I.

Background
1. 2. 3. 4. Introduction Causes that inspire carrying out the RN optimization Inputs for Radio Network optimization KPI i. ii. iii. iv. Drive test data Tracing call data Performance measurement data Configuration data

II.

Radio Network Optimization Activities
1. 2. Flow Chart for Network Optimization Radio Network Optimization Start Up
i. Organization of Radio Optimization team ii. Determination of the Optimization acceptance counters iii. Preparation of Radio Network Optimization tool

3.

Single Site Verification
iv. Preparation for Single Site Test v. Single Site Test and Troubleshooting

4.

RF Optimization

vi. Preparation for RF Optimization Test vii. Collection of RF Optimization data viii. Analysis of RF Optimization data 1. Analysis of Coverage Problems a. Common problems that affect coverage b. Parameters that affect coverage areas

2. Analysis of Interference Problems 3. Analysis of Hardware Faults 4. Analysis of end-to-end network element interoperation. ix. Implementation RF Optimization

Analysis of Access Counter Optimization • • ii. Congestion Caused by High Traffic Volume Congestion Caused by Burst Traffic Congestion Caused by TRX Failure Congestion Caused by Interference Congestion caused by Channel Assignment Failure due to Inconsistent Coverage. 5. 4.related Call Drops Transmission-related Call Drops Parameter related Call Drops . 4. Handover Problem Caused Inappropriate Data Configuration iv. 5. Common Access problem Solutions to Common Access problem Analysis of congestion Counter Optimization 1. 6. KPI Optimization Collection of KPI data 1. Congestion Caused by Inappropriate Data Configuration iii. 3. 3. Coverage Related Call Drops Handover related Call drops Interference-related Call Drops Antenna System. 2.5. Analysis of Handover Counter Optimization 1. Handover Problems Caused by Hardware Failure 3. 2. Analysis of KPI data i. 6. 3. a. Analysis of Call Drop Counter Optimization • Causes of Common Call Drops 1. 4. Unsuccessful handover 2. Drive Test data Call Tracing data Traffic Measurement data Configuration data b. 2.

c. 7. Implementation of KPI Optimization 6. Optimization Reports 1. Conclusion and analysis of KPI optimization 10. 5. content and progress Optimization counters Conclusion RF Optimization KPI Optimization Comparison of Traffic measurement KPI before and after optimization 9. Appendix 7. Network development suggestion 12. 3. 4. Project background Networking modes Optimization process. 6. 2. 8. Analysis of remaining problems 11. Optimization tools .

The number of subscribers increased and affects the network performance gradually. Causes that inspire carrying out the RN optimization: • • • • New network or expansion on the existing network The network quality decreased seriously and there are many complaints from subscribers.RADIO NETWORK OPTIMIZATION I. most of network problems are caused by increasing subscribers and the changing environment. In general. 2. Radio Network Optimization is a continuous process that is required as the network evolves. An event occurs suddenly which affects the network performance seriously. capacity and quality is achieved. Introduction Radio network optimization is carried out in order to improve the network performance with the existing resources. Through Radio Network Optimization. the service quality and resources usage of the network are greatly improved and the balance among coverage. Inputs for optimization • • • Traffic statistics Drive test Customer complaints . Due to the mobility of subscribers and complexity of the radio wave propagation. solve the existing and potential problems on the network and identify the probable solutions for future network planning. the following steps are followed during the Radio Network Optimization: • • • • Data Collection and verification Data analysis Parameter and hardware adjustment Optimization result confirmation and reporting. 3. Background 1. The main purpose is to increase the utilization of the network resources.

The KPI data is obtained from: • Drive test data This data collected from the filed and is associated with the Mobile Station. The following aspects should be taken into during the drive test: Test service: speech and data Test methods: continuous conversation. handover. It consists of the following: User signaling messages Cell signaling messages Standard interface signaling messages LAC data Real-time performance monitoring data. BSS performance data consists of the following: Access data Call drop data Handover data Traffic volume Congestion data • Configuration data Configuration script file collected from the BSC are normally used for problem analysis and location. call set up and network access .4. • Performance measurement data The performance measurement data indicates the radio performance on the network level and cell level. Key Performance Indicators KPI The KPI indicates the overall service performance of the network over a period of time to meet the acceptance requirements. etc • Call tracing data This data is collected from the network equipment side. .

Flow chart for network optimization Network Statistics Drive Test Call tracing KPI target Propose Action Plan Frequency. Radio Network Optimization Activities 1. parameter. configuration and hardware changes Implement action plan Achieved KPI End .II.

.2. The counters are of two types: a) Drive test counters mainly for network with comparatively few subscribers b) Traffic measurement • Preparation of radio network optimization tool The tools for RN optimization have to be made ready. Radio optimization Start up • Organization of radio Optimization team The team to carry out the Radio Optimization activities is shown below 1 Radio Network Optimization Team Leader 2 Radio Network Optimization Engineers 1 Field Measurement Technician 1 Field Measurement Technicians • Determination of optimization acceptance counters These are targets for the Network optimization. congestion rate. call setup success rate. call drop rate. Single Site Verification This is a self-test associated with equipment in each site and each cell. The list of tools is indicated on page 18 3. call and handover of each site and each cell in the area to be optimized. Its purpose is to verify the basic functions such as access. The key counters that indicate the network quality include the coverage rate.

4. • Single site test and troubleshooting It aims to locate the problems associated with the installation and functionality of equipment. Perform Call Quality Test to check whether the access and conversation of the speech are normal through dialing test. For abnormal sites. RF Optimization It aims to optimize the signal coverage. Prepare the documents and tools . RF optimization should performed in cluster instead of individual BTSs Determine the drive test route.• Preparation for single site test Site status and site configuration data are checked. inconsistent antenna tilt and azimuth. and blockage due to environmental change. Since the coverage. mitigate the interference and ensure the even distribution and normal coverage of the radio signal after the service parameters are optimized. Following aspects are followed: • Preparation for RF optimization test It involves the following points: Determine the optimization target so that the network can operate as planned and the KPIs meet the acceptance requirements. adjust the related parameter or rectifying the hardware faults to solve the problem. Test places or routines and debugs test instruments are also selected. categorize the clusters. capacity and quality of the GSM network are related to each other. It looks at the following aspects: Check whether the ARFCNs are the same as planned Check whether the LAI are the same as planned Check whether the configuration of neighbor cell is complete and whether the handover parameters are normal. . Check problems related to power amplification. improper antenna system connection.

Whether the parameter associated to coverage are set properly .Whether BTS receive sensitivity is normal .Antenna tilt and azimuth .Changes in the propagation environment .BTS transmit power . interference. problems related to coverage. .5 .Whether there are VSWR alarms and diversity receive alarms on the Site Maintenance Terminal System . • Analysis of RF optimization data Through the analysis of RF optimization data. a) Analysis of coverage problems It mainly focuses on signal distribution.Ambient environment of the BTS antennas . If the coverage problems are caused by expansion of the BTS capacity.Whether noise floor is high due to interference and poor electromagnetic environment. 2.• Collection of RF optimization data The RF optimization data can be collected through: Drive test Call Quality Test for indoor areas and pre-selected required areas. The collected data together with the BSC call tracing data and configuration data provide reference for the problem location. Common items to be checked: 1. check the following items: . and interoperability of network elements can be located and then appropriate adjustments can be made. check the following items: Whether the configuration of combiners changes after capacity expansion Whether appropriate antennas are selected Whether new antennas are installed in accordance with the requirements The location of the BCCH transmit antenna of the omnidirectional double transmit antennas. hardware failure. If the coverage area becomes smaller after the BTS starts services.Whether VSWR is less than 1.Whether TMA is operational . This data helps to check whether the network operates in accordance with specifications.

2. TMA power attenuation factor. whether the pitch and the azimuth of the antenna are consistent The output power on top of the cabinet for different TRXs when the maximum coverage configuration is used. TMA problems 9. Check whether the antennas are installed in accordance with the requirements after the BTS is put into operation or after new construction.- For directional double transmit antennas. and RACH minimum access level . duplexer. combiners and dividers. Whether the noise floor is high due interference and poor electromagnetic environment Whether there are VSWR alarms and main diversity receive alarms on the Site Maintenance Terminal System Whether the parameters associated with coverage are set properly. MS maximum transmit power control level. BTS front-end module fault (Isolator. and CDU.…) Parameters that affect coverage areas TRX power level. 5. 7. If the coverage problems are caused by swapping or new construction. 3. 8. filters. Whether appropriate antenna are selected That there are inverse connections in the antenna system Whether the TMA is operational The power on top of the cabinet for different TRXs when maximum coverage configuration is used. 6. check the following items: Whether the azimuth and height of the antennas is the same as those before swapping Whether the tilt of the directional antenna is the same as that before swapping Whether the power on top of the cabinet for the BTS before and after swapping are consistent. Common problems that affect coverage 1. Whether the BTS receiver sensitivity is normal. Water running into antennas Passive intermodulation antennas Inappropriate antenna types Tower influence on the omnidirectional antennas Inappropriate installation of the directional antennas Inappropriate installation of the omnidirectional antennas Problems associated with connection of the antenna systems. 4. 3. MS minimum receive signal level.

BSC. Determine the cells that have interference on the basis of KPIs Check the OMC alarms Check the frequency planning Check the cell parameter setting Perform drive test Eliminate the interference based on analysis and check the results.Uplink interference analysis: when the traffic volume is low compared with the interference band . c) Analysis of hardware faults Hardware faults affect the normal operation of the network or disrupt the network.b) Analysis of Interference problems It greatly affects the speech quality and handover. d) Analysis of end-to-end network elements interoperation. 2. version matching. The location and troubleshooting are: 1. If RXQUAL and RXLEV are lower than the predefined thresholds. Hardware faults. and MSC. interference from repeaters 3. A and Abis interface data configuration. They consist of network elements faults and transmission link faults. 4. The interference sources of the GSM network are: 1. The type of the faults can be determined by checking hardware alarms and analyzing the traffic measurement results. Its analysis involves: . interference from other high-power communication equipment 4. 5. . Call drop or congestion may be also caused. Interoperation problem refer to problems in interface protocols. and interface signaling compatibility. 3.Downlink interference analysis: If the Received Signal Quality is lower (RXQUAL) than the predefined threshold and Receive Signal level (RXLEV) is higher than the predefined threshold. Intra-network interference 2. Check the normal operation of BTS. 6.

b) Call tracing Data It is collected from the network element and contains: User signaling messages Cell signaling messages Standard interface signaling messages LAC data Real-time performance monitoring data . call completion rate.Test service: speech and data . The following engineering parameters can be adjusted: Antenna tilt Antenna height Antenna height Antenna location Adding TMA Replacing the site type Adjusting the site location Adding sites. handover success rate and congestion rate. adjust the cell engineering parameters based on the data analysis. It involves: . Consider the optimization cost when replacing the antennas. dialing test and automatic test. 5. Collection of KPI data The data consist of: a) Drive Test data It is associated with the MS and it has to be more detailed. call drop rate.Test methods: continuous conversation.• Implementation of RF optimization To meet the KPI requirements. It also involves the counter such as call setup success rate. adding TMA and adding BTSs. KPI optimization It involves finding and solving the problems that do not meet the acceptance requirement through the analysis of drive test data and the traffic measurement data.1. • 5.

Analysis of Congestion Counter optimization .c) Traffic Measurement data It indicates the radio performance on the network level and cell level. It consists: . Common access problem are: Paging problem Assignment problem Authentication and encryption problems Equipment problems Solution to access problems Cell resection parameters: reselection start threshold.2. Analysis of Access Counter optimization Access specifications (drive test): calling part completion rate. 5. reselection delay. congestion. Random access parameters: RACH minimum access threshold.Handover data .1. Analysis KPI optimization data The analysis of the KPI optimization data helps solve the remaining equipment and coverage problems after the previous actions mainly associated with call access. called part completion rate and access delay of the CS and PS services. 5.2.Access data .2.Traffic volume .Call drop data . Access specification (traffic measurements): paging success rate and call setup success rate.Congestion data d) Configuration data Scripts files collected in the BSC 5. and call drops. handover. MS minimum access level and RACH error threshold. reselection hysteresis and cell offset.2.

In this case capacity expansion or traffic sharing can be applied to mitigate congestion. Enable SDCCH dynamic allocation function to decrease SDCCH congestion.The congestion in the GSM network refers to the SDCCH congestion ant TCH congestion. T3122. 5) Congestion caused by channel assignment failure due to inconsistent coverage The causes are: The transmit power of the TRXs are not the same The coverage areas of the transmit antennas in a cell are not the same The transmit and receive antennas are not on the same horizontal plane or their tilts are not the same. T3103. replace the faulty unit. 6) Congestion caused by inappropriate data configuration Planning of location areas reasonably to decrease the SDCCH congestion. CBQ and Cell reselection Hysteresis Timer setting: T3101. T3107. configure more SDCCH or enable SDCCH-TCH dynamic conversation function. T3212 and T3111 . Common congestion and troubleshooting: 1) Congestion caused by high traffic volume Check from the performance measurement results whether the traffic volume of SDCCH and TCH exceeds the specification. 2) Congestion caused by burst traffic If the SDCCH congestion rate and the traffic volume are high while the TCH traffic volumes is normal. set the corresponding parameters appropriately to decrease SDCCH congestion: CRO. 3) Congestion caused by TRX failure If there is a TRX fault. For dual dual-band network. CBA. It is also important to check the cables in the antennas systems and whether the VSWR 4) Congestion caused by interference Interference on Um interference.

T3103 and T3124. 4) Register handover performance measurement counters and TCH performance measurement counters. Analysis of Handover Counter optimization It aims to make sure that the drive test and traffic measurement data meet specifications. In independent MSC networking mode. Check the timers related to the handover such as T3105. 5.Handover hysteresis is set inappropriately. Common handover problems: 1) Unsuccessful handover The MS fails to initiate a handover when the signal in the cell is weak or signal quality is poor.2. Take the following into consideration: .4. 2) Check whether the configuration data is adjusted before the problem occurs 3) Check whether the problem is caused by hardware faults. check whether the signaling settings are consistent in the local and the peer MSCs In the co-MSC networking mode. 3) Handover problems caused by inappropriate data configuration. check whether the signaling settings are consistent in the BSCs from different manufacturers. then analyze the problems base on the actual situation.Ny1.There is a candidate cell that meets the handover conditions.Handover conditions are met . 5) Perform drive test in the faulty cell and analyze the signaling. .The handover thresholds are set too low .No neighboring cell relation is set .The BTS clock expires 2) Handover problems caused by hardware failure Replace the faulty hardware.5. How to locate the handover problems 1) Check whether the fault lies in one cell or in all cells (the faulty cells are neighboring cells of a cell or the faulty cells a BSC or an MSC). Analysis of Call drop Counter optimization .2. If the handover failure applies to only one cell.3. Adjust the relevant parameters based on the following causes: .

Operation time. Before adjusting the radio configuration parameter. Implementation KPI optimization Radio configuration parameters are adjusted to enhance the service performance. Make a detailed parameter adjustment plan Adjustment objectives Version of the network equipment and instructions Adjustment procedures Adjustment details (the parameter values before and after adjustment should be recorder). Cross-area coverage. interference.Troubleshooting - . . 5. . perform the following: 1.Call drops are associated with coverage. The causes of common call drops are: 1) Coverage related call drops are caused by: Discontinuous coverage with blind areas : weak and poor quality signals at the edge of the isolated BTS which cause calls to drop because they cannot be handed over to other cells Bad indoor coverage: densely distributed buildings and thick walls cause great attenuation and low indoor level which causes call drops.3. check the following: A interface failure during the TCH seizure TCH availability Call drops due to terrestrial link interruption. antenna system. 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Handover-related call drop Interference-related call drop Antenna system-related call drop Transmission-related call drops Parameter-related call drops radio link timeout SACCH multi-frame Access control parameters Timer T3101 and T3107 In addition. transmission and parameter setting. handover.

vehicles and SIM cards .Abnormal results that may occur and their troubleshooting measures .Operation content . congestion rate.Operation impacts on the services (impacts on traffic counters). Comparison of the traffic measurement KPI before and after optimization    Analysis of access counters Analysis of retainability counters Analysis of mobility counters . KPI optimization   Test method Comparison of the drive test KPI before and after optimization 8.Required resources such as personal. 2.2. 5.Operational time . Record the adjustment and its effects for future check. 3. Optimization reports The optimization report should content the following: 1. 3. After adjusting the radio configuration parameters. 4. Check the traffic measurement results such as access success rate. 3. 6. Back up the latest data file and record the date 2. call drop rate and handover rate. 6. Verify that the BTSs and cells are operating normally after the adjustment. content and progress Optimization counters (drive test counter and performance counters) Conclusion RF Optimization   Test method Comparison of coverage data before and after optimization 7. Project background Networking modes Optimization process. Submit the application for the network operation to the customer with the following items: .Operation purpose . perform the following: 1. Conduct dialing test and ensure all services are normal. 4. Review the adjustment plan of the parameter in large size and that are of a high security level.

7. and simulation analysis.0 or NEMO CAR to carry out the Drive Test FULL DRIVE TEST KIT DIGITAL CAMERA GPS RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES and THE CHARGER MAPS .9. Analysis of remaining problem 11. Network optimization tools Network optimization tools are used for data collection. 4. 3. LAPTOP WITH TERMS INVESTIGATION 8. 2. data analysis. Appendix:  List of the engineering parameters after optimization  List of the system parameters optimization 7. Network development suggestions 12. Conclusion and analysis of the PKI optimization    List of problems List of solution List of the remaining problems 10. 6. These are: 1. 5.

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