Brahma . Verse . Verse 11)ANDHRAKA II. This hell is destined for wives who cheat their husbands and consume food and for husbands who cheat their wive s and eat food. (M..24. Of them. Chapter 12. Verses 10 and 11) . ANDHAKCPA (M). Raya.. Krsna incited Arjuna to kill the Andhras and the Pulinda s. Andhrakas are classed with Mlechas (lowest caste of people) in Ver se 42. the eldest. Warriors from Andhra were called Andhras. One of the 28 hells. (see Naraka). The two dynasties of Yadu and Puru (Yad uvamsa and Parruvamsa) originate from them. Vijaya and Jaya. Andhakupa is reserved for those who ki ll either Brahmins or devotees of God or Sannyasins (holy people). This hell abo unds in cruel beasts like the bear and leopard. It has to be surmis ed that this place was very famous during the period of the composition of the M ahabhfirata. Ksatravrddha. A place in the island of Kraurica. Buddha begot Suci who begot Trikakup and a son named 8arit arayas was born to Trikakup. A mountain in the island of Kraufica.B. 1) Genealogy.ANDHAKARAKA (M). Chapter 4. Chapter 73. a son n amed Suddha was born. (See Naraka). Pururavas had by his wife Urvasi six sons named Ayus. To Anenas brother of Nahusa. A king of the Lunar dynasty (Candra Vamsa). Bhisma Parva. Chapter 9.. This is the Andhra Pradesh in modern India. describes this king of Andhra D esa as having sat in the assembly hall of the palace constructed by Maya at Indr aprastha for the Pandavas. Satyav us. Chapter 34. ANENAS I. Verse 18) . Verse 22) . Yadu and others. As the cords of the agents with which they bind the sinners get tig hter around their bodies they faint and fall down owing to unbearable pain.Budha .. . ANDHRA. Astama Skandha). (Devi Bhagavata. Chapter 4 of Sabha Parva. He was also present at the Rajasuya Yajna performed b y Yudhisthira. Drona Parva. ANDHATAMISRA. ANDHRAKA I. The warriors of Andhra Desa were called Andhrakas also. Raji. (M. Chapter 1 2. Karn a Parva.B. ANDHAKARAM. (Devi Bhagavata.Atri . rept iles like the snake and scorpion and dirty insects like bugs and mosquitos. When they regain consciousness and try to run away and escape.. ANENAS II.. had five sons named Nahusa . A Maharaja of the Iksvaku dynasty. Verse 8).B. 2) Birth. In the Bharata war the King of Pandya d efeated those warriors.Cand ra .Iksvaku-~asada-Ka kutstha-Anenas. Karna Parva. (M. Ayus.B.. ANDHRA (ANDHRA). (M. Chapter 20. Bhisma Parva. evil birds like the eagle. Chapter 207 of qdnti Parva.

Adi Par va Chapter 1. He rescued the hermit and took him to the palace and pleasing him by hospitality. These five are the famous Kings of the Bali family. Suhma. the pudding. Kalinga. which he offered to the King and his queen . Yuddha-kanda) . This son was wicked. on their r eturn after the search for SM. Once there lived a hermit named Utatthya. g) Sri Rama r eturned to Ayodhya after his forest life and celebrated a horse sacrifice. They were Anga. Holy seers said that the Gods refused to accept the oblations offered by the King because he was childless. Hence he got the name °Dirghatamas'. Brhaspati approached her wi th carnal desires. He was the elder brother of Brhaspati. who was bathing in the river saw this. 4th Skandha. (Ramayana. f) After the battle. who detesting the idea sent a Sudra woman Dhatr ey-1 in her stead and eleven children were born to them. requested him to beg et children in his-wife Sutesna. Chapters Band 14) . The King and the queen Sunitha ate. Kandra. He was named Vena.Sabhanara . But the King pacified him and pleased him again and Dirghatamas begot five sons by Sutesna. Vanga. So the child was born "blind and remained blind throughout his life. Angada returned and t . Angada was the son of Bali (the son of Indra) born of his wife Ta. 2) Birth. Kalinga. 1) Genealogy. was pregnant. who tortured his su bjects beyond limit. 1) Genealogy. The child in her womb protested and kicked the sperm of Brhaspati out into t he floor. (Bhagavata. (Valmiki Ramayana Aranya-kanda). Paundra and Suhma were the five kingdoms ruled by Anga. who put him on a raft and pushed him astray into the River Ganges. The s acrificial horse was caught and detained by King Suratha. Because of his wickednes s the King became so miserable drat he left leis kingdom and went on a pilgrimag e. as a result of which a son wa s born to them. (Mahabharata. Vana Parva.Anudruhyu . (Mahabharata. A so n named Gautama was born to them. Paundra and Suhma. Brhaspati got angry and cursed the child in the womb: "May you fall in perpetual darkness". By and by Dirghatamas c ame to know of the deceit played by Sutesna on him and he became very angry. Kalinga. Anga. Anga.Birth. So he performed the sacrifice called Putr akamesti (Sacrifice to get a son) and from the sacrificial fire arose a divine p erson with a golden flask of pudding. Kalinga. Sta nza 28). One day when Mamata. d) In the battle between Rama and Ravana Angada combated with Indrajit. (Ramayana. (Uttara Ramayana). A son of Bali. Dirghatamas blessed them that they would become very famous. Vanga. He forced her and satisfied his desi re. Coming to know of this Satrughna sent Angada to dteal with Suratha. Sri Rama anointed Angada as th e heir-apparent to the Kingdom of Kiskindha. Chapter 82. e) After his co mbat with Indrajit. the son of Sutapas.ANGA. Since there was no other means the people enthroned Vena. (Lunar dynasty). who entered Madhuvana and ate the berries in the garden. King Bali. a) Angada was a member of the group of monkey: sent by Sugriva to find out Sita. Yuddha kanda).04) oblations. Utatthya's wife. Angada and his followers led an attack on the army of Ravana . The necklace which Bali had given o n his death to Sugriva. Adrupa and Anagabhu are the seve n sons born to Bali. There is a story about the birth of these sons. A King belonging to the Candra vamsa. In spite of her efforts to dissuade her brother-in-law from h is attempts she could not prevail upon him.Caiid ra-Budha-Pururavas-AyusNahusa . The duty of supporting Dirghatamas fell upon t he wife and the son. who said that the horse was detain ed with the intention of meeting with Sri Rama personally. Descended from Visnu in the following order: Brahma .ra. c) Angada was sent to the court of Ravana as a me ssenger by Sri Rama. ANGADA I. Paundra and Suhma respect ively. (Ramayana. and the King Anga is one of them. Dirghatamas married Pradvesi. by his wife Sutesna. b) He was the foremost among the grou p of monkey. 2).Atri .KalanaraSrnj ay a-Ti tiksa-Kus adhrta-Homa-Sutapas-Bali-Anga. Descended from Visnu in the following ord er : Brahma-Kasyapa-Indra-Bali-Angada. Vanga.Yayati . Vanga. Yuddha Kanda). was returned to Angada.

This child was called Rsya'srnga. (Mahabharata. One day they approached the K ing and told him that the only way to get rain was to bring the great hermit Rsy asrziga to the country. as a gift. who following them ar rived at the court of Lomapada the King of Anga and the King gave Rsyasrnga. of Anga. The sperm fell in a river. The status of s questioned by the Pandavas his dignity. Other details 1) The Dynasty. are major organs and eyebrow etc. anointed Karna Chapter 136) . Satyakarma. Once Anga performed a yaiiga Karma. (Agni Purana. Once Kasyapa happened to see Urvasi and he had seminal flow. there occurred rainfall wherever he went. Actions on the stage are of two kinds. The other is to express by the minor organs of the body. In the Bhagavata we see another Angada who was the son of Gada. Chapters 110 to 113). (For further informations see the word Atiratha) . Srutakirti the wedded wife of Satrughna. Dharmaratha. Caturanga. Draviratha. horse sacrifice. She has a rope in her left hand. Atiratha.. Brhanmanas. the competitors being the Kauravas and Karna. The kingdom ruled by King Anga. ANGADA II. 3) Drought in the kingdom of Anga. ANGADA IV. are minor organs. The sages of the county b egan to think on the means of bringing about rain. with whi ch she hauls up the spirits of the dead. Vrsasena and others were kings of this dynasty. It gave birth to a hu man child with horns on the head. Another opinion is that the king got . 2) How Karna became the king ther weapons was going on in the Pandavas. Adi Parva. on the spot.B. Brhati. Ana gabhu. Kings of the Atiratha family were under the sway of the Candra variasa (Lunar dynasty) kings such as Dhrtarastra a nd Pandu. There was a prince called Aiagada among the mighty men-of-arms on the side of the Kauravas. who always stood on as the King of Anga. He ad etc. Aran ya Parva. Chap ter 341). Vijaya. his daughter Santa. (M.. Patala Khanda). ANGADA III. Jayadratha. Drona Parva. Romapada (Lomapada). (Padma Purana. Rsyasrnga had never seen women a nd by virtue of this. (M. 4) How the. who appeared on the side of the Kauravas. the b rother of Krsna by his wife. This Lomapada was a frien d of Dasaratha.old Satrughna what Suratha had said to him. It was broug ht up by a hermit called Vibhandaka in his hut. Drdhavrata. Brha dratha. wa on the occasion and Duryodhana. ANGA (M) . (Uttara Ramayana) . brother of Sri Rama. During the period of the Mahabharata. Lomapada (Romapada) the king of Anga once dec eived a hermit Brahmin. Thus the country got rain. But the gods did not appear to receive ANGALAIVLMA. Karna was the adopted son of At iratha. One opinion is that the Kingdom got its name from the King Anga who ruled over it. She is the wife of Virabhadra. had tw o sons called Angada and Chandraketu.B. Stanza 38). One is to express by the major organs of the body. Prthulaksa.Ak'ingdom got the name Anga. The King Lomapad a sent some courtesans to the forest to attract Rsyagrnga. Actions expressed by major organs are called Angakarma and those by minor organs are called Prat3) How Anga got children. a servant of Siva. A contest in archery and the wielding of o Hastinapura. Karna. The first King of the Anga dynasty was Anga the son of Bali. Chapter 25. ANGAKARMA. So all the Brahmins quitted the country and thereafter t here was no rainfall in the country for several years. A deer swallowed it along with the water it drank. He got into action on the battle-field on the twelfth day of the battle.

Sabha Parva.. . (Valmiki Ramayana. According to the instructions of Devendra. Indra killed Vrtra and thereby incurred the sin of Brahmahatya and so he came away to this country and lived here for a whil e. Chapter 11. Bala-kanda. (M. (M. Chapter 52.B. (1) It is mentioned in the Hindi Dictionary. . It wa s in the country of Anga that the ashes of the `anga' (Body) of Kamadeva fell an d from that day onwards the country came to be called Anga and Kamadeva. on the si xteenth day of the battle. General Information . fire emitted from it and Ananga (Kamadeva) was burned to ashes. Chapter 17. However there is a story revealing how the c ountry came to be called Anga. `Sabda Sagara' that the kingdom of Anga embracing Bhagatpur and Mudiger in Bihar had its capital at Campapuri an that the country had often stretched from Vaidy~ n-5athanama to Bhuvanesvar.Karusa. A. Chapter 22. The Gods found him out here. Stanza 2) . preliminary steps were being taken for making Sri Paramesva ra wed Parvad. Chapter 26.. Stanz a 12). were mingled with the soil of this country. Bala-kanda. Chapter 7.. Stanza 12) . The horrible Tataka lives in this forest now". Stanz. (3) The King of Anga was present at the sacrifice o Rajasuyx (Royal consecration ) celebrated by Dharma putra. (Va1miki Ramayana. Sarga 26) . Malada or Karusa from that day onwards. (7) The Angas attacked the armies of Dhrstadyumna and the King of Pancala.B. who killed the man and his elephan t.his name from the country he ruled. (Mahabharata. One part of the c ountry was called Malada and the other part Karusa. (Bhisma Parva. (5) Parasurama had defeated the Angas once. There is a reason fo r calling the country by that name.B. Indra's body became pure . Indra. Stanza 16) . On the way they entered the Tataka forest. They poured water on the head of the unclean Ind ra and the dirt. Sarga 24). having been purified by washing in water returned to heaven with the gods. As excreta.1) This was a country in ancient Bharata. Visvami tra told the boys in answer to their questions thus : "In olden days this place was a countryside known as Angamalaja or Malada or . (M. Stanzas 14 to 17). Kamadeva (the Lord of Love-Cupid) was trying to break the meditation of Siva and when Siva opened his third eye. (M. Karna Parva. Chapter 2 1 9. excreta and Karusa having been separated from his body fell on the soil of this place and was mingled with it. Karna Parva.. 5) Other informations. Drona Parva . Chapter 9.B. (. (2) Arjuna bad visited the Kingdom of Anga also durin his pilgrimage. the heroes of Anga made an onslaught on Arjuna. 9). After that this country be came uninhabited for a long time. hunger. . it came to be called Angamalaja. (M. Drona Parva.B . when the Pandavas were living at Indraprastha (M. Stanza 15). (8) A low caste man from Anga attacked Bhima. `Ananga ' (without body).B. Karusa etc.d i Parva. Drona Parva. (4) On one occasion Sri Krsna defeated the Angas in a battle. Stanza 5 0). In the realm of God. (2) Visvamitra had taken to the forest from Ayodhya Rama and Laksmana to protect the hermits and their yagas. (6) In the battle of Kurukgetra between the Pandavas and the Kauravas.

to Caturanga. Nara. From Gandhari Gharma was born. you will be called Candamaha sena". Druhyu and Babhrusetu were born to Gandhara. His body is as hard a: diamond and not vulnerable to any sort of weapon These m . from Gharma Ghrta was born. Moreover it turned the chariot of the King over to one side and ran to a cave. After that Karna became the King of Anga. On the way h e sat on the bank of a lake with wonder. from Rusadratha was born Paila. Purovasu begot Gandhari. To Satyaratha was born Lomapada. He was defeated by Mlndhdta in a battle. Two sons.ANAPRADAKSINA. to Jayacfratha was born Brhadratha an d to Brhadratha was born Visvajit. Dasa and Drsadva tf respectively. Caksusa and Paramesu. to Campa was born Haryanga. Slowly she approached the K ing and talked with him. These are the kings of the Anga dynasty. He saw a very large pig. The following are the descendants of Turvasu. Santi Parva. and U'sinara the son of Mahamanas. Kalinga. (Mahab harata. and from Vidu sa Pracetas was born. to i3rhadbhanu was born Br hadatma. who told her everything. But they did little harm to the pig. An Asura who took the form of a pig. the son of Traisani. (THE DYNASTY OF A&GA KINGS). the Gandharas.NahusaYay4ti. Vanga. the son of Marutta. The story of how this Asura was killed by his daughter Angaravati. from Paila was born Sutapas and from Sutapas was born the great herm it Bali. He was given the sword and a tusker called Nadagiri. Pundra. Citraratha the son of Dharmaratha. To Sibi were born four sons called Prthudarbha. "The pig you saw. Gan dira the son of Varutha. Descended from Visnu in the followi ng order: Brahma . Varga was the son of Turvasu. ANGARAJA-VAMSA. Chapter 277. Pracetas g ot a hundred children of whom the prominent were Anidra. From Titiksu was born Rusadratha. Rolling behind a chariot round the temple as a vow. to Bhadraratha wa s born Brhatkarma. At last Devi appeared and granted the boon: "My son! take this extraordinary sword. She replied with a deep sigh. So long as you have th is sword. the son of Dusyanta. Dusyanta. to Brhadatma was born Jayadratha. Karandhama. Four separate kingdoms arose in the names of them. and G andara the son of Gandira. (Agni Purana. Krmi. To Sabhanara was born Kalanala and Srfxjaya to kalanala. The young lady had entirely captured the heart of the K ing. She began to weep. Traigani the son of Gobhanu. will become your wife in due course. is given below. Varutha. Stanza 88). and Satyara tha was the son of Citraratha. Yadu. The Anga dynasty starts fr om Turvasu. your enemies will not prevail against you. to Lomapada was born Caturanga. A king of ancient India. D harmaratha the son of Draviratha. Nara. Gobhanu. Marutta. Anga. who is the daughter of the Asura AAgaraka. To Usinara were born Nr ga. The son of Karna was Vrsasena and the son of Vrsasena was Prthusena. The five powerful peoples. The King used his arrows. ANGARA. From Bali. the son of Varga. "Who are you? Why do you weep?" The King asked her. Baleya and Balayogi were born. Angaravati. to Prthulaksa was born Campa. Kaikaya and Bhadraka. As you do horrible deeds. Turvas u. One day Mahasena wen t to the forest for hunting. was born Prthulaksa. Babhrusetu begot Purovasu . The King followed it with fury. to Haryanga was born Bhadraratha. Long ago there was an emperor named Mahendravarma in UJayini. Suvrata and gibi by his wives Nrga. Druhyu and Anudruhyu were the four sons of Yayati. the Colas. Mahasala was the son of Janamejaya. from Ghrta Vidusa was born. the renowned be auty of the three worlds. to Brhatkarma was born Brhadbhanu. Sabhanara. The King Draviratha was the son of Dadhivahana. U4inara had an other son called Titiksu. is my father Aixgarakasura. Puranjaya to SrnjayaandJanamejaya to Puranjaya. for a lady of exquisite beauty was walk ing along the mossy turf in the midst of some maids. To Anga was born Dadhivahana.) ANGARAKA I. Viraka. Chapter 29. Krmi. the son of Karandhama. one of the four. His son Mahasena d id penance for a long time to get a wife and a sword. the Pandyas and the Kolas have descended from Gandhara. Mahamanas the son of Mahasala. the Keralas.Atri-Candra-Budha-Pururavas-Ayus .

Two sons were born to him. Hearing her words Angaraka said. .aids have been caught by him from various royal houses and brought here for my h elp. when I thought of these things. There was a terrible fight between IIanuman and the monster. (SIMHIKA). A planet named Maixgala which is a satellite of Brahma is seen to have been called by the name Angaraka also. I) Genealogy. This giantess Angaraka had a clash once. My name is Axigaravati. "My daughter ! No body can k ill me. Sarga 1. The king married Angaravati and took her to his palace. Vana Parva. Now he is asleep discarding the form of pig When he wakes up. (Mahabharata. Angaravati di d as she was told. filled with hunger and thirst. called S urapadma. Stanza 10). She pulls the shadow towards her and feeds on the object of the shad ow.. Taranga 3) . "There is a giantess in the middle of that Southern Sea. (Valmiki Ramayang. Thus Simhika is the sister of Tar akasura. Sundara-kanda. Brahma-Marici-Kasyapa . Stanza 10) . Other details. and four sons. ANGARAKA. After the fight Hanuman resumed his j ourney. (Kathasaritsagara. There is only one vulnerable point in my bod y which is on my left forearm and it is always covered with my bow. in case your father was killed by somebody". Simhavaktra. ANGARAKA II. Chapter 265. anybody who passed o ver the sea. Chapter 1 1. To them were born the two daughters. In the battle between the Gods and the Asuras. felt a great storm raging round him. When Hanuman jumped to Lanka from the mou ntain of Mahendra the giantess attacked Hanuman. She knew the art of bringing to her side. (Skanda Purana. It is seen that the name Sirhhi ka also is used for Angaraka. most of the Asuras were killed and one Asura fled from the clutches of death to Patala (the nether worl d). Kasyapa married Surasa. A prince named Angaraka is seen to have been the descendant of Jaya dratha. Asura Kanda). the King of Sauvira. (Mahabharata. Stanza 29) . Vana Parva. He gave Hanuman certain instructions regarding the route he had to follow. when you thought how forlorn you wou ld be without a mate. He will ask the reas on. Hanuman who was subjected to the excessive attract ion of Simhika." The King said. fell on the ground beaten. he will do you harm. Kathamukhalambaka . Stanzas 178 to 186) . Sugriva ha d sent a large number of monkeys under the leadership of Hanurnan to search for Sita." The king hid himself closely and heard everything. by pulling at his shadow. the wife of the famous L7dayana. Her name is Angara. ANGARAKA IV. We see one Angaraka among the one hundred and' eight sons of the Su n. 2) Birth. a monster with such an uncouth face and a mouth as wide as the hole of Patala (th e nether world). Chapter 3. with Hanuman. "Go and sit by him and cry when he wakes up. Tarakasura and Gomukha. Sugriva said. Angaraka (Simhika) and Ajamukhi. in which Simhika. Then tell him that you had been crying. My father was changed to a giant by curse." From this it is clear that she was a giantess who lived in the sea between Lanka and South India. Sabha Parva. Surasa was the daughter of that Asura. Finally he found her out. They were called Gopalaka and Pal aka. ANGARAKA III. (Mahabharata. Descended in the following order from Visnu. He fought with the Asura and hitting at the vulnerable point killed him. My tears flowed out in the form o: heat ed life-breaths. My body is made of diamond.Angaraka. By the grace of Indra a daughter also was born to him by her and she was Va savadatta.

Adi Parva C hapter 65 Stanza 10) *. (3) Angiras a Prajapati. Their names are given below . Brahma had created sixteen prajapatis. He teased Angiras calling him `durbhaga' (unlucky) and Angiras cursed him and changed him to a bi g serpent and he was promised liberation from the curse. The cowherds or gop as hit at the snake with burned wood. and then it vanished. and Kratu. Once Angiras reached his palace when the King was in a miserable state a s he was childless. Citraketu became a devotee of Visnu and by the curse of Parvati. (2) How Angiras cursed Sudargana and transmuted him to a serpent. Chapter 34. Chapter 34). The King informed Angiras of his sorrow. There was a King named Citraketu in the kingdom of k rasena. This deva (t he shining one-the God) was called Angiras because his origin was from AitBara o r Cinder. (There is another story about the birth of Angiras. Angiras agreed to bring the child back to life. At a sacrifice celebrated by Rudra. ANGARAVATI. Pulaha . (Mahabharata. Sri Krsna came there and thrashed the serpent. Bhrgu and others. A countryside in ancient India. The spirit replied that it had a large number of parents in several previous births and that it was not possible for it to become the son of Citrake tu. Sabha Parva. seminal flow occurred to Brahma who happened to see some celestial maids and was overpowered by passionate feelings.rtadyuti the King might overlook them. To the king a son. Stanza 16). a vidyadhara (a class of semigods) was travelling lustfully with a group of b eautiful girls he came across Arigiras and some other hermits. Atigiras. Angiras and Narada went on their way. From that day onwards Su darsana lived on the banks of the river Kalindi in the form of a serpent. Angavaha at tended.ANGARA (M) . w as born of Krtadyuti and the other wives poisoned the child and killed him. for effecting th e creation of the universe. A king of immense fame. (Citraratha) See the word CITRARATHA I. Skandha 10. Atri. Pulastya. was born again as Vrtrasura. F rom that fire appeared Angiras along with Marici. Chapter 9. ANGAVAHA. 1) Birth. ANGARAPARNA. Angiras is one of them. Skandha 6. On one night one serpent big Nanda the foster father of Sri Krsna. He instan tly called the spirit of the dead child to him and asked it to become the son of Citraketu. But it was of no use. the sacrifice of Rajasuya (Royal consecration) cele brated by Yudhisthira. They feared that when a son was born to K. (1) The failure of Angiras. He pacified the Kin g and said that a son would be born to him. known as Marici. (Bhagavata. which instantly took the form of Sudarsana Vidyadhara and praising Sri Krsna entered heaven. Bhisma Parva. (See ANGARAKA). All the six of them became great hermits. ANGIRAS I. with Balabbadrarama. Chapter 14). Stanza 60). He and his wife Krtadyuti were fille d with joy.) 2) Important events. It was the time when Sri Krsna was having his game of love with the Gopa women. when. (Mahabharata. While Sudargan a. Brahma put the sperm in the fire. Six mind-born sons (Manas a-Putras) were born to Brahma. during the Dvapar a-yuga (one of the four ages) MahavisVu would incarnate as Sri Krsna and would t read upon him and then he would regain his former form. belonging to the dynasty of Vrsni. Whil e the parents were weeping over the dead child Angiras and Narada arrived there and wiped their tears. The other wives of the King did not like this. (Mahabharata. He is a hermit born from the mind of Brahma. (B hagavata.

drinkin g. were not legally binding. Hesita ting to take a decision. Sabha Parva.son of Agni (Fire God) . "Sir. "Hav e you won yourself or myself ?" One husband was not authorised to stake his wife Pancali who was the wife of five husbands. Before this Pancali had asked Duryodhana one question. Vana Parva." Pleased at the righteousness of Prahlada. Aranya-kanda. When he became aware of this Angiras went to t he forest and pacified Agin. other sons such as Sudhanva and Karttikeya wer e born to Angiras by his other wives. do you know which are the future worl ds destined for those who utter words of falsehood or abstain from giving out th e truth?" Ka'syapa said. The names of the sons of Angiras are given below 1) Brhatkirti 2) Brhatjyoti 6) Brhadbhasa 3) Brhadbrahma 7) Brhaspati. five chapters fr om 218) . (4) The wives and children of An iras. and asked: "Lord. Prahlada said to Virocana. They staked their lives on the issue. who abstains from speaking truth knowingly a t housand cords of death will fall. "Virocana. playing dice and hankering after a woman. Vana Parva. Smrti. Sudhanva said to him. (Mahabharata. (Mahabharata. you should not utter words of falsehood. Prahlada went to Kasy apa to clear his doubts. who was miserable due to hunting. Ch apter 217). Once Angiras was blazing out as a furious being. nor should you abstain from speaking the truth. Sudhanva gave Virocana a boon to live a hundred years more. All the worlds were illuminated by that flame-fire. After the slaughter of Vrtrasura. As Angiras was performing the functions of Agni (fire). Chapter 63) . in the presence of the Pandavas who had been defeated in the game of dice. (6) How Angiras became the first . and that the -punishment of false hood would come upon the doer himself. D evasena and Vasudha. Angiras is greater than me. -On him. Thinking that Prahlada might side with Virocana his son. Sarga 14). There arose a contention between these two as to who was greater. From that day onwards Angiras agreed to become the first son of Agni. Likewise the mother of Sudhan va is nobler than your mother. As an instance he gave the following old story: Virocana was the son of Prahlada. D&sasana stripped Paticali of her cl othes in the Palace hall. 4) Brhad mana 5) Brhadmantra The names of the eight daughters of Angiras are given below 1) Bhanumati 2) Raga 3) Sinivali 4) Arcismati 5) Havismati 6) Mahismati 7) Mahamati 8) Kuhu. Sudhanva the son of Angiras and Virocan a fell in love with the same woman once. Sraddha." Having heard the words of Kasyapa. Sudhanv a is greater than you. who being sad at the derision shown towards h im by the worlds went to a forest and hid himself there. Hence how could the Kauravas own Pancali?" Vidura said that the witnesses in the hall had to give an impartial answer to this question. (5) The clash between Angiras and Prahlada. The living beings were in trouble owing to lack of fire. Angiras had several wives such as Subha. (7) How Angiras got the name Atharvarigiras. Moreover according to the Sastras (s ciences) the deeds executed by a King. He who tells falsehood will have to perform ma ny a deed of duty to attain heaven. If you do so your head will be cut into a hundred pieces by Indra with his Vajrayudha (the weapon of thunderbolt)". I . So according to your bet you owe your life to Sud hanva. (Mahabharata. who resumed his duties as usual. peo ples of the worlds discarded Agni.1) Kardama 2) Vikrita 3) Mesa 4) Sarizsraya 5) Sthanu 6) Marici 7) Atri 8) Kratu 9) Pulastya 10) Angiras 11) Pracetas 12) Pulaha 13) Daksa 14) Vivasvan 15) Aris tanemi 16) Kasyapa (Valmiki Ramayana. Besides these sons and daughters. because of the words of Sudhanva. Then both of th em together approached Prahlada and requested him to give a decision as to which of them was the elder.

(Mahabh arata. Chapter 153. ( Mahabharata.bharata. Anusasana Parva. and such other numerous tirthas. (5) Angiras once ga-. (8) When his thirst was not quenched. Indratoya. Your end is very near. . Angiras who got this boon from Indra. Chapter 153. Stanza 8). (Mahabharata. (Mahabharata. Anusasana Parva. (7) Once Angiras drank the water in the ocean to the last drop. "Hereafter you shall be known as Atharvangiras". (Mahabharata. Stanza 8) . "You have burned to death innumerable men with your Brahm astra (The most powerful of all missiles)." Drona seems to have paid no heed at all to the advice of the hermits. (Mahabharata. Stanzas 7-71) 3) Other details: (1) Daksa gave his two daughters in marriage to Arigiras. Naimisa. (Ma habharata. Anusasana Parva. Drona began to release his divine darts towards his enemies in all directions. When Indra returned to heaven many persons gathered there to greet him. (8) Angiras and Drona. Stanza 6) . Sagarodaka. even though he had drunk the entire water available in the world. Chapter 25. Prabhasa. Vana Parva. (Mahabharata. (4) When. Bhisma told Dharmaputra. he created new springs of water again and drank them dry . Anusasana Parva. Stanza 6). Dha rmaputra once asked Bhisma about the importance of holy ghats or tirthas (Baths) . In the battle of Kuruksetra. (2) Angiras once saved the Sun. Stanza 3).e a discourse on fasting and the merits of fasting. Stanza 3) . (Mahabharata. Chapter 106. Agastya cursed him and turned him to a serpent and sent him to the earth. Chapter 94. An usasana Parva. Hiranyabindu. He paid his homage by reciting the hymns of Atharvaveda. Indramarga. (6) Angiras on another occasion delivered lectures on the secrets of duties. Chapter 153. said to Angiras. Angiras had been chanting and me ditating in Alakananda in the region of the mount Gandhamadana. Chapter 18. He did not stop fighting too. Udyoga Parva. between the Pandavas and the Kauravas the great teacher. Angiras had described t he holy nature and character of holy Baths in Bharata such as Puskara. A ranya Parva. Anusasana Parva. Stanzas 5 to 7). Chapter 127. (9) The sermon of Arigiras on the merits of Tzrthas or holy . what Angiras had once told Gautama about the merits o btained by going on pilgrimage to holy tirthas or Baths.ndra went to the lake known as Amrtasaras and hid himself there in a lotus flowe r. the hermits had stolen the lotus flowers of Agastya. (9) Once Agni failed to show respect to Angiras.places (Baths). So put your we apons down and stop your fight. (Maha. Immediately Angiras with many other hermits came to Drona and told him. (Devi Bhagavata. Devika. At this time the Gods anointed Nahusa as Indra. Stanzas 11 to 16). (3) While the Pandavas were in exile in forest. Angiras gave some hints about the culprits. Angiras also was one among them who did obe isance to Indra. returned with gratitude . Chapter 92. Svarnabindu. who cursed Agni and thenceforwa rd smoke came out from fire. Chapter 142. Anusasana Farva. Skand ha 7) . Stanza 20: See Agastya). Indra who was greatly pleased at this.

Anuvaka 17. Chapter 20) . At first t he bitch did not consent to go. Mandala 1. A Yaksa. RBka. (Agni Purana. Anumati were born to Angiras by h is wife Smrti. the bitch of the Gods. A hermit named Kaksivan. who also was a hermit (Rgveda. The hermit Kutsa also is de scended from Angiras. Anuvaka 10. Verse 12). (M. Kuhu. He was a king of the Anga dynasty. One of the Asta (8) Vasus. (16) Indra sent Sarama. In the family of Marici. On another occasion Angiras taught phi losophy and sacred doctrines to the hermit . one of the attendants of Kubera. Mandala 1. Genealogy. (See under AKSAUHINI). Vaivasvata Manu. Marici. Stanza 22). Descended from Visnu in the following order : Brahma. Sukta 62). Chapter 18. St anzas 5 to 7) . Indra acted according to the advice of Angiras. His father was Dharma and mother Svasa. a King of the kingdom of Sindhu. Suk ta 31) . Manojava and Avijnati. Uru. Chapter 18). (About this Xitgiras. Chapter 277). Udyoga Parva. Caksusa Manu. ANIKAVIDARANA. Asvamedhika Parva. (I 1) Indra once gave Angiras a boon. (Son ofAngiras). ANIKINI. A brother of Jayadratha. (Rgveda. (Rgveda. Mandala 1. Adi Parva. Chapte r 66. Sarama found out the place where the cows were hidden an d informed Indra of it. C hapter 11).. S6kta 120 ). ANGIRAS II. Arjuna killed him. thinking that nobody should be born as his equal. took birth as the so n of A6giras. Arilsa 1. Dhruva. He had a so n called Hiranya-Stupa. 17) Rbhus are the sons of Sudhanva. He was called Savya.B.B. Sukta 51). Chapter 265. Chapter 13. no other information is available in the Puranas.taught (Muridakopanisad). But when Devendra promised to feeds her young on e with milk she agreed. Anuvaka 7. Th en Indra. ANGIROBHAVA. but in the Vaivasvata Manvantara he was born from Agni. Sabha Parva.. (Agni Purana. A division of the army. (M. (15) The Hermit Angiras began to invoke the Gods to get a son equal to Indra.(10) Angiras conducted many of the important sacrifices of King Aviksit. Agni Purana. Sukta 10) (18) Angiras was the son of Brahma in the Svayambhuva Manvantara (See Manvantara ). Amsa 1. 14) Angiras is the first of the Agni devas (Fire-Gods) and a hermit. Verse 18) .. (Rg veda. Kasyapa . Ripu.B. Sisti.. (Visnu Purana. Uttanapada. Chapter 4. (Mahabh arata. son of Brahma. (Mahabharata. Angiras. (19) Once Vayu (the Wind-God) had to run away from Angiras and hide himself as h e had caused some displeasure to Angiras. Mandala 1. . (M. Mandala 1. Anuvaka 11. another King of the name of Angiras is seen. Chapter 1 0. (13) The daughters named Sinivali. Vana Parva. Anil a married Siva and had two sons. Verses 17-25). Anuvaka 16. (Rgveda. Visnu Pu rana. ANILA I. to find out the place where the c ows had been hidden . (12) Angiras blessed Dhruva who had been doing penance. ANIKETA.

A Ksatriya King. The thieves died. When Ani Mandavya lay on the tip of th e trident another event happened. Anusasana Parva. Once there was a famous Brahmin nam ed Mandavya. ANIMANDAVYA. it is said that at this stag e Siva appeared and blessed him with longevity and then vanished. At last it was removed by cutting it off. raising his hands in prayer. the King's men produced Mandavya also along with the thieves before the King. Adi Parva. Verse 7) . with stolen property be1onging to the King. Ani Mandavya once asked Dharma : "Oh ! Lord. Chapter 149 . (M. The King's men seized Mandavya with the king's property. The attempt to pull out the trident f rom Mandavya's body failed. (M.. tip of a trident (Sula). 3) The story of how the Sun did not rise. Atri Muni's son Ugrasravas was the husband of .B.thieves were all condemned to death. A famous serpent. Anusasana Parva.B. Verse 38). The King came to know of all these stories.Anusasana Parva. (M. Udyoga Parva. Chapter 107) . His father.B. At last the thieves were caught. he went and begged pardon of Mandavya. Vrsadarbhi presented him as Daksina to the Saptarsis (7 sages) at a yajna performed by him (father). As the murder of a Brahmin is a greater sin than any other murder. In Mahabharata. ANILA IV. How he got the name Animandavya. but even after a long time Mandavya did not die. The King expired soon after this. (M. Even prolonged and repeated questionings did not bring out a single word from Mandavya.. The royal executione rs took all. The Saptarsis. A word used as a synonym of Visnu. Full of repentan ce. Adi Parva.B." Mand avya replied : "The Sastras ordain that there shall be no punishment for sins co mmitted till the age of twelve. The . As he was too weak he could. Chapter 107) . It is a result of that sin that you have been pierced with the trident. the thieves fled away after . (M. ANILA III. There was then a famine in the country. why is i t that an innocent man like me is afflicted with the trident ?". Chapter 149 . He did Tapas (penance) for many years standing silent in front of h is Asrama. Since the tip (Ani) of the trident was left behind in his body he was thereafter known as "Ani Mandavya". He expressed his desire to visit a prostitute's house. (M. 2) Curse on Dharma. After going about in the world for many years with the tip o f the trident in his body. Chapter 96) ANILA. At that time some thieves happened to pass by that place. tortured by hunger and thirst got ready to prepare food with the corpse of the King. No other woman had so far surpassed Silavati in her fidelity to her h usband. Dharma was born a son of a Sudra woman. But the corpse retained its form and they could not cook food with it.Silavati. Dharma answered : "In your boyhood you once caught small birds and pierced them with a grass ree d. Adi Parva. Verses 4651.ANILA II. Chapter 101.. Mistaking him as one of the thieves... Anusasana Parva. of there to the place of execution and stuck them up at the.B.B." By the above curse of Mandavya... Verse 100) .. not walk. (M. Therefore the punishment inflicted on me is wron g.B. The devoted wife Sil . ANILA V. Verse 9) .leaving their stolen property in Mandavya's Asrama. Garuda had a son called Anila. may you be born as a man in the 'Sudra Caste'. Several Munis in the shape of birds came near Mandavya who was lying on the trident and made e nquiries about him. It was t his child who later on became the renowned Vidura of the Mahabharata. 1) General. Chapter 35. under a tree. Once Ugrasravas happened to fall ill. Find ing that the King's men were pursuing them. A word used as a synonym of Siva.

They inluced Anasuya. as requested by him. T he pictures represented all handsome men from Devas to men. Seeing Usa crying Citralekha. . Chapter 276.. Overflowing with conceit at this he challenged Siva to a fight. All activities came to a standstill. Sri Krsna.B. Anu°sasana Parva. and daugh ter of her father's minister. Hehaya. she began crying. Now. Surasena. Verse 36) . pronounced a curse that th e Sun should not rise again. Vitihotra. Bana i mpatiently awaited the threatened day. (M. Citraratha. Dharma. Siva pleased by the sacrificial devotion of Banasura granted. 5) Once the King of Videha told M andavya that the world is transient and advised him to strive for spiritual peac e.avati carried him on her own shoulders and took him to the prostitute's house. Parvati told her that Usa would. Udyoga Parva. dressed herself in all glory with choicest ornaments Usa awaited the hap py day. Sri Krsna once p aid a visit to them. Accor dingly. 1) Genealogy. When the Pandavas were living in Hastinapura. Hrdika. Pradyumna. From Visnu was born in this orde r Brahma. On the third day a handsome prince appeared before her in her dream. Viduratha. Satyaki. Anamitra. her companion.B. of course with some reluctance. Ant Mandavya who was pleased with the King's advice attained moksa (salvation ) at once. Santi Parva. Durjaya. Next day the sun did not rise. Cit ralekha drew the pictures of all princes. At last the gods approached Atri Muni. Grandson of Sri Krsna. known to her and showed them to Usa. Out of the 16008 rn Pradyumna and from Pra. Com ing to know of the matter. Excited by the sight Usa too desired to enact such a scene witha lover. Sri Krsna ha from Rukmini was bo dyumna. Then the sun rose again and Ugra'sravas died. none had the prowess to attack this valiant Asura. Krtavirya. One day Usa happened to witness the scene of Siva and Parvati engaged in love-ma king. d 16008 wives. When Usa saw Aniruddha's picture she stretc hed her hands to embrace that. Then Citralekha drew the picture of Sri Krsna of Pradyumna. Among them was Ani Ma ndavya also. Vasudeva. see in a dream a handsome prince with whom she might make love. 4) Other details. chief among the 100 sons of emperor Mahabali had 1000 hands. within t hree days. Verse 14) and of Visnu. Bhadrasena. Yudhajit. ANIMISA. Nahusa. Talajarhgha. the boon that he himself (Siva) and Parvati would guard the fort of the A sura. Satajit. Chapter 83). Atri. ANIRUDDHA. Wak ing up. It was this prince who had appeared before her in the dream. Verses 3-14). this is not my prince charming' was Usa's reply. Also the word is used as a synonym of Siva (I M.B. Jaya. Siva foretold that the flagstaff of Bana w ould one day be broken and then a powerful antagonist would defeat him. Yadu. Fearing that she would be widowed by the death of Ugrasravas. Aniruddha. Ananta. Verse 10. (M. Ayus. Sura. Mandavya pronounced a curse that Ugrasravas should di e before sunrise. On his way he met with certain munis. Chapter 101 of Udyoga Parva refers to one Aninnsa' son of Gar uda. Chapter 42) . Aniruddha. Kunti.. Sini. Pururavas. (M. Karttaviryarjuna. Kuni. an d she intimated her desire to Parvati. 2) Birth. Bhoja.One of the stories about this handsome prince refers to his being kidnapped by Usa daughter of B anasura. Chapte r 17. Silavati shuddered on hearing this.. she. and then of Aniruddha. Satyaka. Pr'sni. Candra. Chapter 149. Anusasana Parva. T hey were passing near the place where Ani Mandavya was lying on the trident. assured her (U sa) that whoever might be the princ e who appeared in tier dream shall be brought down with the power of Mantra.B. Banasura. in her turn. 3) Kidnapped by Us a. Yayati. `No. Atri's wife to persuade Silavat i to withdraw her curse.. Jayadhv aja. Sini. Sahasrajit. (Brahmand a Purana. Budha.

The Mahabharata mentions yet another King Aniruddha. in all rage. Thus Anjana gave birth to Hanuman. Drona Parva. this goddess was born as a she-monkey in the Himalaya region. (M. Verses 15-17). Verse 3(i) . (Bhagavata. 62 and 63) . 1) Mother of Hanuman-Wife of Kesari. Chapters 61. ANJALIKAVEDHA(M).. ANIRUDDHA III. Ver se.B.. BhTmasena had mastered this art. (M. With the birth of Hanuman. The Mahabharata refers to another Aniruddha who belonged to the Vr sni dynasty. (M. That pregnancy was given to Vayu. Anjana gave birth to Hanuman in the woods in a valley on the southern side of Ma hameru. Vajra was the son of Aniruddha. Both the Aniruddhas were present at the wedding of Pancali.B. (M.Next night Citralekhv. (M. She was the mother of Hanuman. Verses 17-20) .B. the curse was lift . Chapter 65. by the power of her Mantra. This is a sacred place. Anjana said to Hanuman : "Monkeys are fond of red ripe fruits.. Anusasana Parva. (M. Adi Parva. (2) Aniruddha is also conceived in the forms of Visnu and Brahma. rambling through the woods. Verse 33) .B. Verse 52). Sarga 66) . Chapter 149. (M. (Valmiki Ramayana. brought into Usa's room from Dvaraka Aniruddha.. Verses 69and70).B . who was then in his sleep. Then Narada rea ched Dvaraka and gave details about the Aniruddha incident. The fierce fight that ensued ended in the defeat of Bana. Parvati became pregnant. (3) Brahma was born from the abdominal centre of Aniruddha when the latter had t aken the form of Visnu. the noble monkey and daughter of Ku njara. Sabha Parva. Aniruddha married Usa and the elated co uple started for Dvaraka.B. One who lives at this Tirtha for some tim e. At that time Anjana was doin g penance for an issue. got scent of it and took Aniruddha into c ustody. This is an art by which an elephant could be made to stand sub missively. As a result of a curse. Bhisma Parva. Once while Siva and Par vati were gamboling in the guise of monkeys. Chapter 185. Anusasana Parva. She was frightened at the sight of the child shining like the sun. hurried to Bana's palace and encircled his palace with a strong army.B. The disappearance of Aniruddha led to much commotion in Dvaraka. He did not e at flesh. gets the benefit of visiting the sacred tirtha at Kanyakumari ten times. Vayu transferred the pregnancy he had received from Parv ati to Anjana. Then did Bana's flagstaff break into two and fell down. ANIRUDDHA II. In her previous birth Anjana was a goddess name d Punjikastala (Managarva) . Verse 15) . ANJALIKASRAMA. While Usa and Aniruddha were thus together in the room her father. (M.. Chapter 4.B. ANJANA. 2) Puraajanma (Previous Birth) . (1) It was at the feet of Arjuna that Aniruddha mastered th e Dhanurveda (Science of warfare). Bana. Chapter 115. Dasama Ska ndha. Anusasana Parv a. Hanum an began to cry for mother's milk." Saying this An jana transformed herself into a goddess and went to Heaven. 4) More information. Chapter 341. Kiskindha K anda. 23).. the monkey leader. Chapter 25. _Chapter 26... Therefore eat whatever you find in red colour.. (4) The word Aniruddha is also used as a synonym of Visnu. Sri Krsna and Pradyu mna. Santi Parva.

B. ANTAKA I.. gave birth to daughters. Drona Parva. Chapter 98. (M. Srava na. _Verse 57. Blrisma Parva. For genea logy. Sabha Parva.B.. ANTARDHAMA. killed Anjanaparva. (M. Udyoga Pa rva. Verse 3) . (Visnu Purana) ANRTAM (ASATYA). ANTARDHI. Son of King Arirsa of the Manu dynasty. His origin is in the family of Supratika. Trsna(desire) a nd Krodha (anger). Chapter 147. Arjuna conquered this place. (Uttara Ramayana). ANRTA Asvattlrama.B.B. The result was twelve yamas. Verse 23). the other six being Tamra. the wife of Adharma.B. Anusasana Parva. ANTASARA(M). And.. One of the seven sons of Murasura. A place in between the Himalaya ranges. The other three elephants born in this family are : Airavata. And from Mrtyu were born disease (vyadhi). (Visnu Purana. Drona Parva. Chapter 41. Sabha Parva. and from them were born Bhaya. ANKTA.ed. Maya begot Mrtyu. the son of Drorra. ANTAKA II. Drona Parva. ANJANA PARVAN. Verse 89) . Chapter 196. Verse 49). see BHIMASENA. Verse 26) . Chapter 18) . ANTARIKSA I. (M. _For more details see "Punjikastala". Vasu. (Rgveda. Jara (wrinkles). the killer of all living beings.. Udyoga Parva. (M. Once the Devas. (M.. (M. Vana Parva. (Agnl Purana. (M. Mandala 1. Naraka. Ch apter 112. Verse 38). ANTAPALA. Chapter 99.B. For genealogy see Prthu.B. He had a son called Havirdha ma. And for genealogy see Manuva m9sa. ANTARDHANA (M) . Verse 15). A son of emperor Prthu. Anuvaka 16. A weapon of Kubera. After the death of their father they q .. (For genealogy see Prthu). Bhisma Parva. He was the son of Ghatotkaca and grandson of Bhimasena. The Rgveda makes mention of one Rajarsi. Anrta and Nikrti.Son born to Hirnsa by Adharma. Verse 32).. (M.B. Frorn Vedana was born sorrow. and Antaka was one o f the twelve. Chapter 69. Chapter 9.B. ANTARDHANA. Nabhasvan and Aruna. (See KETUMAN V). ANJANA(M). and Kumuda. Sukta 112) . (M. Maya and Vedana. Verse 20) . Chapter 64. Verse 15. Hirhsa.B. under the auspices of emperor Prthu. This is an elephant belonging to the Asuras. This is the name of a mountain. Chapter 27. Part 1. Soka (grief). ANJANA. Chapter 20).. (M. Bhisma Parva. A King. Chapter 11) . There are references Vamana A iravata to Raksasas coming to the battle-field on the back of elephants. Verse 68 1. Chapter 9. Antaka.. the son of Prthu. (Agni Purana. (This Airavata was not the of Devendra) . Vibhavasu. A place in ancient India. ANTARGIRI.. turned goddess ea rth into a cow and milked her. Chapter 194. (See Prthu). There is another mention of Anjana the elephant standing in the battle-field.

ANUDATTA. A nymph. ANUDRUHYU. The eldest son was Bharata. . Chapter 12) . Dhruva was the son of Uttanapada.. Ketu. Priyavrata-married Barhismati. Pancama Skandha. i. (See Kauravas) . Nabhi. Chapter 91. Salya Parva. Antariksa. A place in ancient India. Verse 17). Pururavas. (See ANUDRUHYU). namely Kusavarta. the other being Cakra. ANUGOPTA. Verse 40). Agnidhra married Purvacitti. (Devi Bhagav ata. Svayambhuva Manu had two sons. Visnu. Vana Parva. (M. (M. 1) Genealogy. A Raja named Antariksa is mentioned in the Bhagavata. ANUCANA. Bharata. . The fire (Agni) called Pancaja. Chapters 1-4) . Vidarbha and Kikata. Anudruhyu. Dram. Camasa a rid Karabhajana. Verse 10) . ANU. a Deva woman. Brahma. Pancajanya generated these elements from his two hands with the help of his spiritual strength (tapassakti). Anuisasana Parva. by Devayani. and they becarne p arents to nine sons. Ilavrta. of Arjuna and danced.da. Chapter 122. These brothers had nine younger brothers who were all highly evolved yogis. Naliusa. Yadu and Turvasu. A sub-section of Asvamedha Parva. after whorn this country (India) is named. Brahmavar ta.. Yayati. and to them were born 100 s ons. Uttanapada and Priyavrata. Anta riksa. Sukadeva and Pivari had four sons: Krsna. Verse 19). Bharata had 9 younger brothers. Chapter 59. (Bhaigavata. Dr uhyu. K uru. This Devastri. viz. Atri. ANUCAKRA. Yayati had two sons. Nabhi wedded Merudevi.B. ANUKRAMNIKA PARVA ANTARVASA. One of the hundred sons of Dhrtaraslra. Indrasprk. and they had eleven children i ncluding Agnidhra. Sabha Parva. ANUDATTA (M) .B. Genealogy..e. Ayus. Bhadra'sva and Ketumala.. the daughter of the Pitrs. Prabuddha. Hiranmaya. Candra. ANUDARA. Verse 10) . Hari. Dasama Skandha. along with other nymphs came down on earth at t he time of the birth. Chapter 220.B. Malaya.B. Svayambhuva. Prathama Skandha). 2) Birth. (M. ANUGITAPARVA. Anudruhyu and Puru by Sarmislha. Ch apter 59. (Adi Parva. AN-U.nya created the elements named Anu dattas. An inner parva of Sabha Parva.. (M. In this parva is told the story of the game of dice played between Duryodhana and Dharmaputra. They were Kavi. Verse 37). A Visvadeva. S uka Brahmarsi married the beautiful Pivari. Son of Yayati. Budha.). Pippalayana Avirhotra. (See M. Priyavrata. ANTARIKSA II. Rsabha. One of the two attendants deputed by Tvasta (a Prajapati) to help Skan da in war. and three sons. Kimpurusa. Ilavarta. Agnidhra.B. The Prince named Anu was the son-in-law of Suka Brahmarsi. Chapter 45. (Agni Purana. (M. Descended from Visnu thus: Brahma. Vana Parva. Bhadrasena. Nabhi. ANUDYUTAPARVA.uarrelled with Sri Krsna aad were killed by him. Verse 61) . (Bhagavata. One of the five sons created by Pancajanya for the Pitrs. Hari.B. Bhuri and Devasruta and a daughter named Kirti. Gauraprabha. Chapter 220. Kirti was married to Prince Ann the son of Digbhraja. son of Vyasa. Ramyaka.

One of the 100 sons of Dhrtarastra. Ka'syapa Hiranyakasipu. (Vana Parva. Verse 24). Chapter 9l . Verse 19) . Amsa 1. Kuhu and Sinivali by Smrti. and four daughters. Jagati. the greatness of the Mahabharata. (Visnu Purana. Descended from Visnu thus: Visnu. Adi Parva. ANUPAVRTTA. Part 1.B.B. Vyasa teaching his disciples the Mahabharata--all this comes in this narration. Verse 39) . Chapte r q. (M. Kasyapa married Diti. Diti ga ve birth to two sons named Hiranyaksa and Hiranyakasipu and a daughter Sirhhika. Diti was a younger sister of A diti. A river in ancient India. (See Mahabharata) . Brhaspati. Sirhhika was given in marriage to Vipracitti.B. the other six being. King in ancient India. (Hari-vamsa 326) . Gayatri. 1) Genealogy. The sons of Aditi became devas and the sons of Diti became asuras. (Visnu Purana. Verse 24). Five sons were born to Hiranyaksa and four sons were born to Hiranyakasipu. ANUSNA. Vyasa composi ng the Mahabharata. Chapter 19). Anuhlada. ANUPA (M) . Chapter 1 0). Some scholars hold the view that An upa is near river Narmada. A synonym of Karttavirya. ANUKARMA. Daughter of Arigiras. Son of Somali (Visnu Purana). They had two sons. BhiEsma Parva. Chapter 15 and Agni Purana. There is a story in the Mahabhar ata about his being imprisoned along with Duryodhana. ANUPAT I. Raka. Prahlada and Sarirhlada. Brother of Prahlada. Rahu and Ketu.. ANUKRAMANIKA PARVA. (M. Smrti and K hyati. Bhisma Parva. Chapter 51. (M. Sarhvarta by Khyati. The se four sons were Anuhlada. ANUMLOCA. Knowing that the Pandavas were living in the forest in all comfort and happiness Duryodhana and others wen . ANUSRUTASRAVAS.. Chapter 8). in this parva (Chapter) Ugra'sravas (Sutanan dana) son of Lomahar sana begins telling the Bharata story at. Chapter l. (M. Br hati.B. An apsaras. Hlada. (See Bharata) .. A warrior from Anupa(m). The Mahablrarata is divided into 18 parvans.. (Visnu Purana. Tristup and Pankti. The first of th em is called Adi Parva and the first of its rrrany sub-divisions is named *Ramanuja's Bhagavata (Malayalam) morrtions one Ncyavarta also as Bharata's youn ger brother. daughter of Daska. son of Brahma. Chapter 9. Part ii. ANUPAKA. ANUMATI. Brahma. and three sons. A Vi'svadeva. Verse Anukramanika Parva.Verse 232). Chapter 9. ANUSTUR One of the seven horses of the Sun God. Usnik. (See Bhagavata. Anumati. ANUSASANA PARVA. ANUVINDA I. (Sabha Parva. Anusasana Parva. the creation of the world. One of the Parvans of the Mahabharata. A famous place in ancient India. Ucatthya. 2)Birth. A place in ancient India. Angiras had two wives. Verse 48) .ANUHA.the yajna (of 12 y ears' duration) held by Kulapati Saunaka at the forest of Naimisa. And. Chapter 116. But the name does not occur in the original. ANUHLADA.

. (M. APANTARATAMAS. Verses 2 4. He was the son of a Kekayaraja.B. Because he was absolutely free from inner darkness or ignorance he was called Apantaratamas. ANUYAYI. (5) Iravan. Anuvinda too was imprisoned. Chapter 58 . Adi Parva.. ANVAGBHANU. Chapter 94. (For genealogy see Puru dynasty). He also fought against the Pandavas and was killed by Saty aki. Chapter 25. APANTARATAMA. Atri. Chapter 1 16. Vana Parva. ANUVINDA. lie is called Agrayayi_also. the present and the fut ure divided and systematized the Vedas as ordered by Visnu. Verses 20). Verses 30. Verse 10) . who was cognizant of the past. (M. Isvara. (Sarasvata). (7) Anuvinda was killed by Arjuna. Chapter 67. (Padma Purana). Raudrasva and Pravira.B. The MahAbharata refers to another prince Anuvinda also. Verses 8-12). He had also another son Manasyu by Saraseni. another wife. She gave the Soma to Indra. Apala tasted the Soma which was mea nt to be offered to Indra and hearing the sound produced then Devendra appeared before Apala. on her way home from the river. 18-22) . Udyoga Parva. 2) Vyasa was Apantaratamas reborn. (2) He was defeated by Sahadeva who set forth to subjugat e the kings of the south just before the Rajasuya yajna of Dharmaputra.. He was killed in war by Bhimasena . Anvagbhanu is the son born to Manasyu and his apsara wife. Adi Parva. Sri Krsna married Mitravinda. (6) They fought with Bhima. Chapter 127. (M. Verse 21).B.(M.. This is another name ofApantaratamas. 1) General. Chapter 399. Chapter 83. Verse 8) . (MR. The sage is also known as Sarasvata and Apantaratama s. Bhisma Parva. Mitrake'si. The sage. Chapter 45. One of the 100 sons of Dhrtarastra. Suffering from leprosy and hence fors aken by her husband Apala stayed with her father and started tapas to please Ind ra. Verses 27-29).B.. (Rgveda. (M. (See Citrasen a).B. (4) On the first day of the war Vinda and Anuvinda fought duels with Ku ntibhoja. Mahavisnu ordained that in the Dvapara age he be born as the son of Parasara and once again divide and systematize the Vedas. (M. Chapter 13. a Gandharva named Citrasena appea red on the scene and imprisoned them. (M. A Maharsi (Great Sage).. (8) Vinda and Anuvinda had a sist er called Mitravinda. Karna Parva. ( M. A wife of Sri Krsna. Chapter 242. . Dasama Skandha.B. He was born out of the sound `bhu' uttered by Mahavisnu.B. Puru had tl:rec sons. ANUVINDA II. (3) An Aksauhini (division of army) was desp atched by Anuvtnda to help Duryodhana. (Sri Sankara's Mundakopanisad and Brahrnasutra Bha sya).B. (M. 31). he was killed in battle by BhImasena.B. Verse 66) . Verses 72-75). Bhisma Parva. Drona parva. Anvagbhanu is known as IZceyu and Anadhrsti also. sister of Sri Krsna's father.t in prccession to them. and so was he born as Vyasa. Verse 11 and Drona Parva. One day. APALA. King of the Puru dynasty. A daughter of the great sage. Chapter 31. The three of them were the children of Rajadhidevi. Drona Parva. The puranas refer to one Anuvinda. Drona Parva. Chapter 157.. Verse. (Bhagavata. Verses 17-20). 25) . S abha Parva.. Arjuna and the king of Virata.B. This was their reason for quitting the Pandava camp and fighting on the side of the Kauravas. Anuvinda also was in the procession.. While Duryodhana a nd party were staying in a tent in the forest. which her brother did not like. who was so pleased with her that he cu red her of her leprosy. 8-91). (M. son of Arj una defeated both Vinda and Anuvinda in the battle. (See Apantarata mas) . ANUVINDA III.. A. Chapter 19. (1) He had a brother called Vinda.. a prince of Avanti. Verse 102.

(See Ayodhadhaumya). Adi Parva. (M. Verse 9) . Bhimasena killed him.. Verse 65). APARAKUNTI. (M. (See Parabrahma).B. who were kno wn the Kalakeyas. Udyoga Parva. Adi Parva. A place in ancient India. Chapter 165. 1) Paraaidya.. A place in ancient India. the other ten being Hara. (Agni Pu rana. Chapter 67.. APARAKASI.B. Raivata. APARASEKA(M). Verse 43).. Kalpa. Arjuna once crossed it..B. Adi Parva. APARAJITA V...B. Verse 67). This includes knowledge of the four Vedas Rg. Sarpa and Kapali. Bhisma Parva . Chapter 4. Ver ses 6 and 7). (M. Dharmasastra and the puranas.B. Adi Parva. Bhisma Parva. Dhanurveda and Artha Sastra (economics). APARAJITA II.. APARAMLECCHA(M). Yajus. Sama and At harva.. Cha ndas.B. (2) Apardvidya. APARAJITA III. APODADHAUMYA. Nirukta.. Apidhana. Sambhu. APARAVIDYA. Chapter 18) . Vrsakapi. (M. (M. Anus asana Parva.. A river. B. Verse 42). A place in ancient India. Chapter 9. Verse 28) . A place in ancient India. Chapter 31. Nyaya Sastra (Logic). APARANANDA. APARAJITA VI. (M. Adi Parva. A city on the west coast of ancient South India. (M. Chapter 9. APARANTA I. .B. Chapter 214. Anusasana Parva.B. Tryam baka. (M. APARAJITA IV. (M. Verse 49) . APARANTA II. Mimamsa. (M.. Santi Parva. Another name of the Surparaka temple. which helps us to know or realise Him ( Brahma) who is without either beginning or end. Vers e 62). Verse 21). (M. the six Vedairgas (sub-divisions of the Vedas) Siksa.APARABRAHMA. Vyakarana. A King of the Kuruvamsa. One of the serpents born to Kasyapa of Kadru. Verse 22).B. Chapter 94. (M.B. APARAJITA I. Chapter 9. One of the eleven Rudras. Used as a synonym of Mahavisnu.. Vaidya sastra (medicine) Gandharva kstra. Sabha Parva. That science or knowledge.B.B. Verse 67) . Knowledge is of two categories or types. Chapter 4 9. ChApter 14 9. Viz. Bhisma Parva..B. Mrgavyadha. Verse 54) . Cha pter 35. Bahurupa. as also. Bhisma Parva.B. APARAVALLAVA (M) .. Verse 13) . Bhisma Parva. (M. Chapter 21. Chapter 9. Verse 89). (M. Verse 101) . Chapter 9. who could neither be seen with t he eyes nor perceived by any of the senses. A place in ancient India. Sabha Parva. A King born out of a part of one of the eight Asuras. Aparananda is counted among the prominent holy rivers.. A son of Dhrtarastra. The Pandavas had ir ivited this King before they went to war. (M.B. Kapardi.. Chapter 67. (M.

Salya Parva.. (Valmiki Ramayana. In the course of a hunting expedition once Danda s aw and was immediately attracted by the charms of Ara. and about which the Pandavas had previous knowledge. Adi Parva. Part I. and a t the behest of the Maharsi Indra destroyed Dander's kingdom by a downpour of a rain of fire. Duryodhana and his minister Purocana. One night Purocana set fire to the waxen palace. As they were unconsciou s with heavy dosage of liquor they could not escape the fire. they only prete nded ignorance. ARANTUKA. APSUHOMYA. Chapter 9 and Agni Purana. daughter of Sukra maharsi . Peoples who gathered at the s pot.B. saw to it that the Pandava s shifted their residence to the waxen palace. and their exemplary charac ter and conduct made them. A sacred spot in ancient India.. Chapter 3) . Daughter of Sukra maharsi.. Sabha Parva. the Kuvalayananda and Citramimarhsa. Verse 32 and Visnu Purana. the shrewd Vidura through h is messenger Kanaka gave notice of the conspiracy to the Pandavas just in time. from secret information knew the fact. ARANTUKA. was also staying in the palace. APRACI. A hell. T he Maharsi asked his daughter to do tapers. so to say. The same night a huntsman. ARALI. Part 2. in river Sarasvati. (M. One of 'the sons who were Brahmavadins. built a new palace at Varanavata. A bath there is as beneficial as performing the Agnistoma yajna. but the Pandavas escaped by a s ecret passage.B. Though many others did not know that the palace was made of wax the Pandavas. and further told her that he would burn Dander's kingdom by a rain of fire. (M. . But. and the news was broadcast that the Pandavas. After his father's death Dander became king of the country between t he Vindhya and the Himalayas. A reputed Rhetorician in Sanskrit. Vikuks i and Nimi. Danda. These apsara women were born at the churning of the ocean of Milk. who thrived in the 16th Centu ry A. Bala-kanda.D. * An Apsaras is a nymph (devastri). Anusasana P arva. ARAKKILLAM. (M. (Uttara Ramayana). Chapter 53. Duryodhana had planned to set fir e to the palace and burn to death the Pandavas.B.B . Chapter 4. The former is an interpretation of chapter 5 of Jayadeva's Candraloka and is ve ry populari n South India.. He wrote two treatises on rhetoric. which the architect of the palace had made while constructing it. He committed rape on her and she told her father about the attack by Dander. Chapters 141-151). (See Naraka). (See Naraka). ARA (ARAJAS). inclu ding their wife Pancali and their mother had been burnt to death. But. Verse 52) . Afterwards this place became a terrible forest where neither birds nor animals lived. Verse 12) . Chapter 4.B. the apple of their eyes to the people. Both the Kaurava and the * Pandava princes lived in Hastinapura. Chapter 6) APRATISTHA(M). Thi s evoked great jealousy in Duryodhana who made up his mind to completely ruin th e Pandavas somehow or other. (Visnu Purana. There are thousands of Apsaras. of Visvamitra. This incident took place one year after the Pandavas had shifted their residence to the waxen palace. Vana Parva. V erse 24) . with his five children. A guard posted at a boundary line of Kuurksetra. A hell." A great sage (Maharsi) who adorned the assembly of Yudhisthira.. (Palace of wax). Iksvaku begot three sons.APPAYYADIKSITA. Those six people. Verse 58). and accidentally Purocana too were burnt to death. Chapter 45. thus saw seven corpses. (Details given against the names of Apsaras). (M. Ara did tapers. APSARAS. Duryndhana. and came to be known as Dandakaranya. with Dhrtarastra's consent. Ch apter 83. (M. The Pandavas became experts in archery.

). Oh ! Bhisma. Once king Marutta was conductin g the Mahesvara Satra (a yaga) and Devas like Indra carne down to receive their share of the Havis (oblations in the sacrificial fire). The old Arayanna grew fat on those eggs. Yams of the crow. Vidyutparna. the prince of the Nrsadha kingdom was restin g in a garden he saw an Arayanna in a tank there. Verse 13. Ravana also went there. Kasyapa. Dhrtarastri. Hearing that the Devas were at the Asrama of Marutta. Syeni gave birth to the kite.. Ma nasasaras at the heights of the Himalayas is the permanent abode of these divine birds. The birds organised themselves and attacked the Arayanna to death. (See Mahabharata). So they come down to the earth when r ain begins at the Manasasaras. but seeing its mental tremor he let it free. Aranya-kanda. JVala and Arayanna. and go back to the Saras. Chapter 41. ARAYANNAM. While Nala. when rain begins on the earth. Sabha Parva. M israkesi. 4).ARANYA.B. Canto 14) .on the sea-coast preached to a ll the other birds much about ethical actions. The Devas. A place in ancient India. assumed different disguises and hid themselves away. Kubera of the chamele on and Varuna of the Arayanna.B. An aged Harirsa(Arayanna) which once dwelt. (See Iksvaku dynasty) . the son of Brahma. A sub Parva in the Mahabharata. The prefix `ara' denotes royalty. Manorama. (Valmiki Ra may ana. the very beautiful daughter of the King of Vidarbha. And. *Aristha. the same will be your end also. After Drona was killed in the great war. 3) Bha_sma and the Arayanna. who was partial to his (gi'supala's) enemies. Thus beguiled Ravana went his own way. this was the time w hen Ravana with his attendants vas on his triumphal tour. ARANYA PARVA. ARATTA(M) . Drona Parva. delivered thirteen Apsatas. Out of curious pleasure Nala c aught it. Rambha. Syeni. They flew across the sea in search of prey after entrusting their eggs to the Arayanna. Atibahu and Tumburu as mentioned in the following verse. he related the story of an Arayanna to elaborate the stand taken by the aged Bhi sma. They were : Alambusa. married the eight daughters of Daksa. subl imity. Tam ra being one of them. They do not like the rainy season. 1) General. A bird (Haxirsa) in Devaloka. A King of the Iksvaku dynasty.. the 'Arayanna played the role of the messenger for Nala to get as his wife Damayanti. This phenomenon explains Cerusseri's (Malayalam poet) statement in his K rsnagatha that `when rain set in harirsas -Arayannams-began flying away'. greatness etc. Sur aja. In dra shaped the blue feathers of the peacock with mixed colours and eyes like his . Koka or the Cakravaki bird is the sister of Harirsa . Dhrtaras tri and Suki. K rtavarma ran away with the warriors of Aratta. Haha. Tamra bore five daughters Kraufrci. Indra assumed the guise of the peacock. There was one int elligent bird among the lot. Kesini. (M. blabbered a lot of unb ecoming things about Bhisma. the Hamsa and the Koka and Suki the Lukas (doves) . The swan (Harirsa). That bird informed its colleagues about the treacherous conduct of the A rayanna.. Out of gratitude for this generous act. And. Si'supala. Huhu. (M. Aristha gave birth also to four Gandharvas. Bhasi. This is how the Arayanna and the Cakravaka got Devatva (divinity). Chapter 193. Raksita. Many puranas describe Arayannam as a bird of the Devas. Tilottama. 5) How the Arayanna (Ha»zsa) got the white colour. Surata and Supriya. 2) Origin. Subahu. who thus escaped blessed the family of those birds whose forms they assumed. Verses 30-41). a wife of Kasyapa. and Indra and the other Devas. The birds felt great respect for the Arayanna. trembling with fear. end when it looked for the eggs they were not to be found. before his death.

But her father had decided to give her in marriage onh to a Mah arsi. After thus blessing the bi rds the Devas dis. Verse 6). Verses 18-1 9) . (Valmiki Ramayana. For details sec Prthu. A Raja of the Puru dynasty. Verse 15). Ardha~ sadh aka. (See Puru dynasty). ARDHASADHAKA. (Agni Purana.B. ARCANANAS. ARISTA. He was a son born to Arvacina (a king of the Puru dynasty) and Maryada. An Asura. Siddha. A muni born in the Atreyagotra of th< dynasty of Atri. Chapter 15). Moreover. A sect of Pitrs. (Mahabharata. Adi Parva. he blessed them that they would never be affected with any disea se. and. Prthu and the Arcis were born from the arm! of Vena. born of his wife. Therefore be thee.B. celestial maids and such others als< are worshipped. A nags (serpent) living in mountains (Sabha Parva.. 4th Skan dha. and that they would dance with their feathers spread when rain set in. who are now black and white.own. Asoka.). Chapter 21. (M. ARIMEJAYA. Parsacas. Nagas Asuras. Chapter 216 . (Agni Purana. therefore Arcananas became < Maharsi with the help of the Marutta and weddec Rathaviti. . ARBUTDA I. Prthr did tapas in forest and gave up his physical body it fir e and attained Vaikunlha (the abode of Visnu) witl the Arcis. He desired to marry Rathaviti. (Rgveda 1Vandala 1. Stanza 55). in future a: purely white as milk". A King of the lunar dynasty. Vans Parva. Mantrapala and Sumantra were they". ARCISMATI. Santi Parva Chapter 236. Chapter 19. A parva in the Malrabharata. (Mahabharata.B. Sirk ta 51).B. S arga 7 Stanzas 2 and 3 : Vallathol Translation) ARGHABHIHANAPARVA. A holy ghat or bath bui1t b) the hermit Darbhi. Kubera blessed the Chameleor with capacity to change colour as and how it pleased. The mountain Abu. ancestors. Chapter 19.. Vana Parva. Dhrsti. (Bhagavata. ARDHAKILATIRTHA. Maharsi Syavasva was their son. V ana Parva Chapter 83. Anuvaka 10. Stanza 153). M. Verse 83) . 4th Sk andha). Mahabhauma . Chapter 82. Vetalas and many other classes These are the semi-gods. ARIHA. ARBUDA. Wife of Kasyapa. ARCIS. a princess of Vidari>ha. Adi Parva. serpents. Chapter 278). narigum Daivangal). a princess of Anga (M. Among these there are Vasus. Bala-kanda. (Bhagavata. Stanza 9). (See Page 27 of Namva..B. (See M. And Bhagavar Varuna told the Raja-Harirsas : "I esca ped the clutches of Ravana byassumingyour-shape and form. Chapter 67. He had eight ministers. ARCISIVIAT.. Vijaya. "The great king had eight ministers who were pure and famous and experts in deal ing with matters of their concern : Jayanta. Indra killed this A'sura. ARBUDA II. The Gandharvas were born of her. and also for it s cheeks to appear golden in colour to the onlookers. The fourth daughter of Maharsi Angiras (M.. appeared. A minister of King Dasaratha. ARDHADEVAS (SEMI-GODS). In temples hermits. Yamad harma blessed the crows that they would get the offerings made on earth by men t o their departed ancestors. (Uttara Ramavana). Ariha had a son.

(Agni Purana. Then Indra sent the King with a messenger to the Asrama of Valmiki so that he mi ght gain spiritual knowledge. A synonym of Sri Krsna. Aranya Parva. Garuda.. Verse 8 refers to one Aris tanemi. daughter of Daksa. Kiskindha-kanda. Valmiki consoled the King with the advice that the telling. (1) Sumati. ARISTANEMI IV. Indra who was ve ry much pleased at this sent a messenger with a vimana (aeroplane) to conduct th e King to Svarga (heaven). Canto 6 6. the King gave up his desire for Svarga and sent back Indra's messenger. Verse :) ARISTANEMI V. Mahabharata. and fall happened when the effect of good actions dec reased. Verse 4 .. and returned to his palace after prostrating at the feet of the sage. ARISTANEMI I. Chapter 184) . Uuyoga Parva. runi and Sri Varun i were the children of Vinata.B. Then Aristanemi pointing out his son who was standing alive asked the King. Realising the transient nature of worldly life. An asura. (2) Kasy apa had the synonym Aristanemi also. hearing and pondering over the story of the Ramayana alone would be en .. Sabha Parva.rata Parva. Suki had a daughter Nata and she a daughter. 2) Tabassakti of Aristanemi.B. But Arista nerni told the King that there was nothing to wonder at in the case as nobody wo uld be able to kill them because their Tapassakti was so great. (M. (M. (M. Vinata. Verses 17-22). (N'I. The son was immersed in meditation clad in the skin of a deer thus looking like a deer. Santi Parva. Verse 40).. was the daughter of Aristanemi. Saptama Skandha). 3) Some other details. "Is this the boy whom you killed ?" The King was naturally wonder-struck. a servant of Karirsa. 'and he craved pardon of the boy's father for unwittingly killing his son. Suki was their daughter.. (M. at the instance of Kams a he went to Gokula disguised as an ox to kill Sri Krsna. When the king found out the real fact he felt extremely so rry. Verse 9). (3) Aristanemi's wives delivered sixteen children. Dassama. the King ofHehaya who happened at the time to be hunting in the forest discharged his arrow against the son of Aristanemi t aking him for a deer. Once.B. Verse 5 ) .. A false name assumed by Sahadeva while the Pandavas lived incogni to in the Virata kingdom. Chapter 184. (Ramayana.B. Aranya Parva. At the time of death it regained its fro mer from as Asura. Chapter 37) . Santi Parva. Skandha. wife of King Sagara of the Solar dynasty. The King felt so happy at this. Chapter 71. Aristanemi. Chapter 208. Verses 5-46) . Chapter 10.ARISTA (ARISTAKA). ARISTANEMI 11. . (M. Kasyapa and Aristanemi. One of the six sons of Vinata. A Raja called Aristanemi occupied a place in the council of Yam a. and rained blows on him and it was t hrown hundred yojanas away and it died.B. The ox instilled terro r in people by tearing to pieces hills and mountaisn with its horns and bellowin g like hell. the second son of Ka'syapa. Verse 4). Chapter 19) . But Sri Krsna faced the beast. Para. Kasyapa married Dhrtarastri . Adi Parva. ARISTANEMI VI. Devi Bhagavata.B. When he was told that there was in Svarga also the st ates of being high or low. (Valmiki Ramayana. (5) Aristanemi once gave much spiritual advice to Kin. (Bhagavata. Bala-kanda. A King. Brahma. Chapter 8.B. (See Aristanemi). 1) Genealogy. Visnu... (4) Aristanemi has spoken a lot ab out the greatness of Brahmins. ARISTANEMA (ARISTANEMI). Chapter 288. Canto 38. he gave u p his kingdom and went to and did tapas at Mount Gandharnadana. ARIS7'ANEMI 111. Sagara of the Surya Varn sa. Chapter 65. Aristanemi with his son was once performing tapas i n the forest. Parapuranjaya. Tarksya. Aruna. (M..

Budha. The curse of a Muni made p hysical contacts with his wives impossible for Pandu. before her marriage had attended on Maharsi Durvasas who pleased with her service made a gift of five mantras to her. 1) Genealogy. Devatithi. Samyati. Brhatksetra. She repeated it thinking of th e Asvini Devas. On the orders of Indra he will kill Nivatakavacas. Santurodha. 2) Previous birth. Bhavuka. 4) Festival of birth. (M. As soon as she got the mantras she retired to a solitary place and thi nking of the Sun-god repeated the first mantra. The third of the Pandavas. Krsha . and stayed with Pandu keeping the other four mantras to herself. dance. Then Arjuna studied the art and science of using weapons. Dharma had four sons. Nara wa s born in the next birth as Arjuna. He will please Siva and get the great weapon called Pasupata fro m him. Prajapatis and other sages arrayed themselves in the sky. Bharata. Nakula and Sahadeva were born to her. Adi P arva. Kunti and Madri. The Pandavas spent their childhood at Hastinapura with the kaurava s. Sarhvarana. Rav yaya. Chapter 123. At once Suryadeva appeared and K arna was born to her by him. worshipping Brahma for 1000 years at the holy Badaryasrama in the plains of the Himalayas. At the birth of Arjuna Kunti heard a heavenly voice declar e as follows : "Oh ! Kunti ! your son will be equal to Siva in prowess and uncon querable just as Indra is. Bahuvidha. Sunclu. Adi Parva. Janamejaya. Rksa. ARJUNA. great tapasvins. Suketu. Arjuna from Indra and Bhimasena from the wind God (Vay u). Hasti. Gardda.B. Dharmaputra from Kala. Of the two Narayanarsi was a partial incarnation of Visnu. Verse 20). Sarvabhauma. with his permission Kunti began practising the other four mantras one by one. 6) Childhood. and two sons. In their previous life they were two Rsis called Nara and Narayana. Chapter 63 onwards). Suhotra. Nara and Narayana did tapas. 4th Skandha) . Since Pandu could not contact the body of his wives. Arjuna and Sri Krsna are often referred to as Naranarayanas ( Nara and * Narayana). Raudrasvan..ough to get eternal salvation. Nara and Narayana. (Devi Bhagavata. He married the daughters of Daksa. Thus. 3) Birth. See Nara.B.. Bhima. Adi Parva. While enumerating the various names of Arju na. Pravira. Vitabhaya . Pandu had two wives. Vyasa. Kunti abandoned the child to float in the riv er Ganga. Suratha. Pururavas . Gala.B. They entered Mahasamadhi at Badaryasrama in the Himalaya s. Sages from the top of the gatassnga mountain came together to perform the christening ceremony of Arjuna. Chapter 129. (See Pandu). To Vicitravirya son of Santanu was born Dhrtarastra by Ambika. Pracinvan. Pan du. Verse 1). Puru. Yayati. Of the four sons Hari and Krsna became great yogis. Kasyapa. Jahnu. Rahovadi. Candra. (Yogavasistham). Dusyan ta. The effect of the mantras was that Kunti would b ecome mother of a son from him about whom she was thinking while she repeated th e mantra. and Nar a and Narayana. Pratica. all animate and inanimate objects celebrated the birth of Arjuna. Kunti. Atri. 5) Naming. Nahusa. Rksa. (M. After assuring her that the incident would not affe ct her chastity Surya disappeared. and he earned great reputation for truthfulness and adherence to Ve dic dharma. Namasyu. the . Matinara. Suhota. After defeating all the Kings he will perform the A's vamedha thrice. music etc. fayatsena. (M. About the Nararsi the Devi Bhagavata has the following to say : "Dharma had his origin in the hear t of Brahma.. Hearing the above prop hecy the Devas played ecstatic music and flowers were showered from the sky. it is said in the Virata Parva that Krsna was the name Pandu gave to his son . The remaining one mantra Kunti gave to Madri. Santanu. and from that time onwards they lived as inseparable companions and so ns of the same parents. a long with the other boys. Descended from Visnu thus : Brahma. Viduratha. and Pan du by Ambalika. Kuru. Ajamidha . Arjuna. The Saptarsis. By three mantras she got three son s. Ayus. Hari. Cakroddhata.

his son. today Ekalavya. 7) Special favour of Drona. Drona. and th ey found out the culprit. The Kauravas and the Pandavas went hunting in the forest. after prostrating at the feet of Drona returned to the woods . (Bharata. the Brahmin. then Arjuna and Karna appeared on the scene. Arjuna came to unders tand this programme and he began returning with water along with Asvatthania. son of Hiranyadhanus. (M. the master. When their shooting exh ibition was over. And the guru said as follows : "Oh ! Ekalavya if thou art my disc iple give me the daksina (fee) due to the guru. Yudhisthira and others first exhibited their skill in shooting arrows in the order of their seniority. Because of constant practice Arjuna was quite sure about the position of the hand and the mouth in the process of eating. With the arrows thrust in the mouth the dogs ran back to the Pandavas. Ekalavya. At once Ekalavya cut his thumb and gave it to Drona . and the onlookers declared them to be equal in skill in archery. 9) Arjuna got Brahmasirastra. Afterwards. and Arjuna surmised from th is that archery also could be practised in darkness. a whale caught hold of the leg of the guru. Adi Parva. and he began sending all his disciples to fetch water. The combined effort s of the disciples failed to extricate the leg from the grip of the whale. Arjuna also got . 10) Competition in arms.high priest of Vasudeva did for Arjuna the usual Samskaras like Upanayana (weari ng of the holy thread) etc. and the scene for it al so was set. When once Drona and his disciples were bathing in the river Ganga. Adi Parva. While Arjuna wa s once taking his food.B. Duryodhana and Bhima clashed with each other. but to use it only when confronting higher be ings than men. Grief-stricken at this claim Arjuna hurried up to Drona and said: "You had pr onounced me to be your foremost disciple without an equal. Henceforth Arjuna became Drona's unequalled disciple. refused the prayer of this prince of the fore st tribe. in all devotion stood up and sal uted the guru. T he guru came to know of it. and Arjuna was enjoined not to use the astra against men. Ekalavya. Arjuna showed very great interest in the science of the use of weapons. [Bharata (Malayalam). Greatly pleased at this Drona imparted to Arjuna knowledge about Brahmasirastra. Adi Parva. wind blew out the burning lamp. Ekalavya. and Arjuna alone continu ed eating. Krpacarya became the preceptor o f the Pandavas in Dhanurveda. Dro na instructed the cook not to serve Arjuna food in the darkness. 8) Ekalavya's finger was cut. He began practising them. another disciple of vours has relegated me to the second place". who claimed himself to be a disciple of Dron a. cert ain special things. Ultim ately Arjuna shot an arrow and released the guru's leg. Ekalavya. And. and witnessing Arjuna's performance praised Arjuna a s a unique archer. Seeing there Ekalavya with his matted hair and clad in deer skin the hunting dogs began barking at him . Chapte r 132). (See Drona). There is a p articular story about Dronacarya becoming the guru. and it was then that Dronacarya came. Chapter 133]. Asvatthama pacified them and kept them apart. Every scene was explained to Dhrtarastra by Vidura and to Gandhari by Sanjaya. forestmen) approached Drona to 1earn the science of the u se of weapons. Ekalavya shot into the mouth of the dog seven arrows at one and the same momen t. and before the others retu rned Drona began teaching A'svatthama the special lessons. wanted to teach Asvatthama. But. Arjuna was taught the first lessons in Dhanurveda (S cience of archery) by Rajarsi ~uka. A'sva tthama used to be the first to return with the water. King of the Nisada s (a tribe of hunters. When the training of the princes was almost over DhT'ta rastra decided to have a rehearsal of their attainments. Chapter 132).. The princes with bows and arrows appeared on the scene. Thereupon Drona went and saw Ekalavya in the forest. and I desire to get the thumb of your right hand as my fee". Drona. made an image of Drona with earth and meditating upon it as guru began practis ing the use of weapons. Karna who got angry again rushed to the stage. Th en the guru began teaching the special things to both Asvatthama and Arjuna.

Adi Parva.lgs Sauvira. seeing thousands of people on their way to attend the Svayamvara (marriage by open choice of husband by the girl) of Krsna (Pancali) daughter of the King of Pancala.B. Duryodhana made up his mind to destroy the Pan davas somehow or other. King of Pancala. and in a fierce batt le Arjuna defeated Drupada. Though Bhima tried to kill Drupada Arjuna did not pe rmit it. He got the Pandavas to shift their residence to a palace made of wax at Varanavata. during his talks with the a davas had pointe d out to them the need to have a priest to lead and guide them in all matters. 11) Arjuna's guru-daksina (Offering of fee to the preceptor) . Thou gh this pacified the scene. the Pandavas also followed the crowd. In the duel the Gandharva was defeated. King Drupada wished to give his daughte r Krsna in marriage to Arjuna. Veda Vyasa... this competition in archery served much to make the Kauravas and the Pandavas the bitterest of enemies. Arjuna challenged Karna's eligibility on the ground that he was low-born and not a Ksatriya. At the starting of training the princes Drona told them: "I have one thing in mi nd. Adi Parva. After the gurudaksina Arjuna marcherd against the neighaouring kingdom. whom the Pandavas met on their way blessed thean. The grateful Gandharva told the Pandavas many interesting stories. (M. To this Arjuna replied 'Yes'. At that time Ar iigaraparna (Citraratha). (M. who now gifted half his kingdom to Drona. and it was time for guru-daksina. 15) Pancali-svayamvara. but Arjuna promised to fulfil the guru's wish at the proper time The training was over. The presence of men at the scene. Citraratha. Verse s 2: -23) . and one year after this the palace was set fire to. Chapter 139. 136. He also explained this fact that Arjuna could subjugate him on account of his (Arjuna's) genuine celibacy. He also made a present of divine horses and imparted to th em the esoteric knowledge called Caksusividy"". Chapters. 12) Jealousy of Dhrtarastra. At once Duryodhana proclaimed him as the King of Anga. (See Citraratha). The Gandharva finally told the P andavas that they were attacked because they came without Agni and Ahuti in thei r front. Vipula and Sumitra.B. Chapter 138. 137) . and advised him to fight even him (Drona) if the latter op posed him (Arjuna). a nd accordingly they visited Dhaumyasrama and installed the Maharsi (Dhaumya) as their priest. and after midnight reached the banks of the Ganga. the Gandharva was enjoying his time tit the river with some Apsara women. meantime. and you must do it for me when you have completed the course of training. He deCcated very easily in war the King of Yavana and the Ki. AdiParva. The Pandavas escaped death by fife through a tunnel and entered the forest. Arjuna and the Gandharva crossed in words. With this promise to fight even the guru in case the guru attacked him Arjuna became the most reputed archer in Bharata. As the wife of the Gandharva prayed with tears in he r eyes Arjuna spared him his life. Drona was very much pleased with Arju na for the above act. The Pandavas walked much through the ter rible forest. 13) Escape from the waxen palace. And.. the next day. 14) Arjuna on the banks of river Ganga. (See llrakkillam).ready. The news that the rda as were burned to death in the palace of waxgrieved Drupada. (M. Al l the disciples except Arjuna kept silent at this. Drona asked to be brou ght bound before him Drupada. These victories of A2ijurta made the Kaurava s very anxious. but took him bound to Drona. This ended Drona's hatred towards Drupada. Thereupon the Pandavas marched to Pancala. Yet he had made arrangementsfor a trial of str . Verse 14) . Dhrtarastra brooded over it. which led to a duel. the Gandharva did not reli sh.B.. (For Drona's enmity towards Drupa da see Drupada).

When the 1-5. Arjuna tried again.-ira took their seats in the marriage hall. Nei ther the Pandit nor the other brahmins gathered there could give a convincing an swer to Arjuna's doubts. daughte r of the Naga. Verse 11). you enjoy among. Forgetting the fact Arjuna went to Dharmaputra's palace. It was also settled that during a particular year if any other husband than the one whose turn it was to live with Pancali saw her the intruder was to go on a pilgrimage for one year. Chapters 190. Once a brahmin came to the palace complaining that his cows were stolen by thiev es. Arjuna with his bow and arrows went into the forest. Dhrtarastra brought them back to Indraprastha. Af ter visiting places like Agastyavatam. N arada went there once and advised the Pandavas to guard themselves against mutua l quarrels as the five of them claimed one and the same woman as wife. (Indrap rastha). "no. a debate began about the subject.ndavas returned to their mother with F" ncali in the evening the mother from inside her room said: "What you have got today. 16) Arjuna at Indraprastha. He also felt that it was not at all proper on the part of Sri Rama to have sought the help of monkeys to cons truct the dam.. And. Arjuna put this quest ion to a great scholar (Pandit) who was sitting nearby reading the Ramayana. Karna. Arjuna. He m arried Citrangada. 17A) Arjuna married Ulupika and Citrangada. daughter of Citrangada. and if the monkey could not break the Dam it would for ever be Arjuna's slave. no monkey will be able to break the dam built with Rama's arrows. in obedience to the above in junction of the mother Paftcali became wife to the five 1'andavas. Though now it caused some efforts on the part of the monkey the dam broke this time also.B. Arjuna reached the banks of Gaftga and entered the waters for a bath. Sirizum. got his weapons and helped the brahmin. Sisupala. A rjuna constructed a dam with arrows. Adi Pa rva. A son was born to them called Iravan. Then a monkey child went up to Arjuna and told him with pride that a dam made of arrows would have broken when the monkeys walked on it . Adi Parva. For thus breaking the rule Arjuna left his pala ce on a pilgrimage for one year. no. Chapter 155. yourselves. Th e target was placed inside the machine.B. m y sons. King and he married her. Arjuna said then. 191). Vasisthagiri Arjuna reached Manalur. and the following story is attached t o it. And then Drupada spoke thus: "My daughte r shall be married to him who will bend the bow and with the first arrow hit the target placed inside the machine". Ultimately Arj una lifted the bow and hit the target very easily. That year Pancali was living wi th Dharmaputra. Citrangada gave birth to a son named Babbruva hana17B) The mark an Arjuna's flag is Hanuman. and a machine constructed which was kept suspended in the air. Dharmaputra ruled a part of the country with Indraprastha as capital. Arjuna was thus left with no alterna tive but to die by jumping into fire and a fire was accordingly lit.ength by Heroes at the Svayamvara." Kunti said this under the impression that what her sons had got was some Bhiksa. Arjuna did so without remembering that all his weapons were stored in Dharmaputra's palace. Sri Rama could have made a dam with arrows. as soon as the monkey set foot on it i t was broken. and Arjuna promised to help him. which monkey will break a dam of arrows made even by me?" And. (M. The monkey and Arjuna agreed to a bet that if a monkey broke the dam made by Arjuna he would end his life by jumping into fire. once during a tour of the country was much surprised to see the Da m constructed by Sri Rama from Ramesvara to Lanka.. Many brahmins followed him. A11 the kings failed even to lift the bow up. King of Manalur. Thencefor th it was set forth that Pancali would live with each husband in turn for one ye ar. Pancali put the wedding garla nd on Arjuna's neck. The Svayamvara of Pancali broadcast news about the w hereabouts of the Pandavas. A tremendous bow was got ready and installed on the ground. Before Arju . G reat warriors like Duryodhana. Here Arjuna was attracted by Ulupika.. and i nstalled them in a new palace built at the place called Khandavaprastha. After a stay of thre e months there he went southwards. At any rate. (M.

Though the yadavas got ready for a fight they were ultimately pacified. a white horse and many other powerful arrows. Visnu told them : "Oh! Krsna and Arjuna. At this Sr i Krsna appeared before Arjuna and prevented him from jumping into fire. not only that. cursed the N ga called A .. 17P) Fight between Arjuna and Sri Krsna. Dasama Skandha Chapter 89) . A few days later the yadavas cele! gated a great festiva1 at mount Raiv ataka. As the time for the delivery of his wife approached the brahmin took Arjuna home .'. This suggestion of the boy was accepted. Adi Parva. and Subhadra was married to Arjuna.. And. the brahmin heaped insults on Arjuna. Subhadra. where he met Gada. 17 C) Arjuna married Subhadra. it was I who took away the brah min boys for the pleasure of seeing you both here. Indra was pleased arid gifted mane divine arrows to Arjuna. Arjuna went to Dvaraka and paid his respects to Sr i Krsna. Then he ran up to t he boy who was acting as arbiter and prostrated at his feet crying `Ramacandra'.na jumped into the fire a brahmin boy. Arjuna made the house secure by making an enclosure with his arrows. The monkey child tried its best to break the dam. Chapters 23 3-239) . When Agni began burning the forest. who looked very foolish.B. And. (Bhagavata. Krsna and Arjuna returned with the boys to the brahmin . (M. At the same moment Arjuna also prostrated before the boy crying `Sri Krsna.vasew and saved Maya. sla ve to devotees'. (M.B. (See Khandavadaha). 17D) Brahmin boy saved. Arjuna went to the holy place called Saubhadratir tha and redeemed the woman named Varga from the curse she was labouring under. Rendered thus an object of ridicule Arjuna began to make a fire for him to jump into. who presented to Arjuna the bow called Ga ndiva. Arjuna agreed to oblige Agni Bhagavan. (See Galava para 4) . And the n both Krsna and Arjuna went to Visnuloka and submitted the case of the brahmin to him. You may immediately return wi th the brahmin boys. While Krsna and Arjuna were spending their day s on the banks of river Yamuna in the summer season Agni Bhagavan (the fire-god) requested them to give the Khandava forest as food to him. Arj una also vowed that he would end his life by jumping into fire if he failed to p rotect the next child of the brahmin. Even then it did not break. By now the one year of th< pilgrimage o f Arjuna was over and he returned tc Indraprastha. Adi Parva. (The monkey boy was actu ally Hanuman and the brahmin boy Sri Krsna). The boy asked both of them to get up. at the time of birth itself its body disappeared. . When Arjuna who was wedded so much to truth bru shed aside this argument and got ready to end his life the boy said : "If you ar e so very insistent about it you (Arjuna and the monkey) compete once again with me as arbiter. Arjuna killed Taksaka's wife. the architect of the Asuras who wa put up in the forest. It developed its body to the size of a mountain and jumped on the dam. 218-224). Maya gave t he fairious conch Devadattain to Arjuna. lndra sent a heavy shower of rain. Arjuna went there disguised as a Sannyasin and forcibly took away Subhadr a with him with the permission of Sri Krsna. who was bathing in the river ran upto Arj una and told him that his attempt at self annihilation was not justified as the bet was made without an arbiter. When once Arjuna was in Dvaraka with Sri Krsna a brahmin appeared on the scene lamenting that his child died as soon as it was born. He also asked the monkey child to kee p his word by remaining as the emblem of Arjuna's flag. and then Arjuna rose up and assured protection to the next child to be born to the brahmin and asked him to return home in peace. Nob ody paid any heed to this. Chapter. but it failed. brother of Sri Krsna. ( See Varga). and after admonishing the m for their conceit gave them good advice. who now felt very happy. By creating a tent will arrows Arjun a saved the forest from the rain. 17E) Burning of Klhandava forest. Arjuna continued his journey and reached Gokarna and Prabhasa tirtha . Gada described to Arjuna the great be auty of his sister. Yet the c hild died.

Dussasana dragged Pancali and stripped her of her clothes in tLe royal assembly and thus mercilessly insulted her. 8.B:. entered the Kamyaka forest. ornaments. (M. the Kimpurusas. (M. Insulted and hu miliated they returned to Iqastinapura and challenged the Pandavas to a game of dice. who was so very pleased that Arjuna got so many divine arrows depttted his charioteer. According to the terms and condition agreed to with reference to the game of dice. courtesans and thousands of hunters formed this p rocession into the forest. Saunaka consoled the aggrieved Dharmaputra in the Dvaitavana. thousands of infantry soldiers. Ind ra consoled Arjuna by assuring him that Urvasi's curse will turn out to be of gr eat benefit to him.panicd him into the forest. Urvasi. B ut. (M. and he ga ve the Aksayapatra to her. then Arjuna went to Mount Kailasa and prayerfully concentrated his mind on Siva. the Pandavas had to lead f. Arjuna left the Kamyaka or five years. s ent her messenger Citrasena to Indra. Maya. The noble brahmin. Cha 22) Procession. Pa '. Aranya Parva. (M.B. (See Sabhaprave:. Sablia Parva) . (M. Just like roaring winds during the rainy season. Duryodhana approached the pool in the Dvaita forest and waited at a distance. Pancali prayed to the Sun-God. On the pretext of going out for hunting Duryodhana and others with the permission of Dhrtarastra. 9. would protect Dharmaputra Lomasa returned to the earth forest and returned to his brothers after an absence f brothers at Mount Gandhamadana. went to Indraprastha.sira from Varutia and Antardhanas tra from Kubera...000 elephants.000 horses. And.. And. and reminded the messenger of Urvasi's maternal pos ition with reference to him. The Kauravas who got jealous at this went on a visit to Indraprastha. Afterwards Arjuna stayed in Devaloka for a few days with Cit rasena. When they entcred the palace built by Maya they were put info tnauy a ludicrous situation. (See _Fasupatastra).. (See Aksayapatra) . Being told about Urvasi's love Arjuna clos ed both his ears with hands. who had gone to Devaloka to see Indra. who escaped death it Khardava forest. Chapter 239. Sisupala. At last a witty and humorous brahmin went to Dhrtarastra and dil ated upon the hardships being suffered by the Pandavas.000 chariots. mad with love. Aranya Parva. Indra. to do tapas in the H imlilayas and thus secure divine arrows. And then the Pandavas mad e the conquest of all the earth. Duryodhana was in a mighty hurry to see with his own eyes the pitiable pligh t of the Pandavas. and Duryodhana and other s were extremely pleased and happy to hear it. A fter that lie got the Dandastra from Yama. to bring Arjuna to Devaloka and a t Devaloka he learned much about archery and music. 19) Pandavas in Kamyaka forest.rest life for twelve years and live for one year incogniito. started for the forest with a number of att endants. 21) Arjuna in Indraloka. and :n the game the Pandavas lost not only their kingdom and other riches. they shed crocodile tears. Vana Parva. and with the permission of Dharmaputra built for the . There Arjuna killed MEtk «su ra.. Maharsi Lomasa. but Pancali as well.Pandavas ail exceptionally beautiful palace. after this the Pandavas. Indra gave him boons.B. Verses 25-29 . The Apsara women forgot them selves when trey saw the exceptionally handsome Arjuna.18) Again to the forest. A number of brahmins also accompanied the f-anda vas to the forest. He met the pters 42-47) . and during the period he killed Nivatakavaca and Kalakeya.Dharmaputra felt worried that he could not feed the brahmins who acco. Accordingly Arjuna went south and saw I ndra in the Indrakila mountain. 26) Arjuna secured divine arrows. Dharmapuita asked Arjuna. the Hadakas. Kurundlla ant Bhagadatta returned to Idr aprastha and performed the Rajasuya yajna. Arjuna became a friend of Promising Arjuna that he . Chapter 36) . the procession caused thunderous noise. Mjtali. Yet. in his grea t gratitude.. Siva appealed in the guise of a forest dweller.B. The Pandavas again started for the forest. alo ng with the brahtnins. Vana Parva.. Urvasi cursed and turned Arjuna into an eunuch. merchants. 30. and after killing enemy kings like Jaritsandha. Chapters 37-41).a).B.

. Arjuna and Bhima also had the same fate at the pool. They assumed false names : Dharmaputra as Kaiiku. This is my ancestral wealt h. When Nakula went to the pool and began to draw water a voice from above was heard saying as follows : "Do not be so very daring. drove it very fast to the forest. Nakula. D uryodhana was made a prisoner. 25) Preparations for war. The Kauravas were absolutely defeated in the war and they took to their heels. Awakening from sleep . at the instanc e of Dharmaputra climbed a tree and looked around and sighted a pool of clear wa ter. After the forest life and life incognito the Pandavas returned. The Gandharvas obstructed Duryodhana. Brhannala (Arjuna) agreed to act as such a nd they started for the warfield. and he and the Gandharva called Citrasena clashed with each other. At the sight of the massive army of the Kaurav as Uttara got frightened and tried to run away from the field. While once Pancali was alone King Jayadratha forc ibly took her away. Between Krsna without any arms and the armed forces . When the life incognito of the Pandavas for one year was about to expire a rumou r reached the Kauravas that the Pandavas were at the Virata capital. war was perforce decided upon.B. by the time the period of the Pandavas life incognito was over. son of Arjuna. The Kauravas refused to give them Half the Kingdom. Sri Krsna. who favoured the Pandavas lay in false sleep as he did not want to figh t against them. Chapters j 12-315).B... But Brhannala tig htly bound Uttara to the chariot. Duryodhana went to Krsna at Dvaraka to request for support in war . And the Pandavas in various disguises reached the Virata palace . Duryodhana and attendants put up tents in the forest.). on beha lf of the Pandavas. Arjuna came on the scene and released him. (M. Chapters 239-253). They understood that the very clever and terrible warrior in disguise was Arjuna him self. Uttar a in marriage to Abhimanyu. Without paying any heed to this warning Nakula drank water from the pool. the prince of Virata boasted that lie would fig ht provided he had a good charioteer. 23) Arjuna lost consciousness.) (M. who came after some time sat at the feet of Krsna and remained there standing. (For questions and answers of the Yaksa see Dharmaputra. Bhima as Valala. t hus humiliated Duryodhana returned to Hastinapura with the attendants. Uttara. Arjuna as B rhannala. The Padavas. Aranya Parva. Ar anya Parva. with this object in view. Virata Parva). Sahadeva who went to the po ol in search of Nakula and drank water from the pool also met with the same fate as Nakula. who were very weary and tired walking in the' forest felt extremely thirsty. The k ing of Virata. the Kauravas took the stand tha t not even an iota of land would be given to the Pandavas. After the greetings were over with Arjuna . But. In fact. the Yaksa was none other than Yamadha rmadeva. At once a Yaksa appeared and brought the brothers of D harmaputra back to consciousness. The Kauravas. Krsna saw Duryodhana also. Nakula as Granthika and Sahadeva as Aristanemi and Draupadl as Malini. it was Arjuna whom Kz'sna saw first. Lastly Dharmapu tra went to the pool and understanding what happened to his brothers requested p ermission to drink water. Duryodhana sat at the head of Krsna. and the Kau ravas thought that the Pandavas will appear on the scene if a war was fought aga inst King Virata. lifted the cows of Vir ata and that led to war. Arjuna. If you answer my questions you may not only drink the water but also take som e with you". And.B. Within seconds the Pandavas confronted Jayadratha and regain ed Pancali. Krsna. greatly pleased over this victory in war gave his daughter. 24) Life incognito. Now the twelve years of forest life being over the Pandavas decided to spend the one year of life incognito in the Virata palace. took back fr om the hollow of the Sami tree his weapons and returned to the battle-field. Jayadratha and his men were killed. Arjuna dis guised himself and deposited his clothes and weapons in the hollow of a Sami tre e in the forest. implored that half the kingdom or five districts or five hou ses or at least one house be given to them. But. (M. And. and to tie fell down unconscious immediately.

The war lasted for 18 days. was lying on a bed of arrows.of Krsna. Both the Parties were encamped in Kuruksetra ready for war. (5) Arjuna fought against Drona and Susarma. Sri Krsna a cted as Charioteer to Arjuna. (10) Duel with Bhagadatta. That instruction and advice of Krsna is the world-famous Bhagavad Gita. (20) Again fought with Bhagadatta. Bhagadatta and others. Asvatthama. (17) Fought against Drona and defeated his forces. 26) War. elders. (18) Satyajit deputed to remain with Dharmaputra to help him. Then did Ki sna instruct him in Karmayoga (the philosophy of action). took fright and fled in grea t disarray. Arjuna chose Krsna and Duryodhana his armed forces to help each side in the impending war. And then Arjuna prevente d Krsna from killing Bhisma. On the first day of the war Arjuna fought a duel with Bhisma. The importan t incidents during the 18 days can be summarised as follows : (1) Fierce fight between Arjuna and Bhisma. dislodged from the chariot. (2) Fight between Arjuna and Asvatthama. (16) Cool water sprinkled on the face of Bhisma with the aid of divine arrows. (Udyoga Parva). . (7) Sikhandi prompted to kill Bhisma. (8) On the appearance of Sikhandi the Kaurava army. He stopped the chariot in between the opposing arm ies. son of Arjuna. Thereupon a really fierce fight began. (13) Duel again with Dussasana. Sri Krsna. (11) Duel again with Bhisma. Trigartta. (9) Arjuna fought a duel with Dussasana. (14) With Sikhandi in the front made an attack on Bhisma. Arjuna felt deep anguish to find his own people arrayed on the opposite sid e for war. was killed. the Kaurava Army faced defeat that day. (15) Arjuna discharged three arrows to serve as pillow to Bhisma who. (12) Bhisma fainted and fell on the ground. On the third day Arjuna defeated Bhisma. who revealed his all comprehensive form (Vi°svarupa) to Arjuna. But. (19) Sudhanva killed. (6) Took the vow to kill Bhisma. (4) Iravan. (3) Arjuna destroyed the Kaurava army. friends and preceptors Arjuna la id down his arms in the chariot. Reluctant to kill relations. and the second day he fought the Kaurava forces with exceptional prowess. The Gita cleared off Arjuna's illusions and he praised the Lord.

(46) Immediately repenting Arjuna drew sword to kill himself.(21) Supratika. Arjuna fell down unconscious. killed. (22) And after that. (43) Dandadhara killed with his elephant. Candrasena. (45) Difference of opinion arose between Dharmaputra and Arjuna about the failur e to kill Karna. King of Raksasas killed. and in the heat of excitement Arjuna called his elder brother ' thou'. Niyutayu. (26) Abhimanyu. (33) Again fought Drona. Acyutayu. (36) Vinda and Anuvinda killed. Srutanjaya. . (34) Sudaksina killed in fight. Sudaksina. (38) Arjuna defeated Duryodhana. (29) Arjuna performed Siva Puja. viz. (30) Arjuna dreamt that night to have paid homage to to Siva along with Krsna an d that Siva gave him divine arrows like Pasupata. regained ment al peace by begging pardon of the brother. (23) Vrsaka and Acala killed by Arjuna. (41) Cut off the head of Jayadratha with arrows. The head and the arrows were th rown on the lap of Jayadratha s father.. Satyasena. (31) Marched forth routing the elephant regiment of Durmarsana. account of the great collection of arrows. son of Arjuua. Arjuna vowed to kill Jayadratha. But. (39) Fought the nine great warriors on the Kaurava side. Krtavarml. Sausruti and Mitradharma. (27) Hearing about the death of Abhimanyu. Srutayudha. (40) Arjuna cut off the right hand of Bhurisravas at the instance of Krsna. (32) Routed Dussasana in fight. (44) Arjuna killed the six brothers of Susarma. King of Kamboja. Bhagadatta also killed. (25) Arjuna killed the three brothers of Karna and confronted Karna. (37) Warfield converted into a house of arrows. (35) Srutayu. (28) Awakened. the elephant of Bhagadatta killed. (42) Alambusa. (24) Sakuni defeated. Ambastha and the Mlecchas' army killed. Mit rasena.

Karna. Ulupi described the story of a curse in answer to Arjuna's q uerry. And. Babhruvahana. was a nnihilated. Chapter 1. Thoughts about the future came up. In war you killed Bhisma by unrighteous means. And.. Ulupi said : You shall not get angry. and they said that you would be redeemed from the curse when your son. 30) Asvamedham. 31) Pandavas' journey to the other world.. Verses 1-42). the King of Magadha. On the way dacoits overcame Arjuna and snatched away some of the females. The Yadava dynasty was extinguished before long. Now. On his way back after digvijaya Arjuna was kill ed by the arrows of his son. then Devendra came in his . He grieved over the departure of Çré Kåñëa. On his death. And. Arjuna did all the rites d ue to them on death. Arjuna again defeated Meghasandhi. Yudh isthira leading them. (Bhagavata. Dharma putra and others returned to Hastinapura and took up the reigns of governing the country. Accordingly he has been brought here to kill you. To Bhima's querry as to why Pancali expired first. it was time for the Pandavas to j ourney to the other world. and the idea of performing as Asvamedha Yaga was seriously mooted. A K ing named Marutta agreed to give money needed for the yajna. (Agni Purana Chapter 15) . (48) Karna brought down Krsna's crown by his arrow resembling the face of the se rpent. and Arjuna did so. and they jumped into the river and died. In the great war the Kaurava army to the very last man.B. (Mahapras thana Parva. and also as to how she happened to be p resent at the time. the others continued going forward.B. Bhisma. And then he went to Indraprastha with the consorts of Krsna. Asvamedha Parva. On their way Agnideva advi sed him to deposit reputed bow. After proceedin g a short distance further Bhima also fell dead. They reached the Himalayas. (49) Killed Satyakarma. 29) The story of the curse. Arjuna's death next. Drona. where the Asvamedha yajna was perfor med. Arjuna s wife br ing back to life her husband by Mrtasanjivani mantra. once made. Then Vyasa appeared and told him that he would be strong powerful only in the presence of Krsna. The Pandavas continued their journey. and Yudhisthira attributed it to his (Nakula) extreme conceit about his b eauty.(47) Killed Visasena. Then Arjuna questioned Ulu pi about reason for his son killing him. C hapter 31) . As desired by Vyasa. and some of Krsna's consorts were abducted. Gandiva in the sea. Arjuna. who lost all his power began the great journey with his brothers. (Asvamedha Parva Chapter 81) . (50) After bowing to Vyasa. to kill the whole lot of enemies in a day. and there Pancali expired. son of Karna. Nakula was the third t o die. Skandha 11.. Chapter 79). the Astavasus and Ganga Devi cursed you with hell. The Pandavas assembled together. It was at this juncture that the Yadava dynasty ended and Sri Krsna was killed. (M. kill ed you.B. An emaciate d dog was already with the Pandavas during their journey. Sakunipu tra and others and returned to Hastinapura. The above story please d Arjuna. who begged the Vasus for redemption. I to ld about this curse to my father. viz. Yudhisthira said. Sri Krsna consoled the sorrowing Dharmaputra. Babhruvahana. with the help of Sikhandi. Santi Parva) 28) Death and rebirth of Arjuna. (M. Arjuna co uld not save them. Immediately did Ulupi. Arjuna defeated all enemy kings. Arjuna withdrew arrow. all is fo r the best. Yudhisthira replied that it was due to her having been more partial to Arjuna. The others continued their journe y and then Sahadeva died. Yes. Salya and Sauptika Parvas). Enraged at this Arjuna killed Karna. was due to his having not kep t his vow. Arjuna felt very sad. (M. Satyestha and others. and Yudhisthira thought to hims elf that it was due to Bhima's voracious eating. Yudhisthira explained that Sahadeva died second due to his arrogance and conceit. Krsna. 27) After the war.

Vasavaja. (D o) (3) Glass. But.I am Kiriti because during my fight with the Daityas I put on my head crown glo wing as Sun. . Abhimanyu. Kapiprava ra. Nimi. Devendratanaya. Svetasva. Dhanan jaya. One Arjuna. . Anuvaka 7.. 33) Synonyms used in the Mahabharata of Arjuna. Kisnasarathi. Mahendratmaja. Pandunandana. Sakrasuta.because even after having conquered all the lands and amassed wealth I stand in the cen tre of righteousness . Gandivadhari. Devas and men call me Savyasaci because both my han ds are adept in using the bow. Kauravasrestha. I am called Dhananjaya. Sakratmaja. Towards the close of his life incognito. Aindti.. (1) Pancal i (2) UlupS (3) Citrangada (4) Subhadra. Babhruvahana. Savya-saci and Dhananjaya. he refused the offer sa ying that he would not do go alone. Kiritabhr't. Vasavatmaja.I am called Jisnu.chariot of gold and welcomed Yudhisthira to Svarga. and I subjugate and conquer. because I am unassailable a nd unconquerable. .I am Arjuna because. in Svarga. Chapter 1. Vanaraketu. . Kuntiputra. Prabhanjanasutanuja. Sakhamrgadhvaja. . [Mahabharata (Malayalam)~.. Gandivabhrt. Arjuna wen t to the Sami tree to take out Gandiva kept in its hollow. (4) Indra.savan andana. Arjuna. Uttara also was with Arjuna. (1) White. Gandivadhanvd. Partha . Nadisarjo virataru-Rindradruh kakubhor'rjunah. Vijaya. Kiritamali. Krsna. Phalguna . son of emperor Nimi. Vasavi. Phaiguna. Jisnu. I am called Bibhatsu by men and Devas because I never resort to r evolting means during war. Jaya. . (See Karttaviryarjuna).. Sakranandana. Indrarupa. advice from a Chapter 47) . and he was elated to find his brothers there happy with Pancali. Kiritavan. 32) The meanings of the word. Va. Svetavaha. (2) The plant called virataru. Sukta 112) . (Rgveda. Kapidhvaja. Paurava. Kiriti. Gandiva . Indratmaja. Kapivaradhvaja. Mahendr asunu. Sakraja. Srtakiriti. Then Arjuna revealed himself to Uttara. Vanaradhvaja. Bhimanuja. Kauravya. Brhannala. ARJUNA II. Gudakesa. Pandava.. Vanaravaryaketana. Jisnu. The other members are : Kapo . Krsna. Indravaraja. Pakasasani. A son of Emperor. Yudhisthira got into th e chariot and reached Svarga. Bibhatsu. Sakrasun u. Tapatya. Svetavahana. (Mahaprasthana Parva and Svargdrohana) . and also elaborated the meaning of his various names -as follows :I shall tell you my ten names. Savyasaci. . Kapiketana. Svetahaya. (Amarakosa) ARJUNA IV. 35) Wives of Arjuna. leaving his brothers behind. Bhim asenanuja. Kiriti. When Indra assu red him that his brothers were already there. Tridase'svaratmaja . and also because I am the son of Indra... A member of Yama's assembly. . 36) Sons of Arjuna. 34) Origin of certain words. Phalguna. My father gave me the tenth name of Krsna because I was very attractiv e (Krsna=attractive). ARJUIVA III. Saspam balatynarii ghaso yavasam trnamarjunam. Gandivi. in the world people are rare who possess such fair colour as I do. .. Kaunteya. Arjuna. Kaurava. got philosophical Muni n amed Asita (Brahmandapurana. Kau raveya.I am called Vijaya because in fights with haughty op ponents I always succeed... Vijaya. Bhi bhatsu. . and moreover I do only whi te (just and ethical) acts . I am called Svetavahana because white horses are harnessed in war to my chariot decked with golden ornaments I am called Phalgu na because I was born in the month of Phalguna and under the star. . Nara. >. In drasuta. Iravan. Bharata. Vaxiaraketana. Pandaveya.

Chapte r 1). Sa°sva. He is also called Selkhilar. and Gautami was the cause for the birth of the child. (M. He was Garuda.B. "From the forehead of Visnu. (See Mahabharata). ARJUNAVANAVASAPARVA. Vinata felt pained at this and opened one of her pots. Kasyapa.. ARTHAM. and Vinata to have two sons more powe rful and vital than the sons of Kadru. (M. A sub parva in Maha. Adi Parva. From the forehead of Mahavisnu a golden lotus grew up from which Sri Dev i was born. A hunter. ARUJAM. 1063-1112) of Cola. Sasabindu and Mahi'svara. Chapter 285. A hunter caught and brought before Gautami the snake. (M. ARKKAPARNA. Both the mothers kept their eggs in pots so that they were in the right tempera ture. Verses 5-7) . Chapter 59. After this Kasyapa went into the forest a gain for Tapas. 1) Birth. Visva. (Some great lives). Son of Kasyapa by Vinata. Sabha Parva.. At once death (mrtyu) appeared on the scene and explained that it was prompted by the God of Death. ARJUNAKA. After another 500 years the other egg of Vinata hatched itself and a glowing son emerg ed. The Saiva text of the south is called Tirumura. (M.B. Adi P arva. But the serpent proved its innocence by pleading that it bit the boy impelled and prompted by Death. Pandava. ARKKA II. Dharmaputra was called to his side by Bhisma his body torn b y arrows in fight and he felt very sad and sorry to see Bhisma in that state. He was a Devagandharva.B. ARKKA 111. (Bhasabharata. To console Dharmaputra Bhisma related a story and this hunter was one of the chara cters in the story. Anusasana Parva.. it was the child who wa s responsible for the cause of death. Bhism a consoled Dharmaputra by telling that as in the case of Gautami in the story. And. Krsasva.. Sahadeva. Verses 32.. The royal sage Rsika was Arkka. Stanzas 130 & 131) . ARUNA 1.. Trnaka. (See SORYA) . Kasyapa's son by his wife Muni. son of Brahma. Chapter 65. The first seven of those songs were composed by Tirujfianasambandha . ARULMOLITHEVAR.B.taroma. Dharmarthas (Dharma=righteousness and artha wealth) also were born f rom Sri.bharata. His object was to kill it im mediately. A king of olden days. . The story may be summarised as follows:Once. The twelfth song is called Periyapurana comp osed by Arulmolithevar. 33) . reborn. Vana Parva. A synonym of the Sun. Kadru gave birth to 1000 eggs and Vinata to two. After a period. Tevar was prime minister (A . Adi Parva. ARJUNABHIGAMANAPARVA. righteousness and wealth came into bein g from Sri". Chapter 16. and it contains twelc e songs. and being so much pleased by their services he gave them boons. A sub Parva in Mahabharata. Ultimately Gautami herself assumed responsibility for the sin. the son of an old Brahmin woman Gautami.. sprung up a golden lotus and His wise spou se Sri arose there from and oh.B. Chapter 8. (M.B. Kadru got the boon to have 1000 naga (serpent) sons. Verse 2) . t he cause for every effect was the chain of Karma. Verse 43) . Tirunavukkarsar and Sundaramurti. (M. Chapter 67. the Asura. (M.B. After 500 years the pot broke up and Kadru had her 1000 sons. A sect among the Raksasas. died on account of snake-bite.D. Adi Parva. (See Mahabharata). Santi Parva. Verse 236). Verse 17). A child only half-developed emerged f rom the egg and he was Aruna. Chapter 1. married Vinata and K adru. ARKKA 1.

once did naked Tapas to redeem her husband. Surya-grahanaand Candra-grahana). her husband did not like. w ho too was. Adi Parva. Verses 18-23) . Brahma called Aruna and asked him to stand as charioteer in front of the Sun-God everyday so that the Sun's intensity might be reduced. Also. and the beautiful `female' kindled eroti c sentiments in Indra and he enjoyed a night with `her'. That phenomenon is called the eclipse (of the Sun or Moon. Aranya-kanda. Rksaraja.e Sun. at the instance of tl. kavati. In view of the elder one having a long tail he was 'called Bali (Vali) and the neck of the second one being very beautiful. Aruna. the monkey King of Kiskindha was very unh appy because he had no sons. After some time Indra went t o Ahalya to see his child and he was told the story of Gautama's curse. wife of Aruna delivered two sons. and the Sun enjoyed her. Indra b lessed Bali to the effect that half the strength of anybody who attacked him wou ld be addec . but would go on their own way when the object was achieved. And. He also asked her to wait for 500 years so that the birth of another physically deficient son like himself might be avoided. Agni Puran a. Chapter 24. At that time. This curse was the reason for Vinata's becoming a slave of Kad ru.. before the day dawned Aruna. Murmuring that everyone would c ooperate when there was something to be achieved.. (M. he was named Sugriva. Verses 15-20) . and then Garuda would redeem her from slavery. The object of he r tapas was to prevent the next dawn (Sunrise).2) Genealogy. Vinata delivered two sons. while he acted as Indra's wife was called Arunidevi). Enraged by these frequent attacks of Rah u. Garuda and Aruna. Verse 71) . Ahalyadevi bro ught both the children with tender love. who waited at the entrance of Devaloka to snatch off the Nectar (Amrtam) got at the churning of the sea of milk (Ksh-abdhi). assumed fe male form and sat among the Deva women. He came tc know of Bali and Sugriva. The Sun and the Moon betrayed to the Devas Ra hu. and this gave his charioteer Aruna somc rest. He cursed them and turned them into monkeys. Chapter 19 also refers to Garuda and Aruna as the sons of Vinata. While Rama and Laksmana wandered in the forest searching for Sita they saw the wounded and disabled Jatayu. married the daughters of Daksa. and when questioned by Sun he detailed the happenings during t he last night. 5) Birth of sons. Women alone were admitted to the dance hall. the chaste woman. Indra se arched out both the monkeys.B. Adi Parva. 6) Aruna assumed female form.B. This also resulted in the birth of a son. entrusted to Ahalyadevi.B. and requested Indra to give both the monkeys to him as sons. Indra gladly obligee him. (Arun a. Owing to the intensity of her ta pas the Sun ceased to rise. ( M. the Sun-God began once to burn like anything. Canto 14) . Chapter 16. This evoked the desire in the Sun to see Aruna in female form. and the Devas were frightened by this and took refuge in B rahma. From that day onw ards Aruna has been functioning as the charioteer of the Sun. Ugratapas from the consequences of a curse. Sampati and Jatayu.. (M. Of the two wives. Jatdyu described his genealogy as foll ows : "Kasyapa. at the instance of Indra entrusted the child to Ahalyadevi and returned to join duty as the Sun-God's charioteer. 3) Aruna curses his mother. Thenceforth Rdhu does often swa llow the Sun and the Moon. which Gautama muni. Aruna was a bit late to report for duty. After pronouncing this curse Aruna -rose to the sky. Ar una did so. a son was born to them. Aruna got angry at the haste of his mother and cursed her to live as slave of Kadru for 500 years. therefore. Sampan was Aruna's elder son and h e (Jatayu) the younger. (Valmlki Rarnayana. Chapter 68. Adi Parva. 4) Aruna became charioteer of Sun. The fact of Vinata forcing open one of her eggs prem aturely and Aruna emerging out of it with only a half-developed body has been me ntioned above. son of Brahma. the Sun-God began burning so virulently as to dest roy all living forms. Syeni. Then i t was that A-runa came to know of a programme of naked dance by the women in Dev aloka.

Tilottama. Wife of Sage Vasistha. (3) She outshone all other chaste women in devotion to her husband. (1) Birth. Ketus and Arunasthe y attained Svarga by self study. Prthvi.B. Being told so Aruna gave up worship of Gayatri Devi.B. wife of Kasyapa. (M B. Chapter 4. Thus. A tributary of the river Sarasvati. A sage in ancient India. Chapter 11. A king of the solar dynasty.. 7) Synonyms. She was born as the daughter of Karddama Prajapati and Devahuti. A Rsi. Those Rsis were called Arunas.B. The Ajas. Saptama Skandha) .. (Devi Bhaga vata). Aranya Parva.to his own natural power. M itra.B. A Danava (Asura) born in the dynasty of Vipracitti. Adi Pa:°va. (M. Vana Parva. Verse 15) . (M. and father of Trisanku. Ver se 15) . Verse 41). ARUNA I.. ARUNA VII. (See Vasistha). Kunjara. An Apsara woman born of Pradha. He did tapas for long years repeating the Gayatri mantra. (M. Taittariya Aranyaka refers to him as born from the flesh of Brah ma at the time of creation. Aniaru. Alambusa. Prthusravas. . ARUINA VI. (2) Arundhati shone forth in Brahma's assembly with other Devis like. (M. Ch apter 225. Adi Parva. Chapter 43. Svahakirti. and the chief of serpents. Hr i. Chapter 232. ARUNASAIVIGAMAM. ARUNA V. Santi Parva. Sikatas. without fighting Aruna and his army were extinguished. Verses 50. Prsnis. Vidyutparna. Surd and Sac!. Vasuki. Sarizkha. Mausala Parva. (Devi Bhagavata. Aruna. Becoming very arrogant on account of this boon he left Patala (nether r egion) for the earth and deputed a messenger to challenge Indra for war. Sabha Parva.B. Surasuta.. Chapter 65. Ka4yapi. Karkkotaka.B. B: haspati replied : "You and I are not different. Raksita. Aruna. . Verse 15). A son of Narakasura. The place where Aruna falls into Sarasvati. Salya Parva. Indra then sent him anc Sugriva to Kiskindha. When Narakasura was killed Aruna along with his six brothers fought against Sri Krsna and was killed. ARUNA II. R ambha and Manorama. At that time a heavenly voice called out that as long as Aruna did not give up the Gdya tri he could not be worsted in war. and she felt offended at this and sent thousands of beetles again st him. ARUNA lV. Verse 7) . and got from Brahma the boon not to die in war. A community of lZsis was denoted by this nam e. Garu dagraja. bo th of us are worshippers of Gayatri Devi. ARUNA 11. (M. Kumuda. (2) Other information. A serpent. She owed her great power to her chastity and service of her husband. Pundarika. Taksaka.. Dhrtarastra. Verses 27-29) . Then the Devas sent Brhaspati to Aruna to ma ke him give up Gayatri. Pradha and Kasyapa had the following children. Aruna questioned Brhaspati as to why he of the enemy cam p had come to him (Aruna). Verses 30-45). (M. ARUNDHATI I. (M. Chapter 26. Misrakesi. (1) Once Arundhati got suspicious about the character of Vasistha and as a result of misunderstanding her chaste husband her beauty suffe red a set-back. 51) ..B. Chapter 83.. ARUNA III.

Whil e the seven great Rsis were staying at the Himalayas it did not rain consecutive ly for twelve years. Vana Parva. (M. Then Arundhati began a rigorous tapas. Chapter 130. and from that day onwards it became a sacred spot.. (The sixty-three's) . Verse 45). (M. Yam!. Anusasana Parva. Verses 38-54) . A wife of Kala (God of death). (9) Arundhati and Vasistha did tapas at the sacred Sarasvati tirtha and entered into Samadhi. To Raibhya. (V isnu Purana. This story was told by the hermit Lomasa to the Pandavas.. Arundhati had no food with her.. Siva then assumed his own form and blessed Arundhati. Sadhya and Visva are the ten wives of Kala. Chapter 130. There is a story in the Mahabharata showing the merits of penance o f Arvavasu. Astam a Skandha). ARUNDHATI 11.B.B. (See Aruna). Lamba. Bhanu . and Siva appeared before her disguised as a brahmin.B.. who drink water from river Arunoda. Verse 8) . one of the seven islands of ancient times. ARUNDHATIVATAM. Arundhati. (M. two sons called . ARUNODA. during their exile in the forest. `Lo ng ago two ascetics Raibhya and Bharadvaja had built their hermitages and lived here. Part 1. Verses 3-11) . Name given to Aruna when he attended Indra's assembly disguised as female .B. Sin ce. Chapter 15) . One of Daksa's daughters. and with that it rained pro fusely all over the land. (M. and the Munis suffered much without either roots or fruits to eat. Chapter 226. (M. ARVAVASU. (M. Verse 46) . Tirunav ukkarasa and Sundaramurti ARVA. (M. Sarizkalpa. ARIJPA.B. Adi Parva. The son of Ripurhjaya. If one takes one's bath during three days in the S amudraka tir tha nearby and also starves one will get the results of Asvamedha y aga. Muhurta. An ancient Ascetic who had been a luminary in the Durbar hall of King Yudhfsthira. ARUNT. (6) Arundhati once pointed out to Vi'sdarbhi the evils of receiving remuneration (fee) . A holy place. Anusas ana Parva. Chapter 4 8. Chapter 130. (M. when they arrived at the holy bath Madhugilasamanga. A son named Yavakrita was born to Bharadvaja. A river flowing through the island of Plaksa.. Chapter 65. Chapter 84. (5) There is a story in the Mahabharata of how Siva once blessed Arundhati. Verses 12 and 13) . (8) Once all the Devas eulogized Arundhati and Brahma blessed her. (7) On another occasion she spoke about the secret principles of ethics among ot hers. Vana Parva.B. She cooked food with some cheap roots and served the guest with it.. Vasu. ARUPATTIMIJVAR.' In ancient times there were sixty-three d evotees of Siva in the south.(4) The seven great Rsis once offered her an honourable seat. Prominent among them were Tiruifianasambandha.. (Visnu Purana). The wind around ten yojanas of Plaksa is very fragrant because it carries the divine fragrance being emitted always from the bodies of Parvati and her attendants. Vana Parva. Chapter 10. They were called Nayanaras and they have composed many famous sacred songs. Anus'asana Parva.B. Verse 41). Verse 17). (Devil Bh5gavata.B. due to the failure of rains. Salya Parva.. Marutvati.

He s tealthily informed the matter to Arvavasu. The report of a conversation between this hermit. Varuna.B. "Hermit Vasistha ! Now I shall give their names in order. is given in the Mahabharata. Amsa is sometimes called AMS`U. For genealogy see under SAGARA. Tithisuta. Ar vavasu. Bhaga V ivasvan. ASAMARJASA (ASAMANJA). gakra. Bharadvd ja and Yavakrita became ascetics. lauded by the wor ld and as bright a3 Rudra. having the brightness of Brahma. these are the Bright hermits. The twelve Adityas are. 137. All these occurrences happened in this bath called Madhubilasamgama. Once there was a kin g called Sagara in Ayodhya. Bharadvaja felt s ad and cursed Raibhya that he would be killed by his son. Then with Yavakrita he jumped into the fire and died. Paravasu. A King of the Solar dynasty born to Sagara. Aryama. Finally Indra granted him the boon. Bharadvaja and Raibhya to life again. At that time Brhaddyumna. Aursija. Anusasana Parva. Arvavasu went to the forest completed the funeral rites of his father and returned. Raibhya. Yavakrita started doing penance with a view to get the boon of learning coming to him automatically without getting it directl y from Brahmins. Yavakrita was not willing to give up penance. Later Indra came in the gu ise of a Brahmin to the Banks of the Ganges and began to build a dam with sand p articles. Rsimedha. Kanva. When his penance became severe Indra appeared and told him that the boon he asked for was an impossibility and tried to dissuade him from his a ttempt. Santi Parva. Adi Parva. He became sad and forlorn and went to the fores t and did penance to the Sun. Bala. Still Yavakrita did not show an y intention of drawing back. Indra said that the des ire of Yavakrita also was as impossible as that. Pusa. Angiras. a Brahmin performed a sacrifice. (M. Chapter 65. There is a story about his birth in the Ramayana. Stanza 15 ). Dhata. Arvavasu did penance to' the Sun for getting children. Yavakrita returned to the hermitage. This story is give n in Bhavisya Purana Brahma Parva). The Sun appeared before him and blessed him. ARYASVA. 31 & 32) . Aranya Parva. He re turned and brought Yavakrita. For .B. A King of the Surya vamsa (Solar dynasty). Amsa. Chapter 336. (M. 136. Savita. One of the twelve Adityas born to Kasyapa and Aditi. nobody believed. Chapter 150. Yavakrita said that it was an impossible task. Paravasu spread the rumour everyw here that Arvavasu had murdered his father. Raibhya and his sons were learned men. (Mahabharat a. As Paravasu was going along the forest he saw his father covered with the hide of a deer and shot at him thinking him to be a deer.Arvavasu and Paravasu were born. He invited Arvavasu a nd Paravasu as helpers. The Sun-God came down fro m his way in the sky and gave him through Aruna directions mentioned in the Kalp a (one of the six sastras or Sciences) regarding Saptami rituals.. Arvavasu also is counted among the hermits who possessed the Brightness of Brahma like Rudra.. and Sri Krsna who had been on his way to Hastinapura. Raibhya plucked a tuft of hair from his head and put it as oblation in fire and created a giant who killed Yavakrita. See the word VAM9AVALI (Gene alogy). 138). Everyone avoided him. S tanza 7. Arvavasu obser ved them strictly and as a result he got children and wealth. 1) Birth. Fire and Vasu". He married two women named Kesini and Sumati. ARYAMA. Full of arrogance he hankered after the dau ghter-in-law of Raibhya. Stanzas 30. Tvasta and Visnu. Kaksivan. (Adityas=sons of Ad iti). Chapters 135. Mitra. Yavakrita. In the innocence of Arvavasu.

There is a version in the seventh Skandha of Devi Bhagav ata that Virani was born of the left thumb of Brahma. are going to continue creation.a long time they had no sons and so they went to the Himalayas and started penan ce there in the mount of Bhrguprasravana. ASIDDHARTHA. While Sri Krsna was going to Hastinapura this hermit met h im on the way. Sarga 7. (M. ASIKNI I. He. Bhagavata). Chapter 83) ." They also went to different sides and never retu rned just like rivers falling into the ocean.. Sarga 38). Sarga 83) . knowing the size of the earth. Asikni. His father. son of Brahma. a King who became the favourite of the people. This is called Candrabhag a and also Cinab (Cina). (Valmiki Ramayana. Haryas vas. After a hundred years Bhy gumaharsi ap peared before them and pleased them thus : "Your elder wife KeSini will give bir th to a son who will continue your dynasty and your second wife will give birth to sixty thousand children". (Valmiki Ramayana. ASAMPREKSYAKARITVA. It is wise to commence creation after '"It was Mahavisnu who gave Daksa his wife. Bhisma Parv a). drove him out of his palace. He used to throw little children into the Sarayu river and stand on the banks of th e river enjoying the sight of the children dying drowning. When he found that the Haryasvas were lost the mighty Daksa begot in the daughte r of Virarii a thousand sons called SabalMvas. married Asikni daught er of Virana Prajapati. Hearing this they started on a tour to different sides of the earth to find out its boundaries. therefore.B. People hated him. A wife of Daksa. He was a very cruel man always tormenting people. Udyoga Parva. Daksa Prajapati. The loss of the Sabalasvas infuria ted Daksa and he cursed Narada. (Santa Skandha. See under DEVASARMA IV. Phew ! You are children who have not cared to understand the ins and outs or ups and downs of this earth and then how do you think you can create people ? You are a ll endowed with the power to move about on all sides without any obstruction and you are only fools if you do not attempt so find out the limits of this earth". (Valmiki Ramayana. therefore. Balakanda).. Know ing this devarsi Narada of enchanting words approached them and said "Oh. We must also follow the course taken by our brothers. Bala-kanda. Again to commence creation Daksa got of Asikni sixty girls. A river flowing through the Punjab in India. 2) Character of Asamanjas. commenced creation w ith his own mind. energetic young men. ASANI. When he found that it was not conducive to the propagation of the species he pondered over the subject once more and decided to effect it by t he sexual union of the male and the female. Sloka 3. I understand you. The Rgveda also mentions about this.B. A holy hermit. That ball broke and sixty thousand babes came o ut from it. Bala-kanda. when Daksa was doing penance in Vindhya.* Then the virile Daksa Pra japati begot by Asikni five thousand Haryasvas with a view to propagating his sp ecies and the Haryasvas also evinced great desire to increase their number. They were also desirous of propag ation but were also persuaded by the words of Narada to follow the footsteps of their elder brothers. Just like worms fallen into the ocean the Haryasvas have never returned so far. A minister of Dasaratha. Of these ten he gave . After a few years Kegini gave birth to Asamanjas an d Sumati to a big ball of flesh. They discussed it among themselves and said "The words of the Maharsi are right. To this bad man was born Afguma n. ASIKNI II. (M.

Chapter 53. ASITA I.rata into a lakh of books and first taught the great epic to his son. Kundajara. Visnu Purana and Skandha 6. Yami. a King of the Lunar dynasty. There they will be whipped b y a whip made of thorny herbs and as they run about with pain they will be follo wed and whipped. the sage. th ey die by the orderlies of Yama. See under Devala for more informatio n. He later expounded it to many other disciples. (1) The prominent Rtviks were Bhargava. Narada. Adi Parva. The Devi Bhagavata describes Asipatravana like this : "Those who forsake t heir own natural duty and go in for that of others are thrown into this hell. Deva karma. One of the Rtviks of the Sarpasatra of Janamej aya. Some details. Vatsya. She had taken part in the birthday celebrations of Ar juna. (I) He is one of those who spread the story of Mahabharata to the public. Vasus. (Chapter 6. M. Kalaghats.). 5th Skandha).. Of Visva were born Visvedevas. Sabha Paris=r. Devala. ASITADEVALA. Two were given to Bahuputra. From Muhurta came Muhurtabhimanis and from Lamba. Vyasa wrote the Mahabha. Chapter 122. Ghosa and from Yam!. (Sloka 8. Devala. Muhurta. (Brahman da Purana. (3) Asita. thirteen to Kasyapa. (Brahmavaiv arta Purana). Narada spread the story among the devas. 9th Skandh a). Devala among the Pitr's. the sa ge Suka. . Sadhya and Visva. (Sloka 63. Kohala. 1. Son of Asvamedhas. ASIPATRAVANA. Visnu Pur ana). Chapter 47).B. Lamba. Devi Bhagavata). A celestial maiden. M. Adi Parva. two to Angiras and two to the scholar Krsasva. Atreya. Sumantu and Jaimini were disciples of Vyasa. Svetaketu.). (C hapter 15. !Si oka 10.) (2) Asita. Chapter 1. Sarngara va. Chapter 53. Tvi. M.to Dharmadeva. (Bhagavata. Parv ata. Prime Minister of Mahisasva. Mau Samasaurabh a. Main details. (Devi BhAgavata. the King of Death. guka among Gandharvas and Yaksas and Vaisampayana among men. Anusasana Parva 2. M.). Bhagavata). Sankalpa.). ASILOMA.B. ASITA. Nagavithi. Vasu. Bhanu. Adi Parva. Kautsa. Crashing against the big stones there they will fall fainting a nd the rnoment they wake up from the faint they will be stabbed again. (3) He attended the coronation of 3'udhistlfira along with Narada and Vyasa. Adi P arva. (2) He was present at the Sarpasatra of Janamejaya.B. One of the notorious twenty-eight hells. Jaimim.B. (Chapter 53. Sadhya delivered the S adhyas. ASIKRSNA. (P rathama Skandha. Vaigampayana. Devi Bhagavata). (Slokas 107 & 108. This will be repeated. (4) Once Asita muni explained to King Janaka the philosophy of rebirth. If you destroy forests wi thout purpose you will go to this hell. Marutvati. Uddalaka Pramattak4. Pingala. Bhanus were born of Blianu. Asita. Vyasa. Dh armadeva's wives were Arundhati. got by the blessing of Siva a son named Devala.B. twenty-seven to Soma and four to Aristanemi . the Marutvans and Vasu. Marutva. Anusasana Parva. (Astama Skandha.

ASITADHANVA. Chapter 47. Madzyanti the wife of the King with his permission went to Vasis thxa and gotwith child. Chapter 176) . The Uttara Ramayana states that Ravana e ntered this city when he was going home in the Puspaka Vim7na (the aerolane of a ncient times) stolen from Kubera. Vivasvan. This King had built a city called Paudhanya. To Kasyapa was born of his wife Aditi~ daughter of Daksa. Yadu and Turvasu a nd to Sarmistha were born three sons. (Sloka 72. Son of Kasyapa and Vinata. Chapter $9.B. ASMAKA III. Pracinva married a yadava girl of nam e Asmak! and got a son named Samyati. (See Iksvaku vamsa) while the Kin. ASMAKA II. took an `asman' (a small cylindrical piece of the granite used to cr ush things placed on a flat square piece of granite) and crushed her stomach wit h it and she delivered a son. Asmaka (m) is a place between the rivers Godavari and Mahismati. Druhyu. ASMAKADAYADA. M. Anudruhyu and Peru.. A mountain situated on the banks of the river. To Devayani were born two sons.). Chapter 95. Ila. in the co untry of Anarta. (M. Adi Parva. The giant immediately killed Sakti. who cursed the King and changed him to a Rak sasa (giant).). Yayati had two wives. He was a soldier of the Kaurava army. For details see under JAIGISAVYA and Devala. son of Brahma.A-. From Yadu carn e the dynasty of Yadavas and from Puru came the dynasty of Pauravas. Adi Parva. Kausalya wa s the wife of Puru and her son was Janamejaya.% asistha returned to the forest. anti Parda. ASI TAKASIAP (DEVALA) . Puru conducted three A'svamedhas and secured the title of Visvajita (conqueror of the world) and then accepted th e ascetic life and went to the forests. Descending in order fr om Vivasvan were born Manu. (Slokas 6 to 13. B. He w as killed in the battle by Abhimanyu. Drona Parva . It is believed that . M. Ayus. (t~LB. After many years Vasistha bles sed the King and changed the form of the giant and gave him back his former shap e. ASMANAGARA. Janamejaya married Ananta alias Madhavi and got a son named Pracinva. Son of the King Asmaka. Narmada. (Sloka i I. The King was delighted at having recovered his former shape. He took Vasistha to his palace. ASITADHVAJA. As Sakti did not care to give room for t he King.S King. Adi Parva. Sloka 5). Nahusa. A city of the nether world.B. Pururavas. Even after the lapse of a long period she did not give birth to the child. He fought against the Kauravas on the Pandava side. y.. Devayani and Sarmistha. The sacred pond near Gaya known as Pretasila. Madayanti who was miserab le at this. Son born to Vasistha by the wife of Kalrnasapada the King of Ayodhya. ASMAKI.B. M. Wife of Pracinva. Ka'syapa was born to Marici. ASMAPRSTA(M). Samkhyayana Sutra states that the Veda of A suravidya was written by thS. Yayati. A'sm aka was a king of this land. Chapter 37. ASITAI'ARVATA. Because he conquered all the land extending to the eastern horizon he got the name Pracinva. A king of Veclic times.ma' he was named Asmak a. The first was the daughter of Sukra and the seco nd the daughter of Vrsaparva.. Kaimasapada wounded Sakti. Vana Parva. (Karna Parva). He was present at a birthday celebration of Ay j u na. A sage. M.B. Chapter 122. (Slokas 22 and 23.). ASMAKA I.). Kalmasapada vas walking through the forest hu nting he saw Sakti the son of Vasistha. As he was born by using .

this charioteer brought the chariot to him. He had his whole body besmeare d with ashes. Vijayadatta the second son of Govindasvami c aught cold. because of cold . There was a temple on the way ." Govindasvami felt glad and sad at the same time. They were good men like their father. So he woke up in the night.the future of his children. So the hermits cursed him a nd changed bim to a man. Being tired of walking all went to sleep. Once King Janaka asked the great scholar Asman on the cha nges that occur in Man as wealth comes and goes.B. it appears that I have caught cold and I am shivering. They were Jayanta. A minister of King Dasaratha. He hankered after them. Chapter 67. Go vindasvami took Vijayadatta tc that place where a dead body was burning. I may complet e this night otherwise". In the meanwhile he was talkin g to his father. near the river Kalindi.if you perform obsequies here even the sin of killing a brahmi. (M. They stayed there and conducted worship in the temple and took shelter for the night under a tree outside the temple. Bhisma Parva. Stanza 14). Sarga 7). I would grow better if I could get s ome fire. AS0KA I.uman tra. Leaving th e hermit they proceeded to Kai!. ASMOPAKHYANAM. That g iant took the burning head from fire and drank up all the viscous liquid in it. ASOKA 111. (Valmiki Rqmayana. Other travellers also were there. Chapter 54. ASOKA II. On the way h e 'net a hermit sage who had renounced the world. This is called Asmagit4 also. When he began to shiver.n would fade away . Vijaya. Reunion will become possible by the good ness of Asokadatta. There occu rred a sudden change in Vijayadatta. This king had been rul ing over Kalinga. ASOKADATTA. Arthasadhaka. Bala-kanda. and asked about . Once the Vidyadhara (a class of semi gods) named Asokavega was going through the sky. when the hermit maids of Galavasrama (the hermitage of Galava) were bathing in the Ganges. what is that round thing seen in the middle o f the fire ?" "That is the head of a dead body burning" said his father who was standing close by. . He took a burning faggot and hit at the head. Govindasvami told his wife. Govindasvami with his wife and children started for Kai!. Stanzas 70 and 71). he called his father and said. Vijayadatta sat near the fire and warmed himself. Dasaratha had eight ministers. "I cannot bear to see the difficulties of our people . "Father. "Father. Agokadatta and Vijayadatta. (Chapter 28.B.. They neared Kasi. It was in a burial-ground. The Yogi (hermit) said. Somehow or other he got a sword also. The name of Asokavega in his human birth was Asokadatta . With his tuft of hair and garment made of the barks of trees.si and l ive there. (Adi Parva. He said." His good-natured wife agreed to it and giving everything for the rel ief work. They saw a fire close by. Asiddharthw. Asman then gave the King the sa me philosophy which Vyasa gave to Dharmaputra and Asman's oration to King Janaka came to be known as Asmagita. But this Vijayadatta will go away from you. The charioteer of Bhimasena. After the great Kuruksetra battle V yasa spoke to Dharmaputra to console him and the philosophy he then expounded is called Asmopakhyanam. So please get some twigs and make a fire. Scarcity prevailed everywhere. So let us give everything we have for famine relief and then go to K3. M. A King of the family of the famous Asura Asva. When Bhimasena was fighting a battle with Srutayu the King of Kalinga.). The head broke into pieces and some viscous stuff from the head fell into his mouth.Santi Parva. He became a fearful giant with huge tusks a nd hair standing erect on the head. Dhrsti. The story of Agokadatta in the "Kathasaritsagara" is as follows Long ago there lived a Brahmin named Govindasvami. Mantrapala andS. I don't think. Asoka. Govindasvami bowed before him. On ce there occurred a great famine in the country. He ha d two sons. he s eemed to be Siva. "the future of your two sons is good.

cried his father and came away from the burial-plac e. Applause came fron everywher e. Then he thre w away the skull. and consequent) became wealthy. and this is the third day since I was put on this scaffold.4i. son and others everyth ing that had happened. Thinki ng thus the King asked Agokadatta to give the man some water. A'sokadatta asked her. A very serious fight begar between the two. Vijaya became a giant and disappeared. Have the kindness to give me a little water. the wrestler challenged every wrest ler in the country and h ad overthrown each one o them. A renowned wrestler had com(from the south to take part in the contest. why are you crying here?" She replied. test which took place in the presence of Pratapamukuta the King of Ka. He became such an expert in wrestl. In the con. and am swallowing the grief. Now climb on my back and. a little away from the capita1 to observe fas on the fourteenth night of th e Moon and while return ing he passed by a burial-ground and heard a voic saying . My life has not yet departed from the body. "Oh Lord ! The judge had ordered me to bhanged. svami and his family and took them to his house in Kasi. So I have brought some water. The great hermit had said that their sor would come back in due course. "Madam ! who are you. and went to the she1ter of the tree and told his wife. T he world was in darkness. My tongue is dried of thirst. "See ! The King has sent this water for him. coul d overcornc him. Saying so Agokad atta took water and went to the burial-ground and the King went to the palace. Asokadatta got hi. My intention is to burn myself along with his body. where Asokadatta came and asked. Having heard from the merchant Samudradatta the K ing sent for Agokadatta and put him against thi wrestler from the south. An extremely beautiful woman also was lying under the scaffo ld crying. With here and there a spark of fire and light of fireflies and lightning mingled with the shouting of ghosts and the roaring of the d emons and occasional cries of birds and animals the burial-ground was a dreadful place. he got physical training." . Thu. The fight lasted for a very long time Finally Mokadatta threw the other to th e ground and got much presents from the king. She had plenty of golden ornaments on her body. The audience was struck with won der at the variety of the modes of grappling and twist ing and turning they exhibited. them was a merchant namec Samudradatta." "Punished without proof ! It will appear only so to him who is punished". One day the King went to a temple of S iva. am the wife of the man on t he scaffold. ing and other m-odes of fighting that nobody on eartl. merely out of personal grudge and without any proof.With his tongue which looked like blazing fire he licked the bones. "You ! giant. He will be asking for water now and then. Noble men are kind to those w ho are in distress.you yourself give h im this water. They grappled each other with firn and reso lute grips. Because of my sin he is not dying. Don't kill your father. He showed hosp itality and gave them a separate place to live in. "Who will go to a burial-ground in the night ? I myself shall take water to him". Gradually h became a favourite of the King. come here !' a voice shouted to him from t he burial-ground. He consoled Govinda. educat ion there. Hoping that such time would come soon Govindasvami and his fe:mil5 dragged on their time. This is the third day s ince he is lying like this. But his face being high I cannot reach it and I am seeing hi m burning with thirst. All thos e who came tc worship in the temple gathered round them and tries to console the m. and getting ready to jump into the burning fire since she could not b ear the separation of her husband on the new moon day. a native of Kasi. for a charge of murder." Agokadatta sa)d. "Oh dear ! my chil d ! my son ! Vijayadatta !". At the request of that wealthy merchant they stayed there on. "I. they all fell on the ground. Then he approached his father with open mouth to swallow him. Among. "Who asked the King for water ?" He hea rd a voice saying "Myself" and he went to the place of the voice and saw a man l ying on a scaffold. I am waiting fo r his life to depart. an unfortunate woman. Stricken with grie. During a festival there was contest in wrestling. When he grew up to a youth.

We must have another bangle made in . After his mo rning ablution he went to the palace. She asked "How much will it cost ?" Asokadatta said. and she spends time in loneliness and thinking. Fearing danger the King tried to dissuade him. After a while he felt drops of blood fal ling on his back and looking up he saw her cutting flesh from the body of the ma n on the scaffold and eating it. I woke up im mediately. Tonight is th . The King thought that Agokadatta was an extraordinary man and calling his queen showed her the ornament and told her everything. Then it seemed to me that a divine woman a ppeared and said to me. She was filled with joy and wonder. All laughing and playi ng is gone from her. If you:will give me another bang le like this you shall have the whole body". To get the bangle he had to meet the same woman who had left the b angle." When the King heard these things from his queen. tru th and of good birth. without wasting more time he ga ve his daughter Madanalekha in marriage to Asokadatta. He began to think of a means to find her out. Believing in the dream I consoled our daughter. detestation in the middle stage and fear in the final stage. and he walked in that direction. Hearing the'words of Agokadatta the beautiful woman laughed and said. Don't give your daughter Madanalekha to an ybody else. I am glad that now yo u also think so. He is handsome too. "My lord ! this Bangle being singl e doesn't shine well. "This youth is the mos t suitable person to be her husband. "There is a bangle with me. "My daughter. She had been the wife of Agokadatta in previous birth". learning. I knew this from her maids. He saw a beautiful w oman who appeared to be the mistress. She praised Agokadatta a good deal." The King immediately had some goldsmiths brought before him.The woman instantly took the water and got on the back of Agokadatta who had sto oped down for her to climb on his back. It i s not possible for us to make one of this kind. So the only possible way is to search for its mate i n the place where this was found. Seeing this Agokadatta said that he would bring the mate of th e bangle. I have its mate with me a lso.the same shape and de sign. Precious stones like these are n ot available in this earth. He procured a corpse took i t on his shoulder and walked about calling out "Do you want flesh ?" He heard a voice say "Bring it here". They suited each other so much that not only their relatives. "Where d id you get this from ?" the King asked and in reply he said everything that had happened in the night. I am the same woman you saw when you came to give water to the man on the s caffold. The King said. Some days ago Madanalekha had seen him in M adhu garden and from that day a change is visible in her. The queen also said that the thought was pleasing to her. They turned it on all sid es and looked at it and said. He called out "Take the flesh". " Dear queen ! This Agokadatta is a young man of greatness. and when she had disappeared from his sight he looked at the bangle she h ad left behind with astonishment. Let the jasmine creeper entwine round the Mango tree. He showed them the bangle and asked them to make one of the same pattern. Now the situation is changed. As they were all gettin g on well one day the queen said to the King. "That is my bangle. If he would become the husband of our daughter what a good thing it will be? I have a desire to give him our daughter Madanalekha". But Agokadatta was not prepared to change his decision. Brahma is well experienced in joining suitable things together. when she shook her legs free and ran away and disappeared. and placed the bangle before the King. sitting in the midst of so many servant ma ids on a tree. but the others also were delighted. bravery. When he reached home it was dawn. Because of my thought about her I did not sleep last night and only just closed my eyes in the dawn.first compassion. "Please your highness ! This is not man-made. He took the bangle and went to the burial-groun d that night. Because she dragged away her legs with force one bang le came off from her leg and was left with Asokadatta. "Did you give him water yesternight?" aske d the King and he replied "Yes". On hearing these words the King and the queen were crestfallen. Her behaviour aroused in him at . So you do not recognize me. He got wild with anger and catching hold of her legs he was about to strike her on the ground.

After a few days the fourteenth lunar night came. I must go to Kasi. He presented the golden l otus flower also. "There is a city in the Himalay as known as Trighanda. He was overpowered by . They were overcome by joy at the return of their son. Asokadattz request ed her to show him that lake. I gave you that bangle to bring you again to me and it has served the purpose today. She was beautiful in every part of her body. It was a pleasing sigh t. let the flesh be there. She said that there was no more lotus with her a nd that they grew in the lake of the giant King Kapalasphota. I was roaming about thinking of a way to find out a man of might an d bravery as husband for my daughter. With the knowledge I have in Sorcery and witchcraft I p ut you into a little confusion. He saw his mother-in-law the giantess and went with her to the city of the giant and lived there happily for a while with his wife Vidyutprabha. As soon as he heard it Asokadatta said "If the King orde rs it shall be brought". took him to their city through the sky. This is not such an urgent need". we could make another casket and place it on the left side of this".e fourteenth lunar night too. There lived a giant in that city. There he saw the d aughter of the giantess and thought her to be the incarnation of his adventurous spirit. When he was about to return he requested Vidyucchikha to give him one more golden lotus." Vidyucchikha gave her son-in-law her bangle a nd a golden lotus flower which he accepted with great joy. am his wife. who embra ced him with joy. Next day the King got a casket made of -silver and placed the golden lotus at the mouth of the casket and placed it on the step of his own temple for everyone to see. The moment I saw you I knew you to be the man I was searching for and I decid ed to give you my daughter in marriage. You brought water to the scaffold and n obody needed water then. They were stricken with grief at the depart ure and exile of their remaining son. so saying Agokadatt a came away and went to his parents. And I shall satisfy your immedi ate need also. Agokadatta imme diately got down into the lake and began to pluck thf flowers . The fame o f Agokadatta grew higher and higher. Kapalasphota with his weapon. He married her and lived with them for a while. Then she began. What you heard as the words of the man o n the scaffold was a trick played by me. The lake was full of golder lotus flowers. As before he came wit h the giantess to the burial-ground through the sky. But he wa.Not waiting long he went to the King. At first Vidyuc chikha dissuaded him from this att empt. If you want to see me come on that day. It is my earnest wis h that you should be the husband of my daughter. and I live in my house now." Aiokadatta p romised to do what she required. One day the King looked at it with pleasure and said "If we c ould get one more lotus like this. came s houting and roaring and saw his elder brothel Asokadatta. The white casket and the red lotus were very charming to look at and they glistened as the fame of the King and of Asokadatta. I have promised the Kin g to get the mate of this bangle. Then I saw you going this way with the Kin g. It was good that you thought of coming to night. But the King said "Ho' you need not go anymore on erran da like this. She. The guards came and opposed him. Leaving his wife the princess sleeping in the bed he left the palace and reached the burial-ground. his father-in-law. If you wil l consent to do what I say I shall give you the other bangle also. Then he said to his mother-in -law "Mother! now give me the bangle. So she took him to a place away from the lake and sho wed it to him. stubborn. The King and the queen were amazed at the daring spirit of A's okadatta who told them in detail everything that had happened to him. My daughter is now a young woman. Then my husband was killed in a fight with his overlord Kapalasphota. She was called Vidyutprabh a. The others went to t heir master and in. Then she said "I shall be h ere on every fourteenth lunar night on the root of this tree in the burial-groun d. who bein g kind did not do us any harm. . with her power. Only one daughter was born to me . formed about the theft. Agokadatta saw the golden city and wond ered if it was the sun taking rest after its tedious journey. Agokadatta gave him the two bangles." "I shall do so". The King and the queen thought it a blessin g that they got so adventurous a Ron-in-law." The brave Agokadatta agreed to the request of the giantess. He killec a few of them. Now see. O therwise you would not have seen me. I bearing the name Vidyucchikha. His name was Lambajihva . Let us go to my house.

When Vijaya datta had finished sayin g Asokadatta continued the story. Caturdarika . The hermits who saw this with their divine eyes cursed that we would take birth as men and in that birth we would be separated in a wonderful way and both of us would unite agai n in a place where man could not reach and we would be liberated from the curs e and learn everything from the teacher." Having taught them everything they required he disappeared. From that day onwards all the giants came under my control. They could not believe their eyes. He who was overconfident in his power went to war with the Gandharvas and was ki lled in the fight. According to th e orders of the emperor those Vidyadhara youths went to the mountain of Govinda kuta with their people as it was their abode. The King was also filled with joy. All this happened du e to a curse. "You are Vidyadharas. Today I went to the lake of the King of the giants. When they reached there Asokadatta and Vi jaya datta changed their names into Asokavega and Vijaya vega. and lived with happiness and jo y. Long ago when we were Vidyadharas both of us were going through the sky and we saw the hermit maids of the hermitage of Ga lava. "We are very curi ous to hear . Everybody apprecia ted them. parents and brother went to the empero r of the Vidyadharas through the sky. Vijayadatta began to say "Father. I had broken that skull and some viscous liquid fell into my mouth and I changed to a giaut. Agokadatta and Vijayadatta each saying his name bowed before them. (Kathasaritsagara. you have seen how be cause of my mischief. Afterwards by the learning he received from his teacher he changed his pa rents and the daughter of the King into Vidyadharas and then bidding adieu to t he King Asokadatta. You might have heard this fro m father. With that beautiful girl the two brothers continued their. Everybody heard this and was amazed at it. They did not know what to do o r what to say. On that day something obscured my mind. After a few d ays they took me to the presence of the King of the giants. with love and devotion towards his eld er brother he bowed before him. "My brother! I am Vijayadatta your younger broth er. with his two wives. in the presence of the King asked Vijayadatta to tell hi s story from the moment he turned a giant in the burial-place. We wished to get those girls. After that the other giants gave me the name Kapalasphota. By the will of God I lived as a giant so long. My giantness is gone." Thus lie informed them everything that had occur red. Govindasvami. With this all the previous conditions of my life had vanished. We lived together. That reunion appeared to be a dream or something nearing madness to th eir parents. and cried for joy. Because we have met now by good luck I remembered that I was a Brahmin . T hen I met with my brother who came to pluck the golden lotus flowers from my lak e.joy and wonder Throwing away his weapons. My brother will say the rest of the story. who was happy and joyful at the achievement of more than he had hoped for. At that time Prajnapti Kausika the teacher of the Vidyadharas came to their: and said. They invited me into their midst. As soon as he saw me he was pleased with me and appointed me as the commander-in-chief of the army. Aaokadatta went to Vidyutprabha who also having been liberated from curse became a Vidyadhara girl. journey and reached Kasi where they bowed before their parents. Agokadatta gave all the lotus flowers to the King. bathing in the Ganges.it" he said. So learn th e duties and functions of youi class and with your people take your proper place in the society. King Pratapamukuta with wonder took one of the golden lotus flowers and pla ced it in the temple and with the rest he made oblations to god and considered his family to have made wonderful achievements. and would become the old Vidyadharas with our people. Th us the Vidyadhara brothers. having plucked golden lotus reached the peak of the Himalayas through the sky. He came there and took them to the palace. Their parents lifted them up and embraced the m and kissed them on the head. Their minds were incapable of thinking. That is why I be came a giant". Now you and your people are liberated frorn the curse. this Vijayadatta. There we learned ever ything from our teacher Prajnapti Kausika and became Vidyadharas and have arri ved here as fast as we could. And according to this curse we took birth as men and separatio n was effected. You all have heard it. Both shed tears of joy. When he heard the words of his younger brother Agokadatta embrace c him. with the help of my mother-in-law the giantess for plucking the golden lotus flowers and recovered my brother.

black lead. copper. Daya. The eight things are :. Sarga 56 and in Mahabharata also :. A mixture of eight powders. clad in the garments of a hermit woman. (Valmiki Ramayana. It was in this park that Ravana kep t Sita having stolen her from Sri Rama. Cukku (dry ginger ). Eight qualities of the intellect. . Dana. iro n and mercury. West. ASTADIK (S) . There are eight male and eight female elephants standing guard over the eight zones. tin. ASTABUDDHIGUNA (S) . Going to the left of it they saw the elephant Mahapa dmasama holding the earth on its head on the south. Going again to the left of i t they saw Saumanasa holding the earth on its head on the west and going to the left of it on the north they saw Bhadra holding the earth on its head. North and North-east. (1)Rukmini (2) Jambavati (3) Satyab hama (4) Kalindi value. she of the wid e eyes lived in the Asoka park which seemed as a hermit age. and Tattvajnana. ASTABHARYA(S). Mulaku (chilli) Tippali (long pepper) Ayamodaka (celery seed) Jiraka (baraway seed) Karimjiraka (black caraway seed) Intuppu (sodium chloride) and Kayam (asa foetida). Vedabhyasa. Eight ways of attaining moksa : Yaga. in sorrow and sadness. ASTABANDHA. there are four diggajas (elephants of the universe) w ho bear the earth standing below in the nether world. East. It is said an earthquake occurs when for a change it shakes its head. gu'srusa. Sarga 14 and Aranya-kanda. (1) conch-powder (2) powdered myro balam (3) resin (4) Kolipparal (a kind of rock) (5) river sand (6) powder of e mblic myrobalam (7) lac and (8) cotton. Vana Parva. South-west. As they went to the east they saw the huge elephant Viru paksa." (Bhasa Bharata. Arthavijnana. A~OKASUNDARI. See under Purana. It is stated that the sons of Sagara who went into the nether land in search of the last horse of his fath er saw these elephants. Tapa s. Stanzas 42 and 43) . Graham . They are zone East South-east South Southwest West North-west North North-east Male Airavata Pundarika Vamana Kumuda Anjana Puspadanta Sarvabhauma Supratika Female Abhramu Kapila Pingala Anupama Tamrakarni Subhradanti Angina Anjanavati (Amarakosa) Besides these. Sravana. A famous park in Lanka.-in prayer and fast. A holy pla ce near . ASTADHATU (S). silver.lamba. Satya. S undara-kanda. lack of desire. A9OKAVANIKA. A kind of plaster u sed for fixing idols in temples. See the word Nahusa. The eight wives of Sri Krsna. South.the temple of gurparaka. North-we st. Taranga 2) . Dharana. It is described in Valmiki Ramayana. The following eight things are mixed and grou nd consecutively for forty-one days and made ready to be put in the cavity arou nd the idol when it is fixed there finally. (5) Mitravinda (6) Satya (7) Bhadra and (8) Lak~ sang. South-east. Ksama. Stanza 13). Aranya Parva Chapter 280. zinc. (Mahabharata. Apoha. ASTADMAPURANA (S) . The eighteen puranas. ASTADHARMAMARGA(S). ASTADIGGAJAS and ASTADIKKARINIS. A9OKATIRTHA." Thinking of her husband alone. (Eight zones). Bala-kanda. Sarga 40). LTha. eating o nly roots and fruits. ASTACURNA. holding the earth on its head. Eight minerals : gold. Chapter 88.

Santosa. This story was told to the Pandavas by the sage Ma rkandeya. After the yaga Astaka took his three brothers for an ai . M. Situated in the eight different zones of the Brahmaloka are e ight bid cities of the eight guardians of these zones each covering an area of 2 500 yojanas. city of Agni. Bhasanabhangi. Anasuya. "Astaka. Anayasa. Chapter 45.Budha-Pururavas-Ayus-Nahusa-Yayati-Puru-Janamejay a-Pracinva .Bahuvidha . (1) Bhutadaya. city of Kubera. Eight substances of great medic inal (1) Arayal. Salya Parv a. Around his city are the others as follows (1) On the east is Amaravati. ASTAKA I. Kotta(Kustta-bostus root).ASTADIKPALAKA (S). (3) Absence of jealousy. See under Galava. (3) On the South is Samyamani. The eight qualities of a good messenger. One of the soldiers of Skanda Deva. (5) He must be mild. Iruveli (Valaka). Akil. (Slolka 18.B. ASTAKA. Learning. Devi Bhagavata).Santurodha-Dusyanta-Bharata-Suhotra-Brhatputra-Aj amidha-Asta ka. (4) On. ASTAJIHVA. city of Varuna.B. (8) On the North-east is Yasovati. Genealogy.(Eaglewood). city of Indra. (Astama Skandha. (1) He should not stan d perplexed when he is being given the message to carry. Chapter 119. performed an Asvamedha Yaga. (3) He must have compassion for those in distress. Guggulu (Indian Bdellium). Akarpanya and Asprha. Sucitva. ASTADRAVYA(S).Sundu . Parakrama. Gaurava.Pravira Namasyu-Vitabhaya . (4) He must r un his errand quickly. Ramacca (Us iram-Sweet rush). the South-west is Krsnanjana. The Devil Bhagavata states like this about the eight zones an d their guardians. (2) He must be smart an d enthusiastic. Candana (Sandal).Matinara . wife of Yayati. city of Siva. (6) On the North-west is Gandhavatf. (Ayurveda) ASTAGUNA (S) . (2) Buddhibala. (Sloka 62. Kulasuddhi. Descended in order from Visnu a s follows Brahma-Atri-Candra . Dana and Krtajnata. Ksama.). Mitabhasana. ASTAGANDHA. 1) How Astaka went to heaven. ASTAKA II. A King of the Puru dyansty. Vasumanas and Ausinara Sibi. (8) He must be able to talk convi ncingly. city of Nirrti. city of Vayu. (6) He should not be duped by the cu nning words of others. See under Astika. son of Visvamitra. M. Manga la. gama. (7) On the North is Mahodaya. (5) On the West is Sraddhavati. Pratardana. A Rajarsi born to Visvamitra of Madhavi. Satya. IZiutva. ASTADOTAGUNA(S). All these are on the top of Mahameru and Brahma sits in the centre in his city called Manovati. (Asvattha-Fig tree) (2) Atti (UdumbaraKeg tree) (3) Plasu (Palasa-Do wny branch butea) (4) Peral (Vata-Banyan tree) (5) Camata (6) Ellu (Sesame) (7) Vayasa(Krsnaguru cedar tree (8) Ghee.). (7) He must be healthy. Sthairya.Samyati Rahovadi-Rau drasva. Manci (Jatamamsi-Spikenard) Kunkuma (saffron). lama. (2) On South-east is Tejovati. Udyoga Parva. and all the brothers of Astak a attended the function. All the kings took part in this. city of Yama. (This Astaka was the brother of Sunassepha).

kB. stables. Respecting the request the King was a bout to eat the flesh of his own son when the brahmin who was none other than Br ahma in disguise praised him for his devotion and gave him back his son adorned with sweet smelling flowers and disappeared blessing them. 2) Other details. The brahmin was amazed at the patience of the King and sitting before his food for some time told the King that he would be sa tisfied if the King himself ate that food. `Sibi'. Chapter 86. Once a brahmin went to Sibi f or food. Once when Narada stayed at the asrama of Astaka t he former found many varieties of cows there and asked Astaka whose they were. treasury. This is a gesture in the Kathakali dance. Then Astaka asked if only one were allowed to go to h eaven who should go. See under Y ayati. As he was also found to be persistent h e gave the one drawing his chariot also and dragged the chariot himself but abus ing the brahmins all the way. But on going out the King saw the brahmin setting fire to his palace. Udyoga Parva. harem and el ephant-sheds: Without even a quiver on his face. Once when Pr atardana was taking Narada in the former's chariot four brahmins one behind the other approached him and begged for a horse each. Sibi asked him what food he relished most and the brahmin said that he would like to have the fresh flesh of gibi's only son. M. It was that abuse that gave him the slur. armoury. Narada went to the house of Vasumanas three times and each time the latter spoke highly of his chariot. `Pratardana'. Increasing step by step the gesture takes eight forms in combination before it is finished accompanied by background drumming and musi c. Samkalpa in the mind (imagination). Chapter 221. Buddhi (intelligence). (Kathakali).). "I do not give for a name or fame. said N5rada immediately. Astaka asked Narada who should step down from th e aeroplane if only four were allowed to go to heaven. When Pratardana asked for some time the brahmins were not prepared to wait and so he gave all but one of his f our horses and asked the fourth to wait. (2) Astaka gave away all the punya . Aranya Parva. pride from egotism an d Avadharana in Citta. Neither d o I give for wealth and happiness. said Narada and explained the reason. (Sloka 24. Lobha (greed). Ahamkara(eg otism). Chapter 122. `Vasumana s'. Even Narada would be only next to Sibi and Narada explained the reason thus. the king respectfully took the Brahmin inside and gave him food. Krodha (anger). Moha (delusion). M.B. (Sloka 5. Astaka then asked who should get down if only three were allowed t o go to heaven. said Narada and explained the reason. In the play 'Kalyanasauga ndhika' the character of Hanlimana and in the play `Kalakeyavadha' the character of Arjuna do enact this. Citta (thought).).(goodness) he earned to Yayati. I do it because it is the only way to be rid of sins". (Chapter 168. M. Mada . ASTAKAPALAM. Brhadgarbha.r travel and on the way met the great sage Narada. Adi Parva. Then Ast aka asked Narada who should get down if only two were permitted to enter heaven. When his ministers qu estioned him about this kigbi said. determination. ASTAKARANA(S). (1) Astaka was a Rajarsi. ASTAKALASYA. (Slokas 13 & 14. "Astaka". Narada also jo ined in praising his flower-chariot and the brahmins present there also followed suit. San ti Parva.B. ASTAKASTA(S). Without even the slightest hesitation Sibi killed his son and cooked his flesh and when the food was ready he went out to invite the brahmin. replied Narada and explained the reason also. Kama (lust).).B. Purodasa prepared out of eight Kapalas. Pleased at this Vasumanas became proud of his possession and his vainglor ious talks made him unfit. Manas (mind). Narada was also taken in and as they continued their flight. ) . T hen in self praise Astaka had said that all those were cows which he had given a way as gifts.

Maha padma and Ananta. came into life on an Astami day to block up the yaga of Daksa. The third skandha of Devi Bhagavata states that the goddess. ASTAMANGALYA. ASTAMBA(S). ASTAMARGAS. ghee. Padma. Graha-External elements which damage the health of infants. Fire. See the sixth Khandika under Devil. Suryabheda. ASTAMANTRI (S) . Hota. gold. Sa myagvyayama. Water. Matsarya (rivalry). The medical science which deals in eight separate division the tr eatment of the human body. 1. (Moksapradipa m). ASTAMICRTI (S) . Ail these have to be practised by students of Yoga. Samyagvak.-OPAVYASANA (S) . (Directions of treatment). ASTAMI. water and King. Salya-extraneous sub stance lodged in the body. 3. 5. ASTAMANGALA. 6. Lauham Iron. Rajatam Silver. The Buddha Sannyasins have to live a ccording to these eight directives of life. Murcch a and Plavini. Air. (1) Paisunya (2) Sahasa (3) Droha (5) Irsya (5) Asuya ( 6) Artbadusana (7) Vagdanja and (8) Parusya. That is why the day is considered to be holy and important. Ether. Sun and Moon. 2. Bhramari. *Sitali. Vrsa-The seminal fluid. Vasuki. Samyaksankalpa. Bhastika. Dambha (pride) and Asuya (jealousy). Suvarnam Go1d. Gulika. Karkotaka. ASTAKUMBHA(S). (1) Sarira (2) Bala (3) Graha (4) Urddhvanga (5) Saly a (6) Damstra (7) Jara and (8) Vrsa. Kantikam Mercury. Bala-Body which has not attained maturity. Sun. Samkha.. 4. . The eight ministers of the kings of Iksvaku dynasty are : (1) J ayanta (2) Drsti (3) Vijaya (4) Siddhartha (5) Arthasadhaka (6) Asoka (7) Mantra pala (8) Sumantra. Samyagajiva. Fire. Bhadrakali. Eight metals. 8. ASTAI. ASTALOHA(S).(arrogance). Earth. (1) Paratva (2) Aparatva (3) Sarixkhya (4) Parimana (5) Prthakt a (6) Sarix-yoga (7) Vibhaga (8) Vega. Samyakkarma. (1) Kurava (2) Darpana (3) Dipa (4) Kalasa (5) Vastra (6) Aksatam (7) Angana (8) Svarna ASTAMANOGUNA(S). Tiksnalauham Steel. Taksa. Samyagdrsti. Samyaksmrti and Samyaksamadhi. Eight snakes. Brahmins. Silkkari. bow. ASTANAGA(S). ASTANGAHRDAYA. Vamsam Vangam--tiu 7. Tamram Copper. Ujjayi. Sisakam Lead.

Pratyaksa. Krsnasana. 8) . Concentration. Virasana. (Yoga bhyasa) . Sit erect with your breast slightly pushed forward and your head slightly drawn back. Kama-Desire for worldly possessions. Mada-Pride. Ugra. Sarasvati. Actions leading. Withdrawing the mind from worldly objects and sensuous pleasures. Siddhasana. (2) TAPAS-indifference (Samatv abhava) to the pairs of opposites like pleasure and pain. (5) ISVARA-PRANIDHANA-surrendering all actions to God. Dharana and Samadhi. ASTATARANI. Kali . Control of Prana (Prana is the life giving breath and ayama is the checking of it) . Krodha. Dvesa-Desire to see k vengeance on those who have offended you. Closing the right nostril by the thumb of the right hand and inhaling air inside through the left nostril taking 16 seconds is called Puraka. Vajra. ASTARAGADIS. Sabda (Agama). 2) Niyama. The Rudrayamala states thus about Pra na-yama. Eight means of getting correct knowledge. Keeping your mind fixed on the tip of your nose. 5) Pratyahara. Postures of sitting firmly and comfortably.000 nerves of the human system and all the yogis prefer this to any other. Asteya. Moha.ASTANGAYOGA (S). Kamesvari and Camunda. MohaDelusion. 4) Pranavama. Of the many asanas the ver y prominent ones are : Svastikasana. Upam ana. Asana. This is a blissful superconscious stat e in which one perceives the identity of the individualised soul and cosmic spir it. (3) Svadhyaya -pursuit of the science of salvation chanting of OM. Vyaghracarmasana. 3) asana. 6) Dhyana. Kumbhaka and Recaka. Krodha-Anger. Brahmacarya and Aparigraha are yamas. Raga. Mayixrasana a nd Kurmasana. Meditation. Dvesa. ASTAPRAMANAS. Anumana. Select an airy place and be seated in an ordinary asana facin g north or east after taking your early morning bath. 1) Yama. Eight names of Taranidevi. The union of mind with God. (You must do at least ten Pranayama s at a time). Yama. Valkalasana. . Closing the left nostril well and then exhaling through the right nost ril taking 32 seconds is called Recaka. That which prevents the yogis from doing prohibited thing. heat and cold etc. PCirakus should be done through the same nostril through which you have done Recaka. Pranayama. Ahimsa. "Kimanyaih bahubhih pithaih pithe Siddhasane sati" (of what use are the others when there is Siddhasana). (4) SANTOSA-rema ining happy and contented. ASTAVAKRA. Vislarasana. Lobha-Miserliness.Samcidhi. Closing the nostri ls by the thumb and ring-finger and keeping the breath for 64 seconds is called Kumbhaka. 7) DhBrana. Dhyana. Arthapatti. Padmasana. Then complete one Pr anayama doing Puraka. They are Tara. Saty a. Pratyahara. Lobha.Steadily thinking of things you should know. Of these Siddhasana is considered to be the best of the lot. Mada and Matsarya (Raga-Desire for sensuous pleasures. They are (1) SAUCA-Cleanliness of the mind -cleaning it of such bad qualities like jealousy. Kusasana. Kama. This asana strengthens the 72. Matsarya Jealousy. Vastrasana . to Moksa. Aitihya. Anupalabdhi (Abhava) Sambhava. Mahogra. Niyama.

Astavakra wanted to marry Suprabha. the daughter of a sage named Va danya. The sage Uddalaka had a disciple named Khagodara (Kahodara) and a daug hter named Sujata. When at last he went to the royal assembly he was asked to enter into a p olemical contest with Vand7na. remained with him. Astavakra contended that neithe r size nor age was any indication of one's knowledge or worth and got himself ad mitted into the hall. "I have learnt the mantra you are chanting but the way you chant it is wrong". Once there lived a sage named Asita. There is another story also a bout Astavakra.dot back. 5) Another version of how the body became crooked. At the command of Astavakra the el dest of the lot. meaning one with eight bends. Pleased at this repl y Uttara revealed that she was the queen of the north in disguise and was testin g him. Both the boys grew in the asrama on great intimacy and Sujata withheld the news of the death of her husband from the boys.)." Accepting this challenge Astavakra went north.B. all the rest left the place immediat ely she started making love with him and requested him to marry her. after worshipping Siva and Parvati went further north.had no father. The moment Van dina fell into the river Khagodara rose up from there and the father and son alo ng with Svetaketu returned to the asrama. Sujata became pregnant. M.B. Janaka was performing a yaga then and so Khagodara had to wait. H e was not allowed inside. with curves all over". Vana Parva. He remained there for a year enjoying the dances of celesti al maidens and then. One day the two boys went to bathe in the river and during a controversial talk Svetaketu said that Astavakra . Siva blessed him and he got son named Devala . Vandina. There you will find a very beautiful damsel.) . He went. Whe n once Khagodara was reciting from the Vedas the babe in the womb of Sujata said . (Chapter 132. K hagodara was angry and he cursed his babe in the womb thus "Since your mind seem s to be crooked let your body also be of that type. When Vadanya was approached for this the Sage decided to test the love wh ich Astavakra had towards his daughter and said: "I am going to test you. (The vibrations of sound created by the utterance of each word is important). There he entered into a polemical contest with the same co urt scholar.) 4) Marriage. Vana Parva.1) Birth. the court scholar and having been defeated by him was asked to drown himself. 3) How Khagodara was . U ddalaka gave his daughter Sujata in marriage to him. Vana Parva. (Chapter 132. The gate keeper said that he was only a boy and only l earned men could go inside the sacrificial hall. Pay homage to S`iva and Parvati and go further no rth. Khagodara then took his son for a bath and when it was over Astavakra became a bright boy without crooks. You go to the north to the Mmalayas. Uddalaka got a son named Svetaketu and Sujata delivered Astavakra. retur ned and married the girl he wanted.B. She then blessed Astavakra who fulfilling his mission successfully.B. Appreciating the devotion and good conduct of his disciple. You talk to her and return and when you come back I shall give you my daughter. Uttara. to beg for some money. Vandina was defeated and was th rown into the same river in which his father had drowned himself. straight to the royal assembly of King Janaka.). When Sujata delivered the child it had eight bends and light curves and so the boy wa s named Astavakra. M. (Chapter 133 . who had killed his father. M. When he went to the Himalayas kub era entertained him. then. Ther e he came across seven very attractive women. But Astavak ra did not yield and told her about his promise to Vadanya. Khagodara went to the King Janaka. He did great penance to ple ase Siva to bless him with a child. Anusasana Parva. 2) Father died before he was born. (Chapter 19. M. Th is teased him much and Astavakra went to his mother and gathered all the facts a bout his father. When Sujata was pregnant they suffered much f rom poverty and at the insistence of Sujata.

In Hari-vamsa they are : Akha. (Brahmavaivartta Purana) .. Gangadevi accepted their request. the queen of devaloka. Dhara. M. Anila. Rambha. Anila. Dosa. One day when this ascetic King was worshipping Su rya on the banks of the river Ganga a beautiful damsel arose from the waters and . Dhruva. It was this Vasu. 1) Origin. At that time a chariot descended from heaven and all of th em wens to heaven in it. Kakoli. Adi Parva. all his crooks and be came a beautiful man. Anala. The Astavasus were pondering over the curse and were thin king of how to bear it without hardship when Gangadevi appeared beforethem and t hey then appealed to her: "Devi. (1) Astavakra was also present among the rsis who partook in the coronation ceremony conducted after Rama's return to Ayodhya from Lanka.B. Vasistha's beautiful cow and wanted it. They are : Dhara. This only indicates that some of these ha ve two or more names for them. Soma. If one observes complete fasting for twelve days doing tarpana in this sacred pond it i: said that he gets the benefit of doing of Naramedha-ya jna. At once Astavakra los. When the sage found his cow missi ng after some time he understood by his divine powers who stole the cow and so h e cursed the Astavasus saying that all of them would be born on earth as men. Meda. M. Pratyusa and Prabhasa. The sage relaxed the curse and declared that :their life on earth w ould be only for a very short time maintaining that the particular Vasu who comm itted the theft would live for a long time as man. Rddhi. The Vasu to please his wife took the cow by force and left the place. But Krsna asking her to remair quiet went and embraced him. ASTAVASU(S). Ganadevatas are called Astavasus. Soma. Soma . Once there was a King called Pratipa in the Candra dynasty.). (Chapter 15. (2) Astavakra cursed those celestial maidens who rebuked him for his ugliness an d they were born on earth as the wives of Sri Krsna. (Chapter 15 of Arilsam 1) . Thu s Devala came to be called Astavakra He then did penance for six thousand years and Bhagavan Krsna accompanied by Radha appeared before him Radha was shocked by the ugliness of the sage and dic not relish his sight. Agni Purana). daughter of Daksa. Dharma. One of the wives got enamour ed over Nandini. fel in love with him but Devala did not yield t o her wishes Then Rambha cursed him and made him into one witl eight crooks. (Sloka 41. ASTAVAKRATIRTHA. Dhruva. Pratyusa and Prabhasa. When after the death of Krs na they were being taken by Arjuna to the north they were forcibly taken by some of the shepherds. Ag ni. In Bhagavata they are Drona.. ASTAVARGA(S). Prana. Vasu and Vibhavasu. Jivaka. Once the Astavasus were enjoying a picnic with their wives and they happened to go to the asrama of Vasigtha. Anusasana Parva. Anala. Th e Astavasus were greatly worried and approached the sage apologising and craving for pardon. Apa (Dyau) who was born as Bhisma. ASTAVAKTRA. (Uttararamayana). They were born to Dharmadeva of his wife Vasu. Dhruva. 3) Rebirth of Aslasus. Ahar. if you become the queen on earth of some noble King we shall be born as your sons and you must throw us into the river as soon as we are born". Chapter 66. VI'dd hi (These are used in infusions for treating rheumatism). Mahameda. Ksirakakoli. Pratyusa and Prabhasa. Different Puranas give different names to these Astavasus. Dhruva. 6) Other information. Chapter 25. Itavaka. According to Visnu Pu rana they are : Apa.). (8alokas 17 and 18.B. Anila Anala . See under Astavakra. There is a version in certain puranas that the Astavasus are the sons of Kasyapa. Arka. 2) Curse of Vasistha.

). Sisira. Aparajita. That son was Bhigma. That architect had four sons : A jaikapat. Agni's son Kurhara was born at gaarastamba. Adorning herself well and waiting for her lover in a well decorated bedroom. Kumara is known as Karttikeya beca use he was born of Krttikas. Hutahav yavaha. Mrgavyadha. Please understand that the right thigh is intended for a daughter and daughter-inlaw. You can claim this right when you become the wife of my son. VAvarupa. When Gangadevi became the wife of Santa nu she made a condition to be his queen. (2) Vdsakasajiikd (Vdsakasajjd). Cheated by her lover after fixing a date and a rendezvous. Surprised the King told her thus. the destroyer of all. If at any time you break any of these promises I will leave you that instant. Devala is the son of Pratyusa. sister of Brhaspati a nd a woman of great yogic powers and world-wide travels became the wife of Prabh asa. (4) Vipralabdhd. Raivata. who was none other than Dyau born on earth by the curse of Vasistha. 4) A missiie to Bhisma. Tvasta and Rudra. Devala got two sons of great intelligence and forbearance. Kala. the first of the Vasus. Srama. The aeroplanes of the devas were designed lt y him. Chapt er 183. All the others. Tryambaka. (For m ore details about this see under Ganga). You must obey what I order. Parasurama.B. These are known as the twelve Rudras. (Chapter 15. (More details under Bhisma 1. 5) Sons of Astavasus. Dharma got of his wife Manohari five sons Dravina. (3) Virahotkanthitd. Kapardi. Eight kinds of heroines of the stage (1) Svddhinapatikd. ASTAVIDHANAYIKA(S). Exhausted by the sorrow of separation from her lover. Vigakha and Naigameya. t he Astavasus gave him the missile. The sons of Apa. is the son of Dhruva. Siva was Anila's wife and she got two sons. went to heaven. S`arva and Kapali were the sons of Tvasta . Ma nojava and Avijnatagati. Bahurupa. M. (See Amba) (Aalokas 11 to 13." It was while Gangadevi was living on earth as the wife of SSantanu that the Asta vasus were born to her. Varca s is the son of Soma. Ahirbudhnya. Fit to be a counterpart in a love scene and play the role of one who is always fondled by her husband.sat on the right thigh of the King. Uara. When Bhisma had to fight against his guru. Amsa 1. Vrsakapi. (5) Khanditd. Prana and Varuna. You must never give me any opinion of yours on any mat ter. She gave birth to the famous Visvakarma Prajapati. Puranas say that there are a hundred Rud ras like this. Men on earth depend on his art even now. Udyoga Parva. "Oh beaut iful maiden. Angered at the arrival of the husband in the early hours of the mo rning with suspicion about his character. Santa and Dhvani. the bold. "Whether good or bad you should not obs truct any action of mine. Visnu Purana). Prasvapa. Varastri. Sakha. who are you ? Do you realise what unrighteous thing you have done ? I am not one who goes after women and it was a bit daring of you to have taken me as a beau. The great ascetics. Kumara got three brothers. released from the curse. " The beautiful girl was none other than Gangadevi herself and she disappeared s oon on receiving the rebuke. . One after the other she threw into the river seven sons but when she was about to throw the eighth the King objected to it and Ganga dis appeared immediately. Pratipa got a son named Santanu and Gangadevi became the wife of Santanu. are : Vaitandha. The sage. He was the inventor of a great many handicrafts and ornaments He became the consulting architect of the devas and ranked first in that art. S`ambhu.

Sosanastra 35. King of Magadha. These are the qualities required for attain ing salvation.). (1) Marjjati (2) Karpuratilaka (3) Malayagandhini (4) Kaumudika (5) Bheru nda (6) Matali (7) Nayaki (8) Jaya (8ubhacaxa). Musalastra 27.la-kanda. (7) Prop tabhartrkd. Lepya. Prasthapanastra 31. Vairastra 7. Krsna. When the father gives his daughter to the priest at the time o f a yaga it is called Daiva. Saivasula 8. Varsanastra 34. Visvamitra reveals to Rama and Laksma na the secret of using a great many varieties of Divyastras (Divyastra is a miss ile charged with power by holy incantation). Mind. Mohastra 39. Dharmacakra 3. Renowned among the asuras were the . Kamsa married Asti and also anoth er daughter of Jarasandha. Ba. Cha pter 12 of Agni Purana states that Jarasandha went to war with the Yadavas becau se of the persuasion of these daughters. One who approaches her husband with great passion. Kapalas tra 28. Mayadha rastra 43. Those born to Kasyapa of his wife Danu are called Danavas and those born of his wife Diti are called Daityas. (Sarga 27. Brahma is the one where th e father gives her daughter with sacred water to a bachelor without accepting an ything in return. Siddhmaka. Pinalcast ra 18. Saumyastra 45. Eight ways of attaining salvation. ASTAVIVAHA (S) Eight kinds of marriage. Kalacakra 4. Tataka. Daughter of Jarasandha. Dama. Satyastra 42. Loharnayi. Saumanastra 40. M. One who has gone weak and moody thinking about her husband in a foreign place. Vilapanastra 37. (1) Brahma (2) Daiva (3) Arsa (4) Prajap atya (5) Gandharva (6) Asura (7) Raksasa (8) Paisaca. They belong to the demonaic dynasty (Refer under `Asura-vamsa' in the genealogy chart). SSukla and Taruna. Santapanastra 36. Man imayi and Manomayi. Indracakra 6. It is Asura when the male takes his mate by force and it is Paigsacika (most cruel and mean) when the girl is taken as his wife when she is in a state of unconsciousness. Brahmasirastra 10.(6) Kalahdntaritd. Hayassirastra 25. Sukti. Rjusila. Valmiki Ramayana) ASURA. ASTOPAYA(S). ASTAVIDHAPRAKRTYAVASTHA (S) . Bhadru. Visnucakra 5. Kankalastra 26.B. Prathanas tra 23. Agneyastra 20. Varunapasa 16. Kalapasa 14. Satya. (Slokas 29 to 32. Brahmastra 11. Krauncastra 24. Modakisikhari 12. Water. Vedadhyayana. Sau rastra 33. Vimarccika. ASTAYOGINI (S). Samvartastra 41. Sabha Parva. Dh armapasa 13. ASTAVIDHAPRATIMA(S). Ether. Dhatumayi. Prasamanastra 32. Narayanastra 19. When the father gives the daughter with her blessi ngs it is Prajapatya. (Astangahrdaya). Intelligence and Egotism. Tvastastra 47. Yajna. ASTAVIDHAKUSTHA(S). Mad ariastra 38. ASTRA. Vayavyastra 22. Aisika 9. Sudam anastra Sri Rama received all these astras standing facing east. Silamayi. Tapas . The marriage between two lovers is Gandharva. After killing the demoness. Sigirastra 46. Lekhya. Some of those astras are named 1. Tejaprabhastra 44. and Mardava. Air. Agni. Mrnmayi. (Natyakrama). The eight hermit-maidens who are the attendants of the goddess. Mandala. D andacakra 2. Kankanastra 29. It is Arsa if the father gives the daughter and get s in return a cow or bullock. Repenting after having arrogantly disobeyed her husband. Varunastra 15. ASTI. Dana. (8) Abhisdrikd. Chapter 14. Durga. Earth. Manavastra 30. Sikharastra 21. Paramastra 17.

One of the eight daughters born to Kasyapa of his wife Pradha. * ASVAMEDHA.gas you can become Indra. Satya vati. This was the same demon who later on was born as Asoka.D. A son born to King Kusa of his wife Vaidarbhi. ASVAMEDHA II. the King should go and defeat him in battle and bring back the horse.D. Adi Parva. Tuhunda. Asvapati. Adi Parva. M. A yr7ga. Durj aya. (Sloka 24. Ekacakra. Mahakala. (Sloka 41. Candra. ASVAHRDAYA. Mahabala. M. in marriage. Brahm-qnda Purana). Namuci. The sage Vasa is the son of this rsi. Kesi. He lived in the 2nd Century A. S urya and Candramas. M. Kumbha. Kapata.B. Rcika prayed to Varuna and h e gave him the horse: required. (Sloka 8.) ASURBANIPAL. A mantra (sacred incantation) for controlling the horse. grandson of Brahma. Anuhlada. ASVA (Horse) . Kusamba. (Chapter 57. He fough t on the side of the Kauravas and was killed in the battle b5 Abhimanyu. ASVA I. Bali. B ana. Son of King Sahasranika (Refer under Sahasranika) . Buddhacarita and Saundarananda Some of and a drama called 8ariputraprakarana.B. ASVAGHOSA. Chapter 65. A country of ancient India which wa: ruled by a King named Rocaman. Jalapralaya) . Salabha. Para. (See under `Aksahrdaya' l . ASVAKRTA: A river. If you do a hundred such y-. A famous Sanskrit poet. Chapter 29. Asva. Asiloma. gambara. Ekapad. Asvagriva. Bh.B. A maharsi. Chapter 65 . Chapter 48. A parva of the Mahabharta. M. Drona Parva. Kupala. (Sloka 86.) .following: Prahlada. Nikumbha. carita) was translated into Chinese during the period 414 to-421 A. ASVAKETU. (Slok a 7. Horses and camels were born. Puloma. Baskala. (Suk'ta 112 of Rgveda) . ma de by the flow of urine from these horses. ASURTARAJASA.). Once a sage called Rcika went to Gadhi and asked for the hand of his daughter. Danu. Valmiki Ramayana). Ketu man. Bhadanta. AgVAMEDHAPARVA. Son of King Gandhara. (Agni Purana.B. If anybody stops the horse and ties it . ASVA II. Sarabha. Garga.). gibi. A demon. Vipracitti. Adi Parva. Fixing a victory card on the head of a h orse it is allowed to roam about freely. wife of Kas yapa. Vrsaparva. (See under Gilgamis. Kusanabha. See under Bharat a. Suksma. ASVAMEDHA I. ASVAMEDHADATTA. Harahara. He has written many Sanskrit books prominent among which are the two great poems. Asurtarajasa and Vasu are the four sons of Kusa. Vegavan. Chap ter 95. King of Kalinga. He demanded as dowry a thousand hors es black in colour and with only one ear for each. ASURA. Bala-kanda. Son born to the Sage. Sanku. Chapter 19). Visruta. The river A'svakrta (created by horse) wa<. (Chapter 67. Sabha Parva). Son born to Satanika of the princess of Videha. He was k nown under the following names also: Acarya. Mahavadi and Bhiksu. Svarbhanu. (Sarga 32. Adi Parva. . Murdha.masena conquered him during the world-wide c onquering campaign. Samhlada. Ayassiras. Kasyapa by hi: wife. AS VAGRpVA. Ajaka. His history of Buddha (Buddha. Virupaksa. A'svassiras. of Tamra. Kings used to con~'uct thi: in order to get absolved of all sins. in this world. Virocana.

For more details see under Gaavitri. ruled by a charioteer. Those who opposed the sovereignty of the King could stop the horse and t ie it.).B. Son of Kasyapa born of his wife Danu. In the great battle AJuna and Karna met for a fight and when Karn a sent his Nagastra (serpent missile) against Arjuna. ASVAPATI II. (Sloka . Adi Parva. Many kings of the Candra dynasty used to come and stay in this iisrama.B. Chapter 65. Asvasena. The box floated and reached the country. A river in the Gandhamadana valley flowing near the A'srama of the s age Ars#igena.). When Arjuna woke up from his unconscious state he found A9vasena missing. Vana Parra. Karna Parva. . Chapter 239. Then thinking tha t her father would notice her absence from the palace she returned home soon.~23.). Enraged at this the se rpent attacked Arjuna directly and was killed. (Slo kas 22 to 26. A9vasena kept hig grudge against Arjuna till the end. Before his death he got acquainte d with Krsna. Seeing this Indra se nt a cyclone to smash the canopy of arrows and Arjuna fell fainting. Chapter 160. Kunti floated the box containing her illegiti mate son and stood on the banks of Asvanadi weeping bitterly. M. Agni'a pproached them and requested them to help him burn the forest of Khandava (see u nder Khandavadaha). Chapter 65. Then Arjuna cursed him thus : "Let not you get refuge an ywhere. Chapter 308. ASVARANKU.B.B.B. ASVASENA. A di Parva. (Sloka 21. Aranya Parva. Then A'svasena's mother swallowe d him and kept him in her stomach. A son born to Kasyapa of Danu. M.). Chapter 67. The vedas enj oin that the sacrificial horse should be followed by a hundred young men ready t o fight those who opposed the King. M. At night accompanied by her maid. Campapuri. (Slo ka 5. Adi Parva. It was through this river that Kuntidevi floated in a box the infant Karna. ASVARATHA. Savitri and got a maiden from Agnihotra whom * Agvamedha or horse sacrifice was performed by autocrats to establish their sup reme sovereignty. M. Arjuna cut off her head. A9vasena hid himself in th at missile and burnt the beautiful headwear of Arjuna.B. He was without children for a long period and for eighteen years he worshipped the goddess. M.).B. (Sloka 24. Adi Parva. M. (Sloka 10." (Chapter 226. A serpent which lived in the forest of Khandava. Father of the most chaste woman. ASVAPATI I. They agreed to help him and Agni started burning the forest. Once when Arjuna and Krsna were sitting on the banks of the river Yamuna. He was King of Madra. This was the son of T aksaka and he tried his best to escape from the fire that burnt the forest. But Karna did not like th is foul play and refused to accept him when he came back. A river in the country of Kuntibhoja. ASVAPATI he named as Savitri. Adi Parva.B. Indra poured rains over the fire. Vana Par va.ASVANADI. M. For this the horse let out to roam about should go into all co unties. Savitri.). son of Taksaka tried to escape from th e fire but Arjuna obstructed his way by arrows. Taking the opportunity A9vasena escaped.). ASVASIRAS I. (Chapter 293.). A'svanadi joins Carmanvati and t he latter joins the Yamuna and the Yamuna joining Gang i falls into the ocean.B. The son born to Ka'syapa of his wife Danu. Arjuna created a canopy of arrows and prevent ed the rains from falling down. M.). M. Then the King had to defeat him before conducting the yaga. Indra had conducted a hundred such yagas. (Chapter 96.

Chapter 127. therefore. Sruta's va. Chapter 130. In Sabha Parva we find Asvatthama part icipating in the Rajasfrya of Yudhisthira. M. thereafter. (See under Drona for genealogy).ASVASIRAS II. A serpent. Chapter 35. Santi Parva.B. M. he got his name. At that time Drona got new lessons from Parasurama and they were also impar ted to Drona's disciples. The boy was. M. Adi Parva. It was at this place that the horses rose from the earth at the request of Rci ka Rsi to Varuna (See under A'svakrta).). ASVASIRASTHANA(M). Abhimanyu.). M. A sacred place in ancient India. So he used to instruct him durin g the time the other disciples went to fetch water for the asrama. named so.). (Chapter 130. Sudarsana. Adi Par va. Satyaki and Vindhya.B. When Drona became the preceptor of the Kauravas and Pa ndavas Asvatthama also went with him. 6) Asvatthama sees a ghost. (Sloka 17. He killed many veteran warriors and kings including the followin g : Nela. Chapter 55. Suratha.B. Fighting on the side of the Kauravas he played a very important ro le in that war. Ganges.B. (Slokas 52 to 64. (Sloka 3. Malayadhvaja and Suratha. Adi Parva. ASVATIRTHA. Asvatthama took his lesson in archery from his father Dr ona. the ten sons of Kuntibhoja. Vana Parva and Sloka 10. Vrdd haksetra. Immediately a voice from h eaven said that the boy should be named Asvatthama.B. He killed many Pancalas and Somakas while they were sleeping. ASVATAKA. M. A sacred pond built in Prayaga also carries this name. After that we meet him only at the Ku ruksetra war. 4) Drona's afl'ection for his son. Drona P arva. ). killed Drona. Adi Parva. Vrsadhara. The good-natured Krpi gave birth to Asvatthama. Drona was very affectionate to his son and wa nted to teach him something special in archery. started bringing his quota of water quickly e nough to join the special class of Drona. Chapter 4. He defeated many including Sikhand i. Chapter 130. Balanika. Bhagavan Hayagriva who was teaching the Vedas at Vaihayasakunda ne ar Naranarayanasrama.). 5) The Mahabharata Battle and Asvatthama. By using Agneyastra (the arrow of fir e) he made Krsna and Arjuna fall fainting in the battle-field. M. In Chapter 139 of Drona Parva we read about Arjuna defeating Asvatthama in a si ngle combat one day. Virata. Jayanika. (Sloka 15.). daughter of the sage. Hemamali. Chapter 51. E1 country of ancient India. The moment he was born he made a loud hoot like Uccais ravas and the sound resembled the braying of a horse.) ASVATTHAMA.. Candrasena.B. Bhisma Parva. ASVATARA. As per the instructions of his father Drona married Kvpi. Wh en Asvatthama heard of his father's death his rage knew no bound. son of King Paricala. Jayasva.). Cediraja. He immediately went to the heart of the military camp of the Pandavas. Arjuna dreams of going to Si va with Krsna and in that dream they visit this place also. Saradvata. Arjuna came t o know of this and he. M. 1) Birth and genealogy.. (Slo ka 76. Thus Arjuna and ASVatthama learned a l ot more than the others in the military art. Dhrstadyumna. Satrunjaya. Anjanaparva. M. 3) Training in archery. The semen of Bharadvaja Rsi fell into the hollow of a ba mboo and from there was born Drona. He commanded the Kaurava army once. near Kanauj .B. An ancient holy place on the banks of the river. Chapter 132.B. M. (Chapter 80. Krpa and Satvata follow . (Slokas 17-19.) 2) Hose.B. (Slokas 48 and 49.

I will never part with such a jewel". " When the Kauravas will be weakening in power a child will be born to you. When the powerful missile was flying straight towards Uttara's womb Sri Krsna sa id.camp he beheld a ghostly apparition.tthama. It is des cribed in the Bhasa Bharata (Malayalam version of M. Dronasixnu. But Asvatthama refused to. woke him up by striking him with his fo ot. M. The Mahabharata has used the following names also fo r Asvatthama.B. "This jewel of mine is more valuable than all the wealth of bo th Pandavas and Kauravas put together. Undaunted the son of Drona showered divine arro ws on the figure. He said. disease. There at the gate of the. ASVAVATA river. With crooked teeth and a ghastly face the goblin gave a shiver to those who saw him. Anusasana Parva. Dronaputra. you will be shunned by society. (Slokas 28-30. 8) Synonyms of Asaa. Nobody will associate with you. Gurusuta and Bharataca ryaputra. part with it. Oh. S`lo ka 25). 7) Asvatthama and his jewel. King of Malaya. Ba thed in blood and wearing a tiger's skin in the loins the figure wore a snake as his sacred thread and covered his upper body with a deer-skin. He will rule this country for si xty years. Guruputra. There were innum erable hands for this ghost and in each hand adorned with snake-bangles he held a deadly weapon. the butcher of his father. (Sautika Parva. Acaryasattam a. It created such a great explosion that all the elders on both the sides joine d together and requested them to withdraw the missiles..) as follows : He saw a hu ge figure standing at the door with a body blazing like the Sun and the Moon. mid day and sunset one will get salvation. With a view to destroying the whol e Pandava dynasty he sent against the Pandavas the all-powerful Brahmasirastra ( a missile charged with great power by a holy incantation). nose and mouth he barred the way of Asvatthama.. (Sloka 15. Acaryaputra. Chapter 165. M. and A'svatthama repenting on his hasty action gave the jewel to the Pandavas and left for the forest with Vyasa. No harm will come to you from Yaksas . But the babe which you have now killed will be a famous scholar and brave King. If you wear this you need not be afraid o f your enemies. The bo y will have to bear a test even while in the womb and so you must name the child Pariksit (One who has been tested)". Acaryanandana. You will be tormented by all diseases on earth. had an elephant of this name and it w as killed in the battle by Bhimasena. C hapter 15. M. Nagas or thieves. He will be known as the next Kururaja. To suffer for this evil deed you will roam about in the earth for three thousand years. In despair Asvatthama meditated on Siva and t he latter appearing before him in person gave him a divine dagger.B. Drona Parva. After great persuasion Asvatthama surrendered his jew el but without withdrawing the missile directed it towards the womb of Uttara wh o was bearing a child then.B. Sautika Parva). Arjuna. We are reminded of an incident which happened when t he Pandavas were residing in Upaplavya. But Drona had given t he same type of missile to Arjuna also and so he sent forth his to meet the othe r. hunger and thirst. Acaryatanaya. It-Is believed that if one just thinks about it at daybreak. The anger of Asvathama did not abate even after kil ling Dhrstadyumna. "Even though the child in the womb will die of this arrow it will be reborn. But the ghost by his supreme powers absorbed the arrows to his body the moment they touched him.ing him. . Drauni. ears. Look. Flames bursting forth from his eyes. Asvatthama. you will be denounced by all as a sinner for killing this unbor n babe. Vyasa supported K.B. ) . Indravarma.). Acaryasuta. a poor brahmin looking at Uttara said. Chapter 1915.B. (M. Uraunayani. I am giving life to the babe you have killed".demanded the jewe l on Asvatthama's head to withdraw his missile. ASVATTHAMA II. caught hold of him by the hair on his head and killed him. With that he entered the bed-chamber of Dhrstadyumna.rsna.

Kasyapa. The first child of King Kuru. Visnu Purana). Surya found out by his Jnanad? `sti (a power of sight developed by Yoga by which one could see things far beyon d the limits of his vision) that Sam* jna was practising austerities taking the form of a mare. But none had any childr en. Once at this time Saryati with his wives and child and followed by a large retinue entered the tapovana for recreation. Bhayankara and Jitari. The King and his wives entere d the lake and Sukanya with her friends moved about in the garden plucking flowe rs and playing. The Visnu Purana describes the birth thus: "Sarnjna. Chapter 94. The father and all his wives together brough t up this daughter with great affection. Satya and Dasra. Asvinikumaras. as a very pet girl did not like anybody advis ing her like this and so taking a pointed stick gave two pricks at the site of t he gleampoints and left the place arrogantly. It was then that Surya and Yama came to know that she was not Samjna. Vivasvan (the Sun). (another) Manu and Tapati. 2) Birth. Then Surya went to her disguised as a horse and with her co-oper ation produced three children of which the first two became known as A'svinikuma ras. daughter of Saryati and made h er old and senile husband into a young and virile one. Moving about thus aimlessly Sukanya and party reached the place where Cyavana was doing penance. Then Surya took Samjna to his place (Chap ter 2. Once Chaya got angry and cursed Yama.ASVAVAN. The gleam-points were the eyes of Cyavana and so he lost his eyes and suffered m uch from the pain. Once finding the effulgence of Surya unbearable she engaged Chaya to look after Surya and left for the forests to do penance there. Anusasana Parva.B). Chapter 123. Viraja. She was about to break open the thing when from inside she heard somebody addressing her thus : "Oh. (Slokas 50 to 53. In the neighbourhood of the palace of Saryati there was a tapovana as good and g rand as Nandanavana and it contained a lake similar to the Manasa lake. Chapter 150. getting more details from Chaya. Arizsa 3. She saw the huge shrubby growth and while looki ng at it saw two gleaming points inside the shrubby heap. But slowly the ASVINIKUMARA(S) (ASVINIDEVAS) 70 ASVINIKUMARA(S) (ASVINIDEVAS) . M. Sabalas va. Sloka 35 of Chapter 66 of Adi Parva states that Asvinikumaras were born from the nose of Samjna. and Asvinidevas. Saryati. When they were lamenting over this misfortune one of the wives gave birth to a girl and she was called Sukanya. Uccaihsravas. the two sons of Surya (The Sun) are called Asivianikumaras. 3) How Asainikumaras tested Sukanya. Please do go your way. The third son was called Revanta. (Sloka 12. He is known as Aviksit also. These -two are the physicia ns of the devas.) ASVINIKUMARA(S) (ASVINIDEVAS). (See under genealogy of Kuru) . had four thousand beautiful princesses as wives. Adiraja. M. He was unaware of the growth a round him. Though he felt angry he did not curse anybody. i nnocent girl. She got three children: Manu. Adi Parva. why do you think of doing this mischief. The Devi Bhagavata contains a story of how the Asvinikumaras tested the fidelity of Sukanya. He had been sitti ng there for so long a period without food meditating on a goddess that he was c overed with plants and shrubs had grown over him. daughter of Visva karma. What wrong have I done to you for you to disturb me like this ?" But Sukanya brought up as she was. In one c orner of this tapovana a sage named Cyavana was doing penance.B. Aranya Parva. Marici. was the wife of Surya. 8ahnali. (Slokas 17 and 18. son of Vaivasvat a manu. I am an ascetic. Yama and Yam!. His mothe r was Vahini. M.) . Surya took Chaya to be Samjna and got three children of her : Sanai'scara.B . They are also known as Asvins. Descending from Visnu in order are Brahma. He got eight sons : Pariksit. 1) Genealogy.

She never knew what she pricked for a fun were your eyes. Sukanya did not relish this talk and th reatening them that if they did not withdraw stopping such blabbering she would curse them to ashes. best of rsis. She gave her husband healthy and tasty fruits and v egetables. As soon as your husband becomes young and handsome we will also become like him and then you can select one among us. we are immensely pleased at your sense of righteousness and chastity and you can ask of us a boon. In the morning sh e would attend to all the details of the ablutions of her husband. After the meals she gave him tambula and only after putting him on a bed would she go to attend to her cwn affairs. I am the daughter of Saryati and wife of Cyavana. I shall go as his wife. So plea se do accept one of us as your husband". thou art rich in forgive ness and so please do condone this mischief and hless us. Princess. The result was the same. They were very much attracted by the stunning beauty of the maiden that they approached her and asked : "Oh. Sukanya herself came to h im and said. Cyavana. The King began to doubt that somebody must have done some great injury to the sage. who are you? We are Asvinikumaras. "Oh. People came on deputation to the King to describe the disaster that h ad gripped the state. The King and his ministers wer e worried. I took a pin-stick and pricked them both and on drawing it out I found it wet also. But there is a condition for this. He bribed. My daughter who is only an innocent child did this playfully while she was playing in this garden with her friends. People stopped pas sing urine or faeces. he threaten ed. . In the evening she wo uld make ready all the things required for the puja and after the puja feed him with nourishing food. How d id you happen to come to this place ? You are one who should always move about w ith friends and courtiers and what is the reason for your living like this ?" Su kanya replied. beautiful maiden. Prostrat ing before the rsi the King pleaded "Oh. Then one day while the King and his courtiers were sitting despondent Sukanya approached her father and confessed what she had done . You seem to be alone. If he is satisfied the nation would be saved from a ca'amity and I am prepared to sacrifice my happiness for the sake of the country." With suppressed unwillingness the King gave his daughter in m arriage to Cyavana. the best of sage. At night she would be at the foot of her husband and take a nap. placed before him all the materials fo r his puja and when the time came for his meals gave him his food sitting by his side. Saryati was depressed. dear father. please do not worry on my account. Forced by certain circum stances my father gave me in marriage to this sage who is very old and blind. Sukanya after her marriage engaged herself fully in the service of looking after the welfare cf her husband. Then one day the Asvinik umaras saw her going to the asrama after her bath. But everybody replied in the negative. forgive us for this injur y done unknowingly. We are physicians of the devas and can give your husband his sight and can also make him young and v irile. "Revered Devas. If you think it convenient you can come and accept ou r hospitality. you are fit to be the wife of one who is better than this blind old ascetic. Thus Sukanya lived true to her husband always anxious to please him.country began to witness the evil effects of this cruel deed." Cyavana replied that he would forgive if he gave Sukanya in marriage to him. I am living with him looking after his comfort. After finishing her meals she would c ome-again to her husband and sit byhis side massaging him. Oh. Are you willing? If so we will make your husband charming and handsome at this i nstant. But I left the matter ther e and never made any enquiries thereafter". I will be only t oo glad to do so. He is living in the asrama nearby. bathed him daily in hot water. Whatever remained after his feed would be taken by her. He started enquiries asking his subjects one by one about this. Saryati now knew the cause of this n ational disaster and so immediately rushed to the sage for forgiveness. Even animals were affected. She said : "While I was playing with my friends in the tapovana I saw this hug e shrub-heap and two points gleaming from inside. "Oh." Hearing this the Asvinikumaras told her thus : "Sweet girl. The Asvinidevas were a bit surprised and also frightened at the attitude of Sukanya. H ow could he give his only and beautiful daughter to this aged senile ugly and bl ind rsi ? While the King was thus pondering over this.

They asked Cyavana to take a dip in the lake nearby and as he entered the lake the Asvinidevas also e ntered it and took a dip in its waters along with Cyavana. (Seventh Skandha. I shall do as you direct. (1) How they tested Upamanyu. By chanting the second. wife of Pandu. 4) Cyavana's gratitude. Surya appeared and she had to take a son from him who became the famou s Karna later. Kunti got respectively the sons Dharmaputra. Cyavana who got back his eyesight and youth asked the As vinikumaras what boon they wanted. You go and tell the m that you would do as they wish and bring them clown here. Before long." Cyavana promised to do that. On hearing this Suka nya went to the Asvinikumaras and took them to the asrama. We will make your husband young and beautiful giving him b ack his eyesight and then we will change ourselves to resemble him. For more details look under 'C yavana'. I am not able to understand their cunning and so I have come to you to get from you the answer for their question. 5) Other information regarding Asainikumaras. Sukanya was in a fix and s he prayed to her goddess to give her power to identify her husband. Cyavana officiated as priest. (Seventh Skandha. When Brahma performed a yaga at Mahameru th is leader of the devas did not allow us to take a soma drink. the chanting of each of which would give her a child . The time came for distributing so ma. Even before her marriage Kunti tested the power of the mantras by chanting one of them. had obtained from Sage Du rvasas five sacred mantras. Vayu and Indra. Devi Bhagavata). (2) Birth of Nakula and Sahadeva. The A'svinid evas then requested Sukanya to select one among them. This story is given under the word Apodadhaumya. I am a nxious to see you young and handsome with your eyesight regained. third and fourth meditating on Yama. She was bles sed with that power and she selected Cyavana from the lot at which the Asvinidev as were also pleased. Cyavana argued against that and after a great verbal combat Cyavana suc ceeded in making the Mvinikumaras take the drink. (Sloka 6. If you are capable of doing it you should get us the right to take this celestial drink. and when Cyavana called the AsvinikumRras to take their share Indra objected saying that since they were physicians of the devas they could not be given tha t drink. The f ifth mantra she gave to Madri and she meditated on the Asvinidevas and got Nakul a and Sahadeva. They then told him thus : "We are the physici ans of the devas. Bhima and Arjuna. Cyavan a then told the King the request of the Asvinidevas and garyati also promised hi s help on this matter. The Asvinidevas we re also present quite to the dislike of Indra. Lo ! As they rose fro m the waters all the three became young and handsome looking alike.Sukanya was well pleased with this offer but the condition placed did not satisf y her. Devendra has unnecessarily put a ban on our drinking Soma (jui ce extracted from the creeper Soma). Kund. I met the A3v inidevas on my way from the river after my bath and enamoured of my beauty they have made this offer. Chapter . You have the n to select one of us as your husband. On their return to their palace Saryati decided to perform a big yaga to which a ll the devas were also invited. But soon all doubts were cleared and they were immensely pleased. King Saryati and his wife came to the a'srama to enquire about the welfare of their daughter. So she ran to the asrama and told her husband thus : "Lord." Cyavana said : "There is nothing in this for great thinking. (3) The Asvinidevas were present for the marriage of Pancali. To their great amazement they found a young and hands ome ascetic at the asrama and were a bit suspicious of the character of their da ughter. Devi Bhagavata).

There is this story abou t it in Brahmavaivarta Purana. Once when the wife of Sutapas was on a pilgrimage Surya happened to see her. in his commentary on the 93rd Sulcto of the Rgveda states that there is a belief that the Asvins and Candrasuryas (the Sun and Moon) are one and the same. (5) During the Mahabharata battle the Asvinidevas handed over some Parsadas to t he god. It is believed that the physical beauty of man would be incr eased if he bathes in this lake. Salya Parva. (15) The Asvinikumaras killed an asura of name Visvak and destroyed his dynasty also. (8) One who offers Ghee as oblation to the fire for twelve months in succession will reach the country of the Asvinikumaras.B. (Rk 16. Asvinidevas found a way to tide over this difficu lty. (Sloka 3 . (7) The month of Asvina (October-November) is the month of Asvinikumaras and if a man gives ghee to the Brahmins freely in that month he will acquire more ph ysical beauty. Chapter 83.). The boy became known as Mandhata later. They at first cut off his head and fixed the head of a horse on him.B. During the burning of the forest Kharidava the Asvinideva s stood on the side of Arjuna. Rgveda). (Sloka 17. Chapter 65. Anusasana Parva. B. ASVINTSUTA. Rgveda). Chapter 62. Anusasana Parva. ASVINIKUMARATIRTHA. M.). Madhuvidya. Adi Parva.186. It was with the head of a horse that Dadhyanc taught them Madhuvidya and as soon as th e teaching was over his horse-head was cut off and the real head placed in its p lace. The beautiful and venerable lady refused to accede t . Sukta 116. Anusasana P arva. In the race the horse of the Asvin7devas won and they thus married Surya's daughter. He prayed to the Asvinidevas for water and they dug a well itse lf in the desert and quenched the thirst of the sage. M. Once this donkey in the disguis e of a wolf went and stayed with 1~jrasva. The son became blind and he g ot back his eyesight by pleasing the Asvin-Idevas by prayer and offerings. Rgveda). son of the Rajarsi Vrsagir.). Bhaga and Pavaka. M. Vi-5agi r got angry at this act of his son and cursed him. Sukta 115. (Sloka 10.B. Vallathol.). (hk 1 6. There i s an interesting story about it. A son born to Surya of the wife of Sutapas.) . It was Indra who taught this to Dadhyanc and wh ile teaching him he had threatened that if he gave away that secret to anybody e lse his head would be cut off. The others who like it are Brhaspati. Drona Parva. (Rk 22. (14) Once Surya decided to give his daughter in marriage to the owner of the hor se which would win a horse-race which Surya would conduct. Itjrasva gave the wolf to eat hundred goats belonging to the people of the place.B. (Rk 17. (Sloka 38.). M. Sukta 112. (12) The sage Dadhyanc taught the Asvinidevas the technique. (Rgveda. (4) King Yuvanasva became pregnant and bore a child. ). (Sloka 95. Sukta 11 7. M. Vana Parva. Skanda. M. (Rk 9. Chapter 43. (9) The great poet of Kerala. (10) Dirghasravas son of Dirghatamas once prayed to the Asvinidevas to get rains and it is said that they gave a downpour of sweet water. Sukta 117. Sukta 16. (Sloka 7. (13) The vehicle of the Asvin=devzs is a donkey. (11) Once a sage named Gotama was lost in a desert and craved bitterly for drinking water. Pusan. Rgveda). Rk 11).B. (6) The Asvinidevas like very much oblations of Ghee. Chapter 65. Chapter 107.1 Rgveda).B. M. It was the AA vinidevas who took the child out by surgery.

~autkayani and Pippalada. In Chapter 6 of the third sectio n of Visnu Purana the following reference is made to Atharvaveda : "Sumantu Maha rsi who was of infinite glory. Chapter 9 . He has with him a rasayana called hataka with which he can eaisly entice and seduce all who enter Atala and to strengthen them for satisfying his lust. Name of a village in ancient India. (Sloka 21.o the desire of Surya and so the latter used force and took her. elephants etc. It comprises different k inds of incantations of occult powers for the destruction of enemies. Indrascandra'sca pancavanija . the son of Maya who is the famous but haughty magician. Yamasyalokat 6.B. Mahatala. Of them Atala has bee n described as follows : Atala is the first world of Patala. Sut apas cursed him and said he would turn to be one very diseased. Kabandha divided Atharvaveda into two parts and communicated them to two Ma harsis named Devadarsa and Pathya. Kumudadi an d Saunaka. (M. learn some of these 96 arts and pr actise them. ATHARVA(M). M. ASVINITIRTHA. Svairinis and Kaminis emerge from his mouth. Devamaruta 5. Rasatala. Astama Skandha) . Surya taught his s on Asvinisuta astrology and made him a master in that science. Sutala. Brahmabali . Indrenadatta 3. S amhitakalpa. The seven sections are : At ala. After enticing them with it. were made by Munjikesa. Naksatrakalpa contains Brahma's works : Samhitakalpa contains Mantra Vidhi . The five divisions of the Atharvaveda-Naksatrakalpa. (Sumantu Maharsi . There reigns Bala. Among the Vedas.B.). Saunaka divided his compilat ion into two and gave one part to Babhru and the other to Saindhava. three groups o f women known as Pumscalis. He has created 96 Mayas who are capable of granting all kinds of desires. (Devi Bhagavata. They had a son who was named Asvinisuta. Munjikcsa l earnt it from Saindhava and divided the compilation first into two and later int o three parts. Verse 48). Talatala. ATALA.was the son of Jaimini. Patala. he enjoys uncontrolled pleasure with them.. this has the fourth place. showering on them his a morous glances. They also made Atharvaveda compilations. Chapter 25. Anusasana Parva. PaLhya had three disciples named Jabali. The mantras (incantations) in Atharvaveda and their uses are given below Mantras 1. Vitala. Suparnastava 2. who was the disciple of Vedavya sa). When this mighty fellow opens his mouth for yawning. Ima Devi 4. Angirasakalpa co ntains abhicara and Santikalpa contains taming of horses. Promises bodily splendour if one takes a bath in this lake. Even now certain persons who a re interested in the practice of Black magic. This is one of the seven sections of Patfila. Bhisma Parva. Angirasakalpa and Santikalpa. On her return after the pilgrimage with her son she ex plained all that happened and the sage sent both of them out. Knowing that. bewitching smiles and embraces. Atharvan t he son of Vasistha was the author of this Veda. ATAVISIKHARA. first taught this Atharvaveda to his disciple Kab andha. Vedakalpa. Later the sage a mended his curse and added that he would be free from disease if he worshipped t he sun. Devadarsa's disciples were: Medha.

Yathamrgavati 17. Attainment of 'sand-karma). Attainment of 'santi-karma). Prosperity in general. Equal to thousand (Ayuta-homa-tulyam). Dhruvamdhruvena 11. Strengthening of the intellect (Buddhi-vrddhi) . Getting sons (Putra-labha). Enhancement of fame (yasovTddhi). Prosperity in commerce business (Vanijya-labha). Enjoyment of women saubhagyam).7.(Sarpa-badha-nivaranam) . Sapatvaha 15. Tubhyamevajavima 9. Ye me pasa 14. Yenapehadisa 18. Ahan to bhagna 13. Destruction of enemies (Satrunasam). Attainment of posts of honour (Sthana-labha) Profit from agriculture (Krsilabha). Ayante yonih Uses Getting rid of serpents and snakepoison. Enjoyment of women (Stri saubhagyam) . Alaktajiva12. Prevention of bad dreams (Duh svapna-samana). Fulfilment of all desires (Sarvakama-siddhi). Kamojevaji 8. Agnegobhinna 10. Freedom from imprisonment (bandhana-vimlrkti) . peace (Sarvapeace (Sarva(Stri-sacrifices . Birth of children (Grabha-labha) . Tvamuttama 16.

Muncavitva Uses Prosperity in general (Saubhagyavrddhi) .. Name of a Janasthana (Town) in ancient India. In Rgveda another Atharva may be seen. 4th Skandha. Verse 51). . It is sand that he was the a uthor of the Atharvaveda. Atharva was born from Brahma's face. The Maharsi Atibala was the cause of the death of Sri Rama and Laksma rra.B. Chapter 17. Verse 42). Chapter 9. This name has been used as a synonym of Siva. ATHARVA II.B.. Ve rse 50. (M. ATIBALA. Chapter 222. Fourth Skandha. (M. ATHARVANA.B. rice. (See "AGNL'). But there are some Puranas which refer to Citt i as another wife of Atharva. (M.. (Bhagavata. Warding off death (Mrtyunivarana). and ATIBAHU. the son of Vas istha. He had three brothers : Haha. ATHARVA III. Agni hid himself under the sea. Bala and Atibala. Vana Parva. Verse 64). and re-created the worlds which were lying dormant owing to the absence of fire. Verse 8). Huhu and Tumburu. Verse 19) . Bhisma Parva. Visvamitra who took the boys Rama and Laksmana to the forest taught them two mantras. Chapter 43. When these mantras are chanted several oblations are made to the sacrificial fir e. Anusasana Parva . the daughter of Kardama. Also. ATHIDA (M) . At that time. This Afharva was the same person as Atharvana. ATHARVA I.B. After learning Brahmavidya from Brahma. Chapter 222. Verse 91). Adi Parva. His wife was anti.Mantras 19. to liberate them from hunger and thir st. This muni is referred to in Mahabharata. Brhaspatirnah pari patu 21. See ANGIRAS. Bala-kanda. He was a Gandharva born to Kasyapa by his wife Pradha...B. Chapter 1). Atharva recovered Agni. as a professional chanter of Chandaveda. milk are thrown into the fire as offering s. givasivabhih 20. Udyoga Parva. Chapter 65. (M. (Bhagavata. Once under the curse of Bhrgu M aharsi. Sarga 22) ATIBALA I. it was Athar va who. (Agni Purana. at the suggestion of the Devas. (M. A mantra. ghee. Substances like Camata. went under the water and discovered Agni . Atharva had two wives nam ed anti and Citti. Chapter 262). there are Puranas which say that Atharva was Airgiras himself. it was this At harva who first brought fire to the earth from heaven. Valmiki Ramayana. A son of Vasistha.Vana Parva. ATHARVAIVGIRAS. Citti was another name for anti. Blessings (Marga-maxigala).

Soon a fter. (M. They answered : "We will not break our promise about grant ing the boon. ATIBHTMA.B. He said he had to tell a secret to Sri Rama. Ver se 11) . one day Brahma summoned "Sri Rama is the incarnation of Mahavisnu. It was announced that if anyone entere d the hall. ATIBALA III.." Mahavisnu said : "I agree. Maharsi Durvasas arrived at the entrance accompanied by many of h is disciples. Tapa. In order to slight Brahma a little. D urvasas was given a sumptuous meal. Sri Rama returned to Ayodhya with his an his reign. one of you will be reborn under the name of Khara and the other under t he name of Atikaya. Thus both of you wil l get Virakti and Mukti.. (M. One of the sons of the Agni. But let my boon be carried o ut first. After that I shall see that your wish is properly fulfilled.B.B. He eve n threatened that he would reduce all of them to ashes by his curse. From the tine of his accession to the throne. Laksmana requested him to wait a little but Durv4sas refused to do so. Laksmana would be killed.. Satrughna and their families." After saying this. They were born again as Khara and Atikaya . Yama assuming the guise of a Saxinyasi named Atibala appeared b efore Sri Rama. Sri Rama cried with 'a broken heart. They proudly replied that they would grant a boon to Visnu. Now Visnu has to be recalled to Vaikuntha". in his pride fell into a sleep. One of the sons of Ravana. (M. Santi Parva. He has fulfilled all the incarnation. Hearing their terrible roar Brahma w oke up in fear and fled to Mahavisnu seeking refuge. Laksmana who is the incarnation of Ananta wil l fight with Atikaya to his full satisfaction and kill him. ATIBALA II 73 ATIRATRA Laksmana was asked to guard the entrance. Sri Rama entrusting the affairs of the state to others and in the presenc e of thousands of spectators plunged into the Sarayu river and renouncing his ea rthly life. In that case Mahavisnu wanted them to grant hi m leave to kill them. Mahavisnu made the two asuras stand on each of his thighs and killed them with his Sudarsana Cakra.After the war with Ravana. In the Treta-yuga I shall kill Khara in single combat after allaying his passion for fighting.. (Uttara Ramayana). But since our passion for fighting has not been abated. 1) Previous Birth. After completing the task of creation Brahma. Verse 92) . retinue and beg the palace with Yama and said : the purposes of On hearing this. This Atibala's father was a King named Ananga. you must f ulfil our eager desire. The honest L aksmana went alone to the Sarayu river and drowned himself in its depths. Laksmana entered the hall and informed Sri Rama of the situation. Chapte r 59. Accordingly Sri Ram a sent everyone else out of the audience chamber. He wanted to see the King to ask for sumptuous foo d. Vana Parva. Verse 44). After renouncing Sita while Sri Rama was living in Laksmana. Visnu called Madhu and Kait abha and asked them what boon they would like to ask. ATIBALA II. After you r death. This is a story concerning the initial stage of the creation of the Universe. He had come after having performed penance for a thousand years an d in great hunger and thirst. he began to lead a vicious life. Mahavisnu produced two Raksas as called Madhu and Kaitabha from his ears. The name of a follower given to Skanda by god Vayu on the battle-fie ld.Chapter 220. There was another King named Atibala who was a great scholar in Nit iMstra. Salya Parva. Chapter 45. Finding no alternative. returned to Vaikuntha. ATIKAYA. At this stage.. But for the fulfilment of the condition Laks mana's death became necessary.

.B. Puru. He l earnt all the sciences. It was at this time of chagrin that he came to know that Ati kaya had reached Lanka with the Pasupatastra. After a Most terrible conflict. Arts. Kuru.ksasa named Candra. Atikaya was brought up by Dhanyamala. Atikaya shot hi s Pasupatastra. Candra Raksasa ordered Atikaya to bring Indra as a captive. 5) Victory in Battle. The first was the gift of Brahmast ra which could smash anyone..Four sons were born to him: Tamsu. Ravana gave him the name Atikaya. 2) Birth. (M. Once he was defeated by Indra. Laksmana killed Atikaya. Tapasvi. On his way he saw some beautiful Gandharva women playing in the valley o f Mayuragiri. Knowing Atika~ya's history well. He was one of the ten children born to Manu by Nadvala. Atikaya had an uncle. Their leader was Citrangi. The boy. On the completion of his course he asked what Gurudaksina he should pay. 4) Education. Cha pter 94. by his power.B. smiling and lying on a flat rock in th e deep woods. The child began to grow steadily in size. Sabha Parva. Both parties accepted the position that Devendra had lost the battle a nd Atikaya had won. (See P'GRU-VAMSA). but being fully absorbed in Samadhi. Chapter 38). A tiratha and Druhyu. Mahavisnu brought the battle to a close. He foun d the child without the slightest injury. the wife of Citrangada. There was a King named Matinara in Puru-vamsa. He granted Atikaya all the b oons he asked for. Brahma a ppeared. Even his life-breath had been stopped. (Kamba Ramayana. Then he tried again to lift the baby up using all his twenty arms. The second was the gift of an armour which was unas sailable by anyone. Siva awarded him the Pas upatastra. Adi Parva. Verse 14) . There is a story about the birth of Atikaya in the Yuddha Kanda of Kam ba Ramayana : After his victory over Kubera Ravana was returning in his Puspaka Vimana. (Kamba Ramayana. (M. He failed in his attempt to take it up even though he used ten of his hands. 3) The Boons. Mahavisnu who came to help Indra used his Sudarsana cakra. Yuddha Kanda). Pleased with him. ATIRATHA. the Vimana knocked a gainst a mountain peak and the baby was thrown overboard and fell in the forest. At once she became pregnant and gave birth to a dazzlingly bright baby. Atikaya went to Kaildsa and received has education from Siva. from there. Sruti. Smrti etc. Satadyumna. took the child into the Vimana and proceeded. Atiratra. On the way. Sudyum na and Atimanyu were the names of . Ravana seduced her and had a secret union with her. The third was absence of thirst. (See MANU VAMS A). Suci. in his paternal love . Ravana. Agnistoma. Yuddha Kanda ) ATILOMA. Atikaya went to Gokarna and did penance to please Brahma. Satyavan. Atikaya was not aware of his prese nce. ATIMANYU. he presented him as adopted son to the -barren Dhanyam5la. t In the RdM11 ana battle Atikaya fought on the side of Ravana. desire and other cravings. Ravana stopped the Vimana and made a search for the baby in the forest. The mother handed over the child to Ravana and returned to the world of the Gandharvas. An Asura who was killed by Sri Krsna. Mahan. 6) Death. suddenly sprang up and getting into the Vimana took his seat in it. who had by this time grown into enormous size. instilled life -breath into him and restored him to consciousness. He was one of the ten sons of Manu. Siva made him promise that he' would never practise Black magic. They were three in number. On his arrival in Larika. Brahma. a R5. Atikaya went to Svarga (Heaven) and began a war with I ndra. ATIRATRA.

. Pulastva. Chapter 6 5. Mandala 1. Mah7meru presented two Parsadas named Atisthira and Sthira to Skanda on the battlefield. (M. (M. he tried to hide himself under the water. not daily. ATRI I. Mandala 1. They were Ativ arcas and Suvarcas. "A new visitor at night must be treated as an Atithi. and even if pen ance is offered in the midst of Pancagni (five fires) unless the Brahmin who com es as a guest is fed. In ancient Bharata Atithi-satkara (hospitality to a guest) was c onsidered as a yajna. all virtuous deeds would be useless. Verse 46). He had another name. Verses 49. Pulaha. Chapte r 45. One of them was Yama and the other was Atiyama.. But one who lives in your village and goes about as a vagabond for a living.B. ATIYAMA. 1) The son of Brahma. Manu has made the following remarks about the Atithi (guest) .. Chapter 45. Kratu and Vasistha are known as the Saptarsis (seven sages). Chapter 4. Santi Parva . Himavan gave Skanda two Parsadas on the' battlL field. The guest wh o comes either before or after mealtime should not be sent away without being fe d. does not deserve to be treated as an Atithi. Chapter 45. . (M. Verse 16) . Pulaha. Brahma's sons. Chapter 13) . Salya Parva. 2) One of the Saptarsis. Verse 45) . Even a Vaisya or Sf1dra who comes as a guest to a Brahmin's house has to be g iven food when the servants are given food. Atri.B. Marici. Among them was a serpent named Atisanda.. Anuvaka 16. Verse 48) . Mausala Parva. ATISANDA. He was a King referred to in the Rgveda. The ma nasaputras were Marici. Pulastya. Sukta 112) . (M. 3) Creator of the pracetases. Atri. ATISTHIRA. (M.. Ten Pracetases (Prajapatis) were born as the sons of this Muni. It is said. (Rgveda.B. ATISTINGA. being afraid of the Asu ras.Vindhya Presented two parsadas to Skanda on the battlefield. . They were Ati'srhga and Ucchrnga.ATISANDA the ten brilliant sons of Nadvala. Verse 10). All the serpents worshipped him. 50) . God Varuna gave Skanda on the battlefield two Parsadas (attendant soldi ers .. Verse 3. and Kratu (M. "Divodasa". Atri Maharsi was one of the manasaputras of Brahma. In Manusmrti. (M.B. This King had fought several battles agai nst Asuras with the help of Indra.Angiras.. Chapter 45. ATIVARCAS. The sage Pracinabarhis was born in the family of A tri Maharsi. Anuvaka 10.B. Salya Parva.that once.B. it is said that even i f one lives on the scattered grains in the fields after harvest. Chapter 208) . Adi Parva." ATITHIGVA. Chapter 100. Sukta 53. An Atithi is one who comes occasionally. Besides. (M. Part I.B. (Visnu Purana. Angiras. Rgveda. Salya Parva. After his death Balabhadra Rama went to ~atala in the guise of Ananta. ATITHI (guest). Salya Parva.

It was in this way that Mahavisnu incarnated as Dattatreya. he starte d a yajna to annihilate the whole race of Raksasas. the Sun and Moon becam e dim. (M. He b egan to flatter Vainya by saying that he was the first among kings and so on. She request ed her husband to go to King Vainya and to beg for some money. They sought refuge with Sukra. Kalmas apada ate successively all the 100 sons of Vasistha. Prahlada became the Asura King. Atri su dden1y transformed himself into the Sun and Moon. Darkness spread everywhere. (1) How Mahavisnu became Atri's son. Adi Parva. They re quested Atri Maharsi to find a remedy for this. 4) Citra Sikhandi. Adrsyanti lived in an asrama. he came to know that his father Sakti was eaten by the Raksasa. At this stage. After that Vainya gave Atri much wealth . (2) Atri and Parasara.. Once King Kalmasapada was going about in the forest on a h unting expedition. He was a very mighty ruler and carried on his reign in an ungodly mann er. to destroy Vasistha's family. At that time the poor Maharsi's wife was in great distress because they had no money to be distributed to their disciples and children. La ter Mahabali. Among the seven Munis known as Citra Sikhandis. Chapter 208). In this war. Adrsyanti was pregnant at the tim e of Sakti's death. The Raksasa who was also a cannibal. (5) Atri and King Vrsadarbhi. Moved by their distress. Then there was a battle b etween Indra and Prahlada. Mahavisnu who was the protector of Indra. The Sun burnt up the Asuras by his intense heat. The Devas began to grope in the dark. 4th Skandha). War broke out again between Mahabali and Indra. Kavyamata.B. After distributing all this wealth among their sons and disciples Atri and his wife set out to the forest to perform penance. Anusasana Parva.B. defeated. It was a time when Vasistha and Visvamitra were in a stat e of mutual ill-will. we see Atri M aharsi as one of the Astaprakrtis which form the basis of the Universe. Sukra promised to help them. Vainya remarked that Indra was the first King. Sakti transformed Kalmasapada into a Raksasa b y his curse. Prahlada withdrew. Visvamitra offered whatever help he could. to Arjuna. This story was told by Vayu Bhagavana. Atri Maharsi and his wife once got ready to go f or Vanavasa. Owing to the shower of arrows from the Asuras. Va inya did not like it. (M. the As ura guru. Mahavisnu helpe d Indra. first swallowed Sakti himself.. In due course she gave birth to a boy who was called Parasar a and who later on became the father of Vyasa. Chapte r 156). (4) How Atra became Sun and Moon. The K ing did not respect him properly. The Asaras kept waiting for Sukra's return. As the yajna gained intensit y and force Atri Muni arrived there with certain other Maharsis and dissuaded Pa rasara from the yajna. Thus the Devas were saved. Sanatkumara sent them away reconciled. Bhrgu Maharsi was enraged and cursed him that he should be born many times in human wo mbs. Seeing this impudence of Mahavisnu. Accordingly the M aharsi visited King Vainya at his yagasala (The shed where a yaga is held). Sakti Parva. the son of Virocana (grandson of Pi ahlada) became emperor of Asur as. Once there was a fierce battle between Devas a nd Asuras.. He met Sakti. In a terrible battle which took place at that time between the Devas and Asu ras Kasipu was killed. He began to dispute with Atri. when Parasara grew up. The Asuras were utterly defeated. It is on account of this that Mahavisnu had to take many avataras (incarnat ions). Enraged at this. Vasistha.B. (Devi Bhagavata. the son of At ri. (3) Atri's dispute with Vainya. 5) Important events. the eldest son of Vasistha in the forest. In the Mahabharata we find a story about a differe . The Moon gave light to the Dev as. He set out to the Himalayas to receive a powerful mantra from Siva. After six years' war. came to Sukra's asrama and killed Sukra's mother. Chapter 181). To settle the dispute they went together to Sanatkumara Muni . Kasyapa had a son name d Kasipu. in great sorrow a nd Sakti's wife.

(M.. went to gilavati. Vrsadarbhi sent Yatudhani to destroy Atri and all other Munis. There is a passage in the Mahabharata in which Atri gives advice to the emperor Nimi who belonged to Atri's fancily. Visnu and S iva). Brahm a transferred his passion to Atri Maharsi. her husband. Siva's fury was transferred an d deposited in Anasuya. Gautama. He performed Homes in Ahavaniyagni and fro m the agnikunda. he experienced carnal passsion.Mahavisnu. Ana suya expressed her wish that the Trimurtis (Brahma.B. Dattatreya became King. As Yatudhani was guarding a lotus pond in t he forest. After satisfying their hunger by eating the lotus flowers the Maharsis went to Brahmaloka. Nimi was his son. Jamadagni. King Vrsadarbhi. Once when Brahma was performing the task of creatio n. Alt hough Karna had retreated from Brahma his passion had not been suppressed. Durvasas is the embodiment of that element of Siva's fury. At her request. (6) Atri and Sraddha. A son named Dattatreya was born to Atri. That passion emerged from Atri's eye in the form of the Moon. Their object was to go to Brahmaloka. There is a story about it in the Brahmanda Purana. the Raksasi Yatudhani (Krtya) arose. He pronounced a curse that Kamadeva should be burnt up in the fi re from Siva's eye. . Once Siva got angry with the Devas. approached Siva and begged him to suppress his anger. the son of Sibi. travelled round the world. Verses 20-44) (7) How Brahma. he fell in love with her also. Siva who became more furious at this.B. Vrsadarbhi became angry. According to the promise. Sarasvati was the offspring of that passion. This is why lovers experience strong passion for each other at the time of the rising o f the moon. They began to flee for life. The story of how Srad dha originated in the world which Bhisma had told Dharmaputra was retold by Atri . 'In order to enable Ugrasravas. The Trimurtis who were happy at the success o f their mission (of bringing about the Sunrise) asked Anasuya to demand any boo n she wanted. As the sun failed to rise. Anusasana Parva. This made him feel angry tow ards Karnadeva. Since she was unable to bear such a violent passion. Anasuya persuaded Silavati to with draw her curse. This story was told b y Bhisma to Yudhisthira about the kind of persons from whom Brahmins may accept gifts. The Maharsis were ab le to recognize Yatudhani. They refused t o accept it. who were the wives of two M unis. she gave it back to he r husband. At that t ime there was drought in the world. When Brahma saw her. accompanied by Anasuya. the Trimurtis (Brahma. and Pasusakhd. Chapter 91. was born as the son of Anasuya. Kasyapa. pinched off one of the heads of Brahma. But Brahma alone did not run away. with Arundhati and Ganda. suggested that the above-mentioned Munis should be called and given wealth. see PURLTRAVAS). Visnu an d Siva) should be born as her sons and they agreed. There is no other woman in the Puranas who surpasses Silavati in her fidelity to her hus band. Chapters 39-43) . Atri's wife. Atri's wife. his w ife. Vasistha. Siva was born to her under the name of Durvasas. O n that occasion Atri Maharsi came there and explained to Nimi the importance of Sraddha.. the son of Brahma. she once carried him on her own shoulders to a prostitute's house. the munis led by Atri happened to come that way. to satisfy his passion. The Maharsi gave it to Anasuya. ordained a Sraddha in memory of his son. There is a story about that a lso in the Brahmanda Purana. Nimi's son died after one thousand years. Anusasana Parva. The g rief-stricken Silavati pronounced a counter-curse that the sun should not rise on the next day. (M. (Brahmanda Purana. Brahma also took his birth as the moon from Anasuya. Man davya Muni pronounced a curse that Ugrasravas should die before sunrise. Nimi who was i n deep grief at the death of his son. (For that story. t he wife of Atri. They beat her with their tridandu (Trident or a kind of magic wand) and reduced her to ashes. Bharadvaja. Once the Munis. . Atri. Visnu and Mahesvara (gives) were born as sons of Atra. (This is why Kamadeva was later burnt to death by Siva). On the way. under the na me of Dattitreya. Chap ter 93). Parvati who was alarmed. Still he was not pacified. Visvamitra.nce of opinion between King Vrsadarbhi and some Maliarsis.

. Chapter 222. The Asuras at another time made Atri lie down in a machine with a large numbe r of holes and tried to burn him alive in it. Verse 6). 5th Mandala was composed by Atri. (M. 7. (Agni Purana. (4gveda Sarimhita. Pracinabarhis. while Atri Maharsi was performing penance in Kama da forest.B. Once the Asuras put Atri Maharsi into the S` atadvara yantra (a machine of to rture with a hundred holes).. . Anasuyi begge d Ganga Devi to stay there for a month. 9. Vanes. Suddenly Siva appeared there in the shape of a Linga. Ganga Devi answered that she would do so if Anasuya was prepared to gik-e her the fruit of one year's Tapassakti a nd of devoted service to her husband. On another occasion.ikti to her for one month. 2. (M. his wife A nasuya made a Sivalinga of sand and offered worship to it. Verse 47) . Ganga Devi agreed to do so on condition that Anasuya would transfer her TapAs. Drones Parva. and Puraravas from Soma were born.(8) Atri and Ganga Deaf. At that time he prayed to the Asvi ns and they liberated him. Once the Asuras tried to burn Atri alive. She explained to him all matters.B. on his return to Ayodhya a fter the war with Rdvana. ATRI II 76 AURVA I 6. Rgveda. Suddenly Ganga Devi appe ared there and said to Anasuya : "There will be a hole here. Anasuya prayed to her that Ganga should continue to exist in the world always. 16th Anuvatka . Atri from Brahma. When the Kaurava-Pandava war was raging with great fury. 11. 16th Anuvaka. There was no water anywhere. Once. Chapter 12) . Water will come out of it in a torrent. Atri was pleased by drinking the water. (M. Atri begot by Anasaya. there was a terrible drought in the country. 1. 4. 8. Cha pter 20) . Chapter 64) .B. Anasuya agreed to that condition. Sukta 116) . She appeared before him at once. Verse 35). ( Brahmanda Purana.. a King named Soma performed a Rajasuya (Royal sacrifice) . 3. Chapter 43 . (Rgveda. 5. At that time. Atri Maharsi was the chief priest at this yaga. Atri Maharsi was one of them. (Agni Purana.B. Many Pavakas had been born in Atri Vamsi. Durvasas and Candra. (Siva P urana). 10. Chapter 208. 12. 1st Mandala. 1st Mandala. Besides Dattatreya. Chapter 190. Then Atri asked her t o give him a little water. Sakta 51). (Rgveda.. many Maharsis went t o Drona and advised him to stop the battle. Atri was among the Maharsis who visited Sri Rama. Rgveda. Atri was also among the Mahargis who had gone to witness Parasurima'stapas. Ist Mandala. Santi Parva. (M. 17th Anuvaka. Soma. He asked Anasuya where she got such nice fresh water. Salya Parva. (9) Other Details. V erses 27-29). At the request of Atri and Anasuya Siva took his seat there permanently assuming the name of "AtrTs-vara". Atri had another son. Parva." Pure water began to flow from the place pointed out by Ganga Devi. From the navel lotus of Visnu Brahma was born. Atri expressed his desire to see Ganges Devi. Preface). Sukta 112). Durvasas and Dattatreya yogi. (Uttara Ramayana). Soma from A tri.

M. M. AUDUMBARA. Aurva was her child who was the grandfather of Jamadagni and the great grandfather of Parasurama.B. In the Purlnas another Atri. AUKTHY A. Chapter 134. This word means Mahesvara (Siva). (Sabha Parva. Vana Parva. Chapter 11. Descending in order from Visnu. ATRI III. (Chapter 1 79. M. A fierce saint of the line of Bhrgu Maharsi. (Agni Purana. Aurva started doing rigorous penance and by the force . The place got this name because the sa ge Uddalaka lived there. The Bh rgus were hunted down by the Ksatriya kings and the Bhargavas frightened by this move left their abode and went and hid in Caves in mountains far away. (M. The term Atri has been used as an epithet of Siva. Sri Krsna conquered this land.). Adi Parva. It is a plateau on the top of Maniparvata. 3) The effulgence of Auran. Aurva bore a deep grudge against the Ksairiyas who had m assacred his forefathers.B. M .presents and gifts. (Ura = Thigh and so.B.) . born of a thigh). Arusi was pregnant at that time an d she hid her `Garbha' in her thighs while fleeing. AUDDALAKA.. Then the thigh broke and a boy came out of it. Kr tavirya died and his sons did not very much like the Bhargavas (Bhrgus) becoming rich by the wealth of their ancestors. Anusasana Pa rva. Brahma. Sabha Parva. Frightened they craved for pardon and pr aised him.B. The King of the state of Udumbara. Adi Parva. It is believed that if one bathes in this holy place on e will be absolved of all his sins.) . Aurva. A glorifying prayer in Sdmaveda. Verse 38). AURVA I. M.B. Because he was born from the t highs the boy was named Aurva. Bhrgu. (Orva. Once a Ksatriya king forcibly dug out from the house of a Bhrgu the wealth he had safely buried and from that day onwards the Ksatriyas and the Bhargavas became enemies. This is the place where Narakasura with his ten thousand girls was once imprisoned.). Chapter 65. An asura named Nuru was the keeper of th is plateau. This king once paid respects to em peror Yudhisthira and gave him several . A holy place of ancient India. They got back their eyesight then. Drona Parva. Krtavirya a famous King of the Hehaya dynasty and father of Kart aviryarjuna had his education from a Bhrgu rsi living in his asrama. AUDAKA. (Sloka 36. Among th ose who thus fled was Arusi. A country of ancient India. Chapter 5 3. Cyavana Maharsi married Arusi.ATRI II.). Chapter 348) .. 4) Auraa and Badzadgni. wife of Cyavana. 2) Birth. The Preceptors of the Bhrgu dynasty were the hereditary gurus of the K ings of Hehaya.B. Cyavana. Craja). 1) Genealogy. daughter of Manu. Because water was in plen ty there the place was called `Audaka'. Knowing dais the Bhrgas started burying their wealth under the earth. On competin g his education the king paid lavishly and the Bhrgus became rich thereafter. AURASIKA. the son of Sukracarya. A brahmin woman who saw this went and informed the Ksatriyas and they immediately went and caught hold of he r. Chapter 17. Verse 27). Aurva was born with fiery radiance and the sudden ef fulgence made the Ksatriya Kings blind. AU.B. (Sloka 12. is also seen (M. (Sloka 16.

a sage.of his austerities the world started to burn.davi was then pregnant. He had as his wife Yadavi a good natured and well behaved woman who was a gem among queens. There was a friend of Vinata. The marriage of Suma ti thus remained a problem for her parents. 6) Aurva and the sister of Garuda. Subahu and Yadavi went and stayed with Aurva in his asrama. He then asked Sagara to marry Sumati and bl essed them saying that Sagara would one day become an emperor and perform an Asv amedha yaga. When they knew of Subahu's death they were pl unged in sorrow but were glad to know a son of Subahu. (Brahmanda Purana. It is now believed that t his fire taking the shape of a horse-head is still living underneath the sea vom iting heat at all times. Even frorn the womb itself I nurtured a fierce hatred towards the Ksatriyas. One day Talajamgha a King of the Heha ya line of rulers who was then the King of Mahismati defeated Subahu in a battle . Both of them bore no sons for Sagara. Chapters 18-21). At that stage the Pitrs appeared b efore him and persuaded him to withdraw from his penance. After a few months sh e delivered a son and Aurva called him °Sagara' meaning one with `gara' (poison) i n him. This fire is called BaJavagni. while I was lying in the thigh-womb of my mother I heard hideous g roans from outside and they were of our mothers when they saw the heads of our f athers being cut off by the swords of the Ksatriyas. (Brahmanda Purana. Chapters 16. The sannyasini advised Garuda to approach Aurva to find a solut ion for the problem and Aurva was therefore approached for advice. 5) Auraa and the birth of Sapara. It was at this time that the people of Ayodhya came in search of Subahu and Yada vi who had left them years before. had a sister named Sum ati. (Chapter 180. Enraged at this the sage cursed Surnati saying AURVA II that the brahmin who married her would have his head burst. The Pitrs were astounded at the firmness of the vow of Aurva and horrified at th e thought of what would happen if the penance was continued. wanted to marry her but neither she nor her relatives liked it. had grown up to b e a successor to Subahu. After the defeat. fire of his penance and forced it down into the sea. Aurva then told them t hus: s`Pitrs.). a sann yasini. M. Aurva then sent Sagara along with the people to Ayodhya where Sagar a after defeating all his enemies became the emperor of Bharatavarsa. Ya. 7) Sagara's sons and hox Aurva helped in getting them. Ke'sini. More about this can be h ad under the head Badavagni. 17) . Adi Parva. Grief-stricken Yadavi was a bout to jump into the funeral pyre and end her life when Aurva stopped her from the act pointing out that she was soon to deliver a child. When Garuda made Aurva acquainted with the pitiable tal e of his sister Aurva decreed that Sumati should marry a Ksatriya instead of a b rahmin and thus tide over the curse. Jealous co-wives poisoned her . Sagara ruled the land for three thousand years.B. Dejected he entrusted the adm inistration of the state with his ministers and left for the a'srama of Aurva. No helping hand was raised bef ore the pitiable wails of our mothers". They pleaded again to cease his austerities and then submitting to their request Aurva withdrew the . He had besides Sumati another wi fe. Fo r seven years they lived there and then Subahu died. Ayodhya was once ruled by a celebrated King of lksvaku dynasty named Subahu. Sagara. living in a forest and to find a way to escape from the curse Vinata sen t Garuda to her. A . Yadavi did not die but the poison affected the child in the womb. Upamanyu. Garuda. son of Vinata.

Aurva gave him instructions on many a divine subject. Santi Parva. (Chapter 83. (Gaesa Purana) . When Aurva found his daughter and son-in-law missing he started a search for them. A holy* place on the banks of the river.B. Adi Parva. This rsi was a brilliant member of the royal council of Dhar maputra. The force of the arrows to ok the skulls of the demons to far off places in the forest. The sage cursed them and made them into two trees. Sagara and his wives. son of Dhaumyaka and disciple of Saunaka. At la st Mahodara came to Ausanasa and to his surprise the skull came off from his foo t healing his wound. Aurva and his wife then prayed to God for help. The skull went deep into his foot and not only did it wound his foot but it stuck to his foot so hard that it could not be drawn out also. 8) Teaching of Aurva. Chapter 1. Amsam 3. Vana Parva) . There is a story behind the place gettin g this name. From then onwards the place was called `Kapalamocana'. Chaptre 63) . Thus Suma ti got sixty thousand sons. AUSIJA II. (Chapter 39. the rituals to be practised by th e different castes of Brahmana. Ganapati was pleased by the de votional deeds of Aurva and eaunaka and changed the trees again into -Samika and Mandara. AURVA II. AUESANAS (Kapalamocana). son of Bhrgu and Aurva. Parasurama visited the asrama one day during that time and paid respects to Bhrg u. He equalled Indra. Salya Parva. Visvamitra.). All the Bhargava°rsis together once stayed in the asrama of Aurva. In the evening of his life Sagara went and stayed in the a 'srama of Aurva. He directed h im to cut the piece of flesh into sixty thousand pieces and put one piece each i n a jar of ghee. (Brah manda PUrana. Finally Aurva gave Sagara Brahmajnana. M. After some days when Mandara found his wife fully grown he went to Aurva to bring his wife home. There is a reference to this sage who is the son of Afrgiras in Rgveda. (Chapter 208. the devas and many maharsis lived here once. Bra hma. He remained there for some time and obtained many divine at tainments. After this inc ident Brahma. She was married very early to Mandara. son of Cyavana. At the forest of Dandaka Sri Rama killed many demons. Cyavana. M.B. This brahmin got a daughter named Samika by his wife Sumedha. M.). Aurva then lived in the tree of gama in the shape of Agni and Saunaka made an idol of Ganapati with the root of the Mandara tree and worshipped him. But S umati gave birth to a lump of flesh. Greatly pained the King was about to throw it away when Aurva appeared there and stopped him from doing that. A King of ancient India. Aurva sent them both to the house of Mandara with his blessings.) AUSIJA I. An ancient sage. 9) Auraasrama. (Sloka 226. wife of Bhrgu. (Brahmanda Purana. Every year one prince would be born from one of them. returned to the palace and very soon both his wives be came pregnant. He taught him about the importance of the four asramas. With his foot in pains the sage visited all the holy places but with no relief to his pain. (Chapter 8. Chapter 92). Balabhadrarama and many such divine persons visited th e place.B. On their way home they met the Maharsi Bhu 'sundi and burst into laughter at his sight. In due time Kesini delivered a son who was named Asamanjas.urva blessed them and prophesied that Ke'sini would deliver a son to continue th e dynasty and that Sumati would deliver sixty thousand sons of no great use at a ll. Then he came to know that both of them had changed into trees by a curse. Visnu Purana). Ksatriya. . A brahmin living in the country of Malaya. This place is called Kapalamocana also. Khyati. Sarasvati. One of the skulls t hus sent far fell on the feet of a sage named Mahodara who was then going that w ay. Vai°sya and Sadra and many such other th ings.

41) . Chapter 21. A celebrated Tamil poetess. Sabha Parva. AUSNIKA(M). by his wife Sugrava the princess of V id arbha. Nantanikov a. Son of Utathya (See under Utathya). Katvali slukka. Stanza 43). (M. (Sloka 5. M. (See Dhanasarma). Budha was . AVABHRTHAM. Chapter45.. A sudra girl born in the country of Usinara. (The Dynasty of Avanti) . Chapter 11. The dynasty of Avanti Kings had its o rigin in the Yadu dynasty. Chapter 41) . See under Sibi. AVAGAHA.).B. the cudge l and the wheel. Her mother left her as soon as she was delivered and a low c aste Sudra brought her up. To him was born Ariha of Maryada the princess of Vidarbha. Gautama Muni go t his sons Kaksivan and others of this girl. (Sloka 17. Nannutkova. Adi Par va. A warrior of the Vrsni dynasty. The bath taken at the end of a sacrifice. The renowned such as Kalidasa and others. Mutturai. Stanzas 17 and 18) . She was born in a Paraya (lowest of the Hi ndu castes) family. Stanzas 40. The King of this country paid respects to Dharmaputra offering him several gifts. Candra was born to Atri the son of Brahma. (M." (Mahabharata. The important ones are A tticirti.B. Sabha Parva. AVANTI VAIVISA. under the protection of the Mighty Lord of the bow. AUJINARI (U8INARA). Sabha Parva. This is one of the seven considered to be capable of giving Moksa (heavenly bliss).AUSINARA (AUSINARI). the ca poets cities Parva. Natvali. She lived for 240 years before she left on a long jou rney never to return. Stanza 27) . "Then all the Ksatriya Kings approached Dharmatanuja (Dharmaputra) who had compl eted successfully. lived in this city. Drona Parva. Once Indra and Brhaspati went to Kailasa to do homage to Siva who clad in air only hindered their way. At the request of Brhaspati Siva turn ed the fire from his eye towards Lavana Samudra (the sea of Salt). Darsanappattu. Aruntamilmala. Jalandhara wh o was killed by Siva had his origin in this fire. An ancient place in India. (M. and jnanakurul. M. She has made a dictionary in ve rses also. Kontaiventa. He requested repeatedly several times but in v ain. A country called Malava in ancient India. AVANTI. Salya Par va. Bhisma Chapter 9. Sibi. But Siva froze it.. AVAKIRNA (M) . (Mahabharata. AUVVAYAR. AVAISAKHA. Chapter 95. AVACINA. The famous Ujjayini was pital of Avanti. AUTATHYA.. Indra who got angry took his weapon of Vajra. Chapter 51. the great sacrifice of the RajaAVAC INA 78 AVATARA suya (imperial inauguration) and taken the avabhrtasnana (the bath at the end of the sacrifice). Moreover f ire emanated from his eye on the forehead. An incarnation of Siva. The son born to Jayatsena.B. a King of the Puru dynasty. Indra requested t hat person to get out of the way.). She wrote several books in Tamil. This city is situated on the bank of Sipra. A holy place on the bank of the river Sarasvati.B. son of the King of Uh'sinara. AVADHAGTESVARA.B . (Siva Purana).

After Kasipu his son Prahlada became King. Chapter 275) AVARODHA. Sura. In this fight Mahavisnu helped Indra. Mahiman to Sahana.B. The Asuras were completely destroyed. a vesa and arirsa. Dharmanetra was born to Haihaya. He performed ten thousand sacrifices a ll in conformity with the rules and regulations. In the Sri Mahadevi Bhagavata a story occurs to the effect that Mahavisnu was forced to take so large a number of incarnations due to the curse of the gr eat hermit Bhrgu. Th e defeated Asuras went to their teacher Sukra who promised to protect them by sp ells and incantations and herbs. Arjuna renowned as Karttavirya became the supreme lord of the earth comprising t he Saptadvipa (Seven Islands) by the merits of his penance. He too was an enemy of the Gods. the eldest of whom was known by the name Sahasrajit. A King of the family of Bharata. Pururavas to Budha. Dhr sta. Leaving the asuras behind. Hermits. would not stand on a par with him. Krsna. Instead of h im they place Buddha. Sukra went to Kailasa to get more power of spells and . Durgama to Bhadrasena and Kanaka to Durgama. So there was a battle between Indra and Prahlada. An ancient Bath in Bharata. the Avanti family. Complete avataras are ten in number s of which Balabhadra Rama is not considered as an avatara by some. offering of alms and penance done be.. Arjuna(Karttaviryarjuna) was born as the son of Krtavirya. Yadu had five sons. Stanza 128). Mahavisnu has taken so many incarnations in the world. Yayati to Nahusa and Yadu to Yayati. The battle continued for a hundr ed years. Manus. was born from Jayadhvaja. God takes three kinds of incarnations such as avatara. as boons. Chapter 82. AVASANAM. Karttavirya had a hundred sons. b) Reason for the incarnations. One could attain the merits of Sahasragoda na (giving a thousand cows as alms) by bathing in this holy bath. From Kanaka were born the four s ons Krtavirya.born to Candra. Hailiaya and Renuhaya. Nahusa to Ayus. It was ordered that Kings other than Karttavir ya. That which has full power is avatara . Karaviraand Krtaujas. AVATARA. To escape from loss of wealth o ne had only to remember his name. Talajangha who had several sons. Devas (gods) and sons of Manus are incarnations in part (amsavataras) of Visnu. Ayus to Puraravas. Sahana to Dharmanetra. (Agni Purana. Sahasrajit had three sons called Satajit. The story is as follows : Kasyapa had a son named Kasipu. Krtagni. There arose a severe battle between the gods and the Asuras. (Incarnation). Vana Pa rva. son of Virocana. The incarnations of Mahavisnu :1) General information. and the number of sacri fices. The fight continued between Bali and Indra . the Vitihotra family. He got invincibility and thousand hands in battles. They were the Bhojas. The family of the Haihayas was split into five. as King and leaving the Kingdom he went to the Gandhamadana and began to do penance. Raghu. He felt very sorry at the defeat. (M. The incarnat ions of Visnu are countless. At last Prahlada was defeated. and Jayadhvaja. Krostu and Satajit. So he anointed Bali. Jayadhvaja the most renowned of these five ruled in Avanti as King. The Gods knew that Sukra had undertaken to prot ect the asuras. He w as daring and brave and ruled the country as an enemy of the Gods. the Svayamjata family and the Saundikeya family. The rest of them were known as Nilanjika. Bhadrasena to Mahima n. that which has power onl y for the time being is avesa and partial incarnation in amsavatara. of whom the most famous were Surasena. Kasipu was killed in that battle . however great the extent of their might and prowess.

Mahavisnu thought of his Sudarsana (wheel-weapon of Visnu) which instantly made its appear ance and cut off the head of Kavyamata. How wicked a deed is battle and how delightful it is to become a devotee of God ! So hereafter you will not be troubled by us. (The ten Incarnations). Siva was in trouble. Matsyah Kurmo Varahasca Narasimhas ca Vamanah / Ramo Rama'sca Rama'sca Krsnah Ka lkir Janardanah // Matsya (Fish). (Fish Incarnation). Kavyamata. Rarna (Parasurama). by t he merits of her devotional meditation petrified Mahavisnu and Indra. by his wife Aditi. the mother of Sukra. of a. Rama (Sri Rama). who woke up as if from sleep. They trembled with fear and began to consult how to get over the difficult situation. inhaling smoke for a thousan d years. Narasimha (Lionman).are described one by one below. After this the Asuras sent Prahlada to the Gods for a tr uce. the hermit Bhrgu took some water from his water-pot an d sprinkled it on the face of Kavyamata. Before going to Kailasa Sukra had asked the Asuras to w ait for him with faith. But Sukra began that penance insta ntly. Thus having cursed Visnu. Owing to the curse of Bhrgu. So they all went to Kavyamata. and the gra ndson of Brahma a son was born. Sukra might desist from the attempt. "Gods. though an Asura was in good favour with the Gods." The gods believed Prahlada. The Asuras. in the guise of hermits waited for Sukra in the hermitage of Kasyapa." (Sri Mahadevi Bhagavata. They are called Dasavataras (The Te n Incarnations). Once. The deceit of the Asuras. The dasavataras. The hermits who adore you as the seat of all that is goo d are mere fools. Finally they decided to go to war with the Asuras. and I curse you to take countless incarnations in the world. The gods did accordingly. we have no desire at all for war. Siva said so thinking that when the dreadful nature of the feat was con sidered. Kurma (Turtle). The Asuras were in trouble. a deceit. mentioned a bove. 4th Skandha). black character. He reached thecourt of Indra and said. Krsna (Sri Krsna). The great hermit Bhrgu got angry because Mahavisnu committed woman-slaughter. (For the remaining portion of the story see Sukra). So Mahavisnu decided to take the for m of a fish to recover the stolen Vedas. 2) Dasavataras. the son of Marici. the crookedness of Suk ra all were now clear to them. Sukra reached Kailasa and bowed before Siva and re quested that he might be given the power of defeating the Gods by some means qui te unknown to Brhaspati the teacher of the devas (Gods). Likewise I hope you will not do us innocent people any harm.incantations from Siva. Vamana (Dwarf). Prahlada. you are wicked. complete as well as parti al. while Brahma was reciting the Vedas (the Scriptures) Hayagriva. They were not stro ng enough to face the Gods. a viper. . To Ka'syapa. The devas (gods) with Mahavisnu at their head chased the Asuras. It was during the time of this Manu that Visnu incarnated as a Matsya (fish). Varaha (Pig). He was called Vivasvan and th e Manu who was the son of Vivasvan is known as Vaivasvata Manu or Satyavrata Man u. Rama (Balabhadrarama) . These are the ten incarnations of Jana rdana. Kalki (Yet to come). We have decide d to spend the remaining period in penance wearing barks of trees and tufts of h air. 1) Matsyavatara. Complete incarnations are ten in number. stole the Vedas from the side of Brahma and with them he went under water to the bottom of the ocean and hid himself there. At last he told hermit Sukra that to c ome by such a spell he had to stand head downwards. and cursed him thus: "You are a crooked be ing. and painful confinement by and by because of your sins. an asura. He could refuse neither Sukra nor the Gods. The Gods understood everything. Mahavisnu had to undertake so many incarnations.

for the earth is filled with violence through them . with lower. It was seen that everything in the world had been destro yed except the Manu and the seven hermit-sages and some of the germs. and it shall be for food for thee and for them. second and third stories shalt thou make it. Finally the fish to ld the King: "Oh. The fish reached the sum mit of the Himalayas with the boat. The length of the ark should tae three hundred cubits. Make thee an ark of gopher woo d. Chapter 2. Of every clean beast thou s halt take to thee by sevens the male and his female and of beasts that are not c lean by two the male and his female. Ham and Japheth. Enoch.B. within seven days there will be a great flood in the wor ld.Vaivasvata Manu. even I. So please don't forsake me". I. Agni Purana. and behold. This story of the incarnation of Visnu as fish is seen in the Bible figuratively . In a few days the fish began to grow. and thou shalt come into the ark. so did he. two of every sort. the King put the fish in a pond. and of every creeping thing of the earth after th eir kind. and of every livin g thing of all flesh. Bhagavata 8th S kandha. En os. Mahalil. T he rain ceased to pour. Since th e peak came to be called `Naubandhana Srnga' (The peak to which boat is tied). Everything in the world. There was a great flood during the time of Noah. (This story occurs in the great Hindi work `Kamayani' of Jayasankar Pra sad). When the pot became insufficient the King put it in a larger pot.. Then a small fish said to the Manu : "Oh King.jeth. a nd of cattle after their kind. rooms shalt thou make in the ark and shalt paint it within and without with p itch. I will help you. two of every sort shall come unto thee to keep them alive. were under the flood. the first and foremost of the godfearing. Within seven days rain started in torrents. For yet seve n days and I will cause it to rain up on the earth forty days and forty nights. When that also became too small. "In the order of the generations of Adam. But with thee will I establish my covenant. which was tied to the highest peak. Chapter 187 . they shall be male and female. Of fowls also of the air by sevens the male and the female to keep seed alive up on the face of all the earth. Chapter 24) . And behold. (M. Aft er a few days the Ganges also became too small for the fish. for thee Have I seen righteous before me in this generation. When N oah was five hundred years old he begot Shem. And this is the fashion which thou shalt make it of. do bring a flood of water up on the ea: th." Hearing this he got an immensely large boat ready and obeyed the instructions of the fish. Hearing this the Kind Manu took the fish in his hand and put it in an earthenware pot and brought it up. Kainan. Manu tied his boat on that horn. saved in t he boat. When the pond coul d not hold the fish any longer the King put it in the Ganges at its request. He got down into the river Krtamala to take a bath . shalt thou bring into the ark to keep t hem alive with thee. I will destroy them with the earth." Thus did Noah according to all that Go d commanded him. You should make a boat and take the seven hermit-sages with you in the boat and escape. Of fowls after their kind. God said to hixn : "The end of all flesh is come before one." And Noah did according unto all that the Lord commanded him. And the Lord said unto Noah. A window shalt thou make to the ark and in a cubit shall thou finish it above and the door of the ark shalt thou set in the side thereof. And take th ou unto thee of all food that is eaten and thou shalt gather it to thee. the first creation of God. . "Come thou and all thy house into the ark. Lamech and Noah were born. King. A horn began to sprout from the head of the fish. was once doing penanc e in a place known as Badari. thou and thy sons and thy wife and thy sons' wives with thee. of it thirty cubits. the breadth of it fifty cubits. . and the height . Aranya Parva. to destroy all flesh wherein is the breadth of life from under heaven and everything that is in the earth shall die . and every living substance that I have made will I destroy from off the earth. I am afraid of large fishes. the moving and the not moving. Jared. Methuselah.

And he sent forth a raven which went fo rth to and fro until the waters were dried up from off the earth. Bring forth with thee every l iving thing that is with thee. And the waters prevailed upon the earth for hu ndred and fifty days. and Ham and Japheth the sons of Noah and Noah's wife and the wives of t he sons with them into the ark. And the waters decreased continually until the t enth month. And the waters prevailed exceedingly upon the earth and all the high hills that were under the whole heaven were cove red. of all flesh both of fowl and of cattle and of ev ery creeping thing that creepeth up on the earth. And the dove cam e into him in the evening. They and every beast after his kind and all the cattle after their kind and every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth an d every fowl after his earth after his kind. and lo. and the waters increased and bore up the ark and it was lifted up above th e earth. But the dove found no rest for the sole of her foot and she returned unto him into the ark for the waters were on the face of the whole earth. And they went in unto Noah into the ark. which returned not again unto him anymor e. And he stayed yet ot her seven days and sent forth the dove. And it came to pass after seven days that the waters of the flood w ere upon the earth. And God spake unto Noah saying: "Go forth of the ark. And every living substance was destroyed which was up on the face of the ground both man and cattle and the creeping things and the fowl of the heav en. And it came to pass at the end of forty days that Noah opened the window of the ark which he had made. And God remembered Noah and every living thing and all the cattle that was with him in the ark and God made a wind to pass over the earth and the waters became calm. thou and thy wife. in her mouth was an olive leaf plucked off. and the Lord shut him in. There w ent in two and two unto Noah into the ark the male and the female as God had com manded Noah. Anti the ark rested in the seventh month on the seventeenth day of the mont h upon the mountains of Ardrat. t he first day of the month the waters were dried up from off the earth and Noah r emoved the covering of the ark and looked and beheld the face of the ground was dry. And he stayed yet oth er seven days. died. And the waters returned from off the earth continually and after the end of the hundred and fifty days. and his sons and his wife and his sons' wives with him into t he ark because of the waters of the flood. Also he sent f orth a dove from him to see if the waters were abated from off the face of the g round. And they that went in. and they were destroyed from the earth. every bird of every sort. and every man. and th ey that were with him in the ark. both of fowl and of cattle a nd of beast and of every creeping thing that creepeth up on the earth. the waters were aba ted. And Noah went forth . In the six hundredth year of Noah's life in the second month on the seventeenth day of the month the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up and the windows of heaven were opened and the rain was up o n the earth for forty days and forty nights. In the tenth month on the first day of the month were the tops of th e mountains seen. went in male and female of all flesh as God had commanded him. The fountains also of the deep and the windows of heaven were stopped and the rain from heaven was restrained. All in whose nostrils was the breadth of life. And Noah went in. And it came to pass in the six hundredth and first year in the first month. and thy sons and thy sons' wives with thee. And all the flesh died that moved upon the earth. And the flood was forty days upon the e arth. And the waters prevailed and were increased greatly upon the earth and the ark went up on the face of the waters. that they may breed abundantly in the earth and be fruitful and multiply up on the earth. And in the second month on the seven and twentieth day of the month was the earth dried. of all that was in the dry land. Of clean beasts and of beasts that ar e not clean and of fowls and of everything that creepeth upon the earth. Then Noah put forth his hand and tuck her and pulled her to the ark.And Noah was six hundred years old when the flood of waters was up on the earth. In the self-same day entered Noah a nd Shem. And again he sent forth the dove out of the ark. And Noah only remained alive. two and two of all flesh wherein is the breadth of life. Fifteen cubits upward did the waters prevail and the mountains were covered . S o Noah knew that the waters were abated from off the earth.

Durvasas who got angry at this cursed the gods as a whole that they would get wrinkles and grey hair. . They also said that when they were slain thrice by Mahavisnu they wo uld reach heaven. They made use of the Mountain of M andara as churndrill and the huge snake Vasuki as churning rope. Chapter 7. Sarga 45). Varuna (the Lord of water) was terrified and he ran to Mahavisnu and sought protection. Air& v ata destroyed that garland. (Incarnation as lion-man). every creep ing thing and every fowl and whatsoever creep up on the earth after their kinds went forth out of the ark. By the force of lifting it went hig her and higher up. and the churnin g commenced. 7 and 8) . the mountain of Mandara. Once Hiranyaksa got down into the ocean and began to beat the waves in the ocea n with his cudgel. When Hiranyaksa saw Mahavisnu he took the earth in his hand and ran to Patala (the nether world).and his sons and his wife and his sons' wives with him. Neither will I again smite anymore every thing as I ha ve done. Mahavisnu took the form of a Pig and came to the ocean. Long ago when Durvasas visited the realm of Gods he presented Devendra with a garland made of flowers of exquisite fragrance. his wife Diti approached him with lustful desire. one of which was that nobody but Visnu should be able to kil l him. and got under the Ma ndara mountain and lifted it up on his back. Then Jaya and Vijaya treated the hermits without respect. Genesis. With the death of Hiranyaksa. (Incarnation as a tortoise) . Chapte rs 6. and they approached the sea of Milk. They ar e the two asuras Hiranyaksa and Hiranyakasipu. He returned with gladness and began to roam about torturing devotees of V isnu everywhere. Valmiki Ramayana. But she persisted and the sage yielded and out of that union two sons were born. The gods took hold of the tail of the snake and as the churning was proceeding the churn-drill. Skandha 3. He wanted to avenge the de ath of his brother. Ba la-kanda. They wandered about causing destruction and devastation wherever they went. Agni Purana. And Noah built an altar unto the Lord and took of eve ry clean beast and of every clean fowl and off red burnt offerings on the altar. The hermits cursed them that they would become Danavas (Asuras or giants). Of these Hiranyaksa was the incar nation of Jaya and Hiranyakasipu that of Vijaya. Accordingly the Gods called the asuras f or help. (Bhagavata. The ocean began to sway and surge. For the imagination of man's hear t is evil from his youth. Skandha 2. Chapter 3. Then Mahavisnu took the form of a turtle. Mahavisnu followed him a nd killed him and recovered the earth. Every beast. These two asura brothers began to terrorize the wo rld. Once the great hermit-sages Sanaka and others reached Vaikuntha to visit Mahavisnu. his brother Hiranyakasipu became furious more than ever. (Incarnation as a Pig). Then Mahavisnu took the form of an eagle and sat on the top o f the mountain and it came down a little and placed itself in the right position . 4) Narasimhavatara. Kasyapa told her that as he was engaged in prayer and meditation it was not prop er on her part to select that particular moment for her lustful desire. Chapter 7 and Agni Purana. So he got on the top of the Mountain of Mandara and did penance before Brahma and Brahma appeared and granted him boons. Chapter 4) . 2) Kurmavatara. Skandha 8. Chapter 18. At that period when hermit Kasyapa was carrying on his evening prayer and devotional rites. 3) Varahavatara. And the Lord smelt a sweet savour and the Lord said in his heart : "I will not again curse the ground anymore for man's sake. (Bhagavata. (Holy Bible. Wh en the beetles which gathered on the garland for honey became a nuisance. The gods were advised by Mahav isnu that if they got Ambrosia (Amrta-celestial honey) from the sea of Milk by c hurning it they could escape from this. having no fixation at the bottom sank down. His fury was turned towards Mahavisnu. While the earth remaineth seed time and harvest and cold and heat and s ummer and winter and day and nignt shall not cease. With the birth of these two the whole world began to tremble. Bhagav ata. Jaya and Vijaya were the two watchers w ho stood at the gate of Mahavisnu. Indra tied it on to the tusk of Airavata (the elephant of Indra).

the Pillar broke open and a monster as horrible a s the Destroyer Siva. Instantly the Sudargana. pushed h im to the ground and opened his heart with its fierce claws. tongue swaying like a sword. " Is your Visnu in this pillar?" Prahlada replied. Skandha 7. 5) Vamanavatara. tusks like young moon. breast excessiv ely broad and strong. (Incarnation as a Dwarf) . waist very small and narrow body thickly covered with bush y hair exuberantly ~rown and as yellow as the light of the moon. "My Visnu is in Plilar and in f ibre". body shining as if countless suns had risen tog ether. Stanzas 20-22)." (Bhaktidipika) The horrid monster caught hold of Hiranyakasipu the King of the Asuras. Ire got a special teacher for the purpose and Prahlada was tak en to the house of the teacher to live with him until he changed his mind. hair long and sharp like pointed wire. This was the figure of Narasimha. jaws prominent and thick and broad and set with fierceness. Blood sprouted like a spring. that Mahavisnu incarnated as a dwarf. Finally the child was put in blazing fire. T he Asuras took the body of Mahabali to Patala (the nether world) where their tea cher Sukra brought him to life again. a number of cla ws very sharp and pointed. Mr. Hiranayakasipu jumped with anger and called out. Before he had finished. in 'the shape of a lion-man made its appearance. And from Prahlada the son of Hiranyakasipu was born Virocana and Bali was the son of Virocana. "Glaring eyes burning as blazing cinder. Venomous snakes were employed and those which bit him had th eir fangs broken. This time he defeated the Gods altogether and subjugated the realm of the God s who were scattered to all sides. :Bali got the name Mahabali because of his prowess. with eyes b lazing as molten grold. With great ferocity he pulled out the intestines of Hiranyakasipu and wore them round his neck as a garland and roared loudly. tusks long and curved and protruding fearfully. In the battle Indra cut Mahabali down with his Vajrayudha. But the tusks of the elephant missed the aim and were driven into th e earth and broken. A fierce battle began over the Ambrosia got from churning the sea of Milk. Seeing that . eyebrows fierce looking. with songs o f praise and chanting of hymns of adoration pacified the stormy Narasimha and bo wed low down efore him. all combined as if the fire of anger burning inside had incarnated. was born of Diti. Ulloor. From that fire a ghost arose and tried to kill Prahlada. "Before him who was waiting with curiosity to see what would happen. two nostrils as wide and deep as mountain canyons. Prahlada. It was to expel the Emperor Mahabali . S. Hiranayakasipu kicked at a stone pillar close by and asked him. neck very thick and fat and short.A son named Prahlada was born to him. Skandha 7. Prahlada was thrown before mad elephants. between the A suras and the gods. (Bhagavata. To Kasyapa. fierce face with bushy mane grown to it. Chapter 8. in th e shape of a lion up to neck and human shape beyond the neck. The devas or gods are the sons of Kasyapa bor n by his wife. Aditi. co lossal body reaching the sky. Hiranyakasipu. But the child felt the fire to be cool and soothing. Then Mahabali worshipped the Bhargavas and became more powerful than before and went to heaven again and renewed the battl e. Paramesvara Iyer. the son of Marici and the gr andson of Brahma. Chapter 8). Anger overpowered Hiranayakasipu. the horrid monster Narasimha (Lion with human head) s uddenly appeared. cars standing erect and still. eyebrows looking mad. neck with folds. He was the emperor of the Asuras. tongue as a dagger just used in piercin g to death. claws looking like having drunk blood. The r esult was that the teacher and all others who advised him ultimately became beli evers in Visnu. "Whe re is your Visnu ?" His son replied that his Visnu dwelt in every movable and im movable thing. Hiranyakasipu tried his utmost to change his son to a hater of Visnu. The Narasimha was pleased with the devotion of Prahlada. He was a godfearing child and'from birth a n ardent believer in Visnu. He blessed the child and then disappeared. She felt very sorry at the defeat of the gods. has described this figure in his "Bhaktidipika" as follows . the wheel-weapon of Visnu came down and cut off the head of the ghost. mouth wide open in the middle of long bushy mane. (Bhagavata.

requeste d for three feet of ground and brought under control the three worlds for the go od of all. The hermit Jamadagni had been living there with his wife Renuka and sons Parasurama and others. is seen in the Bhagavata. She cried and beat her bre ast twenty-one times. When he re turned his mother told him how his father was killed. the earth and the Patala (the upper realm. killed the King and took Ka madhenu back. Parasurama was not there. the earth and the lower realm) in two st eps and asked' for place for the third step. Once Renuka went to the river to bring water. The hermit called his divine cow Kamadhenu. The teacher Sukra warned Mahabali against gra nting the request. By binding Bali by might. She happened to look at him for a little while. The hermit did not consen t. Parasurama wen t to Mahismatinagar the capital of Karttaviryarjuna. Sarga 29) . His father was pleased and said that he might a sk any boon. From that day onwards the sons of Karttavirya were waiting for an opportunity to take revenge. She replied that she was t hinking of ways to enable the gods to recover their lost power and position. Chapter 19). Aditi did so and Visnu appeared before her and asked her wh at she desired. He requested Mah-abali to grant him three feet of ground as alms. Vamana put his step on the head of M ahabali and pushed him down to Patala. Vamana also was among them. Skandha 8. he gave to Indra the three worlds and this hermitage is the place where 'He once placed his steps. Once the sons of Karttavirya got into the hermitage." (Valrniki Ramayana. He requested his father to bring his mother back to life. One day he went to the forest for hunting and enter(. When Visvamitra took Rama and Laksmana to the forest they entered a holy hermita ge and Visvamitra told the boys that it was the hermitage where Aditi. The blood of al . at a time when Parasurama w as away and cut off the head of the hermit Jamadagni and took it off. When she returned the hermit was very angry and asked each of his sons to cut of f the-head of their mother. I am a devotee of that V amana. Parasurama became an incarnation of revenge. A description that by the toe of Vamanas' r aised foot (raised for measuring the third step) the testicle of Brahma was cut open where from the Ganges originated.ald take birth in her womb and rec over Indra to his lost power and position. But the emperor granted the request and asked Vamana to measu re the ground. Kas yapa advised her to please Mahavisnu by observing Dvada'si vrata (fast of the tw elfth lunar night) .d the bank of Narmada. It was in that same place that Vamana incarnated and placed his step on the head of Mahabali. Thus Visnu took birth as the younger brother of Indra in the shape of Vamana (dwarf:) At this time Emperor Mahabali was celebrating a sacrifice on the bank of the Riv er Narmada after having subjugated the whole of the world. Thus the gods regained their lost places. Bala Kanda. The King being tired a hunting got into the her mitage. Vamana immediately enlarged his body and measured the heaven. Her request was that Visnu sh. The King caught hold of the cow by force and went to his city. Once Karttaviryarjuna pleased the hermit-sage Dattatreya the son of Atri. A gandharva (semi god) named Citra ratha was bathing in the river. long ago had observed dvadaii fast. wh ich provided the King and his followers with a very good supper. Skandha 5. A large number of her mits gathered there. When the King departed he asked for the wonderful cow. (Bhagavata. "The bright Madhava took birth in Aditi as Vamana and went to Mahabali.she was silent and sad Kasyapa asked her the reason. According ly Renuka was brought back to life. 6) Parasuramavatara. by doing penance and got the boon of one thousand hands. and travelled over the world twenty-one times and killed every Ksatriya King. But Parasurama immediately obeyed his father and cut off her head. (Incarnation as Parasurama). The honest Mahabali showed his head and requested to complete the three steps. They all refused.

(The incarnation of Sri Krsna) (See the word Krsna). K rta-yuga (the first age) will begin class distinctions and the four stages of li fe and such other establishments will once more prevail. To remove wrinkles and grey hair the gods had churned the sea . At the end of Kali-yuga (the Age of Kali) all the people would become atheists and sceptics. (Bhagavata. (Information about Matsya. Narasimha. Rewards will be receiv ed from the depraved. the son of Visnuyagas and th e priest of Yajnavalkya and learn the arts of wielding weapon and handling missi les and destroy all lawless ones. He took various incarnations with his portions. Then He came as Yajna to b ecome Indra. Vamana and Parasurama. the four always inseparable wandered everywhere come to the world to show the me rits of Brahmacarya (the vow of celibacy) . Chapter 16j. Lawless people would take the form of Kings and will begin to eat men . People would become irresponsible wearing the garmen t of duty. To show the world the tattva (essence) of Sat (good) and tama (darkness) He took the form of hermit Narada. Sanaka. Chapter 1 6) . 3) The Incarnations of Mahavisnu. well-versed in the 'four Vedas. People would become degenerate having no good qualities. (The incarnation of Balabhadrarama) (Seethe word Balabh adrarama). A religion called °Vajasaneyam' with its fifteen doctrin es only will be acceptable. Mahavisnu took the incarnation of Sri Rama to kill Ravana.l those Kings flowed into one channel and gathered in a holy Bath called Syamant apancakarf. the first four of which are four persons. 7) Sri Ramavatara. To shorten and flatten the earth He came as Prthu. 10) Kalkyavatara (The incarnation as Kalki). (Agni Purana. Kurma. After that. Skandha 1. 9) Sri Krsnacandra. Sanatana and Sanatkumara. four or five-year old children. (F or further information see the words Sri Rama and Ravana). in t he order given. In those days Lord Visnu will incarnate as Kalki. 8) Balabhadraramavatara. To teach the world the laws of c hastisement He was born as Datta of the wife of Atri. The classes will be mixed. Skandha9. The subjects will be brought back to the four classes and the four asramas or stages of life and the doctrines and directions of the long-established religion and peace and order will be restored. To impart to the world the mean ing of Samkhya Yoga (Indian Philosophy dealing with evolution and union with the Supreme Spirit) He came as Kapila the learned. It is mentioned in Sri Mahadevi Bhagavata. the noble King. Varaha. To recover the Vedas he took the form o f Matsya (fish) . The next incarnation He took was Rsabha. To kill Hiranyaksa and to lift up th e earth He took the form of Sukara (Pig). Then the Lord will cast away the form of Kalki and go to heaven. To show th e merits of penance He became Nara and Narayana. are given under the word Avatara and for the rest see the same words). In the first Skandha of "Bhagavata Kilippattu" the incarnations are exhaustively dealt with as follows "And after that to make it possible for the Lord with four faces to rule his sub jects justly and well. Chapter 3 that Mahavisnu h ad taken the twenty-six incarnations given below 1) Sanaka 2) Sananda 3) Sanatana 4) Sanatkumara 5) Varaha (pig) 6) Narada 7) Nar a Narayanas 8) Kapila 9) Dattatreya 10) Yajna 11) Rsabha 12) Prthu 13) Matsya (f ish) 14) Mohini 15) Karma (turtle) 16) Garuda (eagle) 17) Dhanvantari 18) Narasi mha (Lion-man) 19) Vamana (dwarf) 20) Parasurama 21) Vyasa 22) Sri Rama 23) Bala bhadrarama 24) Sri Krsna 25) Buddha 26) Kalki. as of old. Thus Mahavisnu took his sixth incarnation as Parasurama and fulfille d his duty of destroying the wicked Ksatriya Kings (For details about Parasurama see under Parasurama and Karttaviryarjuna). Sananda.

Stanza 25) . Then He came as Devakisuta [son of Devaki (Krsna)]. Skandha 8). Marigavati. word. like the waves of the oc ean. later. is swelling and falling and swaying and surging always. The hell called Avicr is described thus : "This is the hell meant for those who stand false witness.. One of the twenty-eight hells. There is a holy temple here. [See the word Vamsavali (Genealogy)]. Adi Parva. Aviksit was one of them. To save the devoted Prahlada and to slay his father He came in the form of Narasimha. To give the world Ayurveda (the scripture of medicine) He came as Dha nvantari.B. A famous King. This austere and righte ous man has become a great sacrificer. In brightness he is equal to the Sun. Subh adra. . from the top of a mountwhich is a hundred yojanas (league) high. in intelligence equal to Brhaspati and as firm as the Hi malayas. And to slay the giant Ravana He became Sri Rama. AVIMUKTA (M) . The middle part of the city of Kasi. He was ho noured even by Brhaspati. Stanzas 19-21). and Kumudvati." AVICI. a vasu by his wife Siva." (Devi Bhagavata.. A'svamedha Parva. They were c alled Avijnatagati and Manojava. and deed and self control and noble actions he ke pt his subjects in peace and prosperity. When sinners fall t here their bodies will be crumbled to pieces. AVIKSIT I. (Visaru Purana. sana (6) Mahajvala (7) Tapta kumbha (8) Lavani (9) Vilohita (10) Rudhirambhas (11) Vaitaran: (12) Krmisa (13) Krmibhojana (14) Asipatravan: (15) Krsna (16) Lalabhaksa (17) Daruna (18) Paya. His greatness is described as follows "The righteous man Aviksit is equal to Indra in prowess. Two sons were born to Anila. Then as Vamana the younger brother of Indra to deceive Mahabali a nd to recover the lost worlds for the gods he came. having performed a hundred horse sacrifices. The soldiers of Yama wi ll push these false people into the hell of Avici. The following are the twenty-eight hells (1) Raurava (2) Sukara (3) Rodha (4) Tala (5) Visa. Stanzas 78 and 79): For more information see the word Div odasa.of Milk and then to lift the mount Mandara He went under it and as a bird He got up on it. Stanza 47). Besides them Vaisalini the pri ncess of Visala also was his wife. Ar fa6a 2. Chapter 6) . To destroy the Kings who wer e haters of Brahmins He came as the son of Jamadagni. Chapter 66. as forgiving as the earth. (22) Sa9nda (23) Kalasutra (24) Tamas (25) Avici (26) Svabbojana (27) Apratigtha (28) Apraci. Chap ter 4." (Bhasa Bharata. AVIKAMPANA. Gauri. joined toge ther and defeated Aviksit and took him a prisoner. defe ating the Kings who were present there. (V ana Parva. Next we see H im as Balabhadrarama. The place of Avici. Those defeated Kings. This ancient King got from the hermit jyestha Satvatadharma (righteo usness). AVIJIVATAGATI. The son of Karandhama and father of Marutta. vaha (19) Papa (20) Vahnijvala (21) Adhassira. who take false oath and fa1se name. Mention i s made in the Markandeya Purana that Aviksit had seven wives : Vara. By his thought. Next H e came in the Kali-yuga as Sri Buddha and at the end of Kali-yuga He will come a s Kalki. (M. AVIKSIT II. And there are many incarnations still to speak of. Vibha.B. (M. Five sons were born to King Kuru by his wife Vahini. Their life will enter into new bod ies and then the punishment will be repeated again and again. Finally Karandhama rescued hi m. Chapter 384. Then he took the incarnati on of Veda Vyasa. Lilavati. Santi Parva. He had taken this Vaisalini from her Svayamva ra dais (the bride herself selecting a husband from those who are present). Chapter 64. It is said that those who commit suicide in this temple would attain heaven. To entice Asuras and to recover Ambrosia from them He took the form of Mohini.

B. "you. Bhimasena killed him at Kuruksetra. "Place meat on the ground and many birds will come to it. Genealogy. "When he saw the decision of Ravana to kill Sitd. Adi Parva. who had earned the confidence of Rava na. (M. Adi Parva.B. Chapter 157.. the noble aged well-wisher of Rama.B. prepared by Janamejaya. Adi Parva. Chapter 67. Adi Parva.B. (M. AYOBAHU (AYOBHUJA). A woman who is in prison and at your disposal is as good as dead. Verse 5) . Drona Parva. Sita before Sri Rama when he had captured Lanka. A hermit of the family of Kardama. Son of King Nahusa and brother of Yayati. This serpent fell in the sacrificia l fire meant for serpents.. Aranya Parva. (M. Chapter 75. (Spinster). Bhisma Parva. A place in ancient India.B. He was born as a Prince of the Kekaya kingdom. had told m e about you. Aranya Parva..B. Chapter 9. V erse 30) . AYASYAIVKU.. Sundara Kanda. Verse 1 9). In the Mahabharata a statement regarding'spinsters and wi dows is seen. Avandhya pacified Ravana" and said. learned and of pod qualities. pleaded with Ravana and said that Rama would exterminate the entire race of the giants. A serpent of the Dhrtarastra family.B. AYATAYAMA(S). AVIRATHA. But in my opinion. "The aged giant and noble leader Avindhya. even if you cut her body into pieces she would not die and if she must die you will have to kill her husband." (Sri Valnrniki Ramayana. B. Sarga 37. Stan za 12) .. AYATI. Chapter 67. Chapter 57. (M.Brahmana-Dhanvantari-Ketuman-Avira tha. Stanzas 28 to 30) . Brahma-Kardama-Kapila -Grtsapati .. Verse 10) .. Chapter 65.. Adi Parva. From this statement the wonderful intelligence of Avindhya could be understood. Hear what she says: "T he famous giant leader. AVIVAHITA.. A great Asura. Avindhya. brave.B. Chapter 67. There is a situation in Vana Parva when this noble giant prevented Ravana from his attempt to kill Sita.. Ver se 23) ." " (M. Stanza 16).. (M. A son of Kasyapa by his wife. (M. AVYAYA. (M. Danu. (M. a great King of a great kingdom should not deteriorate to the level of killing a woman. This aged giant had sent Trijata to the Asoka park to console Sita.AVINDHYA. should be returned to Rama. Vana Parva that it was Avindhya who had taker." (M. but the wicked Ravana would not pay heed to his words.." (M. So also men will gathe r round the woman who is having no husband. He was born a prince of Kekaya. AYARSIRAS.B. A giant in whom Ravana had confidence. Verse 10) . Adi Parva. Adi Parva. . But he held the opinion that Si ts. Stanzas 12 and 13).B. Verse 98 ) . AYAVAHA(M). It is seen in stanzas 6 and 7 of Chapter 291 of M. A son of Dhrtarastra.B. Stanza 56) . Cha pter 289. Chapter 158. See Guruparampara.

. He belonged to I'ancala. nor do yo u drink milk. A great Muni (sage). my guru. Chapter 3. ate the bitter and poisonous leaves of a tree one day to satisfy his burning hunger . from that day onwards strictly followed his guru's instruction. you do not go in for alms a second time the same day. Apodadhaumya. (M. releasing much foam of milk out of their mouths. his attempts to construct embankments did n ot succeed." Upamanyu. Even then finding Upamanyu to be quite plump and healthy the guru told him : "We ll. The leaf was bitter in taste and injurious in its properties. and you do not take alms a sec ond time the same day. who was th us lying in the field. what you do is not the proper thing. After that he used to give everything he got by way of alms to the guru. and because of that Aruni got the name Uddalaka. h e continued returning to the Gurukula at dusk and prostrating before the guru. Yet you are quite fit and fat. this new way of satisfying hunger affected the health of the eyes of Upamanyu and he became blind. The guru enquired about Aruni. By the second course of alms-taking you stand in the way of other people getting their food. Upamanyu agreed to obey his orders. How is it so ?" To this Upamanyu's reply was that he/was feeding himself on the milk of the cows he tended. while tending the herd of cows in the forest. out of kindness and sympathy for you. 2) Disciple Upamcanyu. Verses 21-33) . How happens it so?" Upamanyu replied : "After giving th e alms I get first to you. Therefore. and once his guru deputed him to cons truct embankments in the field. The guru told him that this too was not just and proper on his part. Then only he knew the reason for Aruni's absence. do not repeat the process. you hand over to me all the alms you get. He had three disciples. But. The gur u went to the field and called Aruni. and yet your body looks as trim as of old.B. Moving about in this condition he fell into a neglected well in th e woods. the guru said : My son Upamanyu. And. So. Then the embankment burst open and Aruni came out. And. That will affect them. Apodadhaumya. And. It is gross injustice to do so. And the Guru told him as follows: "You do not eat the food you get at the fi rst alms-taking. Then the guru asked him to hand over to him (guru) all alms got in future. To this the guru reacted thus: My boy. He used to take care of the animals grazing in the woods dur ing daytime and return home at dusk and prostrate before the guru. Upamanyu. 1)Disciple lruni. Looking at th e plump and healthy body of Upamanyu the guru asked him how he was feeding himse lf. Since the guru forbade him to have food in any manne r as detailed above. F inding Upamanyu even then as plump and healthy as he was formerly. Dhaumya. Upamanyu and Veda. Aruni. as usual he continued tending the cows and returning at dusk. Even then he maintained the same plump and healthy physiq ue. Finally he lay himself in the field where the embankment was require d. The guru had dot permitted him to drink milk thus. I do again beg for alms and feed myself". how is it that you maintain the same fat and healthy physique as in former days?" Upamanyu's reply was that he was feeding now-a-days on the foam of milk bristlin g at the mouth of the calves when they had fed on their mother's milk. Once Dhaumya (the guru) asked his second disciple Upamany u to tend the cows. the guru said : "if that is so the calves will be. .AYODHADHAUMYA (Ayodhadhaumya). His reply was that he was begging alms and feeding himself with what he got thus. now you hand over to me all the alms you get. Yet. and then the flow of water stopped. and co ntinued returning at dusk to the guru and doing obeisance to him.

Upamanyu refused to eat the bread without giving it to the guru. Adi Parva. Laudatory ref erences to the city are found in most of the Puranas like the Mahabharata. Chapter 3. You may just imitate him and eat the bread yourself". A quarrel broke out between Kalmagapada and Vasistha during a hunting expedition. Th en the Asvinidevas told him thus: `. Suyajna . The guru was absolutely ple ased and his blessings resulted in all prosperity and omnipotence for the discip le. Aranya Kanda. and requested Laksmana to marry her. came to Ayodhya during the period of the reign of Kalmasapada. AYIJTANAYI. his third disciple: "You stay with me for sometime serving me. Verses 19-20) .000 Purusamedha s.. After telling him that if only he would pray to the A'svinidevas they will cure his blindness the guru returned to the A°srama with other disciples. (Valmiki Ramayana. (See Kosala). Your blindness will be cured and all happiness and prosperity will be yours. and Upamanyu hurried to his g uru and prostrated at his feet. AYOMUKHI. He c ame to be known as Ayutanayi because of his having performed 10. Verses 34-77). (M. At the request of the King in the interests of his dynasty Vasistha carne to Ayodhya. as usual. who were so pleased with him that they appeared before him and gave him a bread. accordingly offered praises and prayed to the A svinidevas.B. Laksmana. After that Vasistha used to go to Ayodhya frequently and was installed as family preceptor of the lksvakus. Verses 78-80) . Dhaumya and the other disciples of his congratul ated Upamanyu. Adi Parva. return. A Raksasa woman. AYODHYA. (M. will bring you all prosperity in lif e. Vasistha. and after that gradually its decay and fall set in. She met Sri Rama and Laksmana on their way to Mataxhg Urama in search of Sita.. and stayed for a long time in the Asrama in the service of the guru.. A king of the Puru Vamsa. As the guru felt that Upamanyu was stay ing away 1ate in the forest since he had been prevented from doing everything he (guru) went to the forest accompanied by other disciples and called out for Upa manyu." The blessings of the Asvinidevas took full effect. Without even the slightest murmur he put up with every discomfort and hard ship. and Vasistha cursed the King and as the result the latter be came a Raksasa. the guru e nquired about him from other disciples.In the past when we gave your guru a bread l ike this he ate the same without giving it to his guru. (See lksvaku dynas ty). be it acute hunger and thus. Upamanyu. who was the thirty-fifth ruler in succe ssion to Iksvaku. as in the case of Surpanakha cut off her nose and breasts and drove her away. 3) Disciple. All the Kings of this dynasty ruled the country from this city as their cap ital. and gladly performe d all the work and duties the master imposed on him. Upamanyu did not. A so n was born to Vasistha by Kalmasapada's wife and that son was Asmaka. Ayodhadhaumya one day said to Veda.B. and the people were great1y elated. Veda. he apologised to Vasist ha and they became friends again. and Upamanyu responded from deep down the well. He also told the guru how he happened to fall into the well." Veda agreed. Chapter 95. A city in North India which enjoyed great importance and reputation for many years as the capital of the Kings of the solar dynasty. Adi Parva. Kama and Akrodha were the names respectively of his mother. Chapter 3. After regaining his former form as King. wife and son.. or extreme cold or heat. Till the time of Sri Rama the city of AyodhyA maintained its p omp and glory. That. the great preceptor of the Iksvaku Rajas. they told the guru that Upama nyu was out in the forest with the cows. Brahm anda Purana etc. Even then Upamanyu did not eat the bread.. Naturally. (M. Chapter 69). The Asvi nidevas were so much pleased at this that they blessed Upamanyu thus : "The teet h of your guru will turn into hard iron and yours into pure gold.B.When. he was the son of Maharaja Bhauma. even after the sun had set.

B.B. First drink water three times accompanied by incantations and then with water wipe your face twice and your eyes. Devi Bhagavata in its eleventh Skandha says a bout Acamana 1ike this: "Drinking water by your right hand is called acamana. One of the five Parsadas whom Brahma gave to Skandadeva. 6) Abhiras were Ksatriyas formerly. ACAMANA.). breast and hea d once. ADI. Kumuda. Chapter 37. There must be enough water in the palm to cover a green-gram seed. (Slo ka 16. While shaping your palm neither your little finger nor your thumb should touch the other fingers. Sarasvati." ACARAMARYADAS.B. hold water in it and drink. M. (9alokas 11-13. nose. Damba and Adambara. 2) Once Abhiras went to Dharmaputra with many gifts.AYUTAYU. A mighty son of the demon. Chapter 29. Vana Parva. "Triracamedapah purvarh Dvih pram. M. Chapter 188. Chapter 20.). M . ears.).B. Chapter 51. 3) Once it was prophesied by Markandeya Rsi. See under Pujavidhi. For genealogy se e Iksvaku dynasty.). M. At the time of acamana you should support your right hand by your left hand. In the Sabha Parva of Mah abharata we find Nakula defeating these people during his victory march after th e great Mahabharata batt1e. Andhakasura. The Puranas like Bhagavata. the Matsya and the Vayu refer to him as the son of Sruta'sravas. Afew details: 1) A low-caste people. M. Chapter 7. Otherwise the water will turn impure. ABHIRAS. jyattato mukham Khani caiva sprsedadbhir Atmanam gira eva ca" (Manusmrti. (Salokas 1 and 2. Brahma gave K unda. shoulders. At that time Abhiras wer e among those who attacked and carried away the women. 4) In the Garudavyuha (Battle array named after Garuda) which Drona created duri ng the Kuruksetra battle he included Abhiras also. People living in the estuary of the rivers of Sindhu and Sarasvati were generally called Abhiras. (Sloka 6. Chapter 2) . A'svamedhika Parva. Navama Skandha). If it falls short or exceeds the measure it is considered to be like drinking alcohol . (Slokas 47-63. not less nor more. Cu rve your palm into the shape of a spoon.). Father of King Rtuparna. (Slokas 35-36. Sabha Parva. Salya Parva. 5) Because of the hatred of Sudras and Abhiras a sacred lake named Vinas'ana dis appeared from the river. Kusuma. 7) When Dvaraka was destroyed by floods and all the Yadavas were killed Arjuna w ent north taking along with him the wives of Sri Krsna. This act is called Acamana.B. M. that low-caste people like Abhiras and Sakas would become rulers of states in different parts of Bharata during Kali-yuga. A king who ruled his state for 1000 years. (Bhagavata. Drona P arva. ADAMBARA.B. Sloka 60. Afraid of Parasurama they fled and lived in mountain-caves not continuing their hereditary work and thus became Sudras.). He did penance to please Brahma and . Mausalya Parva. AYUTAYUS.

B. (Skandha 12. One of the disciples of Sakalya. Sirdar K. ADIRAJA. After obtaining the boon Adi went to Kailasa and outwitting the sentr ies entered the abode of Siva in the shape of a serpent. S ali. M. Savita. The mountain of Mandara which was used as a churn-stick to churn the g reat milky ocean. Chapter 18. The boon was that Adi would die only when he left his present form and took ano ther form. The son of Kuru who was a king of the Paru dynasty. From the thirty-three sons of Aditi were born the thirty-three crores of devatas. Santi Parva. Rudra has merged in Siva. Ksirabdhi went down the ocean. Besides these Aditi ha d twenty-one children including Indra. Sarga 14. Chapter66. Who will believe that the all-powerful D eva of the Rgveda and the vainglorious Indra who lives in fear of men doing pena nce are one and the same person ?" .B. Varuna and Surya are not found in the same form or power as we are taught to believe. Panikar in his preface to the book "Rgvedasamhita" writes thus abou t Adityas : "Generally we think of Surya (the Sun) when we hear the word Aditya. ADIPARVATA. Maudgalya. The familiar devas like Indra. (There is corroboration for this in Sloka 14. Agni. Adi Parva. (Sloka 1 2. One of the parvans of the epic Mahabharata. Many Adityas have merged in Surya and winds in the god of Vayu. M. ADIPARVA.B. But Siva knew the trick and killed him. Mitra. Adi Parva. All of them are called Adityas meaning ch ildren of Aditi. The place of abode of Siva in the Himalayas.).obtained from him a boon to seek vengeance on Siva who had murdered his father. Then Mahavisnu took the shape o f a tortoise to lift it up and this first tortoise was called Adikurma. ADISTI. (Sloka 22. Surya. Bhagavata). Chapter 327. (Srsti Khanda of Padma Purana). There is no end to the varieties of Adityas and their prominence in the Vedas. Bhaga. After that he disguised himself as Parvati and went near Siva. It was with the bones of an asura (demon) named Gada that Mahavisn u made the first gada (mace). Valmiki Ramayana). Vyasa made the Vedas and taught his son Sakalya a portion of it.). It is the first parva. The twelve sons born to the sage Kasyapa of his wife Aditi are known as the twelve Adityas.). Varuna . (See under Puru). Vatsyayana. Pusa. Thoug h Savita. The disciple who was ordained by his preceptor to observe celibacy for a stipulated number of years. Aranya Kanda. chief of them is Varuna. ADISI8IRA. Rudra. M. (Skandha 6 of D evi Bhagava to) . Vamana. The fight between Vasistha a nd Visvamitra was of this kind. ADIBAKA. M. ADIKURMA. (See un der Gada). ADITYA. Vivasvan. Adisisira and Gokhali a division. A combat without serving any useful purpose and conducted out of sheer spite between two people to the surprise of others. Pusa and Mitra are all synonyms of Surya in Rgveda they are all separate devas. Those whom we have lowered down to the posts of the eight sentries of the universe are very pr ominent devatas in the Vedas. But there are many different Adityas in Itgveda. Summar ising we can say thus. Of these the eldest is Indra and the youngest. By that mace Visnu killed Heti and other asuras of that lot and got the name Adigadadhara (He who first handled the mace). (Se e under Bharata). ADIGADADHARA. They are the following : Dhata. Tvasta and Visnu. (Sloka 36. Sakalya divided his portion into five different and equal divisions and taught each of his five disciples. Aryama.

ADYAKA°ar'HA. A very brave King. Wife of Kuru. One night Arjuna fought against agandh arva. Stories about this King are found in Kathasarits agara. M. Puskarini hailed from the dynasty of Marutta. A king who always ordered without thinking and repented later.).. Vana Parva. Chapter 88 . Chapter 254. Satyavan. ADITYAVARNA.B . Kuru. ADITYASElTA. Visnu Purana). Angiras and Sibi.). Sigti. AGNEYI. An agni.). AGREYA. This powerful missile was given f irst to Bharadvaja by Bfhaspati and Bharadvaja gave it to Agnivesya who in turn gave it to Drona and the latter gave it to Arjuna. Adi Parva. Sumanas.. A mantra (incantation) of great power to destroy all enemies. One of the sons of Dhxtarastra. Duri ng the combat with Ravana at one time Rama fell exhausted in the battlefield. his most favourite disciple. See Agnidadhra. (Sloka 102. AGNEYASTRA. Valmiki Ramayana). Adi Parva and Sloka 28. Vipra. Tapasvi. wife of Ri pu. Kathapithalambaka. Am.).B.B. and Bhavya. See under Agnipurana. AGRAYANA. (M. Drona Parva. son of Manu. Ripumjaya. daughter of the great Virana Prajapati. An ancient holy place on the banks of the river. Chapter 67. Sudyumna. Satadyumna.).B. Se eing this the sage Agastya rushed to him and taught him this mantra. ADI'TYATIRTHA. (Sloka 13. Vana Parva. Of these. Khyati. (Slokas 67 and 68. Sarasvati. Bhisma Parva. A powerful weapon or missile.B. Vrkala and Vrkatejas. M. Chapter 170. (Slok a 17. ADITYAKETIJ. Manu was born to Caksusa of his wife Puskarini. Bhanu. M. Sambhu wife of Dhruva gave birth to two sons. ).ADITYAHRDAYA. Chapter 336. He was the Acarya of Dhanurveda and AGRAYANA the revered preceptor of Drona. To Manu were born of N advala ten sons. anti Parva. (Chapter 13. Agnistoma. Ati ratra. Bhima sena killed him in the great battle of Kuruksetra. and Abhimanyu.B. on the banks of the river Ganges. M. Gak.. (Slokas 1921. M.B. Salya Parva. (glokas29-30. (Sarga 107. Kathapithalambaka). Suci. Yuddha Kanda. AHAVANIYA. Succhaya wife of gigti gave birth to five sinless sons Ripu. A country conquered by Karna. M. AGNEYAPURANA. (Taranga 4. Kratu. Chapter 74. Chapter 221. Kuru got of his wife Agneyi six sons: Aaiga. The book Kathasaritsagara tells the story of this King in the fifth taranga of its p art. AGNIDHRA. An ancient sage who received an armour and the sacred mant ras associated with it from Brhaspati. Chapter 99. Verse 67) . The fourth son of the Agni. He attended the sacrifice conducted by the King Upari cara. AGNIVESYA (AGNIVESA). Adi Parva.B.am 1. Angaraparna. .). (Sloka 9. Chapter 94. Vena was born to Anga of his wi fe Sunitha. A sage of old. Puru. Arjuna then described to hi m how he came into possession of this missile. M.asa-was born of Brhati.

A sub-division of the Vana Parva of Mahabharata. There were constant quarrels b etween Ahuka and Akrura. Santi Parva of Mahabharata in its 179th Chapter states that Prahlada conversed with this sage. Chapter 14. Chapter 14. People used to feed me well sometimes. (Sloka 11. Ch apter 34.). M. M. Chapter 31. Santi Parva. Nakul a conquered him during his victory march. we find that Akrura had married Sutanu.om the f ort through these holes. AJYAPA (S) . A community of Pitrs belonging to the dynasty of Pulaha. Vana Parva. AKATHA. Chapter 179. and Chapter 13.) . Amsam 1 of Visnu Purana) . AKASAJANANI.B. Santi Parva. M. This king ruled over the land of Saurastra. For genealogy. Chapter 126. (Slokas 33 and 34. son of Akrti. Ajagara. Drona Parva. A species of good horses. In his own w ords it is the following : "If I get a grand feast I will accept it but I will g o without food for days together if I do not get any food at all. M. I will eat vegetables and cakes sometimes.). The vrata practised by the sage. Chapter 270. AJAMTDHA. Sabha Pa.. sometimes a little and sometimes not at all. AKROESA. People living in the land named Akarsa are called Akarsas. He was a great devotee of Siva and once when his house w as burnt completely the idol of Siva inside his house was partially destroyed.).. They are c alled so because they drink during yagas the ghee made out of goats milk (Ajyam) (Matsya Purana).. Chapter 81. Verse 30). Vana Parva.).B." (Slokas 19-25. (M. I will li e on soft bed or on bare earth sometimes and in big houses if I get the chance..B. A king of ancient Bharata. A king born of the family of Ajamidha. (Srsti Khanda. A king of Yadu Vamsa. Sabha Parva. Sloka 94. An ascetic. Chapter 32. Holes made on the walls of a Fort. Padm a Purana).B. (Some Puranas say that Ahuka and Ugrasena were the names of the same person). W orried much over this loss Akatha was about to give a portion of his body also t o the flames when Siva appeared before him and blessed him. Sabha Parva. A Ksatriya King. M.B. (Patala Khanda. Verse 56). the daughter of Ahuka. Ahuka had a hundred sons. AJAGARAVRATA.B. Bullets are sent out fi. M. He was the father of Ugrasena.B. (A vrata is a predetermi ned course of action which is followed with continued persistence). AKRTIPUTRA. but I will never go seeking for it. They live in the land of Kardama Prajapati. (See under M. Their daughter Vir aja is the wife of Nahusa. Ruciparva. the father o f Kamsa . AJAGAVA.). AJANEYA. (Sloka 10. AHUTI. B. (Slo ka 61. (M.B. In M. Verse 33. He fought on the side of the Pandavas and w . Chapter 145.B. He was king over the land of Mahottha.B. see "YADU VAMSA". (M. Vana Parva.rva. AJAGARA PARVA. Son of Mankana. Sri Krsna defeated this King in the city called Jaruthi. Sabha Parva. (Slokas 5 and 6. AKRTLA king of ancient Bharata. If I get food from yaga~alas I will never refuse it.AHUKA. AJAGARA. I will eat meat and any kind of food. Verses 8-11). Padma Purana) AKARSA. The bow of Mandhata and PTthu and the Gandiva of Arjuna bear the name A jagava. I will wear costly clothes if I get them or I will wear dried leaves and animal skins. Sabha Par va. Chapter 12.

The victory earned by a King with his elephants is more respected. If it suffers from enlargement of the belly. (Sloka 54. Mulaku and Tippa1i and water m ixed with honey to drink. Agni then cur sed the elephants and said that thereafter all the elephants would have their to ngues curved inside. There is a story in the Mahabharata to explain why the tongue of the elephant is curved inside. (See under Indradyumna).B. Wife of Ruciprajapati. and Kadru. (Slokas 40 to 47. Bhadramata.). Of the se Krodhavasa gave birth to ten girls. Kalika. A place in ancient Bharata. A comrade of Indra. See under "YAMAJIHVA". . (M. Manu and Anala.. M. See the word NAMMALVAR. He flourished in Yudhisthira's court. Tamra. Anusasana Parva.B. The Devas started searching for him and it was an elephant that showed the devas the hiding place of Agni. Krodhavasa. Chapter 9. Elephants were born as the sons of Matairgi. "Bhrgu Maharsi cursed Agni and greatly dejected over this he dis appeared from public and hid somewhere. Sarduli. For all diseases of an elephant Anuvasana or Snehavasti is recommended. Rupa.B. Drona Parva. ALVAR. Sattva. there is no doubt about it. An ancient sage.as killed by Bhagadatta. AKUTI. Bala.).rgamada. (Sarga 14. It can be given Pancalavanas and Varunimadya to drink. ALAJALA. Triphala. (A Malayalam word meaning elephant). Surabhi. Those who have nails eighteen or twenty in number and who became turbulent during winter belong to a superior class. "Elephants with long trunks and heavy breathing belong to the top class and they will possess great endurance power. Elephants who have Varna. Hari. ALAMBAYANA. (Chapter 7. Aditi. Aranya Kanda. and Daksina. Bhagavata relates the story of how I ndradyumna became an elephant by the curse of Agastya.). Visnu Purana). A bath a fter anointing it with oil or ghee is good. Sabha Parv a. a son. Did. ALAMBA. Kanti.B. son of Brahma. M. (Sloka 36. Other varieties especially the dwarfish type and she -elephants in the early stage of pregnancy are not good and not fit to be tamed. Elephants are an ornamen t for any battle-array. If there is fainting it must be given rice mixed with Vlal_ari. M. Valmiki Ramayana. (M. Danu. For skin diseases the ghee may be co mbined with Manjal (Turmeric). Chapter 5. Vamsam 1. ANA I. Ka'syapa married the daughters. Surasa.B. Pra suti was married to Daksa Prajapati and Akuti to Ruciprajapati. (Elephant). Bhisma Parva. AMA. Maramatijal or gomutra (cow urine). M. a daughter. Those ones whose right tusks are a bit raised. Verse 15) . ANA II. of Daksa Prajapati. If there is headache anointing the head with sesame oi l and inhalation of the same is good.). Chapter 85. giving it a bath with sesame oil is good. Brahma's son Svayambhuva Manu got of his wife Sata rupa two sons Priyavrata and Uttanapada and two daughters Prasuti and Akuti. Chapter 13. Akuti delivered twins named Yajzra. See under AVATARA.. Cukku. Anusasana Parva. Mrgi. The signs of good elephants and the treatment to be accorded to sick ones are de tailed in Agni Purana. Matari gi. Sveta. whose cry is ste ntorian as that of thunder whose ears are very big and whose skins are spotted a re the best of the species. AMARATHA. Sariraguna and Vega will c onquer enemies in a battle. Chapter 27. Verse 5). Valmiki Ramayana narrates the origin of elephants thus: "Ka' syapa was born to Marici.

Vlalari-The grain of Vlal-Vidanga (Babreng) 2. For worms (inside the s tomach) give cow's urine with powdered Vlalari in it. Applying this ointment in the eye is excellent. To get motion of the bowels Kalkanta Kasdya (infusion of sugar candy) is good. It must be given "Muttanga Katici with tippal i. Doing Seka with ghee during autumn and summer is advisable. Mulaku Tippali. Maramanjal may be given. Dropping honey medicated with tippali tandula. Milk and meat c ooked with carminative ingredients are good for elephants who have gone lean. treatment with Snehaputas is prescribed. Cukku. Kotuvelikkilangu. a paste made of tender Kuvala fruits can be rubbed at the site of the swelling. Cukku and Jiraka in it. Kuvala=Vilva (Bengal Kins) Paccotti-Lodhra (symplocos Racemosa) . Milk and Attittippali. Make an ointment with the faces of the birds cataka and Paravata mixed wi th the burnt skin of Natpamara dissolved in light spirit. Manjal. sesame oil. For all skin diseases use Vep oil as an ointment and give the infusion of Atalotaka to drink. and fr uit honey in the eyes is not only good for the eyes but is also inducive of dige stion. Mulaku-Raktamarica (chili) Tippali-Pippali (long pepper) 6. For dysentery the tender fruit of Kuvala.For diseases of the foot. Yava and sugar cane will give strength to elephants. Vrihi and cennellu. Yava and wheat are next to the above. Cukku-Sunthi (dry ginger q. Dry yava rice is not good. If the nails grow they should be cut at least once a month. fish. If there is lack of appetite it is to be given Mulgaudan a (rice boiled along with Cerupayar)to which is added Cukku. Mulaku and Tippali. skin of Pa ccotti. Piram and maramar7jal mixed together is effective. Fumigation by the burning of ch illi. (Cha pter 287. For Galagraha (pain in the neck) a liniment made of Dasamula. V lalari. For Utkarnaka (pain in the ear) flesh of pigs should be given. Tittiri bird and Lava bird mix ed with Tippali and pepper. If it is Gulma it should be given sesame oil boiled with the following: Trikotp akkonna. If this ointment is ap plied. the elephant would defeat all enemies in a battle. a. Tippali and g rapes well mixed in it. Kutakappalayari. Nagadantiveru. If the elephant is getting reduced and weak it should be given milk or meat soup with Cukku. For swellings on the face. Erikkinveru. For Karagraha (pain inside the trunk) Nasyam of ghee with I ntappu mixed in it should be done. caustic soda. Agni Purana). If there is difficulty in passing urine light liquor contai ning powdered Astalavanas should be given. Any other food is inferior to these. Triphala-A combination of the three fruits a) amalaki (Emblic Myrobalam) b) V ibhitaki (Beleric Myrobalam) and c) Haritaki (Myrobalam) 3. fowl. Elephant sheds should be spread with cowdung discs and dust. Asafoetida. Navara rice with sort of cerupayar can als o be given. Powder Nilotpala. Mutt anga and Takara and make an ointment using rice gruel. The best food for elephants is the rice of Navara. cuckoo and Hari mixed with honey is good. Mutirapp uli and Kakkappancci in oil should be rubbed at the site of pain and the elephan t kept under chains. Carala. Once in a month an o il bath is good for the elephants. If the elephants receive great injuries in a battle the meat of birds like crow. flower of Tatiri should be dried and powdered and be given mixed with su gar along with rice. For all sorts of pains in the stomach ric e well mixed with the powder made by grinding together Vlalari. To those who h ave shivers should be given the flesh of peacock. Puttal. Na tkkotpakkonna.

magnesium sulphate etc. 12. By births and rebirths all of us have many mothers and so it is better to be above rebirths". ANANDA (CAKSUSA).8. After having said so much Ananda went to the forest and started doing penance. A ttittippali-Hasti-pippali 26. father of SCI Krsna. Muttanga-Musta (C yperus Rotendus) Kanci means rice boiled with water and Muttafiga Kafci means ri ce and muttanga boiled together. It was he who was born as Caksusa. Bhumi Khanda. They consider me as th eir food". Atalotaka-Atarlqa (Vasaka) 18. It was inhabited by celest ial damsels. Gulma ao. (Chapter 93. rock salt. Nagadantiveru-Root of Nagadanti (Glancous leaved Physicnut) 23. tq. Vikranta took the child as his for grante d and reared him. but look at those two cats. Trikotpakkonna-Trivrt (Turbithroot) ay. Nasyam-A method of introducing medicine through the nose io. Erikkin Veru-Root of Arkka (Gigantic swallow wort) 2¢. One day. Manjal-Haridra (Turmeric) zg. Jiraka-Jiraka (cumin seeds) 13. th e sixth Manu. Vrihi-Cinah (A kind of paddy) (Continued) ANAKA 89 APAGA ANAKA. Natkkotpakkonua-Krsna Trivrt 25. A'forest on the top of the mountain Mahameru. There is a story behind his birth. Dasamula-A combination of ten herbs. An epithet of Vasudeva. Kakkappanacci. Maramanja l-Darvi 3o. 17. ANAKADUNDUBHI. gandharvas and Maharsis. while his mother was k eeping him in her lap and caressing him the baby laughed and questioned "Oh anot her why are you caressing me. BrahmA appeared before him and blessing h im said that he would become the sixth Manu and lead the world to righteousness. (See under YADAVAVAIVISA). 27. I am not your son. (See under Caksusa) . A person of the Yadava dynasty. Padma Pu rana). devas. Kotuvelikkilangu-Citraka (Plumbago r ose) 22. Your so n is at some other place. By the blessing of Brahma Ananda was reborn as Caksusamanu. At the time of Upanayana the King asked the boy to prostrate b efore his mother at which the boy exclaimed "Oh King. Navara-Sastika-A kind of rice.Kakatindu 16. Tatiri--Dhataki (Grislea Tomentosa) g. ANANDA. IntappU-S`allaki Puspa (Flower of Boswellia Thurifera) ii.Carala-Sarala (long leaved pine) 28. Son of Maharsi Anamitra. Astalavanas-Eight salts like common salt. Cerupayar-Mudga (green-grain) ig. Mutirappuh 15. After some time one of the cats took the child away and put it in the cradle of the child of King Vikranta.

Nrga. Natpamara-Four trees : Vita. A great critic of Sanskrit literature. Yama. a king of the Iksvaku dynasty became a demon. (Umesanavrata. (Sloka 4. A king of ancient Bharata. Nabhaga. Dista. 3'7. Varuna submerg3r. Revant a. the IRtvik. That demon killed a nd devoured the husband of Arigirasl.D. Sabhi Parva.). Many commentari es have been written of Dhvanyaloka of which the one written by Abhinavagupta is considered to be the best. 8aryiti. The Arigirasa Kalpa dealing with sorcery. Tandula -same as VIM 36. Yava-yava (Barley) 33 Puttal 34 Piram 35. Sukanya and Anartta. He lived in the 9th centu ry A. The Sarnhita Kalpa. A very chaste wife of a Brahmin. Grandson of Vaivasvatamanu. son of Saryati.B. There is a belief among a few that the Karikas were written by another scholar. and that Anandavardhana had written only a commentary on it. (Chapter 6. Seka-A drip-bath w ith medicated oil.). It was this king who built the fortresses at the town of Kusast hali (Dvaraka) . The present Andhra Pradesa. He expounded his theory of Dhvanivada by 120 Karikas. Narisyanta.Vai vasvatamanu . Genealogy. ANGARISTHA. Suka nya became the wife of Cyavana. ANGIRASAKALPA. ' ANDHRA. M. ANANDAVARDHANA. Daring his regime there lived in his land a very great scholar named Vedaratha. Bhagavata Kilippattu) . ANARTTA (M) . Descending in order from Visnu-BrahmaMarIci-Kasyapa-Vivasvan .D. Chapter 26. and the S5nti Kal pa dealing with matters relating to the welfare and control of animals like hors es and elephants.D. 1. Cennellu-9ali (Red rice) 32. Assvattha and Udumbara. That was w . Santi Par va. The five sarirhita divisions o f -Atharvaveda written by Munjikesa are the best. By the curse of ~akti. It is believed that he wrote Dhvanyaloka in 850 A. A place in ancient Bharata.. (Slokas 13 and 14. Sahrdaya. Asvinikumara. Siva Purana) See under Ved aratha. A samhita division of Atharvaveda. He was a king. Amsam 3 of Visnu Purana). They are: The Naksatra Kalpa d ealing with the pujA rites of the stars. Vata. He was a member of the royal council of Avantivarma who ruled Kashmir during the period 8 54-884 A. Sudyumna. 2)Other details. Enraged at this the Brahmin lady cursed Ka lmasapada saying that if he touched his wife thereafter he would die.SaryatiAnartta. M. Iksvaku. It was after that that Sri Krsna made that land beautiful and called it Dvaraka. Arjuna conquered this place. His own commentary of the Karikas is the book called Dhvanyaloka. Nilotpala-Nilapadma (Blue water-Lilly) 38. It was famous even from purinic times and it was annexed by Sahadeva by defeating its ruler in a game of dice. Sixteen sons were born to Vaivasvatamanu: Manu. Takara-Tagara 39. ed in the ocean all the fortresses built by him and the place for sometime remai ned as a forest-land. dealing with the use and practice of Mantras. The country rule d over by Anartta was called Anarttam. There are four parts for Dhvanya loka and each part is called an Udyota. Chapter 123. (Dasama Skandha. ANGIRAST. Prsadhra and Kavi.B. The veda Kalpa dealing with the rites a ssociated with Brahma. (Markandeya Purana). Karusa. Of these Saryati got two children. son of Vasisth a Kalmasapada. ANARTTA. Dhrsta. Yam!.

Once he met Agastya Muni and asked him who was superior among the gods Brahma. M. (Slokas 42 and 43. (Chapter 15. A sub-divisional Parva of the Mahabharata. A sage who was a classmate of . bathed at that place would obtain `Divyajfana' (Divine knowledge enabling one to know the past. Visnu and Siva. (81oka 5. One of the sons of Visvamitra who were Brahmavadins. APAVANI: Another name of sage Vasistha. Adi Parva. Once a brahmin did not get a suitable man toofficiate as priest for a sraddha. Visnu Purana). Anila. Dhruva. APADDHARMA PARVA.B. Chapter 99.B. From then onward s that place was known as Apastamba tirtha. He then prayed to his ancestors.). One of the Astavasus. But before the water-particles reached his face Apastamba ordered t he water-drops to remain still.). Many Hindus follow it even no w. 2) How jpastamba tfrtha came into existence. M. Anus=rsana Parva. Soma. Bhagavata). Vana Parva. ceremony. and made that place a holy one. Apastamba had a very chaste and humble wife named Aksasutra. (See under Mahabhar ata). M. A division of elephants (in the army). He had stated that the decrease in the number of great sages was because of t he fact that people were not practising the control of the senses as before. Chapter 83.-B. Arirsam 1.B. The brahmin got angry and cursed him by sprinkling on his face water taken in his palm. ANJANA KULA. M. Vana Parva. Santa and Svani . Chapte r 298. Visvedevas and Mahavisnu for help and then Apastamba appeared before him. M.). Chapt er 181.B. AIVGHRIKA. An ancient sage. Fo llowing his instructions Apastamba did penance on the banks of'the river Gautami and Siva appeared before him. APASTAMBA. present and future) . . (.hy Vasistha had to beget a son for Kalmasapada of his wife. Adi Parva. Chapter 1 1. Agastya declared tha t Siva stood supreme of the lot and gave him advice as to how to please Siva. APAGA. M. One of the Parvans of the Mahabharata. Dharma. `Grhyasutrasaritgraha' containing a prayer and two mantras i s a contribution to the holy science by Apastamba. T heir son was Garki. To the surprise of the b rahmin Apastamba replied. The sons of Apa are Vaitanda. Chapter 49. Pratyusa and Prabhasa.). 3) Other details. (Slokas 16-22.). A sacred river.jloka 68. Chapt er 4. Siva declared that those who. (Brahma Purana). (See under Astavasus). (See under Mahabharata ') . Drona Parva. APAVAN II. (81oka 18. An ancient sage. It is said that if one gives food to one brahmin on the b anks of this river it will be equivalent to giving food to a crore of brahmins e lsewhere.B. (Sloka 54. Karttaviryarjuna once burnt the asrama of this rsi a nd he cursed Agni and Karttaviryarjuna. A gni. He once consoled King Dyumatsena. (Slokas 17 and 18. APA. The brahmin gave him food to his heart's content and asked him how he felt. The Astavasus are Apa. blessed him. Santi Par va. drama. Water stopped stiff' and still midway by the pow er of the sage. he wanted some more and thus made the Sraddha ineffect ive. ANJALI.jaunaka. (Skandha 12. ANUSASANIKA PARVA. Because water (Ape) became stiff' (Stamba) the rsi was named Apa stamba.2.). 1) How he got his name.

Chapter 2.).B. Adi Parva).) . . Vyakarana. A mahout who could control elephants that had gone mad temporarily. (Agni Puran a. Siksa. stealing of money. M. Chapter 154). Absolute truth. Japa. taking food earlier than the husband. Habit of dispute. Capturing the bride after a fig ht and marrying her by force is Raksasa. (Sloka 7.). AR. Chapter 51. A minister in business. A well-known serpent of the Kasyapa dynasty. AROCAKA(M). 6) Six qualities of a bad wife. Sarvakaranatva (being the cause of everything). Brahmaearya.B.). Marriage after deceiving the bride is c alled Paisaca. AREA (M) . Chandas. is given below. fortitude in grief. (See under Mahabharata) . 2) Six divine qualities. Marriage by giving the b ride after receiving a pair of cows from the bridegroom is called Arsa. Vane Parva. APTA. Exposure to sun's heat in the morning. (Sloka 8. M. Son of Subala and brother of Sakuni.Bhisma Parva. Prajapat ya is the form of marriage in which the bride is given to the man who asks for h er. 1) Six factors which reduce the span of life. the Earth in patience. ARALIKA. Omnipresence. 5) Six qualities of noble wives. M. A well-known serpent of the Kasyapa dynasty. (Bhisma Parva. Omnipotence. (In M alayalam Ar means six). APCRAIYA. When the bride is given with dowry. the goddess Laksmi in appearance. con trol of anger. Sleeping at dawn. Adi Par va. ARJAVA. The people of this place are called Arocakas.APODADHAUMYA. scandalmongering. the marriage is known as Asuram. Chapter 125. Jyotisa. Mercy. The significance of the number six among the ancients. These are the seven types of marriage. . Drinking curd at night. Sense of justice. (81oka 16.B. According to the author of the Smrti another form of marriage known as DANA is also mentioned. Wisdom. (81oka 6. Chapter 35. A form of marriage. Truth. (See Ayodadhaumya). a servant-maid in actio n. Nirukta. Brahma is the form of marriage in which the bride is given to a man of good ancestry and fine character. Viraxa Parva. i ARANEYAPARVA. Drinking impure water.A country of ancient Bharata. 7) Six heddrigas. a mother in love and a prostitute in bed. Niyama.B. ARCOKA. Sarvanityatva (immo rtality) and JSarvesvaratva (having domination over everything). 3) Six noblest qualities. Inhaling fumes from dead body. A sub-divisional Parva of the Mahabharata. justice. A mountain in front of the forest Saindhava inhabited by Manisipurusas. He was killed by Iravair son of Arj una. Marriag e with the mutual love and consent is Gandharva. Kalpa. 4) Six Dharmas (Duties of Sages). Jraana (wisdom). Eating dry meat. Chapter 35. spendi ng most of the time in other houses. (81 oka 9. Omniscience. showing fav our to strangers. M.

The Veda does not say anything about how Indra got the elephant. ~ Arsti seira's asrama was midway between Badaryasrama and Kubera's capital. This cobra fell dead at the Sarpasatra of Janamejaya. (Slokas 47 and 48. will be rewarded with greater results. Those who bathe in this t3rtha will get the benefit of Agvamedha' yaga. Rcika was the son of this Aurva . The el ephant was unknown to them. ARUNI IV..) . A Maharsi. 3. Power of 7-apes. Ad. Chapter 57. son of Rtayana. Cyavana Maharsi married her. Chapter 159 there is a refe rence tothe Pandavas visiting this sage during their life in the forest.i Parva. as his v ehicle. A daughter of Manu. A son born to Kasyapa of his wife Vinata. (Sloka 40. bright and good boy. and horses.ARSTISENA. (M. M. ARTTAYANI. In Krta-yuga this sage did rigorous tapes in Prthudakatirtha. A soldier of the Kaurava army. (For details see under Ayodhadhaum ya) . Vana Pa a.). He fought against Arjuna along with Sak uni. ARUM V. Adi Parva. come on your horse-back'. ARUM II. (M. The child was taken from the thigh of Arusi. The Rgveda gives great importance to agriculture.). M. eight and even twelve bullocks to the plough. O wing to the rigour of the tapes he' obtained all the chief vedas. Verses 23-26). They used to breed goats. Fields were ploughed by attaching six. Salya Parva. In the Mahabharata. Chapter 32. Water was taken from hradas and Kulyakas (ponds and tanks) for the purpose of irrigation. Chapter 4 0. Rcika was the father of Jamadagni. 2. One of the one hundred and eight Upanisads.). M. Rgveda gives us most of the information regarding the Xryas who came to the north of India during the times of the Vedas through the passes on that north-western side of Bharata. (Sloka 122. ARYAS. donkeys. Areas under cultivation were c alled Urvara and `Ksetra'. Even from childhood A urva was a bold. Chapter 65. ARUSI. A slight effort made here. After giving these three boons to the river Sarasvati which is Pxthudakatirtha t he sage attained Brahminhood and entered Devaloka. Chapter 66.B. Adi Parva. ARUM I. Agriculture was a very familiar art to . dogs.B. Sing to the glory of Indra against whom in his chariot driven by two hor ses no enemy would dare to face.B. ARTIMAN. (91oka 19.M. He gave three boons to that sacred tirtha 1.B. Sirdar K. Panikar writing in his preface to the `Rgvedasarimhita' by Poet Vallathol summarises the information available in the Rgveda about Aryan culture and says: "When the Aryans first entered India they were rich in cattle.B. Adi Parva. A disciple of the sage Ayodhadhaumya. There will be 'no fear of snakes in this tirtha. Chapter 50. Airavata. M..). Chapter 156. Verses 3-9). ARUM IIl. He was noted for his great honesty and love of truth. father of Parasurama. Salya Parva. Dhrtarastra. They got a son named Aur va. A mantra which eliminates all kinds of fear. (Sloka 56. The. A cobra born in the family of the serpent. In the Vedas the vehicle of Ind a is a horse and not an elephant. Salya.B. M.B. When hailing Indra they shout `come. Drona Parva.

The Rgveda gives the picture of a society of people who were always at war with each other. Sukta 22. Nahusa and Pururavas. They conducted trade by the exchange of goods generally. Let all your subjects love you. The originator of this mantra was IndrAn i. In a sukta of the ninth mandala it is stated that the father of a rsi was a medical practitioner. References to traders cruising in boats in the Sindhu river do not give much importance to the cruising. to sell his children. Divodasa.. There were other priests also. It can be surmised that the Sabha was constituted of only men of charac ter and learning. When they reach the banks of the Ganga the period of Rgveda ends. is no wonder why the Aryas who had to live among enemies accepted kingshi p. The next mant ra is also of the same idea. Let thy kingdom remain with you for ever". The march from Kubhatata (Kubul) to the ba nks of Yamuna is depicted there. They used to cultivate all sorts of grains and grams including yava. A father had the right. This is the slogan t hat rings out from the Rgveda. To cite an example is the story of Sunassepha w ho was made into a cow and sold to Visvamitra who looked after him well. In fo od rice and ghee were important. There are references to man y industries also. ordains that the bride should go t o the house of her husband after the marriage. The manufacture of armours and the descriptions about them in Rgveda are ample evidence of the proficiency of the Aryas in ironmongery and blacksmithy. A number of Visayas became what was known as °Janam'. Visvamitra and Vasistha were two great priests of the Bharata dynasty. Cotton cl oth and woollen blankets were made by them on a large scale. The cro . Rsis wore animal skins but others wore dhotis and shawls. The Rgveda narrates the difficulties people would have to encounter if they w ere left to fight their enemies without a proper leader and so advocates Kingshi p and gives it an exalted position in their social structure. Meat was also relished. The chief priest was always the political advisor also. A King is above punishment. Me ntion is there about a Rajasabha though nothing is said about their powers or fu nctions. The importance of Janas can be understood by the statements made about Pancajanas and the existence of special Janas like Yadava Jana and Bharata Jana . Sudas. The re is a mantra to harass the co-wife and its purpose is to make the husband more attached to her who hates the co-wife. Widow marriage was allowed. Sea voyage was not familiar to them. "We are surrounded by mighty enemies.them. Indra had many wives. Weaving was a very important industry at that time. Anuvaka 3. It was at Kubhatata that the mantras were first made. Rule us with courage and an unwavering mind. Anuvaka 12 of Mandala 10 describes the coronation of a King thus: °I do hereby crown you a s King. There is a reference in one place of the use of a coin `Niska' The Aryas were clever in the art of leather work. The veda speaks about m any famous kings of which the following are worth mentioning. A mbarisa. A number of gra mas formed into a place called Visaya. It is interesting to note the type of domestic life in vogue then. Iron was used by th em with great skill. Come to our midst. Visv amitra sent out from his family fifty sons who refused to obey him. Marriage was considered as a necess ary duty. Mandalam 10. During the Rgvedic times their social structure was divided into four stages: Gr ama was a colony of families and was the nucleus of the society. woodwork and metallurgy. Sukta 11. Dowry was cu rrent then. The fat her had the right to make his children lose all rights over his properties. There. The Rgveda is a history of the Aryas. the queen of Indra. They were well versed in medicine also. Polygamy was not objected to. Help us".

Chapter 228. From thereafter the Aryas joined han ds with the aborigines and laid the foundation for the great Hindu civilization. They ar e described as having black colour and flat noses and speaking a language differ ent from that of the Aryas. Another name for Durgadevi. When they saw the huge and deep river. It was after crossing Sindhu that they had to oppose the `Dasyus'. Ayasi and S`atabhuji. M. Adi Parva. Vana Parva. The Rgveda itself records that the Dasyus were more cultur ed than the Aryas. The Bh aratas settled themselves in. They never conducted yaga nor did they worship go ds like Indra. Vipru. The worship of Mahayogi and Devi found in Mohenjo daro is an evidence of this change. they were amazed.. Chapter 35. The wonde r is reflected in a lovely mantra. This le i to a war called Dasarajna. Later the Aryas learnt from the Dasyus the worship of Siva. Varcis and' gambara. The chief opponents of the Aryas were a tribe of people called Pants. is asso ciated with Bhimasena in the following story. Sindhu. We may surmise from these facts that they belonged t o the Dravida class of people. At that time it was Aryaka who advised Vasuki to give him Irasapana'. Agni Purana). Devi and Linga. A famous serpent.B. It was the people under Suds who came out victorious in that war and pu t a stop to further conquests by the Aryas. ARYA. This war is to be considered as one of the most important of wars in the world. Vasuki. (Sloka 15. After some time Bhima became unconscious due to the effect of the poison'and fell flat in the river. One of the seven mothers who were present at the birth of Subrahmanya.) Aryaka. Those serpents who escaped went and brought their chief. Among the several divisions of the D asyus. Unaware Bhima took his food as usual and went to bathe in the river. They have been described in the Rgveda as ASvamayi. the land between the Yamuna and Ganga and remained friendly with the Dasyus living to the east of Ganga. Thereafter the Rgveda states about prayers for help to combat 'our enemies of A ryas and Dasyus'.B. The gods =who were recognised later were those who were not fo und in the vedas of the Aryas. . ARYAVARTA. ARYAKU. `>igrus and Yaksus ranked foremost in power.).). M. ARYAKA. Accordi ng to Smrti the land lying between the Himalayas and the Vindhyas is called Arya varta. Adi Parva. Kikatas. was the ruler of a hundred cities.B. From the N irukta of Yaska we are given to understand that the Pants were mainly engaged in trade.). the 8imyus. Chapter 127. rsis. (Sloka 7. a Dasyu King. The Rgveda names many Dasyu kings of which the following few were more d aring and brave and the Aryas acknowledged their superior strength and courage: Dbuni.ssing of each of the five rivers of Pafcanada is treated as a big event by the . Clumuri. M. Once Duryodhana gave snake poison in his food to Bhimasena. They were idol worshippers for they have been abused as `Sisnadev as'. Conquering these daring and cultured enemies the Aryas reached the banks of the Yamuna to find to their pleasant surprise a radical change in themselves. There is also a place of that name. Th eir fortresses were strong. Blaim a reaching the bottom was bitten by all the snakes there. M. (Chapter 12. (Slokas 64-68. Immediately Duryodhana bound him by ropes and put him in more deep waters.B. Those who opposed Sudas were Aryas though among the supporters of Sudas were als o Aryas. Chapter 325. (Sl oka 13. Another name for Bharata. Santi Parva. This fortunately serve d as an antidote and the poison in Bhima's body was neutralized and Bhima became his old self again and killed all the serpents. Sambara. The Aryas who settled dow n in Pancanada were strong and to prevent them from coining and conquering them Bharata tried to keep them remain on the other side of 8utudri (Sutlej).

if curd is given to a Brahmin of noble birth. Verse 121). Genealogy. ASADHAKA.rata ruled over this land and gave it the name Bharata. Vidarbha. Durjaya. Ciravasas. we find a reference to an elephant called Bhadravati and a mahout named Asadhaka in the palace of the heroine. Kratha. one will have many sons and much wealth. The Raksasa group called Krodhavasas were the children of Krodha vasa. Priyavrata. Name of a month. By feasting in this month. ASADHA. Dantavaktra. Indrasprk. Vatadhana. He was the incarnation of a Raksasa called Krodhavas a. ASADHA TI. Posture in Yogabhyasa. See under Pancatantra. Ku's5varta. Visvaka rma. Of these Bha. there is a r eference to this King who once lost his masculinity and was transformed into a w oman but was restored to manhood by a Muni named Medhyatithi. Adi Parva.R.B. Many Ksatriya kings trace their descent from this group of Raksasas. Dramida. Vers es 59-64) . one can take rebirth in a family having ma ny cows. Dharina. (M. Brahma's son. ASAIVIGAPLAYOGI. Suratha. face downwards. A King. face downwards on a sheet with hands placed close to the body on either side.. Asadha. Keep the legs close toget her and raise the feet up with the heels touching each other. Brothers of Bharata ruled different parts of this land. raise the soles upwards to the sky. support ed by the hands on the ground. ASADHA. Sumitra. Hari. At this time. 2) galabhasana. A mahout in the Udayana story. (M. concentr ate the mind on health. Pippalayana. Siva. Chapter 106. Then raise' the head and bend the neck backwards as far as possible. Balhika. Kasyapa married Krodhavas3. Camas a and Karabhaj ana. Ka'syapa was the son of Marici.igasana. Dramida's land became known later as Dravida . The chief of them are given below: 1) Bhuja. Avirhotra. A king of the dynasty of Visvakarma. (Daksinabharata) .. Antariksa. Gomukha. Bharitejas. Kitakariddha. ASAMGA.ARYAVARTA. ASADISA I. Aryavarta Malaya. Agnidhra. In Kathasaritsagara.. Brahmavarta. 5th Taranga. Vicitra. See under ANASA. Place both palms. Anusasana Parva.. Rukmi. There are different types of asanas. Ilavar ta. Nabhi.B. touching the shoulders on both sides. Vasavadatta. Prabhasa. ASADHABHBTI. Ekalavya. ASANA. Verse 26) . (M. After observing a fast on the day of this star. Kikata. Kauravya. Rsabha and Aryavarta. Kavi. the trunk and leg s should be in close contact with the ground. Keeping the feet close together and pressing the knees a gainst the ground. pressin g against the ground. dau ghter of Daksa. Subahu. Prabuddha. Of these Rsabha got of his wife Jayanti twenty sons: Bharata. (M.B. Descending in order from Visnu are Brahma. In the Rgveda. The n ames of such Ksatriya Kings are given below: ld'Iadraka. Karnavestha. This asana strengthens the back bone. Ketu. Kathamukhalambaka. Anusasana Parva. Name of a star. Siddhartha . Chapter 6. Vayuvega. Place the hands cl . A Ksatriya King. Lie flat on the sheet. who was generous by nature. Chapter 17. Verses 25-26). Bhadrasena. Gradually raise the chest. Lying flat. and Ksemadhurti. Bring the head down in the same way as it was rai sed and restore the body to its former position. Anusasana Parva. Chapter 64. After relaxing all the muscles of the body. Janamejaya.

should fulfil all obligations of a Grhastha according to his capacity. Vaivasvata Manu was the son of Vivasvan. do not send out the breath. after the Acarya (guru) has taken his bath in it. en gage himself in the study of the Vedas. Living there with proper observance of s auca. ASAVAHA II. Brahmacarya. Mayurasana. Rsis with Svadhyaya (self discipline). Arka. The guest who leaves a house disappointed. Pa'scimatanasana.A'sramas. The study of Ve das should be with proper observance of Vratas and steady attention. Chapter 185. Yogamudra. A prince of the Vrsni dynasty. The Grha stha who worships the Pitrs with Pindadana (offerings of rice balls). Then try to raise the legs. enters into Grh asthasrama. is really . Rcika. and giv e them bed. etc. Matsyasana.ose to the body on either side and close the fists upwards. Caksuratma. When th e Guru stands. water and flowers which t he guru needs. After that. Halasana. Trikonasana. Asavaha. Asramites (Inmates of an Asrama)have to pass through four stages. the Grhastha should welcome them with kind and loving words. Vanaprastha and Sannyasa are known as the four. there are many other asanas like Dhanur. 2: Garhasthya. who do not carry their food wit h them and those who spend the night wherever they reach. customs and vratas he should serve and attend on the Guru. Support the weight of the body with the breas t and hands. Padahastasana. Uddiyasana. The Sisya (discip le-pupil) should not do anything against the guru. Nauli. Sirsasana. The fo ur stages of Brahmacarya. Viparitakarani. the Sun and Agni at the time of the two san dhyas (dawn and dusk) and after that he should do obeisance to the Guru. Adi Parva. Verse 42). The Grhastha is the on ly refuge and support of those who are homeless. Everyday the Camata. seat and food. daughter of Daksa. Grhastha'srama is the only source of support for sannyasis and brahmacaCs who beg their food. Bhanu. Keep the legs straight and stiff. asana. Visnu Purana. (See under Yoga). Besides these. From Visnu Brahma.. B.) and the whole world with love. the legs must be brought down slowly. This makes the as ana complete. must be brought and supplied (by the gisya). he should walk b ehind him and when he sits. After the study of the Vedas the intelligent sisya gives Gurudaks ina (Payment to the preceptor) and with the consent of the Guru. ASAVAHA I. Sarvangasana. spirits with bali (offering of food etc. for pilgrimage and for seeing the places. Then he is to marry and by earning money from a suitable occupation. Devas with Yagas (sacrifices). Ka'syapa married Aditi. A son of Kasyapa and Aditi. Savitd. Aditi gave birth to ten sons : Bhadbhanu. Place the fists and shoulders close to the ground and make the whole body stiff after inhaling the b reath. Vibhavasu. This is possible by pressing the fists. (M. Verse 19). If such people come to his house. Sava sana. Garhasthya. He was present at the Svayamvara of D raupadi.. (M. When the guru himself asks. The lower abdomen and legs may be raised slightly. with his permission he may eat food which has been got by begging: The Sisya may take his bath in the water only. Part III. Ravi and Vivasvan. t he Sisya should sit in front of him and recite Vedas -without attending to anyth ing else. firmly against the ground. Adi Parva. from Brahma Marici and from Marici Kasyapa were born. he should sit in a lower position. Arddhamatsyendrasana . attains the holy world by his own virtuous deeds. When the guru walks. suppress his indriyas (the five senses) and live in the house of the preceptor. he should also be standing. A Brahmacar i should worship with concentration. Brahmanas travel from country to count ry to study Vedas. Prajapatis with bege tting of children. Until the asana is completed. On feeling suffocation.B. Chapter 9 describes each of the Xsramas a s follows 1'. Chapter 1. darbha. "After Upanayana a boy should maintain a Brahmacari's vrata. ASRAMA. Ther efore feeding them is an act of nobility.

Accordingly Kasyapa created many mantras and Manasa Devi as the basic deity of those mantras. the Grhastha. A muni (sage) in Indra's assembly. Ksatriyas and Vaisyas. The Grhast ha who performs the supreme duty of Grhastha'srama in this way pioperly. (See under Mahabharata ) .Manasadevi" because Kasyapa created her by his mental power. Before entering upon the fourth A'srama one has to renounce the love of travel. The Muni who observes this rule in Vanaprastha with due austerity. She is named ". to behave rudely or treacherously towards him. One who embraces sannyasa should abandon complet ely the efforts for the three Purusarthas of Dharma. (See under Mahabharata) . He stopped King Janamejaya's Sarpasatra and saved the nagas. For sustaining l ife. He should not stay in a villa ge more than one night and in a town more than five nights. ASTIKA. mendicancy -all these are the laudable features of Vanaprastha. After having finished all his duties in this way. His clothes.. Visahara and Mahajnanayuta. Long ago the people of the world were so much troubled by the serpents. to r egret what has been given to the guest. Sannyasa. performing tapas. 3.B. should go to the forest. ASRAVYA. 1) Birth. either after entrusting his wife to his sons or taking her also with him. The Sannyasi should cast away all vic es like Kama. It should be after all people have take n their food and put out the cooling fire. To find a remedy for this. and Moha and should not have any thought of self in anything. Not even a single crea ture should be offended by thought. To put an end to the troubles from the serpents. Even that should be in such a way that no one feels any love or hatred towards him. There. burns up all his evils as with fire and attains the eternal worlds. Nagabhagini. Manasadevi has eleven other names also. ASRAMAVASIKA PARVA. Astikamata. word or deed. with the commencement of old age. Enduring heat and cold. also named Jaratkaru. Lobha. Jagatgauri. the S annyasi should renounce all bonds and attachments. One of the Parvas in the Mahabharata. The Muni who goes about giving shelter to all creatures will n ot have to fear any creature. is libe rated from all'secular bonds and reaches the noblest worlds.departing after transferring his own sins to that householder and taking away al l the virtuous deeds of the householder. Siddhayogini. The fourth Asrama is that of the Sannyasi. The Brahmana who follows the Sannyasasrama as desc ribed above with a pure heart and without difficulty will shine like fire withou t fuel and attain Brahmaloka in peace. Jaratkaru priya. Chapter 7. sleep on the bare ground. One of the Parvas in the Mahabharata. treat frien ds and foes alike and continue to love all living beings. Verse 18). Saivi. The rule is that he should bathe three times a day. The son of the Maharsi Jaratkaru and his wife. roots and fruits for his food. he should go about begging food from the houses of the people of the thre. It is not proper for the Grhastha to tr eat a guest with disrespect. grow hair and beard. sheets and blankets should be of deer-skin and darbha grass. Brahma suggested that a number of mantras and a deity as the basis of those mantras sho uld be created. that they sought protection from Kasyapa Prajapati. Kasyapa discussed the matter with Brahma. (M. There is a story about Astika's birth in the Devi Bhagavata.~ castes-Brahmins. Sabha Parva. lead the life of a tapasa and receive and honour all classe s of guests. ASRAMAVASA PARVA. . wealth and wife and also give up all spirit of rivalry. namely Jaratka ru. Conquering all passions. hospitality to all guests. Worship of gods. Garva. Pdnaprastha. Artha and Kama. Any oil that is available in the forest is to be used f or his oil bath. he should use leaves. perf orming homas. Vaisnavi. 4. Nagesvari. or to obstruct or rebuke him. to his satisfa ction. are also his duties. Krodha.

(Devi Bhagavata. the wife became anxious. when travelling through the forest happened to see his pitrs (souls of forefathers) hanging over a precipice at the end of a blade of grass. She returned with great learning and devotion. But he wished to marry a woman who had the same name as his. Jaratkaru decided to marry. Navama Skandha). while they were living together in a place called Puskara tirtha. un der a tree. Navama Skandha). The precepts and spiritual advice given by Jaratkaru. gives another reason for giving this name to the boy . The sun was about to set. she begged for his forgiv eness. That is why this boy ca me to be called Astika. we will not get to heaven. by Parama-Siva himself. Adi Parva. about to fall into the abyss. the boy was named Astika. In due course Manasadevi gave birth to a son who was a part of Narayana (Visnu). It was Cyavana Muni who taught Samgavedas to Astika. Jaratkaru accepted the offer readi ly and married Jaratkaru. they added. a Muni (sage) named Jaratkaru. the son of Abhimanyu was trave . the father of Manasadevi. W hen she reached there Parama-Siva and Parvati comforted her. the husband was sleeping with his head in the wife's lap. went to Kailasa for doing tapas (penanc e) . Vasuki was Manasadevi's brother. Adi P arva.B. he returned to Kailasa. After their marriage. Having received Visnu's blessings also. Vedamgas etc. Astika went to Puskara tirtha and did tap as to Visnu for many years. They explained that they were in that plight becaus e their descendant Jaratkaru had no children. head downwards. At last Siva appeared and blessed her with divine wisdom. Since he was the son of Manasadevi who had deep devotion to the Guru and to the Gods. he had blessed her saying that the child in her womb would be a brilliant and devoted son. Jaratkaru enquired why they w ere lying in that condition. There she did tapas to Siva for a thousand years. Kasyap a was very much pleased to see his noble-hearted daughter and her brilliant son. Weeping bitterly. When the sage Jaratkaru abandoned his wife. After living there happily with his mother for some time. Manasadevi was pregnant. P arama-Siva and Parvati were lizard by the child in the womb and . (Devi Bhagavata. Once King Pariksit. Since he has no children. she did wake him up. But in the end. At that time. Chapter 48. virtuous. renowned. The husband sprang up in great fury. It is believed that he who does not wake up before sunrise and he who does not offer prayers at dusk will be guilty of the sin of B rahmahatya (killing a Brahmin). As tika grew up there under the care of Vasuki. Verse 18). 3) Jstika at the Sarprasatra. one day th ey started to the Asrama of Ka'syapa Prajapati. After r eceiving the blessings of Parama-Siva. H e renounced the wife then and there. As he is a bachelor there is no ho pe either. After this ManasSdevi set out to Kailasa. To save the Pitrs from their predicament. (M. Nor was it proper to wake him up from a sound sl eep.. They were hanging precariously at the end of a reed gr ass. 2) Boyhood Astika was taught Veda. an unexpected event happened which interrupted the happy course of their life. br illiant. The Mahabharata. of his having any issue. As the Maharsi did not wake up before suns et.so even before his birth he became a Jnani and a yogi. To enhance the fame and accomplishments of the boy Kasyapa gave a sumptuous fea st to ten crores of Brahmins. scholarly and devout son who will be a devotee of V isnu and a preserver of the family". at this time. Once Vas uki met Jaratkaru and told him that he had a sister named Jaratkaru and that he would be very happy if Jaratkaru married her. At last Jaratkaru relented and told her : "You will have a very noble.Manasadevi (Jaratkaru) when quite young. One evening.

. In his anger. At this stage. Navama Skandha. ASURAM. ASURI An ancient Maharsi. Verse 5f. A son of Visvamitra. Asva.B. many serpents were being burnt up. with the object of annihilating the whole race of serpents. (Sloka 12.layana composed thr ee famous works Asvalayana Grhyasutra.B. his bed.) . One of the Parvas in the Mahabharata. (Devi Bhagavata. (M.) .. Adi Parva). ATAKA. S ix days passed like this. Verses 10-14) . The ofciating priests were beginning to get angry. A serpent born of the Kaurava dynasty. Kapila. After that. Chapter 57. On his way he met Dhanvantari who was proceeding to Parikgit to prote ct him. Chapter 4. When the priests understood this they decided to use their charms and mantras which w ould bring Indra. A son of Visvamitra. Assuming the form of a small worm. (M. Janamejaya performed all the obsequies of his father. grrhgi pronounced a curse that Kin g Pariksit should die within seven days by the bite of Taksaka. quite inaccessible to Taksaka and took shelter there. agreed to do so. He was a disciple of Saunaka. determined to make a final attempt . He picked up a dead snake with the tip of his bow and put it on the shoulder of a sage named "gamika". Once Asuri had a full vision of God. M. Adi Parva. Chapter 4. ASURAYANA. It seemed th at the whole race of serpents would shortly be wiped out. cot and all.. he had a palace built on a single pillar in the middle of the ocean . When Pariksit he ard of this. Santi Parva. In the sacrificial fire specially prepared at that yaga. On the seventh day. Anusasana Parva. Taksaka took his own shape and size and bit the King who died immediately. The frightened Taksaka fled for life to the palace of his friend Indra and there lay down. (M. The kindhearted Devi called her son Astika and advis ed him to persuade Janamejaya to stop the sarpasatra. Anusasana Parva. He was the ac5rya of Kapila Sarilkhyadarsana and the g uru of the maharsi Pancagikha. Dhanvantari returned after re ceiving a large number of rare precious stones given to him by Taksaka.lling through the forest for hunting animals.. lie gave man y precepts on spiritual matters to other Maharsis. This serpent was burnt at the Sarp asatra of Janamejaya. The Bhagavata says that Asuri received his spiritual enlightenment from his wife. AJVALAYANA II. AJVALAYANA 1. An Acarya. Chapter 218. after consulting the munis and priests and at their advice. he summone d Brahmanas to conduct a sarpa satra (snake sacrifice).. along with Taksaka to the sacrificial li re. gamika's so n. Verse 54) . Taksaka secretly entered into a fruit which was to be presented to the King. The most famous physicia ns and wizards were engaged to ward off the approach of Taksaka to that place. Taksaka disguised himself as an old Brahmana and set out to the King's place o f shelter. curling round Indra's cot. Astika went to Janamejaya and requested him to give him the lives of Taksaka and Indra as a gift.B. Srthgi came to know of this. Asvalayana Srautasutra and Asvalayana Stuti. As soon as the King took that fruit in his hand. A form of marriage. all the gods rushed to Manasadevi and fell at her feet and begged her to save the situation. (See VIVAHA). Janamejaya w as the son of this King Pariksit. in a spirit of revenge. M. See Mahabharata. They became friends and as a result of it. ASTIKA PARVA. But Taksaka alone was not to be seen. Impatient cri es of Where is Taksaka rent the air. the Sarpasatra was stopped and the remaining serpents escaped with their lives.B.B. Janameja ya. In this way.

Sisli got five sons. M. Chapter 9. See under Gokarna. ATREYA(M). wife of Atri is also called Atreyl. a famous character in the story of Udaya na.. ATREYI IV. (Sloka 22. Vana Parva. ATREYI I. son of Agni. Dhruva got three sons. Chapter 328. Chapter 9. From Visnu were born in the following order : Brahma -Dharma . Genealogy. A sage. But before long the demons took over t his heaven from him. A King of Visvakarma's dynasty. Sipra. Bhava and Sambhu.B. M. 3) This rsi taught his disciples about Nirgunabrahma. Ripu Ripunjaya. (Sloka 68. Her father told her thus "Your husband is the son of Agni.).B. ATMADEVA. Verse 72) .. (See under Yaugandharayana). (Sloka 7. A place of ancient Bharata. M.B.) . Though Visvakarmatook back the same from the demons. Daughter of Maharsi Atri. S umanas. Sabha Parva. A Vayu. M. Chapter 55. Atreya was also present among the ascetics who assembled at the sa rpasatra of Janamejaya. Manu was born to Caksusa of his wife Virani. ATHARVANA. AVARANA. Anasuya.). Once this rsi went to devaloka as the guest of Indra and there he drank Amrta (the celestial elixir) and enjoyed the dances of the celestial maidens A desire to have a similar heaven of his own budded in his mind and he approached Visvak armawho. Priyavrata and Uttanapada. born to Ripu of his wife Brhati. I0ru got of Atreyi Anga.ATAVIPURL An ancient city in India Sahadeva conquered this city. This sage had acquired the power to go from one planet to anothe r. Atreva did not go back but returned to his old asrama on the banks of Gomati and doing penance there for a long time attained salvation (Brahma -Purana) . (M. (Sloka 6." Hearing t his the devout Atreyi transformed herself into a river and started to cool him d own by constant showers. Adi Parva. A sage. An giras always spoke rudely to her and pained at this she once approached her fath er and told him about this. (M. Wife of King . Kratu. Sisli. AVANTIKA. M. ATREYA. (Sloka 8.) 2) Atreya was a disciple of Vamadeva. That is why he appears unbearable to you. Chapter 31. Ahgiras and Gaya.B.^rV ru. ATREYI 11. Sabha Pa rva.). ATREYI III. (Br ahmanda Purana) AVAHA. Daughter of Yaiigandharayana. Santi Parva. She was married to Angiras. (Chapter 18. Chapter 137. Uttanapada got a son named Uttama of Suruci and o ne of name Dhruva of Suniti. Verse 37) . Bhisma Parva.B. Anu sasana Parva. More details.B. .B.gave him a new heaven of his own. When Arjuna dreamed of going to Siva accompanied by Krsna the y visited in the dream the asrama of this sage also. Agni Purana).Prabha sa-Visvakarma-Priyavrata-Agnidhra-Nabhi-Rsabha-Bharata-Avarana. Chapter 192. Svayambhuva Manu got of his wife SatarupA two so ns. A river. Svati. Ther efore give him a cold bath always and he would gradually become mild. Caksusa was. This river later on became the famous Parusni Nadi. Vrkal a and VrkateJas. IJru was the son of Manu.

Agantuka refers to cuts. It is the science which the sage Dhanvantari taught Su'sruta. Vana Parva. A test in the skill of archery was conducted when the Pandavas a nd Kauravas finished their study at the feet of bronacarya. Arnsam 1. Indrasprk.. Dramida.B. Two daughters were born to Mahameru. AVIRHOTRA. Agni Purana). (Chapter 151. (Chapters 279 to 286. Verse 5). AYATI. Dhata and Vidhata are th e two sons born to Bhrgu Maharsi of his wife Khyati.B. Rastrabhrt. Their profession was drama acting. thirs. See under Ayodhadhaumya. AVASTHYA. Travancore) till the time of the Venad dynasty coining into powe r. of Ayati and Vidhata. Chapter 221. A king of Visvakarma's dynasty. wounds and injuries. Ilavarta. M. A yrajas were a prominent political force in Kerala. Vidarbh a. Hari. (M. AVARTANANDA. 1) Genealogy. Prabuddha.and Niyati by Vidhata.B. Pippal'yana. Fr om him this country came to be called "BHARATA".D. This is described be autifully in Chapter 134 of adi Parva. Vana Parva. and Dhumraketu were born to her. (Chapter 10. Verse 45). ( M. Prana got a son Dyutiman and he got a son Rajav5m. Kerala (S. Five children. Kusavarta .gavata. Till the beginning of the 10th century A. Verse 9) .. One who bathes in this tirtha will be able to enjo y life in Nandanavana. An Agni. Rsabha's wife bore to him twenty children who were : Bharata. Ayati and Ni yati. Mandala 1 of the Rgveda. Antariksa. Kavi. Prana. Avirhotra. Bhadrasena. Visnu Purana). AYUS I. AYOGAVA. A place in ancient India. To Ayus was born of his wife Svarbhanavi .. Chapter 254. Son of Pururavas and father of Nahusa. AVASIRA. Dasama Skandha ). Malaya. From Visnu were descended in the following order : Brahma-7 Dharma-Pr abhasa-Visvakarma-Barhismati-Priyavrata-'Agnidhra-Nabhi-Rsabha-Avirhotra. old age. Ca masa and Karabhajana. Ketu. Refer Dh anvantari for more details. They ruled over a huge area i n S. a son. became the ruler of India. Agni Purana). Pancajani. Ayati was married by Dhat. A King. Jayanti.B. Descending in order from Visnu BrahmaCandra-Budha-Pur[iravas-Ayus. The eldest of them. Bharata. Ailments are of four ki nds : Saririka refers to fever. Chapter 25. and Sahaja ref ers to hunger. AYAVASA. Brahmavarta. This desc ribes all the diseases and the treatment meant for them. A special caste of people. Name of a class of Kings. etc. Dhata got a son. (M. It is said that Karna conquered this place. They were adepts in handicrafts. AYURVEDA. Genealogy. AYODHADHAUMYA. All the younger brothers ruled over the different parts of this country. A daughter of Mahameru. Mrkandu of Niyati.. See under Caturvarnyam. A sacred Tirtha. There is mention about this king in Sakta 128. AYRAJAS. Aryavarta. Anusasana Parva. Manasika refers to those ari sing out of anger . Avarana.Bharata married the world-beauty. (Bh7. AYUDHA PARIKSA. skin diseases etc. Kikata. Sudarsana. Sumati. Ayus was born to Puraravas of Urva'si.

2) He was a Yadava of the Vrsni dynasty and one of the seven noted ministers of the Yadu line of Kings. BABHRAVYAM. Sibi. 5) When in the end the Yadavas in Dvaraka quarrelled with each other and were de stroyed. (Chapter 211. See under Nahusa. Anuvrata. M. Anusasana Parva. . of which Rahu was one. (See Guruparampara).B. Ayus was a king who had acquired great power by penance.B. M. Agni Purana). M. (Sloka 33. M. One of the sons of Visvamitra who were Brahmavadis. Chapter 342. son of Marici. Virocana. M. Babhravya made onl y a condensation of the work of Svetaketu. sala Parva. 8isupala carried away his wife when once he was away in Dvaraka. A Yadava king. He a friend of Sri Krsna. Su'sobhana was the daughter of this frog -king. Of her were born the celebrated asuras.B.B. Sabha Parva.).). Sirnhika became the wife of Vipracitti. Udyoga Parva. The information from Puranas available about hi m is given below 1) This Rajarsi was an adept in the art of yajna. Chapter 57. Adi Parva. He died when hit by an arrow from Vyasa. (Sabha Parva. 8isupala carried away his wif e. Chapter 4. BABHRUDAIVAVRDHA. got two sons.). Chapter 296. Svetaketu was the first of the au thors who had written on the Science of amour (Kama-sasti'a). A son of King Virata.) . (Aitareya Brahmana 7. war do was Mau BABHRU III.B. M. 3) Other details.). M. (Chapter 42. Adi Parva. A king of KUL By the help of Sri Krsna he attained Rijyalaksmi.). (Chapter 19. M. He was a disciple of Narada an d Parvata Maharsi. Sairhhikeyas. Daksinatya Patham. For the interesting story of the marriage of a king with a frog see under Pariksit II. Kasyapa. M. One who was the king of frogs. AYUS 11. Chapter 7. BABHRU I. of his wife Diti. BABHRU II. Prahlada and Sarhhrada. Then Sri Krsna entrus . An author of the `Science of Love'. Of these Vrata got a son Vrata. A Yadava of the Vrsni dynasty. It is mentioned in M ahabharata. (Sloka 50. Mahabali was the son of Virocana. Udyoga Parva. Vrata.Nahusa.). the plight of the Yadava ladies became miserable. 2) Birth of the ion. Santi Parva.B.B.B. 4 ) When once this Rajarsi went on a visit to Krsna. B BABHRAVYA. Hiran yakasipu had four brave sons. A maharsi of the line of preceptors from Vyasa. (Sloka 24. (Slok a 15. Santi Parva. Stanza 103 that the hermit Galava belonged to this clan. 3) At the time of the kidnapping of Subhadra Babhrudaivavrdha was partaking in a grand festival at the mountain of Raivataka.B.). (Chapter 4. (Cha pter 28.). Hiranyaksa and Hiranyakasipu and a daughter Simhika.34). A clan or gotra of Brahman as in Ancient India. Sarnhrada got Ayusman. BABRRU IV. Susobhana was married to King Pariksit. M. BABHRU V. AYUSMAN. and Baskala and PrahlAda got a son. He was one of the ablest of Yadava riors.) . B. (Chapter 14. Even in his old age he used to penance.

by hard penance for a progeny. Babhruvahana and Ulupi he smi led and asked them why they had all come there. Sabha Parva. (1) On reaching Hastinapura Sri Krsna gave Babhruvahana as a p . The king received Arjuna with respect and after enquiring about his wel fare requested him to marry his daughter. 2) His fate to kill his own father. Chapter 4.task of taking care of them. her son. During this exile while he was staying at Gangadvara he married the serpent girl. With a view to avoiding any quarrel between the Pandavas over the one wife they jointly possessed. Ulupi immediately went to the serpent world and brought the Mi'tasanjivani stone and as she placed it on Arjuna's breast he came to life as if waking up from a sleep. BABHRUMALI. Prabhanjana one of the forefathers of Cit rangada had. acquired from Siva a boon and each o f his successors got a son each to maintain the line. Narada suggested that each sh ould take Pancali for a year in turn and he who violated the arrangement should go to the forest for a year. When Yudhisthira was performing the Asvamedha yaga Arjuna conducted a victory march with the yaga hor se.). (Chapters 218 to 210 of Adi Parva and Chapters 79 to 82 of Asvamedha Parva. 3) The killing of Arjuna. But he got her up as a son and named her Citrangada.).B. Arjuna put Sikhandi before his chariot and Bhisma refused to take arms agains t a eunuch and accepted defeat. 4) Other details. M. BABHRUVAHANA. When he saw Citrangada. Leaving that place Arjuna went to Pancatirtha and there he gave salvation to the celestial maidens who were lying in the tirthas as crocodiles.B.ted Dvaraka and Babhrudaivavi'dha with the . Agni Purana). But when it came to Citran gada to his surprise he got a girl instead of a son. Mau sala Parva. A Gandhara king.). Narada went to see them once. A son of Arjuna. On his way he reached Manalur. At once Ulupi called Babhruvahana and asked h im to challenge Arjuna. But Gangadevi witnessing the battle. Gangadevi then said that Arjuna would be kill ed by Babhruvahana but would be brought to life by Ulupi by placing the Mi'tasan jivani stone on the dead man's breast. A sage. Babhruvahana with his bow and arrows attacked Arjuna and in the grim battle that followed Arjuna fell dead. It was by a ruse that Arjuna made Bhisma fal l. Seeing this Citrangada came to the place of battle weeping and abused Ulupi for persuading Babhruvahana to k ill his own father. Promising them that he would take them later to Hastinapura.B. Once Arjuna went to the house of Yudhisthira who wa s with Pancali and for thus violating the arrangement Arjuna had to go to the fo rest for a year. and Arjuna from above could not bear this foul play and so cursed that Arjuna would die at the hands of his son. Ulupi the serpent wife of Arjuna heard this curse and went to her father Kauravya who in turn went to Ganga and b egged for a relief from the curse. M. After that he went to a country called Manaldr. When the Pandavas were residing in Indraprastha after marrying Pancali . It was when she was ready for marriage that Arjuna wen t there. (Chapter 277. He was the brother of Druhvu and father of Purovasu . When he went back to Manalfir Citrangada had delivered a son whom he named Babhr uvahana. BABHRUSETU. Arjuna married her and stayed there fo r three months. But in the battle of the maces he was killed with a mace thrown at him. M. Ulupi then explained to him the story of the curse and extremely pleased over the end of the curse Arjuna took t hem all to Hastinapura. He was a lively member of the Sabha of Yudhisthira. The Mahabharata battle was over. At that time that country was be ing ruled by a king called Citrangada. Ulupi and'got a son called Iravan of her. he left th e place. (Chapter 5. (S`loka 16. 1) Birth. between Bhi sma.

If one stays in this place for a night in celibacy and fast . Adi Parva that this pr ince became a famous king later. (BADARAPACANA). The modern investigators say that this place is on the bank of river Dhavala which flows ne .B. But Aurva told her that her son would become a famous king and that she should not commit suicide. If one lives here fasting for twelve years eating dates only. BAHU II. BADARIKASRAMA. one will become as great as Vas islha. tha t the Pandavas thought of sending an invitation to a king named Bahu for the bat tle between the Kurus and themselves. A son was born to her. Widow marriage was not forbidden. Mandala 10. A king of the Sundara dynasty. A holy bath. Dhananjayasuta and Manipuresvara. This king was once defeated in a battle and being weary and sad he entered the hermitage of Aurva. As she had been poisoned when the child was in her womb the son was given the name Sagara (with poison). Stanza 22. It is said in the Rgveda. BAHIRGIRLA mountainous region of ancient Bharata. (BADARYASRAMA). Chapter 27. BAHUBHARYATVA. Stanza 53).). See under Aurva. Chapter 4. Mandala 10. BADARIVANA. He was a follower of the Brahma cult. The queen wanted to jump into the fire in which the body of her husband was to be burned. BAHU III. In those days marriage was an essential du ty. He was the father of Sagara. A sacred plade in Kuruksetra. Chapter 4.). is seen in the Rgveda. (Polygamy). Thus she desisted from committing suicide. M. It w as not prohibited for a man to have more than one wife. Mention is made in Mahabharata.). (M. Sabha Parva. theref ore. It is a prayer to destroy the love of husband for a co-wif e and to direct that love towards oneself.red place. M. A sat. He is known by the name Subahu also. Stanza 3 that this country lying in the vicinity of t he Himalayas had been conquered by Arjuna during his conquest of the North. Manippurpati. Anusasa na Parva. BADHIRA. The Badarika9rama comprises Badarivana and Visalapuri also. A very holy place in the Himalayas. A serpent of the Kasyapa dynasty. (Chapter 83. Sukta 11 that the bride should proceed to the house of the husband. Udyoga Parva. Anuvaka 11. M. It is said in Mahabharata. Chapter 88.. (2) The different names given to him in the Puranas are as follows : Citrangadas uta. Asvamedha Parva. Udyoga Parva. BADAVAGNI. give it a very prominent place in them. BADULI A son of Visvamitra.B.B. Udyoga Parva. after the marriage. The deity of this spell is Indrani th e wife of Indra who was a polygamist. A spell (m antra) meant for keeping down one's co-wife. Chapter 74. His queen was given pois on by another wife of the King. It was customary to give dowry also. Sukta 17. Chapter 74. Mention is made about this king in Maha bharata.B. Visalapuri an ancient city of puranic fame is near this place. Vana Parva. (There is a reference to this serpent in Sloka 16. Mention is made in Mahabharata . It was here t hat Nara and Narayana did penance for thousands of years and the Puranas. (Sloka 6. BADARIPACANA TIRTHA. BAHU I. But the child in her womb did not die. one will get the fruits of performing a sacrifice to devas (gods). Anuvaka 3.resent a chariot drawn by divine horses. A king of the Surya-vamsa (solar dynasty). Polygamy was a custom in vogue in ancient India. BAHUDA.

BAHULA III... Stanza 19. (M. BAHULASVAN I. Mother of Purandara who was the Indra during the Manvantara (Period of a Manu) of Manu Vaivasvata. An attendant (female) of Subrahmanya. Adi Parva. Surabhi. Bhisma Parva.B. mentio n is made in Mahabharata.3. (M. got as sons. Aja. Chapter 95). Tvastr and Rud.B. BAHUGAVA. An attendant of Subrahmanya. BAHUMl9LAKA. mention i s made about this river which is famous in the Puranas. Chapter 35. For further information see the word Nala. At that time he received much good advice from Sri Krsna. (M. Adi Parva. By this good deed Vidura got deliverance from sin.. Eleven Rudras were born to Kasyapa by his w ife Surabhi. BAHULA I. Ahirbudhnya.. Chapter 46. In Mahabharata. Adi P arva. Bahu la was in the habit of going to the temple of Gokarna and hear Puranas. This book was abridged into five thousand chap ters by Purandara. BAHUDASUYA. One of the eleven Rudras. (Vayu Purana 65:53). Salya Parva. The reno .B. a King of the Kuru dynasty. Stanza 3 ) . A king of Mithila. Skandha 9) . (M. Sk andha 10) . A king of the family of Bharata.ra.. The wife of Pariksit. Vana Parva. the work of Brahma.B. (M.B. Stanza 10 ). Santi Parva. He was godfearing. (Bhagavata. Chapter 129. Chapter 4 6. A serpent born in the family of Kauravya. (Skan da Purana 3. Salya Parva. Chapter 57. BAHUPUTRIKA. (Bhagavata. BAHUKA I. Salya Parva. (Bhagavata. BAHUPUTRA. BAHUD'ANTt. Stanza 83). A king of the family of Sri Rama. About this Bahuka. A river. A son named Bhimas ena was born to her.. Wife of Vidura a Brahmin. Chapter 46. BAHUDAMA. BAHURATHA. Stanza 16) . He was -ne of the spiritual sons (Manasaputras ) of Brahma.22 . BAHULA II. Chapter 23 that the herm it Likhita had recovered his lost hand.ar Avadhi. who had been purified by Mahesvara whom she had pleased by her penance. A king born of the family of Yayati. Santi Parva. Stanza 29. A serpent born to Kasyapa Prajapati of his wife Kadru. This snake fell in the sacri ficial fire of Janamejaya and was burnt to death. Ekapad. BAHULASVAN II. I t contains ten thousand chapters. It is mentioned in Mahabharata. Stanza 13) . BAHUDANTAKA. BAHUR1GPA. who frequented the houses of harlots. Stanza 3) .B. An attendant of Subrahmanya. (M. A book on the science of Ethics (Nitisastra). The pseudo-name assumed by Nala when he was living in the palace of R tuparna in disguise. A mighty hero of the family of the Vrsnis. BAHUKA II. by bathing in this holy place and giving oblations to his ancestors. BAHUKA III.. Chapter 69.B. (Bhagavata. (See the word Purandara). Skandha 9). Skandha 9) . (M. Once Sri Krsna visited his palace. after th e death of her husband. A Prajapati (creator). Chapter 9.

Aparajita. Sumali. Because of this nobody lived in peace and so they all joined together and decided to send one man daily with plenty of other eatables to the demon in this cave. BAHUVADYA. A king of the family of Anga. (6loka 23. K aikasi and Kumbhinadi. Adi Parva. It is mentioned in Mahabharata. A son named Pancasva was born to Mukula. They pervade everything mov ing and not moving. Five son s were born to Bahyasvan called Mukula. A king of the Puru dynasty. Bahurupa. a demon. Chapter 46. A serpent born to Ka'syapa Prajapati of his wife. BAHYAKARNA. Daughter of the demon. BAHUVIDHA.B. (Uttara Ramayana).. (For further information see the word gridatta) . Puspotkata. Sambhu. BAHUSUVARNAKA.. One of the hundred sons of Dhx°tarastra.B. BAHYAKUNDA. BAKA I. Srnjaya. Mention is made a bout this serpent in Mahabharata. (Agni Purana. went there to enq . He had four daughters : Baka. An attendant of Subrahmanya. the family of Mukula beca me the Maukulyas. Bhisma Parva. (Agni Purana. Hence the original in Sanskrit is quoted below Sa vai Bako nama mahanasuro bakarupadhrk Agatya sahasa Krsnam tik~natundo 'grasa dbali Krsnam mahabakagrastam dlstva Ramadayo'rbhakah Babhuvurindriyaniva vina pranarh vicetas4. The father wa s willing but the wife diet not want him to go and vice versa. Baka was a demon who was terroris ing the villagers there. Yavinara and Krmila . Chapter 28 that he was killed by Bhimasena in the battle of Mahabh arata. Mrgavyadha. Brhadistha. (M. BAKA. Bhisma Parva. Chapter 277). Stanza 9) . A country in ancient India. He was a friend of Sridatta. (M. (Kathasaritsagara) . BAHYASVAN. Chapter 103. BAHUYOJANA. Sarpa and Ka palin The number of the Rudras is one hundred lakhs. The eleven Rudras are Hara.wned Visvarizpa was the son of Tvastr. Chapter i f It is in the i oth Skandha of Bhagavata that the story of this Baka not so cle ar. A demon. That Brahmin had besides his wife one son a nd a daughter. The children bega n to cry and hearing the noise Kunti. Chapter 18). Try ambaka. He used to come to the village freely and carry away pe ople for his food. Vrsakapi. Chapter 278) . Mention is made about this country in Mah abharata. Raivata. *Kirmira. Chapter 35. BAHUSALA prince of Avanti. Of these. BAHVASI. (Agni Purana. A son named Divodasa and a daughter named Ahalya we re born to Pancasva. Kapardin. The Pandavas escaping from the trap of Arakkilla (lac-house) th rough a secret tunnel went to the village Ekacakra on the banks of the river Gan ga and stayed there in the house of a Brahmin. Stanza 9). Ahalya got with child from the hermit Saradvata and gave bi rth to a son named Satananda. another of the Pandavas. Stanza 55. who were leaving temples and were of two classes. An ancient city on the bank of the Ganges. Udyoga Parva. These five sons became famous as Pancalas. He was the son of King Purujati. Chapter 9. was the brother of Baka. Days went by like that and one day the turn came to the Brah min who was sheltering the Pandavas. A serpent born in the family of Kasyapa Prajapati. Salya Parva. Ravana is the son of Kaikasi. Kadru. The problem arose as to who should go to the demon.

Baka rolled his eyes in anger at the sight of the late-comer. A demon. The name of the other was Atibala. M. (91oka 30. Adi Parva.) BALA VI. (91oka 44. Bala was one of the parsadas who then came to the sc ene to quell the trouble. Vana Parva. Bhima at once volunteered to go to the demon deciding to kill the man-eater and thus putting an end to hi s depredations. One of the two warriors whom Vayu Bhagavan gave as a gift to Subrahmanya . (Astama Skandha.). despatc hed by Kamsa. M.B.B.). A monkey.). gala and Dala. Chapter 91.B.). A parsada of Visnu. Chapter 287.B.). Vana P arva. Bhima started on his journey to the demon carrying a cartload of rice and curry. Chapter 67. When Vamana trampled over the head of emperor Bal i and sent him to the underworld. It was this Bala who later on becam e the king of Pandyadesa. A sacred incantation. z. (Bakadalbhya). Salya Parva. BALA II. BALA V. For details see under Dalbhya. A demon born to Kasyapa Prajapati of his wife Danayu. Deliberately Bhima arrived at the place of the demon very late. A Maharsi of ancient Bharata. M. Baka charged at Bh ima with fury but Bhima defended and a battle ensued in which Baka was killed an d he fell dead like a mountain-head dropping down. A deva born to Varuna of his elder brother's wife. M.B. BALA IV. This Bala had two wives. BALA. BALA VII. M. Anusasana Parva. Chapter 168 of Vana Parva states that this Bala was killed by Indra. Aranya Parva. The great sage who poured into the sacrificial fire the country of King Dhrtarastra. BAKA II. But in the vernacular translation of the same the story is BAKA III.uire and learned the tragic story of the family. Adi Parva . But Bhima without heeding him sat in front of the demon and started eating the rice and curry. Chapter 6 6. * (Chapters 157164. The son born to Pariksit of the Iksvaku dynasty of the daughter of Man dukaraja. BALA VIII. BALA I. Vira and Vrtra. Chapter 208.). A sanatana Visvadeva. (91oka 42. the followers of Bali ascended the yajfa manda la and created a commotion.).B. (91oka 27. M. He was the son of Maharsi Angiras. BALA III. (For detail s see Vala). (VALA). But the touch of Krsna burnt the throat of the bird and vomitting KMTs the bird fell dead. In the battle with Kumbhakarna this monkey did many brave dee ds.B. (91oka 6. Sloka 33.B. Baka. M. As young boys Sri Krsna and Balaramabhadra were once playing m Ambadi (Gokula) on the banks of the river Yaanuna when the demon.B. went to them in the form of a huge terrible-looking stork. She immediately went to Bhima a nd acquainted him with the problem before the Brahmin. M. Santi Parva. This demon had three brothers Viksara. Bhagavata) . (See Atibala).occurs. Chapter 65. (gloka 38. M. (91oka 52. Chapter 192. Chapter 91. Adi Parva .). . In no t ime opening its ferocious beaks the stork swallowed Krsna.

(Pancama Skandha.* 1) Birth.of them gave the devas immense trouble. Flattered by this Bala asked Indra to ask of him whatever he wanted and the sly Indra requested for th e physical body of Bala. Vasudeva was the son of the Yadava. another wife of Vasudeva. To Devaka the brother of another Yadava King. Mahavisnu then promised to be born as the sons of Vasudeva named Balabhadrarama and Sri Krsna and destr oy the wicked.rsna. He created ninety-six different kinds of magic and gave them to the asura magic ians who by the use . Devaki became pregnant for the seventh time. Chapter 1. (Dasama Skandha.BALA IX. A son of Mayasura. When the number of wicked kings increased Bhumidevi (goddess of Earth) turned herself into a cow and took refuge in Mahavisnu. Uttara Khanda. Surasena. BALABHADRA. King of Madhura. Prabh avati agreed to that and then she heard her husband say "Leave your body and joi n me". also because of this. Prabhavati immediately courted death and joining Bala became a river. 2) The colour of Balarama and Sri Krsna. Instantly Kamsa put both Vasudeva and Devaki in jail. A king of ancient Bharata. Once when Balasura yawned three bad women. Bhagavata). To know what are Dasabalas see under Pattu. There is a story behind this. Sri Krsna is black in complexion. The elder brother Balarama is white in complexion while the younger. Maya devi did so and the boy got the name Samgharsana. After the death of Balasura his wife Prabhavati went to their preceptor (Kulagur u) Sukracarya and told him all that took place and requested to bring back to li fe her lost husband. Without the least hesitation Bala cut his body into pie ces and gave him. Baladeva). Ugrasena. Sri Krsna is the eighth child of Devaki . The marriage of Devaki with Vasudeva was celebrated but on the same day an Asa ririni (a heavenly voice from above) said that the eighth child of Devaki would kill Kamsa. Therefore it was necessary to save the child from the cruel hands of Kamsa as it was certain he would kill the babe the same way he h ad killed all the others before. So he ordered Mayadevi to take the child from t he womb of Devaki and place it in that of Rohini. Balarama. Svairini.B. (Balabhadrarama. Kamini and Purn4cali were b orn. was born a daughter Devaki . Rohini delivered a boy and was named Sarirgharsana alias Balabhadrarama. BALABANDHU. They had with them a potable substance called Hataka which they gave to men whom they liked and after enlivening the sex impulse in them enjoyed a sexual l ife with them to their heart's content. The first six sons born to Devaki were killed the moment they were born by striking them again st the ground. Indra threw away the cut pieces to different sides and all the places where these pieces fell were at once transformed into Diamond mines. There is a reference to him in Sloka 236. BALA (M) . The elder brother of Sri Krsna and the eighth incarnation of Mahavisnu. Bhagavata) . In dra then sought refuge in him and praised him with songs. But Sukracarya regretted that he could not give life again to her dead husband but could by his powers make her hear his voice again. The news spread that Devaki aborted. They informed Mahavisnu of their decision and the Lord was imm . Adi Parva. Chapter 6). He lived in a place in the netherlands called Atala. The devas decided to be b orn as Gopalas (shepherds) in the earth to be of help to Krsna in his duty of ki lling the wicked. Tam talumulam pradahantamagnivad Gopalasunum pitaram Jagadgurob Cacchardda sadyo 'tirusak~atam BakaStundena bantum punarabhyapadyata Tamapatantam sa nigrhya tun dayor Dorbhyam Bakaih Kamsasakhaih satam patih Pasyatsu baleju dadara May! Mudav aho viranavaddivaukasam. The babe in the womb was Ananta incarnate by Visnu's directive to be of help to him when he would al so be born soon as K. M. Once durin g a fight between Indra and Jalandhara Bala defeated Indra in a pathetic way. (Pa dma Purana.

Dvaraka. notable among which are: Putanamoksam (killing of the demoness Put ana and giving her salvation). They wer e: Gada. Kaliamardana (beating the snake.B. Hearing this Vasudev a went to Madhura and brought Balabhadrarama also to Arhbadi. 4) Till their marriage Sri Krsna spent his childhood in Arizbadi and Balarama. son of V asudeva. The sweet celestia l songs gave them both untold happiness. On their return Rama and K sna along with many Yadavas went and settled down in* the island. It was on a fes tive scale and both Krsna and Balarama went to Madhura to attend the same. The king returned to Dvaraka an d gave his daughter in marriage to Balarama. It was ruled over by a famous Rajarsi. 6) A pilgrimage. When the time for marria ge of his daughter came the King was anxious to find out a fitting husband for h er and he went to Brahmaloka to take the advice of Brahma. Vipula. Sarana. Baka). On the advice of Parasura ma they killed Srgalavasudeva and got immense wealth. oceans. Trnavartta) . important among which was the fight between Ki'sna and Jarasandha. M. Once the sage Garga went to the house of Vasudeva and it was he who t hen told the story behind the births of Balarama and Krsna. On their way they met Parasurama doing penance under a Banyan tree. By this time the Yadavas were becoming lean financially and so to make some money Krsna and Rama went to the diamond-infested mountain of Gomantaka. 5) Marriage. (Navama Skandha. Adi Parva. Kukudmin being the first and a daughter named Revati. Agha). Dasama Skandha. Revata. Sakatasuravadha (killing the asura. Yajnas. He then told Brahma the purpose of his visit and Brahma meditating for some time told him that Balabhadrarama. Balabhadrarama had six brothers born of his mother Rohini. 'Since the life of Balabhadra is so mixed with that of Krsna a complete life sto ry of Balarama could be had only if it is read along with that of Krsna. 3) Brothers. taking a black hair said that it would go into Devaki's womb and change into Sri Krsna. mountains.ensely pleased. a ll in divine figures standing before Brahma. Before the advent of Balarama and Krsna the island Dvaraka was know n as Kusasthali. When they completed their education they at the request of the precep tor gave as Gurudaksina (The fee you pay in the end for the instructions given) the lost child of the guru. Bh'agavata). and Krta. When the great Pandava-Kaurava battle started Krsna became the charioteer of Arjuna and Balarama went to the forest. rivers.). There stupefied he saw Vedas. Kadrsa conducted a Capa-puja (worship of the bow) to kill Krsna. Dhenukasuravadha (killing the asura. Rtus. Devi Bhagavata). (Saptama Skandha. Gargamuni then per formed all those sacred rites which were usually done to boys of that age and bo th of them then remained in Ambadi. worshipping him. Naimisa. Dhruva. Bhagavata). (See under Krsna for mo re details). in th e western ocean. He then took one white hair from his head and said that it would go to Rohixri's womb and change into Balarama and (Chapter ii. Dhenuka). He was not much i . There they killed Karizsa and after that went to the asrama of Sandipani Maharsi for education. (Dasama Skandha. Several important events happened during the ir stay here. Bhagavata) . This king was th e son of King Anartta and grandson of emperor Saryati. Bakavadha (killing the demon bird. Vatsa). Vatsasuravadha (killing the asura. Revati also accompani ed him. Aghasuravadha (killing the as ura. Revata got a hundred sons . Then they went to Madhura and there several events t ook place. Kalia) and Pralambavadha (killing Pralamba). Trna varttavadha (killing the asura. i n Madhura. It was thus that Balabhadra became white and Sri Krsna black. Sakala). was the only one person suited for her. (Chapter 199. Durddama.

He used to annoy the sages there and the sages requested Balara ma to put a stop to the atrocities of that demon. During that time there lived in the vicinity of Naimisa forest a demon called Ba lvala (Vatkala).).B. Suddenly the soul of Balarama went out from his mouth in the shape of a white serpent and the serpent entering the nether world was given a warm welcome by the prominent serpents there. M. (Sloka 17. Chapters 126. 35-54. He immediately killed the demo n by his weapon. Salya Parva. he went to the battle-field and tried his b est to stop the war. M.B.). (7) Balarama conducted a pilgrim tour and visited all the holy places of Bharata at a time when the PandavaKaurava war was in full swing. After that by the curse of the brahmin the Yadavas were all killed in a drunken brawl between themselves in the very presence of Krsna and Balabhadra. (8) Balarama was of opinion that it was unjust of Bhimasena to have killed Duryo dhana and was about to kill Bhimasena. Later. (Chapter. M. (Sloka 2 1. Chapter 60.). At the forest of Naimisa he saw Suta telling Puranic st ories to the several sages assembled there before him. (6) He witnessed the battle of maces between Duryodhana and Bhimasena at Kurukse tra. to remedy the sin of killing Sata. M. (Sloka 4. make fu produci at this mace wo After the Mahabharata battle the Yadava dynasty remained alive only for thirty-s ix years.).nterested in the battle. M.).). To n of them some of the Yadavas dressed a Yadava like a pregnant woman and ng her before the sages asked them what child she would deliver. Virata Parva. and then raised from the dead body of Suta a pandita of g reat erudition. Hala. Salya Parva. Once the rsis Narada. Salya Parva. M. At this Balarama promised that he would give birth. (3) Balabhadrarama became very indignant when he heard about Arjuna carrying awa y Subhadra and it was Krsna who pacified him.). Chapter 138. 8) Other details. from the dead body of Suta. M. Adi Parva. Adi Parva.). (Sloka 4. Salya Parva. .B.B. (Chapter 22. Adi Parva. Chapter 185. M.B.). This happened on the shore of Prabhasa tirtha and Balarama was sitting there th en in deep meditation. (4) He was present at the marriage of Abhimanyu conducted at the city of Upaplavya. (Sloka 17. Disappointed he returned to Dvaraka.B. Kanva and ViAvamitra came to Dvaraka. Suta did not rise up when he saw Balarama and the latter moved to anger very soon cut off thehead of Suta . v isited all the sacred places in Bharata. (Mausala Parva. M.B. M.B. Once when he heard. 7) Death. (Chapter 2. Chapt er 79.). Udyoga Parva. (9) Once Balar ama spoke in extolling terms about the secrets of Dharma. (Chapter 34. Bhagavata) . The sages then blessed Balarama. (2) Balabhadrarama was present along with Sri Krsna at the marriage of Pancali. Chapter 72. (Dasama Skandha. sastras and scie nces. repentant.B.B. (5) He was very insistent that the Pandavas and Kauravas should come to a truce. The sages assembled there decried the act of Balarama and lamented deeply over the incident. Balarama. (1) It was Balabhadrarama who taught Bhimasena the mace-fight. to one who will be well versed in all the Vedas. about the grim batt le between Duryodhana and Bhimasena. Enraged the munis said in one voice that she would deliver a mace and that iron uld be the cause of the end of all Yadavas.

(VALAHAKA). He was powerful. Virata Parva.. Anusasana Parva. Brahma also said that anybody who killed the creature would be given a pla ce in the realm of Gods.. He saw an ex drinking water.B. A'svamedha Parva. (VALAKATIRTHA)..B. An ancient hermit. The Devatas appeared and granted him a boon.B. Chapter 45 . the extent of an atom daily. Once Medhavin teased the great hermit Dhanusaksa. (Slok a 4. It was a peculiar creature. Asvamedha Parva.B. One d any animal even though he had made a thorough search in the f worried. Asvamedha Parva. (Sloka 6. Accordingly a son call ed MedhWin was born to him.B. (Sloka 29. Brahma appeared before the creature and granted it the boon that it would have the power to make anything b lind. A serpent famous in the Pur4as. M.B. worshipping him.(10) It was Balarama who performed the obsequies of Abhimanyu. Chapte r 95. (11) He went to Hastinapura when Yudhisthira performed the Asvamedha yaga. A erything he got to ay he did not find orest. (12) Balarama introduced Prohibition in Dvaraka. BALADA. (M. Mausala P arva. He helped Jayadratha in kidnapping Draupadi. Chapter 1. He performed a severe penance for g etting sons. The first son of the Agni. Let the mightiest of mere marry her.).B. After that It began to grow to outcaste who became BALAKA (VALAKA). This serpent stays in th e durbar hall of Varuna. M. Mention is made about this horse in M. BALABHADRARAMA II. (M. Chapt er 265. Chapter 25. Karna Parva. BALAHAKA III. . (VALAHAKA). M.). and took him to the realm of Gods in a divine chariot. At last he reached the bank of a river.. M. This forester used to go for hunting and he gave ev his old parents without reserving anything for himself. BALAHAKA I. Chapter 9.. But the growth ceased. Chapter 66.). He had never seen such an animal before. Sabha Parva. Adi Parva. Vana Parva. forester. (VALAHAKA). Th ose who bathe in this holy bath would become as bright and famous as devas (gods ) It is mentioned so in the Mahabharata. As soon as the creature fell down the gods showered flowe rs. and one day it was drinking water and it was then tha t Valdka shot it down.). Chapter 1. Chapter 62. Bhanu: It is this Agni which gives life and s trength to all living beings. Chapter 221. Defeating all the . M. (See Kalindi) . That creature had done penance before Brahma. Stanza 23. A ve ry mighty serpent.B. Stanza 19.BALAHAKA II.kings who tried to take her Bhimasena marri ed her and Sarvasa was the son born to BYmasena of Balandhara. (M. BALANDHARA.B.B. wh o cursed him to death. when an so by Karma (action) visited it. (13) Once he made dry the river Kalindi. Chapter 135) .). (Sloka 37. BALADHI. Vana Parva. from i ts young age with the view of destroying everything. C hapter 69) . A daughter of the king of Kasi. A brother of Jayadratha the King of Sindhu. Stanza 9) . BALAKATIRTHA. A famous horse yoked on the right side of the chariot of Sri Krsna. The creature had been wandering in the forest making bl ind every creature it met. (M. said her father. BALAHAKA IV. (Sloka 10.B.). A holy place near the mountain of Gandhamadana. A king. M. Santi Parva. Stanza 12). cow-calf. (Skandha Purana 3-2-27) . He was much traordinary animal Once Siva gave this king a vision of him in the shape of a in the place where Siva appeared as calf a Sivalinga arose. (Sloka 70.

The Balakhilyas got angry and stopping the work entrusted to them b egan to do penance with a view to create another Indra. At this time Vinata. Santi Parva. Chapter 49.B. Chapter 30) . Kasyapa said that the penance of the Balakhilyas would not be fruitless and that as a result of their penance a son who would overpower Indra would be born to Vinata.. when Ravana was going to the house of Marica. Sixty thousand Balakhilyas were doing penance hanging he ad downwards on that branch. and that branch wa s broken from the tree. Adi Parva. Santati. were engaged in prayer and meditations and offering oblations to fire to the hermitage of Vasistha. he took the branch to the mount Gandhamadana and without causing any harm to the small hermits p1aced it there. Fearing the curse form them he took the branch in his beak arid flew about here and there. Sarga 51. (VALAKHILYAS). Th is may be a mistake in the manuscript. (M. Kasyapa went to the Ba lakhilyas and pacified them. When Indra was heaping up on heaps pieces of big logs th e Balakhilyas who were very small were bringing in chips of wood. They worship the Sun daily. The fact that Garuda overthrew Indra when he went to heaven for ambrosia . Once Kasyapa Prajapati performed a sacrifice to obtain children. Adi Parva. 1) Origin. All the world stand firm in truth because of the penance of the Balakhilyas. 2) Garuda (Eagle) and Bdlakhilya(s). Chapte r 141. They travel in front of the sun in the shape of birds. by his wife. (2) When Dusyanta entered the hermitage of Kanva he saw the Balakhilyas doing pa nance. Knowing this Indra was m uch flurried. The Balakhilyas live in the mandala of Surya (solar region).. hanging down on the trees in the vicinity.B.).B. Everyone of them was only the size of half a thumb. Chapter 10) . He went to Kasyapa and told him everything. A group of hermits. (1) Garuda (Eagle) who went to the realm of devas (gods) f or Amrta (ambrosia) took rest on the branch of a banyan tree. Chapter 7) .B.* They are called Balakhilyas. He is the grandson of the hermit Jahnu and the son of Aj a otherwise called Sindhudvipa.B. he saw the Balakhilyas doing penance. (M. Anusasana Parva. *In some other Furanas the mother of Balakhilyas is given the name 'Sannati'. They wear hides of anima ls. is well known. There are Balakhilyas living i n the lunar region also. The work of bri nging firewood for the sacrifice was entrusted to Indra and the other devas (God s) and the Balakhilyas. (M. Balakarda. Adi Parva. was doing penance to obtain a son. (VALAKASVA). Sixty thousand hermits were born to Kratu. Garuda was th at son. At last. (4) It is mentioned in Valmiki Ramayana. Chapter 31) . Garuda knew this only after the branch was broken. one of the Saptarsis (seve n hermits). (M. Balakasva had a son called Kusika. 3) Routine of life. (Visnu Purana. They are very ardent in d oing the works of devas (Gods). BALAKHILYA(S). Accordingly a son was born to her. according to the advice of Ka°syapa. Seeing this In dra laughed.. Sarga 51. They are sinless. (M. but they were as bright as the blazing sun a nd had attained control over their senses.. that in the period of the Ramayana. Stanza 3) . A story connecting the birth of Garuda wi th Balakhilyas occurs in the Puranas.BALAKASVA. it is mentioned that the Balakhily as. They are righteous and are only as big as a thumb. Arimsa 1. Bdlakdpqa. in South India. a wife of Ka'syapa. (5) The Balakhilyas learned the Vedas and Sastras (scriptures) sitting in the ch . (3) In Valmiki Ramayana.. 4) Other information.

(Chapter 40. But he did not wake up.. Balaki declared that the sun-god was Brahma. BALAKSA. During the battl e of Kuruksetra he had taken the side of the Pandavas and had fought against the Kauravas. Mention is made in th e Mahabharata. con trols everything and pervades everything. Purva-kanda). If we can get eternal bliss when we keep awake that is `At majnana' (knowledge of Supreme Soul). Stanza 2.. The king said "In our sleep we attain `Sarup ya' (assimilation to god). He acquired much knowledge and so he became arrogant. Though all the faggots she had gathered were consumed it was not properly boiled. (Kampa Ramayana. While the Pandavas were living incognito in the kingdom of Virata. Padma Purana). The King called the sleeping man. the King of Kundalanagari. It is mentioned in the Mahabharata. and as th e spider weaves its net and sits in its centre. See the word Guruparampara BALAKI. One of the hundred sons of Dhr'tarastra. Chapte r 40). As the flames emanate from fire. A king. A warrior of Subrahmanya. So. Balavati b egan to cook the dates. Mention is made in Mahabharata . (M. BALAVIKA (VALANIKA) I.B. He is called Gargya also as he is a son of Garga." (Brhadaranyakopanisad) . The king replied that he would give thousand cows in return. She did penance to please the Sun to obt ain a husband of a very good nature. BALAKI. BALANKA (VALANYKA) iI. Everything that Balaki said had been known to the king earlier. ho was sleeping. The king said that he had k nown it. Balaki could not say where men go when they are sleeping and where they return from when they wake up. that Valaki had been present on the occasion of the Svayamvara (wedding) of Draupadi. The daughter of hermit Kanva. Virata Parva. But we are not aware of it. that the King Balaksa was there with the gods when they carne to see the fight. Chapter 45. (Padxrt . Stanza 74) . Salya Parva.B. A brother of Matsya. A son of the King Drupada. As there was no more firewood she put her leg into the oven. Adi Parva. Duryodhana and his brothers stole the cows of Virata. Though we get eternal bli ss we do not know it. A hermit. (M. Chapter 185. BALAMITRA. where he had gone when he w as sleeping. Drona Parva. BALAMODAKA. BALAKHILYA SAMHI TA. (Fadma Purana. in the end Balaki had to become the disciple of the King.ariot of the sun. that Asvatthama killed him in the battle of Kurukset ra. BALASVAMI. Seeing this the SunGod was pleased and said "All your wishes will be real ized". the soul creates everything. Because of this some called him Drptab alaki. Chapter 156. The Sun appeared before her and gave her so me dates and asked her to prepare food with them and bring them back. The devas (gods) came in planes to see tote fight between Arjuna and the teacher Krpa. the King of Virata. Pa taia Khanda. Once the hermit went to the King of Kasi and told him that he would impart to hi m the knowledge of Brahma. BALAVATI. From that day onwards that place was called by the name `Balapa'. Then the King took him to a man v. Chapter 56. Satrughna who led the yaga horse of Sri Rama fought with Vira mani and at that time Balamitra fought on the side of Virarnani. in consequence of which there was a battle. Chapter 158). The son of Suratha. The King woke him up and then asked the hermit. Drona Parva. (VALAKI). An ancient king of Bharata.

Chapter 152) . Adi P arva. The elder wife died and her son also was brought up by the youn ger wife. Hewould not talk'to her. D evapi and Santanu. Chapter 12) .. She agreed. A king who in his previous life was the asura called Krodhavasa. Still. One of the eight sons born to Pururavas by Urvasi. When he was only five years old he showed extraordinary intelligence. Chapter 27 7) . 2) Bhimasena defeated Balhika. Then he took a mirror and held it before his fat her. It looked an uncout h figure. Both gave birt h to a son each.. Chapter 104. Adi Parva. He said t o his father. not to engage in a battle. The fostermother thought Balavinagtaka was the cause for this change in her husband's behaviour.B. The story is a s follows :Long ago there was a Brahmin named Rudra karma. (M. Chapter 67. that this King helped the Kauravas in the battle of Kuruksetra. Srsti . BALAVINASTAKA. "Father. Thenceforward the father began to do ubt his wife. Immediately the doubt of his father was removed. Drona Parva.B. Kathamukhalambaka . A king of the Anga dynasty. a King of the Kuru dynasty. He had two brothers. Balhika exhorted them strongly. A king who was the third son. BALAYOGI. Bhisma Parva. He was the son of Bali. . Bal hika sided with the Kauravas. of Ki ng Kuru. Stanza 56). Skandha 10. that she was having a lover. The hero of a story. Chapter 96.a Purana. Stanza 18 that this king Balhika had a son named So madatta. given in Kathasaritsagara. BALHIKA. The achievements of Balhika in the battle of Kuruksetra are given below :1) There was a combat on the first day of the battle between Balhlka and Dhrstak etu. Seeing him like this Rudra karma called him Balavinastaka (one who is lost when he is a boy). (M. An acarya (Teacher). He grew jealous. On that day he was sitting alone on the lap of his father. Being jealous she fed the child with food too hard for the child and i t became lean with stomach swollen and the bones projecting. Chapter 94.. (Padma Purana. It is mentioned in Mahabharata. of Janamejaya and the grandson. He said t hat he would bring about a change in the behaviour of his father if he would be cared for properly. Stanza 26). when the battle was begun. (M. Balhika was once elected as the general of eleven divisions of the army of Duryodhana.B. Stanza 12. of Ahara. In Bhagavata. Baleya and Balayogi. BALAYANI. BALAYUS. Adi Parva.and when the reflection of his father fell in the mirror he said. Balhika was a friend of the Kauravas and the Pandavas. the princess of the country of Sibi was their mother. Chapter 94 that Sunanda . I have two fathers". Skandha 9. Chapter 22. BALHIKA III.B.. One day she called the boy to her mildly and asked him for the reason for the change in the behaviour of his father towards her. He gradually grew up. It is not right to make even a boy angry. Mention is made in Bhaga vata. One day he decided to teach his foster-mothe r a lesson. (BALHIKA) I. Bhisma Parva. Kalinga. Vanga. "Father. A powerful king born in the family. A son of Pratipa. Chapter 45. Taratiga six. Stanza 38) . (Agni Purana. Pundra. BALHIKA II. Stanza 25) . it is seen that Balayan t was taught Balakhilya samhita by Baskala. I have two fathers". BALHIKA IV. who had six sons n amed Anga. It is said in Mahabharata. to show that it is not good to make others angry. (M. UttaraKhanda. He had two wives.

(M . Assuming the responsibilities of governme nt. 1) Genealogy and Birth. Tarakasura and Gomukha were notori ous. . There were so many Asuras born as the sons of Diti. this opportun ity.3) Fought with Drupada. to Kasyapa Prajapati. While he was carrying it to his house. by obtaining Am brosia from the sea. He was the son of Virocana and the grandson of Prahlada.. It was to make up this deficiency. 5) BhImasena killed Balhika. Chapt er 9 and Matsya Purana.B. Bhisma Parva. Amsa 1. persuaded Bali . On the side of the Asuras there was the knowledge of the Mrtasanjivani (life-restoring remedy). 3) War with Indra. Mahabali agreed to help them. Stanza 20). Four sons called Prahlada. 2). and his grandfather gave him a garland that would never fade. a golden bow. Stanza 7 ) . two quivers. BALI (MAHABALI) I. Mention is made in the Visnu Purana. (Mahabharata. Of their sisters Sirhhika and Ajamukhi were famous. Chapter 25. Bana was born from Mahabali and four crores of Asuras called Nivatakavacas were born from Bana. a nd the teacher Sukra gave him a divine conch. Stanza 15). Taking. Bali performed one hundred Asvamedha yagas (Horse sacrifices) (Bhagavata. It was impossible to churn the ocean without the help of Mahabali. Drona Parva. Chapter 96. equal in all aspects to that of Indra. Sabha Parva.B. presented Bali with a divine chariot. Drona Parva. under the pretence o f recovering the lost wealth. 216) . Once Mahibali had stolen the wealth of Devendra. Chapter. Yajnadeva (god of sacrifice) who was greatly pleas ed at the sacrifice. But among them Hira nyaksa. Sukracarya the teacher of the Asuras. (M. Chapter 157. So the dead were being brought to life. Chapter 58. But it was not possible for devas to do so. Hrida and Anuhrada were born to Hiranyakasi pu. Santi Parva. Samhrada. that the devas tried to churn the sea. Bali defeated the devas completely in a pitched battle. son of Marici and grandson of Brahma. of his wife Diti. (Drona Parva. Virocana was the son of Prahlada and Mahabali was the son of Virocana. (Mahabharata. Mention is made about this country in Mahabharata.to engage the devas i n a battle. it all fell in the ocean. Chapters 250 and 251 that these events took place during the regime of the Indra named Mantradruma in the Caksugamanvantara (the period of the manu named Caksusa). as Indra. The charioteer of Dharmaputra. After that he performed the sacrifice of Visvajit (conq ueror of the world) on behalf of Bali. The real aim of the devas was not to regain the lost wealth but to obtain the ce lestial nectar known as Nectar of Immortality (Amrta) and to defeat the Asuras i n battle. which would never become empty and a divine armour. Stanza 18) 4) Balhika fought with Sikhandi. Mahavisnu order ed the devas (gods) to recover the lost wealth from the ocean. Simhavaktra.. 4) Attainment of the Position of Indra. The Asuras or the Daityas are the sons born. BALHIKA V. BALHIKADESA. A country in ancient Bharata. Mahavi snu had not been on good terms with the devas. So the devas went to Mahabali and sought his help. for a time. krapadma. An emperor of the Asuras. After the Visvajit sacrifice. Chapter 9. Sk andha 8) . Hiranyakasipu. The great teacher Sukra again anointed Bali.The churning of the ocean. and Brahma presented a garland. who was brought to life again.

Then th e teacher got into the mouth of the pot in the shape of a mote and water would n . churned the Milk Sea and obtained Amrta (the celestial nectar o f immortality). So many gathered round them to witness this sight. Aditi the mother of the devas was very sorry at this. That is why the country and the As uras are subjected to destruction. Once. fiercer than t he previous ones. th e devas began to leave the country one by one. Prahlada accepted his invitation and anointed B ali as Indra. But Mahabali decided to grant the wish of the boy and as a token of his gift he began to offer the boy water from a waterpot." (Vamana Purana. [The 5th incarnation (avatara) of Visnu At this time Mahabali was performing a sacrifice on the bank of the liver Narmad a. and taught her the rules and rituals of the fast. Vamana came to the place of sacrifice in the dress of a hermit boy and told M ahabali that he was a helpless hermit boy and requested that he might be given t hree steps of ground. he drove them out of their realm and brought it under control. He was an incarnation of Mahavisnu. who advised his wife to take a fast of twelve days. 6) Defeated by TTamana. Mahabali instantly waged another war. Still. Prahlada advised Bali "You will get salvation only by relying on Visnu". Within a short time he became the emperor of th e Asuras. Sh e shed tears before her husband Ka'syapa Prajapati. Virocana was not as famous as Prahlada. Visnu appeared before her and asked her what boon she w anted. The teacher SSukracarya called Mahabali and said that the boy was a cheat and that his requ est should not be granted. where Sukracarya (their teacher-priest Sukra) brought him to life again b y the help of sacred herbs. to drive away Bali and to r estore her sons. Mahabali was pleased with the boy and told him that he was willing to give the boy even the country called BhrAgaraka and that he was prep ared to forego the kingly pleasures for the boy. Visnu t old them thus : "Bali is devoted to me. The Asuras and the Devas (gods) sat on either side and using the mount Mandara as churn-drill. It was during this period that the churning of the Milk Sea took place . 5) The curse of Prahlada. Prahlada when he grew old. to their kingdom of heaven. Rul e the kingdom without deviating from virtue. (Bhagavata. Chapter 75) . But the devas and Brahmanas were denied the privilege s they deserved. Everybody was happy and comfortab le under the rule of Bali. with the devas. the devas (gods). Bali enquired of Prahlada as to the method of carrying. He approached Prahlada to learn the reason. Prahllda got angry and cursed Bali "Let your country be destroyed. during that pe riod Bali invited his grandfather Prahlada to heaven and requested him to accept the most honourable seat there." Hearing these haughty words of Bali. A battle took place between the Asuras and the Devas for the pos session of Amrtakalasa (the Ambrosia and the container) and the emperor Mahabali was killed in the battle. They approached Visnu and represented their grievances. Prahlada said thus in reply: "Only virtue will always win. Beca use Bali had ruled his kingdom according to the advice of Prahlada. Skandha 8). to redress your grievances I shal l take the incarnation of Vamana shortly. Seeing th e approach of destruction emperor Bali became thoughtful. Prahlada told Bali thus: "Lord Visnu is now staying in the womb of Aditi for his incarnation as Vamana." Bali requested Prahla da to pardon him.Thus the realm of the gods came under the sway of Mahabali. (Vamana Purana 77) . The Auras carried the dead body of Mahlbali to his ca pital. (Vamana Purana. left his kingd om in the hands of his son Virocana and went to the forest for penance. Chapter 74) ." In course of time the Asuras and their countries began to be weakened. he became fa mous in the three worlds. According to the version of Bhagavata. Hearing this Mahabali said: ``Our Raksasas ar e more powerful than that Visnu. Accord ingly she took the fast.on the gove rnment of heaven. The hermit boy did not show any desire for them. As the whole of heaven came under the sway of Bali. Mahavisnu agreed. He was a mighty king. After the period of Virocana. Aditi became pregnant and gave birth to the son Vamana. The defeated devas had t aken refuge in forests. and having defeated them. Mahabali came to t he throne. She requested Visnu to take birth as her son.

. 7) Bali and l?avana. Santi Parva. From that time onwards Sukracarya had only one eye. where to place the third step. Anusasana Parva. Vana Parva.B. An incarnation of Siva. Ravana moved forward to take them. Bal i caused him to recover and said: "These earrings were worn by my great grandfat her Hiranyakasipu.. 8) Bali born as a Gardabha (Ass). Sabha Parva. (M. (1) Mahabali shines in the durbar of Varuna.. BALI III. as his own. Praksipta Sarga). (Bhagavata. Stanza 30) (6) Once Mahabali talked with S` ukracary a about giving gifts of flower. Santi Parva . Knowing this Vamana took a grass of Darbha and pushed it at the mouth of the pot. Skandha 8) . Stanza 15) . Sabha Parva. (3) From his childhood Mahabali was a hater of the Brahmanas. A hermit. (8) In the religious Books such as Yogavasistha the story of Mahabali is given t o illustrate disinterestedness (Anasakti).. Mahabali said that he had only his body left. Water flowed freely i nto the hands of Vamana. Once Ravana visited Bali who was under custody in Patala. save me from his slayer. the ground and simultaneously began to grow.B. Vamana began to measur e.B. Stanza 3) . Chapter 9. Santi Parva.." Hearing this. Chapter 90. and that Vamana might take it and complet e three steps." Hearing this. Bali. with my help. which were shining like blazing fire a little away from them. Finally he became an immensely large being. Chapter 4. S tanza 10. With one step he measured the whole of earth and with the second step he took the whole o f heaven. Sukra got angry and cursed Bali. Chapter 225. It is mentioned in the Mahabharata. (Valmiki Ramayana. Then he began to make enquiries on spiritual matters. Thenceforward the asuras became the inhabitants of Pa tala. How could you. (7) Laksmi Devi had forsaken Mahabali because he behaved haughtily towards Brahm anas. The asuras who were horrified at this. Stan za 12). Visnu? Visnu is Almighty and All-powerful and Suprem e Lord of everything. Santi Parva . (4) Once Mahabali was engaged in a serious contest with Indr+ (M. who are not even capable of taking his earring s. (5) After having lost his kingdom Mahabali ridiculed Indra in various ways. Santi Parva. (M. Bali asked Ravana to fetch the two earrings of Hiranyakasipu. (M. a nd said to him. Still Vamana was growing.. So get yourself free from th e custody of Mahavisnu. (2) Once Mahabali went to Prahlada and repented of his sins and begged for pardo n. But he fell unconscious. Chapter 223) . Then he asked Bali. The grass pierced one eye of Sukra carya. "I have come to save you from here. that this hermit lived in Hastinapura. began to attack Vamana with anything they could lay hands on. Siva incarnated in the hermitage of the Balakh . (M. Vamana placed his foot on the head of Bali and pushed him down to Patala (the Netherworld). Ravana was filled with shame and he returne d.B.. Chap ter 28. Chapter 98. (M.B. (M.ot flow freely out of the mouth of the pot.B . who was fallen from power took birth in the womb of an ass and roa med about. (M. Uttara Kanda.B. Brahma instructed Indra to find out Bali. Stanza 24). 9) Other information. Chapters 216-218) .B.. Chapter s 216-218) . smoke and light. BALI II.

Seei ng the amorous nature of Ugratapas Animandavya cursed him that before sunrise he would die.39).Adi Parva. Bali did penance and Brahma appeared before him.Aruna took the shape of a beautiful woman and got in. beating his limbs with agony. At that time a monkey-king named Rksaraja had been ruling over the forest with K iskindha as his capital. You will re-establish caste system in your kingdom. (Bhagavata. Satapatha Brahmana that Bali had four sons. So he decided to make the best use of the time at his disposal by witnessing a little of the dance of the celestial beauties in the realm of the devas. Chapter 92). Skandha 10). who had been placed on a trident by the order of the King. Was ting time was intolerable to the charioteer. But males had no admittance there. A mighty monkey-king. Your power will be inimitable. sitting in the. Pandu and Suhma (Brahma Purana). The night prolonged. . Indra brought Bali and Sugriva from the hermitage of Gautama and handed them over to Rksarajas. BALI IV. A famous monkey-king of the country of Anava. 3 1. Seeing a new person. Lying on the trident he saw Ugratapas. There is a story about the birth of Bali as follows:-Silavati who was devoted to her husband once carried her husband Ugratapas who w as a leper. though it was time the sun did not rise. That son is Bali.B. At last they appealed to Dirghatamas a hermit." Next day. Vanga. He was the son of Krtavarman. 1) Birth. called Sudhama.. The Sun also had coition with her and Sugr iva was the son born out of this coition. midst of the celestial maids Indra grew amorous . Ac cordingly Aruna again became a woman. Bali is the son of Indra. On the way they saw the hermit Animandavya. (Bhagavata. The couple had no children. Aruna th e charioteer was ready at the usual time but saw the Sun sitting motionless. When he heard the whole s tory the Sun expressed his desire to see that figure which Aruna had adopted. BALI V. "You will become a great sage and will live till the end of the Kalpa (a period of wo rld age). So. It is seen in Siva Purana. He had no sons and so he approached Indra and placed be fore him his grievances. In Bhagavata it is mentioned that he had one more son called Andhra. This King who was the son of Sutapas was a contemporary of the great King Sagara. Yo u will be loved by your subjects and they will obey you. Before his death he had divided his kingdom equally among his sons. BALI. Bali and Sugriva were brought up by Ah alyadevi in the hermitage of Gautama. Vasistha and Virajas. Skandha 9. Bali left his body at the end of the Kalpa and entered heaven. on her shou1der to the house of a harlot one night. Kaling a. Mahabh arata. Sudesna was the wife of Bali. When Aruna returned the Sun was standing full of anger.. Kasyapa. Nobody will overthrow you in battle. "Let the Sun not rise tomorrow. very beaut iful to look at. Bein g afraid of him Aruna confessed everything to the Sun. You will be we11versed in the knowledge of law and its observance and the learned will recognize your k nowledge. (M. the daughter of Rukmini. from whom they got five sons called Anga. 8ilavati who was a woman of great purity and loyalty hearing the cur se said." (Hari-vamsa. Bali married Carum ati.35. A king of the Yadavas.ilyas in the mount of Gandhamadana during the period of Varaha Kalpa (Kalpa-one day of Brahma or the period of 14 manus) . 1. and blessed him and said. Hek secretly took her to a dark place and a sort was born ou-t of that coition .

Purva-kanda). In accordance with the advice of Narada. Owing to difference of opinion. Vayu placed the womb with the child in Anjana Devl'S stomach. Still the child in the womb was not killed as it was the sperm of Siva. and ret urn to Kiskindha within a short time. the carpenter of the asuras. the son of Maya. So Bali did not jump with Hanu man to Kiskindha and Hanuman did not drag Bali to the ground. Matan ga had cursed him that if he entered that mountain his head would be broken. Chapter ? 07. Ki skindha Kanda. With one jump he will reach one place from another. (Kampa Ramayana. After that Sugriva lived in Rsyamukacala with his ministers and Bali in Kiskindha. It was during this period that Hanuman was born. Finally the asura was killed. if a being born of Siva. who getting angry came oat followed by Sugriva. Narada informed Bali all these things. Chapter 42. Brahmanda Purana. I will go in and kill the Magician and return. Hanuman thought that if Bali was dragged down on the mountain somehow or other. Ba li said to Sugriva: "Brother. If the asura dies milk will appear at the mouth of the cave and if he kills me blood will be seen.Adi Parva.. (Kampa Ramayana. 4) Sugriva separated. So Sugriva was safe in that mountain. Hearing about the death of Bali the monkeys anointed Sugriva as King. Bali though t that if he could jump into Kiskindha with Hanuman it would be easy for him to destroy Sugriva. But both were of equal strength. . But by the cunning sleights of the magician it was blood that appeared at the mouth of the cave. Purva-kanda). Everyday he us ed to go to the four seashores and conduct bath. prayer. Placin g Sugriva. named Angada who became famous as a mighty warrior-prince. At that time Rksaraja died and Bali became King. Bali agreed to stop torturing Sugriva and Hanuman agreed not to cause any trouble to Bali. grew up in the form of a monkey. Thinking that his brother was slain by the magician Sugriva felt sorry." Bali did not return even after a year. a woman named Tara. Th en he closed the mouth of the cave firmly with stone and returned to Kiskindha. The child was given to Bhagavan VAVu (Wind-God) with the womb. Sarga l0.Kampa Ramayar za. Bali defeated the asur as who came for the churning of the Sea of Milk. Be brave and stay here. While S iva and Parvati were living in the forest as monkeys Parvati got with child. his head would break and there would be an end of his wicked deeds. Once. and in each jump he would put one step on the head of Sugriva in the R 'syamidkacala. After a ti me Bali returned stronger than before and saw the mouth of the cave closed. Seeing the two of them the magician began to run. The devas who were pleased at t his. Thus Tara beca me his wife and he got a son by her. challenged Bali. 3) Enmity with Hanuman. SugCva fle d to Mount Rsyamukacala which was prohibited area for Bali due to a curse. Purva-kanda). Uttara Ramayana and Kampa Ramayana. If the latter happens close the mouth of the cave firmly and return to Kiskindha and live happily there. One day as usual Bali was stepping on the head of Sugriva to jump to another place. 'Bali and SugFva chased him to a cave. Bali thought that his position would be lost. wanted to defeat Bali by a combat or cunning sleights as he was an expert wrestler and magician. The molten metals became ea rrings of the child in the womb. derived from the Sea of Milk. Bali reached Kiskindha and drove Sugriva away. Bali melted Pa ncaloha (Five metals) and passed it into the womb of Anjana. at the mouth of the cave Bali followed the magician. Hanuman was the minister of Sugriva. He t hought that Sugriva had closed the mouth of the cave deliberately to kill him an d to usurp his throne. Sugriva married Ruma. meditation etc. He was much annoyed at this habitual torture of' Sugriva. (Valmiki Ranzayana. Both returned to t heir own places. 2) Marriage and Kingship. Both did not know how to stop the fight. Before going. when Hanuman caught hold of Bali by his waist. The desire of Bali to take revenge on Sugriva increased everyday. He came to Kiskindha in the midnight and standing before the palace. Purva-kanda). At last they made a treaty. gave Bali.

and as such you cannot be killed by anybody in direct fight. (Uttara Ramayana).5) Bali was cursed by Matafzga the great hermit. by which Sri Rama was to kill Bali and to restore to Sugriva his wife who was under the custody of Bali. Perhaps the idea o f Ravana might have been to take Bali by his tail and beat him on the ground. See the word Dundubhi para 4. Besides. being def eated. for the protection of the wo rld at large. Sri Rama and Sugriva returned to Rsyamukacala. This power enabled Bali to defeat all his foes and bring the countries in all directions un der his sway. A serpent born to Ka'syapa prajapati of his wife Kadru. went to Rava na and told him about the power of Bali and of the boon by which Bali got half t he strength of his opponent. In accordance with the conditions of the treat y. and to make him t he King of Kiskindha. Tara spoke very harsh words to Sri Rama. When Ravana heard of this peculiar boon he decided to kill Bali. and for the preservation of law and order that you should be kille d. "If you see me face to face you will become de voted to me. by which Sri Rama was to shoot Bali down. Next morning Bali went to the eastern sea-shore and began his prayer and meditat ion. Sri Rama and S ugriva had hit up on a plan. Ba li knew that Ravana was sitting behind him. Bali had got a boon from the Gods that he would get half th e strength of his opponent who stood face to face with him in fight. Bali knew this. His minister. to confront with Bali. receded from fight. BALISIKHA. Ravana approached Bali from behind and sat close to him. is my foe. It is mentioned in Mahabharata. But pretending that he knew nothing put his long tail on the body of Ravana. Next day morning both of them started for Kiskindha to kill Bali. and passed it lengthwise and breadthwis e through every part of his body and tied him like a bundle of faggots. Then they met with Hanuman.B. who as you know. This time Tara tried to the utmost to dissuade Bali from fighting. Udyoga Parva. Sri Rama. Ravana heard about this and decided to overpower Bali somehow or o ther and approached Kiskindha. Before falling down. Tdran. Stanza 14 that there was a king named Arkaja in this dynasty. Bali came out and a horrible boxing began between the two. and made a jump into the air. Sugriv a spoke ill of Sri Rama. Immediately Taradevi and Azigada arrived there. A dynasty of Ksatriyas. Sugriva. Sugriva challenged Bali to a single combat. even the women folk laughed. At last Bali entrusted Tara and Aaigada with Sri Rama a nd then he died. looking at Sri Rama Bali said "I t is not right on the part of the King of Ayodhya to have shot an arrow from amb ush". Their faces were so alike. Bali let him go unhurt. But Sri Rama could n ot distinguish one from the other. After Sites had been stolen away Rama and Laksmana wandered about in t he forest. Seeing Ravana hanging by the tail of Bali. and Sugriva believed i t. when Sugr iva was engaged in boxing with Bali. who took them to his King Sugriva. Sri Rama ha d put a flower garland around the neck of Sugriva to distinguish him from Bali. It is unav oidable for the safety of Sugriva. If I let you alone Ravana is likely to get your help . His idea was to kill Bali by going behind him when he went to the sea-shore to take bath in the morning. sitting in ambush. But Sri Rama revealed the truth. in return for which Sugriva and his men had to help Sri Ra ma to find out and recover Sites. Kiskindhakanda 1. Sri Rama and Sugriva reached Kiskindha. C hapter 74. Thus Ravana admitted defeat.. (M. It is not right to kill one's devotee. Adi Pa . BALIHAM. You are a friend of Ravana. you have a boon that you will get half the strength of the foe who fa ces you. 7) Death. But without p aying any heed to her words Bali engaged Sugriva in fighting. Within a short time he visited all the usual p1aces and re ached Kiskindha. Hearing that Sri Rama said. (Kampa Ramayana. instantly sent an arrow to the breast of Bali who looked to the side from which the arrow came. Was it not a violation of duty on your part to steal the wife of Sugriva ?" Bali fell down. for my interest. 6) Defeating Ravana. Sri Ra ma and Sugriva entered into a treaty.

Harsacarita is the only historic prose work available in Sanskrit. 2) Getting a boon.a began his reign with the city of Sonitapura as his' capi tal. while the Panda vas were living in pseudonymity in the kingdom of Virata. Once they tied him to a tree and gave him severe cuts. Salya Parva. Siva granted him the boon.. SStavahana. Stanz a 14 that this hermit had been a member of the durbar of Yudhisthira. Descended from Mahavisnu in the following order:Brahma-M arici. The Book ends w ith the story incomplete. Virata Parva.. From childhood Ballala was an ardent dev otee of Ganapati. Stanza 1) . Bhattara-hari'scandr a. * For detailed story see para 6 of the word Balabhadrarama. When he was a child he used to gather pebbles and make a heap and then worship it. From the first two or three chapters informations could be had of Banabhatla. BALLAVA (VALLAVA). But their attempts were futile. 1) Genealogy and birth. It is divided into eight Ucchvasas.1D. In some Puranas this n ame is shown as `Valala'. (Ganesa Purana 1 : 2). . Kalidasa and such others. Stanza S). Sabha Parva.rva. BS. This asura was killed by Balabhadrarama. BALOTKATA. BALLALA. Bhasa. A Sanskrit poet who lived in the 7th century A. A hermit. BALIVAK. A country in Bharata. Then he went to the vicinity of the Himalayas and began to do penance think ing of Siva. Chapter 2. He requested that he should be considered as the son of Parvati and that he should be given thousand hands so as to destroy all his enemies. in -a sense. BALLAVA (VALLAVA).B. BANA (BANABHATTA) I. He returned to his Kingdom and began to reign. One day an image of Ganapati arose in the place where the child use d to worship. The story of Harsacarit a begins with the death of Prabhdkara-Vardhana. His mo ther Rajyadevi died when he was a little boy. Though many of the descriptions in this book contain exaggerations it affords plenty of scope for investigation into the features of ancient Sanskrit literature. He was a member of the assembly of emperor Harsavardhana. 3) Battle with Sri Krsna and his fall. After that he arrived at the palace of Harsa. They tried their best to dissuade him from this h abit. Chapter 9. Bhisma Parva. This is the pseudo-name assumed by Bhimasena. father of Harsa. Mention is made about this country in M ahabharata.Ka'syapa-Hiranyakasipu-Prahlada-Virocana-Mahabali-Bana. Chapter 46. A female attendant of Subrahmanya. His parents did not like this. From that day onwards Parvati considered him as the younger brother of Subrahmanya. It is mentioned in Mahabharata. Chapter 4. Siva made his appearance and asked him what he wanted. Son of a Vaisya named Kafyana. BANA II. An asura. (See the word Aniruddha). (1VLB. is a Romance. imagining it to be Ganesa (Ganapati) . Harsacarita. Pravarasena. At the age of fourteen his father also died. `Harsacarita' (prose) is the m ost important work of Bana. (M. St anza 23) . Chapter 35. BALVALA (VALKALA). A mighty and powerful Asura. This asura had been tormenting the hermits of the f orest of Naimiga. He has mentioned about Vyasa.

BARBARA. 2) Pranita. (M. Stanza 29) . During the regime of Sri Rama this Asura fought against the K ing and his brothers. Brahmanda Purana) . Skanda Purana gives t he following details about him. So once Subrahmanya had to cut the mountain Kraunca with his arro ws. Adi Parv a. Stanza 67. Adi Parva. Sabha Parva.B. Adi Parva. and the Gods like Agni (fire) and others. Nakula also conquered these people. A Sivalinga had beer. Sabha Parva. Chapter 38) . Sabha Parva. Chapter 38). (1) In the Pur5nas Banasura is often called by the name Ma hakala. (See Vasavadatta). M. wife of Udayana. A country of puranic fame. 3) In the Battle with Sri Krsna. So it was not possible for Laksmana to defeat him though he had fought with him for so many days. 3) Putrikdputra.the asura also and thus Bana was kill ed.. (5) Bana often stood under the cover of the mountain of Kraunca and attacked the devas (gods). Subrahmanya. The Puranas state about six diff erent kinds of Bandhudayadas. Chapter 45. consecrated in the throat of this as ura. Salya Parva. 6) Bhanja. M. During the victory march of the Pandavas Bhimasena conquered the B arbaras. Salya Parva." B y the operation of arrows Laksmana smashed the image of Sivalinga in his throat. Chapter 446.). A king of the country of Videha. Sabha Parva. BARBARIKA. Chapter 174. The people living there were called Barbaras ..B. Uttara Kanda) . Mention is made about this Bana in Mahabhara ta. Bana was helped by iva. (Sloka 37. BANDHUMATI. which is the name of an attendant of Siva. Nandini. An asura. (M. (2) Sukracarya (the teacher of the Asuras) always worked for the uplift of Bana. (M. (Chapter 32. All these sons are heirs. 1) Svayamjata. (M. A son born after a re-marriage. 4) Paunarbhava.). Stanza 82). They were considered as low caste people. (Kampa Ramayana.B. Chapter 65. (Chapter 6. With the same arrow he cut the throat of ..B. Son of one's sister. A son born to one's wife by the blessing of any holy man. M. A son born to one's wife without a progenitor.B.B.Ii'anina. BANDHUMAN. Son of one's daughter. "Unless and unti l the image of Sivalinga is removed from his throat Bana could not be killed.).4) Other information. (4) Sri Krsna cut down the thousand hands . . In the Rajasuya yajna of Dharmaputra the Barbaras were present with gifts. Stanza 20) . There is also a statement that these people were born of the sides of the cow. BANA III.. A son born before marriage. (MA. Chapter 38. BANA IV. (Chapter 119. A son who can claim to be a heir. A lady attendant of Vasavadatta.B. Son of Maurvi born of Ghatotkaca. 5) . BANDHUDAYADA. Laksmana heard an etherial voice saying. son of Bhima. A warrior of Subrahmanya.of Bana with his Cakrayudha (the whe el weapon).

Devi Bhagava ta) . Suvarnas a nd Kinnaras. "You will get salvation only if you are killed by Sri Kxsna a nd so desist from committing suicide. (Chapter 65. Brahma created two different sets of Pitts. They were : A gnidhra. Krpaca rya and Asvatthama. Visnu Purana). M.). Enraged at this Krsna used his Sudarsana dakra and cut off his head . BARHISMATI.tha t some classes of manes such as Agnisvattas. He did not leave even Krsna alone and the weapon fell on the feet of Krsna also. The name brings into its fold the world o f the seven sacred sages also. Surupa delivered ten sons and a daughter." * In the original of Bhagavata this name is given as Balvala. (Saptama Skandha.Haryasva .Wife of Priyavrata.Barbarika was a Yaksa in his previous life. at once Devi appeared and brought him to life. Chapter 20 . After the great battle on the advice of Krsna Barbarika went and lived in Guptaksetra." Hearing those arrogant words Brahma cursed him saying that in his next life he would be killed by Visnu. To lessen the force of the curse Krsna advised him to worship Devi. Amsarn 1. He sent it against all excepting the Pandavas.). Descending in order : P rthu-Visvarandhi-CandraYuvaril3Va-Savanta . Ghrtaprstha. The Brahmin fu rther gave him a weapon named Vibhuti which could split the vital centres of the body of an enemy and said.B. Manusmrti states that the Barhisads are the sons of the Maharsi Atri and the Pit ts of all the Daityas. "There is no need for Visnu to curb the activities of the Danavas. son of Ghalo tkaca. These Barhisads who are members of the Yamasabh5 (council of the God of Death) p erform the mantric rites for the dead. Yaksas. M. (Chapter 10. M. Yajnabahu.B. These were born to Kasyapa prajapati of his wife P rtha. BARHIS. "Use this weapon against the Kauravas who oppose the Pandavas. Danavas. Barhisads.Nikumbha and to Nikumbha was born Barhana'sva an d from him Krsa~vaPrasenajit-Yuvana°sva .Brhada'sva . A class of Manes. Mad . But in the Malayal am translation the name used is "Valkala". BARHISAD (S) . Mahavira. (Chapter 208. Chapter 3) . Santi Parva. Uragas." Once Barbarika defeated his grandfather Bhima in a battle and greatly grieved ov er the injury done started to commit suicide.B.~ Rukmafiukra. Anagnis. I shall do it mysel f.). son of Svayambhuva Manu and brother of Uttanapada . and Sagnis are said to have derived from Brahma. A king born of the dynasty of emperor Prthu. A devagandharva clan. BARHANJAVA. Savana. At la st pleasing the goddess by the kindly help of a Brahmin named Vijaya Barbarika k illed a demoness called Mahajihva and a demon of name Repalendra. The great war started and Barbarika fighting on the side of the Pandavas started using his weapon Vibhuti. (Chapter 34. Priyavrata married another daugh ter of his named Surupa.Mandhata. It was through these Barhisads that Brahma taught Satvatadharma to a brahmin who became wellkno wn later as jyestha. Idhmajihva. Sloka 196. It is mentioned in Agni Purana. Raksasas. Sloka 45. Adi Parva. Gandharvas. Ag nisvattas and Barhisads. True to the curse the Yaksa was born in his next life as Barbarika. Once the devas unable to bear the in sufferable harm done to them by the Danavas approached Lord Mahavisnu for help a nd then the Yaksa who was present there at that time said with arrogance.Dhundhumara (alias Vala ya'sva) . (Manusmrti. Santi Parva. She was the daughter of Visvakarma Prajapati.Drdhasva . Then Devi appeared before him and reminded him thus.

Because in life he held fast to duty he was carried to heaven after death. He had to be born as a lion on account of the curse of sage Gautama. BASKALA I.hatithi. It i s stated in the SabhA Parva that the Ksatriya princes of Bhadragana presented lo ts of money in connection with the Rajasuya yajna of Yudhisthira. BHADRA I. BASKALA II. Maitriputra. Santi Parva. BHADRA II. (Padma Purana. Sukracarya was the minister of educa tion. 2) Later history. Priyavrata got of his wife Barhismati three sons. Caturth a Skandha) BHADRA IV. Simhika became the wife of Vipracitti. were bo rn to Kasyapa prajapati of his wife Diti. Baskala and Durmukha. Kavi and a daughter 'Crjjasvati. Baskala engaged himself in a combat with Devi who fought on the side o f the Devas. The Nitisastra of Brahma. Chapter 56. This book contains three t housand chapters. Tamra was the Finance Minister. Uttara Khancla). BHADRA VI. Two sons. were born to Hiranyakasipu . Three sons Ayusman. A Brahmin who reads the Gita daily. from Pdtala. Baskala became one of the ministers of the famous and mighty h ero Mahisasura. Stanza 84. Baskala played an important part in the battle between. Mahisasura and Ind ra. Uttama. and father of Upamanyu. Mention is made about this Book in Mahabharata. one of the ministers of Kubera. Prasada. When soldiers were killed by thousands. Tamasa and Raivata. Devi Bhagavata. Trinetra and Kalabandhaka were members of the administrative council. 1) Birth. Brhaspati condensed and codified the laws of Ethics by Brahma. A king of the asuras. Chapt er 19. Muda. (Astama Skandha. Baskala. Tustija Smaya. One of the disciples of Vyasa. The dead body was eaten away by bird s and the bony skeleton remained. Dayat maja. A teacher-priest who acted according to Kalpa Sutras (rituals of sac rifices). Mahisasura sent lastly. Devi Bhagavata). (Bhagavata. Skandha 5). Sraddha had the following sons : gubha. People of the kingdom of Bhadragana are generally called Bhadras. Asiloma was the Prime Minister and Bidala the r=ainister of foreign a ffairs. C hapter 59. BATU (VATU). gibi and Baskala were born to Sarhhrada. Four sons. Prahlada and Sarizhlada. BHADRA III. Vitihotra. BARHASPATYA. This was compiled by Brhaspati. Baskala became angry and aiming at the breast of Devi he gave a sev ere blow with his club. These sons became in due cour se the Manvantaradhipatis. Son of Sraddha. Anuhrada. One of the four elephants which. . (See Astadiggajas). Hrada. But Devi evaded him with her club and gave him a severe thrust with her trident at his breast and Baskala fell dead. (Karn a Parva. Udarkka was the gencra1 of the army. BAUDHAYANA. Abhaya. A yaksa. When rains started the empty skull was filled with water and a sinner passing that way touched the skull and the sinner got sa lvation. (Agni Purana. Hiranyaksa and Hiranyakasipu and a daughter Simhika. Pustija and Yoga. Verse 48) . Bhadra. son of Pramati. (See the word Guruparampara) . kntija. A king of Cedi who fought on the Pandava side. Hrada was the son of Hrada. support the world. A maharsi. BHADRA V. daughter born to Svayambhuva Manu by his wife gatari ipa. Ciksura was the minister of law and order. Karna killed him.

BHADRA VII. Chapter 52. daughter of the King of Visala is mentioned in Cha pter 45 of the Mahabharata. Verse 14). A kingdom in ancient India. Verse 24. The Ksatriya princes of Bhadram gave cost ly presents to Dharmaputra at the Rajasuya Yaga (Sabha Parva.. sister of Sri Kr sna in Verse 14. (Navama Skandha. daughter of Soma in Chapter 154 of the Anusasana Parva. See Vidusaka. BHADRA IX. Chapter 96) .) BHADRABAHU. BHADRA VII. (Vana Parva. Bhagavata) . Accordingly she husband and delivered six sons. (Brahmanda Purana. BHADRA VIII. Chapter 7 of the Mausala Parva. A son of Pradyumna. Burning with anger he drank up the sea completely dry. Nar! an d Devaviti. A king. Verse 6). Kunti once related the story of Bhadra t o I'dicall and exhorted her to live like Bhadra. wh o was an exceptionally beautiful woman. in the course of his digvijaya (conquest of countries) subjugated th is kingdom. She had ei ght sisters. father of Sri Krsna died by jumping into the funera l pyre of her husband. Varuna once fell in love with Bhadra. BHADRA(M). Ramya. See Bhadrakali. daughter of the King of Ki'si. Chapter 198. Latd. came to know of the desire of his granddau ghter. his wife was missing. The word Bhadra is used as another name of Subhadra. w hen Si'supala disguised as King Karusa appeared on the scene and carried her awa y. viz. The beautiful daughter itas va of the Puru dynasty. He understood what had happened to Bhadra by the light of his divine knowledge (television of mind ). One of the wives of Kubera.and profusely apo1ogised. A daughter of the King of KUL The grandson of Sagara. BHADRA VI. She did penance for getting the kingdom of KarUSa. Dasama Skandha). When of her husband his soul appeared got pregnant by the corpse of her apter 120. Yet another Bhadra. of King Kaksivan. (Bhagavata. Syama. Karna. She once did intense penance to secure Utathya as her h usband. and got her married to Utathya. When Utathya returned to the Asrama. BHADRA X. BHADARAKALI BHADRA IV. BHADRA II. BHADRACARU. (Bhigavata. father of Soma. and Varuna shuddering with fear returned Bhadra to Utathya. Chapter 218 of Adi Parva. Ch BHADRA III. Ugradamstri. and abducted and concealed her in the se a. a king of the Solar dynasty married Bhadra. (Adi Parva. A king of Puru-vamsa. daughter of Meru was married by King Agnldhra. Chapter 254. Atri maharsi. BHADRADEHA. Pancama Skandha). Thus ended the pr oblem. There is reference to another Bhadra. Pratirupa. Verse 38). Meru Devi. Dasama Skandha). BHADRA I. one of the four wives of Vasudeva. in unbearable grief lamented the death on the skies and blessed her. A son born to Sri Krsna of Kalindi. states that Bhadra. One Bhadra. She was married to King Vyus Bhadra. BHADRA V. (Bhagavata. (Adi Parva. According to the Visnu Purana he was one of the sons of Vasu .

The Kaunta chief . of Bhagavata t Kamsa took away from the room in which Devaki had delivered Seri Krsna the ld of Yasoda by whom Krsna had been replaced. Lankilaksml. This Bhadrakal! was really Sati or Pirvati in another for m. 1) General. She complained to Siva that she could not witness the Rama-Ravana war. 2) Bhadrakali and Kamsa. consequently a prominent member in the `poets' assembly' of King Cola. who was very intelligent even in his infancy. On regaining consciousness. and that the child then escaped from his clutches and rose up to the sky. Hanuman thrashed Lan kalaksmi with his left hand at which she vomitted blood and fell down unconsciou s. becoming a mother. A king belonging to the Anga dynasty. King Virasena. on hearing about the selfimmolation in fire of his wife. and afte r thanking Hanuman. both by hearing and seeing the same in better manner t han by actually seeing the war. remembrance of the past occurred to her. she returned to Kailasa . (Agni Purana. Tamil Puranas a ver that this Lankalaksmi was an incarnation of Bhadrakali. forsook t he child in the temple precincts and left the place. Kampa. by chance. BHADRAKA II. as decided upon previously was born as the son of Cinkaravalli. and dashed the child against a k. But . One Ganesakaunta sighted th e orphan child. who was without children brought up the orphan child as though it had been his own child. I shall be born there as Kampa. (Agni Purana. compose the Ramayana in Tamil and get conduct ed the dolls-play. and beat the earth with his matted hair. Then you would be able to enjoy the story of Sri Rama. There lived a great scholar named Sankaranarayana close to the temple. When to his name was added the plural suffix `r' as a t oken of great respect he came to be known as Kampar. Uttarakhanda). who feared scandal in her. especi ally the Rama-Ravana war. a widow. There is a story in the DasamaSkandha. and he became. tha chi roc Tha 3) Kampa. Lord Siva. and thus got h imself sanctified. who restored her to her former form. Once King Cola asked Kampar and Otlakkutta another member of the poets' assembly . Though Bhadraka was immoral in his life.deva by Devaki. who had become a widow while she was worshipping `Svayambhizdeva' for the gift of a child. but lazy by na ture turned out to be a great scholar and good poet in Tamil by the time he grew up to be a youth. Cinkaravalli. t child was Bhadrakali in another form. A brahmin outcaste. the Kaunta chief. His wife was Cinkaravalli. Lankalak. and there ensued two forces called Vira bhadra and Bhadrakall. BHADRAKA I. Then Si va told her thus "You go to the Dravida country and be put up in the `Svayambhulinga' temple ther e.smf and Bhadrakali. who spent his whole life in commi tting sins. was the first to prevent Hanuman from entering the city. Chapter 12) . Chapter 277). BHADRAKALI. he went to heaven along with Virasena after death as he had taken the mag ha bath. Bhadrakali acted according to this bidding of -Siva. Since the child was recovered from the foot of the flagstaff it was named Kampa. who was guarding the city of Lanka. Lord Aiva . (Padma Purana. Sati at the famous yajna conducted by Daksa 'rushed in all anger to the spot. and took it to Jayappavallan. who was then ruling the Avanti kingdom had earned ample sanctity by the performance of seventeen Asvamedha yagas: The Deaths of King Virasena and Bhadraka took place on one and the same day. took magha bath for three days at Prayaga. This brahmin. Another form of Parvati.

The King's direction was that . Setubandhana (building a bridge in the sea up to Lanka) and Kampar should write the story of the war in his poem. M. A forest on the top of the Mountain Bhadrasvavarsa which lies to the east of Mahameru. T o this the divine form replies. and took refuge in South India. "Oh! mother ! you have slipped away". Ottakkutta completed the task allotted to him within six months. This brahmin had six wives and two hundred and forty-four daughters. and hearin g it Bhadrakali danced. BHADRAMATI. and the King and ot hers too were wonder-struck. Chapter 84. $ardduli. A sacred place. Daughter born to Kasyapa prajapati of his wife. A king of ancient India. and he w as wonder-struck. Vana Parva. (Pattu=Song).1. Chapter 228. (Sabha Parva. Ramayana should be recited in the ass embly the very next day itself. Mata ngi.B.). he once left his kingdom. Oltakkutta should compose his poem upto the incident. And. Thus Siva incarnated himse lf as Kampar. The above is the chief legend about Kampar. (Vans Parva. afterwards. the presiding deity of learning and literature. (Narada Puranam). BHADRAKALIPPATTU. Mrgamanda. He recited the poem in the royal assembly. It is the figure of Subrahmanya in the shape of a goat that is known as Bhadrasaka. He had no land of his own. Aranya Kanda. But K ampar had not attempted to write even a single line. Once. Verse 26) . When Kampar got completely out of sleep and looked about he found the Ramayana s tory fully written in verse on his desk. Surasa and Kadru. By worshipping this tree the men have become white and majes tic and by drinking a juice prepared from its leaves the women keep themselves e ternally young. Bhadramati got salvation by this good deed. He who visits this place conducts worship will never have to face ill fate. And. recited the story of the Rama-Ravana war in the temple. in fear of Jarasa ndha. Folk song very popular in Kerala temples. BHADRAMATA (BHADRAMANA). and exclaimed. Bhadramata. Krodhav asa. Sveta. The ten daughters of Krodhavasa are: Mgi. But he went to the king o fKausambi and begged for some land which when received was immediately given as gift to poor brahmins. then the divine form vanished completely. BHADRASAKA. (Sloka 4. Chapter seven of Bhisma Parva says like this about this tree: "K alamra stands towering miles high bearing flowers and fruits at all times of the . Surabhi. After that he went and bathed in the Papanasana tirtha si tuated in the mount of Venkatacala. who began writing his poem the same day with the object of completing it in the night itself fell asleep without writing anything at all. There is a tree called Kalamra in this forest. (Skanda 2. "Oh Kampar ! I have finished writing". Chapter 14. Valmik i Ramayana). hearing the glory of Bhudana (giving away land free to the deserved) he wa s much impressed and from then onwards he became filled with a strong desire to give land free to the poor. BHADRASALA(M). A name of Subrahmanya. This is a v ery sacred tree standing miles high above other trees and is being worshipped by the Vrddhacaranas. according to the orders of the Kin g the story of the war (Yuddha-kanda Katha) began to be exhibited as dollsplay i n the presence of the idol of the Devi in the temple. A very poor brahmin. Hari. Verse 39). BHADRAKARIYESVARA(M). Having been informed about the matter the King ordered that the poem.to compose in Tamil poetry the story of Sri Rama. When Kampar awoke early in the morning he saw a divine form di sappearing from his room.10). Kampar. Kampar inferred that the poem was compo sed by Saradabhagavati. The pr actice is to sing songs in praise of Bhadrakali BHADRAKARA. (Sarga 14.

A king in the region of Kasmira. then sent his orderl ies to bring before him that couple who had always quarrelled with each other wh ile living.20-21). A king whom the Puranas extol as having ruled Saurastra in Dvaparayuga. 3. The king then entrusted the state with his son and left for the forests accepting an ascetic life. Uddalaka Maharsi performed a demoniac gaga to destroy this k ing. I met her and when she told me her story I instructed her to observe a Punya vrata (Fasting to any particular deity). But on his return to the palace when he opened the bundle he found ther e a block of charcoal instead of gold. The sentries pressed for details about her and then she said this: "My name is Kamala. came to the King as his guest and the Kin g then requested him to make his son withdraw from his Siva-worship. (Skandha Purana. remaining you ng all the tune." The gate-keeper immediately went to her mistress and told her all that happened.3. My husband is a man named Bhuvanasva and we live in Dvaraka. But they have now forgotten about the Punyavrata and I have come here to remind them of it. After Syamabala's de parture from the palace the wealth of the King began to wane and they became so poor that at the request of the queen the King Bhadra'srava went to his daughter to ask for help. On hearing the story from the woman Syamabala got instruction s regarding that Punyavrata from the old woman and started observing it. The wome n drinking its juice are lotus-complexioned. strong and majestic. BHADRARAVAS. beautiful. Bound by ropes the ghastly servants of Yama were about to drag them to their land when the angelic servants of Visnu with the insignia of `garhkhaCa kra-Gada' on their lapels arrived there and those messengers of Laksmi headed by Svaprakasa cut off the ropes and carrying them in a Rajahamsa chariot took them through noble paths to the land of Laksmi. (Satapathabrahmana). One day she quarrelled wit h her husband and he beat her hard and then crying loudly she ran out of the hou se. was very m uch devoted to Siva and spent most of his time worshipping him. In the end to complete the goodness remaining they were born as King and queen on earth with plenty of wealth and happiness. Yama.year. Moonfaced. Parasara. Sudharman. The father tried his best to withdraw his son from this excessive devotion but failed. The old woman ran away fro m the palace crying loudly and Syamabala on hearing the 'cry went and enquired a bout the incident. Then one day the great sage." BHADRASARA. A king. Sur aticandrika. One day the husband and wife died. At the forest of Naimisa sage Suta told the following story to explain how Laksmi (goddess of wealth) took her abode in the houses of men. They lived there happily for a perio d calculated at the rate of a thousand years for one week of Punyavrata observed . On seeing the mishap the king burst into . The daughter was named Syamabala. But the queen. She did it willingly and as a result sh e acquired great wealth and happiness. Once truthful-S yamabala was sitting under a green-wood tree with her playmates playing with dia monds and gold sand when the goddess of wealth disguised as an aged Brahmin woma n went to the gates of the palace and asked for permission to see the queen. Suraticandrika got angry when she heard the story and ordered th e old woman to be sent away from there with thrashes. His only son. The Vrddhacaranas worshipping it are white. the king of Death. The daughter gave his father a block of solid gold drapped in a paper. BHADRASENA. Within four weeks she got married and went to her husband's house. But Parasar a then told him about the previous life of Sudharma and consoling him persuaded the King to do the `Rudrabhiseka' (uninterrupted pouring of cold water over an i dol of Siva) by himself. Bhadrasrava (Bhadra'sravas) who was ruling Saurastra had seven sons and a daught er of his wife Suraticandrika. well versed i n music and dance and having a life-span of over a thousand years. Your queen in her previous birth was a Vaisya woman.

Santi Parva a nd Chapter 7. One of the sons was Bhadrasva. A sacred place. Dharmeyu. . BHADRASVA. (Pancama Skandha. BHADRATANU. Once Agastya went and stayed for seven days in the palace of Bhadra'sva and his wife Kantimati. a celestial maiden. He had fought many wars with Divodasa. Bhadra'sva had ten sons: Rkseyu. His bro thers were Nabhi. Chapter. Kriya. (Vayu Purana). He was a leper and in his life he su fered much. Citeyu. The glory of it is described i n Chapter 82. Krteyu and Matinara. (Chapter 14. Then Agastya gave them instructions about that Vrata which both Bhad rasva and Kantimati observed sincerely. She did her duty so willingly and sincerely that she was born as a queen and y ou a King". Ghrteyu. An immoral brahmin. (Siva Purana. Krseyu. M. A Hehaya King who was ruling a state with Mahismati as capital.a cry. Kirtimalini. Ramyaka. Dharmaputra was ruling this land and Sanjaya once described this land to Dhrtarastra. The mast er of the house once entrusted her with the task of seeing that none of the temp le lights went out on the night of Dvadasi in the month of Tula (Asvina-October) . Agni Purana). a dip -in ?Ihe holy waters of this place would entitle one to Brahmaloka. BHADRAVATA. BHADRASVA I. (Chapter 11. Ilavrta. Agnidhra. gatarudr asarnhita). Bhagavata). (Chapter. Wi th the might of all these. BHADRAYU. A king who was a devotee of Siva. (Vana Parva. receiving as a result benediction from V isnu. Padma Purana). Bhaga 2. During her stay there the Punyavrata day of the month came and the daughter trie d her best to make her mother also observe the same. The abode of Parvati and Paramesvara. Sannateyu. Sthandileyu. BHADRASVA II. got nine sons of his wife Purvacitti. Bhadrayu became unconquerable.bha and blessed him after instructing him on the precepts of Rajadharma. V erse 80). (Padma Purana. He fu rther gave him a dagger and a conch as weapons and twelve thousand elephants.B.278. On the advice of Danta be became a devotee of Vi snu and attained salvation. BHADRASRENYA. Everyday Agastya used to speak in glowing terms about Kantimad a nd asked about the reason for it he replied "In her previous birth Kantimati was a servant girl in a wealthy house. 17). Kuru and Ketumal a. Vana Parva. even the pangs of death. His wife was the dutiful and good natured 1 ady. A f ew days after that Suraticandrika returned home and to her amazement found every thing in plenty there once more. Hari. Suraticandrika then went to her daughter and was well received and attended to. A king of Puruvamsa. Kimpurusa. But the next month Syamabala compelled her mother to observe the fast strictly and so Suraticandrika took the Vrata successfully. king of KUL (See under Divod5sa). Bhisma Parva). son of Priyavrata and grandson of Manu. Hiranmaya. The country ruled by Bhadrasva was called Bhadraisva lying to the east of the mountain Gandhamadana. Sammit eyu. On the sixteenth birthday of Bhadrayu Siva appeared before him in the name of Rs a. But the poverty-stricken qu een broke the fast without her daughter's knowledge by eating what remained in t he dishes of the children. He was the son of Rahovadi. BHADRATUIVGA. An island near the mountain of Meru. Chapter 82.

Tvasta. Visnu. (4) Bhaga shines forth in Indra's assembly. A vedic god considered to be the lord of wealth. Adi Parva. (M. (M. prowess and happines s. Verse 12) . BHAGA I. and in thus fixing shares they left out Ru dra.. Salya Parva. with the point of his bow. extracted the hands of Savita. An attendant (woman) of Subrahmanya. Pusa. BHAGADATTA. who returned to Bhaga and others the eyes etc. Varuna. and the couple begot three sons called Mahiman. (Skanda Purana. Duri ng the fight Rudra. sprang upon the enemies with sword in hand. (Adi Parva. Ultimately the Devas satisfied and please d. while Bhadrayu was ruling the country.. Adi Parva. Verse 26 ) . BHAGADA.B. queen of Mandara. Dhata. the Devas asembled together and decided upon the share of yajnas due to each of them.B. Siva greatly pleased at this' selfless act of Bhadrayu befitting a true King appeared before him and blessed him and gave back the brahmin his wife. BHAGA II. Aryama. Am'su and Bhaga-these are the Dvadasadityas. Bhagadatta was King of Pragjyotisapura. Verse 66). a firm protector of his subj ects gave his own wife to the brahmin and prepared himself to give up his life i n fire. 3. (Salya Parva.. (3) At the time of Khandavadaha (burning of the Khandava forest) Bhaga. Bhadrayu.. . who was fighting Arjuna and Sri Krsna.12.B. 2. 2) He was present at the wedding of Pancali.One day. (Rgveda. th e eyes of Bhaga and the teeth of Pusa. (1) Bhaga married Siddhi. Sauptika Parva). (6) After Deva-yuga (Deva age). Bhaga.. Certain Puranas refer to Bhaga as one of the eleven Rudras. (2) Bhaga participated in the birthday celebrations of Arjuna. BHAGA III. Mitra . Savita.3. Verse 9). (5) Bhaga was also present at the installation of Subrahmanya as commander of th e fighting forces. Verse 36) . Chapter 7. Chapter 46. Bhaga is also one of the six Adityas mentioned in the Rgveda. Vivasvan. Rudra.. (M.27) . Aditi.B. Daksa and Amsa. Bhadrayu in his previous birth was a King called Mandara and Kirtimalini in her previous birth was Pingala. Vararoha. Enraged at this neglect Rudra made a bow and 'ought against the Devas. Aryaman. Adi Parva . Chapter 67. Verse 22). Mahabharata furnishes the fo llowing information about him. Chapter 122. 9. 1) General. 1) Bhagadatta was born from a limb of the asura called BASkala. as a sup porter of Indra. Sakra. viz. Siva came in the guise of a tige r and carried away the wife of a brahmin. a nd Asis. (M. Chapter 185. 2) Other information. Varuna. Chapter 236. and they were Devas famou s as Tusitas in the last Caksusamanvantara. One of the twelve Adityas born as sons of Ka'syapa prajapati by his wife. Vibhu and Prabhu and three daughters called Suvrata.14). (M.B. which had been extracte d.B. this view is not universally accepted. Chapter 45) . But. (M. Sabha Parva. Mit ra.

Chapter 45. Ver se 59). Chapter 254. 8) During the first day of the war Bhagadatta fought a duel with the King of Vir ata. 10) In the fight which took place after the above defeat Bhagadatta caused Bhima sena to faint in the field. with his army. Chapter 14. Chapter 51. 7) In the great war he. Verse 14). Chap ter 14. Verse 48) . (Udyoga Parva. Verse 17). 19) Bhagadatta killed Ruciparvan. (Bhisma Parva. Chapter 26. the charioteer of Bhima-sena. 16) Chapters 113 and 114 of the Bhisma Parva describe the combats fought by Bhag adatta with BhYmasena and Arjuna. . (Sabha Parva. Chapter 95. (Bh isma Parva. (Drona Parva. (Sabha Parva. Verse 52) . 14) Vi'soka. 4) The triumphal tour of Arjuna in connection with the Rajasuya yajna performed by Yudhisthira evoked feelings of jealousy in the heart of Bhagadatta. 12) Next ensued the combat with King Dasarha in which the King was defeated. 9) He was defeated in his fight with Ghatotkaca. (Bhisma Parva. who congratulated Arjuna on his supreme courage and admitting defeat yielded to Arjuna. fought on the side of Duryodhana. (Drona Parva. 5) Bhagadatta. Ver se 40).3) Known also as 1ord of the Yavanas (Yavanadhipa). Bhagadatta was a friend of P andu. V erse 40). (Bhisma Parva. Verse 7). (Bhisma Parva. Chapter 26. 17) Bhagadatta and Drupada fought with each other. 18) Bhagadatta killed king Dasarha. Chapter 95. 20) He shot the Vaisnavastra (arrow given by Visnu) on Arjuna. Verse 76). Chapter 26. Verse 14) . (Bhisma Parva. Chapter 95. Chapter 19. along with the Yavanas was present at the Rajasaya of Yudhisthira . and that friendship was transferred to Yudhisthira too. (Drona Parva. 13) It was not long after this that Bhagadatta cut off the hands of the Ksatrade va. The courage and prowess Arjuna exhibited in the fight aston ished Bhagadatta. and he fo ught against Arjuna. Chapter 6. (Drona Parva. Verse 13).4. Chapter 64. hit by the arrows of Bhagadatta fell down and fainted. Verse 7) . 11) And after that he defeated Ghatotkaca in fight. He also made presents of horses of very high pedigree and very costly gems etc . Verse 15). Verse 38) . (Bhisma Parva. 15) Bhagadatta and Satyaki fought against each other. Verse 73). Chapter 83. (Bhisma Parva. Verse 5). Chapter 111 . Verse 49) . (Sabha Parva. 6) Karna once defeated Bhagadatta in fight. (Vana Parva. Cha pter 29.

(See under Purana). who argue that the Gita was composed some ti me between the third and fourth centuries B. his son. Verse 48). 1) General. Chapter 76) . One of the eighteen famous Puranas. to fightandfight in her oic earnestness with the result that Arjuna shed his disinclination to fight and entered the fray. Chapter 29. The Gita covers chapters 25-45 in the Bhisma Parva of the Mahab harata. brothers. overcome by gri ef at the prospect of fathers. and it was interpolated into the Mahabharata in the second century A. (Asvamedha Parva. BHAGAVAD GITA. (8alya Parva. The Gita contains three spheres or fields of teaching. and the great Sankara. Arjuna kill ed Vajradatta also. the Lord pointed out to the unwilling Arjuna. There is a school of thought which believes that the Gita was taught to Arjuna by Krsna himself on the battle-field in something lik e tabloid form and that Vyasa eleborated the mighty teaching in its present form .. his imperative duty. (Drona Parva.21) Aijuna killed Bhagadatta. Many a great thinker and philosophe r like Acarya Sankara. The theme of the Gita is philosophy. who lived in the 8th century believed that the Gita was sung by Krsna himself. The subject-matter of each chapter of the Gita is given below. and it is revered as one of the most sublim e philosophical texts of the Hindu religion.C. Vajradatta became King of Pragjyotisa. Ramanujacarya and Madhvacarya have. The Bhagavad Gita is a poem consisting of 650 verses divided into ei ghteen chapters. Chapter 46. An attendant woman of Subrahmanya. BHAGAVATA. The whole world has acclaimed it as a very weighty and valuable contribution in the sphere of philo sophy. But. Bana. under the circumstance. And the dialogue between Arjuna and Krsna. preceptors and other Kinsmen fighting a nd killing one another expressed to his charioteer. It comprises chapters 72-150 in Udyoga Parva. The poet. Verse 1 1) . But there are some modern thinkers. The Gita has translations in all the languages of the world. It has been mentioned above that the Gita forms chapters 2 5-45 in the Bhisma Parva of the Mahabharata. D. (Asramavasika Parva. who flourished in the 7th century A. 23) King gailalaya. Chapter 20. Chapter 25. BHAGAVADDHYANAPARVA.D. The three yogas are treated e ach in six chapters. who was Bhagadatta's grandfather. ArJunavisdda yoga:-Both the armies take positions in Kuruksetra. Verse 10) . which ended in the ultimate victory of the Pandavas. Gayatri is the main theme of this Purana and based on it it dwells on the greatness of Dharma (duty) and states a bout the dharmas of Sarasvatakalpa. A sub-parva of UdyogaParva. and especially the great teaching of Krsna on the field form the theme of the Gita. 22) After his death. BHAGANANDA. The mighty armies of the Pandavas and the Kauravas were arrayed on opposite sides for mortal combat on the field of Kuruksetra when Arjuna. annotated. and it is in the form of a talk or discussion between Arjuna and Lord Kr sna. jnana yoga (philosophy of k nowledge) and Bhaktiyoga (philosophy of devotion). At the sound of the conches Aijuna becomes dejected and sorrowful at the prospect o . attained Indraloka on acco unt of the greatness of his tapas. by unique and various arguments. and writte n commentaries on the Gita. 2) Theme of the Qitd. Sri Krsna his aversion to fi ghting. the karma yoga (philosophy of action).

evil deeds. Arjuna sings the praise of Krsn a. Atmasarryama yoga :-Niskamakarma yoga. Daivasura sampadvibhaga yoga:-Good actions. and of Prakrti and Purusa. worship of other Devas. Yndna yoga _ Jnanavijnanas. Gzrnatrayavibhaga yoga:. diet. Irisvarupadar~ana yoga :.The greatness of Jnana. Parusottama yoga:. jnananist ha. Chapter 26. Tarakabrahma yoga :-Seven questions of Arjuna about Brahma. Jnanayoga. Chapter 37.Essential principles of world and life. Isvara svarupa. Chapter 33. Varnadharmas. Iyadnakarma Vibhaga yoga :-Power of Saguna Brahma (Brahma with attri butes). Niskamakarma yoga. Sdriekhya yoga :-The greatness and majesty of the Samkhya and the Ka rma yogas. origin of the world. origin of the world. Chapter 39. Chapter 29. . relationship between jivatma and Paramatma. Moksasannyasa yoga:. 9raddhdtrayavibht7ga yoga:--Descriptions of Scientific tapas. Atmatatv a and Karma. Chapter 41. (For another story about the greatness of the Gita see Dussasana II). Chapter 35. principle and theory of ks ara purusa and aksara purusa. scientific a ctions and unscientific actions. Bhakti yoga. world's origin from Prakrti and Purusa.Arjuna's prayer to be shown Visvarupa (cos mic form). Sakamaniskamopdsana. Jnana yoga with Bhakti. Chapter 40.The great benefits of worshipping God with form and wi thout form. Bhaktiyoga :. preceptors and Kinsmen. the three gunas. Niskama-karma yoga (Action without an eye on the result) spiritual great ness of various yajnas.f killing relations. Jfidna yoga. Atmodharana. Chapter 34. Chapter 31. Sri Kr. Interpretation of Om. Bhakti yoga .sna's answers thereto. Niskamakarmayoga with bhakti and the greatness of the Gita. rajas and tamas. Vibhuti yoga : -Bhagavan's Vibhuti (Divine attributes) .Karma yoga :-The need for action according to the Jnana and the Kar ma yogas. sattva. Samkhya theory. Chapter 42. the Daiva and Asura aspects of Lvara. description of visvarRpa by Sri Krsna and Sanjaya. Sannyasa yoga :-S amkhya yoga. Chapter 36. the Sukla and -the krsna margas. Chapter 30. attainmen t of God. Rajardja gulya yoga : Jnana and Vijnana. Chapter 28. Chapter 38. Bhagavadbhakti.. fear-stricken at the sight. Chapter 27. Chapter 32. yajnatapas and dana. Sri Krsna reveals visvarupa to Arjuna. means to attain g od. Ksetraksetrajrta hibhaga yoga :-Description of Ksetraksetrajna with Jrfiana. marks of Yugatitapurusa.Ty5gam.

Hence Krsna means he who becomes a slave to the love of his devotees. and to him the l ifetime of Brahma is just one minute only.Sudeva . The above is Saiva doctrine in a nut-shell. They ask. the left side becoming woman and the right side man.Tra iyyaruna-Satyavrata or TrAanku . Krs means all and `na' means seed or root. There is another meaning als o for the word Krsna. in the heart of Bhagiratha spiritual thoughts began to crop up. "How is it possible to have brightness or effulgence without th ere being an effulgent one ?" Therefore. at the centre of an effulgent sphere. death.Kasyapa-Vivasvan-Vaivasv ata manu-IksvakuVikuksi-gasada -Kakutstha-Anenas-Prthulasva-Prasenajit-Yuvanasva . atmosphere and the universe (Brahmandam) are. and the guru replied as follows:The ego will be annihilated when the tendencies and cravings towards objects of . Time. This Deva is called Paramatma. Once Bhagiratha asked the guru what was the means to get rid of worldly sorrows. The sound `ga' means welfare and good fortune. eternal. In the same manner as flame exists in fire inseparable from it. fame and strength. Many years had not lapsed after his coronation as King when. when Prakrti and Purusa separate. divided him self into two. who is the giv er of welfare and prowess.SagaraAsamanj as-Amguman *-Bhagiratha. like the former.Harita . they assume forms and att ributes. Subhage or Bhagini.TrasadasyuAnaranya-Haryasva-Vasumanas . This `thing'Deva-is very efficient an d effective to remedy sorrows due to birth. which also is. which possesses neither form nor attributes. Hence "Sakti" means the embodiment of welfare and prowess or she. and the sound °kti' means prowess. Just like this. and thus Krsna means he. the Par amatma will not in the least be able to function unaided by Prakrti. The following elucidation once given by Mahavisnu about Bhagavan and Bhagavati is greatly illuminating. beauty in the lotus flower and brightness in the sun.Mandhata .BHAGAVATT. Prakrti. eternal.Cuncu .Purukutsa .Bahuka . As the Paramatma is always with and inseparable from s uch Bhagavati he is called Bhagavan also. Devi) is all powerful. Bhagavati combines in herself knowledge. 'Para' becomes powerful enough to do everything whe n he joins the Devi. and `na' means he who becomes slave to such devotion. Parabr ahma and Krsna by the Vaisnavas. and this Lord. which is a sport to Brahma and is also without beginning or end (Sanatani) too is eter nal. The words Bhagavan and Bhagavati mean Paramatma (universal self) and Prakrti (Nature and its modifications) respectively. Prakrti (Na ture. 1) Genealogy. moonlight i n moon. disease etc. of a thing possessing the utmost effulgen ce and brightness equal to that of Brahma. space. `Krs' means maximum devotion (love) towards Par amatma. so does nature exi st in soul inseparable therefrom. subject only to his own will and pleasure. of their own accord.Bharuka . BHAGTRATHA. just like Paramatma. Prakrti is also called by t he name Sakti.Sudhanva . (Devi Bhagav ata. The Vaisnavas do not accept this pos ition.Hariscandra-Rohitasva. r iches. In the same way as the goldsmith cannot make g old ornaments without gold and the potter cannot make pots without clay. A word used in addressing women. And. Navama Skandha). the Vaisnavas believe in the existence. Below this eternal Gokula exists Vaikunt haloka. This is the truih and reality. affluence. BHAGINI. In the very beginning there was only th is Krsna . A great sage called Tri tula was his guru. Verse 129 in chapter two of the Manusm rti lays down that the wife of another person and women who are not one's relati ves should be addressed either as Bhavati. When Prakrti and Paramatma remain comb ined it is called Parabrahma. 2) Recluse. who is the root of everything. Descended from Visnu thus: BrahmaMarici .

then he invite d his neighbouring enemy king and gave to him. when Indra stole away the sacrificial horse and kept it quite near to sage Kapila who was doing tapes in Patala. the kingdom which had been bereft of all wealth. But. shame etc. Ere long. The ministers of Bhagiratha's former Kingdom also now requested him to resume his old kingship. who am your preceptor in the matter of knowledge .000 so ns of Sagara remaining in the form of ashes in Patala. all your wealth to enemies. the practice of concentration etc. The egoless state is the ultimate achievement and most supreme state. successor to the King who had died heirless. This advice of the guru affected h im so much that Bhagiratha. Bhagiratha is the son of Amsu man. give up all attachment to materi al objects. without the least hesitation. holding his duties firmly in mind. The 60. And. Kesini had one son nam ed Asamanjas and Sumati 60. the minis ter of a distant kingdom who was on the look out for a *According to verse ia. in this frame of mind they traversed the forests. the Agnisloma yajna aimed at gifting away everything.the senses are absolutely suppressed and the whole and perfect truth is realised through knowledge. which form the outer case of worldly life.. persuaded Bhagiratha to accept the Kingship of that country. and both of them. and. land. in company. and after spending some time thus he performed. Bhagiratha rejected their request. Oh ! Bhagiratha ! if y ou would get rid of sentiments like pride etc. They thought like this : "Why should the body be kept like this. especially since its new ruler had alr eady expired. which was then being ruled by the enemy King. Bhagiratha did penance on the seashore concentrating his mind o n Gangadevi. and with sorrow unbearable they appealed to him to accept the throne again and rule the country. 3) Bhagirathabrayatnam. At the sight of t he horse they shouted themselves hoarse. Bhagiratha attained ultimate spiritual solace. and he requested the Devi to perform the funeral rites of 60. an old predeces sor of Bhagiratha had two wives called Kesini and Sumati. without any sense of ego and pride about this material body. horses. and then move among those enemies. t hen you will become the most sublime Brahma". The ministers and other citizens f elt very sorry about the whole thing. Bhagiratha left the country at once f or other places having with him only the clothes he was wearing.. What if this materia l object continues to exist or perishes ? But let it (the body) continue as long as it exists without in any way being against the order of things and ethical p ractices". and take alms from them (en emies) and also give up me. They felt it very painful to keep on to their body like that. (Himalayan or Herculean effort). Sagara once conducted an Asvamedha yajna in the IndoGangetic plane. and became once again King of his own cou ntry. Within three days he h ad gifted away everything except the clothes he was wearing. All wealth like cows. Chapter 25. toured for some time cities and forests. of Vana Farva. To this Gatigadevi replie . The ego will not disappea r as long as one does not become one's real self by completely overcoming the se nse of pride. (Jnanavasistham). with thoughts concentrated on the inn er seif. Enraged at this sage Kapila reduced tho se sons of Sagara to ashes in the fire which emanated from his eyes. according to rules. were distributed in gifts to noble brahmins and t he poor folk according to their eligibility for the same. after staying there for so me time.000 sons of Sag ara set out in search of the horse and found it out in Patala. Sagara. The ministers and other citizens to whose houses he went begging for alms recognised him. gold etc. After entrusting Asamanjas with the duty of performing the funeral rites of his 60. and h e to Bhagiratha. Asamanjas transferred that duty on to Amsuman.000 sons Sagara expired. engaged himself i n spiritual practices. he started for other places. And. Tritula. He spent his da ys in various places and forests where he was not known even by name. become fearless and gift away. Bhagiratha obliged them. And.000 sons. During this wandering of his he met his ol d preceptor. The Devi appeared before Bhagiratha and asked him to choose what bo on he would. Now. then he accidentally came to his former kingdom.

(Anusasana Parva . And. if S`iva permits. Canto 42. A man of great erudition. 4) Other Information. BHAIRAVA II. (See under BHAGIRATHI. Navama Skandha. Bala Kanda. Kosakar a (etymologist). Therefore that tree came to be called "DAMANAKA" tree (Damana=Sub due). Chapter 137. This did not dishearten Bhagiratha. He became a tree because he sub dued the gods. Once Brahma and Visnu became swollen with pride. Immediately after his birth. pious people offer puja to t his tree. Part 4. (M. (1) Bhagiratha is a. Vyakaranakara (grammarian). and attained Uttamaloka. Verse 11). Chapter 97 . and Ganga flowed on to his he ad. Vane Parva. Even the most powerful flow of Ganga water on his head did not cause Siva to move from his position even by a hair's breadth. (Agni Purana. BHAIRAVA I. Chapter 51. 2) Birth. Jyotissastrajna (Astronomer) and Smrtikara (authority on Smrti) . abha Parva . And. Bhagiratha had once again to please Siva. In his haughty way. but she shall. Bhairava became a tree as soon as he was cursed. (5) Once Bhagiratha made a gift of one lakh of cows with calves to Maharsi Kohal a. (See Citraratha). Verse 27) . A naga belonging to the Dhrtaraslra Vamsa. Ithas another name. He was burnt up at the Sarpasatra performed by King Janamejaya. Siva was infuriated and out of the fire o . Brahmanda purana. Ganges) . BHAGURI. A Parsada of Siva. Gairgadevi aske d Bhagiratha to first get that permission. Chapters 52-80) . C hapter 21) .B. The Ganga flowed along plane ground to Patala a nd performed the funeral rites of Sagara's sons. B rahma insulted Siva. But most of the Puranas refer to him a (3) Bhagir atha had faith in the great efficacy of making 25 gift of cows. Thus pleased again S iva shook his matted head and one drop of water fell on the ground. (Anusasana Parva. member of Yama's assembly and serves him. . Without finding a ny outlet the waters of river Ganga flowed along the matted hairs of Siva for th ousand years. But Siva was soon pacified and lifted the curse by declaring that those who offered puja to the gods would get the full reward for their wor ship only if they offered puja to Bhairava also. Even now. Chapter 108 . w ho went to mount Kailasa to do penance so that Siva might grant him his prayer. Verse (4) He married his daughter to Kautsa. There is a reference to t his naga in Mahabharata. He thus did penance for 1000 years. (2) Siva bestowed boons on him. Yuddha Kanda. accordingly Siva stood i n position to receive the rushing waters of Ganga. Another name of Ganges. Padma Purana. Chapter 76. Bhagavat a. Chapter 8. (Vana Parva. this terrible monster subdued all the D evas without getting the permission of Siva. 1) General. Adi Parva. Verse 25). Under the insult. Chapter 131. A synonym of Citraratha. So. Verse 17.the son of Dilipa. (Anusasana Parva.TATIRI11 tree. Kampa Ramayana (Tamil).d that the earth will not be able to withstand the impact of her powerful flow. Chapter 180 . flow into his matted hair.B. This awakened the conceit in G angadevi ~ understanding which Siva contained her on his head. BHAGNARATHA. Verse 1) . and that is the river Ganges in North India. Enraged at it. Siva turned him into a tree by a curse. Valmiki Ramayana. (M.. Siva appeared to him and agreed to receive t he rushing flow of Ganga water on his matted head. Bhaguri was noted for his proficiency as a Sa rvasastra Par dit (scholar of all sciences).

Bhaksaka. (Agni Purana. and he. Siva then created a woman named "Brahmahatya" and asked her to follow Bhairava. sword. Bhairava started on a journey to go abegging. The sanctity of the water thus drunk washed away all the sin attached to him. BHAJAMANA. The Puranas mention eight Bhairavas called Asitarhga. One of the eight Ambas. Canda. Bhairava rushed towards Brahma and pinch ed off his "fifth head which had insulted Siva. Unmat ta. By this. Krodha. Bhairava has a terrible shape. Ruru.f his'fury was born Bhairava with his black form. He has five faces. (See t he word DEVI). BHAIRAVI. at the suggestion of Siva. and he attained svargaloka (heaven). as ordered by Siva. Although Bhairava visited many holy places. and it was as a punishment for the sin that the King had to be born. 3) Brahmahatya. Vijaya. Brahma's head which he carried. (Kalika Purana 53) . Bhaksaka who was once going aimlessly somewhere felt extremely thirsty. In Kalika Purana there is an elaborate account of the family of Bhair ava. he went to Vara nasi and washed off his sin. Kapali. in their previous births. At last. As soon as he was born. Bhairavi and Rupavidya. (Siva Purana. A Devi born in Dravida desa (Southern India). His weapons are. BHAJYA. A Sudra sinner. in the womb of a udra woman. Some time later he was killed by a forestdweller. and they had. Mahalaksmi. 5) Shape. (Linga Purana 1. rope etc. in his previous birth. For the expiation of this sin. along with her . in the next birth. he incurred the sin of Brahmahatya. whose father was Satvata and mother Kausalya. Siddhacamundika. A Yadava King. Dvadasa Skandha). trident. According to this Purana. and quen ched his thirst by drinking water which was found near the small platform raised for the holy Tulasi shrub. robbed a very beautiful woman of her chast ity. arrow. Bhajya studied Valak hilyasamhita at the feet of his guru Baskali. (Bhagavata. According to Kalika Purana. named Bahyaka and Upabahyaka by whom he got six s ons. Brahma Kanda. It was by the curse of Parvati. Serpents are his orn aments. with Brahma's severed head in his hand. They are Rudrarcika. Bhairava and Vetala were. He wears the crescent moon and plaited hair on his head. All these are the eight different forms of Devi. Navama Skandha). At times he is dressed m elephant-skin. In Padma Purana the following story is related about t his Sudra. was a king who led a voluptuous life. he was not able to liberate himself from the sin of Brahmahatya. Nalesvari. (Bhagavata. BHAKTI. BHAKSAKA. Bhajamana married the two daughters of S njaya. Once Devi. Chapters 52-80) . Siddhayogesvari. Satarudra Samhita). another son called Satvata or Andhaka. that they were born as mortals in their next birth. the reputed King of Varanasi was born in the family of Bhairava. Bhisana and Samhara. Kalika Purana also says that Vijaya destroyed the Khanda vi city and set up the Khandava forest in its place. dagger. two givaparsadas named Mahakala and Bhrngi. bow. (Padma Purana.90) . Chapter 2 2) . once. Rudracandi. beside Bhajamana. was also deposited there and the place became famous under the name of "Kapalamocana tirtha". An acarya in the line of the Rk disciples of Vyasa. 4) Family.

Visnu Purana and Vayu Purana Bhaland ana was the son of Nabhaga. Daksinatya Patha. The famous Marutta is the son born to this couple. Valmiki Ramayana) .B. a member of the Sama line of disciples of Vyasa. Chap ter 4. (91oka 5. Then Sanaka. (Sabha Parva. This is als o called Bhamahalamkara by a few. BHALLATA. and the sons of Bhakti Devi became young again. Bh akti's sons still remained old. An ancient forest. BHANAVI. BHAMINI. (Padma Purana). A serpent born in the Taksaka dynasty. A Rsi. Jnana and Vairagya. (Sloka 12 . King of Vaigali. BHANI)AYANI.two sons. (Vayu Purana). M. BHALUKI I. According to the Bhagavata. This forest is on the norther n bank of Ganga in front of Kesighatta in Vrndavana. He was a disciple of Lairgali. A king. A king. Verse 15) . Bhagavata). Sabha Parva. (Sarga 52. M.D. The first chap ter deals with Kavyasarira.B. But. as soon as they set foot on Gokula and Vrndavana old age quitted Bhakti and she became young again. Chapter 27).) BHANDIRA(M). But. During the long tour the mother and her sons became aged. Maharastra and Gurjara (Gujarat). He was the son of ding Visvaksena and father of King B. The Markandeya Purana states that Bhamini once went to Nagaloka to give refuge to the serpents there. Though by birth he was a brahmin he became a Vaisya because of doing things belonging to the Vaisya community like trade and commerce. Chapter 30. Wife of Aviksit. Sabha Parva. The PUranas proclaim that i t was here that Brahma conducted the marriage of Krsna with Radha. Sri Rama and Laksmana on their way to the forests from Citraku ta crossed this river. His important work is `Kavyalarfkara'. (Mark andeya Purana). who was a member of Yudhisthira's assembly. of the line of Bharata. Bhimasena conquered this la nd during his victory march.).). BHALUKI III. He was one of the top crit ics in the Sanskrit language. BHALLATA(M). BHAMAHA. This sage sits in Devaloka and worships Indra. As against Dandi Bhamaha separates `Katha' from `Akhyayika'. (Chapter 38. the Vedanta (Upanisads) and the Bhagavad Gita. Sananda and Sanatkumara asked Narad a to read out the Bhagavata to them. Narada did so. the fourth with Kavyadosa the fifth with Nyaya and the sixth with Sabdasuddhi. (Vana Par va. An acarya. Narada read out to them the Vedas. There was a ve ry huge tree of name Bhandira in this forest and it was under this great tree th at Krsna and his friends met daily for their play. There are six chapters in this. Bhanavi. A place of habitation in ancient India. He also accompanied the Pandavas to Dvaitavanq. started on a walking tour to Gokula and Vrndavana via Karnataka. M. Sabha Parva. Bhamaha is of opinion that Vakrokti is no alariakara a t all. But Bhamaha admits it has a place in Kavya. BHANGA. A maharsi.B. BHALUKI II. A maharsi. A critic who lived in the sixth century A.rhadasva. In a wider sense it is `atisayokti' (exaggeration). the second and third with Alamkara. Bhanga was burnt to ashes at the . pleasantness and liveliness. (Navama Skandha. Chapter 7. Dandi prescribes ten att ributes for a good Kavya. So the mother requested Narada to turn them young again. BHALANDANA. all to no purpose. her sons remained old. According to him the requisites of a good Kavya are sweetness. A river. It was in this forest situated in Arhbadi that S ri Krsna with his cowherd chums conducted his childhood exploits. Ayodhya Kanda.

Bhanumati was married t o Sahadeva in the presence of Narada and Krsna. Karna Parva).20. 27 and Hari-vam sa 2. The daughter of Bhanu. Another name of King Rtuparna.). this Bhanu was a guru of Surya. He fought on the side of the Kauravas and was killed by Bhimasena. Chapter 90) . A king in ancient India. (Dasama Skandha.) BHANUMATI I. M. A son born to Krsna of Satyabhama. A prince of Kalinga. (Asura Khanda. Verse 9) .B. Ch apter 56. BHANUMAN III. BHAN'GAKARA II. A king of the dynasty of Sri Rama. A king of ancient Bharata. BHANUMAN II. BHANUDEVA. (Sloka 42. Verse 11) . BHANU IV._). Ch apter 48.Serpent Yajna performed by King Janamejaya. When Sri Krsna went with his retinue of Yadavas to visit the holy palace called Pindaraka the Yadav as conducted a wine festival. This Bhanu is called Manu and Brhadbhanu. Karna killed him in battle. a king of th . Bhisma Parva. Virata Parva. She was the wife of Aharhyati. M. (Adi Parva. Chapter 57. BHANUDATTA. BHANUKOPA. Durva sas had after the curse consoled her by assuring her that she Would be saved and married by Sahadeva. son of Aviksit and grandson of King Kuru of the Lunar dyna sty. BHANU VI.B. Daughter of Krtavirya. He was the father of a King calle d Sakradyumna. BHANGAKARA I. (Chapter 54. A brother of Sakuni. (Dasama Skandha. BHANU II. A demon. He fought against Subrahmanya. BHANUMAN I. (Vana Parva.B. Son of Dyau. (Sloka 9. True to this. (Cha pters 220 and 221. A yadava.). He is born of the spiritua l essence of Angiras and Cyavana. This was because of a curse to Bhanumati from Durvasas w hom Bhanumati did not respect once when they met at the garden of Raivata. (Adi Parva. A king. (M. Bhagvata). A devagandharva born to Kasyapa prajapati of his wife Prtha. M. Verse 53). A king of the Yadu dynasty. During that festival a demon of the name Nikumbha carried away Bhanumati. Sahadeva marrie d the daughter of this Bhanu called Bhanumati. (Vis4u Parva.12). Chapter 218. In the Mahabharata battle he fought against Bhi ma and died.B. For the story of his transfor mation into a woman refer to para 42 under `Indra'. A warrior of Pancala state. (Sloka 4 7. a leader of the Yadavas. 180. BHANGASURI I. Adi Parva. Chapter 94. BHANU III. M. (Navama Skanda. BHANU I. (Sloka 15. He is the son of an agni called Pancajanya. Chapter 65. He attended the grand celebrations h eld at Mount Raivata. BHANGASVAN (BHANGASVANA). one of the Pandavas. Bhagavata) .). Vana Parva. He learnt the art of archery from Pradyumna..). BHANU V. Bhagavata). Adi Parva. (Sloka 24. M. Skanda Purana) . Chapter 1. Drona Parva. Chapter 157. This king took a flying tour of Kuruksetra i n Indra's aeroplane to witness the battle between Arjuna and Drona.B. A son born to Krsna of Satyabhama.B. BHANUMATI II. M.B.

). Apsarases. what a clean ghat this is. For details see under Bharata I and Dirghatamas. The water is pure and clear. Knowing this the devas told her `Bharadvaja' meaning `bear the brunt of two' and so the son of Brhaspati got the name of Bharadvaja also. Dirghatamas is the son whom Brhaspati illegitimately got of Mam ata. Bharadvaja. (S`loka 3.B. BHARADVAJA II. A son of Karna. that day Valmiki told Bharadvaja thus : "Look. BHANUSENA. Undaunted he conti nued his studies. Another name of Dirghatamas. Chapter 48. VAvaci Misrakesi and Alambusa appeared for entertainment. Tama sa. All these years he devoted to an incessant study of the Vedas. (Sarga 91. Ayodhya Kanda. Renowned dancers from devaloka like Ghrtaci. Bharadvaja gave himself untiringly to the study of the Vedas. Gandharvas. (Bhagavata).. Valmiki Ramayana). B harata on his return from Kekaya knew about the exile of his brothers and hoping to bring them back to Ayodhya went in search of them with a big retinue of sold iers and men. ** Dirghatamas is also called Bharadvaja. . The real name of this son was Dirghatamas or Vitatha. (Sloka 27. Bales Kanda. As£adikpalas and all such people were invited for the night. M. 3) Bharadaaia in the role of Bharadvaja was in Citrakuta and Sri Rama and Laksma na in the beginning of their exile went to his asrama accepting his blessings. M. Even Vanaraji took part in the dance. He lived for many thousands of years. but not Blaaradvija. his brother's wife. Bharata went to the aisrama of Bharad vaja. "What you have studied about Vedas till this time is equivalent to the amount of sand I have now given and what is yet to be studied about the Vedas is as big a s the three mountains before you". (Sarga 2.B. Dirghatamas o r Vitatha was the adopted son of Eharata. The latter decided to give Bharata and his people a grand reception and ca lling Visvakarma to his side asked him to arrange a royal banquet that night. BHANUMATI III. The night came to an end wonde rfully and at daybreak everything vanished and all were amazed at the magic of t he sage. Ayodhya Kanda of Kampa Ramayana states that this sage wa s the son of Atri Maharsi. De vas. Valmiki Ramayana). 1) General information. But the Bharadvaja of puranic fame is not Dirghatamas. The famous Bharadvaja was the son of Atri. He obtained from Indra a boon to extend his term of life on earth to many thousands of years by different stages. She was extraordinarily beautiful.e Puru line of monarchs. Daughter of Arigiras. Bharadvaja was for many years a discipl e of Vahniki. Dishe s of food came to the guests of their own accord. He is connected with Valmiki and the story of Sri Rama.. Chapter 218. 2) Bharadvaja and the study of Vedas. Dirghatamas is not the Bharadvaja who w as the father of Dro4a. We will get down here in this sacred water". He was killed in the battle by Bhimasena.). Place your water jug here and give me my valkala. BHARADVAJA I. There was then another legitimate child in the womb of Mamata. Any other mortal being would have been dishea rtened by this revelation made by Indra. Hem5. He was present with Valmiki when the hunter killed one of the coup le of Kraunca.. They had a son named Sarvabhauma. Vana Parva. When Valmiki and Bharadvaja reached the shores of the river. son of Dusyanta. each stage covering a span of a thousand years of life. Finding the term not sufficient for completing the study of the Ve das he appealed to Indra again for extension and Indra appearing in person took him before three mountains and giving him three handfuls of sand told him thus. Keeping the retinue outside. Then Valmiki taking the va lkala from the disciple walked along the shore admiring the beauty of the forest trees and found on his-way the historic Kraunca couple. (Bhagavata and Kampar dmayana. The sage Bharadvaja of Puranic fame. Karna Parva.

several c ows. (Blzagavata) 7) Other details. (5) Once Bharadvaja was travelling through an uninhabited forest with his son wh en he became exhausted by hunger and he then begged of a sudra. This is how the connotation of the word is explained. (Matsya Purana 49. Chapter 1.) . (7) Because of the blessing of Bharadvaja Bharata got a son named Bhumanyu. NLB. Bharata. M. Chapter 94.). (8) Bharadvaja taught the secret of the missile Agenya to Agnivesa.B. (SIo ka 22. BHARADVAJA III. Chapter 219. Drona was the son born to Bharadvaja of the celestial woman.). Prthu. Samyu.B. Anusasana Parva. Kubera. (Sloka 39. fldi Parva. Chapter 196. I protect my disciples. (8Ioka 22. a King of the Puru line of kings. (See under Manorama). (T2) This sage performed the sacrifice Putrakamesti. See under Arva vasu. The asrama of Bha re ca bharyamavyajad Bharadvajo'smi sobhane (I protect even those who are not m y sons.). (10) This sage came to the battlefield during the Mahabharata battle and request ed Drones to lay down his missile.B. Manusmrti) . M. (Sloka 35. had n o sons and as he was spending his days in sorrow Marutta gave Bharata this Bhara dvaja as a son. daughter of the King of Kalinga and her son. I protect devas and the Brahmins. NLB. Chapter 11 .B. M.).. 152-158). (see under Droaia).). Adi Parva. M. (Chapter 30. The eldest son of the Agni. (6) This sage took part in a birthday celebrations of Arjuna. Adi Parva. anti Parva. Drones Parva. (1) Bharadvaja once gave refuge in his asrama to Manorama. 6) The name Bharadvaja. C hapter 129. M. Chapter 122.B. (Chapter 182. Sabha Parva. Bliare'sutan bhare 'sisyan Bhare devan bhare dvijan magician. Bharadvaja who was by birth a Brahmin from then onwards became a Ksatriya. (9) He worshipped Brahma sitting in the council of Brahma. (Sloka 5. BHARADVAJA IV. Vanes Parva. (Sloka 10'x. 5) How Bharadaaja died once but was born again.B.). . (Sloka 57. (See under Samba). Ghltaci. A renowned sage. (3) He was among the sages who once went to Dvaraka and cursed Samba. I protect my wife and all these I do with ease and so I am named Bharadvaja). and gave a son to Divodasa. (11) Once Bhrgu Maharsi asked him some questions on the creation of this univers e and Bharadvaja gave him satisfactory answers. 27-39 and Vayu Purana 99.). (2) The sixth mandala of 1Rgveda contains the songs of Bharadvaja. (4) Bharadvaja had a daughter Devavarnini whom Vi°sravas married and got the son. M. (see under Kubera).4) Drona's origin.

1) Genealogy. Ve rse 16) .B.B.). BHARATA I. A brahmarsi who lived in the Purvamanvantara. M . There he saw the celestial beauty. The king gave her his signet ring as a sign of faith and left for his palace.BHARADVAJA VI.Pracinva . Anusasana Parva. Durvasas to the asrama.Pravira-Namasyu. Durvasas mistook her as disrespectful and . The Brhadaranyaka Upanisad refers to this sect of preceptors a s disciples of Bharadvaja. who was a disciple of Parasariputra. A great scholar well-versed in all the sastras. Parasarya. 2) Birth. In the Brhada ranyakopanisad he is referred to in many contexts as Vatsimandaviputra. (Sloka 68.RaudraAva-Matinara-Santurodha-Dusyanta-Bh arata. Chapter 9. (Bhisma Parva. It was he who convinced Dyumatsena. Chapt er 9. The collective name of a particular sect of preceptors mentioned in the Upanisads. Chapter 64. Valaka.Vitabhaya-S uridu-Bahuvidha. who first composed the science of grammar. Chapter 288. One of the twenty-seven constellations. (Vana Parva. On rea ching the Asrama grounds he saw S`akuntala watering the plants helped by her com panions Anasuya and Priyamvada. M. BHARADVAJATIRTHA. A famous Indian river mentioned in the Puranas. One of the five sacred places (bathing ghats in sacred rivers) . pratisakhya of Samaveda . father of Satyavan that he (Satyavan) would be endowed with long life. standing in all splendour after her bath.BrahmaAtri-Candra-Budha-Pururavas -Ayus-Nahusa . A Maharsi. Descending in order from Visnu . BHARADVAJIPUTRA. BHARADVAJA I. (The Visvavidyalaya of Bombay keeps a hand wr itten copy of his work Srautasutra written in Pandu script). M. (See Varga).Rahovadi . it was Brahma. (Sloka 35. Ghrtaci. The fawn fled to the Asrama of Kanva Muni and the king followed it. Asurayana and B aijavapayana. This science was tau ght by Brahma to others in the following order : Brahma to Brhaspati. He is the author of `Dharmasutra' and °8rautasutra'. One day desirous of conducting a speci al type of Yajna he went to bathe in the river along with other sages. A preceptor. Panini has discussed the grammatical concepts of Bharadvaja. A grammarian. BHARADVAJI. Aitareya. B hisma Parva. (Chapter 47. Salya Parva.B. Son of Dusyanta born of Sakuntala. Indra to Bharadvaja and he to his disciples. A place of habitation in ancient Bharata. Kausika. Kanva was absent from the Asrama and they married according to the Gandharva rites and Sakuntala became pregnant soon. BHARANI. According to the Rktantra. When Dusyanta left her Sakuntala fell into a deep reverie and she never knew about the arrival of the a rrogant sage. BHARADVAJA(M). Srutavati. BHARADVAJA II. Bha radvaja had seminal emission and from that was born a daughter. Punya is assured if one gives a s gift a cow to a Brahmin on that day.). He was living on th e shore of Ganges doing rigorous penance. BHARADVAJA III. BHARADVAJA VII. Dusyanta was once hunting in the forests when he hit a fawn with his a rrow. he to Indr a.Yayati -Puru Janamejaya .Sarhyati . Verse 29). Dusyanta and gakuntali fell in love with each ot her at first sight. to hi m. Rkpratisakhya and T aittiriya have quoted the opinions of this grammarian.).

son.IksvakuVikuksi-Sasado-Kakutstha-Anenas-P. the name Vitatha (Dirghatamas) . There Sakuntala delivered a. Once when Dusyanta was returning home after visiting Indra he saw l. Kaikeyi to Bhara ta and Sumitra to Laksmana and Satrughna. Valmiki Ramayana) Dasaratha remained in sorrow without children for a very long time and then he p erformed a Putrakamesti yoga (A sacrificial ceremony to get children) with the M aharsi Rsyasrnga as the officiating priest. Kaikeyi and Sumitra. Dirghabahu) -Raghu-Aja-Dasaratha-Bharata.Sagara . and took her and the boy to his palace. Descending in order from Visnu-BrahmaMarici-Kasyapa-Vivasvan . Even while he was young he becam e a ruler and conquering the world destroyed the wicked. Valmiki Ramayana). Adi Parva. Gar bha and Suketu. Mamata was pregnant then and when she conceived from Bx'haspati also she bore two children.B.). The sons of Dasaratha married the da . (Chapter 73. (Chapter 278. the refore. Sakuntala never knew about the curse also. mother of Bharata. M.Vai vasvatamanu . Vitatha also was called Bharata and he had five sons: Suhotra. Daiaratha. called Bharata. 1) Genealogy. Sarga 18.Mandhata . At th at time the great preceptor Brhaspati forcibly married Mamata the wife of his br other.HaritaCuncu-Sudeva-Bharu ka . Son of Dasaratha. King of Ayodhya. Chapter 2.Purukutsa . The Devas took care of the discarded child and named him Bharadvaja and gave the child to Bharata. Bhagavata).Ayu tayus-Rtup. 3) Marriage and reign. sent Sakuntala to the palace of Dusyanta. BHARATA II.cursed her saying that she would be forgotten by the man of whom she was thinkin g then. Kaikeyi. From the sacred fire arose a divine figure carrying a pot of pudding and it was after taking that pudding that the w ives of DaSaratha became pregnant. therefor e. Bharata was born on the day of Puya. Kasyapa.Y uvanasva . named him Sarvadamana. Bharata was a partial incarnation of Mahavisnu. Bala-kanda. M.Bahuka . Bharata had three wives . Raja of Kekeya.AsamanjasArnsuman-Bhagiratha-grutanabha-Sindhudvipa .Sri Rama's forest life. On delivery she threw the child of Brhaspati in the forests a nd went away with the other son. took her and left her in the a'srama of Kasyapa.akuntala. Kanva Muni when he returned to the Asrama and knew everything. Kausalya gave birth to Sri Rama. Vitatha. After ruling the land ideally he left for the forests entrusting the land to his son. Bharata gave the boy. (Sarga 15. Adi Parva. Bharat a ruled over has land for twenty-seven thousand years and the land was. was the si ster of Yudhajit.B. But King Duyanta never recognised her and when Sakuntal a was' returning deeply grieved Menaka her mother. 3) Till the end of .rthulasva -Prasenajit . Gaya. Agni Purana). Suhota. (Sloka 96. The boy grew brave and fea rless and he could subdue even the wildest of animals around there.TrasadasyuAnaranya-Haryasva-Vasumanas-Sudhanva -TrayyarunaSatyavrta-(Trisanku)-Hariscandra-Rohitasva . had three wives Kausalya. 2) Birth. (Navama Skandha. Aggriev ed over the loss of his sons he worshipped the devas to get a son for him. This was the boy who later on became known as Bharata.). All the sons born to them were bad and so the mothers killed them all. re cognised her.Mitrasaha (Kalmasapada)-Asmaka-Mulaka-Khatvang a (Dilipa. (Sloka 14 .irna-Sarvakama-Sudas .

walking. Bharata got two sons of his wife Mandavi. King of Mithila. Not a woman and not one's own mother. No. Srutakirti. Mandavi. Sri Rama then gave his sandals to Bharata who accepting the same with due respect returned home fol lowed by others. Kaus alya and Sumitra entered the asrama of Sri Rama . The news spread like wildfire and people began to crow d at the palace eager to follow the brothers. He then took Bharat a and Satrughna across the river to the presence of Sri Rama at Citrakuta. It was the state of Sindhu in Kekaya which was . Bharata. People joined the procession from behind. When Rama and Laksmana were told about the death of their father they were f illed with grief. Kaikeyi then told him all that had happened and when Bhar ata knew that his mother was at the root of all this calamity his rage knew no b ounds. as king and the other to send Rama t o the forests for a period of fourteen years. The gre at crowd of people reached the banks of the river Ganga. Instead. then. he went to a nearby village called Nandi and installing the sandals there lived there and ruled the country. Sri Rama married Sita. Bharata ac cepted the arrangement saying that if his brother did not come back after fourte en years he would give up his life by jumping into the fire. it should not be done". Vasistha officiating. without any hesitation. On entering Ayodhya they w ere shocked to find all the roads desolate and arriving at the palace they found it silent and gloomy. Rama and Laksmana accompanied by Sita went to the forests and Dasaratha overcome with immense grief caused by this unpleasant tur n of events fell down dead. Rama and abhorre nt because of the presence of his mother. Sri Rama persis ted in his vow and said he would return to his country only after fourteen years and insisted that Bharata should rule the country during that period. While they were thus living happily in Ayodhya. Subahu and Surasen a. Very soon a huge procession was se en moving towards the forests. Satrughna followed his brothe r. All the sons. On reaching Ayodhya Bharata did not go to the royal palace whic h he considered as empty because of the absence of his brother. Bharata. Bharata immediately changed into the dre ss of a Sannyasi and started to go to the forests. Sri Rama when he came back to Ayodhya after fourteen year s was crowned King. But adroitly Satrughna intervened and swept away the sword before it fell at its aim. When they reached Citrakuta only Bharata-Satrughna. At that time Bharata and Satrughna were in the countr y of Kekaya with their uncle. Vasistha also started. Urmila and Satrughna. and later as himself made his acquaintance. Messengers were sent then to Kekaya to bring Bharata and after travelling for three days Bharata and Satrughna reached Ayodhya. he swung the sword straight to his t hroat. One of them was to crown her son. Immediately after this was decided. Laks mana.ughters ofJanaka. Rama and Bharata then discussed the future. When the day of coronation was drawing n ear Kaikeyi demanded of Dasaratha the execution of two boons which were once pro mised by Dasaratha to her long ago during a battle between the devas and asuras. This strong move of Satrughna brought Bharata to his senses and he looked at his mother so fiendishly that at his stare his mother turned pale like a flower brought near a burning flame. all the others remaining outsi de. 4) Return of Sri Rama. Dasaratha made arrangements to crown Rama as King and then leave for the forests and lead an ascetic life. Yudhajit. Kaikeyi. Dasaratha was shocked to hear that . Kausalya and Sumitra in another next to it and Bharata and Satrughna closely fo llowing the chariots. Vasistha and Arundhati. Guha coming to know of the great exile of people from Ayodhya through spies went and saw Bharata. performed the obsequ ies of their father. Thou gh they were not informed of the death of their father they were worried all the way because of the several bad omens which they saw. at fi rst in disguise. But.subjected to this mol . Forgetting himself he drew from the sheath the glittering sword and stood before his mother with the drawn sword wavering to strike or not to strike and mused to himself "No. Vasistha and Arundhati in a chariot in the front. message was sent through an a scetic by Yudhajit from Kekaya that some gandharvas were creating trouble in tha t country.

Bhagavata) . Rastrabhrta. left the house of his mother in the mountain of Kalanjara and went to the . Because he died with the thought of the (leer in his mind he was reborn as a deer.srama of Pulaha. therefore. The deer exhausted and tor mented by fear ran into a cave and fell down dead. H iranvan. Bharata led a purely ascetic life performing everyday t he rites laid down by scriptures and muttering the mystic formula of Brahm<zksar a. Am$am 2. BHARATA III. He alw ays meditated on Brahma and in his heart there shone the Paramapurusa in the fig ure of Vasudeva adorned with Srivatsa. Bharata happened to see the n ew-born deer floating on the river and took it to his 5srama. Harivarsa. for the sake of a deer. Bharata took over the administration of the kingdom at the death of his father. Visnu Purana). Cakra.Svayambhuvamanu . The deer was aware of his previous birth and regretted that he spent the life of a man .Priyavrata Agnidhra-Nabhi-Rsabha-Bharata. In due course the brahm in died and his second wife jumped into the funeral pyre and endedher life. One day a thirsty pregnant deer went to drink water in a nearby pond. He married Pancajani daughter of Vi'svarupa. Avarana andDhumraketu. The son born to the second wife was none other than Bharata. Frightened the poor animal without even waiting to quench its thirst ran into the forest and on its way del ivered a child and the deer-babe fell into the river. Agnidhra had nine sons: Nabhi. Vanamala.estation and on the advice of Rama Bharata went and subdued the trouble. The deer. That brahmi n had two wives and got nine sons of his first wife. He then created two small states on either side of Sindhu and m ade his two sons the Kings of those states. When Sri Rama gave up his life in Sa rayu river and rose to heaven as Visnu Bharata and Satrughna also gave up their lives and took the forms of the conch and the wheel which adorn the hands of Vis nu. As it w as drinking it heard the loud roar of a lion nearby. A son of Rsabha. (Pancama Skandha. Agnidhra got Ja mbudvipa. 2) Marriage. From then onwards Bharata's mind was diverted from the spiritual to the mundane effort of taking c are of the young deer. Nabhi married Merud evi and got a son. Emperor Priyavrata partitioned his empire to his eight children. (It is worthwhile remembering at this juncture a previous statement that the name Bharata was obtained from Bharata. 1) Genealogy and birth. Rsabha. So in its next li fe the deer was born as the son of a brahmin in the line of Angiras. On the death of the father Jambudvipa was divided into nine states and Nabhi got the land called Hima. Gada and Padma. (Chapter 1. Rsabha. The deer followed him wherever he went and if it did not turn up in time in the evening after grazing Bharata went about in search of it weeping. Kuru Bhadrasva and Ketumala. Bharata was a . killing the gandharvas. Kimpurusa. Sumati. Bathing in this river and doing puja Bharat a lived there oblivious of the world outside. Sudarsana. (Uttara Ramayana). Years went by and Bharata became old and died with the name of the deer on his lips. son of Dugyanta): Bharata like his fore father was very erudite and affectionate and always respected his duties.. (Pancama Skandha. Kaustubha. 4) Rebirths of Bharala. On the rocks lying in the river flowing in front of the Asram a were the marks of Cakra on one side and Nabhi on the other and the river there fore came to be known as Cakranabhi. The pious animal daily bathed in the river and died there on the bank of that river. Sarhkha. The Pancama Skandha of Bhagavata contains a statement to the effect that India got the name Bharata from this ki ng. Descending in order from Visnu-Brahma . He ruled the country for a crore of years and after that dividing th e country among his sons went to the a9rama of Pulaha Maharsi to spend the rest of his life there. 3) Bharata and the deer. Thro wn an orphan Bharata became a puppet in the hands of his brothers. Ilavrta. and one of the second. Bhagavata). administration and entry into 1srama life. Rsabha had a hundred sons and Bharata was the eldest. They had five sons. Ramya.

the brahmin to go free.) . Vana Parva. Samyu is a son of Agni known as Bharata. M. Escaping from there Bharaxa reached a village walking all the way. An epic written by Vyasa. This Bliarata has got another name. Bharata went from there to the forests singing devotional songs in praise of Vis nu and at last attained salvation. Chapter 219. Chapter 1.sked to look after the cattle and fields of his brothers for his living.. BHARATA IV.substitute when th ey came across Bharata keeping watch over the fields. His book on Natya-sastra (Histrionics) is world famo us. Some of them were bringing a man bound. As this Agni lives permanently in Agnistoma Yajnas. Once the devas put the Mahabharata in one pan of a balance and the Vedas in the other pan. Vana Parva. It is this Agni that burns dead bodies. When this Agni is propitiated one gets healthy and st rong and so this Agni is called Pustiman also. Dipaka. The Mahabharata speaks about a few other Bharatas who were sons of Ag ni. (Pancama Shandha.). That is why the book i s called Mahabharata. As they were m oving the palanquin shook because of the wrong steps kept by Bharata. Of these 'Abhinavabharati' the commentary written b y Abhinavagupta is the only one freely available now. That village was being ruled over by a king called Rahugana and that king was going to see Bh agavan Kapila Maharsi along the banks of the river Iksumati in a palanquin. There is another Bharata son of an Agni called Adbhuta. M. The erudition of Bharata greatly impressed the king and he ste pped down from the palanquin and bowed to Bharata. (Sloka 6. 1) General information.B. (Narabali is the offering of a human be ing with his head cut off to propitiate a deity). -as (Sloka 6. Ritpaka and Yamaka and a lso about the ten requisites of a Kavya. A sage and the famous author of Natyasastra. On the way the man escaped and the disappointed Candalas were roaming about in search of a .B. BHARATA (MAHABHARATA). The theme of this great epic is the fight between the two lines of princes belonging to the dynasty of Bharata. The palanquin had not enough bearers and so the brahmin was asked to join the team of bearers. Adi Parva. (Slokas 269-271. Bhagavata). He was a critic who liv ed around the year 400 B. Kalidasa in the second act of his drama. it gets the name of Niyata also. The Mahabharata is an epic. Vikramorvasiya states that this Bli arata used to coach the devas in the art of acting. Bha ttanayaka and Abhinavagupta. Then the devas were convinced that the Mahabharata weighed more than all the Vedas put together.B. Sankuka.). Vana Parva . Chapter 222. There is no subject on earth which is not . The great size of the volume and the greatness of the wisd om contained therein have contributed much to its getting the name. M.).B. (Sloka 7. M. Bharata is acclaimed as the first emperor of Bharata. The king r eprimanded Bharata and Bharata then gave the king fitting replies based on the e thics of Vedanta. Harsavardhana.* This book contains over a lakh of verses. One day Bliarata was keeping watch over the fields of his brothers. With gr eat forbearance Bharata did all he was told. Chapter 219. It was midni ght. Commentaries on Natyasastra have been writt en by lions in the profession : Mitragupta.by ropes to be given as `Narabali' to the goddess Kali. There is an Agni of name Bharata with a son named Bharata. Immediately he was bound b y ropes and taken before the idol of Kali. BHARATA V. He has writt en in detail about the four Alariakaras. In the neighbourhood the Candalas were making merry over the birth of a ch ild to one of the women. Udbhata.C. The effulgence of the brahmin astound ed Kali and getting angry for bringing such a pious brahmin for sacrifice she de voured the Candalas and allowed . Natyasastra is a book compri sing thirty-seven chapters dealing with the art of dance and music. He has not forgotten to write about the defects and demerits of Kavya also. Upama. Mahabharata.

Besides. None of the world's epics is so big as Mahabharat a. In size the Mahabharata is double that of Homer's Iliad and Odyssey put toget her. Above all it has for its core the Gitc which is perhaps the noblest of script ures. (6) Drona Parva (Drona =The second Generalissimo). Many wonderful events took place during their stay there an d this Parva deals in detail about then. This Par va deals with the final stage of the battle. Bhisma brought them up. It is a whole literature in itself containing a philosophy which has be en an unfailing and perennial source of spiritual strength to the people of Indi a. Drona was killed in the end by Dhrstadyumna. When Bhisma fell Drona took c harge as the supreme commander. The following poem about it is worth mentioning now Mahabharata is not a me re epic. As the war was coming to an end m ost of the big warriors of the Kaurava army were killed. Vyasa describes the events of the battle classifying it accordi ng to the generalissimos of the Kaurava army giving the four generalissimos a Pa rva each. The Pandavas and. (4) Virata Parva. (8) Salya Parva. The Mahabharata comprises eighteen books. (Virata =name of a King). (Salya=The fourth and last of the Generalissimos). Bhisma was the first generalissimo of the Kauravas and Dhrstadyumna of the Pcndavas. The well known stories `Nala Ca rita' and `Kiratarjuniya' are told in this Parva'. Pandu and Dhrtarastra. There. the chapters differing in size. The contents of each Parva are succinctly given below: The Parvas a re so named as to give a hint of their central theme. (Adi-beginning) . They were called the Kauravas. Pandu ha d two wives Kunti and Madri and got of them five sons called the Pandavas headed by the eldest Yudhisthira. Karna fell in the end at the hands of Arjuna. When Karnafe ll Saiya took over charge of the Kaurava army. The great Ma hcbharata war was fought in the vast expanse of Kuruksetra lying to the northwes t of Delhi. (3) Vana Parva (Vana=forest). . there is an a nnexe called Hari-vamsa which deals with the life and history of Sri Krsna. There are 21(79 chapters in it. The Pandavas after completing their term of exile in the forests sper_t the year of their life in incognito at the c ourt of King Virata. This is one of the longest of Parvas and describes the life of the Pandavas in the forest Kamyaka. This Parva deals with the fight under his comman d. Y udhisthira was defeated and he lost everything he possessed. (5) Bhisma Parva (Bhisma=The first Generalissimo" of the Kauravas). The PandavaS were t hen compelled to go into exile to the forests for twelve years and spend another year after that incognito. 2) Contents. The Pandavas acc ompanied by Pancali left for the forests. If they were found out during that period of incogni to they were to go into exile for another term of twelve years. Bhisma fought for ten days and was struck down on the tenth day by an arrow from Arj una. (1) Adi Parva. In the end Bhima and Du ryodhana met in a grim fight with maces in which Duryodhana was killed. (2) Sabha Parva (Sabha=court). the Kauravas entered into a game of dice with Yudhi sthira and through the deceitful tactics engineered by the keen-witted Sakuni. This Parva deals with the war under the command of Karna. king of the Candra dynas ty.dealt with in the Mahabharata. are brothers. Dhrtarcgtra was born blind and he got a hundred children of his wife Gandhari. (7) Karna Parva. Kauravas lived together in the court at Hastinapura. (Karna=The third generalissimo). each book being called a Parva.

This instruction of Bhismacarya to King Yudhisthira of th e three dharmas. (Sauptika=pertaining to sleep). All the pieces are s tatements by realised souls. three in Adi Parva. the blind and his wife Gcndhari accompanied by Kunti left for the forests and lived there for two years in a hermitage. seven in Van a Parva. This Parva i s devoted to this. It describes the death of Sri Krsna and Balarama also. One day the forest caught fire and the three without trying to escape sat on the ground facing eastwards in yoga posture and calmly gave up themselves to the flames. This Parva gives the story of how the Yada vas fought against each other with maces and were destroyed and. This Parva deals with the yaga conducted by'Yudhisthira when he became the emperor of Bharata. The Varaha Purana states that Vyasa composed the I°vtahabharata at a period when t he end of Dvapara-yuga merged with the dawn of the Kali-yuga. Bhagavan Vyasa is believed to be the author of Mahabharata. freedom and fasting. This Parva describes the entry of t he Parzdavas and their relatives into Svarga. (16) Mausata Parva. There are twenty notable pieces. Most of the verses in the Malrabhcrata are in the Anustup metre. giv ing entertaining stories to illustrate the essence of his teaching. The style of the poetry is simple and the method of presentation lively. He a took three years to write da is book. (15) Asramavasika Parva. (Mahaprasthana =Death). (13) Anusasana Parva. seven in Santi Parva and three in AnUAdsana Parva. The following s1okas will support the above: (Sloka 55. like duty. heaven. Apaddharma and Moksadharma is the famous Santi Parv a. Many of the events of the M ahabharata were personally witnessed by Vyasa. At times the imagination of the poet extends up to the hor izon. (14) Asvamedhika Parva. (Anusasana = Instruction). (Asrama v~ sa = life in a hermitage). Chapter 62. The Bhagavata stat . after the war. who were sleeping in their camp unaware of the foul play lying ahead. (17) Mahaprasthanika Parva. Bhisma still on his death-bed c ontinues his instructions on several topics. This is dealt with in this Parva. Krtavarma and Asvatthama who were the only three lef t with Duryodhana after the great battle went into the camp of the Pandavas at n ight and killed all the brave warriors of the Pcndava array. Before taking up his duties of the st ate Yudhisthira went to where the grandsire lay dying and took his blessing and instruction in dharma. At certain places other metres also have beer. used.(10) Sauptika Parva. Though there is a flow of spiritualism throughout the matter is purely mun dane. Rajadharma. This Parva tells us the tra gic story of how Krpacarya. of Gandhari and other women. This Parva deals with the great lamentation in th e battlefield. (12) Sdnti Parva. (Svarga = Heaven) . Dhrtarastra. Lf-) Authorship. 3) Mode of Narration. He was a contemporary of the PandavaS and the Kauravas. excepting the Panda vas. (Asvamedha=yaga conducted by emperors). Yudhisthira was crowned king and even at that time Bhisma was lying on his bed of arrows awaiting death. Adi Parva). (Mausala=N-T:ce). This journey to death is detailed in this Parva. There are prose piec es also in it. Dharmaputxa entrusts his kin gdom to his successor and alongwith his four brothers and wife Pcficah sets out on a long journey to Mahameru never to return. (18) Svargarohana Parva. (I1) Stri Parva. how Dvaraka san k down into the ocean. (Stri=woman).

Jaimini.000 and gave the book the name of tBharatasariiliita'. It was Suta who made many more additions and made the book so big as to fetch it the name of `Mahabharata'. The Kali Varsa starts frown 3102 B. (b) Caturvimsati sahasrim Cakre bharatasamhitam Upakhyanairvina tavad Bharatam p rocyate budhaih (Sloka 78. The present Mahabharata is this expanded edition. This sloka found in the first Chapter of Adi Parva clears the doubt: The original name of the Bharata which Vyasa composed was 'Jaya'. Chapter 1 of . according to Vya sa 24000 verses and according to another statement a lakh of verses . Vyasa's Bharata was first expounded by Vaisampayana at the Sarpa-satra of Janame jaya.C. philosophi cal and oratorical. They w rote books based on this story of Bharata of which only the `Bharata' of Vaisamp ayana and the Asvamedha Parva of Jaimini are now available. The Bhagavata is de voted to admire and praise the life of Sri Krsna. Accordinh to Ugra`sravas there are 8800 verses.es that Sri Krsna passed away on the first day of Kali-yuga. descriptive. The great Maliab harata war was fought at a period when the end of Dvapara-yuga merged into tile dawn of Kali-yuga as could be gathered from the following verse from the epic: . guka and Vaisampayana gave this book great publicity. Refer to the flaka given in para i. Vaisampayana adde d a few verses of his own and brought the number to 24. 6) Period of publication. then as 'Jaya'. Adi Parva). The following facts prove that the y-fah. Adi Parva ). The epic which is now current among us contains a lakh of verses and it took perhaps centuries to get this transformation of the book from 'Jaya' to 'Malidbildrata'.Ibharata has thus passed through three stages of evolutlon: 1) This book is . Vaisampayana added some more facts to the or iginal work known. 5) Suta and Vaisampayana have made accretions to the original work 'Jaya' of Vya sa. This book also is written by V yasa.l 2) There is a reference to the three parts of the boob in Sloka 66. Jaya with the a (a) Jayo nametihaso'yarh t. Chapter 62.rotavyo vijigi~una (91oka 22. Paila. Viewed with these facts we are led to believe that Vyasa has composed only the v ery essence of Mahabharata comprising 8800 stokas and that work eras known as 'J aya' as referred to in the first invocatory verse of the epic. In the first C hapter of Adi Parva is this sloka to support this statement After the death of the Pandavas and the Kauravas the disciples of Vyasa. Surnara tu. Chapter r.known by three names= Jaya. Bftaratasaxiahitd and Mahabharata.2 3) There are three different opinions regarding the total number of slo%as in th e Mahiblaarata.kdi Parva. indicative of three different authorships.3 4) The narration appears to be of three different kinds. At the request of Janamejaya. S5ta who narrated this story to Saunaka and others at the forest of Naimisa added some more matter to the Bliaratasaarihita and made it larger.accretions came to be known as Bharatasarimhi ta.

So it can be deduced that the great war was fought round about 3102 B. Therefore the great war should have happened in the 10th century B. that the Mahabharata battle took place on the strength of the following: The theme of the Maliabharata is a fight between Kurus and Pancalas.C.C. They argue th at it was in the 10th century B.C. /i (Sloka 13. Parikgit ruled the country for 60 years and so his son Janamejaya became King in 3042 B. Therefore a set of foreign chronolog .C.D. pr pe sh Th Towards the second stage of Mahabharata the epic grew in size bringing into its fold about 24.Antare caiva samprapte Kalidvaparayorabhut / Samantapancake yuddharh Kurupandavasenayoh. 3102 B. Dhrtara stra lived for eighteen years after the great battle and the Pandavas ruled the country for 36 years. (Stri Parva. C.C. It was a period of hero-worship and songs on the heroic deeds of th e Kurus and Pandavas were sung and handed over from one generation to the other and gradually those songs took shape in the form of the Mahabharata.). The Pandavas ruled the country for 36 years after the war and Vyasa wrote this d ivine epic after the death of the Pandavas.C. Chapter 2. Megasthenes who visited India in 300 B. Therefore it can be well concluded that Vyasa wrote the epic in 3100 B. Therefore it is clear th e Mahabharata battle was fought in 3138 B. It is therefore confirmatory to the state ment that the great war occurred in 3138 B. The Pandavas commenced their Mahaprasthana after entrusting the administratio n of the state into the hands of Pariksit. So it can be surmised t hat Sri Krsna lived for 36 years after the war.C. records that the majority of Hindus were vaisnavites at that period.).000 verses in the Mahabharata. This phenomenon repeats itself in every hundred years and so it is to be believed that one of the kind happened in 3077 B. This fixing of the date of Mahabharata is based on the conclusions arrived at by the pandits of Bharata.C. son of Arjuna. It was when Sri Krsna died that the Pa ndavas ended their rule and commenced the Mahaprasthana.000 slokas. BHARATA (MAHABHARATA) 123 BHARATA II Sri Krsna died on the first day of Kali-yuga. It was after two years of his becorhing King that lie conducted the S arpasatra and it was at this Sarpasatra that Vaisampayana first expounded 'Jaya' (Mahabharata) to the sages assembled there. M. but foreign chronologists differ from us. In the Mahabharata. There are references in certain parts of the Mahabharata to Greeks and Buddhists. Brahma is given great ominence. Therefore it ould be deduced that the Mah'dbharata was written during the 6th century B. (The next one is to happen in 2223 A.' This happened in a month of Magha (January) and a probe into the dates of such previous occurrences revealed that a similar one had happened in the month of Magha in the years 3177 and 477 B. There is another school of thought. Vyasa took three years to complete h is work. It was at this stage that the Mahabharata got a vaisna vite colour and Sri Krsna was adored as an incarnation of Visnu. During the golden riod of the Buddhists Brahma had a conspicuous hold on Hinduism. Adi Parva) . There was that rare phenomenon of a Saptagraha yoga (Combination in astronomical position of seven planets) while King Pariksit.C.B. en there were about 8. was ruling the country.C.C. This must have happened in 3102 B. There are indications in other pura nas to support this theory. pr ecisely during the period of Pariksit. But in Vedic times Brahma was not counted at all. After the w ar the two join and there is a statement in the Yajurveda of a people formed by the merger of the two.C.

Rai vataka. Sinib dhu. The eight sac red mountains of this place are Mahendra. From the base of V indhya flow down the followr. guktiman_ ie~l-. Bahuda. Val guvahini. on the southern boundary Andhras and on the north Turuska s. Durggyd and Antassivd. Tamraparna. f. To the sou th-east was Hiranyaka and to the south was Bharata. Those arising from Suktiman are t . in the 3rd century A. Ujjayanta. BHARATASAIVIHI'IA 124 BHARTRHARI ing rivers: Siva. other. Venumati. Usira. Lirpi. Vidisa. Sakadvipa and Puskarad vipa.6). Kataha. Nalini. Arbuda. Of these India is Jambudvipa. Nagagiri. Salmalidvipa. and Kalasvand. Dhutapapa. Ksatriyas. Pancarupa. Vipasa. Hararavi. The rivers which they use for drinking water are the following: Sarasvati. Cakrini.D. Candrika. Gabhastiman. Citra and Oghavati. Saridvati. Vaisyas and gudras. Carmmanvati. Mahagauri.:aparva ta. Venyd. Rsyamuka. Pisacika. to6).ists conclude that those portions of the Mahabharata could have been written onl y after Buddha and after the attack on Bharata by the Greeks i. Yavanas. BHARATA II. Sirirhala ano Waruna ar e the eight others and the ninth is this island of Bharatavarsa. Vindhya and Pariyatra. Karatoya. 24. Plaksadvipa. Sarayu and hohitya. Nisvara. Durddhara. Parnasa. Citrotpala. Puspagiri. Vend. Devika. Vadhusara. The Dharmasarizhita of Manusmrti became p opular in the fifth century A. The third stage of the Mahabharata is its present form and it was at this stage that it included new philosophy in it. Kalindi. This Bharatavarsa itself is a group of nine islands each separated from the othe r by oceans and thus made not easily accessib1e between each . Those flowing do wn from the Rksaparvata are: Bona alias Mahanada. Tuhgaprastha. Malaya. Vaitarani. Tamasa. Mainak a. Suktimati. Kuhu. Visamadri. Kausiki. Sindhu. and therefore the third stage of the Mahabharat a must have started before that. Varisena. Dugdhoda. Kriya. Rasa. Sahya.atadru. There w as neither the passage of time nor the fear of ageing or death in any of these c ontinents excepting Bharatavarsa. (a) Saptarsayo maghayuktah kale p5ariksite gatam (Matsva purana 271. India). Mahi. Gomanta. Suprayoga. To the north-west was cambaka and to the north was K uruvarsa. Nila. Kratrfacadv1pa. Vaidyuta. Citrakrlta. In the Centre live the Brahmins. There are several other mountains also in Madhyaprade sa. Kusadvipa. (b) Te to nariksite kile magliasvasan dvijottama (Visnu purana 4. Nandini. Kageruman. Nisadhavati. Nirvindhya.Theyare: Kolahala. Toyd. Vatadhuma.D. Bhimarathi. Pavani. On the eastern boundary of this island live Kiratas. Mandak ini. Vasu. Dasarha. All these rivers originate from the base of Himavan. The puranas describe the Earth to be constituted of seven continents: Jambtadv i pa. Hiranvati. Those originating from the base of Sahya are the following great rivers Godavari. This island is called Kumara also. Sriparvata and Koirkana. Gandaki. Vrtraghni. TridiV3. Govardhana. Vitasta. Citrakula. Vahya. Sarasa. To the southwest was Hari an d to the west was Ketumala. This p lace is inhabited by Aryas and Mlecchas. Tap!. Those originating from Pariyatr a are: Vedasmrti.4. Pippal asreni. Beautiful Kirhpurusa varsa stood to the north-east of Ilavrta. (Bharatavarsa. Kumudvati. Gomati. Satsantaja. Indradvipa .. Dhataki. by 300 B. Narmada.C. Vedasvani. Surasa. Mandara. Citra. Krsna. Payosni. The Bharatavarsa was constituted of nine islands at that time in the following p ositions : In the centre was Ilavrta and to the east was Bhadravarsa. Revd. Kave ri. Vanjjulavati. Drsadvati. on the western side.e. Sara. Vaibhraja. Ira vati. Krtasmara. Nagadvipa. Madhura.

BHARAVI. Ndsikdnta. Angeya. Tosala. Mandavya and Pdnaviya. Vidarbha. Raghuvadisa.raska ra. Cdlikata. On xa. attacking Arjuna immersed in penance. Kirdtarjuni ya. K5. Musika. Sumaheya.. Tdanravarni. Vahga. Dase. M. Agni Purana). (See the map of Pauranika Bharata). Kosa la. Uttamarrza. Adira. Mekala. Lambaka. Katha.D. Vamana Purana). Sauvira. Bahirggiri. Nisadha. Vena. Alibhadra. Tri gartta. Traipura. in the guise of a hunter. Kumarasambhava. A Sanskrit poet who flourished in the 6th century A. In the Ehole records of A. (Chapter 278. (Chapter 13. Sudra. Durga. Vit ihotra and Avanti. Madgurava. Khasa. LTrnapada. Those lying to th e east are the following Anga. A synonym of Siva. In the use of similes he i. Vanzgeya. BHARATI Daughter of the Agni called Bharata. Bharga and Vatsa were the sons of Pratardana. BHARGA II. Prasthala. Sabara. Saka. Chapter 9. Suparsva. Tusdra. Gandhara. Pan cdla. Vrka. Kus Cdra. Bhadraka. Kamboja. Kirata. Abhira. lilzfimi. T arhgana. A famous river mentioned in the Puranas. Tapasa. Todara. Naimika. (Sloka 51. M. Kerala. Harizsamarga. There are a few more states which lie attached to mountains : Nirahdra. Lalittha.P ulinda. Vana Parva. Sunarmmada. Kuntala. Dasarha. Sunila. Marsaka. Kalinga. All these rivers are very sacred and are considered to be absolvers of sins. Bdhlika. The states lying to th e south are the following: Pundra. Chap ter 222 of the Vana Parva that Agni (fire) originated in this river. Anga and Marmaka. BHARATI. Sathyadhanaka. Kulya. Kirdta. Gopta. Yavan a. Puliya. Blzdravi's literary style is simple sand s weet. Aplasta. Tudzbara. Vindhyasaileya.D. Andhra.) . A village of ancient India. Magadha and Ananda. Kulu ta.B. Darada. Utpalavati. Pravarizga. Ur ukadhara. Paurika. Divoddsa got a son ream ed 1'ratardana. Tdnaasa. He is the author of the mahakdvya called Kiratarjuniya. Anupa. V dtadhana. Vanjjula. Kurhika. Kikarava. S urastra. a King of the Puru line. Chapter 21. Harhsama rga. Darhsana. Turaga. BHARATASAMHITA. Aranya. Sasikha and Adrika. The Madhyapradesa comprises the following states: Matsya. Antarggiri. Sindhu. Atreya. Curna. Vaisikya. Kosala. Ganaka. Jdnuka. D-rukaccha. Tamasa. Bhogavardhan a. Mahisika. The western states are Surpparaka. Kundala. Vahela. Malla. Bahya. Tomara. . Kumara da. second only to Kalidasa.he following: Krtamald. BHARGA(M). Lokika. Prdvrjaya. There are bad rivers also besides these. Varidhana. Cola. BHARGA I. Tarirgana. mothers of the universe and wives of oceans. Brahmottara. Vr saddhra. Kukkuta. Avantya and Arbuda. Udbhida and Nalakaraka. Alasa. Pahlava. Musikada. Anga. Sun! and Sudama. Tamraliptaka. Bharadvdja. Sarika. Vatsiya. Mahasaka. Baladantika. Khetaka. Apardnta. Utkala.9. (Sloka 9. Th e states lying to the north are the following: Abhira. Kekaya.raka. Another title of the Mahabharata. Bhisma Parva. Cudika. Dandaka. Among his books only Kirdtarjuniya has been found out yet. Kaurava. Grandson of Divoddsa. Bhargava. Kupatha. Suhuhuka. Satadrava. The follwoing states lie adjacent to Vindhya: Karri sa. Khellisa. Tavakdrama. Mathara.). Tundikera. Asmaka. Prdgjyotisa. (See Bharata !) . Barbara.B. 634 Bhdravi is held up in praise al ong with Kalidasa. Sdrasvata. Ekalavya. Marizsada. Maharastra. The theme of Kiratarjuniyais Siva. Sisupdlavadha and Naisadha are the five Mahakavyas in Sanskrit with establis hed reputation. Videha. Kalatoyada. Pdravata. Kalinga. Vahga. It is stated in Verse 25. Pravarana.

I shall. BHARGAVA. By the clever treatment of the docto r and the expert nursing of Mandakini. who lived in P dtaliputra. Taking the bundle along with him Vidyasagara left for his country. On his way he met several great scholars but none came up to his standard of a guru. (See s3hrgu). A famous Sanskrit poet. The door was locked as the owner was a way in a Siva temple nearby. Vidya sagara lay down on the doorstep and soon fell asleep with the leaf-bundle as a p illow. You must live with me for six months and should fast during that period behaving -yourself as one under a vow. let your name Vidyasdgara (ocean of learning) be true in your life. however. The Brahmaraksasa told him thus "Boy. Exhausted by the journey. Mandakini when she returned from the temple at about ten at night saw a b rahmin sleeping on the doorstep. She. Vidyasdgara never felt thirs t or hunger during that period. and also Manda . Vidya sdgara while he was learning used to note down the instructions of the guru on t he leaves of the banyan tree. Vidyasdgara while young learnt the Vedas from his guru. BHARMYASVA. thirst or sleep. teach you a mantra which would help you to remain unaffected by hunger. By the sacred thread on his body the Brahnraraksasa surmised t hat the man was a Brahmin and woke him up. It had come to a huge bundle on completion. BHAGAVA (?wI). He was the son of Vidyasdgara. Chapter 9. Vidyasagara did not agree to it and she took him to the King and told him all th at had happened. Waking up Vidyasagara found to his su rprise the bearded Brahmaraksasa standing before him and after mutual enquiries Vidyasagara told him of his mission. Washing his hands and feet in a nearby river and quenching leis thirst he went and sat down under a banyan tree to rest. daught er of his minister (a Brahmin). When he was fit for travel he started to go but Mandakini objected and requested him to marry her. a great Brahmin scholar. One who belongs to the Bhx'gu dynasty. (Navama Skandha.soon asked her servan ts to get him inside and sent for a doctor. tired and exhausted. A famous king of Pancala Desa. The cool breeze sent the tired Brahmin to sleep and he slept. He had five heroic sons headed by Mud gala. But there a re certain conditions for the same which you have to observe. Bhagavata) BIIARTRHARI. (Bhisma Parva. Vidyasdgara survived. I am a cquainted with many sastras and I shall teach you everything I know. hungry and thirsty. One day tired after a long journey lie reached a mountain valley. But he was not satisfied with that study and wanted to learn more about all sastras and so he started on a tour to find out a guru who would teach him all he wanted. Vidyasdgara w illingly agreed to his terms and became his student: Both of them then climbed on the banyan tree and the Brahmaraksasa sat in his us ual place on a branch on the tree and Vidyasdgara on a branch just below it. The instructions started and continued for six months.. A Brahmaraksasa who was living on the top of the banyan tree when it became midd ay descended from the tree to perlorrn the sacred rites of the day and found a n ear lying asleep. By dusk he reached Kalinga and there he carne to th e door of a dancing girl named Mandakini. Finding Vidyasdgara to be one with great erudition and good man ners 'he decided that Vidyasdgara should marry his daughter (a Ksatriya). When die teaching was complete the Brahma-Vidyas dgara then got down from the tree and performed the obsequies of his guru. !) Birth. daughter of Kulapati (a vai'sya). Verse 50). A city in ancient India. If you are prepared to accept these term s and become my disciple I shall quench your thirst for knowledge. By the time he left the forest-area the power of the mantra faded and Vidyasagara began to feel the pangs of hunger and thirst. There is a legend abort the birth of Bhartrhari in Uttara Bharata.

The groom's wife wa s a servant-maid of the palace and it was at the time of her departure from the palace after her day's work that she was given the mango by the horse-groom and so she carried it home in her hand. "It will take some time for your lunch to be ready. So saying she pl aced the bread in the hands of Bhartrhar i and left the room. Bhartr that he would see that no .kini. It is better to give up living with her. The moment Bhartrhari left the house the house caught f ire and everything in it was burnt to ashes. Woman can never be be lieved. So thi nking she sent for her lover and giving him the mango explained to him the great ness of the thing. The horse-groom immediately informed the. he was compelled to tell the truth in the end. It is because you who are perfect in education and fortune should live long for the benefit of th e people that I am giving you this. Then taking an earthern bowl. Bhartrhari who was returning from somewhere to the palace saw the woman carrying the mango and questioned her and knew how s he got it. Bhartrhari. Bhartrhari was living happily with his wife w hen one day a yogi of divine disposition came to his house and giving him a ripe mango said: "If you eat this mango you will never become old. Eat this now". It is pleasant anal sorrowless. He wa s none other than the horse-groom of her husband and that prostitute thought thu s: "Of what use is my life when my lover is dead. There was an injunction in those days that a brahmin should mar ry a S udra only after having married from all the higher castes. queen of everything that took place and the queen felt sorry that her secret had come to light. The truth pained him much "Phew! It was this wretched and unfaithfu l woman whom I was believing to be very chaste and loving." He. What is the use of my remaining alive after she is gone. Mandakini. When the sannyasi left him Bhartrhari thought thus: "After some years my w ife would become old and die. the Ksatriya boy. Thinking thus. the minister's Malati and Kulapati's Sumangali. Let him live for ever". The brahmin boy was named Vararuci. gave the mango to his wife explaining to her the greatness of the fruit. We will decide about the future c ourse of action later". for begging he left the house unnoticed by any. Of the four asramas the fourth. The decision o f the King surmounted this difficulty for Vidyasdgara to marry the stldra girl. Marriages were all conducted in order. (a Sudra). Each delivered a s on.sons three wives he was careful enoug 3) Bhartrhgri becomes a sannyasii. she has fallen in love with an uglylooking servant of mine and unl ess he was her lover she would not have given this mango to him. Look. Thinking thus he came out from his room with the bread and placed it hidden somewhere in the lower end of the roof of the house remarking "Ottappam Vitteccutum" ('The at tata will burn the house). Vikramaditya. the Vais ya boy. When the King ofKalinga became old ra and when Vidyasagara died all his other sons hari gave his father on his death-bed a promise were born to him. But the horse-groom was well devoted to his wife and desiring that his wife should remain young always he gave it to her. Sannyasa. There is no doubt about it." So saying he gave the mango arid left the p lace. At once she made an ottala (flat bread made of wheat or rice) with poison in it and bringing it to the bed-room told her husban d thus with much pretended affection. is the best. That wi fe whom poor Bhartrhari accepted to be very loving and chaste had a lover. he sent away the horse-groom and went to his bed-chamber and lay there immersed in thoughts. Let her live long. So this mango should be given to her. Bhatti and the Sudra boy. Bhartrhari suspected foul play and mused "This bread has been prepared by her wi th poison to kill me. 2) Kingship. On coming to the palace he sent for the horse-groom and though at fir st the horse-groom tried to shield the queen. The King's daughter bore the n ame Kalavati. It is better th at this matter is not pursued any further now. he gave the kingdom to Vidyasdga made Bhartrhari the King. Therefore gradually that asrama should be accepted". She knew that besides the punishment that her love r would get her name would also be blackened and so decided to kill her husband before the affair became public. Let not you lie with an empty stomach. .' So though Bhartrhari married h not to produce any children by them. therefore.

But there is a man sitting in the western gate. He had by that time reac hed a big templet in south India where in one of the entrances to the temple. It was while sitting there that he wrote his famous poems. After some time he decided that he would never beg but would eat only that which others gave him voluntarily. (Chapter 51. Bhartrha ri also expressed his helplessness in the matter. was sitting the famous sannyasi Pattanatt Pillayar.) BHARU.Bhartrhari renouncing all and changing himself into the robes of a sannyasi went about living by begging." Bhartrha ri smiled. He was the son of Sudeva and father of Bah uka. Bhartrhari threw away the bowl and remained at the temple entrance till th e end of his life. Wife. Bharya is great wealth to man. A very holy place in ancient India. th e east one. 4) His well-known works are: (1) The Niti Sataka (2) The Srngara Sataka (3) The Vairagya Sataka and (4) The Subhasitas. This temple is believed to be the Chidambaram Temple.vamedha yajna. These. One day a beggar went to the eastern gate and asked Pattanatt Pillayar for alms. went and sit at the western entrance with his bowl before him.) While on tour in foreign places she w ill remain faithful to him and instil confidence in him. (S. A king of the Solar dynasty. Vana Parva. Chapter 7. At that time of t he Rdiasuya of Dharmaputra these gudras brought gifts to the King. at one stage begot sixty gi rls of Vairini and gave them to Kasyapa. M. who distributed them among several Deva s. (B hismaparva. BHARUKA. Bhisma points out the sanctified importance of Bliarya (-wife) as follows Without her even the palace will prove itself to be just a forest. Verse 12). "I am also a beggar like you. Whatever f ood fell into the bowl was eaten by him. ther efore. But he never was sick or felt weak. A village of ancient India.B. Sabha Parva). A particular kind of bird found in the Kingdom called Uttarakuruvarsa. Sometimes for days together he went wit hout food. . But then the beggar said "The man sitting at the opposite entrance told me that you were a rich man. A daughter of Daksa Prajapati. Chapter 84. (Hari Varizsa. lMARTRSTHANA (M). The beggar went to Bhartrhari and asked for alms. The bowl was a luxury and a sign of we alth.. He knew thenwhy Paltanatt Pillayar said so. The place got its importance because Lord Subrahmanya lived there. z. Bhagavata). Bharu was the woman so given to the Visvadevatas. Chapter 3). birds carry in their strong beak corpses to their caves and eat them. It is said that even those who merely visited this place would get the benefit of performing an A-. BHARYA. The prajapati. I have nothing in my hand to give you. Pillayar said.A manwho has renounced eve rything need not keep even a bowl to beg. Bhartrhari.. He is a rich man and he may give you something". She will bea great support (to the husband) in the matter of dharma (duty) artha (wealth) a nd Kama (enjoyment of material comforts). (These three precede the ultimate st ate of Moksa (salvation) and the wife will be a great support in fulfilling the conditions during the first three stages. BHARUNDA. BHARUKAKSA(M). (Navama Skanda. Sadras lived there.lo ka 76. There is a belief that if a son is born to a Sudra who was himself born of a Brahmin the Brahmin father would go to bell a.

If one has no good wife t o take care of domestic affairs one will be driven to the forest. who' is suffering from diseases and is otherwise in distress there is no remedy (medicin e) like a good wife. Svapnavasavadatta and Avimaraka owe their themes to the Brhatkatha. BHASA. while the last two dramas. Dutaghalotkaca. Out of the eight remaining dramas six. daughter of Kuntibhoja forms t he theme of the drama. In the matter of practisi ng dharma there is no other support to match the wife. It is almost settled that Bana lived sometime betw een the sixth and seventh centuries A. Whatever that be. Sundara Kanda 46. It is a continuation of the story of Prati jnayaugandharayana. and 6 th century A. Chapter 144). and this might have been the reason why Indians did almost forget Bhasa with th e advent of Kalidasa on the literary arena. A military captain of Ravana. Though the characters in Pancaratra are borrowed from Mahabharata the story is entirely Bhasa's. The general belief is that he has written nearly twenty three dramas. Dutav akya.In his forlorn lice on earth the wife is of great help to man. Kalidasa's period has riot yet been fixed beyond doubt. it is an admitted fact that Svapnavasavadatta is by fa r the best among the thirteen dramas. vi z. Pancaratra. T hree out of them. and Avimara's falling in love with Kurarigi. Avimaraka. (Valmiki Ramayana. it is clear that Bhasa lived after Valmiki.C.C. Dutavakya. In the light of all such factors it cou ld be presumed that Bhasa lived in the period between the 4th century B. (Santi Parva. In 1922.taka codifies the sto ries in the Kiskindha Kanda and Sundara Kanda of the Ramayana and describes the coronations of Sugriva and of Sri Rama. viz. Since Pratima nataka and Abhiseka nalaka. it may safely be assumed that Bhasa lived in an earlier per iod. P andit Ganapati Sastri unearthed from various sources thirteen dramas of Bhasa. Keith has been of the view that V almiki lived before the 4th century B.D. the home will be like a forest. Karnabhara and Urubhanga are one-act plays. With his killing of the Raksasa `Avi' the Sauvira king comes to be known as Avim ara. Dutaghatotkaca. Though Bhasa has so many glories to his credit he does not fully match Kalidasa. -To him. In Carudatta is treated the love story of Carudatta and Vasantasena. In Pratima nataka is told the story narrated i n Ramayana from Ayodhya-kanda to Pattabhiseka. (See Bhasi) . 47). . BHASAKARNA. Though Dr. As Bana and Kalidasa have noticed him in their works. These five pla ys have as their basis some of the anecdotes in the Mahabharata. The wedding of king Udayana and Vasavadatta is the subject m atter of Svapnavasavadatta. BHASAS. We are not in a position to name with unerring definiteness the works of Bhasa. universally admitted t o have been composed by Bhasa. his view has not yet received universal acce ptance.D. Prof. There is no relative like a wife. Madhyama vyayoga. depend for their themes on the Valmiki Ramayana. which are. Balacarit a and Carudatta are dependent for their themes on anecdotes about Sri Krsna and on yakga stories. Pratiinayaugandharayana. Hanuman killed him in fight. Karnabhara and >"Jru bhanga owe their themes to the Mahabharata. Ganapati Sastri has strongly contended that all the above thirteen dr amas were written by Bhasa himself. Indisputable evidence is still lacking to credit Bhasa with the authorship of al l the thirteen plays referred to above. Madhyama vyayoga. A very prominent dramatist in Sanskrit. while Pratima nalaka and Abhiseka nalaka hav e Ramayana as their basic inspiration. Abhiseka na.

A demon. Syeni. Verse 12). it may be inferred that Bhattanayaka l ived in the period after Anandavardhana and anterior to Abhinavagupta. Abhinavagupt a also has supported the rasavada. yet. that the earth is round in shape. One of the Dvadasadityas born of Kasyapa prajapati and Aditi. Bhavakatvam and Bhojakatvam should be the three ex cellences of good poetry. To know a story about the greatness of Bhasma see under th e word Durjaya. a drama in six acts is the only composition of his found out. (daly a Parva. He is also k nown by another name. Chapter 45. Manu and A nala. BHATTI. guci. Bhasmasura was born of the Bhasma dust (ashes) on the body of Siva. Dhrtara. (Sacred ash). Daksa's daughter. It was he who declared. He accompanied the Rsis who visited Bhisrna o n his bed of arrows. Sukra. During the course of this dance Bhasmasura was forced to pla ce his hand on his own head and the moment his head touched his head he was burn t to ashes. BHASMASURA. Aran ya Kanda. The fourteenth Manu. BHASVARA.D. Pavitras. But. There is no mention about this demon in any of the Sanskrit puranas but 'Siva1lldmrta' in Marathi contains the following story about him.stri and Su' ici. which has become very popular and famous by the name Bhaltikavya. Tamra. A literary critic who flourished in the 10th century A. the person called guci will be Indra. Then Mahavisnu appeared before him in the form of Mohini. Daughter of Tamra. The Sapta rsis (seven sages) of that Manvantara are Agnibahu. Canto 14).D.D. (Valmiki Ramaya na. Agnidh . the sons of Bhasi are the Deva sect called the Bhasas. And. Bhasmasura said that he wanted the power to burn to ashes anybody on whose head he placed his hand. Bhasmasura became arrogant with the boon and he became a nightmare to the whole world. One of the two attendants presented by Surya to Subrahmanya. the book has not been found out. BHA'I'TANAYAKA. Bhrajikas and Vapavrddhas. Tamra had five daughters. muc h earlier than western experts. Kasyapa prajapati married the follow ing daughters of Daksa: Aditi. Kalika. Verse 150). These group s are called Caksusas. BHASKARA.BHASI. Pleased at t he great devotion of the demon towards him Siva asked him to name any boon he wa nted. BHATTANARAYANA. An old maharsi of India. Contesting the dhvanivada (the rhetorical theory that in poetry suggested or implied meaning is superior to the exp1icit meanning) of Anandavardhanacarya. Bhatxanay aka's theory is that Abhidha. Under his control there will be five groups of Devas. in Ind ia. A Sanskrit poet who lived in the 7th century A. Ravanavadha. an attractive dancer and alluring him by her charm started on a dance called Muktanrtya. (AnuLasa na Larva. He composed a critical study on the science of dance (Nalya) named Hrdayadar pana based on the Natya sastra of Bharata. the other was named Subhraja. A Sanskrit poet who flourished near about A. BHAUMA I. The kavya is believed to have been composed at Vala bhi in obedience to the request of King Sridharasena. Certain scholars opine that he might have lived before Bana and after Vamana. he established the rasavada (that sentiment is supreme in poetry). In the time of this Manu. Venisamhara. Chapter 47. BHASMA. His most important com position is the Mahakavya. Danu. Verse 31). Kraunci. viz. Magadha. BHASKARI. yet. Kanislhas. This mahakavya deals with the story of Ramayana in its twenty-two Kandas (cantos). BHASKARACARYA. Diti. Bhasi. (Santi Parva. Mrgarajalaksma. Krodhavasa. A master astronomer of ancient India. 700. Hence.

(Chapter 60. was disguised and dressed in bridal robes and Nandana little suspecting the trick played on him married the substitute. The marriage day was fixed and a day before that by a clever ruse played by the keenwitted Kamandaki Malati and Madhava eloped t ogether.). a friend of Madhava became lovers. His important work s are the three dramas. In despair Madhava was about to commit suicide when from the temple nearby Madhava heard an agonised w eeping. BRAVA III. BHAUMA III. Malati was the daughter of the minister of Ujjayini and Madhava was the son of t he minister of Vidarbha. Parasu-Rama killed him. He rushed to the site of the sound and found to his bewilderment the gru esome sight of Malati being dragged for sacrifice by a sorceress named Kapalakun dala helped by her guru Aghoraghanta. Bhavabhuti was born in Pad mapura in the state of Vidarbha.). Ravana was a suitor. (Visnu Purana.ra. (Br ahmanda-3-6-18-22). At this time Madayantika. BHAVABHUTI. Another name of Narakasura. B efore they went to the bridal chamber for the night Nandana's sister came to see . BRAVA.B. One of the eleven Rudras.B. The proposal to give Malati in marriage to Nandana was still pending then. It was while 1Vadhava was having his education in Ujjay ini that he came to love Malati. His original name was Nilakantha. Yukta and Jita. gaxhbhirabuddhi and other Kings. He was a great devotee of Siva and he got his name Bhavabhuti lat er because of this. BHAUMA II. It is a love-story of Malati and Madhava. Bhavabhuti's first drama is believed to be Mahaviracarita. At that time. Malati went back to her palace. a friend of his. There is an opinion among certain critics that Bhavabhuti did write only up to the 46th verse in the fourt h act and the rest was written by another poet named Subrahmanya. Bu t Malati did not love him. 3rd Fart. Makaranda. Bhav abhuti was a Brahmin of the Kasyapa gotra. He was the son of Sthanu and grandson of Brah ma. A Raksasa born to Simhika by Vipracitti. Bhavabhuti states that even at the time of the Svayamvara of Sita. BRAVA (M) I. which was close to Dvaraka. Malatimadhava. Ma lati's father decided to give her in marriage to Nandana. and they became lovers thereafter.D. Adi Parva. Chapter 38). Bhava was near the Venuma nda mountain. Disappointed Kapalakundala swore that she would seek revenge on Madhava and disappeared. Adi Yarva. friend of Madhava. One of the sons born to Kasyapa of Surabhi. (See the word Narakasura). BHAU'I'YA. The king of Ujjayini wanted Malati to marry Nandana. One of the twelve Devas born to Blarguvaruni Rsi of his wife Divya. sister of Nandana and Makaranda. BRAVA II. BRAVA I. But there are some variati ons from the original Ramayana in this drama. Chapt er 2). It was Kamandaki who was a classmate of both th e ministers and who became a sannyasini later who pulls the strings of this love story. (Sabha Parva. The theme is based on the story of Sri Rama. Once Madayantika was attacked by a tiger in a Siva temple and Makaranda saved her from the wild beast . Madhava killed Aghoraghanta and saved Mala ti. (Chapter 66. But Bhavabhuti spent most of his life in the pa lace of Yaodharma. There are seven acts in this. M. A famous forest mentioned in the Puranas. See the word Manvantara. M. A sanatana Visvadeva. Malatimadhava is a drama of ten acts. Mahaviracarita and Uttararamacarita. A Sanskrit poet who lived in the 7th century A. He was the son of one Nilakantha and one Jatukarni. Yet afraid of getting the displeasure of the King. the sons of Manu who will be protecting the ea rth will be Uru. king of Kannauj.

M aria. Chapter 2). Mahavirya and Jaya. BHAVYA II. (Brahmanda Purana. Uttararamacarita is a play of seven acts. Parapatni to yd stri syad asambaddha ca yonitah Tam bruyad bhavatityevarit Subha ge bhaginiti ca. In expressing and elaborating the emotion of `Karuna' Bhavabhuti excels Kalidasa. // (Manusmrti. Agni Purana) . Navama Skandha). Anuvaka 19. BHAVYA I.-. Thus poor Nandana was left alone. (Bhagavata. . Garbhadhana (conception). `Srngara' and in Uttararamacarita `Karuna'. 71-72). It begins with the renouncement of Sita by Rama and ends with the vanishing of Sita. Nara. A Icing of the solar dynasty.o Kalidasa is his lack of humour and wit. and the husband laughed at her. A son ofDhruva. the Rgveda. Mandala 19. The predominant emotion in Mahaviracarita is `Vira'. Visnu Purana). Visacikitsa (treatment of poisoning) and . This is the story of Malati-Madhava. He got ofhis wife Sambhu two sons. (See Sridatta). Sukta 127). There are about fourteen thousand books in this Purana and they deal with almost all subjects on earth including such important ones like. He was the son of Raviya and father of Ca kroddhata. BHAVATI. Kapalakundala by her sorcery separated Malati from Madhava but luckily Saudamini a disciple of Kamantaki saved her froth Kapalakundala. A clan of devas in Raivatamanvantara. The part after Uttararamayana. A follower of Skandadeva. Amsa 4. Asramadhar mas (duties of a hermit) Litiga Sastra (science of sex). Not all women should be addressed like that. (Caapter 19.Ayurveda (Medical science). BHAVANIKA. ( Chapter 13. Srsti (creatio n). (Rgveda. All these three dramas used to be enacted during the festival of `Kalapriyanatha ' at Ujjayini. A king of PFAruvari-lSa. (Chapter 45.her new sister-in-law and the moment she put her eyes on her she understood who it was and that night they also eloped. Subhag. A companion of princess Mrgarhkavati. He married Romasa. BHAVUKA. Parimiti. Sujaya and Syoda are some of the prominent devas of the clan. This purana contains the instructions given by the god Surya to Manu. Garg a. Mati. Once she approached her husband with the request for coiti on. The one draw-back which kee ps him second . 2. HAVANMANYU. BHAVISYA PURANA. Vicetasa. Uttararamayana states about Bha visyaramayana being sung by Kusa and Lava in the presence of Sri Rama. whose glories are sung in. The sanskrit poet Dhana pala in his book' `Tilakamanjari' speaks about Bhavabhuti thus BHAVADA. in MalatiMa dhava. Kalamana (time). A female attendant of Subrahmanya. Visnu Purana). or Bhagini. Salya Parva). Vijaya. (Chapter 272. Verse 11). The word prescribed by Manu to be used while addressing women. Priyaniscaya. A muni. Later Malati married Mad hava with the permission of the King. BHAVAYAVYA. Atitsa 1. All women who are not your relatives and th e wives of others should be addressed using any one of the following words: Bhav ati. He had five B sons: Brhatksatra. Chapter 44. (8alya Parva. da ughter of Bhrhaspati.36. BHAVIN1. BHAVISYARAMAYA A. Sisti and Bhavya. Godana (gift of cows). The theme is the story of Rama after h is return to Ayodhya after the exile.

Maya and Vedana. M. who stayed at Satasrnga. One of the Saptarsis (seven sacred saints) of Daksasavarni Manvantar a. Verse 14). Sahadeva and Pancali only a brief description of Bhima is attempt ed under the present heading. BHAYAIVKARI.) were sons bo rn to Dhrtarastra of his wife Gandhari. Verse 13) . Naraka. three sons of demoniac disposition. sister of Kala who presides over the land of death.* *. Of these M aya produced Mrtyu. 'Mahabhaya and Mrtyu. destroyer of matter. She was m arried to Heti. (Sloka 4. Vedana got of her husband Raurava son n amed Duhkha. Vana Parva. I) Genealogy. Soka. Dharmaputra. BHAYANKARA I. The naming ceremony of the child was perf ormed by the Mahar sis. The Kauravas (Duryodhana etc. Himsa is the wife of Adharma. family priest . Chapter 66 of Adi Parva. (M. V erse 26). From Mrtyu were born Vyadhi. Agni Purana) Another version about the birth of Bhaya is found in Sloka 54. Bhimasena. At the time of his birth a celestial voice announced that the boy would grow up to be the strongest among the strong. and Nakula and Sahadeva of Madri. Jara. A rjuna. A sanatana Visvadeva. son of Brahma and brother of Praheti. Hence he is called Vayu-putra (son of the wind-god).B. (See genealogy of Arjuna). BHAYANKARA II. one of the five Pandavas. Adharma married Nirrti and to them were born Bhay a. A follower of Subrahmanya. Trsna and Krodha. M. M. He was a dependant ofJayadrath a.B. Since much information about Bhima is given under the captions Dharmaputra..BHAVYA III. BHAYA. S`a(ya Parva. Salya Parva.B . BHERISVATA. Bhima was not injured in any manner by that fall. They got a son named Anrta and a daugh ter named Nikrti. (This story is told in the southern texts of the Mah abharata in Chapter 132 of Adi Parva). M.). entitled `Bhelasatithi t=~'. It was this Bhayaitkara who followed Jayadratha with his flag when he was try ing to kidnap Paitcali. (Adi Parva. (Chapter 265 and 271. On the tenth day after birth the child Bhima fell from his mother's lap on a rock. BHIMA. daughter of Sandhya. A prince of the country of Sauvira. He was a cont emporary of Agniveca and has composed a work on Ayurveda. Anusasana Parva. Nakula. 2) Birth and childhood. (Chapter 91.B. Chapter 46. Vidyutkesa was their son a nd he married Salakantaka. BHELA. Bhima and Arjuna were the sons of Ku nti. King Vicitravirya of Candra vamsa (lunar dynasty) had tw o sons called Dhrtarastra and Pandu. Chapter 122 . Chapter 46. A female attendant of Subrahmanya. although it cr ushed the rock into powder.i Kunti directed a mantra gifted to her by Durvasas towards Vayu bhagavan (the win d-god) and the result was the birth of Bhima. A demoness. (Chapter 20. These three sons le d a sinfu1 life.B. Salya Parva. BHED A female attendant of Subrahmanya (M. From them were born Bhaya.) . Arjuna killed him.). (U ttara Ramayana) . and the Pandavas were the sons of Pandu and his wives Kunti and Madri. BHAYA (M) . A disciple of Punarvasu Atreya who was an Aytarveda acarya. Kasyapa Maharsi.B. Cha ter 46.

made of lac. Bhima. There dwelt in the forest a Raksasa calle d Hidimba with his sister. who set fire to the palace. Escaping thus through a tunnel the P andavas travelled a great distance in the forest. who could not suffer the killing of a woman in his presence rushed ag ainst Hidimba. Thus rendered helpless and f orlorn Hidi:T. He deputed Hidimbi to bring Bhima over to him. afterwards Bhi ma underwent higher training in club-war at the hands of Balabhadrarama. Hidimbi approached Bhima. Duryodhana. Arjuna agreed to present King Drupada before Dronaca rya as gurudaksina to him. and Vasuki presented him with much wealth and other costly gems. The Pandavas divined the secret of it and escaped from the fire. For details see Kunti. Kunti and four of her sons got tired by the exertions of the travel and were forced to sit down for rest on th e way. B ut. who introduced him to Vasuki. Kunti devi and four sons slept under the shade of a tree at dusk. The noise of the fight awakened the other Pandavas from sleep. The condi tion was that they might enjoy honey-moon. They were put up t here in a palace specially i The Pandavas were not in fact direct issues of Pand u. Verse 4). the famous Rajarsi. continued the journey carrying the mother and his four brothers on his shoulders. When the training of the princes in the use of weapons was over a competition or test was conducted. what use was all this wealth to Bhima? Then Vasuki agreed to give him a divi ne drink. Dronacarya t aught them fighting with weapons. There he got acquainted with a naga called Aryaka. 3) The Pandavas left Hastinafiiera. Hidimba looked around that particular day fr om the top of a tree. from dawn to dusk in the sky and on m . The Kauravas and the Pandavas spent their childhood in Hastinapura. he had to wait in Nagaloka for eight days so that the d rink might be thoroughly assimilated. In the fierce war the Pandavas fought with Drupada. Bhima.of Vasudevaperformed the ceremonies like wearing of the sacred thread. an d at the instance of Arjuna. and when Karna tried to intervene in the fight his nobility was questioned by Bhima. Chapter 147 of the Adt Parva states tha t it was Bhima. 4) Hidarizba killed. Bh ima drank at one draught eight pot-fulls of that divine drink. B hima annihilated the elephant division of the latter's army. removed the Pandavas to varanavata and settled them there.bi again craved Bhima for love. which would give the user of it the strength of thousand elephants. and thus became t remendously strong. . and then they threw him into the depths of the Ganga (Ganges). But. Going deeper a nd deeper in the waters Bhima. Chapter 136. The Kauravas and the Pandavas often engaged th emselves in children's games. and there finding Hidimbi in love-talks with Bhima he got terribly angry. Once they administered poison to Bhfma who fell down unconsciou s. As enmity between the Kauravas and the Panda vas began growing stronger and stronger. (Adi Pa rva. In all such games Bhima used to hurt and defeat th e Kauravas. He wanted to kill Hidim bi. a nd they became their former selves. Verse 10. whose heart melted at the sight'of Hidiiiibi's helplessness Bhima took her as his wife . With their entry into Hidiiiiba forest the weakness left them. Bhima returned to his mother and brothers and consol ed them. Bhima lea rned fighting with the gada (club or mace) from Suka.and to this fact the unending hatred of the Kauravas towards Bhima owed its origin. Duryodhana and Bhima entered into a `club-fight'. reached the Nagaloka. who were terribly anxious at his absence. wh en the palace was set fire to. and detecting Bhima his mouth watered. and on the ninth day the nagas saw him off in all pomp and splendour. where the nagas (s erpents) bit him which neutralized the effects of the poison in his body.na killed Hidimba. She desired to have him as husband. And. and Bhima kept guard over them. whose fine figure kindled feelings of love in her. But. at last. Hidimbi having not returned even after a long time Hidimba went over to the spot. Dury odhana then insulted Bhima. one condition was stipulated for their enjoying the honey-moon. Bhi. Hidimbi. king of the nagas. with his father's permissio n. On the suggestion of Kunti.

s et out for Magadha. Chapter 68. Chapter 3. Southern Text. the Pandavas duly returned to Hastinapura. Shoul d they go to war against the Kauravas or should they spend the rest of their liv es in the exercise of dharmic injunctions ? At one time Bhima advised Yudhisthir a against war. (Adi Parva. Krsna. after dusk Bhima was to be returned to Kunti. And. the Pandavas lost everything. The main impediments and thorns in their way thus having been removed.ountain tops. took Bhisma and Yudhisthira to Hastinapura. 6) Again to forest. They entered Jarasandha's palace and challenged him to a due l. Accordingly Bhima and Hidim bi spent one year. While at Ekacakra Bhima killed th e Raksasa called Baka and freed the people of the village from their distress. Th e Pandavas also left for the village called Ekacakra. tie up Pancali's hair which got untied in the scuffle. Chapter 24). And. and to them was born a son called Ghatotkaca. Bh -ima rent him in two and threw away the two parts to two places. After wards. A fterwards the Pandavas attended the Svayamvara (free choice of the husband by wo man) of Pancali. also yielded on the tactful advice of Bhisma. (For details see Baka. Dharmaput ra decided to perform Rajasuya. who became their wife. Bhima did very easily kill him. brother of Bala. Verse 18). It was Bhima. 7) Life in forest and life incognito. Yet he did not yield. And . who was then King of Magadha fought with Krsna eighteen times and got defeated. Bhhna was deputed to conquer all the kingdoms in the eastern part of India. It was Sri Krsna. in the contest in the game of dice played between Dharmaputra and Duryodh ana. Bhima took then and there the terrible p ledge that he would. (Sabha Parva. Though Jarasandha was alive again. Bhima who got enraged at this shouted that the hands of Yudhisthira who played dice should be burnt in fire. Pancali and Arjuna). According to the terms and conditions laid down with regard to the contest in th e game of dice the Pandavas went into the Kamyaka forest to live there for twelv e years and then to live incognito for one year. I . Promising that he shall return when wanted. Sabha Pa rva. (M. Bhima achieved the object and returned with great we alth to Indraprastha. 5) Killing of Baka and the wedding of Pancali. (For details se e Kirmira). he. and at the instance of Krsna Bhiixia rent the latter in two and threw him on the ground. The Kauravas brought Pancali into the assembl y hall and attempted to strip her naked in public. and at last Krsna decided to do away with him. now c lashed with Bhima in the forest. The Rajasuya Yajna went off quite successfully. On their return to Hastinapura the Pandavas took their resid ence in the palace built by Maya. Bhima took also the vow that all the Kauravas would be killed. lord of Dvaraka who se rved as the right hand of the Pandavas. who tried to rip Paticali naked. Ghatotkaca with his mother went into the forest. He also swore that he would break the thigh-of Duryodhana. in disguise. with his hands stained by blood from the chest of Dussasana . They thought about their lost kingdom. who alone refuse d to acknowledge the suzerainty of Yudhisthira. whom Bhima had killed on an earlier occasion. Hidimbi. but on another occasion he pleaded Vehemently in favour of war. Arjuna and Bhima. Verse 6) . In uncontro llable rage Bhima also shouted that he would turn into ashes all those who took part in the game of dice. Thus the Pandavas spent their days once again in the Kamyaka forest under the sp iritual leadership of sage Dhaumya. who. who was awaiting an opportunity to avenge the murder of his brother. Though Bhirna got ready to kill Sisupala. Kir mira. after the Yajna was over. who was endowed with magic powers carrying Bhima with her . There lived in Kamyaka forest a Raksasa ca lled Kirmira. (Adi Yarva. B. There Maya presented a magnificent club to Bhi ma. Chapters 147-1 54) . Jarasandha. Bhima and Jar& sandha clashed. There Bhima defeated Salya in fight.

and produced a thunderous sound. But.' (Vanaparva. Bh ima killed Maniman and the other Yaksas who rushed to his support. Bhima was more anxious and sorry than the others. who had gone to a nearby pool to fetch water. was living in this fo rest. and it was at that time that Jaya dratha abducted Paticali. knowing that the Pandavas were put up in Dvaitavana.t was during this time that Arjuna went to the Himalayas to please Siva by penan ce and get from him the Pasupatastra. who felt a special liking for them. and the Pandavas continued their journey in the forest. _ Walking and walking Bhima en tered Kadalivana. collected the flowers and returning with them stayed in the B adarikasrama with his brothers and Pancali. Pancali fell down fainting. 1 inally Kube ra himself saw Bhima and blessed the Pandavas. and rested there for six days. But . who with a number of his co mrades came to the pool for water games. however. The t . the sound produced by the raising of the tail shook the mountains. Then the party got so tired that they could not proceed any further. Dro . The Pandavas natu rally got nervous and upset at the rather long absence of Arjuna. On the 17th day they came to the Asrama of Vrsaparva in the Himalayas. As though the mountains were vomitting through the ir mouth. and travelled upto Mount Gandhamadana. Chapter 146). When raised.. (For details see Jatasura II).east dropped near Pancali a Saugandhika flower. (See Agastya. Here it was that Bhima killed Jatasu ra. The Pandavas continued their journey northward. Bh ima overcame them. They were duly received by the maharsi. Hanuman. The Pandavas again entered the Kamyaka forest. after crossing variousmountain peaks and still walking they reached Kube ra's Alakapuri when a Yaksa called Maniman obstructed their further progress. and in the encounter the latter made Du ryodhana prisoner. Bltima k illed it and it assumed its original form as Nahusa. Hanuman awoke from sleep and raised his tail with a terrific sound. Para 8 . Bhimasena who witnessed the scene very much laughed at Duryod hana. congratulated Bhima an d directed him on the path to the saugandhika forest. Then the Pandavas set out in search of Arjun a. And. Para 7). He obstructed the path of Bhima. (See Kotikasya). Th ey reached the Asrama of Naranarayanas. While thus camping D uryodhana clashed with a Gandharva called Citrasena. In the clash that ensued between Hanfiman and Bhima the former came out victorious. Meantime. Hanuman's tail was as high in the sky as the flag of Indra. but were brought back to life again. One day t he wind blowing from the north. Hanuman. Arjuna intervened and set free Duryodhana and others. all the Pandavas except Yudhisthira died at the pool. (See Dharmaputra. which was being guarded by the Raksasas called Krodhavasas. Moreover Bhima captured Jayadratha. (Arrow called Pasupata). Bhima set out in the north-cast direction to fetch saugan dhika flowers f or Pancali. Then Bhima remembered Ghatotkaca. yet Arjuna had not returned. While they were returning from Kubera's palace Bhima was caught by a python. It was here at Dvaitavana th at Dharmadeva tested the Pandavas. Four years were thus spent. who directed them in th eir onward journey. By this time Arjuna had obtained Pasupatastra from Siva a nd he duly returned to his brothers. his skin wrinkled and hair grey due to old age. Bhima walked upto the place whence the sound was h eard. got his head shaved cle an and declared that he was a slave of Dharmaputra. As directed by Bhim a Ghatotkaca mounted the Pandavas on his shoulders and the journey continued. it was really Nahusa transformed into a python on account of a curse. Bhima killed Kotikasya who acted on behalf of Jayadrat ha. the Kauravas star ted for their dwelling place in a procession led by Duryodhana with the army and camped nearly two furlongs away from a pool in Dvaitavana. who appeared before his father (Bhima) at once. Continuing the journey they reached the Asrama of Arstisena whence. Bhimasena reached the sa ugandhika forest.

(Bhisma Parva. Chapter 48. Chapter 63. (2) Sri Krsna before leaving for the Kaurava assembly fo r compromise talks asked for the views of Bhima about the whole problem. the pugilist. And. who was sent by Duryodhana t o the Pandavas with a message. (Bhisma Parva. (Bhisma Parva. Chapter 44. Chapter 54. (13) Annihilated the elephant division of the Kaurava army. Chapter 50). Chapter 54. Verse 76). So. Chapter 76). Verse 19). Verse 103) . both the parties began preparations for war. Bhima killed in a duel Jimuta. (Bhisma Parva. his whole body horripilated entered the fore st in the direction of the sound. her. (8) On the first day of the war Bhima fought a duel with Duryodhana. (Bhisma Parva. According to the advice of Dharmadeva the Pandavas selected the Virata palace fo r their life incognito. includin g their victory in war and the administration of the country. It was also here that Bhima killed Kicaka and the Upakicakas. (9) In the fight with the Kalingas Bhima killed Sakra deva. who guarded the chariot wheels of Srutayus. (Bhisma Parva. Bhima saw Hanuman. (Udyoga Parva. (10) Bhima killed Bhanuman. (5) Bhima sent back with an insulting reply Ulirka. Even after the return of the Pandavas after the fores t life and life incognito the Kauravas refused to give them half of the kingdom. (Udy oga Parva. Chapter 54. Hearing the sound Bhima. Next year the Pandavas defeated Duryodhan a in the fight in connection with the theft of the cows of the Virata King. Chapter 58. but he was later set free. (Udyoga Parva. In the middle of Kadalivana. King of Dasarha to Yudhisthi ra captive. (14) Defeated Duryodhana. (15) Fought against Bhisma. (Udyoga Parva. (Bhisma Parva. King of Kalinga. Verse 1). (See Kicaka). Verse 77). (11) He killed Satyadeva and Salya. (12) Killed Ketuman. Verse 39). (3) When Sri Krsna admonished Bhimahe opted for war and waxed eloquent about his heroism and prowess. Chapter 74). at the instance of Yudhisthira Bhima took Sudharma. Vers e 8). . On another occasion. (4) Bhima wanted Sikhandi to be appointed chief of the army. Chap ter 161). Chapter 45. 8) Bhima in the great war. on a mighty rock. (Udyoga Parva. Verse 17). (See Jimuta 11).wning the trumpeting of excited elephants the sound reverberated all around the mountains. went on foot to the Kaurava assembly without bow and arrows. and rivers of blood flowed. (Bhisma Parva. (1) Sanjaya described to Dhrtarastra the prowess and achievements of Bhima. Verse 24).Twelve years' forest-life of the Pandavas now came to an end. and then they declared that their forest life and life incognito were over. (Bhisma Parva.ereunder is the main i ncident relating to Bhima from this period to the Svargarohana (going to Heaven) of the Pandavas after relinquishing the kingdom in favour of Pariksit. (7) The world shuddered at the war cry of Bhima.. and Bhi ma opined that peace was preferable to war. (6) Bhima questioned Dharmaputra who. when the armies had taken position on oppo site sides. (Bhisma Par va. Chapter 54. Verse 16). Bhimasena assuming the name Vallava (Valala). Given h. Chapter 163). Chapter 54.

(33) Fought with the elephant of Bhagadatta. Verse 60). (Drona P arva. (Drona Parva. Verse 13. (Bhisma Parva. Verse 13). (39) Defeated Drona again. (Drona Parva. (Drona Parva. (Drona Parva. (38) Consoled Yudhisthira who was in great perplexity. Chapter 14. (Bhisma Pa rva. Chapter 82. (26) Fought a duel with Bhurisravas. Chapter 94. (Bhisma Parva. (31) Fought with Durmarsana. (Drona Parva. Chapter 64. (34) Attacked Karna and killed fifteen warriors of his. (Bhisma Parva. (Bhisma Parva. (Bhisma Parva. Verse 32) . Chapter 15. (Bhisma Parva. (Bhisma Parva. (32) Killed Anga. Chapter 104. Verse 31). (Drona Parva. Chapter 79. Verse 21). (29) Bhima fought with Vivimsati. Chapter 72. Verse 32) . Verse 11). Verse 19). Chapter 110. and in this fight eight sons of D hrtarastra viz. Drona Parva. Droriacarya fell down unconscious. Chapter 88. (Chapter 88. (Drona Parva. (25) Defeated Balhika. Verse 42). Chapter 72. (27)Killed ten maharathis (heroes in chariot war) of the Kaurava army. Verse 67).pati. Chapter 26. . (22) Killed eight more sons of Dhrtarastra.(16) Fought against the whole lot of Kauravas. was defeated and ran away. Verse 17). (30) Defeated Salya in club fight. Chapter 166. Chapter 96. Citrasena and Vikarna. Verse 32). king of the Mleccha tribe. Chapter 127. Ve rse 16). Chapter 32 . Verse 18) . (Bhisma Parva. (37) Fought with Krtavarma. (20) Defeated Krtavarma. Ugra. (Drona Parva. (24) Killed nine more sons of Dhrtarastra. (18) Fought with Duryodhana. Chapter 26. ' (23) Struck by the arrow of Bhima. Virabahu. Chapter 113). Chapter 25. Bhisma Parva) . Susena. (19) Defeated Duryodhana the second time. Verse 10). Bhimaratha and Sulocana were killed. Verse 27). Chapter 10. (Bhisma Parva. Verse 18). (36) Fought with Alambusa and came out victorious. Verse 17) . Verse 8). Verse 23). Sen5. Bhima. Jarasandha. (Drona Parva. Verse 5). Chapter 96. Chapter 114. (Drona Parva. (Bhisma P arva. Verse 12) . (2 1) Killed Bhisma's charioteer. (17) Fought a fierce war against Bhisma. (35) Fought with VivimWi. (28) Dhrtarastra applauded the prowess of Bhima. Chapter 126.

(Drona Parva. (Drone s Parva. as also Sarabha. (51) Defeated Kama again. (56) Killed the prince of Kalinga by thrashing and kicking him. Verse 43) . (Drones Parva. Chapter 137. Verse 30) . (41) Threw off Dronacarya along with his chariot eight times. Abhaya. Ve rse 60). Vibhu. Verse 20) (50) Killed Satrunjaya. (46)Killed Durmukha. C hapter 155. Chapter 136. (Drones Parva. Verse 18) . (58) Rendered the great hero Somadatta unconscious by thrashing him with his clu b. son of Dhrtar5. Satrusaha. (59)Killed Balhika. Chapter 139. Verse 17). (Drone s Parva. Dussaha. (63) Defeated Duryodhana again. Du rvimocana. son of Dhrtarastra. Susena. Viraja. (60) Killed Nagadatta.s. (Drona Parva. Ve rse 29). Verse 24). Upacitra. Durmada. (Drones Parva. (47) Killed Durmarsana. Chapter 136. . Chapter 166.(40) Killed Kundabhedi. Sarasana. Vrndaraka. Verse 23). (52) Destroyed many bows of Kama. (Drona Parva. Chapter 157. (Drones Parva. (Drones Parva. Raudrakarma. (48) Defeated Karna again. (49) Killed Citra. Verse 11). Chapter 139. Ayobhuja (Ayobahu) Drdha (Drdhaksatra) Suhastha. (45) Killed Durjaya. . Citrayudha and Citra varman. Chapter 131). (44) Defeated Karna again. (Drona Parva. (Drones Parva. Chapter 157. Chapter 122). (62) Killed Gavaksa. (Drones Parva. (Drcria Parva. (Drones Parva. Chapter 134. Verse 74) . (Drones Parva. Chapter 155). Carucitra. (Drones Parva. (42)Defeated Karna in fight. Chapter 148. Vinda. Chapter 133. Verse 19) . Chapter 129). Verse 3). Bhima jumped into his chariot. Chapter 135. Subhaga and Bhan udatta. Citraksa. Suvarma and Sudarsana. (Drones Parva. (Drona Parva. Verse 9). Verse 10). Citra (Citrabana) Citrayudha (Agrayudha) Drdh a (Drdhavarman) Citrasena (Ugrasena) and Vikarna. Durmada and Duskarna by pus hing and beating them. (Drones Parv a. Pramathi. Dirghalocana. brother of Sakuni. Verse 91). Ugra (Ugrasravas) and Anuyayi (Agraya yi). (55) Gave directions to Arjuna to kill Kama. (Drona Parva. Verse 23). Drdharatha (Drdhasvan) Mahabahu. Durdhara (Duradhara) and Jaya. Dhruva. (61) Killed Satacandra. (Drones Parva. Chapter 157. Verse 13) . (Drones Parva. Chapter 139. Chapter 139. Chapter 157. (57) Killed Jayarata. Anuvinda. Verse 20) . Chapter 157. (53) To capture Kama bereft of his arrows. Chap ter 128.tra. Chapter 127. Verse 16). (43)'Killed Dussala. (54) Bhima tumbled to the ground unconscious at the blows of Karna. (Drones Parva.

000 infantry men. (Kama Parva. viz. Nisangi. viz. 74)Taking upon himself all the responsibilities of the war deputed Arjuna to gua rd Dharmaputra. Chapter 27. Chapter 84. Sala. Verse 24). Chapter 48. verse 10). Chapter 19 . Chapter 188. Durmarsana. Jayatsena. verse 45). Chapter 81. Verse 15). (79) Next. (8alya Parva. single-handed. Durvimocan a. son of Dhrtarastra. Verse 2). (Salya Parva. Kavaci. sing1e-handed Bhima killed 25000 infantry men. (Drones Parva. (84) Killed another 25. Sama. Chapter 17 7). rutanta (Citranga) Jaitra. (Karna Parv a.(64) Engaged himself in a fierce fight with Halayudha. (69) Killed Ksemadhurti. Duspradharsa (Duspradharsana) and Srutarva. Verse 28). Durvisaha (Durvisaha). Chapter 199. Verse 53). (83) Killed the charioteer and horses of Salya. (Kama Parva. Chapter 199. Sandha (Satyasandha) Vatavega and Suvarcas. (82) Defeated Duryodhana again. (75) Defeated Sakuni. the King of Kalata. (86) After that killed Sudar'. (Kama Parva. (Kama Parva.ana. Dandadhara. Sujata. (77) Killed Dussasana in accordance with his (Bhima's) old pledge and drank the blood from his (Dussasana's) chest. . (66) Killed the elephant named Asvatthama and spread the false news that Asvatth ama (son of Drones) was killed. (Kama parva. (80) Defeated Krtavarma (Salya Farva. (Drones Parva. Chapter 83. Verse 28) . Verse 42). (Karna Parva. (71') Killed Bhanusena. (68) In the fight with Asvatthama Bhima's charioteer was killed. Verse 45) . (72) In the next fight killed Vivitsu. Pasi. (Yarna Parva. (65) Got defeated in the fight with Kama. (Kama Parva. (8alya Parva. (Kama Parva. Chapter 9 3. Verse 27). (Salya t arva. Chapter 11. Chapter 190. Chapter 51. Chapter 82 and 83) . Verse 49). (Drones Parva. Dha nurgraha. Verse 25). Verse 49). (Drones Parva. Verse 12). Chapter 12. B lhuribala (Bhimabaia) Ravi. (81) Did club-fight with Salya. (Drones Parva. Vikata. (67) Fought against narayanastra. Verse 45). (78) Killed ten sons of Dhrtarastra. Kratha (Krathana) Nanda and Upananda. (76) Fought fiercely with Duryodhana. Chapter 17. Chapter 12. (Salya Parva. Chapter 65. Verse 10) . (Kama Parva. Verse 12). son of Kama. (70) Fought with Asvatthama and fell down unconscious by the blows dealt by him. Verse 27). Chapter 61. (73) Defeated Duryodhana again. Chapter 16. Chapter 15). 85) Killed 11 sons of Dhrtarastra. Alolupa.

Chapter 58. Verse 6). (95) As directed by Vyasa. Verse 7) . (Asvamedha Yarva. (100) After Dhrtarastra. Chapter 15) . and finding himself impotent to co unter the attack he ran back to Sri Krsna for refuge. (94) Yudhisthira settled Bhima down in the palace of Duryodhana killed in war. Then Sri Krsna with his ri ng clipped and threw away the lake. Sri Krsna. Chapter 59. Kunti and Gandhari retired into the forest Bhima visite d them once. (93) Yudhisthira installed Bhlma. Bhima challenged him. (90) Consoled PdACal! by giving to her Asvatthama's gem. (Sauptika Parva. after the great war. Verse 6 ) . Chapter 19) . (Stri Parva. (92) Bhima made Yudhisthira to retract from his intention to renounce the world and become a Sannyasin. Chapter 72. along with the brahmins. pointing out to Bhima a lake twelve yojanas wide and lying near Lanka. (Santi Parva. the Pandavas and Sri Kr sna were discussing several matters all the Pandavas except Bhima said they owed their success in war to Krsna. (97. (As vamedha Parva. as ked him to find out the source of the lake and return with the information. (Salya Paeva. Verse 4 ). (99) Bhima opposed Dhrtarastra's demand for money to perform the rituals of thos e who had died in war. Chapter 23) .(87) In the club fight that ensued between Duryodhana and Bhima. Chapte r 16. Not only that. as crown prince. With the object of putting down this conc eit on the part of Bhima. After crossing the sea and Mount Subela Sri Krsna. (ASramavdsika Parva. Verse 6). (Salya Parva. (Asvamedha Parva. and said to Bhima as follows :-"This is the skull of Kumbhakarna killed by Sri Rama in the Rama-Ravana war. Chapter 13. Bhima. (88) Then Bhima kicked Duryodhana on the head. Thou gh Bhima walked some distance he could not find out its source. But. who sent the former ba ck loaded with money and foodgrains. Chapter 41. measured the yajnabhumi. who was then sitting with V yasa on the Ganges shore. Chapter 92) . ( Santi Parva. Verse 19). in all haughtiness claimed the credi t for victory to his persona1 prowess. Duryodhana's th igh was broken by the blows with Bhima's club. Chapter 88. Ver se 16). Verse 26). with Bhima seated along with him on Garuda. (Santi Parva. Southern Text . words of the lord put . (91) Bhima apologised to Gandhari. (89) Bhima rushed forward to get hold of Asvatthama. set out on a journey to the south. Chapter 11. (ASramavdsika Parva. (96) It was Bhima who. in conn ection with Yudhisthira's Asvamedha-yajna: (Asvamedha Parva. (98) It was Bhima who held the umbrella to Sri Krsna in the chariot on his way b ack from the company of the Pandavas to Dvaraka. Ver se 9). While. (Sauptika Parva. 8) Bhima's conceit put down. Chapter 44. During one of those days Babhruvahana visited Bhima.'' These°. a ll the warriors there jointly attacked Bhima. Chapter 88. Nakula and Sahadeva were put in-charge of protecting the Kingdom. The warriors who attacked you are the asuras called `Sarogeyas' . Verse 4 7).

a dog of the Devas. Verse75). Yudhisthira walking in the front.2. In the Dvapara-yuga there lived a Sudra called Bhima. Chapter 122. Afterwards when Dharmap utra entered Heaven he found his brothers had already their seats there. without reason. Para 31). He took part in the birthday celebrations of A ajuna. Kaurava. and with the object o f robbing his wealth spoke to him in a pathetic tone as follows:-"Respected sire .putra. Arjunagraja. 10) Other information. they s tarted for Kailasa.asked the reason thereof. wife nor any other relatives. Vallava. You appear to be kindhearted. Verse 1). He was a robber as well. During the course of their journey Pdficali. (Udyogaparva.. Kusasardula. I have neither father. After entrusting matters of administration of the country to Pariksit the P andavas set out on their great journey. the son of Sar ama. Vayusuta . who engaged himself in the profession of Vaisyas. grandson of King Aviksit of the Lunar dynasty and s on of Pariksit is mentioned in Chapters 94 and 95 of Atli Parva." Brahmin:-"Oh hungry guest ! There is no one here to cook food.. The unf ortunate fellow that I am. Maruti.bhanjanasuta. (See Ar juna. He was a terrible fellow. Yet another Bhima." Bhima:-"Oh revered brahmin ! I too am a lonely person. He married Kumari. Pra. Chapter 95. Pandava. 1. (Adi parva. A Deva gandharva delivered by Muni. A Sudra who attained Svarga as on his head fell water with which the f eet of a Brahmin were washed. Maru. Father of Divodasa. Partha. daughter of the King o f Kasi. I shall give you daily some rice. Anilatmaja. Pavan atmaja. I am a Sudra. (Atli Parva. Nakul a and Arjuna orie after the other fell down dead. brothers. (Skanda Purana. 9) De ath. At last whe n Bhima too was about to fall down and die he. king of Kasi. No servants or others here. 3) The following names are found used in the Mahabharata as synonyms for Bhima. mother. An outcaste from practices pertaining to Su. BHIMA IV. and Yudh isthira replied that Bhima's over-eating was the reason. son ." These words of Bhima pleased the Brahmin so much that he cooked some food quickl . I am staying here alone. or else I will die this very moment. His mother was Suyasa. BHIMA III. the wife of Kasyapa prajapati. (A di Parva. Jaya . Bh1ma. 2) A son called Sarvaga was born to Bhima of Balandhara. BHIMA II. son of King Pariksit a nd brother of Janamejaya. Chapter 117. Chapter 3. Verse 55). (Atli Parva. Samiranasuta.t'tmaja. All of them are dead and gone. you will please listen to my grievance.66). Raksasakantaka. and also enjoyed the wives of many elderly people including his teachers. BHIMA V. The Mahabharata makes mention of another Bhima. Kaunteya. Acyutanuja. Once he went to a brahmin house. I shall live here for ev er serving you. which you may cook yourself. Verse 97). daughter of Kekaya Raja and they had a son called Pra tisravas. BHIMA VI.down Bhima's conceit. and he apologised to Krsna. Verse 42) . Sahadeva. Chapter 65. It was this Bhima wh o. Vrkodara. (1) Bhima had a son named Sutasoma by Pancali: (Atli Parv a. Arjunapurvaja.dhanva. Vayu. Chapter 95. Verse 1). who had killed many brah inins.dras he enjo yed life with a Vaisya woman. Please g ive me some rice. The following story about him occurs on page 619 o f the Padmapurana. at the yajna conducted at Kuruksetra attacked. Bhima asked Yudhisthira the re ason for the deaths and he was given suitable answers by the latter.

(Bhisma Parva. On the death of Srutadhara. king of Ekalavyanagara the younger of his two sons. Chapter 3. Verse 24). and Siladhara was born as Bhimabhata. It was on the top of Bhima's hous e that Hanuman rested for the first time after arriving at Lanka. and he was born again as Samarabhata. and. Verse 86). He sits in yama's assembly worshipping yama . Verse 34). Chapter 227. (Salya Parva. V erse 49). A king of ancient time. Verse 11). Th ese one hundred persons were kings in ancient days. BHIMA IX. Chapter 94 of Adi Parva. good twinkling of an eye. But. Bhima got into the chariot a BHIMA VII. the thief. It is on account of the penance of the hundred Bhimas t hat the difficulties of people are lifted.y and served the Sudra with it. Verse 11). (Sabha Parv a. to steal his earnings. Canto 6). Chapter 221. This Bhima had four brothers. (See Damayanti) BHIMA VIII. He was killed by Bhima. Dahati and Dahana were the other four. King of Radhanagara. A yadava king. Father of Damayanti. one of the Pandavas.past life. (BHURIBALA). BHIMA X. The following story has reference to his . (Ya na Parva. he was transformed into a wild elephant as the res ult of the curse of a muni. BHIMABALA I. T hese Vinayakas cause difficulties and obstructions to the yajnas of Devatas. He conquered Madhurapuri founded by Satrughna after killing the Dait ya called Madhu. But. (alya Parva. viz. Dusyanta. His idea was to rob the brahmin of his wealth at some convenient time and get away. BHIMABALA II. At once th lead Bhima to Vaikuntha. having the name Bhima. Verse 17. Satyadhara drove out of the kingdom the elder brother. BHIMABHATA. cut off Bhima's head and ere came down the attendants of Lord Visnu to chariot drawn by Rajahamsas (swans) also came nd reached the abode of Visnu. Sundara Kanda. One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra killed by Bhima .. Seeing the thrashing. Chapter 26. Bhimabhata became a gandharva bec . On the death of Ugrabhata Bhimabhata. A friend of Ravana. on one of those days. BHIl\/lA XI. Vata. after killing Samarabhata ascended the thron e. A divine down. Thus ousted fr om his kingdom Siladhara did due penance and got from Siva the boon that Satyadh ara be killed white he himself be made a gandharva. And. he iremembered his previous existence. since he used to pour on his head everyday the water with which the b rahmin's feet were washed he got redemption from all his sins. Owing to several adversities they left their kingdoms for the assembly of yama. (Santi Parva. in the escaped from the scene. One night a thief got into the brahmin's room thief Bhima rushed at him to give him a. tho ugh turned into elephant could speak like men. (Vana Parva. There are hundred kings in yama's assembly. He stayed with the Brahmin from that day onwards . Owing to the blessing of Siv a Satyadhara died. Parigha. Chapter 64. brother of Samarabhata. BHIMA XIII. hSU ra. Chapter 45. king of Lanka. This Bhima was a contemporary o f Sri Rama. Mentions about one Bhima born to Ki ng Din of his wife RathandhaC. Verse 14). Pravasu and Vasu. One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. A gandharva. One of the five attendants given to Subrahmanya by the Deva called Amsa . But. the father of Andhaka. Chapter 8. One of the five Vinayakas born from the asura called Pancajanya. (Valmiki Ramay ana. Siladhara. BHIMA XII. son of Ugrabhata.

A king in ancient India.Raudrasva . Bhisma's name in his boyhood was Devavrata. One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra killed in the war by Bhima . Arjuna fought and killed him. 2) Birth and Boyhood. BHIMARATHI (BHIMA).Santurodha-Dusyanta-Bharata-Suhotra-Suhota -Gala-Gardda -Suketu-Brhatk setra-Hasti . Chapter 67. Kite) set up by Drona. BHIMARATHA I. A hero who fought on the Kaurava side. BHIMAVEGA. It was this Bhimaratha wh o stood at the centre of the garuda vyuha (army formation in the form of the bir d garuda. When Yudhisthira was king at Indraprastha Bhimaratha sat in Pandav a assembly as a comrade of the Pandavas. Sins of those who bathe in this river will vanish. BHISMA.ause he received and treated well once a traveller and related to him his (Bhima bhata's) own story. BHIMAJANU. Chapter 67. Finally the above kings jointly encountered him. a gentle breeze began to blow and Gangadevi's clothes w ere slightly deranged. He remained in the assembly of yama serving the latter. From the day his father was killed by Bhima Bhisana was i mpatiently waiting for revenge. A Raksasa. (Adi Parva.Yayati . the* Mleccha king and a supporter of the Pandavas.Bahuvidha -Sarityati . Verse 36).Ajamidha . Just at that moment.Namasyu .Janamejaya Pracinva-Pravira . The story concerning this. (Adi Parva. At that time Gangadevi was also present in Brahma's assembly. who used to attack the kingdoms of Kas i and Kosala often.Vitabhaya . Chapter 88. Verse 99). (Brahmanda Purana).Devatithi -Rksa .Bhima-Pratipa-Sa ntanu-Bhisma. Chapter 64. (Bhisma Parva. Once he went to visit Brah ma at Satyaloka.Pururavas -Ayus . I n that pious atmosphere. Chapter 2 5.Nahusa . A river in the South extolled in the puranas. Verse 26) . From Visnu were descended in the following order-Brahma-Atri-Candr a-Budha . Chapter 20. as given in the Ma habharata is as follows:King Mahabhiseka after his death. He killed S alva. Son of Baka.Kuru. Verse 21) . Verse 99). A son born to Manibhadra and his wife Punyajani. (Droa Parva. (Sabha Parva. Verse 26). his father was the re-b irth of another king. BHIMARATHA Ill. This boy was the human embodiment of Dyau. Chapter 9) BHIMASARA. Chapter 4. (Kathasaritsagara gasaritkavat'larnbaka). BHIRU. Mahabhiseka. (Drona Parva. BHIMAKSA. BHIMARATHA II.Jahnu-Suratha-Viduratha Sarvab hauma-Jayatsena-Ravyaya-Bhavuka-Cakroddhata .Rahovadi . attained Visnuloka.Sundu . (Bhagavata. Bhisma Parva. Verse 12). Navama Skandha). He was killed by King Haryasvan .Puru . BHISANA. Chapter 22) . He was the eig hth son of Santanu. When the . Mahabhiseka took a stealthy glance a . 1) Genealogy. His father was Ketum4n and Div oddsa his son. One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. Santanu.Rksa . On its shore is a sacred place called Pandh arapura. (Sabha Parva.Pandavas began the Asvamedha yajna h e obstructed it at a place near Ekacakra. Chapter 8. (Jaimin i Asvamedha Parva. (Vana Parva. a king of the lunar dynasty and Gangadevi. One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. A king of the family of Visvamitra.M atinara .Samvarana . one of the Astavasus.

The fisherman had a daughter named Satyavati. Vasistha's cow. The king was in a fix. Santanu insisted that he would no t allow her to throw away that child into the river. As for Dy o. He laid down several conditions. There he avoided all company and took to his bed. She wanted the Kin g to be her husband. At about that time. one of the Astavasus.t her and she also returned that glance. Pratipa had a son. much depressed a nd gloomy. She approached him and sat on his right thigh. He saw a handsome boy stopping the flow of the river Gangs. Having no children. he felt the perfume of musk fil ling the air in the forest. angry Gangadevi left the palace with her child. Devavrata was the eldest son and heir-apparen t. (M. She expressed her des ire to her husband. It was from her that the fragrance of musk spread all around. Seven children were born to her and she threw all of them into the river in this way. Santanu. for hunting. The king accepted the condition and they became man and wife. He wondered from where it could come. She carried the chi ld to the river Ganga and threw it into the river. absorbed in the beauty of the forest scenery. 3) The name Bhisma. Thirty-two years later. with the other seven vasus went and took away by f orce. In c ourse of time. Gangadevi became pregnant and gave birth to her first child. When Santanu grew up int o a young man. as an adventurous her o. He went on ari d on trying to find out the source of this smell until he reached the cottage of a fisherman. As he had violated the cond ition. he would continue to live in the world for a long time. Santanu who followed her up t o the river bank. Chapters 95-100). as heir-apparent. Gaitgadevi a greed to become his wife on condition that he should not say anything to displea se her and if he violated that condition she would leave him. Vas. who actua lly stole the cow. He explained to her that the right thigh is the proper seat of a daughter-in-law and so she would become his son's wife in due course. born to him. When she gave birth to the eighth child. She appeared with the child and after handing over the child to him vanished. They repented and begged pardon from Vasistha. saw the King deeply absorbed in his tapas. Dyo. But by that time he had dis appeared. Get ting interested in the boy. Dyo. happened to see the s acrificial cow of the sage Vasistha and wished to have it. After that Gai tgadevi was born as a mortal woman in the world under the name Ganga and she spe nt her days in the forests near the Ganga river valleys. would return to Heaven at the time of birth itself. As he was huntin g. The sage told them that all of them would be born as the sons of Gangadevi and all except Dyo. he went to the bank of the river Ganga and performed tapas there. the. remembering his promise. stha in his anger cursed the Astavasus to be born as mortals. But the brav e fishrman did not yield to the king's demand immediately. the wife of Dyo. The king fell in love with her at first sight. The King prayed to Gangadevi to give back the child. one day he went for a hunt to the Gangs-valley and there he met G atigadevi. To deny kingship to his sons would be highly improper. the King approached him. One day King Santa nu reached the forest near the Gangs river valley. The sage Vasistha and Gangadevi taught him all branches of knowledge. one of which was that Satyavati's sons should succeed to the throne of Santanu. Devavrata was anointed. the king returned to the palace. the king went to the same for est for hunting. passing his time in . Gaitgadevi begged pardon and Brahma lift ed the curse and blessed her that the Astavasus would come to the earth to be bo rn as her sons and that afterwards she could come back to Heaven. Atli Parva.B. Unable to find a solut ion to this difficult problem. She named it Devavra ta and brought him up in the forest. The king returned t o the palace with the child. He asked the fisherman to give the girl in marriage to him. did not say anything against her. This was noted by Brahma who turned bot h of them into human beings by a curse. He fell in love with her at first sight and courted her. In those days the ruler of the Lunar dynasty was a king named Pratipa. Gai tgadevi who was moving about in the forests nearby.

The presence of Bh isma who was an old man. Ambika and Ambalika. see the word "Amba". Ambika gave birth to Dhrtarastra. Satyavati approached Bhisma with a suggestion to beget children by Vicitravirya's wife. Du ryodhana and his brothers were born to Dhrtarastra. was held. Bhisma thought that it would be good if Vicitravirya married them. frightened the girls. the Kauravas and Pa ndavas who lived in the palace at Hastinapura. stopped him from entering the place. Because he had taken such a solemn oat h.. (For the rest of Amba's story. Devavrata took her to the palace and presented her to his father. It was Bhisma who performed the funeral rites of the King Citrangada. When the palace made of lac was destroyed by fire. Ambalika gave birth to Pandu and the maid gave birth to Vidura. The fisherman rep eated his former condition. The fisherman pointed out that disputes were likely to arise between Devavrata's sons and Satyavati's children regarding the right of s uccession to the throne. Bhisma crowned the boy Citrangada as king. Chapter 100). he seized the three daughters of the King of Kasi and took them with h im in his chariot to Hastinapura. After that Satyavati summoned Vyasa to Hastinapura and sons were born to Ambika. the Gandharva Citrangada killed the King Citrangada. as t here was no one to succeed him. The y grew up and Dhrtarastra married Gandhari and Pandu married Kunti and Madri. when he came to know of the part played by his son in the matter. Amba. (M. The old Bhisma stood up and spoke at length a bout the eight different forms of marriage and after defeating several kings lik e Salves. The fisherman gave Satyavati to Devavrata to be taken to the King. 5) Bha~ma's Wire Pulling. After that Vicitravirya was crowned King. Although Citrangada's reign was a prosperous one.B. Two sons named Vicitravirya and Citrangada were born to Satyavati by Santanu. They ruled over the country with Indraprastha as. He ruled over the country for seven ye ars at the end of which he died of consumption. At that time the Pand . Adi Parva. It was at that time that the Svayamvara of the three daughters of the King of Ka si. Ambalika and their maid by him. Pandu died at the Satasrxiga vana and Madri observed sati by jumping into his funeral pyre and burning herself alive. Verse 100-104). their capital. split up into two blocs. (M. Once a Gandharva named Citrangada attacked him at Kuruksetra and after a battle which lasted for three years. who died shortly afterwards. since he had taken an o ath to remain a lifelong bachelor. Then Amba approached Bhisma and told him th at she had already dedicated her heart to the king of Salva. Devavrata went to the fisherman's cottage on the bank of the river Ganges and begged for °Satyavati on behalf of his father. it was declared that henceforth he would be known by the name "BHISMA". After that. Devavrata agreed that Satyavati's son shall be given the right :of Kingship. As desired by Sa tyavati. They told him everything in details. When Devavrata knew about his father's condition. while the Pandavas were born to Pandu. it could not last long. The l oving father Santanu also gave him a boon that Bhisma would die only when he wis hed.B. The dynasty faced a crisis. Preparations were made for the marriage of Vic itravirya with the three princesses. At once. without informi ng even his father. the Pandavas lost their kingdom and everything and so they went to the forest again. Bhisma generously a llowed her to return home. the Pandavas went into the forest and came back to the country after their marriage with Pancali. The King. They 1ived for twelve years in the forest and spe nt one year incognito in the palace of the King of Virata. rose from his bed and embraced Devavrata with tears of joy and gratitude . In the gambling contest between Dh armaputra and Duryodhana. The other king s who were present. At once Devavrata stood up and made a solemn pledge tha t he would remain a bachelor for life.sadness and solitude. 4) Affairs of the Kingdom in crisis. So Bhisma attended that function. he called the Ministers and as ked them about it. Adi Parva. The gods showered flowers on the scene. at the Svayamvara. Vicitravirya married Ambika and Ambalika. But Bhisma stood firmly on his solemn oa th to continue as a life-long bachelor.

(M. (M. Sabha Parva.B. Duryodhana asserted that he would not give so muc h land to the Pandavas as to put a dot with a needle.B. (14)Bhisma stopped Bhlma who rushed out to kill Sisupala. Chapter 126.B.B. Verse 27). (16) In the battle against Sisupala.B. Verse 77). Dharmaputra had entruste d to Bhisma. (M. (4) The Maharsis who were the inhabitants of Satasrnga told Bhisma about the bir th of the Pandavas. Adi Parva.B. (M. Verse 2). (11) He advised Yudhisthira to give the highest place of honour in that yajna to Sri Kr: na. B. At every stage in the story we see Bhisma's influence. Chapter 112). Verse 13). (8) He burst into tears and wept bitterly on hearing that Pandavas were burnt to death in the palace of lac and was about to offer them `Jalanjali'.B. (M. king of Gandhara. Bhisma was the chief protagonist in all these events relating to the Kauravas an d Pandavas. Verse 28) (12) Bhisma ridiculed Sisupala (Sabha Farva. (10) He had taken part in Dharmaputra's Rajasuya Yajna. Chapter 35. Verse 11). Ver se 6). . are given below:(1) Bhisma sent a messenger to Subala. Adi Parva. Daksinatya Patha). Chapter 42. Chap ter 130. (15) It was Bhisma who narrated the life story of Sisupala. Chapter 44.avas reappeared in the battle which took place as a result of the theft of King Virata's cows by the Kauravas. Chapter 36. Vidura came to him and secretly informed him that the Pandavas were not dead. Chapter33). king of Madra and secured Madr! to be marrie d to Pandu. to ask for the hand of Gandhari. The main even ts in which this superman who used to give shclter to Kauravas and Pandavas alik e. Verse 41). (M.B. Adi Parva. Sabha harva. Bhisma selected powerful Kings to help Sri Krsna. (M. With the failure of Sri Kr sna's mediation. (3) He brought about the marriage between Vidura and the daughter of Devaka. Chapter 149. Chapter 127. (9) He advised Duryodhana to give half the kingdom to the Pandavas. Chapter41). Adi Parva. the Kauravas and Pandavas encamped.B. (Sabha Parva. played a decisive role. Adi Pa rva. (Sabha Parva. Chapter 125. Adi Parva. (M. Adi Parva. (7) He engaged Dronacarya to teach archery to the princes. Adi Parva. (Sabha Farva. (M .on the opposite sides of th e field of kuruksetra. (M. to be married to Dhrtarastra. Chapte r 43). Just then. Chapter 113. the arrangements for that yajna. Chapter 202). Adi Parva. (M. (Sabha Parva. Verse 22).B. V erse 1). (13) Sisupala insulted Bhisma. (2) He went to the palace of Salya. Chapter 109. (5) Bhisma offered `Jalanjali' (worship with holy water) to Pandu at his death. (6) He performed the death anniversary of Pandu. preparing for a grim battle.

(18) Bhisma advised Duryodhana to be on friendly terms with the Pandavas. Verse 32). the greatness of Sri Krsna and Ar juna. (31) In connection with Amba's case. Chapters 188-192) . (27) Bhisma described all the Maharathis of the Pandava side to Duryodhana. Chapters 178-185) . (Udyoga parva. Chapters 165-168). Verse 19). Chapter 178. (Udyoga Parva. wal ked out of the council hall. Chapter. Chapter 125. Bhisma arra nged the regiments in order. the Vasus presented to Bhisma.000 soldi ers of the Pandavas everyday. Chapter 21. Chapter 123. Bhisma did not marry her. (Udyoga Parva. Chapter 52. (23) Duryodhana proposed to bind the hands and feet of Sri Krsna who was expecte d to come as the envoy of the Pandavas. (Udyoga Parva. Bhisma ridiculed Karna and praised Arjuna. But he did not use that arrow against Parasurama. Pleased with the fight. (Udyoga Parva. King Salva. Although Paras urama pleaded with him on behalf of Aruba. (33) Bhisma himself told Duryodhana that he had the strength to annihilate all t .(17) Once Bhisma asked the sage Pulastya about the value and importance of pilgr image. Bhisma stopped the fight and prostrated at the feet of ParaWrama. after sending Duryodhana to Hastinapura. Hearing this. But he did not accept her. Bhisma in great anger. since the gods and Narada prevented him from doing so. Udyoga Parva' Chapter 156. (Vana Parva. (21) When the Kauravas were contemplating to fight against the Pandavas who had returned after their incognito life. At last. Verse 27). Chapter 49. (28) Bhisma told Duryodhana that Sikhandf and the Pandavas should not be killed. he explained to Duryodhana. Verse 21). (Udyoga Parva. pitrs and Gangadevi. t he Prasvapana arrow. Verse 16). Chapter 64). Verse 2). (26) As desired by Duryodhana. (Udyoga Parva. (Udyoga Parva. Chapter 172. (Virata Parva. (29) Bhisma offered piija to Parasurama. (24) Bhisma strongly advised Duryodhana to make a treaty of peace with the Panda vas. 88. (who had fallen down unconscious) from the battlefield. Bhfsma declared the Rathis and Maharathis who be longed to the Kaurava side. (Virata Fa rva. (Udy oga Parva. it was the charioteer who removed Bhisma. was rejecte d by him and returned to Bhisma again. Verse 4). verse 2). (32) Bhisma narrated to Duryodhana the story of Amba who was re-born as Sikhandi . Verse 16). Chapter 82. (30) Athba who was allowed by Bhisma to marry her lover. (Udyoga Par va. (19) In the battle which was fought by Kauravas against King Virata. (22) At that time. (20) A grim fight took place between Arjuna who went to help the Virata army and Bhisma. Chapters 169172) . Verse 20). At the request of the gods. a duel was fought on the field of Kuruksetr a between Bhisma and Parasurama. Verse 4) . Bhisma started the duel after asking for the pe rmission of Parasurama. (Udyoga Parva. (25) He declared that he would not kill the Pandavas but would kill 10. Chapter 253. (Vana Parva.

(Bhisma Parva. (10) Bhisma praised the greatness of Brahmapfta Stotra. 6) Bhf. Chapter 95. Verse 12). the horses turned round and ran a way. (8) Bhisma gave orders to Dronacarya and Duryodhana to save Bhagadatta who fell in danger. Verse 44). (Bhisma Parva. . (14) Bhisma wounded Bhimasena and defeated Satyaki. Chapter 64. (Bhisma Parva.sma in Bharata Tuddha. (Bhisma parva. V erse 21). Chapter 64. Verse 8). (Bhisma Parva. (Bhisma Parva. (Bhisma Parva. (13) There was again a fight with Arjuna. (19) He ordered Bhagadatta to fight with Ghatotkaca. (Bhisma Parva. (1) On the first day of the battle a duel took place between Bhisma and Arjuna. (Bhisma Parva. Chapter 59. . (5) Seeing that the army of the Kauravas was being scattered in all directions b y the violent strokes of Arjuna Bhisma ordered to stop the second day's battle. (15) Bhisrna wounded King Virata. dragging the chariot with them. Chapter 80. Verse 2). (Bhisma Parva. (17) He deprived Dharmaputra of his chariot. (Bhisma Parva. (Bhisma Parva. (Bhisma Parva. (Bhisma Parva. (Udyoga Parva. Verse 29). Chapter 71. Chapter 88. Verse 11 ). (34) Before the beginning of the battle. (Bhisma Parva. Ch apter 48. the son of king Virata.he Pandavas. (Bhisma Parva. (12) A terrible fight took place between Bhisma and Bhimasena. Verse 14) . Chapter 193. Chapter 45. Chapter 52). Chapter 60. (6) Bhisma challenged Çré Krsna for the fight. Chapter 6 8. Verse 96) . Ch apter 70). Chapter 55. Chapter 71). (18)When Bhimasena killed Bhisma's charioteer. (3) There was again a terrible fight with Arjuna. (9) Bhisma told Duryodhana that Arjuna and Krsna were the incarnations of Nara a nd Narayana. Chapter 43. (Bhisma Parva. Bhisma granted him permission and blessed him. Verse 114).(Bhisma Parva. Verse 25). Verse 42). (Bhisma Parva. Chapter 86. (2) In the battle Bhisma killed Sveta. Verse 3). Verse 8). Chapter 73. (Bhisma Parva. (4) Satyaki killed Bhisma's charioteer. verse 64). Yudhisthira went to Bhisma and asked fo r his permission to start it. (7) Fought again with Arjuna. Bhisma put an end to the bat tle. Chapter 69. (16) Duryodhana who was frightened by Bhimasena's deeds of valour. Verse 2). Verse 17) . (11) Seeing Sikhandi rushing forward to oppose him. was encourage d by Bhisma. Chapters 65-68) .

Chapt er 117. the he roism of Ariuna. Chapter 9 8. Verse 43). (Bhisma Parva. (35) He exhorted the Kings to put an end. Chapter 119. Chapter 121. described to Dussfisana. (39) Vyasa sent Dharmaputra to Bhisma to learn the mysteries of "Dharma' ' from Bh isma before his (Bhisma's) death. shot by Ariuna's arrow. (30) Bhisma who was wounded by Ar juna's arrows. (Bhisma Parva. Verse 104). verse 76). (22) Bhisma killed 14. Chapter 121. (Bhisma Parva. Chapter 120. (B hisma Parva. Verse 27). Chapter 108. Chapters 118. to the battle. brother of King Virata . Chapter 106. Verse 51).000 Maharathis who belonged to the Cedi. (Sqnti Parva. (Bhisma Parva. (Bhisma Parva. he aske d for a pillow to Arjuna. Verse 28). (Bhisma Parva. Chapter 118. Verse 18) . (Bhisrria Parva. Chapter 122. (40) Bhisma said that Sri Krsna was more competent to give advice on "Dharma" th an himself. 119). who was neither man nor woman. Verse 56) .(20) He swore that all except Sikhandi would be killed. (26) Bhisma. (Bhisrna parva. Chapter 119. Verse 64). (3 7) He advised Duryodhana to end the battle. (34) When he found that they were not paying any heed to his entreaties. (29) He considered the misery of life and the sweetness of death. Chapter 104. (Bhisma Parva. Chapter 119. (9hisma Parva. Chapter 107. Verse 29). Verse 4). (Bhisma Par va. (23)Bhisma explained to Dharmaputra. Chapter. (Bhisma Parva. Chapter 119. Verse 13). (Bhisma Parva. 120. Verse 2) . Kasi and Karusa c ountries. the method by which he (Bhisma) could be ki lled. (Santi Parva. (25) He allowed Yudhisthira to launch an attack on himself (Bhisma). Chapter 115. (38) As Karna wished for `Virasvarga' (Heaven for the valiant) Bhisma permitted him to fight. (28) Bhisma routed the Paradava army most disastrously. Verse 87) . Chapter 52. (Bhisma Parva. Verse 34). Chapter 120. (31) Arjuna shot his arrow at Bhisma and made him fall down from his chariot. Verse 38). (36) Bhisma begged for water to Arjuna. verse 34). (Bhisma Parva. (27) Bhisma who recovered and rose again. (Bhisma Parva. Verse 34) . fell down unconscious. Chapter 37. (Bhisma Parva. Verse 18). (24) He declared that he would not fight with Aikhandi. (32) He told Hamsa that he would remain alive until the sun came to Uttarayana. (21) Satyaki and Bhisma fought again. (Bhisma Parva. (33) Bhisma who fell and lay on a bed of arrows begged for a pillow to the Kings . killed atanika. Verse 5).

(Asramavasika Parva. "Rajya Dharma". A sub division of Anusasana Parva. (51) After his death. Chapter 166. who was neither man nor woman. one of the Astavasus. (Anu sasana Parva. Santi Parva. Bharatasattama. Ve rse 10). Verse 37). Bharatarsabha. Verse 30). Kauravya. V erse 21). S antanuja. Chapte r 56. Apagasuta. Kurukulodvaha. Sahadeva. Gangeya. Santanava. A sub parva in the Mahabharata. verse 50). Other names of Bhisma. Taladhvaja. killed Bhi sma. (43) After giving his advice to Yudhisthira Bhisma gave him permission to enter Hastinapura. Chapter 14. BHISMA PARVA. Apageya. Bhisma renounced his body. Chapter 158. (46) With Sri Krsna's permission. Verse 19) . Chapter 167. Chapter 168.(41) When the frightened and ashamed Yudhisthira approached him. Kurusrestha. (AnuSasana Parva. Kurupati. (44) He gave advice to Dhrtarastra regarding his duties and responsibilities. BHISMA ASVARGAROHAHA PARVA. (42)Bhisma explained to Yudhisthira. Santanuputra. Kurudvaha. Bhisma remained in Heaven as Dyau. Bhisma cheered him up. A sub Parva of Bhisina Parva. (49) Vyasa and Sri Krsna told Gangadevi that Bhisma died by Arjuna's arrow. BHISMAVADHA PARVA. It comprises Chapters 43-122 of . Bhismaka was a lso called Hiranyaroma. Kaurava. Gangasuta.the Bhisma Parva. Satyasandha . with the help of various examples and illus trations. Chapter 4). 168. Kauravanandana. "Apaddharma". Chapter 31. (47) The Kauravas performed the funeral rites and jalanjal i (purification by sprinkling water) of Bhisma (Anusasana Parva. Chapter 5. those who died in t he battle and among them Bhisma was also present.Chapters 167 and 168 of Anusasana Parva are included in this. Verse 21). Pandyas a nd Kaisikas. A friend '4 Bhisma. Bhagirathiputra. (Sabha Parva. Sagaragasuta. Chapter 167. Udyoga Parva. (Sabha Parva. Chapter 165). (48) Gangadevi lamented that Sikhandi. (45) He asked for Sri Krsna's permission to renounce his body. (Anusasana Parva. He had five sons. verse 7). Chapter 14. Bhismaka. Jahnaviputra. Verse 2). ( Svargarohana Parva. He defeated the Krathas. Prapitamaha. C hapter 168. Kurmarddula. Verse 30). Pitamalia. Kurukulasrestha. to Anusasana Parva. K urumukhya. Santanusuta. Kurunandana. he co nquered and ruled over a fourth of the world. (Santi Parva. . Nadija. Verse 11). He was very much devoted tb Jarasandha. Bhismaka was the fathe r of Rukmini. and "Moksa Dharma". Bharata. Chapter 3 2. BHISMAKA. (50) On a later occasion Vyasa invoked into the river Ganga. Chapter 168. Devavrata. King of Vidarbha and born in the Bhoja dynasty. . the wife of Sri Krsna. Vasu are other names of Bhisma used in the Mahabharata. (A nusasana Parva. (Anusasana Parva. who was on a triumphal tour in connection with the Pandava's asvamedha yajna fought and defeated Bhismaka at Bhojakatanagara. (Santi Parva. (Anusasana Parva.

Chapter 85 says that a bath at this tirtha is as ef ficacious as an Asvamedha yajna. Chapter 2. BHOGAVATI IV. Mahabharata Vana Parva. A female attendant of Subrahmanya. A follower of Sudas. ga1ya Parva. Verse 20). "Sarasvatikanthabharana" and "Srrigaraprakasa". Drona Par va. Another name for the river Sarasvati. BHOJA III. the king took her to the holy river and immersed her again in it. A king of YaduvarMa. verse 124) BHOGAVAN. Verse 6. Vasuki. From that day. he gave instructions to them to go and search for her in Bhogava tipura. An exquisitely beautiful virgin of the country. I was a female deer. dealing with the merits and . B. lives there. BHOJA 1. Of these. Verse 8). Valmiki Ramayatia. Once this king Bhoja met a woman with a fantastic shape. Bhoja is credited w ith the authorship of two scholarly books entitled. namely. In Rgveda. Bhoja observes that besides the four styles (in poetry) laid down by Rudraka. A king of the ancient country named Marttikavata. Sauvira. (Manusmrti. Verse 12 says that in the course of his triumphant over-running of the eastern lands. A mountain-Mahabharata. (M. B. BHOJA V. A king who became renowned as a Sanskrit scholar. It is better known as Vasuki tir tha. BHOGAVATI V. Chapter 2 4. Sabha Parva. the te rra "Bhoh" is used as a suffix to his name. 7-2-2). BHOJA. (M. Sabha Parva. BhojavarWa takes its source from this king. BHOGAVATI II. Verse 79 s ays. Her body was of human shape while her face was that of a female deer. Chapter 10. BHOGAVATI I.BHO:-I. On one occasion the who le of my body except my face. 3rd Mandala.B. Verse 33 says that Satyaki abducted her and made her his . figures of speech. BHOJA IV. Vana Parva. 7th Sukta w e find that this -Bhoja had given help to sage Visvamitra in performing his Asva medha gaga. Nagaloka or Patala. It is believed that he lived from 1018 to 1054 A. Chapter 46. Santi Parva. Ganga of Patala. 58th Anuvaka. When the king asked her about her strange shape. (M. Bhimasena conqu ered this mountain also. Chapter 185. A term used for greeting elders. "Avanti" and "Magadhi". we see that this king had attended the Svayamvara of Draupadi. the first is a compendious volume in five chapters . She was at once trans formed into an actu al woman and the king married her.B. Kiskindha-kanda describes the place as th e city infested with serpents (ragas) and guarded by them. 41st Sarga. Daksinatya Patha. Mahabharata Dro na Parva. (Skanda Purana. A place of holy bath at Prayaga.D. When Sugriva sent monkeys in all directions in search of Sita. Chapter 30. Chapter 38) BHOCAVATI III. Mahabharata. etc. (M. King of serpe nts." On hearing her story. she related her past history as follows:-"In my previous birth.defects of poetry. that he died under the stroke of the sword of Maharaja Usinara. Chapter 48. In Mahabharata Adi Pa rva. there ar e two more styles. V erse 8). His capital city was Dhara. He was slain by Abhimanyu at the battle of Kuruksetra. was plunged in a river and those parts of the bo dy under the water were transformed into human shape. A king of Kanyakubja. I have bee n changed into this form. BHOJA II. When sa1uting an elderly person. Chapter 166.

She was abducted by Jyamagha'of the Yadava family and married to his son. Sumali. Once Saha deva. One day she treac herously gave poisoned sweets to Ganesa. M.B. soph ists.B. caught hold of Bhrgu and killed him. (Gavesa 2-21). 2) Berth. BHOJA (M) . Hearing about this. she took birth in the house of Kasyapa to kill Ganesa. A Raksasi who was the follower of Jart bhasura. BHOJAKATA. A prince of the land of Sauvira. It was at this place that gel K rsna defeated Rukmi. BHRAMARI. Akampana. In the Daksayaga. 5th Chapter.wife. by the Raksasa. BHOSA. (BHOJA-VAMSA). Chapter 31 and Udyoga Parva. 1) General. A Bhoja princess. Members of the Bhrgu vamsa are called `Bhargavas. He was a comrade of Jayadratha. Adi Parva.sage. and those who try to assert their self-importance-the se are the eight classes of "Bhosas". Vans Parva. But in M R Adi Parva. (M. Vikata. Those who feel derided. He was the founder of Bhrgu vamsa . the brother of Rukmini at the time of Rukmini's Svayamvara .1 From these lines we see that Bhrgu was born from Brahma's skin (tusk) . Praaia Dy I timan Kaikasi and Kuriibhinasi. Therefore the Bhrgu who was born from Brahma's skin must be considered as having . Sup arsva. Dhumra ksa. we may examine Bhrgu's birth. w ho emerged from Siva's locks. Siva was enraged and the monster spirits who emerged from his matted locks caught hold o f the Rtviks. the sage Bhrgu became famous. comm itted suicide by jumping into the sacrificial fire. A word meaning a comic. The original name of Bhojakata was "Kundinapura".' Bhrguvamsa has been reputed for many of its members who were Rsis of great sanctity and gtandeur. Satidevi who wa s in rage and grief because her husband (Siva) was not invited to the yaga. This is a branch ofYaduvamsa. Sabha Parva. those who babble. Vidarbha. those who pretend to be blind. those who are obstinate. He was the son of Ketumati. Bhramara was killed by Arjuna. The y had ten sons Prahasta. A Raksasa. Bhrgu had two incarnations. BHRAMARA. BHRASAKARNA. we find another version regarding his birth. (See the word Pataliputra). The first time he was born from Brahma's skin. In co urse of time. "Utsarhgad Narado jajne Dakso 'rilgusthat svayaaiibhuvah / Pranadvasisthah samj ato Bhrgustvacah karatkratuh". and Bhrasakarna and four daughters-Veka. (See jyamagha) . stupid or eccentric person. BHOJIKA. Kalakamukha. In that p assage we read that Bhrgu was born from "Vahni" (fire). The capital of Vidarbha. Prakvata. when the latter abducted Pancali.B. Danda. As directed by Jambha sura. A . In the light of these tw o statements. Puspotkala. A Brahmans. thos e who pretend to be deaf. (Utters Ramayana). Bhosas are of eight kinds. BHRGU. GaneSa detected her treachery and fist ed her to death. Chapte r 217. this sage was pres ent as one of the Rtviks(ofliciating priests). Chapter 265 describes how Bhramara w alked behind the.chariot of Jayadratha with banner in his hand. one of the Pandavas conquered this city. Verse 18). Chapter 158) . BHOJYA. On that occasion. (M. Bhagavata caturtha skandha says that the Bhuta named Nandisvara. those who indulge in hollow laughter. Samhrada. the son of Brahma.

The enra ged Dyiaharsi Bhrgu cursed Mahavisnu to be born as a mortal in this world and to suffer the patags of separation from his wife. Ruru and his wife Pramadvara had a son. Dyutiman who h ad a son Rajavan. promised to find a remedy far this somehow. From that Rajavan. the son of Bhrgu had two sons. This is the second Bhrgu Vamsa. This child who was born from Brahma's semen which fell in the sacrifici al fire. Under the stroke of Va3ra she fell down. Devayani. Long ago all the Maharsis joined together to perform a yaga on the bank of the river Sarasvati. In that war. he directed his weapon Cakra against the Maharsi. 5 By his first wife Bhuta. Vajrasirsa. by his wife Sukanya. Cyavana had a son. This second b irth was at the famous Brahma-yajna of Varuna. family) . Mahavisnu used his Vajrayudha (Vajra weapon) against Bhrgu's wi fe. Bhrgu was born again in Vaivasvata Manvantara. When the curse was pronounced ag ainst Mahavisnu. Second Birth: The e second birth of man. They are given below separately:-First birth: Bhrgu and his wife Khyat i had a daughter Laksmi and three sons. Each birth of Bhrgu gave rise to a separat e family. She at once went to the forest and started a tapes for the annihilation of the Devas . Since he was born at Varuna's yaga he is sometimes called "Varun3 Bhrgu". a son was born to Arusi. Some of them voted for Brahma. Parasurama.cla and Alarka and a daughter. Cyavana. Diti. Mahameru's daug hters. and Savana. He was reborn from fire. he had his sons. They ukra. Puloma. Vasislha from his Pr ana. Caj. was brought up by Varuna and his wife Carsani. Mother of Sukra. From Aur va was born Rcika. gaunaka. To fulfil the condition of Bhrgu's curse. while a third group stood for S iva's superiority. Bhrgu fled in panic and at last begged pardon and prayed for shelter to Mahavisnu himself an the ocean of milk. not only were the Asuras defeated but many of them were also ki lled. 4) Bhrgu cursed Mahaai. Markandeya was born to M. from Rcika Jamadagni and from Jamadagni. 5) Bhrgu kicked Vim. Prana and Mrkandu were born to those two couples. Bhrgu from his skin and Kratu from his arm. as Brahm a's son. Pravati. Bhuta. Daksa from his Amgusha. Prana had a son.snu. Consequently Bhrgu is re ferred to as "Varunaputra" and "Carsaniputra" in some Puranas. 3) Bhrgu Tjariafa. Ayati and Niyati became the wives of Dhata and Vidhata.rkandu and from Markandeya was born Vedasiras. They unanimously elected Bhrgu to ascertain and find out the truth of kite matter. Vidhata and Kavi. Sukanya and Arusi. others declare d that Visnu was more mighty than the other two. "tkadasa Rudras" (el "Rudra Parsadas" *Narada was born from Brahma's lap. Varuna's son. even Rudras) arid second Bhrgu Vamsa is the family which took its origin from th Bhrgu as the son of Varuna. Once a terrible war broke out between Devas and Asur as. (Attendants of Rudra) and by his second wife Sarupa he had a crore of Rudras. Puloma. Suci. a headless corpse. Visnu withdrew his Cakra. Varuna= Carsani Varuni Bhrgtt---Puloma . (Bhrgu . Visnu agreed to incarnate in the world as Ari Rama. Part I.1 The family tree is given below. Suka. the mother of the Asuras. Chapter 10). A dispute arose among them as to who was th e most mighty among the Trtmurtis. Bhrgu married the wo had six children who were. Aurva. Dhata. The family tree of this first Bhrgu Vamsa is given below:-(See Visnu pura. Puloma. Bhrgu Vamsa multiplied. Cy avana had two wives.died at Daksayaga. respectively. the son of Dasaratha and to experience the pain of separation from his wife. Two sons.na. (Uttara Ramayana). with tears in her eyes. the Devas were alarmed and they sought the protecti on of Mahavisnu. Bhrgu himself restored Puiorna to l ife. As the tapes gained force. complained to Bhrg upati. Ruru or Sunaka was the son of Pravati b y the Apsara Ghrtaci.

some Munis went. Even by hearin g about the greatness and glory of this Bhrgu Tirtha. 38th Sarga). 7) Other details. in the midst of many Munis. A divine light s pread there. Bhrgu . "Bhrgu Tirtha" on the western side of Dasasvamedha. shrank bask saying. Verse 127 says that Bhrgu had s even sons. Visnu who sprang up suddenly. (1) It was Bhrgu who gave the boon for having progeny to Sagar a. 6) The origin of Bhrgu Tirtha. to Dvaraka. There. (2) Once when. Seeing Mahavisnu whose task is the pre servation of the world. Sagara. This foot-print still remains on Visnu's chest and is known b y the name "Srivatsa".him to embrace and welcome him. (4) Bhrgu Maharsi was a prominent member. Those who bathe in the holy w ater of this place attain Heaven and they will not be born again.). He begged pardon of the sage. Bhrgu p rayed that the place where he was doing tapas. Brahma was provoked by thus act of disrespect. The hull in the course of its gambols broke up and destroyed the earthen covering on his body which was made by the termites.B. and Savana. It is here that Bhrgu once offered tapes to Si va. Chapte r 4. his hair became matted and discoloured. went to the Asrama of Bh rgu. the Munis came to the conclusion that Mahavi sztu is the noblest of the Trimurtis.should become a holy spot. In this way. "Do 'not touch me ? " Siva became angry and was about to hit him with his trident when Parvati stopp ed him. in the pr esence of Brahma who was seated. After a hundred years. Bhrgu became angry and chased the bull. There he saw Mahavisnu in a deep slumber. (Padma Purana. All sin is removed by a mere sight of this sacred Tirtha. sleeping like: an irresponsible person. Mahabharata Anuiasana Parva Chapter 85. His body was completely covered with earth heaped up by termites. Chapter 20. (Brahmanda Purana. saw Bhrgu standing before him . Bhrgu was one of those Munis. blessed the king that he would have numerous children by one wife and one son who would be progenitor of a vain "a. Bhrgu. (See the word Samba). Siva rose from his seat and approached .Bhrgu set out to Dt:valoka. namely Cyavana Vajrasila. who was pleased. Aurva. by the other wife. Siva ag reed to bless Bhrgu. Bhrgu left the place without a word and went to Siva's place. He declared that he would carry Bhrgu's footprin t permanently on his chest as a sign of his repentance for having shown disrespe ct to the Maharsi. But he was stunne d by the sight of the bull rising up to heaven through the air. . (3) Parasurama.in Yudhislhira's assembly. King of the solar dynasty. Devi I3hagavata. guci. Saptama Skandha says that Bhrgu had married two daughters o f Daksa. There is a sacred spot called. Samba and other Yadavas mocked them and the Munis cursed them. Siva sent his bull to the place where Bhrgu was sitting. Parvati interceded with him on behalf of Bhrgu. Ch apter 62). (Valmi ki Ramayana. Brahma and other Devas and the Kinnaras still worship this Bhrgu Tirtha. Siva appeared before him and asked him what boon he wanted. First he went to Brahma's assembly. z . Siva gr anted his prayer and from that day. with his two wives. Kesini and Sumati. Verse 16). the place became famous under the name "Bhrg u Tirtha".. When S`iva wa s still not propitiated. the founder of the family and received his blessings. Owing to the austerity of his tapes. Bhrgu gave him a kick on his breast. Bala-kanda. (Bhagavata. Dasama Skandha). pe rformed tapas at Bhrgu prasravana in the Himalayas. after exterminating the Ksatriya kings. Bhrgu took his seat on a stool. one will be cleared of all sins and find an easy way to Sivaloka. sukraa Varenya. (M.

B. (6) Bhrgu was at member of Brahma's assembly also. (M. (10) Once Bhrgu lectured on the origin of the earth. Verse 35) . Chapter 11 . Drona Parwa.(5) He was also a member of Indra's assembly. Parva. (M. who was hiding in Agastya's locks of hair. Chapter 187). His legs became so weak that they were unable to support his body. (14) Once Bhrgu bestowed Brahminhood on a King named Vitahavya. (16) It was Bhrgu who gave the necessary advice to Agastya to depose Nahusa from Indra's post. (M. (8) Sri Krsna who went as the messenger of peace to Hastinapura.B. (M. (15) He got the name "Bhrgu" because he was born out of fire. BHRGUTUNGA. Verse 57). BHRIVGI. (M. AnuSdsana Pa rva. A place made sacred by the performance of tapas by Bhrgu. Vana Parva. Once he went to Kailasa and began to go round Siva to pay homage to him. Chapter 187). Chapter 7. (M. Sabha Parva. along with the slag a Bhrgu. So he took the form of a female beetle (Bhrngi) and bore d his way through a hole made in the place where their bodies were united and th us went round Siva alone.B. Verse (9) Bhrgu entered the scene of battle between the Kurus and Pandavas and tried t o persuade Dronacarya to withdraw from the fight. (12) Bhrgu discussed in a logica1 manner. the principle of life anti the transmt gration of the soul. Chapter 83. (Santi Parva.B. Verse 19). Chapter 116.B. Parvati was angry at this slight shown to her and curs ed him to become physically weak. (For more details see the 6th para under Bhrgu). 61st Sarga). . A peak on which the sage Bhrgu performed tapas. Cha pter 100). ( M. (13) He made a critical examination of the merits and defects of racial discrimi nation. Sabha Parva. Maharsis) . It was by Bhrgu's brilliance that Indra's glory was heightened. Rcika had lived ther e with his wife and children. travelled in Da ksinavarta. etc. Verse 34) . (Santiparva. So he prayed to Siva again and he blessed him with a third leg. (7) Once Bhrgu blessed his son Rcika and his daughter-in-law Satyavati that they would have children. Bala-kanda. Verse 29) . (M. Chapter 30.B. Chapter 85. (11)Bhrgu explained to Bharadvaja how the Pancabhutas except the sky originated (Santi Parva. Udyoga Parva. Anusasana Parva. A Maharsi who was a devotee of Siva. (17) There is a story that Nahusa kicked Agastya on the head while the latter wa s carrying Nahusa's palanquin and that Bhrgu. (Valmiki Ramayana. . Philosophy off life. Chapter 128). Anusiasana . BHRGUTIRTHA. he could not go round Siva separately. cursed Nahusa and changed him into a python. He did not have much reverence for Parvati. But since Parvati and Siva were sitting t ogether as one body. Chapter 190 . Chapter 183). In this way Bhrngi became a Maharsi with three legs. (M.B.B.B. Santi Parva. Verse 105).

BHULINGA (M). When he feels the burden too heavy he shakes his head and ear th tremors follow. Chapter 43). The first sound of i t was "BHCH".i But this bird lived by pecking at and eatin g the flesh between the teeth of a lion. The great procreator Brahma seemed to emerge from the centre of the anda. daughter of Sarvasena. BHUJANGA. and accepting the advice of Mudga la. we see that he had another son Suhotra by a woman Vijaya. The bi rd exhorts people not to act in a rash way (Ma Sahasa) and at the same time acts rashly. From Mahabharata Adi Parva. BHIJMANYU I. the fisherman was dazed. This viscous matter gradually solidified and became the ear th. A Rajarsi (royal sage). BHUJYU. an elephant's trunk began to grow from the middle of his forehead. The prince and the soldiers sank into the sea. started the worship of Gane'a with single-minded devotion. When the boat in which they sailed had reached mid-ocean. Suhota. Sukavi. The cry of this bird resembles "MA SAHASA". his father Bharata entrusted him with the affairs of the Kingdom. As a result of it . and the third was "SVAIj".67). they were Divirath a. (Vamana Purana. A fisherman. Verse 33. (R gveda. 40th Sarga). 1st Mandala. Where the anda originally was became the source of that supreme effulgence. A king who fought on the side of Duryodhana in the Bharata Yuddha. 116th Sukta. Mudgala took pity on' Bhrsundi and advised him to worship Lord Ganes a. The garbha jala (the water contained in the anda) became the oceans and rivers of the world . BHUTKAMPA. it came to be called Aditya (adi-first). Suhotra. it was caught in a storm and wrecked. A son of Kadru by Kasyapa prajapati. He used to earn his living by theft. But in the presence of the Brahmanic effulgence of the Maharsi. In the creation of the world. the second was "BHUVAH". (Earthquake). Suyaju. King o f Kasi. The cause of earthquake according to ancient belief is given below:The earth is being supported and held in its position by an elephant called Virupaksa. A bird which lived on the opposite side of the Himalayas. So the combina tion "Bhur Bhuvah Svah" was formed. King Tugra sent his son with an army across the sea to conquer the enemies in a distant island.). the Lord broke the beginningless "Anda" ( the primal egg or seed) and from it the sound "Om" emerged. A king who was the grandson of King Dusyanta and the son of Bharata . and Rcika. (Valmiki Ramayana. mistaki ng him for Ganapati. When Bhumanyu grew up. Bhrsundi stopped hi m. Verse 19. the son of Tugra. Adi Parva. we see that he was born by t he blessing of Bharadvaja. BHU (H). (Ganesa : 1. As it was the first radiant light. Chapte r 95. was visited by Indra. In Mahabharata. Bhrsundi wh o thus acquired a shape closely resembling Ganesa. A little of the water became a highl y viscous substance. BHUJAKETU. Chapter 94. His mother was Sunanda. From that time Bhrsundi gave up his evil ways. Once when the Maharsi Mudgala was passing through a forest . Sisupala mentioned this bird as an exam ple to illustrate that Bhisma's advice was at variance with his practice. A t that time th° prince prayed to the Asvins who saved Bhujyu from drowning and car ried him back to the palace in boats and chariots travelling through the air. That radiance dried up all water. Th is story is given in the Rgveda where the adventures of Asvins are described. Bala-kanda. 17th Anuvaka. Then came the most adorable and superlative effulgence of the creator (Savita). Bhumanyu had six sons by his wife Puskarini.BHRSUNDI. a Dasa .

mountains. It was cut into m any pieces and each of the pieces was deposited in each pore. Moon. a son named Mangala was born to them. (Daksinatya Patha) says that the goddess Bhumi was the daughter of Brahma and that she was married by Mahavisnu. The births of B humi and its basic goddess are in two different ways. Mahavisnu woke up and killed Madhu and Kait abha. In every por e of that Mahavirat who was lying on the surface of the water. (K athasaritsagara. A Deva Gandharva. At once Maha visnu appeared in the form of a Pig and lifted up the Earth on its horns. One half of the broken anda became sky and the other half became the earth. Ghatesa is the son of Mangala. That mind stood connected with each of the pores equally. Covva. forests. Stars and other planets. Mangala has another name. Sun. . these Bhumis sank again into those pores as before. Navama Skandlta). Of the many versions gi ven in the Puranas regarding the origin of earth. at the behest of Lord Visnu. oceans. Mahavisnu fell in love wit h her and with the brilliance of a crore of suns. 3) Bhiimi Devi (Goddess Earth) is the wife of Maha Visnu. grandson of Kuru.Chapter 94. Siva and other Devas. three are given below:1) Long ago. He participated in the celebrations connected wi th Arjuna's birth. Kathapithalambaka. each of them has its own Brahma . all people began to offer worship to Bh . Visnu. At t hat time. Navama Skandha). It was these Prthv i pieces which became "Bhumis" at the time of creation. BHUMANYU II. At the time of the flood s. A man cam e out of it. There is another Bhamanyu. Meru. Verse 59. BHUMANYU III. there are the earth. stood up in her charming figure. From him was made Nature (Prakrti) for the creation of the Universe . the seven islands. Verse 35) . Adi Parva.B. Also. Fro m their combination was formed the Bhuta called "Maha Prthvi". The Mahabharata. they all perish in the floods. When the Earth floated on the surface of water like a lotus leaf. BHUMI I. It is from that time that Bhumi Devi became Mahavis nu's wife. Siva took that anda and split it. towards the end of the age of floods. Later from it were formed the "Pancamahabhutas". had sexual union with her for the period of one Devavarsa. As a result of their union. After the birth of Mangala. The thick fat of these Raksasas hardened into the earth. (Devi Bhagavata . 3) In the beginning Mahavisnu (Mahavirat Purusa) spread everywhere. They persecuted Brahma. Adi Parva. A lotus sprang up frrom i Ma Sahasa = Do not act rashly. (Devi Bhagavata. In each of these Brahmand as. Bhumi D evi who was pleased. The earth on which we live is the Mrtpinda of which the basic deity is this Bhumidevi. the navel of Visnu and from its top Brahma was born.rha maid. a King of the Lunar dy nasty and son of Dhrtarastra. The Puranas maintain that Bhami has a Dwi (goddess). The earth. (M. there was a Brahm anda. 1) General. Since all the different Bhumis in all the Brahman das had been formed artificially. From it were born two Raksasas named Madhu a nd Kaitabha. Himavan. Siva cut open his thigh and let fall a drop of blood in the water. Liquid matter began to flow out of Visnu's ears on both sides. the earth was in a liquid state. It assumed the form of an "anda" (egg). In Varaha Kalpa (Age o f the Pig) the Asura Hiranyaksa carried the Earth and Submerged it under water. (2) Mahavisnu lay on the surface of water which spread everywhere in the beginni ng. mentioned in Maha Bharata. In course of time that Virat obtained mind. Chapter 91. 2nd Taranga).

by Dhruva. Verse 7) . Parvati who was angry at this. Santi Parva. (7) Parasurama gifted the whole earth to the sage Kasyapa. Narakasura was Bhumidevi's son by Hiranyaksa. (See the word Sita). Chapter 29. was a devotee of Visnu. Chapter 34. Chapter 38). Once Parvati and Siva indulged in their sexual act for many years. Bala-kanda. the greatness of Brahminhood. Sabh5. Chap ter 154. Since you have pr evented me from giving birth to a son. Verse 44) . in the form of a pig. When she was abandoned by her husband. Caturtha Skanda). 6) Parvati's curse. Parva. 5) Bhumidevi and Prthu. the Asura. Sita was married b y the Kosala King S`ri Rama. Verse 5)." (Valmiki Ramayana. The gods approached Siva wit h a request to refrain and he agreed. Verse 30). At tha t time Bhumi devi appeared there and received him in her arms. Once the Emperor Prthu turned Bhumidevi into a cow and m ilched all resources from her. The earth began to shake to its foundations.B. Bhumidevi ind uced the sage Kasyapa to entreat Parasurama to stop his massacre of Bhixpalas. no children will be born to you in future . (5) At another time she explained to Sri Krsna the nature of GrhasthdSrarnadharm a.B. Siva's semen was discharged and fell on th e earth. the son of Hiranyakasipu. (6) On one occasion. Chapter 152. . The father did not like the son's devotion to Visnu. (Duties of a householder). (3) When Parasurama was carrying on the annihilation of Ksatriyas. Dasama Skandha we read that Narakasura was born as the result of this contact. Since Bhutnidevi had been the wife of the Asura Hiranyaks a she has also been called the'mother of the Asura clan. Navama Skandha). born on another occasion.B. Chapter 79."You Bhumi devi ! You will assume many forms and become the wife of many. Verse 2). Once he threw down Prahlada from the top of a high building. Sita was the daughter of Bhumidevi. Hiranyaksa's brother wa s Hiranyakasipu.sana Parva . (M. Chapter 97. After that this manta became popular for worship ping Bhumidevi. Bhumidevi lost her own form and vanished.B. 36th Sarga).B. (M. Verse 22). she was at l ast accepted by Bhumidevi within her own self. Drona Parva.B. BHUMI II. (M. Mahavisnu himself first worshipped her by reciting. Anusasana Parva. (4) Once she (Bhumidevi) described to Sri Kr sna. cursed Bhumidevi as follows:. Chapter 24). (Brahmanda Purana . (M. carried Bhumidevi on his horns' to Patala. 4) Bhumi and Prahlada. (M. Kasyapa prajapati paralysed her. see the word Prthu). Wife of Dhruva. Prahlada. This Bhami devil. AnuSiisana Parva.umidevi. (M. (2) Bhumidevi prayed to Sri Krsna and obtained Vaisnavastra for her son Narakasu ra. In Bhagavata. When Hiranyaka. (Bhagavata. the horns came in cont act with Bhumidevi and she became pregnant. ( Protectors of Bhumi=Ksatriyas). So he persecuted Prahlada in v arious ways. Anusa. (1) Narakasura has another name. (For details. "Bhauma". At that time. (Devi Bhagavata.B. when King Anga touched her. 7) Other details. From that time Bhumid evi has been called "Kasyapi" (daughter of Kasyapa). Anusasana Parva.the mantra-"Om HrimS`ridz-Krldi-Vasudhayai Svaha". (See the word Naraka I) . Daksinatya Patha. the daughter of Sisumara had two son s named Kalpa and Vatsala. (M.

B. Verse 14 says that at the battle of Kuruksetra he was slain by Bhimasena. BHUMIPAYA.B. A subdivision of Bhismaparva in Mahabharata. Chapter 67. Another Bhumi. Verse 14) BHURIHAN. Chapter 26.` Verse 14. A king in ancient India. (2) Other details. A king in the assembly of Yama. Somadatta. (M.B. (M.BHUMI III. A king of the Kuru dynasty. A king. anti Parva. we read that this King Bhuri was slain by Satyaki during the war bet ween Kauravas and Pandavas.Drona Parva. Verse 13). (BHIMABALA). Chapter 166. Verse 14). Chapter 2 77. who were named Krsna. He was the son of Somada. who was the wife of a king named Bhumipati is mentione d in M. Mahabharata Saly a Parva. They were . Verse 32).. Anusasana Parva. Svargarohana Parva. BHUMIPARVA. Vyasa's son. Gauraprabha. we read t hat they had attended the Svayamvara of Draupadi and in Sabha Parva. Chapter 185. Chapter 76). A king of ancient India. (M. anti Parva.B. Ud yoga Parva. BHURI I.B. Verse 16). Bhurisravas and Sala) In M. A visvadeva.B. (M. BHUPATI. Chapters 11 and 12 of B hisma Farva are included in this. Adi Parva. A Maharsi. This sage once went to Hastinap ura as a messenger of peace. (Ananda Rd mayana. A Ksatriya king of ancient India.B._!a (Kuru dynasty). Verse 61). the daughter of Pitrs. Chapte r 8. C hapter 166. Udyoga Parva. Adi Parva. He attained Heaven (Svargaloka) b y virtue of his having performed godana (gift of cow). BHIJMIRJAYA. BHURIBALA. He was the only son of Viradyumna. Chapter 127. A son of the sage Suka. M. In Drona Parva. the s on of Dusyanta. Chapter 20. Chapter 5. BHUMIPATI. She had four sons by gul>a. Bhurisravas had two brothers named Bhuri and Sala. Chapter 94 it is said that they had taken part in Yudhisthira's Rajasuya. and a daughter named Kirti. Anusasana Parva. BHUMIPALA.B. anti Parva. BHURI II. verse 75 says that King Amurtarayas gave a sword to Bhtzmiwaya who gifted it to Bharata. Sabha Parva. Campika and Surnati who were married b y Lava and Kusa respectively. BHIJRIDYUMNA III. Suka married Pivari. On the way he met with Sri Krsna whom he reverently worshipped by doing "Pradaksina". He was a king in ancient times. BHURIDYUMNA I.Prathama Skandha). a King.B. Bhuri and Devasruta. B. A Raksasa. king of the Kuru dynasty had thr ee sons. Bhuri obtained a place with the Visvede vas. One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. After death. Vivaha Kanda). (M. BHURISRAVA (1) General. BHURIKIRTI. He was born from a portion of an As ura called Krodhavasa. (M. Chapter 117. Chapter 91. a king of Kuruvam. BHURIDYUMNA II. Verse 51). He had two daughters. A warrior who fought on the side of the Kauravas. There is a reference to this King in M. Chapter 117. Bhuridyumna was los t somewhere in the forest. (M.B. He took his posit ion in the centre of the "Garuda Vyuha" (Name of a phalanx) formed by Drona. (Devi Bhagavata. Bhtzri.

B. (9) He killed the ten sons of Satyaki. Verse 33). (15) Enraged by Arjuna's action. (8) He fought with Satyaki (Bhisma Parva. Chapter 199 . Verse 25). (12) A duel was fought with Sikhandi. . Verse 1 4). (17) After death Bhurisravas became a Visvadeva. Chapter 141. Chapter 11. (Drona Parva. Chapter 63. (11) He fought a duel with Bhimasena. Verse 54). according to Mahabharata. (18) Some of the other names of Bhurisravas given in Mahabharata are:-Bhuridaksi na. Verse 8) . Verse 29). Kuru srestha. (M. (3) He once described to Duryodhana. Dcvapi. we see another statement that S`antanu. Chapter 43. Vers e 72). Bhuri. king of th e Lunar dynasty. (Drona Parva. Verse 16). t In Agnipurana. Chapter 185. Chapter 165. A king in ancient India. he arrived with an "Aksauhini" (A division of the army) in-order to give help to Duryodhana. In one of them lived this centuries-old bird. Salagraja. Verse 59). (Drona Parva. Chapter 143. (Udyoga Parva. The residence of this crow was a Kalpavrksa standing on a beautiful peak surrounded by luxuriant vegetation in the north-eastern. Kauravya. Chapter 5. Verse 63). There were numerous bird-nests on the so uthern branch of that Kalpavrksa. Verse 44). Kurudvaha. Somadatta. Chapter 67. Daksinatya Patha). Adi Parva. A dispassionate and large-hearted crow. (Drona Parva. (Bhisma Parva. Yupaketana. (7) On the first day of the battle at Kuruksetra Bhfzrisravas fought a duel with Samkha. Chapter 14 2. Udyoga Parva. (Bhisma Parva. Chapter 84. (M. had three scns. He was born from a portion of the Asura Kro dhavasa. Verse 35). Verse 16). (Bhisma Parva. Kauraveya. Chapter 34. Chapter 74.B. (Svargarohana Parva. Yupaketu. BHURITEJAS. (16) Satyaki killed Bhurisravas. Adi Parva. Adi Parva. 8ardula. Chapter 45. (Bhisma Parva. Chapter 143.all present at the Svayamvara of Draupadi. corner of Mahameru. Chapter 278. (M. Bhurisravas squatted on the ground to attain Sv arga (Heaven). Verse 35). Bhfiriiravas and gala. (6) Bhisma once remarked that Bhurisravas deserved to be counted among the Rathi s and Yuthapatis. C hapter 19. (10) Defeated Dhfstaketu in battle.B. (14) Arjuna cut off the left arm of Bhurisravas. (M. Verse 45).B. Verse 33) . BHU8UNDA. (13) Bhurisravas fell down under the stroke of Satyaki. the heroic qualities of the Pandavas and ad vised him to maintain peaceful relations with them. Kaurava. (5) In the war between Kauravas and Pandavas. Sabha Parva. (4) He took part in Yudhisthira's Rajasuya yajtia with his father and brothers. (Drona Parva. Balhika and Somada anti of them Balhika had four sons.

music. mountain ranges appeared. deep pits. I can remember this earth sinking into the ocea n five times and Lord Visnu taking the form of a tortoise. without trees. There was a display of many kinds of entertainments at that time. W e paid obeisance to our father and Alambusadevi and came to settle down here. I know that Hiranyaksa had taken the earth three times to Patala (underworld). Canda. the Devi woke up from hei trance and pleased with us. In another part of the sky. dancing. Siddha. The grac ious goddess (Brahmi) told them that in their present state they were unable to discharge their duties in drawing her chariot and so they were allowed to go and enjoy themselves wherever they liked. cr emation grounds. Aparahita. Besides these spirits who have hoofs on their head. Chief among these Ma. the whole earth was full of big rocks. Mountain peaks. Disputa tions in spiritual matters. The swans who were the vehicles of Brahmidevi were dancing in o ne place. B husunda resumed his story:"Long long ago. They have other followers also. he has also hordes of Mat rs in his retinue. King o f birds ! when were you born ? How did you become a great soul ? How old are you ? Have you recollections of the past ? Who was the prophet who suggested this r esidence for you?" The bird calmly replied as follows :. we went to our father (Ca nda) and off red our devoted services to him and prostrated before him and Alamb usadevi. are those children.trs are eight siste rs named. They blessed us. camels. Vasistha asked BhuSunda to tell him more about his past life. lifting it up. The Lord has incarnated six times as Bhargava Rama. the int oxicated swans indulged so freely in their amorous pleasures with Canda that the y became pregnant. he happened to hear about this cro w. hands in the hoof. I have seen the ocean of milk being churned twelve times. etc. are their haunts. gave birth to twenty-one sons. Jayanti. treta. At last when the merry-makings ended and all of them disperse d. Dvapara and Kali) the earth was filled with forest tre es and in another Caturyuga. Th ey exchanged greetings. convinced of the meaninglessness o f worldly life. the different worlds. and who have fac es resembling those of monkeys. After a great flood the surface of the ear th was covered with ashes. attended by spirits continue their dance in the pr esence of the Lord. Now your visit and holy presence here. Tripuradahana (burning of the Tripurasuras) has taken place thi . I have seen an age in whi ch Brahmanas were drunkards. The Matrs. and elephants. He has numerous attendant spirits. the crow. intoxicated by drink. We. Jaya. their vehicles were also enjoying themselves with similar celebrations of drinking. Krta."If you are interested in hearing my past history I shall tell you. and our mothers went to Brahmidevi and offer ed woship to her for a long time. This Kalpa Vrksa is the secluded place recommended by him. The sage opened the conversation as follows:-"Oh. After that. Completely absorbed in their delirious raptures. You have now been born in the eightieth "Janma" as the son of Brahma. Lord Sankara the Almighty lives in this world. above the water. You were born once from the sky. Sudras were virtuous and women of noble families co mmitted adultery. forests or mountains. teeth in the hands and atoynach in the face. then from t he mountain and again from fire. As a result.Once when the sage Vasistha went to Devaloka. who was Alambusa's vehicle. the twenty-on e brothers. We asked our father to suggest a most suitable place f or a secluded life. On hearing this. Alambusa's vehicle is the crow named Canda. In one caturyuga (a period equal to the length of the four yugas. gave us her blessing. The swans in the fullness of time. at another time from water. Incarnation of Buddha has taken place in six Kali-yugas. dancing. Alambusa and Ulpala. als o joined their company. have libe rated me from all worldly bonds and ennobled my life. The crow recognised Vasistha at once. Rakta. We.ivaloka. a nd merry-making. He went to see Bhusunda in its nest. drinking and other forms of hilariou s activities were freely indulged in. Vijaya. My twenty brothers lived f or many Kalpas and yugas at the end of which. the swans became aware of their plight and informed Brahmi about it. After this she entered into a trance. renounced their bodies and attained f. Ma ny ages have passed since then. All these Matrs assembled together on one occasion to celebrate a festival in th e sky. the sky.

. etc. (1) Dh armapraja (2) 19varapraja (3) Kasyapiyapraja (4) Pulahapraja. 1) General. In the Puranas. Nilalohita. "Bhavaparisada" etc. thick hanging lips. 17) . This Indra is different from the actual Indra. ago. Vasistha gave his blessing to Bhw. Verse 6 9). He had taken his position in the "Garudavyuha" (name of a phalanx) formed by Dronacarya. 2 . to perform the function of creation. (Bhagavata. matted dirty h air etc. But since the common name Rudra is used for the ruler (ki ng) of all the Bhutas.unda and left th e place. long ears. BHUTALIHAMA. Drona Parva. long. One of the sons of Hiranyaksa. Verse 25). Vamanapurana 4. BHUTAMATHANA. verse 9 says that it was agai nst sastras to bathe in this river. A famous village in the puranas. All the issues were the exac t replica of his own figure.B. BHU TASARMA. These music-haters used se rpents as their Yajfiopavitas (sacred threads). Chapter 20. BHUTASANTAPANA. Dead bodies were often thrown into the river which was flowing through t his village. Rudra is acknowledged as the Bhuta chief. An Indra. It was a resort of thieves and r obbers. Their chief weapons were.. That i s why Rudra is known by such names as "Bhutaniyaka". containing one lakh of verses and dealing with metaphysi cal problems.. These spirits who loitered in Si va's assembly were. "Rudranucara" . Adi Parva. There is r eference to this Indra in Mahabharata. BHLTTAJYOTI. Accordingly he beg ot thousands of Bhutas in the womb of his wife Sad. Drona Parva. Verse 6). (M. Brahma aske d the Rudra." Having heard the whole story. Lean limbs. (M. In the Puranas.B. Chapter 129. Chapter 45. (Matsyapurana 181. In the Brahmanda Purana there is the following story about the birth a nd shape of BhGtas:Bhutas are one of the subdivisions of Pulaha's creations. 2) Birth.. Chap ter 22. Lord Siva has slain ten Indras. 3) Bhuta Chief. A Manava class or sect in ancient India.rty times. this Manava sect is classified into four subdivisions. as a rule. (Jnana Vasistha. Salya Parva. A warrior who fought on the side of the Kauravas against the Pandav as. bow. the son of Nakula. red eyes . Mahabharata. naked and carried skulls on their heads. sword. Chapter 96. bushy eyebrows. (A set of beings created by Rudra). BHUTAKARMA. He fo ught seven times with Sri Krsna for the sake of Bana. (M. Saptama Skandha). tri dent. A king who was the father of Vasu and son of Sumati. Bhu undopakhyana). BHIJTAS. long nails. A warrior who fought on the side of the Kauravas in the battle at Ku ruksetra. Verse 28. Vana Parva. B. Both Vamanapurana and Matsyapurana represent Virabhadra and Nandikesvara as two Rudras who are the masters of Bhutas. Long. But at t imes they wore fantastic dress with elephant skin. I also remember another ep ic entitled "Ramayana". He was killed by Satanika. A warrior of Subrahmanya. I have seen the customs of Krta-yuga being followed in Kali-yuga a nd the customs of Kali-yuga being followed in Krta-yuga. "Gananayaka". pointed and protruding teeth. BHUTALAYA (M). Daksa yaga was broken up twice. Vamana Purana declares that Rudra is not an individual. were the grotesque features of these Bhutas.

Brah ma gave him the name Vilva. There is a reference to him in M. Being pleased at the behaviour and devotion of Bilva . BHUVANA II. He got this name because he desisted f rom doing loathful acts. Verse 81): BHUVANA II. In the beginning Brahma created many things among which Vilva (tree) (Crataeva r eligiosa) also was created. In this way. . A son born to Aditi by the blessings of Visnu. they joined the party of the Asuras and opposed the' Devas. 4) War with Asuras. Under that tree an anonymous man began to live. A devotee of Visnu. the master of the Bhuta hordes who first ca me into conflict with the Asura. a nd Siva received him and appointed him as commander of one of his hordes of Bhut as. "I will never resort to loathful deeds in war. Anusasana Parva. Sakha. The emblem on the banner is a cow or a bir d. At last. By the time of Vaivasvata manvantara they had already become South Indians. That is how the Gananayakas have got the titles like "Mayuradhvaja". There is a story in Skanda Purana about Bilv a who lived as a Vaisnavite first aid then was converted to a Saivite. A Maharsi who visited Bhisma when he was lying on the verge of death. the Bhutas had fought many battles with the Asuras. "Mayurav dhana". But at the time of Daksa's yajna. BHUVANA I.B. the number of Bhutas is given as 11 crores. She was married to Prabhasa. attacked Andhaka jointly with Vinay aka and defeated him. BHOTIVARMA. Afte r that. A sanatana Visvadeva. Nandi. BIDAUJAS. (Devi Bhagavata). A son named Vi4vakarma was born to them. the Bhutas fought o n the side of Siva. S tanza 18).B. (Kathasaritsagara). Verse 35. Andhaka approached Siva himself for protection. Accepting th e offer Bilva requested Indra to give him the Vajra (diamond) for the smooth run . 3-3-2129) . See the word Dimdika. BHUVANESA.In that battle Andhaka defeated Vinayaka. It is this Andhakasura who later became famous under the name of Bhrrigi. 1-23). in the end they had to leave north India and t o come and settle down in south India. Indra asked him to turn the wheel of administration of the earth. A sanatana Visvadeva. (Brahman. A minister of Mahisasura. (Mahabharata. One of the ten names of-Arjuna. Anusasana Parva. Virata Parva. Although the Bhfitas won all the battles they fought both on the side of the Dev as and on the side of the Asuras. Chapter 44. Therefor e the devas and men call me Bibhatsu". joining the par ty of the Devas. Under them are innumerable Bhurm.). Chapter 3). A Raksasa who was the friend of Kanabhuti. Ashes and Khatvamga etc. (Padina Purana. It was Vindyaka. Skanda. There is a reference to him in M. Chapter 91.In Vamana Purana. (Vamana Purana 67. one of the Astavasus. (M. Bhumika nda. Verse 35. are their weapons. BIBHATSU.da Purana. See the word Bhadrasravas. another leader of the Bhutas. Brhaspati's sister. Chapter 91. BHUVANA. Bha irava are the chief among them. BILVA. Chapter 26. BIDALOPAKHYANA. BIDALA.B. (VILVA). In the war between Siva and Andhakasura.). Anusasana Parva.

Purukutsa and Mucukunda were the two sons born to her from Ma ndhata. Indra told him that vajrayudha (diamond -weapon) would be at his disposal. The following information is obt ained from the Puranas about this holy place. (M. A famous serpent born to Kasyapa prajapati of his wife Kadru." Thus they continued their lives and after their death both were reborn as devils in the mountain of Vindhya. (Maha Bharata. Adi Parva.B. Chapter 35. Being a frequenter of t he houses of harlots and of various other mean habits. BINDUGA. Udyoga Parv a. Chapter 5 7. Skaridha 7). Stanza 12). he had led his wife Canca la also to lead an immoral life. (Mahabhar ata. Chapter 3. In the meanwhile Bilva went to Visnu and go t a boon that every living thing in the earth should fear him. BILVAKA. Once Binduga called his wife and told her thus: "You may continue the life of a harlot. A holy place famous in the Puranas. Stanza 9). BILVAPANDURA. Bindumati was the daughter of t he King Sasabindu. Stanza 14). Stanza 2). BILVAKATSRTHA. Chapter 3. A holy place in Haradvara. . One day Kapila came by that way and was greeted by Bilva with h onour and regard. (2) It was at Bindusaras that Bhagiratha did penance to bring down Ganga to the earth (Sabha Parva. This serpent was burnt to de ath by falling in the sacrificial fire of Janamejaya. So through Siva Kapila got immortality. when he thought about it. if the occasion req uired it. The father of this serpent was Kasyapa and mother.B. The queen of the great King Mandhata. Chapter 103. But the boon was futile. A serpent born in the family of Kasyapa prajapati. (Devi Bhagavata. The mind of Bilva changed to devotio n for Siva. BILVAPATRA. After a long conversation bot h became fast friends. (1) Bindusaras lies on the north of the Mount Kailasa. (Siva Purana Mahatmya).ning of the administration of the earth. Kadr u. It is mentioned in Mahabharata. In the midst of their life as devil s. (Mahabharata Sabha Parva. once it chanced for Cancala to hear the Siva Purana recited and she got her s hape of devil changed. BINDUMATI. Adi Parva. Sabha Pa rva. (3) Devendra performed hundred sacrifices at this place. In Kapila there was the power of penance as well as the power of Siva. A Brahmana who lived in the village of Baskala. One day there was a debate between Bilva and Kapila as to whether penance or Action (doing one's duty) was appreciable. Chapter 35. She requested Parvati to change the shape of her husband also. Adi Parva. but all the money acquired must be hand ed over to me.B. Stanza 13 that those who bathe in this holy Bath will att ain heaven. BINDUSARAS. Parvati sent her attendant Tumburu to Binduga to tell him the story of Siv a and thus he also got his form changed. This was a turning point for Bilva. (M. In this discussion Bilva lost the equilibriu m of his mind and thinking of the diamond-weapon of Indra cut off the head of Ka pila. and they again became fast friends. Chapter 3) . A serpent born in the family of Taksaka. Stanza 12). He concentrated his attention on the worship of Sivalinga at the for est of Mahakala. Chapter 25. A serpent. (M. BILVATEJA. AnuSds ana Parva. Once Kapila a Saivite reached the palace of Bilva. Stanza 10).

(gabha Parva. By and by they reached a desert. On the eighth day they reached the jungles of a hilly place ful l of fruit-trees and with a river with grassy banks. The wicked woman took them and saved herse lf from death. one day. An individual of the lineage of teachers. The son of the Vaisya became King. He did all services possible for him. there is a divine he rb at the bottom of this well. There was a passage from the well t o the river. (Sabha Parva. In the Mahabharata. Mention is mad e about this place in Mahabharata. They sent the elephant out. went out to t he forest to gather fruits and roots for their food. Then h e took his bath. The VaiSya's son stood still for a little while. with the intention that he might die suffering sever e pain for a long time. BODHAYANA. He got out of the river. There was a city close by. Bodhi sattva left the house of his father. The foll owing is the story given about him in Kathasaritsagara. wi th his wife. S he pretended to be ill. without minding his weakness due to fast for the last seven days. The elephant was pleased at the virtuous character of the son of t he Vaisya. He saw a man with his limbs cut off . Chapter 3). Then he asked him who had cut off his limbs. BODHISATTVA. Hearing this her husband made a rop e. It is famous in the Pura:ias. A place in ancient India. who had a son named Bodhisattva. He rep lied tha t his enemies had done so. mention i s made that this King fled to South India with his brothers and relatives fearin g the attack of Jarasandha. Chapter 3. Gradually she began to do te on him. It was a sandy place with nothing e lse in sight. Sabha Parva. Chapter 14. and tied it to a tree. The subjects of the city brought an elephant and said. BODHA(M). A good-natured husband generally quoted in Sanskrit works. BODHA. Bhisma Parva. Because of the ear-buzzing of his wife. flowing down to the valley . Now and then he was producing pitiable sounds. (5) Sri Krsna did penance here for several years to get righteousness. He never even thought of women who are generally fic . placed him on its back and walked to the city. The kind son of the Vaisya. I will be cured if I could eat it. Stanza 39. swam to the man and brought him to the bank of the river. The current took him through that passage to the river. This is what a goddess told me in a dream yesternight". Chapter 3). Stanza 20. His wife grew weary and worn with hunger and thirst. The Vaisya's son began to treat her. The Vaisya's son. One day she took h er husband to the edge of a very deep well and said: "See. Taranga 9. (6) At this place. coming afloat. When the childhood of the boy was at an end his mother died. Seeing that she was about to die he gave her his flesh and blood. "whom eve r this elephant takes and places on his back shall be our king". and sat under a tree thinking of the wickedness of women. Chapter 9.(4) Once Siva performed a sacrifice at Bindusaras. The people gathered round him and anointed him as their King. At that time the King of the city was dead and there was no heir left. So taking him. Maya. A king. (Sabha Pa rva. She c ut the rope and the man fell into the well. With fruits and cool water he appeased the hunger and thirst of his wife. With his wife he lived in the forest doing penance. the asura gave Arjuna the famous conch known as Devadat ta and to Bhimasena the famous club of Vrsaparva. The Vaisya married again a nd got his son also married. Stanza 11). She decided to kill her husband who was an impediment on her way. (See the word Guruparariapa ra). The wound s of the man he saved had been healed. Then he began to go down the well by the rope. Not a drop of water was to be ha d. Th en he got down to the river to take a bath. At that time his wife gre w lustful and had coition with the man without limbs. as if he was God. Once there lived a wealthy Vai 'Iya. He walked for seven days carrying his wife on his shoulders. the Vaisy a drove his son out of the house. There was not even the shoot of a grass.

Kirti. Santi Parva. The King reminded her of her deeds of the past one by one and began to tease and scold her. H earing that a very loyal wife had reached his city the King sent for her. Laija. At that time an ethereal voice said :"Sarvam khalvidamevaham nanyadasti sanatanam". "Who am I ? Who created me ? What for ? What is my work ? Where to work ?" and so on. Pusti. Cakra (wheel). Know that the supreme power is beyond qualities. about the birth of Brahma as follows:In the be ginning Mahavisnu lay on a banian leaf in the shape of a baby and began to think . The pe ople. Gada (club). Buddhi. The birth of Brahma is from the nave of Visnu. God who is the creator of the Universe. The trimtirtis are Brahma.she spent her days in begging. Gad. The King revealed everything to them. A king. Ksama. Sraddha. preservation and destruction.* Mahavisnu was amazed at this ethereal voice. We are all with qualities. (See the word ' Agastya). with four hands and weapons such as Aallkha (conch)'. self-sacrifice from animals. Bec ause of my conjugal fidelity I carry him thus and earn our daily bread. Agastya once approached this King to request him for some we alth. "The enemies of my husband have put him in this plight. Smrti. Then Mahadevi. The Ki ng recognized her instantly. The summary of what Bodhya said is as follows:Before I advise others. Ksudha. Finally when she understood that the King was her husband she was dumb-founded. BRADHNASVA. Your main qua lity is Sattva. I am the teacher of none. I take t he world as my teacher. Dhrti. "O h. It seems that you have forgotten those matters. Nidra. It is mentioned in the Puranas that Brahma creates. The wicked wife of the Vaisya's son took the limbless man on her shoulder and wa ndered about saying. honoured her and spoke highly of her. Padma (l otus) and maids who are prosperities and having worn glorious clothes and orname nts. and loneliness from a maid. Skandha 1. seeing her loyalty to her husband. (M. Still He lay meditating upon the words. But she did not know him. He did not know whose oracle it was. Svaha. Mahadevi said. BODHYA. I learned the lessons of harmlessness from snakes. His attribute is Rajoguna (a . and accompanied by the gaktis (powers) named Rati. Jrrhbha and Tandra. S vadha. Please g ive us alms". 1) General information. Visnu an d Siva. 61). Daya. appeared before Mahavisnu. who was struck with wonder. disap pointment from Pingala the harlot. concentration fr om the archer.kle and wicked.. Santi Parva . In this manner. The wh ole of the Chapter 171 of Mahabharata. The amazed mi nisters looked at each other. comprises the exhortations o f this hermit. Bhuti. which are known by the famous name Bodhya-Gita (Song of Bodhya). 56. 2) The birth of Brahma. Thus wandering from place to place she reached the city where the Vaisya's son was the King.B. who is a spinster. 171. you are born thus due to the great power of the supreme spirit. I do it myself first. BRAHMA One of the trimiirtis of the Hindu Pantheon. This hermit came to the King Yayati and taught him philosophy and ethics. what is there to wonder at ? Every time the universe is subjected to c reation. Once there was a discussion between Nahusa and Bodhya on Philosophy. It is men tioned in Devi Purana. Tusti. Medha. Mati. From your nave Brahma will be born. Visnu preserves and Paramasiva destroys the universe. The minister s disfigured her and drove her away. A famous teacher-priest. Visnu.

It was Brahma who instigated Valmiki to comp ose the Ramayana. All these are myself. as S attva guna(purity) was the foremost attribute of him. Rajas is the attribute that creates and Sa ttva. T hat egg became a germ of golden colour. third sound `Svah' . Accordingly from the nave of Visnu a lotus grew up and in that lotus flower Brah ma took his form. Knowing that the world was lying in pure water. the Bhagavan (Supreme Being) cut the egg open. Spirit) the Purusa (the Male creative Energy) pervades over everything. Sanatanam anyad nasti. Brahma. He created with his mind the Saptarsis. `Bhuvah' and the. From them all the m ovables and the immovables in the universe came into existence. which had done penance in its former births in such a way as to enable it to become Brahma. (Devi Bhagavata. The first sound of it was `Bhuh'. Skandha 7). sound. when all the worlds with evterything they contained w ere submerged in the single ocean of the great flood. (se ven sages) and then the Prajapatis (the lords of emanation). So they came to be known as "Bhurbhuvah Svah". Exc ept me there is nothing eternal. In manusmrti. From the supreme power. will be born Rudra. in the gold en germ of the egg. The same world will be destroyed by Rudra at the end of the Kalpa (wo rld age)". The same Brahmadeva did penance before Mahavisnu and Jagadamba .ctivity. From the middle of the eyebrows of Brahma. the germ of living things formed itself into a big egg. whose attribute will be Tamasaguna (darkness). the following stanza about the creation of Brahma occur s. From it the Omkara (the sacred syllable `Om') emanated. an egg fell on the water which was the first creation. who were pleased at his penanc ° and gave him all the boons he wanted. At the time of destruction Tamoguna (darkness) becom es the foremost attribute. 3) Instigation to compose Ramayana. with the powe r of penance. Creating a life. Siva. that which preserves. with the colour of gold. the supreme power entered the life that is to become Brahma as its inner guide. he saw that the world was void. will acquire the ability of creation and by his attribute of Rajog una will create the world in the colour of blood. Brahma who had been inside the egg went to a long sleep: The sleep continued for a thousand yugas (ages) when Brahma woke up. That Bhagavan (Supreme 1 Idaih sarvaih khalu Sham eva. Then the glorious radiance of t he sun was born from it and Brahma the grandfather of the worlds originated in t he centre of the egg. Brahma the great gr andfather of everything in the world took birth by himself in it. That Eternal Being is Brahma. When the thought of creation occurred in his mind Rajoguna (activity or pa ssion) became his foremost attribute. passion or motion). Chapter 1. "Tadandamabhavad haimam Sahasramsusamaprabham Tasmin jajtie svayam Brahma Sarvalokapitamahah" That egg was as radiant as the Sun. the second." Vamanapurana Chapter 43 states as follows about the creation of Brahma Ages before the beginning. . in all t he living worlds. You will be the preserver of t hat world. Visnu. That Brahma is known as the Pitamaha (Grandfather of the man es) or Paternal grandfather of all the worlds. After tha t Brahma began the work of creation.

He who reaches the extremity of this phallus is the superior person. The Pandanus flower took false oath and witnessed in favour of Brahma. Brahma travelled upwards for a long time and found no end. who had asked the flower befo re'hand to be on his side. is the first piece of poetry in the world. Then the Mahatma (the Supreme Spirit) created Ahamkara (Eg . Visnu travelled for a long time and finding no end thought the attempt futile and returned to the starting point with disappoi ntment and sat down. He. in the period of Satya-yuga. a trident in one hand. You have been defeated. On the way they met each other. Brahma who was attracted by the poetry came to the hermitage of Valmi ki and instigated him to compose the story of Rama in verse. Brahma also went to another place and began to do penance for the suppression of passions. (Devi Bhagavata.A fowler of the forest tribe shot down one of a couple of snipes which were carr ying on love-making. A day of utter darkness appeared. one upwards and the other downward s and find out the end. Long ago Siva plucked off a head of Brahma. Skandha 5. Seeing this Valmiki curse d the fowler. So they began to wa lk in order to take rest from the penance. Sarga 16). All existents and non-existents were destroyed." which according to hearsay." Hearing this Visnu went downwards to find out the botto m and Brahma. Penance was done by Ravana before him and granted him ll him. an d with darkness as its attribute took shape. Each claimed himself to be the su preme power of the world. the Moon. So can you no t admit that I am the superior ?" Mahavisnu did not believe the words of Brahma. in the vicinity of the Himalayas and Brahma appeared the boon that no living creature except man.This story occurs in various puranas with slight changes. (Supreme Being) was sleeping continuously for so many thousands of nights. Mahavisnu did penance in Svetadv ipa (the island Sveta) to obtain Eternal Bliss. Brahma took it and joyful ly returned and said haughtily to Visnu : "See. air. coming down from the sky. everything was destroyed. Bala-kanda. (Valmiki Ramayana. Two of them are given below:(1) In olden days.' "ma nisada pratistham tvamagamah sasvatih samah. Neither of them was prepared to recognize the claims o f the other. Another being with three e yes. matted hair. extra-ordinarily bulky and fair appeared before them and an ethereal voice said from the sky: "You need no t quarrel as to who is superior. Sarga 2. The Sun. One a sked "who are you ?" The other also asked the same question. that the Ramayana was composed thus. I have taken this flower from th e head of the Phallus. I have You forester. the knower of all Vedas and Vedangas appear ed in the shape of a wonderful being with five faces. Bhagava n. That being was called Purusa (the m ale creative energy). Grass. and a garland of beads in the other. Siva at these words appeared before them and re vealed the deceit played by Brahma and the flower and then cursed the Pandanus f lower that thenceforward it should not have a. Mahavisnu did not believe this either and said. av adhih kamamohitam. At the end of the night Bhagavan assumed the attribute of Rajas (Activity) and got ready for the work of creation. the Stars. yat krauncamithunadekam.place among the flowers of oblatio n to Siva. bush all were destroyed. on the banks of the River Tamasa. . It was Brahma who made Ravana an ever-powerful hero. On the way he saw the petal of a pandanus flower. "Let Siva be witness to this flower". upwards to the top. Both were doing severe penanc@. would ki Bala Kanda.) (2) In days of old all the worlds with everything in them were under water in a single ocean. It is stated in Val miki Ramayana. So both of you proceed. That is the sku ll Siva uses for receiving alms. Then Siva got angry and plucked off a head of Brahma. Nothing could be seen and recognized. The curse carne out of the. 4) Rdvana is given a boon. fire. The talk ended in a contest as to who was the greater of the two. 5) The loss of a head. being deeply engaged in the stud y of Brahmavidya. In the midst of this contest. a phallus. your life will not continue for many years since brought this to convince you.mouth of Valmiki in the form of a vers e. So he called the Pandanus flower to him and questioned it.

" Brahma became angry and told Kutild. Yajus. and ride on an ox. Seeing the faces shining like the Sun Brahma said. bowed his head and coloured. you did not succumb to my words. T he origin of Bhagavan (the Lord) was from this quarrel. the fifth face told him." Ku tila got angry at Brahma and said "Lord." Accordingly Vijayalaksmi was born in you h ave killed one of the couple of snipes. who are having three eyes an d whose attribute is darkness ! look here ! I will tell you all. On that day you will be absolved from the curse and you will return here instantly. whom Ravana had kidnapped. was the treasurykeeper of Brahma. Siva said to Brahma:-"Wh o are you ? Who created you ?" Swelled with egoism Brahma asked in reply:-"Who a re you ? Who are your parents ? Let me hear it. and her body was divide d among the Pleiades. a monkeyhero named Hanuman will reach La nka in search of Sri Rama's wife. Brahma replied. The y were not even six years old then. The Adityas and the Vasu s took Kutild who was doing penance. 7) Giving a boon to a tiger and golden colour to Parvati. Harken. Brahma said. Lanka under the name Lankalaksmi. You will obstruct h im. (Vdmana Purana. Immediately after his bi rth the Lord took an unparralleled lute and playing it. "You are deliberately disobeying my words which even devas won't gainsay. 5) Changing Vajayalaksmf to Laakdlaksmi.. (Vama na Purana. are the destroyer of the world. be pleased to tell us if this girl wil l be able to bear a son who could kill Mahisasura". 6) Brahma cursing the daughters o. (Karhpa Ramayana. Th e three daughters went to the Himalayas for penance. Vijayalaksmi. She also got angry and said to Brahma. The devas saw then.got angry and cursed her. After the marriage Siva and Parvati led a household life i n the golden house built by Visvakarma. went up to the sky. So by my cur se you will be turned to water. Chapter 51). by curse. who wear a ir as garments. "You. opened his third eye and looked steadily at Brahma to burn him. The Devas took Rdgini also before Brahma and put the same question. She humbly requested for absolution from the curse. I will do penance properly and please Visnu a nd make Siva bow his head. Parvati got angryand said to her husband." Hearing thes e words Siva grew more and more angry.be the kil ler of Mahisasura. Ragi ni and Parvati and a son named Sundbha were born to Himavan by his wife Mena." This talk ended in a quarrel. Brahma. But do they have any prowess ? Hearing t his. All the gods gath ered together and asked Brahma. to the world of the gods. one of the eigh t Laksmis. "A wound by an arrow will . Thus being tied up she stays in the world of Brahma. Seeing the flow of water. the daughter of Himavan was Kali. f Himavan. So you will become the colours of the twil ight. Siva plucked off the head of Brahma with the tip of his finger nails. "Oh Lord." Kutild having been cursed by Brahma became water and began to flood the world of Brahma. Sundara Kanda 1. You. Once Siva called Devi humorously. "This poor g irl will not be capable of bearing the radiance of Siva.oism). I take a vow to that effect." Thus she became the fast colours of the twilight. Overcome by egoism. Brahma made cause-ways on four sides with the Vedas of'Rg. "You. The first name of Parv ati. bubbles will appear. wicked Kutild. While Paramesvara was st anding angrily thus. Three daughters named Kutild. Siva being defeated by Brahma. "You go to Ravana and keep hi s tower". "I will d o great penance so as to enable to give birth to one in my family to. It affected Brahma and Siva. "At t he time of the incarnation of Sri Rama. Once she became careless in dischar ging her duties. The reply of Brahma was the same as before. by the name Kali. and he struck her down to the ground. So let her go away. and he will strike you down. "When you beat on water. Sdma and Atharva. When Hanuman jumped to Lanka she prevented him . Chapter 2) ." Brahma cursed her also. She was given this name (Kali) because 6f her dark complexion. I will try to become fit to bear the un bearable radiance of Siva. to get Siva as husband.

" said Visnu. Lotus-b orn ! First give this tiger a boon. "Now. Gdyatri rose up trembling. Svard said. The dark complexion of Parvati disappeared. there. Brahma said "Let it be so". Ask your boon. that this brea k. I will endeavour to create such a condition. Brahma came with Visnu and Siva. But she is very slow. scarcity. and cursed Svard also to become a river. "Gods. Uma (Parvati) was standin g on one. Then Indra appe ared and asked for her as a gift: Indra requested Parvati on behalf of heaven. " Let me have her. Parvati bowed before Paramesv ara and bidding good-bye she went up into the air and reached the peak of Himala yas and thought of Jaya. You will be known as Vindhyavdsini (who stays on the Vindhya). invincibility and right eousness. But she was very slow in coming. give me golden colour". The hermit Bhrgu said to Visnu : "You yourself have gon e to call Devi. She was given a lion as her carrier (Vdhana) "You destroy the asuras ?" saying so Indra returned to Heaven. (Vdmana Purana. "Oh." Then Brahma gave the won derful tiger leadership of the Gallas. the wife of Brahma." Then Parvati asked the boo n. Don't hesitate. She dared to sit on the right in my place. If you cut down a tree by an axe it will sprout again. So my lord. Vijaya. So how are we to commence the rituals ?" "If Svard does not appear before the e nd of the stipulated time we shall seat Gdyatri in her place. I will grant the boon. You have violated that principle. that you may not call me by the name Kali again. leg. The tiger began to think. Mahavisnu called Svarddevi. the Lord of the three worlds appeared before her and said to her: "I am muc h pleased. when they reached there Indra told her. a sk your boon. "You stay on this mount. Before Svara was changed to a river. From the discarded-skin Katyayani was born. They got permission and stayed with Parvati to attend on her. "Brahma. After giving the tiger this boon Brahma told Parvati. Jayanti and Aparajita. Brahma and the other gods rose up and requ ested for absolution from the curse. So Bhrgu seated Gdyatri on the right side of Brahma and the r ituals were performed." Hearing the cur se of Svard. because of her quarrel with her co-wife. 8) Brahma became river. has been caused. Because she . Siva also agreed to it. Brahma decided to perform a sacrifice on the Sahya Mountain and prepar ations were made for it. All of you will become rivers because you have placed a person lower than me in my position. and disappeared." Saying thus. I am also Kausika. Long ago in the period of Caksusa manvantara (the age of a Manu). The auspicious moment is coming to an end. devotion to Siva. Wise people should not s hoot them at others.be cured. So she will grow lean and b ecome a river which will not be seen in the world. Sahasraksa (Indra who has thousand eyes) took her to the Vindhy a mountain. (outer skin) she is Kausiki. your wives. My curse cannot be futile. Instantly they arrived t o see Kali. death and fear will be rampant. When she saw that Gayatri was placed in her place and the rituals were performed she became a ngry. The arrows of words shoot out of. I am going to do intensive penance.the mout h.was born from your Kosa. it is because you have n ot given oblations to Ganapati in the beginning of the sacrifice. So each of you c hange to a river by your portions and we. It will please me. After that Bra hma. Let this Kausiki be my sister. She got the colour of the filament of the lotus flower. Thinking thus it gazed at the face of Devi with staring eyes and consequently it lost one eye. Your penance was flawless. While Parvati was engaged in doing penance. due to my anger. She called out: "Where the person to whom respect is due. a tiger. "I shall do it when it is needed". with his weapons of tusks a nd claws came there from the jungles of the Himalayas. By then Svara reached the sacrificial hall. A wound inflict ed by hard words will never be cured. Arnbika. Chapter 54) . will also become rivers by . Those who are hit by them suffer pain day and night. Pronouncing the word Brahma Devi did penance for a hundred years. He consecrated the goddess there." Kai! replied. hon oured and revered by gods. Bhrgu and the other he rmits took their seats. is not given respect and where the person who ought not to be respected is given undue respect." Devi gave the beautiful K ausiki to Indra.

Due north to Brahmapuri stands the town of Kubera (God of wealth). Visnu and Mahesvara became rivers with their portions. that Manu Svayambhuva w as the son of Brahma. In Kathasaritsagara. The devas also changed their portions to rivers and flowed from the Sah ya mountain to the east and their wives changed to rivers by their portions and flowed to the west. Siva did not like this and said that nobody would worship Brahma because of his extravagant desire (namely. Bot h returned without reaching the top or the bottom and by penance they pleased Si va who appeared before them and asked them what boon they desired. On the south-east corner there is Rajovati which is ow ned by Agni (fire-god). Atri. Pulaha. Brahma asked Siva to take birth as his son. (5) Kandarpa (Kamadeva-Cupid). That Sakti is Pirvati. and flow to the west. Long ago Brahma and Visnu went to see Siva near Him avan. to have Siva as his s on). So Visnu i ncarnated as Siva's sakti(power). Chapter 20. On the north-west corner there is the tow n called Gandhavati which is the abode of Bhagavan Vayu (Wind-God). Stanza 10. Mention is made in Agni Purana. Lavanakalarubaka. Chapter 66. On the north east corner there is the city of Siva. It is said in Devi Bhagavata. that the abode of Brahma is on the top of Mount Mahameru. the riv er Veni. . Due east of Manovati stands Amar avati. It occurs in Bhagavata Skandha 11. So Visnu and Pirvati ar e one and the same in a sense. and Kratu. It is mentioned in Mahaharata Adi Parva. It was of immense size. the town of Indra. Still mention is made in the Puranas about countless divine persons who we re born from the mind and body of Brahma. One of them went downwards and the other upwards to find out the end of it. It is named Krsnanjana. Manovati which is in the centre. (Padma Purana. Due south of Brahmapuri there is the town of Samyamani w hich is the town of Yama (God of death) On the south west corner there is the to wn of Nirrti. 6. that these six grand hermits were born from the mind of Brahma. (2) Dhata and Vidhata.our portions. Pulastya. There are nine towns there. (3) Rudra. Kathapichalambakarii. Adi Parva. This is the origin of the rivers in Kerala. Chapter 65. 10) The abode of Brahma. Skandha 8. directly and indirectly. (Kathasaritsigara. (4) Svayambhuva Manu." Thus Brahma. is the town of Brahma. They are give n below in groups (1) Marici. It is known as Yaso vati. 9) Brahma is not worshipped. It is the abode of God Varuna. Svara and Giyatri flowed as two rivers to the west and then joined together as one river called Savitri. It is mentioned in the M ahabharata. it is mentioned that Cupid was born from t he Egoism of Brahma. Tarairga 1). that. Chapter 113) . On the west there is the town called Sradd havati. Brahma becam e the fast-flowing Kukudmati. Brahma is the creator of all the living things in the w orld. Stan za 51 that these two were good sons born to Brahma. Brahma had a roarin g son who was named Rudra. Visnu and Siva who were consecrated at the sacrifice by Brahma came to be called Bala and Atibala (Powerful and mor e powerful). 11) 7 he sons of Brahma. It is known by the name M ahodaya. Taranga. They saw a shining phallus there in front of them. Afgiras. Mahavisnu changed to river Krsna and Siva. Visnu requested that he should be made a servant at Siva's feet.

(7) Bhrgu. Paramasiva is heaven. (10) In Mahabharata. From the attr ibute of Rajas arose the living world which had activity as its purpose. Varuna. (9) The Sanakas. the mind. accomplishments. Atri also was born from the Kusa-grass. and Prabhavati. all these came there. the Balakhilyas w ere born. celestial maids.the past. Sananda. is the eart h. is the sky. full moon . It is mentioned in Mahabharata. In Uttara Ramayana. Pen ances. Anusasana Parva there is a passage given as the words of Va sistha spoken to Bhrgu. the near future and distant future. mothers of the worlds. all these assumed forms and came to the sacrifice in multitudes. other radiances also originated from the sacrificial fire. sacrifices. all the g lories which are thousands in number took shape and came to the sacrifice. (8) Jambavan. Many hermits. Indras. all the emotions. The noble hermits called Vaikh anasas. Chapter 5. Upanisads. From the pores of the skin of fir e were born the hermits. Vasatk ra (Exclamation in sacrifice) which took body . vows emblazed by fast. He got it in the sacrificial ladle and with recita tion of spells offered it in the sacrificial fire as if it was ghee. The powerfu l semen contained the three attributes of Sattva. Si va. Agni. is the ether and the husband of the Earth. It is seen in Kampa Ramayana that Jambavan was born from the sweat of Brahma. From the Maricis (rays) of the fire Marici the father of Kasyapa was born. The sacrifice t ook many forms and shed radiances. The rest of the P rajapatis were born from the ears of the fire. For this reason the Vedic scholars an d knowers of the Sruti and those who see the superiority of Vedas. Siva is the King of all the worlds.(6) Madhuka and Golika. From the stream of fire which are th e eyes of the sacrificial fire the handsome A"svins were born. Everybody who witnessed the sacrifice of P aramesvara. all the directions and gods of directi ons. is noble and the lord of radiance. Brahma who became the offerer of oblation had discharge again. and all yajnaxigas came to the sacrificial hall. In Bhagavata mention is made that the Sanakas (Sanaka. The trees that feed the fire are called Masas (months). were born from the sacrificial ashes. the sap of the tree is called Paksa (half of the month i. all the voices. Savitr i. He offered his spirit by his spirit. "May I te ll you a story I have heard long ago about the revelation of Brahma of himself? Lord Rudra took the form of Varuna and performed a sacrifice. This Lord is lauded by the names Brahma. three sons with body and the attributes of demi-gods came out. all the etymologies of pronouncing Veda Suktas. which blazed furiously. He had seminal disc harge. who was in the form of Varuna. all the devas. All the omens. all restraints and donations. Orhkara (the syllable Orh) the eye of all the Vedic metres and their theor ies. From the seme n offered in the fire.e. Stanza 8. It giv es light to everything. Radianc e is the quality of Sattva . is the lord of all accomplishments . Fro m the Kusa-grass spread on the floor of the hall of sacrifice. say that fire is a combination of all the gods. Agni and others. that the hermit Bhrgu was the son of Brahma. Rudra. mention is made that from the playfu l habit of Brahma.. Adi Parva. was greatly pleased. all Vedas. Aditya (the Sun) took the earth on which the semen fell and threw it into the sacrificial fire. all the svarabhakt ikas. Over and above t hese three radiances. Rajas and Tamas. who have grown powerful by penance and became the seat of all good quali ties. It also gives the power of discrimination. Seeing the pleas ed celestial maids standing in rows passion arose in Brahma. a giant named Madhuka and a giantess named Golika were born. The male who had originated from the flame called `Bharjana' became Arigir as. The Lord Siva held everyone of them. Sanatana and Sanatkumara) were sons of Brahma. All the expedients.which entered the living and nonliving world. about the birth of many of the sons of Brahma. Rgved a arrayed in garments of heroism came there. from the sweat the `chandas' (metre of Vedas) and from might. The male who originated from the burning coals became Kavi.

fixing her eyes on the sun in the day and on the Moon in the night . Brahma". The n she wanted to be saved from the mirage of birth and death." Saying these words Brahma disappeared.. Karkkati made her body smaller and smalle r and finally assumed the shape of a needle. also were bor n from the blood of fire. This is the boon I pray for. The sinless Mahadeva. So to save them from death. the pith of the tree is called night an d day and the flames are called Muhurtas (auspicious moments). in the fo rm of a needle of gout and caused Cholera. enam hara hara: dehe hana hana ? paca paca ! matha matha : uwadaya utsadaya : dure k uru kuru svaha-visucike ! tvam himavantam gaccha ? jivasarah candramandalam gata si svaha. "T his sacrificial fire is mine. Karkkati again went to the vicinity of the Hima layas and began to do penance. a ferocious giantess named Karkkati lived on the northern side of the Himalayas. and the body of those who were lean a nd worn and weary. spleens and life-breaths. They ha d been depending on me for their sustenance. She said "I wish to becom e a Sac! (Needle) as hard as iron. yo u shall be a sucika (needle) with the prefix `V' that is Visucika (Spasmodic cho lera) You can eat those who eat stale food. Because of the hugeness o f her body and the scarcity of food she became famished. all the darkness i s erased from your heart and you have attained deliverance from delusion. H ow can they be claimed by anybody else ? Here. from the flame of the fire Rudras and the Adityas of the extreme radiance were born. The planet s and stars which stand in their places in the sky are the charcoal of the fire. my daughter. but the entire world of living and non-living is born from yo u. hrim. I am the owner of the sperm. So they are my sons. bhagavati visnusakti chi." 12) Brahma and the giantess Karkkatf. Let everybody who moves along the sky know that these three are my sons . who was in the form of Varuna said. "These are born from my organs. those who are wicked. I offered my sperm to the fir. "Let it be so. T hus carry out the work of destruction ? You can affect both the good and the bad . It is not only us that are born from you. So Bhrgu." The Gods who heard these arguments bowed their heads before Brahma and greeting him said. From the smoke of the fire. So the children born as the f irst fruit of this sacrifice are mine. those who sit in places where they ought not to sit and those who are hard-heart ed. She began to do penance for the alleviation of her hunger and thirst. After that she began her work by en tering the body of those who had lost their energy because of illness. Brahma blessed her and said. But good people should not be killed.." Brahma the te acher of all the worlds and the grandfather of all living beings said. Am I not the owner of th e fruit ? There is no contest on the point that the birth of Bhrgu and others is from the oblation of my sperm. the fruit of my sacrifice. When she remembered her original form she loathed the needleform. eternal and the giver of all wishes. "daughter Karkkati. Rudras were born from the blood of fire and the golden coloured grids. Now I . the Maitras. you can use this mantra (spell). visnusaktaye. Then Brahma appeared be fore her and told her that she could ask for any boon. in the form of internal cho1era. "They are my sons. I am the utterer of the spell and the offerer of the sperm. Thus assuming two bodies and killing countless people she travelled for a long time in the earth and the sky . and these sons were born therefrom. hram. which lasted for another thousand years. So let Agni and Deva in the shape of Varuna have their wishes. until she herself felt aversion to her work. "Lord Brahma. the Vasus.to new moon and new moon to full moon). and I am the sacrificer. Thus she became pure and by the power of thinking. sh e did penance for yet another thousand years at the end of which. having the form of disease. "otn. She stood on one leg in the Himal aya Mountain. n o doubt. In days of old. Angiras and Kavi are my sons. Brim. she acquired spiritual knowledge. to attain which." Agni said. Brahma declared that fire was Brahma the supreme spirit. and the severe penance continued for a thousand years. the highly ple ased Brahma appeared before her and said. sam. Enter into their bodies and affect their hearts. namah.

So I shall seek them." Thinking thus she went to a jungle in the vicinity of the Him alayas. That was the dwelling place of foresters. not b e separated as the foam and waves cannot be separated from the ocean ? 10) What substance is dualism not separate from (others) as fluidity from water ? . bad beginners. You are acting like this merely for food.will bless you according to your wish. The Minister looked at her and said. "You insignificant ghost ? What is your form ? Where do you sit? Let us see your powerless body. Hearing the words of the minister Karkkati knew that her might was useless befor e such valiant men." She became a giantess again. They heard-the loud roaring sound of her laugh and saw her huge form in the light. Who is there to fear at your sound which is like the humming of a she-beetle ?" Hearing this reply Karkkati showed her tusks and laughed loud." The king of the foresters hearing this replie d in a cynical way. and to terrify them. She remembered. those who sit in bad places and dwell in bad places. She asked them in a voice like thunder. but as she had attained purity of soul. we will satisfy you". Who are you ? Tell me the truth". Giantess ? These delusions of yours will have no effect on us. We came for a night-walk to find out and punish wicked people like you. the imprudent. In that dark night the King an d the minister of the foresters approached the place where Karkkati sat. So she said "Hey mighty heroes . The meditation lasted for a long time. "let me know first if they are good or bad. Receive your original body and walk about in the worlds eating the ignorant. But those mighty heroes were not at all shaken by the so und they heard or the sight they witnessed. If you give me suitable answers you will be saved. She thought them to be sages. do the lakhs of universes originate and vanish as bubbles in a sea ? 2) What does shine as ether and non-ether ? 3) What is it that is something and nothing ? 4) What is it that is going and not going at the same time ? 5) What is it that has taken form from voidness ? 6) What is it that is moving and at the same time stationary as a rock ? 7) Who draws pictures in clear sky? 8) In what seed do the worlds exist as a big tree in its seed ? 9) From what substance can the living and non-living things in the worlds. Even if a number of mosquitoes like you come before us. to spread light. she engaged herself in deep meditation which was free from doubt. The minister said: "This the King of foreste rs and I am his minister. Karkkat i seeing them thought. The quest ions put by her are given below in the order they were asked 1) Inside what atom which is unit and multiple at the same time. "Who are you ? Are you enlightened sages or ignorant fools ? say quickly." So she decid ed to ask them some questions. "Hei. So what is your need ? Tell us . "Brahma has ordained the wicked as my food. Finally her mind waved." The King agreed. Then she remembered about worldly things a nd felt hunger." The giantess appreciated them and said: "I am about to put some questions to you . they will be only dry leaves befor e wind.

having no substance. 8) Exists in the Supreme Atom. who were sentenced to death. When you wake up you come again and take away people destined to be killed. You can take your original form an d take them all to the peaks of the Himalaya and feed on them. are concerned with the supreme Bein g. gathered all the wicked people. Gluttonous people like to eat in solitude. 6) The Supreme Spirit is the radiance of motion or activity and as there is noth ing else to be found out. If an attachment of love is formed even wi th bad persons it is difficult to break the love. I shall arrange to gather sinners. In the night she took her original form. The slaughter done for the sake of righ teousness is not a sin. but as it is a reality it is something. She asked. After having eaten sumptuously. When your desire for me ditation is over you must come to me. You change yourself to a beautiful woman wearing golden ornaments and stay in my palace for a while. and a little rest in meditation. take some sleep. The King asked her to come to his palace assuming the form of a beautiful woman. from his own country and the various dependent countries. The King said: "You good woman. 1) Hey. that is. the Impersonal Supreme Spirit has the q uality of motion. 4) As it pervades everything accessible. it has existence. crores and cr ores of bubbles of universes originate and vanish due to frailty. The atom is the supreme Spirit which is beyond all knowledge of the mind and the senses. She accepted. and shall give them to you. robbers and s uch other wicked people who are to be given capital punishment. 9) As the entire visible world cannot be separated from the Supreme Spirit nothi ng is other than the Impersonal Supreme Spirit. . 3) As it is indescribable the Impersonal Supreme Spirit is nothing. were brought before the King. 10) The differentiations of the various worlds are mere appearances of the Supre me Spirit and so dualism is of the same figure. This Supreme Being. And inside that supreme atom which could be felt only by the mind. The King drew Karkkati nearer to the Impersonal Supreme Spirit. It is the sky and th e non-sky. it is motionless.The reply given by the minister to each question is given below in the order of the questions. Within six days three tho usand wicked persons. what cou1d he offe r to a giantess as food. 5) As it is inaccessible to others the Supreme Spirit is having no existence. pervades everything. As it is without organs of action it is as unmanifested as the sky." Karkkati obeyed the King. 2) The impersonal Supreme Being. in thousands fro m various places.the advice. and were given to Kar kkati. It is said to be equal to mercy. bu t as it is the essence of everything that is good. Giantess : All the questions you have put before us encased in figurativ e words discernible only to the Vedic sages. Brahman. 7) In the clear sky the Supreme Spirit draws the pictures of the universe. But as it has no emotions and as there exists no space beyond. They all reached the palace. He advised her n ot to commit slaughter. is pure knowledge (Jfifinasvarupa). as it doesn't know anything else it is as rig id as a rock. we shall find out a way for that.

" said the eldest brother. prepared for creation. led the life of a house-holder with his wife for a long time. when the sons had reached manhood the old parents died. and asked him. (Jnanavasistha). So they went for penance. There are ten heavens of them. An independent king is far more prosperous than a dependent King. w hat are the things created before. that is. 14) The age of Brahma. which do not undergo destruction ? At that ti me there will remain. and destroying all the heavens. This is the time of the seventh Manu in the present day time (Kal pa)of the present Brahma. They regarde d life as short and full of woe and misery. They began to meditate upon the shortness of life. One thousand deva caturyugas will make one Maha-yuga (great yuga) A Maha-yuga is a day time of Brahma. Those which underwent destruction in the nig ht. A Brahmana named Indu arose from that hall. He who is beyond names. six or twenty-four tattvas (principle s) which are natural creations. Brahma went to sleep. They are ten worlds in the sky of mind. "Concentrate your mind and say to yourself. in a corner of Jambudvipa in the valley below Kailasa. Brahma commenced his activity. As Brahma wakes up daily in the morning. as they ha d no relatives left to care for them. So they went to Kailasa and did penance to get ch ildren. Then he by his divine power caused one of the suns. When we think of the state of an emperor how simple is an independent king ! Wh en compared with Indra. without destruction. The head of the village is more prosperous than a householder.who deserved killing and bidding good bye to the King. to come to him. "Who are you. shining one ? How have these worlds come into existence ?" The Sun said with humility. Brahma who was originated in the lotus which grew from the nave of Narayana performs the work of creation guided by these twenty-four princip1es. went to the Peaks of the Himalayas. the Lord of the three worlds what is an emperor after al l ? But there is nothing glorious in the state of Indra also as it ends in a Bra hmamuhurtta (a period in the life of Brahma). one after another. Brahma stared at the worlds for a long tim e thinking "How is it". He woke up next morni ng and after the usual. Brahma wakes up in th e morning-the beginning of a Kalpa. Vaivasvata is the present Manii. But they were childless. The King of a dependent state is more powerful than the head of a village. righteous and peaceful. The work of creation performed by Brahma is called Pratisarga (substitute creati . He looked arou nd at the sky. At the end of the day of Brahma there was the great fl ood. are created again in the morning. help Brahma in doing the wor k of creation. and saw some heavens still engaged in usual activities. Ten Brahmas and the countless devas (gods) unde r them were doing their routine work. ten sons were born to them." saying thus the Sun went away. I am the sun who creates day and night in one of them. They entered a natural arbour which was quite silent and began severe pe nance.' They understood this and thus the ten brothers became B rahmas. 13) Brahma and Haindavas. He was am azed at this unusual occurrence. The period of six Manus are over in the present day ti me of the present Brahma. He who created Brahma in the lotus flower. Forty-three crores twenty lacs of human years is one four -yuga period called `Devacaturyuga' (a period of four yugas of the devas or gods ). "Your sons Marici and others erected a beautiful she d called Suvarnatatam. After a long time. Siva appeared and said that they would get children. During the period of one Maha-yuga. "What is there which is noble in this world ? Is there anything except woe and misery ? How simple is the desire of man for greatness ? One thinks himself pros perous if he becomes a house-holder. `I am the supreme Being Brahma seate d on a lotus'. So what is there substantial and e ternal ? "Brahma alone is eternal and indestructible. The sons felt very sorry. created them. work ing in a heaven. fourteen Manus. (Jnanavasistha). during on e day of Brahma. and meditate upon it and pray for it and knowledge of Brahma will be conferred upon you. These twenty-four principles are not the creatio n of Brahma. In course of time. The Brahmana who was a Vedic scholar. morning ablutions. They abstained from all the pleasures of t he world and reached Kailasa.

In the first Kalpa when a Brahma is born from the lotus. The Sanakas. . On that day and every day of the life of Brahma they help Brahma in the w ork of creation. a daughter named Sarasvati was born and B rahma married her. Kratu.Brahma substitute creation takes place. Adi Parva. and will dissolve in Narayana. follo wing the first morning of a . But as most of them have not left sons. (Bhagavata). and minera ls. Atharva. Bhuvarloka and Svarloka. (Bhagavata) . certain creations are made and the things thus originated do not undergo destruction in the evening or at the end of the Kalpa. (4) It was Brahma who gave the narne Indrajit (he who overcame Indra) to Meghana da the son of Ravana because he had defeated Indra. Sthanu. Adharma.Sri Rama. (See Sarasvati). humanity etc. (M. Pulastya. Chapter 1. (See Gaya tirtha). the Manes. (1) Brahma was once born under the name Candra from the womb of Anasuya the wife of hermit Atri. and for other. (5) When the life time of Sri Rama was about to come to an end. 16) Other information. animals. (6) In the burning of Tripura. In a sense they could be called Prajapatis (the lords of emanat ion). Marici. Sarnvarttakagni (Fire which destroy s the universe) and Samvarttaka varsa (Rain which destroys the universe) will oc cur and ali the unnatural creations will be destroyed. (See Rama). Daksa. (See Tripurarn ). At the expiry of this period the life of Brahma will come to an end. In all the morning. Stanza 61). Only the persons mentioned here have as long a life as that of Brahma. Thus crores and crores of Brahmas have appeared and passed away and in future also crores will appear and pass away. they are not well known by that name. Everything Brahma created in the day time will be destroyed in the evening. (7) Once Brahma performed sacrifice on the head of Gayasura (a giant). Brahma was the charioteer of Siva. and they ar e destroyed at the end of each Kalpa by Sarnvarttakagni and Sarnvarttall:avarsa. Narada. (See Anasuya).B. that is thirty-six thousand Brahma days and and Bra hma nights. The first is Sarga or creation and the second is Prati sarga or substitute creation. Adi Parva. 15) The creations and substitute creations of Brahma. that the caste system came out from the mouth of Brahma. Vasistha. but also creations which have a history only up to the end of that day.. (3) It is seen in Bhagavata. After a day time is over there is the night time and sleep for Brahma. Dharma. Nirrti. Sarga or creation is called Prakrta Srsti (n atural creation): Pratisarga or substitute creation is called Aprakrta Srsti or unnatural creation.on). Agni. (M. reasons also. plants. At the end of the Kalpa. Bhrgu. The creations performed by Brahma are of two kinds. Pulaha. Angiras. (8) Once Brahma went to the hermitage of Vyasa. Brahma sent Kala (time-th e God of death) in disguise to the presence of . (Uttara Ramayana). Atri. and Svayambhuva : these do not end at the end of a Brahma's day (or Kaipa) and will be dissolved only when Brahma is dissolved. A Brahma creates in his first morning not only persons from Sanaka to Svayambhuva. such as the lokas (worlds) of Bhuloka. Skandha 11. (2)From the passion of 1ust of Brahma.B. Sarasvat i. The life of Brahma is hundred years. They are the sarga or cre ation. and advised him to compose Bhara ta and to propagate it in the world. Chapter 55). Kama. Karddama. (9) It was Brahma who gave the name poetry to the work of Vyasa and employed Gan apati as the scribe of Vyasa.

Atli Parva.B. Vana Parva. Sabha parva.B. Stanza 1). (17) When Agni suffered from indigestion. Atli Parva. This uac riface took one thousand years for its completion. (15) Brahma gave boons to two asuras (demons) Sund a and Upasunda.B.. A complete description is given of this counci l in Mahabharata. Chapter 66. (16) Visvakarma created Tilottama according to the instruction of Brahma.11). Stanza 10). and incarnated from there. Chapter 11. .B. Atli P arva. Vana Parva. Chapter 224. (See Agni). (19) At the end of thousand yugas Brahma performs a grand sacrifice near the hol y place Bindusaras on the top of the mountain Hiranyagrnga. (M. Stanza 18). (M. Stanza 14). (12) Dharmadeva incarnated from the right breast of Brahma. Chapter 5. Chapter 120. (M. stanza 41) . for the asuras (demons) nam ed the Kalakeyas and to1d them that it would be destroyed by human hands. (20) Brahma has a divine council. (M.B. (22) Brahma wears a divine conch for the sake of iindra.B. Stanza 8). Stanza 8). (18) Brahma made the bow called Gandiva. (M.B. But Brahma pacified them. (29) Once Brahma created a city. (M. (M.(10) At the sacrifice of Varuna. stanza 45). Adi Parva. Stanza 15).B.B. Adi parva. (23) Brahma had erected a Ydpa (a post to which sacrificial animals are tied) ne ar Brahma-saran in Dharmaranya.B. Adi parva. Stanza (25) Brahma sang a hymn once for the holy place of Puskara tirtha (M. Vana Parva. Stanza 86). Chap ter 53. C hapter 3.B. (M. Chapter 38. Adi Parva. Chapter 100. (M. (M. (M. (M. Sabha Parva. (14) Sukra turns all the worlds round at the instruction of Brahma. Chapter 173. (M. Chapter 211. Sabha Parva.B. Chapter 208. Vana Parva. (M. Stanza 23). (11) Daksa was born from the right thumb of Brahma and from his left thumb was b orn the wife of Daksa. Chapter 66. Sabha Parva.Vana Parva._Rd instructed that the forest K handava should be burnt to cure him.B. Stanza 11). Stanza 1 9). (M. (21) Brahma cursed Hiranyakas ipu and gave him a boon that he would not be kille d by any sort of weapons.B.B. Daksinatya Patha). Chapter 142. (M. Stanza 3). Brahma gave her a boon. Chapter 87. Brahn. (24) Once Brahma performed a sacrifice in Prayaga Allahabad). Stanza 42). (13) The hermit Bhrgu broke open the heart of Brahma.B. Chapter 34. (M. Cha pter 60. called Hiranyapura. B. (27) Brahma once performed a sacrifice called `Istikrta' at Kuruksetra. Brahma begot Bhrgu the hermit from the sacrific ial fire. Chapter 82. (28) The devas (gods) got angry because Brahma lifted the earth taking the shape of a dog. Chapter 66. Vanaparv a. Stanza 17). (26) It was according to the instruction of Brahma that the devas went to Dadhic a and requested for his bone. Vana Parva.

(34) Once Brahma got angry thinking how to destroy the living creatures which were increasing prolifically. (41 f Brahma gave Rudra a sword. Chap ter 203. Chapter 527 Stanza 46). Chapter 376. Stanza 36). (39) Brahma presented the hide of a deer to Subrahmanya. Chapter 166.B. Chapter 53. Chapter 274. Stanza 11). (M. (M. Chapter 46. (M. (M. 44) Once there arose a fight between Mahavisnu and Siva and Brahma pacified both of them. (M. (37~ Once Brahma took the devas (gods) to the pre sence of iva because they had fled away fearing Vrttrasura. Daksinatya Patha). (48) Once Brahma made a speech to Indra about the importance of giving cow as gi ft.B. (M. (M. (M.(30) Brahma was born from the lotus in the nave of Visnu. stanza 52) . (M. Anusa. Death canoe into being from the body of Brahma. Chapter 283. Santi Parva. Chapter 53. (36) Death was given the boon. Stanza 124). (35. (4~) Brahma gave the devas (gods) the earth as a gift for performing sacrifice. (40) Brahm granted a boon to Garvaka. (42) Brahma. Anusasana Parva. pacified Sivawho goo angry. (M. Chapter 342.B. (M. (49) Brahma granted a boon to Surabhi. Drona Parva.B. (M. (3 i) Brahma granted.B.B. Vana parva. stanza 21). Chapter 83. Santi parva.B. King named Dhundhu. (33) Once Brahma instructed the devas to take birth as monkeys. Stanza 69). (38) Brahma prophesied that Arjuna would come out victorious in the tight betwee n Karna and Arjuna. (32) Brahma was the father of Pulastya and the grandfather of RAVana. at the sacrifice of Daksa.B. (See Dhundhu). Chapter 229). (M. Chapter 87. (M. Chapter 35.B. Stanza 10). (See Carvaka) .B. V an a Parva. (43) Once Brahma took the form of a swan and exhorted the Sadhyaganas. (M. (M. Chapter 74. Stanza 17). Anusasana Parva.B. Stanza 45). San ti parva. who ryas going to the b attle field. (50) Brahma originated the Prajapatis by offering his sperm into the sacrificial . Stanza 53) .B. Vana parva .B. Karna Parva. Stanza 45). a boon to a.B. Stanza 6). of destruction of the living beings. Drona Farva Ch apter 94. Stanza 2). Drona Parva. (M. (Ml. Santi Parva. Chapter 350 Daksinatya Pdtha~(I * the nobili* of Brahma46) Once Brahma talked about ity nas. (45) Once Brahma went to the mount Vaijayanta and talked to Siva about the glory of Mahavisnu. Chapter 66) . Salya Parva.B. Anusasana P area.B. Santi Parva. Drona Parva.B.sana Parva.

fire at the sacrifice of Varuna. To see her at that time there arose a fif th head on the top of his matted hair. So much had he become attached to her. The sweat whi ch flowed from them was thrown into the earth by Brahma. Stanza 8) (52) In almost all the Puranas Brahma is called `Caturmukha' (having four faces) and to substantiate this the following story is given in the Matsyapurana. 183. coming to know of this Siva tried to kill Brahma. But I wil l pluck off your fifth head. BRAHMA 155 BRAHMACARYA (1) Once Brahma praised Siva and pleased him and asked him to become his son. Rsis (hermits) and the Nagas (serpents) the ekaksaramantra(the oneyllable-spell) `OM'. One day aataraapa was walking round Brahma. Chapter 85.B. Mahavisnu tried to pacify Siva. (51) Once Brahma gave the devas (gods). Asvamedha Parva. who caught hold of it and gave it to Visnu. 4). Stanza 99).B. (M. So he could not turn round and round and look at his wif e as she was moving. The daughters born from his mind als o were seated close by. (Matsyapu rana. Seeing Brahma carrying on the work of creati on forgetting him. 2. So by all means I am the eldest." (2) In the beginning Brahma created the incarnation of Siva. Si va did not like it. there arose fo ur faces. (Skanda. He could. and consequently Brahm a became invincible in the world. (3) After Brahma became five-faced the brightness of the devas began to decrease day by day. Once Satariapa was walking in the air. 26). (53) Various stories occur in the puranas regarding how Siva plucked off the fif th head of Brahma. in place of one face. (M. Chapter 26 ." . which began to chase Siva. 13. As a revenge Brahma created Sati and insulted Siva through Daksa. (5) Once Siva showed his daughter Sandhya to Brahma who grew lustful instantly. 14) In the Siva-Rudra collections a story occurs about the quarrel between Siva and Brahma. Once Brahma fell in love with Sati the wife of Siva. Anusasana Parva. 5. "I shall become your son. . 84-86) . Brah ma created gatarupa with half the portion of his body. To solve this problem. When the fifth head was gone. along with the creation of worlds and everything in it. not bear his beautiful wife to be awa y from his sight even for a moment. It is this face that was plucked off by S iva. S iva took away the fifth head of Brahma and made him ugly. "Your fifth head will shortly be destroyed. (Sk anda. th e following names are given to Brahma." Hearing this Siva got angry and plucked off the fifth head of Brahma and threw it away. He got angry and cursed. 2. Nilalohita got angry and cursed Brahma. called Nilalohita a lso. Seeing this the conceited Brahma said to Siva: "I am the first who got existence in this world. 17) Various names ofBrahma and their meanings: In Amarakosa. Out of it came out a ho rrible monster. In later creations Brahma did not think of Nilalohita. the rest of the heads were benumbed. and accepted that bright and beautiful woman as his wife. They are given below. but it was of no avail. Siva insulted Brahma by showing this ill-owned passion of his to his sons (Brahm a's sons).

B. BRAHMA. churned-curd. Hamsavahana-who has swan as his conv eyance. The brahrnacari who lives with the teacher has to obey certain rules and princip les. Viranci-he who cre ates. gambling. See Parabrahma. He should bathe in the river at sun-rise and offer oblations to gods and ma nes. flowers. He took part in the Birth festival of Arjuna. curd. Cha pters 65 and 122). A devagandharva (a class of Gods) born to Kasyapa Prajapati of hi s wife Prtha. BRAHMA. A Brahmaeari should go to bed alone. Bra hmacarya. and Brahmacarya is one of the stages of life. slaughter. the first stage of the four is considered as the period of education. Provided there are no other houses he may rec eive alms from the houses of his teacher's relatives and in the absence of such houses he may approach the houses of heirs to his teacher and in the absence of such houses he may receive alms from the house of the teacher. meat. BRAHMACARI I. An individual of a dynasty of teachers. Garhasthya(married householder). The four stages are Brahma carya (Vedic student vowed to chastity). He should fetch ` . soil and darbha (grass) for the teacher. Chapter 73. flo wer of chrysanthemum (Ind. Vidhata-he who does. This is called Brahma marriag e. BRAHMACARI II. The Brahmacari should live on alms. Lokesa-the god of the worlds. BRAHMABALI. ba th applying oil. Surajyestha-he who came into being before all the suras (gods). Vidhi-he who does or decides or judges. lust. Adi Parva. umbrella. ang er. He should receive alms only from the houses of those who believe i n the Vedas and sacrifices. Srsta-he who creates. slander. Mahabharata. pronouncing the mantra or spel l `Punch' thrice. Visvasrt-who c reates the world. music. Kamalasana-who sits on lotus. accord or born of the Dhata-who holds or bears everyth ing. Stanza 8 states that this mode of marriag e was allowed to all the four castes of ancient Bharata. (See GurUparampara). Vedha-he who creates. falsehood. fragrance. BRAHMACARYA. Atmabhu-born of his own Suprem e Spirit. Abjayoni-born of lotus. anointing the eyes with collyrium. sandals. Andaja-born from the egg. Chapter 2. Caturan ana-who has four faces. Vanapr astha (forest hermit) and Sannyasa (an ascetic who has renounced the world). cowdung. dance. Adi Parva. milk. He should not go to the house of his teacher or his heirs and their families for alms. covetousness. If seminal discharge occurs in dream he should ta ke bath early in the morning and worship the Sun. flower for oblation. The rules and conduct of a Brahmacari are given in Manusmrti. Svayambhu-who is born of himself. ghee. The bride is adorned with all kinds of ornaments and is taken to bridegroom. It is the duty of the brah macari to bring water.) women."Brahmatmabhuh surajyesthah Paramesthi pitamahah Hiranyagarbho lokesah~ SvayambhuscaturananalZ l/ Dhatal:jayonir druhino Virancih kamalasanah / Srasta p rajapatir vedha Vidhata visvasrtvidhih // Nabhijanmandajah pfxrvo nidhanah kamal odbhavah Sadanando rajomurtih Sattyako hamsavahanah // Brahma-he who increases. Semen should not be m ade to discharge through lust. A kind of marriage. Nabhijanma-born from t he nave of Visnu. and caus ing injury to others. and given to him as wife. (M. In ancient India an ideal life was considered to pass through four stages. See Brahmacarya. Hiranyagarbha-having the golden egg (mundane egg) in womb. (abja) Druhina-who hurts asuras. ridicule. Paramesthin-he who dwells in the world of truth or Parama. Prajapati-Pati of praj as (Lord of progeny) . A brahmacari has to abstain from using honey. Pitamaha-grandfather of the manes such as Aryama and others.

and Anuha married Krtvi. Suhotra begot Hasti. massage her body. Visvajit begot Senajit and Senaji t begot Rucira. For learning Vedas etc. A Brahmacari could sit with his teacher only when they are in a -vehicle. A brahmacari should not apply oi l to the body of his teacher's wife. A famous king of Kampilyapura. and mind. P ara begot Prthu. clothes etc. Vibhraja begot Anuha . with clothes. when the student asks the teacher for permission to get married. If anybody speaks ill of his teacher he . Without waiting for the order of the teacher. The Brahmacari should not speak unasked. or on a camel or in a tower or on the steps or on rocks or in a boat. 2) Previous birth and kingship. and as a dog if he scorns him. which are to be covered. as a teacher. as instructed in rules and dry it in the sun . When the student is before the teacher he should stand with folded hand s controlling his body. On completion of ed ucation. He should rise up in the morning before his teacher wakes up. In Padmapurana. he sho uld give the teacher what he demands. running behind if he is walk ing. sitting if the teacher is sitting. and comb her ha ir. without the permission of his teacher. Rucira begot Prthusena. If a healthy Brahmacdri fails in doing his duties consecutively for seven days it will be considered that his vow of Brahmacarya is broken and then he will have to take the vow of `Avakirni' again. If the wife is not of the same caste the brahmacdri ne eds only to stand up and make obeisance to her. the Brahmacari (student) s hould engage himself in devotion and meditation and in the service of the teache r daily. If t he wife of the teacher is of the caste of the teacher. and as a worm if he s teals the wealth of his teacher and as a beetle if he becomes jealous at the gre atness of his teacher. the student should not g ive the teacher cows. Brhaddhanus begot Brhaddharma. a hermit. Prthu begot Sukrta. He should not gainsay the t eacher. He should not address his parents who visit the house of the teac her. speech. should he do so before the teacher. will attain heaven after his death. He should never be asleep at sunrise or sunset. BRAHMADATTA I. Prthusena begot Nipa.Camata' (fuel chiefly from butea frondosa) from a place of purity in the forest. The student should attend to the orders of the teacher and comply with t hem. standing close by when he is facing the opposite direction. he should not give reply lying. in the absence of which it may b e got dried in a sheltered place. the daughter of hermit Sukra. He should respect learned men. Nipa begot Para. Part III. folding his lim bs when the teacher is lying or sitting near. Brhatksatra begot Suhotra. A brahmacari may either shave his head or grow matted hair. Satyajit begot Visvajit. Only when he is asked to sit. Brahmadatta was born to Anuha by Krtvi. The student should not sit in a careless manner in places where the teacher's eyes could reaeh. at noons. Hasti begot Ajamidha.should cl ose his ears and run away from the spot. standing if the teacher is standing. He should consider the teacher of his teacher a s his teacher. When his teacher calls him. Brhadisu begot Brhaddhanus. h e will be born as a donkey. eating or looking in the opposite direction. holym en. as free gifts beforehand. The story is given below. 1) Birth. Sukrta begot Vibhraja. Brhadd harma begot Satyajit. This fuel should be put in the sacrificial fir e in the mornings. and go to bed only after the teacher has retired f or sleep. the brahmacari should con sider her as his teacher. sensitive organs. sitting. Brahmadatta was born in the family of Brhatksatra who was a scion of the Solar dynasty. . Chapter 10. one of those seven sons. sta nding back if the teacher is advancing towards him. When the teacher is angry the brahmacari should not go ne ar him. He should not u tter the name of his teacher. Ajamidha b egot Brhadisu. there is a story stating how the seven sons of Kausika. became fishermen by a cu rse and how they got absolution and attainment of heaven by offering oblations t o the manes. A brahmacari who has fully complied with t he rules mentioned above. w alking. and in the evenings. If -a Brahmacari scoffs :his teacher. The student should have his seat a nd bed one step lower than those of his teacher. wash her. sons of the teacher and those who are born of his family. Brahmadatta was the rebirth of Pitrvartti . covering the portions of h is body. brains.

the devoted Brahmana. Seeing the pleasures tha t King Anuha of Pancala was enjoying by his wealth. He was regular in performing sacrifices and giving offerings to th e manes. So they fasted in holy baths and discarded their lives before the pe ople. Kusuma. the daughter o f Sudeva (Devala). Their fa ther died. big army and beaut iful women one of the Cakravakas. Seeing the King laughing without any reason the queen Sannati asked him why he laughed.male ant. with loving words." Brahmadatta returned to the palace and spent the night there. There was no rain anywhere in the world. In s hort. those seven hermits got divine power and became daring wicked men and ate the cow of their teacher. These brothers had taken the milking cow of their teacher Garga to the forest for gra zing. Thus Pitrvartti was born as th e son of Anuha with the name Brahmadatta and the other two were born as Pundarik a and Subalaka. His seven sons. Pitrvartti. They told the teacher that the cow was eaten by a leop ard and gave him the calf. she was in her former birth the cow of Garga. desi red to become a king. "If we kill the cow we can use it as offerings to the manes. and he laughed. The male one. Their deeds were as bad as their names indicated. The King replied. he had the power to understand the l anguage of animals. Himsra. whom he would meet when he goes to walk in the streets. He understood the thought and speech of birds and animals. They were born again as deer in the mount of Kalanjara. sons of the two ministers. Vasu. who were husband and wif e were engaged in a petty quar rel. On the seventh day Brahma appeared before him and told him. They decided to kill the cow of their teacher. names suitable to their character. Thus re membering the manes the sacrifice was completed with the necessary rituals. Citradarsi. The sons were in want. Because of the pow er of knowledge and the penance and fast they discarded the body of deer in Prap atana and got rebirth as Cakravaka (ruddy goose) in the lake called Manasasaras. She thought that the King ha d been scoffing her. Sudarsi. Next morning he started with his wife and ministers. for a walk." The queen did not believe the King. He was mighty and powerful. Pisuna." The elder brothers agreed to it. When t . and the sin will no t be visited on us. Kavi. He had the attainment of harmony with the supreme spirit. She said that there was no reason whatsoever for the king to laugh ju st then. But owing to m ental disturbance three of them lost their attainments. "Oh. There is no other reason. One was detailed to be the guest and himself as the sacrificer. Brahmadatta was anointed as King of BRAHMADATTA I 15'7 BRAHMADATTA III Pancala in the great city of Kampilya. The other two brothers seeing the wealth. birds. The King could not answer her question. pacified t he female one. The King felt amazed at this conversation of the ants. Because of the attainments of his previous lives. walking in the garden with his The minute creatures. Those seven loving brother s were saints by virtue of their harmony with the Supreme spirit. et e. That is why I laughed. But because of their offerings to the manes they had retained memory of their previ ous births. He married Sannati. glory and power of the two ministers. In this birth their names were Sumanas. "The King will know everything from the words of a Brahmin. who instantly came close to her husband and they became happy. Two of the elder brothers were det ailed to give oblations to the devas. beautiful one !just now there was a quarrel bet ween a female and a. and three of them to offer oblations to th e manes. Jnat a and jnanaparaga. Vagdusta and Pitrvartti were studying un der Garga. vehicles.In days of old there was a hermit named Kausika in Kuruksetra. She asked him how he came to understand the language of s uch' creatures. S varupa. he saw two ants. Once as the Kin g was wife. The youngest of them said. wished to become ministers. who being lo yal to his father had performed sacrifice and given offerings to the manes. The King loved his father. a teacher. I heard it. In course of time they all died and were born again as wild men in Dasapura. Krodhana. He fasted for seven day s. Accordingly Pitrvartti kil led the cow and began sacrifice to the manes.

One hund red beautiful daughters were born to the Ding Kusanabha. Then the poor father asked them. They cried. are we. verse. Chapter 20). One day while they were playing in the jungle Vay ubhagavan (wind-god) saw them and grew lustful. Brahmadatta gave the old Brahmana plenty of wealth and s everal villages and sent him fully satisfied. The Ruddy geese mentioned before took their next birth as sons of a poor Brahmin in the same city. Once. When they regained th eir former form they became the wives of Brahmadatta. They were called Hams a and Dibhaka. "Fate has made us desirous of the objects of o ur senses and we have lost our harmony with the Supreme Spirit. When they recovered the King Brahmadatta and the minister Subala and Pundarika bemoaned the loss of powers they had attained before by devotion. when there was nobody in the room a prince took Sarvasena from the cage an d choked her to death. She would return in the evening and tell the King news all over the world. (For further information see Dibhaka).s 32 & 33.hey left the palace they saw an old Brahmin coming towards them. The two ministers were Subalaka the son of Babhravya who was the author of the K amasastra and Pundarika the son of Pancala who propagated the science of medicin e. Bhavisya Parva. the kin g the Brahmin recited a verse "Brahmanas in Kuruksetra which seven as wild men in Dasapura ? Stags in Kalanjara. He presented his hundred hunch-backed daughters to King Brahmad atta. The King had sons by other wives. Finally she pecked out the eyes of the prince and fle w away into the air. Another King who ruled over There is a reason why the old Brah min recited the Kampilya. Vidyacandra and Tapodhika. When Brahmadatta was the King of Kariupi lyapura a bird named Tapaniya become his friend. Kusa nab ha was the King of Kanyakubja.This story occurs in Valmi ki Ramayana. When he was ruling Kampilya . When the King heard this verse the memory of h is former births revived and he fell down in a swoon. Then. Tapaniya returned and seeing the dead body of her daughte r. They had the memory of their previous births. BRAHMADATTA II. But they did not yield to his r equest. Sarga. 3) A bird as his wife when he was King. Then he anointed his capable and f ully qualified son Visvaksena as King and with his retinue retired to Manasa-sar as for penance. Sarvadarsi. Though he had two wives he had no children. a great hermit and who could understand the language of all living creatures. ruddy geese in Manasa. It went on like this for a long time. (Hari-vamsa. Bala-kanda. Mention is made in Mahabharata. BRAHMADATTA III. p enance and sacrifice. Chapter 104. Brahma granted him boon and thus Brahmadatta was born to Anuha. It was before this Brahmadatta that the Brahmana recited his verse and it was that King who swooned and fell down. Her head was purple coloured an d body black. names suitable to thei r characters The Brahmin boys decided to go for penance to attain supreme bliss. a Gandharva woman whose mother was Ormila. By and by this bird became his wife. Finally by the grace of Siva two children were born to them. They also remembered about their former births and also fell down unconscious . This King was the son of the hermit Cali and his wife Somada. They wer e called Dhrtiman. what is this ? You are going aw . mighty hero. who. waited for a long time. Seem. Tapani ya would wash her child and place her in the cradle early in the morning and the n go to the forest and fly about in the air. A daughter named Sarvasena wa s born to Brahmadatta by his bird-wife. He was the King of Salva. ab out another Brahma datta. meditation. So he got angry and cursed them and they became hump-backed. The King was very sorry. a learned man. now living hRre". by his divine power straightened their backs." They repeated t he cry again and again and they spoke about the blessings obtained by offering o blation to their manes. "My dear sons.

BRAHMADATTA IV. (M . dau ghter of Jaya. Seeing that. So the flowers. Seeing this Devi looked round with anger to see what caused them to smile." After this Jaya the loved maid of Parvati requested her for absolution from curse. Chapter 8 3. Their father. weary and sad. which we will teach you now. He consulted his ministers and made a lake. The swans said thus "Oh King! you might have heard of the famous mountain Mandara. They seemed like two lightnings in the midst of white clouds. She said : "It is good that you behave like this when I am in this plight ! The two are making love. So he left Parvati the re and went away. which is the fiel d of games of the Devas (gods). Udyoga Parva. outcasts. Candralekh! and her husband and Dharjata woul d be happy on the earth. A holy place in Kuruksetra. for all. Is that dutiful ? The sons replied. She had been engaged in fanning Parvati. You recite to the King. Devi began to walk about in those gardens with pangs of separa tion. They squint ed their eyes and showed Manipuspe vara and Candralekha to Devi. Understanding this Pingesvara and Guhesvara. Spring season came. Let you two who laughed before me without humility also be born on the earth. His desire increased to such an extent that h e had desire for nothing else. Taranga 1). There were a number of swan s around them. first as poor Brahmanas. dogs with tails cut off and finally as various kind of birds. Of these. to-morrow morning this verse. BRAHMAHATYA. wrinkles etc. the old Brahmin. Because of sepa ration she had been much worried. They were of golden colour. you are laughing." Thus she cursed the four of ganas: Th en a gana named Dhurjata said to Parvati : "Devi.ay leaving your poor and aged father. Every creature which seemed beautiful to him was brought to that place. Both were young and thei r figures suited each other. Stanza 25) . The King was Brahmadat ta. In Mahabharata. "We wi ll tell you a way to earn wealth. a Gana. BRAHMADEVA. So all these affairs made her a ngry. May these two dotards be born on the earth and become husband and wife there. Padmavatiladzbaka. At the time of the churning of the milk sea when this mountain was used as churn-drill. The two others would lead a miserable life on the earth . Bra hmadatta wished to see them again. Stanza 71. A warrior who fought on the side of the Pandavas against the Kaurava s in the battle of Mahabharata. One day Manipuspesvara. One night he saw two swans flying in the air. Candracuda also will co me to this mountain occasionally to play on the top of it and so it became more glorious than the mount Kailasa. A king who ruled over the country of Kasi. Vana Parva. hankered after Candralekha. Chapter 196. two ganas looked at each other and smiled. a nd then as Brahmaraksas (demon friends)." Devi got angry at him and cursed him too: "May you also be born on the earth as a human being. this is unfortunate. Hearing this those two swans also came there. Long ago A nuha. One day while Mahadeva was playing in those gar dens he had to leave on an urgent matter concerning Gods. Amrtam (celestial nectar of immortality) touched this mountain. came to the gate of the palace at Kampilya. who appeared before the Kin g and asked him what he desired." The boys ta ught their father this verse and then they went to the forest. Candralekha .B. fruits and roots in the vicinity of this mountain got the power of removing death. robbers. it is said that this place is auspicious to Brahma. By and by he tamed them and asked them how they got the golden colour. There is another story how Brahmadatta became the King of this place. The Ganas (servants of Siva) and the maids of Parvati attended on her. You will get plenty of wealth. Killing a Brahmana is called Brahmahatya. They have not commited any severe crime. the King of Pancala did penance before Brahma. His duty was to protect the army in the rear. BRAHMADUMBARA. In ancient India killing . reciprocated his love. The Devi said that all of them would get absolution at the place of penance of Brahma and other god s and would return here." (Kathasaritsagara.

there was nothing but an egg. Stanza 32. BRAHMAJIT. he had to give all the wealth he had to Brahmins well-versed in Vedas. that if any of the vows mentioned above was performed he would be ab solved from the sin of Brahmahatya. Chapter 1. performing sacrif ice. BRAHMANDA. It is mentioned in Agnipurana. This egg was split into two a nd from it a male child with the radiance of innumerable suns came out. arms. Chapter 155. Till the time of investiture with the sacred string is one birth and from tha t period onwards is the second birth. The duties of a Brahmana are. The boy was so called . See Veda. as gift. lac and flesh. trade a nd commerce and Kusida (money-lending). Ksatriyas. The deity of this period is Brahma. Living on the interest of money giving o ut as loan is Kusida. The suffix `Sarma' should be added to the name of Brahmana. The Brahmanas were allowed to do the works of agriculture. BRAHMAYA(M).a Brahmin was considered to be a great sin. the Supreme B eing which is the root of the origin of the universe. The Puranas say that the four castes originated from different par ts of the body of Brahma. Brahma ordered activities. So this wonderful ch ild looked up and lay there. or perform one of the three sacrifices Asvamedha. jaggery. or else to attempt to jump into a blazing f ire thrice with bowed head. A Brahmana has two births in one lif e. Chapter 9. for the four caste s (Brahmana Ksatriya. thig hs and feet). (Brahmanda Purana 35:38). BRAHMAMEDHYA. This helpless child was called `Viratpurusa' (the n ext emanation from Brahma) by those verscd in the Puranas. C hapter 169. In Agni Purana. 2) The activities of a Brahmana. and Sudras are the caturvarnas or the four castes. A Brahmana can have four wives. giving g. and encouraging others to perform sacrifice. which is beyond reckoning. The word Brahmanda means the anda of Brahma (anda-egg). and Sudra) who were born frcm his face. From thi& statement it is seen that the BrAhmanas were born from t he face. famous in the Purarias. There was nobody to feed it. or make an alms-pot called kivagirodhvaja' and wander abo ut begging alms. keeping cows. to purify his soul. because of hung er and thirst. who committed this sin had to bu ild a but in the forest and live there for a Priod of twelve years. At a time long ago. Brahmanas. A son of Kalanemi.fts and getting remuneration. This won derful child was helpless. Vaigyas. But they should not trade on products from cow. So a Brahmana is called `dvija' or twice-b orn. it is instructed that one should wake up at this period and engage in prayer and m editation. (BRAHMIN). If none of these was possible. Vaisyas from the thighs and Sudras from the fe et of Brahma. Stanza 87 "Sarvasyasya to sargasya Guptyartharh sa mahadyutih Mukhabahurupaj j anarim Prthakkarmanyak alpayat. The period of forty-eight minutes before the sunrise is called Br ahmamuhurta. (1) Origin. Ksatriyas from the arms. Sv arjit or Gosava. Mention is made about this river in Mahabharata Bhismaparva. learning Vedas and teaching Ve das. BRAHMANA. BRAHMAMUHURTA. He got no help. See Manusmrti. He. A river. s alt. Vaisya. After his birth he cried for a while. (With a view to sustain the world.

) there are eight towns. Chapter 271. Countless such universes e xist. and above Vaikuntha there is another world with an area of fifty crore yojanas (leagues). This is a great book of twenty-five thousand verse s taught to the great hermit-sage NIarici by Brahma. that if a copy of this book is taken and offered to a Brahmin on the full moon day of the month of Vaisakha with cow and water. BRAHMANJALI. Thus a universe consists of fourteen worlds. from Patala to the Brahmaloka (from the net her world to the upper world or the realm of Brahma). The river Sita flows through the top of the mountains and passing through the mounta in in the east called Bhadrasva. Over the shell of Egoism there is the shell of glory and the shell of glory is covered by Prakrti. called `G oloka' (the world of cow). It is immeasurable. Only the two worlds Vaikuntha and the Goloka are eter nal. One universe comprises fourteen worlds or realms. (Devi Bhagavata. very big and beautiful. Around the shell of fire there is the shell of air and the air-shel l is covered with ether. God pervades the whole u niverse. Around this city.Chapter 272). Chapter 7. the protectors off the eight zones. The r iver Ganga which springs from the feet of Mahavisnu wets the whole or Candramand ala (Lunar region). Brahmapuri is on the summit of Mahameru. Skandhas 9) . wh o was the base of all the worlds a universe came into being. Over and above all these universes. (BRAHMAPURANA). Around the shell of ether there is the shell of Egoism of darkness. Svarloka. (The Nature and the Supreme Spirit). with a n area of fourteen thousand yojanas (leagues). But he was an atom of atoms an d the first figuration of God. Folding both arms in this way is called Brahmanjali. Amsa 2. As oil exists in sesame. IPPATTU. Tapoloka. above and all around by andakataha (egg-shell). The river Caksus passes through the mountains in the west . about the construction of Brahmanda. BRAHMAPURANA. Thus all the countl ess universes were born. Visnu. This is the idea given by the Puranas ab out Brahmanda.because he was the most material of materiality. BRAHMAPRALAYA. kept by eight protectors such as Indra and others. See Manvantara. The abode of Brahma. There are twelve thousand verses in this pura na. Caksus and Bhadra flows in four directions. Mention is made. falls in the Eastern Ocean. Siv a and devas (the bright ones). Alakananda. One of the eighteen puranas. The river Alakanand a flows to the south and reaches Bharata. When a disciple stands before his teacher he should have both his a rms folded. Cha pter 2) . Each universe has its own trinity of Brahma. BRAHMAN DAFURANA.) and at the four corners (SouthEast etc. It is mentioned in Agni Pur ana. This is the connection between Prakrti and Purusa. is co vered under. Satyaloka and Brahmaloka. (Pattu=song). Bhuvarloka. Prakrti c ontains numberless Brahmandas. Then it divides into seven rivers whic h unite in the ocean. A performance connected with the temples of Kera la. the Divine Nature. and dividing itself into four rivers called Sita. (Manusmrti. JanaToka. Bhuloka (the earth) consists of seven islands and sixty-four peninsulas. This purana contains a talk by Br ahma about the glory of Brahmanda. in the Visnu Purana. falls down on the Brahmapuri. BRAHMAPURI. (East etc. at the four sid es. like the seed of the Kapittha tree (Vitar-the wood-apple). (Agni Purana. This Brahmanda. This water-shell is covered by a sh ell of fire. The seven upper worlds are Bh dloka. The anda (egg) is c overed by water ten times the egg in volume. Th ere are seven worlds above and seven worlds below. BRAHMAN. From each pore of the skin of the great virat. the giver will attain heaven.there is Vaikuntha.

BRAHMASTRA. A holy place in Kuruksetra. Chapter 83. It is mentioned in Mahabharata. In this holy place there is a peg driven down by Brahma himself. If an enemy. A holy place situated in Kuruksetra. A mountain. There is another holy bath of the name Brahmasaras in Gaya. Manusmrti. Stanza 53. tha t this Purana is. It is mentioned in Mahabharata. It is stated in Agri Purana. Stanza 17. Stanza 31). B." BRAHMATIRTHA. this weapon may be used to kill him in battle. Chapter 138. Manu says as follows "Sarasvatidrsadvatyordevanadyoryadantaram / Taddevanirmitarn desarn Brahmavartta rh pracaksate. Stanza 23. One of the eighteen Puranas. Chapter 84. Mount Meru shaped like an earring stands in the middle of these four mountains. If a man fasts in this holy place for one night. This weapon was g iven to Agastya by Siva. The theme of the Purana is the story of Rathandhara.B. that a non-brahmana who bathes in this ho1y place willl attain Brahmanatva. Chapter 87 .and enters the country called Ketumalavarsa and then flows into the ocean. The r iver Bhadra passes through all the mountains in the north and flows through the north country of the Kurusa and falls in the North Ocean. Vana Parva. BRAHMAVAIVARTAPURA):A. Vana Parva. It is said that this weapon has no parallel in the world. BRAHMASAVARII. Chapter 272. // "The place between the two rivers Sarasvati and DrsadvatT is called Brahmavartta . This Purana contains eighteen thousand verses. that a person who visits this holy place will get the fruits of performing Asvamedha yaga. that the moment one visits this holy Bath in the river Ganges. Stanz a 89) . (M. (Visn u Purana. Brahmatunga was a mountain that Arjuna saw on the way in his dre am-travel. that Agastya gave this weapon to Agnivesa. Drona Parva. Savarni Manu taught this Pur ana to Narada. Chapter 25. Stanza 103. This is known by another name Brahmasirastra also. It is mentioned in Mahabharata. he would reach the world of Brahma. Chapter 21) . A holy place.II.good to be given as a gift on the full moonday of the month of Magha. BRAHMAVARTTA. (Horse sacrifice). Keep this pure. Stanza 9. If it is used against mean people the three worlds would be destroyed. Vana Parva. BRAHMASTHANA. (See Manvantara) . (M. BRAHMATUNGA. that he who takes a bath in this holy plac e will go to the world of Brahma. Arjuna dreamt that Sri Krsna and himself went to the pr esence of Siva. (the state of being a brahmana). other than human being attacks you. The mountain of Malyav an in the west and the mountain of Gandhamadana in the east are as long as the m ountain of Nilagiri in the north and the mountain of Nisadha in the south. BRAHMASIRAS. Chapter 2. Amsa 2. who gave it to Drona arid Drona gave it to Arjuna and instructqd him about the use of it as follows "You should never shoot this arrow at man. one would attain heaven. See Brahmastra. Chapter 80. A holy place. refers to thi s Brahmavartta. It is mentioned in Mahabharat a. Adi Parva. and give ear to what I say. Anusasana Parva. Vana P arva. Stanza 113. A holy place in Dharmaranya. BRAHMASALA. Chapter 83. One who walks round this peg will attain the fru its of performing a Vajapeya yajna (a drinking sacrifice). Tenth Manu. It is mentioned in Mahabharata. BRAHMASARAS.

time. star etc. one on the seat. this king fo ught on the side of the Pandavas and was killed in the battle. Chapter 52. one each on his Brahma-string (sacred string wor n by brahmins). BRHADASVA I. BRDHNASVA. He fought against the Kauravas an d was killed in the battle. A special sacrifice to be performed by a Brahmin only.amyaka with Dharmaputra. Drona Parva. °Mahavratam'. ears. A sacrifice. Hut a. place. Adi Parva." For this he should have to place two darbhas (grass-Poa cynosuroides) in his right hand. Stanza 30. and then sprinkle it on his head. A ksahrdaya and Asvasiras. `Pantha etacca'. Chapter 83. Brhadanta offer ed Arjuna a good deal of costly presents. known as Ahuta. "Agnimile". Chapter 27. (M. It is mentioned in Mahabharata. In the Rg Veda and Sarirkhyayana Srauta Sutra mention is made that this king offered plenty. hair and legs. eyes. Chapter 4. Ahuta is sacrifice to Brahma. Chapter 9) . W hen he had finished the story he taught Dharmaputra. A king. Chapter 98. Chapter 185. that Agastya once went to this king and begged him for wealth. Stanza 143 that one who bathes in this holy Bath will attain the world of Brahma. He had much respect for Dharmaputra. (Manusmrti. Prahuta is sacrifice to Ghosts. the two important spells. "I am beginning to perform Brahma-yajna. Udyoga Parva. Karna Parva Chapter 5 ). famous in the Puranas. A holy place in Kuruksetra. of presents to the hermit Bharadvaja. and then think of the time. BRHADANTA II. It is state d in the Mahabharata. Brhadasva narrated the story `Nalopakhyana' to Dharma putra in order to divert his mind from the thought of the loss of his kingdom. Vana Parva. Vana Par va. Brahmahuta is sacrifice to man and Prasita is the sacrifice to the manes. Then recite the following Vedic mantras or spells. "Ise tvorjje". `Mahavratasya'. nose. Prahuta. Vana Parva." Then in conformity with the number of letters used. Then he should take water in his hand and sprinkle it on his hands and legs. Once in a battle. Then he should wipe his mouth t wice and face once. An ancient hermit. `Samhitavidamaghavat'. He was liberal and interested in a rchitecture and all kinds of construction work. BRBUTAKSA. In the battle of Bharata. Brahmahuta and Prasita. that Brhadasva went to the forest K. It is mentioned in Mahabharata. in the ord er given: Mantras beginning with. etc. There are five kinds of sacrifice. (Devi Bhagavata. A king of the country known as Uluka. Chapter 9. Arjuna defe ated this King. he shou ld recite the grammatic Sutra known as Vrddhiradaic." BRAHMAVEDHYA. A king of the period of the Vedas. Brother of the king Ksemadhurti. Skandha 11 ). "I am about to perform Brahma-yajna to please the gods known in the S uktas (hymns in the Vedas) for the absolution of all my sins.B. Chap ter 23 and Karna Parva. Bhisma Parva. Drona Parva. date.. Chapter 3) . chest and f orehead." Then recite Gayat ri (spell) thrice. "Yadahga": `Agnirvai'. After that uttering the name of the place. he sho uld say to himself. A river. Chapter 25.B. BRAHMAYONI. Huta is sacrif ice to devas or Gods. The rules a nd rituals of the sacrifice are given below :The Brahmana should rinse his mouth three times. Mention is made about this river i n Mahabharata. three in his left hand. Thenceforward he was friendly with the Pandavas. which was made by the devas. Sabha Parva . . BRHADANTA I. BRAHMAHUTAM. "Agnaaya hi" and Aannodevih. and say t o himself. BRAHMA-YAJNA. (M.

BRHADBRAHMA. (M. A daughter of the Sun. BRHADDHLA I A great King of Kosala. As these two had died a t the holy place of Gangasagara sangama. BRHADDHVANI. A king of the Iksvaku dynasty. BIRHADBALA II. B. Vana Parva. (M. Chapter 221. BRHADBHASA. BRHADBHANU. A king of the Yadavas. One day Brhaddhvaja happened to meet with Keg in!. the giant also died. Stanza 9. When she learne d that this place was under the rule of her husband. He gave fourteen thousand best horses for th e Rajasuya (imperial inauguration) sacrifice performed by Yudhisthira as present . BRHADDHVAJA. A river in India. BRHADDHALADHVAJA. (M. He fought with Abhimanyu and Ghatotkaca in the battle of Bharata. A king of the country known as Kosala. Brhaddhala sided with the Kauravas and fought ag ainst the Pandavas and was killed in the battle by Abhimanyu. Chapter 122. Chapter 278). BRHADBALA III. An attendant of Subrahmanya.B. (M. the king of Gandhara-Brhaddhala attended the P ancali Svayamvara (marriage of Pancali) with his brother S`akuni and Vrsaka. 46. BRHADBALA I. that Brhadbhasa was the wife of the Agni (fire) called Bhanu. So I am ready to come with yo u. (M. Stanza 4).B. she died of fear. Stanza 237) . both attained the world of Visnu. a King of Gandhara.BRHADASVA II. The son of Subala. Bhimasena defeated this King. It is mentioned in the Mahabharata. Chapter 46. Stanza 8) . See Brhadkirti. Stanza 5).B."I hate my husband very much. Skandha 9). (M. The King K uvalayasva was the son of Brhada va. This river is famous in the Puranas. He was the son of Devabhaga. Bhagavata. Kriya-kanda). Chapter 185. Vana Parva. BRHADDHALA II. He was present at the Pancali Sv ayamvara (marriage of Pancali) with his brothers Sakuni and Vrsaka. See Brhadkirti. Mention is m . It is stated in Brahma Parva of Bhav isya Purana that this hermit recovered from leprosy by Sun-worship. During his conquest of the East. Stanza 7) . A king in ancient India. BRHADDHALA III. In the battle of Mahabharata. Drona Parva. the brother of Vasudeva. Chapter 1. Skandha 9) . A fire.B: Adi Parva. It is mentioned in Mahabharata. A hermit who had acquired great knowledge in Vedas and Vedan gas (scriptures) also has this name. when she told him thus :. The lustful giant was about to take her away. (Agni Purana.B. (Skan da Purana." Taking her in his chariot the giant went to Gangasagara sangama. Being una ble to bear separation from Kesini. the beauti ful wife of king 13himakesa. Chapter 40. Son of Suba. Salya Parva. A king of the Anga dynasty. 24. This powerful King of Kosala had given four teen thousand horses for the Rajasaya (imperial inauguration) of Yudhisthira. Vana Parv a. Stanza 20. This giant wandered about stealing the wealth an d women of others. (Bhagavata. Chapter 231. Drona Parva. A hermit who was a leper. Adi Pa rva. that Abhimanyu killed this B rhadbala in the battle. His father was SravaSta. BRHADATMA. A Raksasa (giant). of my own accord. BRHADBHASA. BRHADBALIKA.

a forest tribe of the mountain of Grddhrakuta. A so n named Kusdgra was born to Brhadratha. "Tell me. Son of emperor gibi.Sabhd Parva. Yadu. BRHADRATHA V. Stanza 233. Mention is made about this king in Mahabhara ta.B. 19 and 21) . Pratyagra. (Mahabharata. Drona Parva. Chapter 279). The hermit complied with his request. what eternal Truth is and give me Spiritual knowledge". It is stated in Agnipurana. Though he h ad married two daughters of the King of Kasi he was childless. BRHADRATHA I. Bala. Chapter 1. BRHADGIRL A person named Yati. The giantess took that child and made a present of it to the King. A king of the Puru dynasty. Arjuna and Sri Krsna came to Magadha to kill Jarasandha they broke t-~ drum s. Each of them gave bi rth to half of a child. When Jarasandha cam e of age the King anointed him as King and went to the hermitage of Candakausika with his wives and began to do penance. BRHADISTHA. BRHADRATHA II. A king of the Anga fami1y. Adi Parva. Stanza 32. From that time onwards Giantess-worship began in Magadha. the king of Cedi.ika and pleased him by giving him precious stones. Kusa. and return to the forest for pe nance. One day the hermit gakayanya appeared before hi m and told him that he might ask any boon. ( For further information see Prthurasmi). hes Chapters 17. The hermit gave them a mango fruit and said that the King should enthron e the son who would be born by eating the mango. This Brhadratha was one of the seven sons of Girika. Chapter 49. The sorrowful kin g went with his wives to a hermit named Candakau4. Matsyakala and Vira were the brothers of Brhadratha. Son of Uparicara. The sound of one beat on the drum will last for a month. A king of the Puru dynasty. Chapter 9. A king in ancient India. Skandha 9) . He went to the forest to lead a life of retirement after h aving installed his eldest son on the throne. (Bhagavata. The King told the hermit about his sorrow due to lack of ch ildren. BRHADRATHA III. Adi Farva. Bhisma Parva. In course of time he became a powerful emperor. A king. saved this King fr om the attempt of extermination of the Ksatriyas by Parasurama. When Bh ima. Accordingly the king said. After coming to the forest Brhadratha k illed a giant named Rsabha and with his' hide made three Big drums and placed th em in the city. (Maitri Upanisad). The King and his wives returned to the palace and divided the mango fruit into t wo and both of his wives ate the fruit and became pregnant. BRHADIKSU. A giantess called Jara put them together and instantly the pieces joined toge ther and became a living child. Uparicara made his son Brhadr atha. That child grew up and was known by the famous name Jarasandh a. BRHADGURU. chapter 27 7 that he was the son of Jayadratha and that Visvajit was the son of Brhadratha. Chapter 275) . Chapters 57 and 62) . BRHADRATHA IV. A king of the family of Bharata. The Lamsuras. This Brha dratha was a mighty warrior-king with an army of three aksauhinis (an aksauhini is a complete army consisting of' 21b70 horses and 109350 infantry). He began to do penance in the fore st for the attainment of heaven. king of Magadha. The hermit gave eight boons for the son who was to be born. (Agni Purana. Sa nti Parva. BRHADGARBHA.ade about this river in Mahabharata. (M. (For further information about him see Astaka) . A king who lived in a portion of an asura named kksma. (Agni Purana. He was one of those who were against sacrifice. 53. The lifeless forms of these half children were thrown ou t. This king w .

This hermit was one of the seven sons born to Angiras o f his wife Sump na. BRHADRATHA VI. Stanza 30. He was the son of the hermit named Pancajanya. Vayasya. 1:24 : 6-10) . Chapter 218. Chapter 4). for the conquest of the North when King Brhanta oppos ed him. Vana Parva. the son of Brahma. Arjuna defeated him and brought him under subjugation. and he had seminal flow. 1) Birth. Bhisma Parva. BRHANMANAS I. Vana Parva. (M. who is remembered at the beginning of the sacrifice known as agnihotra. The son born to Angiras of his wife Subha. BRHAN'TA.B. A son named ~raniti was born to this Agni. He was transformed to a god. (M. From tha t fire the devas such as Marici. Angiras and others were born. pur. See Brhatkirti. BRHANMANTRA.B. An Agni (fire). Arjuna was taking th e sacrificial horse round. BRHASPATI. (M. (M. A deva Gandharva. The name A ngiras was given because he was born out of angara (live-coal). Stanza 57 that this Gandharva was present at the Birthday ce lebration of Arjuna.harata. In the battle of Mahabharata Brh'anta fought on the side of the Pandavas.5. Brahma grew am orous. He presented Arju na with a large quantity of precious stones. Skandha 9) . Vana Parva. They were Utathya. Karna Parva. Mention is made about this riv er in Mahal. Chapter 22.nically famous.as present at Pancali svayambara (marriage of Pancali). Yudhisthira performed a horse sacrifice. It is mentioned in Mahabharata Adi Parva. Brahma put the semen in fire. (M. A king of the family of Bharata. See Arvavasu.B. Chapter 220) . Santi . Chapter 208). The father of Brhaspati was Angiras. BRHANTA Ii. Stanza 10).B. BRHANNALA. BRHAJJYOTI. (M. BRHANTA 1. (Bhagavata. BRHADVATL A river in India. Chapter 122. and wa s killed by Dussasana. Brhaspati. Stanza 185). (A class of Gods). BRHADDYUMNA. BRHANMEDAS. Karnaparva. BRHAHDVISA. Chapter 177). at the sight of some celestial maids who were present at a sacrifice perf ormed by Rudra . Chapter 9. Adi Parva. A hermit. A warrior on the side of the Kauravas. Vana Parv a. As this Agni is the son of Vasistha he has got th e name Vasistha also. A king of the Yadavas. Adi Parva. Chapter 118 . One of the seven mothers of Subrahmanya.B.B. (Kurma Purana. BRHADUKTHA. Vana Parva. Stanza 13). Bhrgu. (M. Eight sons were born to Angiras by his wife Vasuda. (M. Stanza 2) . BRHAKA. The teacher of the devas (Gods). (M. A king. The name adopted by Arjuna during the concealment of the Pandavas in the Kingdom of Viral a. He was the son of Vapusman and father of grid eva.B. BRHANMANAS II. (For further information see Arjuna). Brhanta was killed in a fight with Satyaki.B. See Brhatkirti. Chapter 4).B. Chapter 67. He was the brother of Ksemadh urti.

From this day onwards you are the real fire. She became the wife of Prabhasa the last one of the eight Vasus . which proves this fact. Chapter 218 that pati had six more br others. Angiras. When her husband teased her Romasa said to her husband : `-You please come and feel your hand on my body. Budha was born to Candra by Tara. Mahabharata. Agirasi had the name Bhanumati also." In the Rgveda. born later. The individual called Tara in the family of the monkeys. At that time the devas selected Brhaspati and the asuras se1ected Sukra. Chapter 67. i It is stated in Mahabharata. (Bhagavata. Anuvaka 19. see `Kaca'. Adi Parva. as their teacher." The devas and asuras began to fight for prosperity and wealth. that Drona. Though I am hairy like th e goats of Gandhara. So in some Puranas Brhaspati is mentioned as the son of Agni (fire-god). Stanza 69. To secure victory in the batt1es the gods made Brhaspati their teacher and likew ise the asuras made Sukra their teacher. Its authority is given below. 2) Is Brhaspati the son of Agni ? In some puranas Brhaspati is described as the son of Agni. recognized Ahgiras also as a fir e-god. It is stated i n the Mahabharata. it is stated that Brhaspati had a Brah mana son named Kusadhvaja. the mother of Brhaspati. Don't think that my organs are small. When the fire of penance increased the bri ghtness of the real fire decreased. It is stated that Brhaspati had a sister named Angirasi. Vana Parva. Of them Brhaspati. it is mentioned that Brhaspati had a daughter named Romasa. In some puraas Vasuda. Mention is made in Mahabharata. 3) Teacher of the Devas. I have got all the organs fully grown. and who had been free from worldly pain. Kaca was another son of Brhaspati. Adi Parva. was a son of Brhaspati. is given in the Bhasabharata. St . Sarga 17. The story of how Brhaspati became the teacher of the de vas. Sita was the rebirth of this Devavati. Bala-kanda. Finally the devas intervened and Tara was given back t o Brhaspati. the father of Brhaspati . She was a 'follower of the Brahma cult. was born from a portion of Brhaspati. 4) The conjugality of Brhaspati. Virupa. Chapter 66)." This is the stateme nt in the Rgveda. It is mentioned in Valmiki Ramayana. is given the name* Sraddha also. Tara was the wife of Brhaspati. Seeing Candra's handsome figure she doted on him. Sukta 126. Agni (fire) stood before Angiras and said "O h Lord ! your brightness surpasses mine.. She was very be autiful." Because of this boon of Agni. the devas (gods).was once doing penance in his hermitage. For full particulars of the story how Devayani (daughter of Sukra) hankered aft er Kaca. Brhatjyoti. Samvarta and Sudhanva. So you shall be the first fire and I will be the fire of Prajapati which i s the second fire. All of them were sages who had attained oneness with the supreme Spirit by knowledge. the son of Bhar advaja. (Bhagavata Skandha 4. Stanza 10 as follows . regarding the possession of wealth and prosperity in the three worlds. In the Uttara Ramayana. "Brhaspati begot the mighty monkey Tara. There arose several q uarrels over this affair. Chapter 76 as shown below "The Suras and the asuras (the gods and the demons) became enemies from time imm emorial.l Visvakarma was her son. Utathya and Samvarta became famous through all the wor lds. Vana Parva. Ghora. and that a daughter named Devavati was born to Kusadh vaja. named Brhatkirti. Chapter 219. Devavati was born from his mouth while Ku6adhvaja was engaged in devotiona l recitation of the Vedas. Skandha 4) . Mandala 1.

Brhadmantra. The oblation ofiered to this Agni is known as Udadvara. It is to satisfy this great fire which blazes with numberless pointed tongues. The mother and the child in the womb who opposed the act of Brhaspat i were cursed. as Soma. b ring up this one born of the two. Amogha. Yuddha-kanda mention is made that Brhaspati had a d aughter named Sulekha. The sixth son of Brhaspati and Tara is called $vetakrt. animals are slaughtered. The duration of the penance was thousand years. . Thus Bharata got the famous name `the great'. I he name of the wonderful being ( Samyu's wife) is Satya. according to the belief of the Brahmanas. A story stating how Brhaspati b egot a son by the wife of Utathya is given in Skandha 9 of Bhagavata. th e wife of Utathya. "Mudhe." Hearing this ethereal voice Brhaspati took th e child and gave him the name Bharadvaja and brought him up. capable of destroying the devas. Ni9cyavana prais es the earth. Fire which has no action on prosperity. he could not refuse her request. The enmity between the devas and asuras increased day by day. Skandha 4). As this Vira is the recipient of the s econd ghee offered in sacrifice.rhaspati in the forest and was about to go. Svaha had three sons. (Bhagavata . and-Brbadbhasa and that pati Bharata. for a period of ten years and that during that period both of them would be invi sible to the world. Sukracarya the teacher of the asuras began to do penance before Siva in the Himalayas. Satya is the son of Niscyavana. bring up this one born of the two. On all full-moon days offerings of sacrifices are meant fo r Bharata. She stayed with ukra as his disciple and ser vant. When he was about to return Jayant3 accepted him as her husband. Six sons and a daughter were born to Candramasi. and Ukthya. Asvamedha etc. Th e daughter of Dharma was the wife of ~ariryu. Sukra told her that he would become her husband. Thus the couple began an invisible life. The son of Dipti is Bharadvaja who is the recipient of first portion of Glace oblated in sacrifice. Thousand years passed by. fame and vigour has the name Niscyavana. Because of his familiarity with her." "You senseless woman. The six sons were six Agnis (fires) : In sacrifices the burnt offerings and the ghee wer e the portions meant for the great and mighty fire Samyu. Brhadmana. Indra came' to know of this secret and sent his daughter Jayanti to 9et the spell from Sukra by deceit. Satya which blazes by flame determ ines time. This Vira like Soma is the recipient of sacrificial ghee. Bharata the Agni is said to be the son of the Agni who is Prajathe mother of Brhaspati had another name. Yatatma and Brahmacari are invoked in simple domestic sacrifices by Brahmanas. Svaha was the daughter of Candramasi. Siva appeared before Sukra and gave him the spel l. They are three Agnis called Kamagni. and that BrhasBrhadbrahma. he is known by names such as Rathaprab hu. Rathadhvana and Kumbharetas. was pregnant. Sgubha. After that the chil d was given to emperor Bharata. Brhaspati. when there was a divine voice from above. A son named Dipti and three daughters were born to Samyu . Satya is known by another name Niskrti. Bharata had a son named Bharata and a daughter named Bharati. of a long standing. The Agnis called Vipulaprabha. 5) Growing amorous on the wife of elder brother. with a view to get a divine spell or incantation to destroy t he devas. 6) Personation of 13rhaspati. Bharadvajamimam bhara dvajam B rhaspate. The awful fire Badavagni is supported by life. The Agni Svana spreads diseas es. that Brhaspati had a wife called Candramasi and that she gave birth to s ix Agnis. Fearing that her husband might cast her out she left the son of B. Brhaspati had coition with her when her' husban d was away. Mamata gave birth to two children. the son of Brhaspati.anza 1. In Kampa Ramayana. Mamata. Vira married Sarayu and became the father of Si ddhiSiddhi the Agnidevata-who is remembered in all fire songs. t hat in sacrifices such as Caturmasya. Bharata married Vira and a son was born to them called Vira. The famous archer Drona was the son of this Bhar advaja.

9) Other information. Anjana the mother of Hanuman was a servant of Brhaspat i in her previous birth. when Sulekha the daughter of Brhaspati. Chapter 169. But he gave them absolution by saying that they wou ld regain their lost power during the time of Manu Savarni. (1) It is mentioned in Devi Bhagavata. (Kampa Ramayana. Thus Hanuman who had been rejected by Brliaspati became the d isciple of the Sun.B. Yuddha Kanda). Chapt er 46) . When he grew up Hanuman desired to learn Vedas and Sastras (scriptures). 7) Cursing Ravana. At the expiry of ten years' invisible life Sukra returned having sent Jayand awa y. Ska ndha 4). But he said that his curse could not be recalled. "You. got terrified and ran away to hide herself from him. (Devi Bhagavata. At last they approached their teacher Sukra who be came their teacher again. At that time many Vidyadhara young people. (M. Skandha 1. when the Earth-goddess was changed into a cow the gods employed Brhaspati to milk the cow to obtain the things they need ed. it is instructed that Brhaspati should be consec rated in temples as wearing a necklace of beads (Elaeo carpus seeds) and a water pot. came th ere and engaged in amorous acts. Anjana gave birth to Hanuman. (MA Salya Parva. lie personated himself as Sukracarya and went to the Asuras. when they begged for his pardon. wh o have grown rank by the dart of Cupid. Brhaspati sat on the seat of Sukracarya and began to exhort the asuras in such a manner that with in the period of ten years he was able to remove factionalism and hatred from th em. Chapter 69) . Brhaspati got angry and cursed him. Being dismaye d at the ingratitude of the asuras he cursed them that they would shortly be des troyed and then left the place. (3) Mention is made in the Mahabharata. (Uttara Ramayana). Once Ravana was returning haughty and proud after having defe ated the devas and conquered heaven. (5) Once Brhaspati gave Subrahmanya a stick as a present. will meet with death by the dart of Rama ". who thinking that their teacher had return ed after a long penance gave him a loving and sincere welcome.Brhaspati thought of making the best use of this period. At this juncture Brhaspati also assumed his real form and returned to heaven. They declared that the re al Sukra was he who had been teaching them for the last ten years. Chapter 51. who asked him how it could be done by him as he w as engaged in travelling without stop. that Brhaspati was the teacher of the hermit Suka. Hanuman approached Brhaspati to learn from him. both male and female. (2) In Agni Purana. The asuras saw two Sukras together and were amazed. . But Brhas pati was not prepared to teach a monkey who jumped about everywhere. Hanuman said that he would move in front of the sun always. 8) Brhaspati and Hanuman. (4) During the period of emperor Prthu. Punjikasthali witnessed these lovescenes for a long time and then returned home. Her name then was Punjikasthali. Stanza 21 that B rhaspati gave Bharadvaja Agneyastra (the arrow of fire). She once went to fetch water. Thus the asuras became a people without a leader l ike sheep without a shepherd. The disappo inted Hanuman went to the Sun. It is mentioned in Kampa Ramayana that Brhaspa ti cursed her to be born in the next birth as a female monkey. Adi Parva. Drona Parva. Ravana chased her and when she was caught he tried to ravish her.

(6) Once Brhaspati advised Indra to use sweet words. A king of the Puru dynasty. BRHATSAMA(N). A king born of the family of Bharata. (Rgveda.B. the teacher and was killed. Drona Parva. Chapter 84). Brhadbrahma. Chapt er 2 18. Chapter 2 78) . it is mentioned that this king attended Pan cali Svayamvara (Marriage of Pdficfi li) . Mention is made in Atharva Veda th at the Ksatriyas met with destruction as a consequence. King Suhotra was his father. BRHATKSATRA III. Mention is made in Mahabharata. that seven sons. In Maha bharata. A king in ancient India. Santi Parva. Asvamedha Parva. 10) Co acluuo:a. Stanza 27) . named Brhatkirti. A teacher born in the family of At:giras. this King fought with Krpa. BRHATPUTRA. BRHATKSATRA 1. B-hajjyoti. Ch apter 242. Brhadmantra. Later he ki